WorldWideScience

Sample records for model organism encyclopedia

  1. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Sharon S.

    1988-01-01

    This review compares "Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry" with the "Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology," two prominent encyclopedias of chemical technology and industry. Cost, quantity of information, organization, illustrations, authorship, abbreviations, online availability, and content of articles are discussed. (MES)

  2. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Sharon S.

    1988-01-01

    This review compares "Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry" with the "Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology," two prominent encyclopedias of chemical technology and industry. Cost, quantity of information, organization, illustrations, authorship, abbreviations, online availability, and content of articles are discussed. (MES)

  3. Climate Change Modeling Methodology Selected Entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The Earth's average temperature has risen by 1.4°F over the past century, and computer models project that it will rise much more over the next hundred years, with significant impacts on weather, climate, and human society. Many climate scientists attribute these increases to the buildup of greenhouse gases produced by the burning of fossil fuels and to the anthropogenic production of short-lived climate pollutants. Climate Change Modeling Methodologies: Selected Entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology provides readers with an introduction to the tools and analysis techniques used by climate change scientists to interpret the role of these forcing agents on climate.  Readers will also gain a deeper understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of these models and how to test and assess them.  The contributions include a glossary of key terms and a concise definition of the subject for each topic, as well as recommendations for sources of more detailed information. Features au...

  4. The Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia enables predictive modelling of anticancer drug sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barretina, Jordi; Caponigro, Giordano; Stransky, Nicolas; Venkatesan, Kavitha; Margolin, Adam A; Kim, Sungjoon; Wilson, Christopher J; Lehár, Joseph; Kryukov, Gregory V; Sonkin, Dmitriy; Reddy, Anupama; Liu, Manway; Murray, Lauren; Berger, Michael F; Monahan, John E; Morais, Paula; Meltzer, Jodi; Korejwa, Adam; Jané-Valbuena, Judit; Mapa, Felipa A; Thibault, Joseph; Bric-Furlong, Eva; Raman, Pichai; Shipway, Aaron; Engels, Ingo H; Cheng, Jill; Yu, Guoying K; Yu, Jianjun; Aspesi, Peter; de Silva, Melanie; Jagtap, Kalpana; Jones, Michael D; Wang, Li; Hatton, Charles; Palescandolo, Emanuele; Gupta, Supriya; Mahan, Scott; Sougnez, Carrie; Onofrio, Robert C; Liefeld, Ted; MacConaill, Laura; Winckler, Wendy; Reich, Michael; Li, Nanxin; Mesirov, Jill P; Gabriel, Stacey B; Getz, Gad; Ardlie, Kristin; Chan, Vivien; Myer, Vic E; Weber, Barbara L; Porter, Jeff; Warmuth, Markus; Finan, Peter; Harris, Jennifer L; Meyerson, Matthew; Golub, Todd R; Morrissey, Michael P; Sellers, William R; Schlegel, Robert; Garraway, Levi A

    2012-03-28

    The systematic translation of cancer genomic data into knowledge of tumour biology and therapeutic possibilities remains challenging. Such efforts should be greatly aided by robust preclinical model systems that reflect the genomic diversity of human cancers and for which detailed genetic and pharmacological annotation is available. Here we describe the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE): a compilation of gene expression, chromosomal copy number and massively parallel sequencing data from 947 human cancer cell lines. When coupled with pharmacological profiles for 24 anticancer drugs across 479 of the cell lines, this collection allowed identification of genetic, lineage, and gene-expression-based predictors of drug sensitivity. In addition to known predictors, we found that plasma cell lineage correlated with sensitivity to IGF1 receptor inhibitors; AHR expression was associated with MEK inhibitor efficacy in NRAS-mutant lines; and SLFN11 expression predicted sensitivity to topoisomerase inhibitors. Together, our results indicate that large, annotated cell-line collections may help to enable preclinical stratification schemata for anticancer agents. The generation of genetic predictions of drug response in the preclinical setting and their incorporation into cancer clinical trial design could speed the emergence of 'personalized' therapeutic regimens.

  5. Encyclopedia of cloud computing

    CERN Document Server

    Bojanova, Irena

    2016-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Cloud Computing provides IT professionals, educators, researchers and students with a compendium of cloud computing knowledge. Authored by a spectrum of subject matter experts in industry and academia, this unique publication, in a single volume, covers a wide range of cloud computing topics, including technological trends and developments, research opportunities, best practices, standards, and cloud adoption. Providing multiple perspectives, it also addresses questions that stakeholders might have in the context of development, operation, management, and use of clouds. Furthermore, it examines cloud computing's impact now and in the future. The encyclopedia presents 56 chapters logically organized into 10 sections. Each chapter covers a major topic/area with cross-references to other chapters and contains tables, illustrations, side-bars as appropriate. Furthermore, each chapter presents its summary at the beginning and backend material, references and additional resources for further i...

  6. Heart and Stroke Encyclopedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More The Heart and Stroke Encyclopedia Click a letter below to get a ... dozens of cardiovascular terms from our Heart and Stroke Encyclopedia and get links to in-depth information. ...

  7. Encyclopedia Reviews 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minemier, Betty

    1978-01-01

    Reviews thirteen 1978 edition encyclopedias: Book of Art, Britannica Jr., Britannica 3, Childcraft, Collier's, Compton's. Encyclopedia Americana, Funk & Wagnalls, Merit Students, New Caton, Random House, New Standard, and World Book. (SB)

  8. Encyclopedia of optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Pardalos, Panos

    2001-01-01

    Optimization problems are widespread in the mathematical modeling of real world systems and their applications arise in all branches of science, applied science and engineering. The goal of the Encyclopedia of Optimization is to introduce the reader to a complete set of topics in order to show the spectrum of recent research activities and the richness of ideas in the development of theories, algorithms and the applications of optimization. It is directed to a diverse audience of students, scientists, engineers, decision makers and problem solvers in academia, business, industry, and government.

  9. Novartis Compiles Mouse Avatar "Encyclopedia".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poh, Alissa

    2016-01-01

    Novartis scientists have generated the PDX Encyclopedia, which contains over 1,000 patient-derived tumor xenograft models spanning a range of common solid cancers. They'll use this collection for in vivo drug screens designed to mimic human clinical trials, which they hope improves candidate therapy profiling.

  10. Medical Encyclopedia: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/encyclopedia.html Medical Encyclopedia To use the sharing features on this ... please enable JavaScript. The A.D.A.M. Medical Encyclopedia includes over 4,000 articles about diseases, ...

  11. Encyclopedia of adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, B.B.; Prinstein, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    The period of adolescence involves growth, adaptation, and dramatic reorganization in almost every aspect of social and psychological development. The Encyclopedia of Adolescence offers an exhaustive and comprehensive review of current theory and research findings pertaining to this critical decade

  12. Encyclopedia of analytical surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Krivoshapko, S N

    2015-01-01

    This encyclopedia presents an all-embracing collection of analytical surface classes. It provides concise definitions  and description for more than 500 surfaces and categorizes them in 38 classes of analytical surfaces. All classes are cross references to the original literature in an excellent bibliography. The encyclopedia is of particular interest to structural and civil engineers and serves as valuable reference for mathematicians.

  13. Encyclopedia of the solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Weissman, Paul; Johnson, Torrence

    1998-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of the Solar System provides a series of comprehensive and authoritative articles written by more than 50 eminent planetary and space scientists. Each chapter is self-contained yet linked by cross-references to other related chapters. This beautifully designed book is a must for the library of professional astronomers and amateur star-gazers alike, in fact for anyone who wishes to understand the nature of our solar system.Key Features* Cross-referenced throughout for easy comprehension* Superbly illustrated with over 700 photos, drawings, and diagrams, including 36 color plates* Provides 40 thematically organized chapters by more than 50 eminent contributors* Convenient glossaries of technical terms introduce each chapter* Academic Press maintains a web site for the Encyclopedia at www.academicpress.com/solar; Author-recommended web resources for additional information, images, and research developments related to each chapter of this volume, are available here

  14. CIRP encyclopedia of production engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Reinhart, Gunther

    2014-01-01

    The CIRP Encyclopedia covers the state-of-art of advanced technologies, methods and models for production, production engineering and logistics. While the technological and operational aspects are in the focus, economical aspects are adressed too. The definitions and short explanations for a wide variety of terms were reviewed by the CIRP-Community, representing the highest standards in research. Thus, the content is not only evaluated internationally on a high scientific level but also reflects very recent developments.

  15. KEGG-PATH: Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes-based pathway analysis using a path analysis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Junli; Yuan, Zhifa; Ma, Ziwei; Song, Jiuzhou; Xie, Xiaoli; Chen, Yulin

    2014-07-29

    The dynamic impact approach (DIA) represents an alternative to overrepresentation analysis (ORA) for functional analysis of time-course experiments or those involving multiple treatments. The DIA can be used to estimate the biological impact of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) associated with particular biological functions, for example, as represented by the Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) annotations. However, the DIA does not take into account the correlated dependence structure of the KEGG pathway hierarchy. We have developed herein a path analysis model (KEGG-PATH) to subdivide the total effect of each KEGG pathway into the direct effect and indirect effect by taking into account not only each KEGG pathway itself, but also the correlation with its related pathways. In addition, this work also attempts to preliminarily estimate the impact direction of each KEGG pathway by a gradient analysis method from principal component analysis (PCA). As a result, the advantage of the KEGG-PATH model is demonstrated through the functional analysis of the bovine mammary transcriptome during lactation.

  16. [An encyclopedia for the empire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöltzner, Michael

    2008-03-01

    In the preface to the universal encyclopedia Die Kultur der Gegenwart (The Culture of the Present), the editor-in-chief Paul Hinneberg places his project--not openly but nevertheless unequivocally--in the tradition of the French Encyclopédie that Diderot and d'Alembert had organized from 1751 until 1765. The attempt to accomplish anew such a large-scale project and, in this way, to win the German Empire the kind of intellectual leadership which the Encyclopédie, in historical retrospect, had achieved for the epoch of Enlightenment, required to convince the leading scholars, scientists, and technicians of the nation to participate in the endeavor and to assemble their contributions under a common systematic agenda through which this universal encyclopedia would distinguish itself from all dictionaries and disciplinary encyclopedias. While the Encyclopédie followed to a large extent an empiricist philosophy, Hinneberg trusted in the integrative function of the concept of culture and the ability of his contributors to elucidate the history of their respective disciplines and to connect them with neighboring fields of culture. The present contributions argues that although, from a philosophical point of view, the historicist tack taken by Hinneberg makes the concept of culture quite blurry, it nevertheless provides enough cohesive structure such that the work, even though unfinished as a consequence of war and inflation, represents a faithful picture of its epoch that Hinneberg understands as an epoch of transition.

  17. Encyclopedia of tribology

    CERN Document Server

    Chung, Yip-Wah

    2013-01-01

    TRIBOLOGY – the study of friction, wear and lubrication – impacts almost every aspect of our daily lives. The Springer Encyclopedia of Tribology is an authoritative and comprehensive reference covering all major aspects of the science and engineering of tribology that are relevant to researchers across all engineering industries and related scientific disciplines. This is the first major reference that brings together the science, engineering and technological aspects of tribology of this breadth and scope in a single work. Developed and written by leading experts in the field, the Springer Encyclopedia of Tribology covers the fundamentals as well as advanced applications across material types, different length and time scales, and encompassing various engineering applications and technologies. Exciting new areas such as nanotribology, tribochemistry and biotribology have also been included. As a six-volume set, the Springer Encyclopedia of Tribology comprises 1630 entries written by authoritative experts...

  18. Encyclopedia of earthquake engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kougioumtzoglou, Ioannis; Patelli, Edoardo; Au, Siu-Kui

    2015-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Earthquake Engineering is designed to be the authoritative and comprehensive reference covering all major aspects of the science of earthquake engineering, specifically focusing on the interaction between earthquakes and infrastructure. The encyclopedia comprises approximately 265 contributions. Since earthquake engineering deals with the interaction between earthquake disturbances and the built infrastructure, the emphasis is on basic design processes important to both non-specialists and engineers so that readers become suitably well-informed without needing to deal with the details of specialist understanding. The content of this encyclopedia provides technically inclined and informed readers about the ways in which earthquakes can affect our infrastructure and how engineers would go about designing against, mitigating and remediating these effects. The coverage ranges from buildings, foundations, underground construction, lifelines and bridges, roads, embankments and slopes. The encycl...

  19. Encyclopedia as Textbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palló, Gábor

    2006-11-01

    Textbooks and encyclopedias represent different genres of scientific literature. Textbooks help the students to prepare for their examinations in various subjects taught at schools, such as logic, metaphysic, chemistry. In the 17th Century some Calvinist professors, mostly in Germany, thought that a universal wholeness should be taught for the students. Encyclopedias adequately expressed this vision. Some of these professors, including Johannes Alsted, were invited to Hungary, Transylvania, to introduce the encyclopedic spirit to the local schools. This act fostered the first textbook in Hungarian language written by János Apáczai Csere. This book was an encyclopedia born mostly in the Netherlands where the author studied. The Cartesian philosophy combined with a Ramist system served as the basis of the book. Its history shows how the local conditions influence the content of knowledge incorporated into a textbook.

  20. The Mysterious Case of the Detective as Child Hero: Sherlock Holmes, Encyclopedia Brown and Nancy Drew as Role Models?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarman, Sally

    In the mystery genre, the one characteristic that the enduring figures of Sherlock Holmes, Nancy Drew, and Encyclopedia Brown have in common is a rational mind. The source of their strength is their ability to think and think well. A study examined some typical examples of the mystery genre in young adult literature and surveyed children and…

  1. Encyclopedia of Rose Science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roberts, A.; Debener, T.; Gudin, S.; Byrne, D.B.; Cairns, T.; Vries, de D.P.; Dubois, L.A.M.; Forkmann, G.; Fruchter, M.; Helsper, J.P.F.G.; Horst, R.K.; Jay, M.; Kwakkenbosch, T.A.M.; Pemberton, B.; Put, H.M.C.; Rajapakse, S.; Reid, M.; Schum, A.; Shorthouse, J.D.; Ueda, Y.; Vainstein, A.; Pol, van de P.A.; Zieslin, N.

    2003-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Rose Science brings together a wealth of information on the rose, long treasured for its captivating perfumes and splendid colors. Now, more than ever, science plays a central place in the production of this flower at the center of one of the world's biggest floricultural industr

  2. Encyclopedia of Birth Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengel, Marian

    This encyclopedia brings together in more than 200 entries, arranged in A-to-Z format, a portrait of the complex modern issue that birth control has become with advances in medicine and biochemistry during the 20th century. It is aimed at both the student and the consumer of birth control. Entries cover the following topics: birth control…

  3. Encyclopedia as Textbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallo, Gabor

    2006-01-01

    Textbooks and encyclopedias represent different genres of scientific literature. Textbooks help the students to prepare for their examinations in various subjects taught at schools, such as logic, metaphysic, chemistry. In the 17th Century some Calvinist professors, mostly in Germany, thought that a universal wholeness should be taught for the…

  4. The Transcription Factor Encyclopedia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yusuf, Dimas; Butland, Stefanie L; Swanson, Magdalena I

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Here we present the Transcription Factor Encyclopedia (TFe), a new web-based compendium of mini review articles on transcription factors (TFs) that is founded on the principles of open access and collaboration. Our consortium of over 100 researchers has collectively contributed over 130...

  5. Encyclopedia of Birth Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengel, Marian

    This encyclopedia brings together in more than 200 entries, arranged in A-to-Z format, a portrait of the complex modern issue that birth control has become with advances in medicine and biochemistry during the 20th century. It is aimed at both the student and the consumer of birth control. Entries cover the following topics: birth control…

  6. The Electronic Encyclopedia of Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benthien, M.; Marquis, J.; Jordan, T.

    2003-12-01

    The Electronic Encyclopedia of Earthquakes is a collaborative project of the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC), the Consortia of Universities for Research in Earthquake Engineering (CUREE) and the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS). This digital library organizes earthquake information online as a partner with the NSF-funded National Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) Digital Library (NSDL) and the Digital Library for Earth System Education (DLESE). When complete, information and resources for over 500 Earth science and engineering topics will be included, with connections to curricular materials useful for teaching Earth Science, engineering, physics and mathematics. Although conceived primarily as an educational resource, the Encyclopedia is also a valuable portal to anyone seeking up-to-date earthquake information and authoritative technical sources. "E3" is a unique collaboration among earthquake scientists and engineers to articulate and document a common knowledge base with a shared terminology and conceptual framework. It is a platform for cross-training scientists and engineers in these complementary fields and will provide a basis for sustained communication and resource-building between major education and outreach activities. For example, the E3 collaborating organizations have leadership roles in the two largest earthquake engineering and earth science projects ever sponsored by NSF: the George E. Brown Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation (CUREE) and the EarthScope Project (IRIS and SCEC). The E3 vocabulary and definitions are also being connected to a formal ontology under development by the SCEC/ITR project for knowledge management within the SCEC Collaboratory. The E3 development system is now fully operational, 165 entries are in the pipeline, and the development teams are capable of producing 20 new, fully reviewed encyclopedia entries each month. Over the next two years teams will

  7. Encyclopedia of thermal stresses

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Thermal Stresses is an important interdisciplinary reference work.  In addition to topics on thermal stresses, it contains entries on related topics, such as the theory of elasticity, heat conduction, thermodynamics, appropriate topics on applied mathematics, and topics on numerical methods. The Encyclopedia is aimed at undergraduate and graduate students, researchers and engineers. It brings together well established knowledge and recently received results. All entries were prepared  by leading experts from all over the world, and are presented in an easily accessible format. The work is lavishly illustrated, examples and applications are given where appropriate, ideas for further development abound, and the work will challenge many students and researchers to pursue new results of their own. This work can also serve as a one-stop resource for all who need succinct, concise, reliable and up to date information in short encyclopedic entries, while the extensive references will be of inte...

  8. Encyclopedia of African-American Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-Wilson, Faustine C., Ed.; And Others

    This encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference tool for researchers, teachers, scholars, students, and laypersons who need information under a single cover on significant issues, policies, historical events, laws, theories, organizations, institutions, and people incident to the education of African Americans. This population is unique in that its…

  9. The encyclopedia of southern Appalachian forest ecosystems: A prototype of an online scientific knowledge management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah K. Kennard; H. Michael Rauscher; Patricia A. Flebbe; Daniel L. Schmoldt; William G. Hubbard; J. Bryan Jordin; William Milnor

    2003-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Southern Appalachian Forest Ecosystems (ESAFE), a hyperdocument-based encyclopedia system available on the Internet, provides an organized synthesis of existing research on the management and ecology of Southern Appalachian forests ecosystems. The encyclopedia is dynamic, so that new or revised content can be submitted directly through the Internet...

  10. The transcription factor encyclopedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Dimas; Butland, Stefanie L; Swanson, Magdalena I; Bolotin, Eugene; Ticoll, Amy; Cheung, Warren A; Zhang, Xiao Yu Cindy; Dickman, Christopher T D; Fulton, Debra L; Lim, Jonathan S; Schnabl, Jake M; Ramos, Oscar H P; Vasseur-Cognet, Mireille; de Leeuw, Charles N; Simpson, Elizabeth M; Ryffel, Gerhart U; Lam, Eric W-F; Kist, Ralf; Wilson, Miranda S C; Marco-Ferreres, Raquel; Brosens, Jan J; Beccari, Leonardo L; Bovolenta, Paola; Benayoun, Bérénice A; Monteiro, Lara J; Schwenen, Helma D C; Grontved, Lars; Wederell, Elizabeth; Mandrup, Susanne; Veitia, Reiner A; Chakravarthy, Harini; Hoodless, Pamela A; Mancarelli, M Michela; Torbett, Bruce E; Banham, Alison H; Reddy, Sekhar P; Cullum, Rebecca L; Liedtke, Michaela; Tschan, Mario P; Vaz, Michelle; Rizzino, Angie; Zannini, Mariastella; Frietze, Seth; Farnham, Peggy J; Eijkelenboom, Astrid; Brown, Philip J; Laperrière, David; Leprince, Dominique; de Cristofaro, Tiziana; Prince, Kelly L; Putker, Marrit; del Peso, Luis; Camenisch, Gieri; Wenger, Roland H; Mikula, Michal; Rozendaal, Marieke; Mader, Sylvie; Ostrowski, Jerzy; Rhodes, Simon J; Van Rechem, Capucine; Boulay, Gaylor; Olechnowicz, Sam W Z; Breslin, Mary B; Lan, Michael S; Nanan, Kyster K; Wegner, Michael; Hou, Juan; Mullen, Rachel D; Colvin, Stephanie C; Noy, Peter John; Webb, Carol F; Witek, Matthew E; Ferrell, Scott; Daniel, Juliet M; Park, Jason; Waldman, Scott A; Peet, Daniel J; Taggart, Michael; Jayaraman, Padma-Sheela; Karrich, Julien J; Blom, Bianca; Vesuna, Farhad; O'Geen, Henriette; Sun, Yunfu; Gronostajski, Richard M; Woodcroft, Mark W; Hough, Margaret R; Chen, Edwin; Europe-Finner, G Nicholas; Karolczak-Bayatti, Magdalena; Bailey, Jarrod; Hankinson, Oliver; Raman, Venu; LeBrun, David P; Biswal, Shyam; Harvey, Christopher J; DeBruyne, Jason P; Hogenesch, John B; Hevner, Robert F; Héligon, Christophe; Luo, Xin M; Blank, Marissa Cathleen; Millen, Kathleen Joyce; Sharlin, David S; Forrest, Douglas; Dahlman-Wright, Karin; Zhao, Chunyan; Mishima, Yuriko; Sinha, Satrajit; Chakrabarti, Rumela; Portales-Casamar, Elodie; Sladek, Frances M; Bradley, Philip H; Wasserman, Wyeth W

    2012-01-01

    Here we present the Transcription Factor Encyclopedia (TFe), a new web-based compendium of mini review articles on transcription factors (TFs) that is founded on the principles of open access and collaboration. Our consortium of over 100 researchers has collectively contributed over 130 mini review articles on pertinent human, mouse and rat TFs. Notable features of the TFe website include a high-quality PDF generator and web API for programmatic data retrieval. TFe aims to rapidly educate scientists about the TFs they encounter through the delivery of succinct summaries written and vetted by experts in the field. TFe is available at http://www.cisreg.ca/tfe.

  11. The Transcription Factor Encyclopedia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yusuf, Dimas; Butland, Stefanie L; Swanson, Magdalena I

    2012-01-01

    mini review articles on pertinent human, mouse and rat TFs. Notable features of the TFe website include a high-quality PDF generator and web API for programmatic data retrieval. TFe aims to rapidly educate scientists about the TFs they encounter through the delivery of succinct summaries written......ABSTRACT: Here we present the Transcription Factor Encyclopedia (TFe), a new web-based compendium of mini review articles on transcription factors (TFs) that is founded on the principles of open access and collaboration. Our consortium of over 100 researchers has collectively contributed over 130...

  12. CONFIGURATIONS OF THE ENCYCLOPEDIA AND THE MODEL READER IN A TEXTBOOK OF MISIONES, ARGENTINA / CONFIGURACIONES DE LA ENCICLOPEDIA Y EL LECTOR MODELO EN UN TEXTO ESCOLAR DE MISIONES, ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Froilán Fernández

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to analyze, from the conceptual categories of Encyclopedia and Model Reader raised by Umberto Eco, a fragment of the school handbook Misiones 4, text required reading during the last two decades in schools in the State of Misiones, Argentina. The hypothesis to guide our analysis consider that the text fragment -but also the entire textbook Misiones 4- reinforces and configures an encyclopedia "official" that promotes the historical continuity -forgetting conflicts and tensions- between the Jesuit province of 18th century and the Argentine state of 20th century, postulating, at the same, a Reader Model that adheres to a simplified pedagogical and religious local memory.

  13. Genomic Encyclopedia of Fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor

    2012-08-10

    Genomes of fungi relevant to energy and environment are in focus of the Fungal Genomic Program at the US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI). Its key project, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts), and explores fungal diversity by means of genome sequencing and analysis. Over 150 fungal genomes have been sequenced by JGI to date and released through MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a fungal web-portal, which integrates sequence and functional data with genome analysis tools for user community. Sequence analysis supported by functional genomics leads to developing parts list for complex systems ranging from ecosystems of biofuel crops to biorefineries. Recent examples of such parts suggested by comparative genomics and functional analysis in these areas are presented here.

  14. An Einstein encyclopedia

    CERN Document Server

    Calaprice, Alice; Schulmann, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This is the single most complete guide to Albert Einstein’s life and work for students, researchers, and browsers alike. Written by three leading Einstein scholars who draw on their combined wealth of expertise gained during their work on the Collected Papers of Albert Einstein, this authoritative and accessible reference features more than one hundred entries and is divided into three parts covering the personal, scientific, and public spheres of Einstein’s life. An Einstein Encyclopedia contains entries on Einstein’s birth and death, family and romantic relationships, honors and awards, educational institutions where he studied and worked, citizenships and immigration to America, hobbies and travels, plus the people he befriended and the history of his archives and the Einstein Papers Project. Entries on Einstein’s scientific theories provide useful background and context, along with details about his assistants, collaborators, and rivals, as well as physics concepts related to his work. Coverage o...

  15. Encyclopedia of astrobiology

    CERN Document Server

    Irvine, William; Amils, Ricardo; Cleaves, Henderson; Pinti, Daniele; Quintanilla, José; Rouan, Daniel; Spohn, Tilman; Tirard, Stéphane; Viso, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The interdisciplinary field of Astrobiology constitutes a joint arena where provocative discoveries are coalescing concerning, e.g. the prevalence of exoplanets, the diversity and hardiness of life, and its increasingly likely chances for its emergence. Biologists, astrophysicists, biochemists, geoscientists and space scientists share this exciting mission of revealing the origin and commonality of life in the Universe. The members of the different disciplines are used to their own terminology and technical language. In the interdisciplinary environment many terms either have redundant meanings or are completely unfamiliar to members of other disciplines. The Encyclopedia of Astrobiology serves as the key to a common understanding. Each new or experienced researcher and graduate student in adjacent fields of astrobiology will appreciate this reference work in the quest to understand the big picture. The carefully selected group of active researchers contributing to this work and the expert field editors inten...

  16. Encyclopedia of biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Biophysics is envisioned both as an easily accessible source of information and as an introductory guide to the scientific literature. It includes entries describing both Techniques and Systems.  In the Techniques entries, each of the wide range of methods which fall under the heading of Biophysics are explained in detail, together with the value and the limitations of the information each provides. Techniques covered range from diffraction (X-ray, electron and neutron) through a wide range of spectroscopic methods (X-ray, optical, EPR, NMR) to imaging (from electron microscopy to live cell imaging and MRI), as well as computational and simulation approaches. In the Systems entries, biophysical approaches to specific biological systems or problems – from protein and nucleic acid structure to membranes, ion channels and receptors – are described. These sections, which place emphasis on the integration of the different techniques, therefore provide an inroad into Biophysics from a biolo...

  17. Encyclopedia of astrobiology

    CERN Document Server

    Quintanilla, José Cernicharo; Cleaves, Henderson James (Jim); Irvine, William M; Pinti, Daniele L; Viso, Michel; Gargaud, Muriel

    2011-01-01

    The interdisciplinary field of Astrobiology constitutes a joint arena where provocative discoveries are coalescing concerning, e.g. the prevalence of exoplanets, the diversity and hardiness of life, and its increasingly likely chances for its emergence. Biologists, astrophysicists, biochemists, geoscientists and space scientists share this exciting mission of revealing the origin and commonality of life in the Universe. The members of the different disciplines are used to their own terminology and technical language. In the interdisciplinary environment many terms either have redundant meanings or are completely unfamiliar to members of other disciplines. The Encyclopedia of Astrobiology serves as the key to a common understanding. Each new or experienced researcher and graduate student in adjacent fields of astrobiology will appreciate this reference work in the quest to understand the big picture. The carefully selected group of active researchers contributing to this work and the expert field editors inten...

  18. Biographical encyclopedia of astronomers

    CERN Document Server

    Trimble, Virginia; Williams, Thomas; Bracher, Katherine; Jarrell, Richard; Marché, Jordan; Palmeri, JoAnn; Green, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The Biographical Encyclopedia of Astronomers is a unique and valuable resource for historians and astronomers alike. It includes approx. 1850 biographical sketches on astronomers from antiquity to modern times. It is the collective work of 430 authors edited by an editorial board of 8 historians and astronomers. This reference provides biographical information on astronomers and cosmologists by utilizing contemporary historical scholarship. The fully corrected and updated second edition adds approximately 300 biographical sketches. Based on ongoing research and feedback from the community, the new entries will fill gaps and provide expansions. In addition, greater emphasis on Russo phone astronomers and radio astronomers is given. Individual entries vary from 100 to 1500 words, including the likes of the super luminaries such as Newton and Einstein, as well as lesser-known astronomers like Galileo's acolyte, Mario Guiducci.

  19. Encyclopedia of complexity and systems science

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Encyclopedia of Complexity and Systems Science provides an authoritative single source for understanding and applying the concepts of complexity theory together with the tools and measures for analyzing complex systems in all fields of science and engineering. The science and tools of complexity and systems science include theories of self-organization, complex systems, synergetics, dynamical systems, turbulence, catastrophes, instabilities, nonlinearity, stochastic processes, chaos, neural n...

  20. RIKEN mouse genome encyclopedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashizaki, Yoshihide

    2003-01-01

    We have been working to establish the comprehensive mouse full-length cDNA collection and sequence database to cover as many genes as we can, named Riken mouse genome encyclopedia. Recently we are constructing higher-level annotation (Functional ANnoTation Of Mouse cDNA; FANTOM) not only with homology search based annotation but also with expression data profile, mapping information and protein-protein database. More than 1,000,000 clones prepared from 163 tissues were end-sequenced to classify into 159,789 clusters and 60,770 representative clones were fully sequenced. As a conclusion, the 60,770 sequences contained 33,409 unique. The next generation of life science is clearly based on all of the genome information and resources. Based on our cDNA clones we developed the additional system to explore gene function. We developed cDNA microarray system to print all of these cDNA clones, protein-protein interaction screening system, protein-DNA interaction screening system and so on. The integrated database of all the information is very useful not only for analysis of gene transcriptional network and for the connection of gene to phenotype to facilitate positional candidate approach. In this talk, the prospect of the application of these genome resourced should be discussed. More information is available at the web page: http://genome.gsc.riken.go.jp/.

  1. The market research encyclopedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barabba, V P

    1990-01-01

    Market research can be a complicated and complex process nowadays, especially when it involves sophisticated techniques with names like probabilistic sampling, Box-Jenkins, or conjoint analysis. There is a need for a guide that will help managers determine the dimensions of the task, the resources that must be summoned, the data required, and other key elements. Here, from the head of market research at General Motors, is such a guide in outline form. Vincent P. Barabba walks the reader through the five major stages of the research effort. Each stage is represented in one table, and together the tables combine into a mammoth foldout for easy perusal. The stages are: 1. Assess the market information needs. 2. Measure the marketplace. 3. Store, retrieve, and display the data. 4. Describe and analyze market information. 5. Evaluate the research and assess its usefulness. Comprehensiveness is a hallmark of the "encyclopedia." In the second table, for example, one of the headings under "nonprobabilistic data" is "central location interviewing." Barabba lists the limitations of this kind of research: "Very expensive; responses in this artificial environment may not reflect responses in the market; complicated logistics; development of test product can be time consuming and expensive."

  2. Encyclopedia of Tuvan culture: timeliness, concept, problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chimiza K. Lamazhaa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Article arises the problem of creating the encyclopedia of Tuvan culture. History of development of encyclopedia projects in world culture is reviews as well as description of the variants of encyclopedias in 20th century. Characteristics of dictionaries about different aspects of Tuvan culture are provided. Possibilities for thesaurus approach to creating the new encyclopedia of Tuvan culture are estimated.

  3. Encyclopedia of Tuvan culture: timeliness, concept, problems

    OpenAIRE

    Chimiza K. Lamazhaa

    2016-01-01

    Article arises the problem of creating the encyclopedia of Tuvan culture. History of development of encyclopedia projects in world culture is reviews as well as description of the variants of encyclopedias in 20th century. Characteristics of dictionaries about different aspects of Tuvan culture are provided. Possibilities for thesaurus approach to creating the new encyclopedia of Tuvan culture are estimated.

  4. CRC concise encyclopedia of mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Weisstein, Eric W

    2003-01-01

    Upon publication, the first edition of the CRC Concise Encyclopedia of Mathematics received overwhelming accolades for its unparalleled scope, readability, and utility. It soon took its place among the top selling books in the history of Chapman & Hall/CRC, and its popularity continues unabated. Yet also unabated has been the dedication of author Eric Weisstein to collecting, cataloging, and referencing mathematical facts, formulas, and definitions. He has now updated most of the original entries and expanded the Encyclopedia to include 1000 additional pages of illustrated entries. The accessibility of the Encyclopedia along with its broad coverage and economical price make it attractive to the widest possible range of readers and certainly a must for libraries, from the secondary to the professional and research levels. For mathematical definitions, formulas, figures, tabulations, and references, this is simply the most impressive compendium available.

  5. Encyclopedia of the solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Spohn, Tilman; Johnson, Torrence

    2014-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of the Solar System, Third Edition-winner of the 2015 PROSE Award in Cosmology & Astronomy from the Association of American Publishers-provides a framework for understanding the origin and evolution of the solar system, historical discoveries, and details about planetary bodies and how they interact-with an astounding breadth of content and breathtaking visual impact. The encyclopedia includes the latest explorations and observations, hundreds of color digital images and illustrations, and over 1,000 pages. It stands alone as the definitive work in this field, and will serve

  6. Concise encyclopedia of software engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, Derrick

    1993-01-01

    This Concise Encyclopedia of Software Engineering is intended to provide compact coverage of the knowledge relevant to the practicing software engineer. The content has been chosen to provide an introduction to the theory and techniques relevant to the software of a broad class of computer applications. It is supported by examples of particular applications and their enabling technologies. This Encyclopedia will be of value to new practitioners who need a concise overview and established practitioners who need to read about the ""penumbra"" surrounding their own specialities. It will also be u

  7. Two encyclopedia contributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Per Kragh

    2003-01-01

    censoring; Cox regression model; counting process; event history analysis; intensity process; multi-state model; non-parametric inference; parametric models; survival analysis; Cox's proportional hazards model; hazard function, regression model; time-dependent covariate; time scale...

  8. The ENCODE (ENCyclopedia Of DNA Elements) Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-10-22

    The ENCyclopedia Of DNA Elements (ENCODE) Project aims to identify all functional elements in the human genome sequence. The pilot phase of the Project is focused on a specified 30 megabases (approximately 1%) of the human genome sequence and is organized as an international consortium of computational and laboratory-based scientists working to develop and apply high-throughput approaches for detecting all sequence elements that confer biological function. The results of this pilot phase will guide future efforts to analyze the entire human genome.

  9. Encyclopedia of microfluidics and nanofluidics

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Covering all aspects of transport phenomena on the nano- and micro-scale, the 800 entries include 300 essay entries.  The Encyclopedia gives an up to date look at the fundamentals of the field as well as many experiments and applications in growing areas such as energy devices and bioengineering applications.

  10. Encyclopedia of the Cold War

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, R.

    2008-01-01

    Between 1945 and 1991, tension between the USA, its allies, and a group of nations led by the USSR, dominated world politics. This period was called the Cold War - a conflict that stopped short to a full-blown war. Benefiting from the recent research of newly open archives, the Encyclopedia of the C

  11. Encyclopedia of the Cold War

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, R.

    2008-01-01

    Between 1945 and 1991, tension between the USA, its allies, and a group of nations led by the USSR, dominated world politics. This period was called the Cold War - a conflict that stopped short to a full-blown war. Benefiting from the recent research of newly open archives, the Encyclopedia of the

  12. Book review of "Encyclopedia of soil science"

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book review describes "Encyclopedia of soil science" edited by Chesworth et al. (2008), an update of the 1979 version of "The encyclopedia of soil science" edited by Fairbridge and Finkl. It is compared with Hillel et al. (2004) second edition of "Encyclopedia of soils in the environment" and w...

  13. Encyclopedia "Food technology" as a starting stage of the design of future technologies

    OpenAIRE

    V. A. Panfilov

    2013-01-01

    For the first time in Russia created the encyclopedia "Food Technologies' industry focus. Basic information on the organization of machine-made staple food of the person in the beginning of XXI systematized in this encyclopedia. The purpose of article - step up the efforts of specialists in technology development and technology of food production of new generations.

  14. EcoCyc: Encyclopedia of Escherichia coli genes and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, P D; Riley, M; Paley, S M; Pellegrini-Toole, A; Krummenacker, M

    1998-01-01

    The encyclopedia of Escherichia coli genes and metabolism (EcoCyc) is a database that combines information about the genome and the intermediary metabolism of E.coli. The database describes 3030 genes of E.coli , 695 enzymes encoded by a subset of these genes, 595 metabolic reactions that occur in E.coli, and the organization of these reactions into 123 metabolic pathways. The EcoCyc graphical user interface allows scientists to query and explore the EcoCyc database using visualization tools such as genomic-map browsers and automatic layouts of metabolic pathways. EcoCyc can be thought of as an electronic review article because of its copious references to the primary literature, and as a (qualitative) computational model of E.coli metabolism. EcoCyc is available at URL http://ecocyc.PangeaSystems.com/ecocyc/

  15. The Concise Encyclopedia of Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Dodge, Yadolah

    2008-01-01

    The Concise Encyclopedia of Statistics presents the essential information about statistical tests, concepts, and analytical methods in language that is accessible to practitioners and students of the vast community using statistics in medicine, engineering, physical science, life science, social science, and business/economics. The reference is alphabetically arranged to provide quick access to the fundamental tools of statistical methodology and biographies of famous statisticians. The more than 500 entries include definitions, history, mathematical details, limitations, examples, references,

  16. [The biolaw and bioethics encyclopedia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Barrio Seoane, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    On 4 April 2011, as part of the XVIII Conference in Law and the Human Genome, the official presentation took place of the first Spanish language Encyclopedia of Biolaw and Bioethics, in an event organised by the Inter-University Chair in Law and the Human Genome held, on this occasion, in the new Auditorium of the University of the Basque Country. The Encyclopedia of Biolaw and Bioethics is a project which was conceived and driven forward by the Inter-University Chair in Law and the Human Genome. It was an ambitious project which was supported by the Roche Institute Foundation. It was therefore a magnum opus which began more than three years ago and which has required the work of more than 200 professionals from various disciplines in Spain, Latin America and Portugal. The encyclopaedia tries to make up for the lack of a suitable publication in the Spanish language that could be used as a reference and be consulted by different experts who have to tackle controversies and doubts posed in the field of biolaw and bioethics as part of their everyday work. The work makes it possible to ascertain the situation in this field regarding the most controversial issues and emerging conflicts, find out which values, assets or rights are involved or confronted, what solutions have been proposed by bioethics and the social positions that have been established through legal regulations. All in all, the encyclopaedia was the culmination of an ambitious undertaking, a pioneering work in the Spanish speaking countries due to its characteristics and scope. It is essential to have such a resource in today's cultural environment. The presentation of the Encyclopedia of Biolaw and Bioethics given by Mr. Del Barrio Seoane as Director General of the Roche Institute Foundation during the Conference deservers a special mention. The project has been consolidated through the support of this institution.

  17. Encyclopedia of Complexity and Systems Science

    CERN Document Server

    Meyers, Robert A

    2009-01-01

    Encyclopedia of Complexity and Systems Science provides an authoritative single source for understanding and applying the concepts of complexity theory together with the tools and measures for analyzing complex systems in all fields of science and engineering. The science and tools of complexity and systems science include theories of self-organization, complex systems, synergetics, dynamical systems, turbulence, catastrophes, instabilities, nonlinearity, stochastic processes, chaos, neural networks, cellular automata, adaptive systems, and genetic algorithms. Examples of near-term problems and major unknowns that can be approached through complexity and systems science include: The structure, history and future of the universe; the biological basis of consciousness; the integration of genomics, proteomics and bioinformatics as systems biology; human longevity limits; the limits of computing; sustainability of life on earth; predictability, dynamics and extent of earthquakes, hurricanes, tsunamis, and other n...

  18. Encyclopedia of systems and control

    CERN Document Server

    Samad, Tariq

    2015-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Systems and Control collects a broad range of short expository articles that describe the current state of the art in the central topics of control and systems engineering as well as in many of the related fields in which control is an enabling technology. The editors have assembled the most comprehensive reference possible, and this has been greatly facilitated by the publisher’s commitment continuously to publish updates to the articles as they become available in the future. Although control engineering is now a mature discipline, it remains an area in which there is a great deal of research activity, and as new developments in both theory and applications become available, they will be included in the online version of the encyclopedia. A carefully chosen team of leading authorities in the field has written the well over 200 articles that comprise the work. The topics range from basic principles of feedback in servomechanisms to advanced topics such as the control of Boolean networks...

  19. UCLA Plans Online Encyclopedia of Egyptology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    The University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) has unveiled plans for what appears to be the world's first online, peer-reviewed encyclopedia devoted to ancient Egypt. The "UCLA Encyclopedia of Egypt," which in April won a $325,000 grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities, will include material in Arabic as well as English. The…

  20. UCLA Plans Online Encyclopedia of Egyptology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    The University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) has unveiled plans for what appears to be the world's first online, peer-reviewed encyclopedia devoted to ancient Egypt. The "UCLA Encyclopedia of Egypt," which in April won a $325,000 grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities, will include material in Arabic as well as…

  1. Dynamics of the Collateral Encyclopedia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thellefsen, Torkild Leo; Sørensen, Bent; Thellefsen, Martin Muderspach

    2015-01-01

    Both Umberto Eco and Charles S. Peirce have been concerned with the notion of background knowledge. Eco refers to background knowledge as the encyclopedia; Peirce’s term of reference is collateral experience. The aim of this article is to investigate the degree to which these two concepts...... are comparable. We focus on one major metaphysical issue, viz. the fact that Eco defines collateral experience, which is the first step in any process of cognition, as private, whereas Peirce, as a realist, would never accept the concept of private thoughts, feelings, etc. We suggest that freeing collateral...... experience from its nominalistic nomenclature makes possible a comparison and synthesis of Eco’s and Peirce’s conceptions when seen from the perspectives of their cognitive type, nuclear type, and molar content....

  2. Encyclopedia of color science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Color Science and Technology provides an authoritative single source for understanding and applying the concepts of color to all fields of science and technology, including artistic and historical aspects of color. Many topics are discussed in this timely reference, including an introduction to the science of color, and entries on the physics, chemistry and perception of color. Color is described as it relates to optical phenomena of color and continues on through colorants and materials used to modulate color and also to human vision of color. The measurement of color is provided as is colorimetry, color spaces, color difference metrics, color appearance models, color order systems and cognitive color. Other topics discussed include industrial color, color imaging, capturing color, displaying color and printing color. Descriptions of color encodings, color management, processing color and applications relating to color synthesis for computer graphics are included in this work. The Encyclo...

  3. The Grolier World Encyclopedia of Endangered Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ron

    1994-01-01

    Reviews "The Grolier World Encyclopedia of Endangered Species" and describes a lesson plan for grades five and six that includes library media skills objectives, science objectives, resources, instructional roles, activity and procedure for completion, evaluation, and follow-up. (LRW)

  4. Concise encyclopedia of history of energy

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    "The Concise Encyclopedia of the History of Energy" draws together in a single volume a comprehensive account of the field from the prestigious and award-winning "Encyclopedia of Energy" (2004). This volume covers all aspects of energy history with authoritative articles authoritatively contributed and edited by an interdisciplinary team of experts. Extensively revised since the original publication of the "Encylopedia of Energy", this work describes the most interesting historical developments of the past five years in the energy sector. It is a concise desk reference for researchers and those interested in any aspect of the history of energy science. It provides eminently cost-effective access to some of the most interesting articles in "Encyclopedia of Energy". It is significantly revised to accommodate the latest trends in each field of enquiry.

  5. Contribution to encyclopedia of thermal stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taler, Jan; Ocłoń, Pawel

    2015-06-01

    This paper lists the contribution in the international interdisciplinary reference - Encyclopedia of Thermal Stresses (ETS). The ETS, edited by the world famous expert in field of Thermal Stresses - Professor Richard Hetnarski from Rochester Institute of Technology, was published by Springer in 2014. This unique Encyclopedia, subdivided into 11 volumes is the most extensive and comprehensive work related to the Thermal Stresses topic. The entries were carefully prepared by specialists in the field of thermal stresses, elasticity, heat conduction, optimization among others. The Polish authors' contribution within this work is significant; over 70 entries were prepared by them.

  6. 基于语义网的中文百科知识组织与集成%FU Yuxin, WANG Xin, FENG Zhiyong, et al Organization and integration of Chinese encyclopedia knowledge based on semantic web

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付宇新; 王鑫; 冯志勇; 吕雪栋

    2015-01-01

    It identifies important structural features from immense knowledgeable data in three largest Chinese encyclope-dias(Baidu Encyclopedia, Hudong Encyclopedia, Chinese Wikipedia)and generates RDF triples, then integrates the in-formation data and sets into a distributed large-scale RDF data storage system, and constructs the RDF dataset of Chinese Encyclopedia Knowledge Base that fits with the requirements of Linked Data. The main work includes, configuring the web crawler to crawl the html pages from Baidu Encyclopedia and Hudong Encyclopedia, parsing the content of the infor-mation box to generate RDF triples, downloading Chinese triples data from DBpedia, integrating the data sets into the dis-tributed large-scale RDF data storage system Jingwei, designing the display of dynamic inserting and triple pattern query pages, it also verifies the validity of the method through prototype system experiments.%通过从3个最大的中文百科全书(百度百科、互动百科、中文维基百科)所包含的大规模知识数据中识别重要的结构化特征生成RDF三元组,并将这些信息数据整合加入分布式大规模RDF数据存储系统,从而构成符合Linked Data要求的中文百科知识库RDF数据集。主要工作包括,通过配置网络爬虫对百度百科和互动百科的网页进行爬取,解析其中信息框等内容,生成RDF三元组并实现三元组的动态插入;下载需要的DBpedia中文三元组数据,将三元组进行整合并存储到课题组的大规模语义数据存储库Jingwei中;设计显示动态插入和三元组模式查询的页面,通过原型系统实验,验证了该方法的有效性。

  7. Encyclopedia of Information Ethics and Security

    OpenAIRE

    Akbulut, Reviewed By Yavuz

    2008-01-01

    233Rapid developments in information andcommunication technologies have created newsecurity threats along with ethical dilemmas. Thesedevelopments have been so fast that appropriatesecurity precautions and ethical codes fail to keeppace with the technological developments. In thisrespect, education of both professionals andordinary citizens regarding information technologyethics carries utmost importance. Encyclopedia ofInformation Ethics and Security serves as anauthentic and comprehensive r...

  8. Encyclopedia of Information Ethics and Security

    OpenAIRE

    Akbulut, Reviewed By Yavuz

    2008-01-01

    233Rapid developments in information andcommunication technologies have created newsecurity threats along with ethical dilemmas. Thesedevelopments have been so fast that appropriatesecurity precautions and ethical codes fail to keeppace with the technological developments. In thisrespect, education of both professionals andordinary citizens regarding information technologyethics carries utmost importance. Encyclopedia ofInformation Ethics and Security serves as anauthentic and comprehensive r...

  9. Routledge Encyclopedia of Language Teaching and Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byram, Michael, Ed.

    This encyclopedia of language teaching and learning is an authoritative handbook dealing with all aspects of this field of study. It has been produced specifically for language teaching professionals, but can also be used as a general reference work for academic studies at a postgraduate level. A comprehensive range of articles on contemporary…

  10. Concise encyclopedia of bioresource technology: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Journal of Environmental Quality requested a review of the book “The Concise Encyclopedia of Biotechnology” from the perspective of a scientist. Biotechnology is an emerging field and has rapidly become a buzzword in popular culture and politics today, yet it is not possible to be an expert in ...

  11. Reach for Reference: A New Early Encyclopedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safford, Barbara Ripp

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews the new Grolier Student Encyclopedia, intended for grades three through eight. Good middle-level readers might become frustrated with this source, but primary and intermediate students, middle-level students reading below grade level, and English language learners of any age will find the style of information presentation…

  12. The American Indian: A Multimedia Encyclopedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Christina E.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews "The American Indian: A Multimedia Encyclopedia," Version 1.0 (New York, Facts on File, Inc., 1993). This electronic product (compact disk) presents a great amount of material on American Indians from various formats, but its effectiveness is limited by the dated nature of some materials. Software design and searching features are…

  13. The promise of functional genomics: completing the encyclopedia of a cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Timothy R; Robinson, Mark D; Mitsakakis, Nicholas; Johnston, Mark

    2004-10-01

    Genome sequencing provides complete parts lists of organisms. This presents the obvious challenge of determining how each gene contributes to the life of the organism. This task seems increasingly feasible; however, progress to date suggests that increased interaction between systematic efforts and individual investigators will be critical to completing the encyclopedia of the yeast cell.

  14. The Treatment of the Occult in General Encyclopedias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenfeld, Gary F.

    This paper is a content analysis of three general encyclopedias, "Encyclopedia Americana" (EA), "Encyclopaedia Brittanica" (EB), and "World Book Encyclopedia" (WBC), which quantifies the treatment of the occult. Entries are selected from each by starting with the article "Occultism" and tracing all…

  15. DANIO-CODE: Toward an Encyclopedia of DNA Elements in Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Haihan; Onichtchouk, Daria; Winata, Cecilia

    2016-02-01

    The zebrafish has emerged as a model organism for genomics studies. The symposium "Toward an encyclopedia of DNA elements in zebrafish" held in London in December 2014, was coorganized by Ferenc Müller and Fiona Wardle. This meeting is a follow-up of a similar previous workshop held 2 years earlier and represents a push toward the formalization of a community effort to annotate functional elements in the zebrafish genome. The meeting brought together zebrafish researchers, bioinformaticians, as well as members of established consortia, to exchange scientific findings and experience, as well as to discuss the initial steps toward the formation of a DANIO-CODE consortium. In this study, we provide the latest updates on the current progress of the consortium's efforts, opening up a broad invitation to researchers to join in and contribute to DANIO-CODE.

  16. EcoCyc: an encyclopedia of Escherichia coli genes and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, P D; Riley, M; Paley, S M; Pelligrini-Toole, A

    1996-01-01

    The encyclopedia of Escherichia coli genes and metabolism (EcoCyc) is a database that combines information about the genome and the intermediary metabolism of E.coli. It describes 2034 genes, 306 enzymes encoded by these genes, 580 metabolic reactions that occur in E.coli and the organization of these reactions into 100 metabolic pathways. The EcoCyc graphical user interface allows query and exploration of the EcoCyc database using visualization tools such as genomic map browsers and automatic layouts of metabolic pathways. EcoCyc spans the space from sequence to function to allow investigation of an unusually broad range of questions. EcoCyc can be thought of as both an electronic review article, because of its copious references to the primary literature, and as an in silico model of E.coli that can be probed and analyzed through computational means.

  17. Encyclopedia of Smart Materials, 2 Volume Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Mel

    2002-03-01

    Smart materials--materials and structures that can impart information about their environment to an observer or monitoring device--are revolutionizing fields as diverse as engineering, optics, and medical technology. Advances in smart materials are impacting disciplines across the scientific and technological landscape. Now, practictioners and researchers have an authoritative source to go to for answers about this emerging new area. Encyclopedia of Smart Materials provides A-to-Z coverage of the entire field of intelligent materials. Discussions of theory, fabrication, processing, applications, and uses of these unique materials are presented here in a collection of concise entries from the world's foremost experts in the field--including scientists, educators and engineers. This encyclopedia is as broad in scope as the technology itself, addressing daily, commercial applications as well as sophisticated units designed to operate in space, underwater, underground, and within the human body. Extensively cross-referenced and generously supplemented with bibliographies and indexes, this book's treatment also broaches the specialized properties and coatings that are required for the use of materials in extreme conditions. Illustrated with photographs, tables, line drawings, and equations, Encyclopedia of Smart Materials is the premier reference for material scientists, chemists, chemical engineers, process engineers, consultants, patent attorneys and students in these areas. An essential resource on the shelves of laboratories, government facilities, and academic libraries. Editor-in-Chief, Mel Schwartz has over forty years of experience with metals, ceramics, and composites, with special expertise in brazing. The holder of five patents, he has authored thirteen books and more than one hundred technical papers and articles. Reach the information you need rapidly and easily with the ONLINE edition of the Encyclopedia of Smart Materials. The online edition delivers all

  18. Encyclopedia of Public International Law, 6 / Henn-Jüri Uibopuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri, 1929-2012

    1984-01-01

    Tutvustus: Encyclopedia of Public International Law, published under the Auspices of the Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the Direction of Rudolf Bernhardt. (6. regional Cooperation, Organization Problems). Amsterdam, New York, Oxford: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1983

  19. Encyclopedia of Public International Law, 5 / Henn-Jüri Uibopuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri, 1929-2012

    1983-01-01

    Tutvustus: Encyclopedia of Public International Law, published under the Auspices of the Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the Direction of Rudolf Bernhardt. 5. International Organizations in General. Universal International Organisazations and Cooperation. Amsterdam, New York, Oxford: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1983

  20. Encyclopedia of Public International Law, 6 / Henn-Jüri Uibopuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri, 1929-2012

    1984-01-01

    Tutvustus: Encyclopedia of Public International Law, published under the Auspices of the Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the Direction of Rudolf Bernhardt. (6. regional Cooperation, Organization Problems). Amsterdam, New York, Oxford: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1983

  1. Encyclopedia of Public International Law, 5 / Henn-Jüri Uibopuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri, 1929-2012

    1983-01-01

    Tutvustus: Encyclopedia of Public International Law, published under the Auspices of the Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the Direction of Rudolf Bernhardt. 5. International Organizations in General. Universal International Organisazations and Cooperation. Amsterdam, New York, Oxford: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1983

  2. Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian. Volume 1, 4th Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Barry T., Ed.

    Volume 1 of the fourth edition of the encyclopedia contains directory and descriptive listings of organizations in the United States and Canada, resource materials concerning North American Indians, and a bibliography of in-print books about the American Indian. The first section of the volume contains source listings of government agencies,…

  3. An encyclopedia of mouse genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, M; Hillier, L; Kucaba, T; Allen, M; Barstead, R; Beck, C; Blistain, A; Bonaldo, M; Bowers, Y; Bowles, L; Cardenas, M; Chamberlain, A; Chappell, J; Clifton, S; Favello, A; Geisel, S; Gibbons, M; Harvey, N; Hill, F; Jackson, Y; Kohn, S; Lennon, G; Mardis, E; Martin, J; Mila, L; McCann, R; Morales, R; Pape, D; Person, B; Prange, C; Ritter, E; Soares, M; Schurk, R; Shin, T; Steptoe, M; Swaller, T; Theising, B; Underwood, K; Wylie, T; Yount, T; Wilson, R; Waterston, R

    1999-02-01

    The laboratory mouse is the premier model system for studies of mammalian development due to the powerful classical genetic analysis possible (see also the Jackson Laboratory web site, http://www.jax.org/) and the ever-expanding collection of molecular tools. To enhance the utility of the mouse system, we initiated a program to generate a large database of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) that can provide rapid access to genes. Of particular significance was the possibility that cDNA libraries could be prepared from very early stages of development, a situation unrealized in human EST projects. We report here the development of a comprehensive database of ESTs for the mouse. The project, initiated in March 1996, has focused on 5' end sequences from directionally cloned, oligo-dT primed cDNA libraries. As of 23 October 1998, 352,040 sequences had been generated, annotated and deposited in dbEST, where they comprised 93% of the total ESTs available for mouse. EST data are versatile and have been applied to gene identification, comparative sequence analysis, comparative gene mapping and candidate disease gene identification, genome sequence annotation, microarray development and the development of gene-based map resources.

  4. The Riken mouse genome encyclopedia project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashizaki, Yoshihide

    2003-01-01

    The Riken mouse genome encyclopedia a comprehensive full-length cDNA collection and sequence database. High-level functional annotation is based on sequence homology search, expression profiling, mapping and protein-protein interactions. More than 1000000 clones prepared from 163 tissues were end-sequenced and classified into 128000 clusters, and 60000 representative clones were fully sequenced representing 24000 clear protein-encoding genes. The application of the mouse genome database for positional cloning and gene network regulation analysis is reported.

  5. Functional Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blow, M. J.; Deutschbauer, A. M.; Hoover, C. A.; Lamson, J.; Lamson, J.; Price, M. N.; Waters, J.; Wetmore, K. M.; Bristow, J.; Arkin, A. P.

    2013-03-20

    Bacteria and Archaea exhibit a huge diversity of metabolic capabilities with fundamental importance in the environment, and potential applications in biotechnology. However, the genetic bases of these capabilities remain unclear due largely to an absence of technologies that link DNA sequence to molecular function. To address this challenge, we are developing a pipeline for high throughput annotation of gene function using mutagenesis, growth assays and DNA sequencing. By applying this pipeline to annotate gene function in 50 diverse microbes we hope to discover thousands of new gene functions and produce a proof of principle `Functional Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea?.

  6. An integrated encyclopedia of DNA elements in the human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    The human genome encodes the blueprint of life, but the function of the vast majority of its nearly three billion bases is unknown. The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project has systematically mapped regions of transcription, transcription factor association, chromatin structure and histone modification. These data enabled us to assign biochemical functions for 80% of the genome, in particular outside of the well-studied protein-coding regions. Many discovered candidate regulatory elements are physically associated with one another and with expressed genes, providing new insights into the mechanisms of gene regulation. The newly identified elements also show a statistical correspondence to sequence variants linked to human disease, and can thereby guide interpretation of this variation. Overall, the project provides new insights into the organization and regulation of our genes and genome, and is an expansive resource of functional annotations for biomedical research.

  7. Encyclopedia of Information Ethics and Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reviewed by Yavuz AKBULUT

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available 233Rapid developments in information andcommunication technologies have created newsecurity threats along with ethical dilemmas. Thesedevelopments have been so fast that appropriatesecurity precautions and ethical codes fail to keeppace with the technological developments. In thisrespect, education of both professionals andordinary citizens regarding information technologyethics carries utmost importance. Encyclopedia ofInformation Ethics and Security serves as anauthentic and comprehensive reference source onsecurity and ethical issues related to informationand communication technologies. The encyclopediais consisted of 661 pages (+xvii covering a total of95 alphabetically ordered chapters on informationethics and security, which are followed by twocomprehensive sets of indexes. Each entry is anauthoritative contribution followed by in-depthdefinitions of relevant terminology and acronyms.The total number of key terms included in the encyclopedia is approximately 700. Thesource also includes more than 2000 references to existing literature on ethical andsecurity issues related to information and communication technologies. A total of 148respected scholars and leading experts all around the world contributed to the source.As indicated in the preface of the encyclopedia by editor, all entries were subjected toan initial double-blind peer review and an additional review prior to acceptance forpublication. Chapters mostly have parallel layouts beginning with a clear introductionfollowed by the theoretical background and the contribution. Each chapter concludeswith invaluable ethical implications for the field along with suggestions for furtherThe editor, Marian Quigley (PhD – Monash University, Australia; BA – ChisholmInstitute of Technology, Australia; Higher Diploma of Teaching Secondary [Art andCraft] is a former senior lecturer in the Faculty of Information Technology, MonashUniversity, Australia. She primarily works on the social effects

  8. Genomic encyclopedia of sugar utilization pathways in the Shewanella genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Overbeek Ross

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carbohydrates are a primary source of carbon and energy for many bacteria. Accurate projection of known carbohydrate catabolic pathways across diverse bacteria with complete genomes constitutes a substantial challenge due to frequent variations in components of these pathways. To address a practically and fundamentally important challenge of reconstruction of carbohydrate utilization machinery in any microorganism directly from its genomic sequence, we combined a subsystems-based comparative genomic approach with experimental validation of selected bioinformatic predictions by a combination of biochemical, genetic and physiological experiments. Results We applied this integrated approach to systematically map carbohydrate utilization pathways in 19 genomes from the Shewanella genus. The obtained genomic encyclopedia of sugar utilization includes ~170 protein families (mostly metabolic enzymes, transporters and transcriptional regulators spanning 17 distinct pathways with a mosaic distribution across Shewanella species providing insights into their ecophysiology and adaptive evolution. Phenotypic assays revealed a remarkable consistency between predicted and observed phenotype, an ability to utilize an individual sugar as a sole source of carbon and energy, over the entire matrix of tested strains and sugars. Comparison of the reconstructed catabolic pathways with E. coli identified multiple differences that are manifested at various levels, from the presence or absence of certain sugar catabolic pathways, nonorthologous gene replacements and alternative biochemical routes to a different organization of transcription regulatory networks. Conclusions The reconstructed sugar catabolome in Shewanella spp includes 62 novel isofunctional families of enzymes, transporters, and regulators. In addition to improving our knowledge of genomics and functional organization of carbohydrate utilization in Shewanella, this study led to a

  9. Encyclopedia of 20th-Century American Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Alleen Pace; Nilsen, Don L. F.

    This reference encyclopedia contains information on both the historical and contemporary aspects of humor and comedy in the United States. Arranged in an A-to-Z format, the encyclopedia is a collection of article-length essays that examine humor from many perspectives, from defining terms; to providing information on humor writers, comedians, and…

  10. Kaspar Schott's "encyclopedia of all mathematical sciences"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobloch, Eberhard

    2011-06-01

    In 1661, Kaspar Schott published his comprehensive textbook "Cursus mathematicus" in Würzburg for the first time, his "Encyclopedia of all mathematical sciences". It was so successful that it was published again in 1674 and 1677. In its 28 books, Schott gave an introduction for beginners in 22 mathematical disciplines by means of 533 figures and numerous tables. He wanted to avoid the shortness and the unintelligibility of his predecessors Alsted and Hérigone. He cited or recommended far more than hundred authors, among them Protestants like Michael Stifel and Johannes Kepler, but also Catholics like Nicolaus Copernicus. The paper gives a survey of this work and explains especially interesting aspects: The dedication to the German emperor Leopold I., Athanasius Kircher's letter of recommendation as well as Schott's classification of sciences, explanations regarding geometry, astronomy, and algebra.

  11. Web-based encyclopedia on physical effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papliatseyeu, Andrey; Repich, Maryna; Ilyushonak, Boris; Hurbo, Aliaksandr; Makarava, Katerina; Lutkovski, Vladimir M.

    2004-07-01

    Web-based learning applications open new horizons for educators. In this work we present the computer encyclopedia designed to overcome drawbacks of traditional paper information sources such as awkward search, low update rate, limited copies count and high cost. Moreover, we intended to improve access and search functions in comparison with some Internet sources in order to make it more convenient. The system is developed using modern Java technologies (Jave Servlets, Java Server Pages) and contains systemized information about most important and explored physical effects. It also may be used in other fields of science. The system is accessible via Intranet/Internet networks by means of any up-to-date Internet browser. It may be used for general learning purposes and as a study guide or tutorial for performing laboratory works.

  12. Summarization of an online medical encyclopedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiszman, Marcelo; Rindflesch, Thomas C; Kilicoglu, Halil

    2004-01-01

    We explore a knowledge-rich (abstraction) approach to summarization and apply it to multiple documents from an online medical encyclopedia. A semantic processor functions as the source interpreter and produces a list of predications. A transformation stage then generalizes and condenses this list, ultimately generating a conceptual condensate for a given disorder topic. We provide a preliminary evaluation of the quality of the condensates produced for a sample of four disorders. The overall precision of the disorder conceptual condensates was 87%, and the compression ratio from the base list of predications to the final condensate was 98%. The conceptual condensate could be used as input to a text generator to produce a natural language summary for a given disorder topic.

  13. KEGG: kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanehisa, M; Goto, S

    2000-01-01

    KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) is a knowledge base for systematic analysis of gene functions, linking genomic information with higher order functional information. The genomic information is stored in the GENES database, which is a collection of gene catalogs for all the completely sequenced genomes and some partial genomes with up-to-date annotation of gene functions. The higher order functional information is stored in the PATHWAY database, which contains graphical representations of cellular processes, such as metabolism, membrane transport, signal transduction and cell cycle. The PATHWAY database is supplemented by a set of ortholog group tables for the information about conserved subpathways (pathway motifs), which are often encoded by positionally coupled genes on the chromosome and which are especially useful in predicting gene functions. A third database in KEGG is LIGAND for the information about chemical compounds, enzyme molecules and enzymatic reactions. KEGG provides Java graphics tools for browsing genome maps, comparing two genome maps and manipulating expression maps, as well as computational tools for sequence comparison, graph comparison and path computation. The KEGG databases are daily updated and made freely available (http://www. genome.ad.jp/kegg/).

  14. Teaching biology with model organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Dolores A.

    The purpose of this study is to identify and use model organisms that represent each of the kingdoms biologists use to classify organisms, while experiencing the process of science through guided inquiry. The model organisms will be the basis for studying the four high school life science core ideas as identified by the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS): LS1-From molecules to organisms, LS2-Ecosystems, LS3- Heredity, and LS4- Biological Evolution. NGSS also have identified four categories of science and engineering practices which include developing and using models and planning and carrying out investigations. The living organisms will be utilized to increase student interest and knowledge within the discipline of Biology. Pre-test and posttest analysis utilizing student t-test analysis supported the hypothesis. This study shows increased student learning as a result of using living organisms as models for classification and working in an inquiry-based learning environment.

  15. An encyclopedia of mouse DNA elements (Mouse ENCODE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatoyannopoulos, John A; Snyder, Michael; Hardison, Ross; Ren, Bing; Gingeras, Thomas; Gilbert, David M; Groudine, Mark; Bender, Michael; Kaul, Rajinder; Canfield, Theresa; Giste, Erica; Johnson, Audra; Zhang, Mia; Balasundaram, Gayathri; Byron, Rachel; Roach, Vaughan; Sabo, Peter J; Sandstrom, Richard; Stehling, A Sandra; Thurman, Robert E; Weissman, Sherman M; Cayting, Philip; Hariharan, Manoj; Lian, Jin; Cheng, Yong; Landt, Stephen G; Ma, Zhihai; Wold, Barbara J; Dekker, Job; Crawford, Gregory E; Keller, Cheryl A; Wu, Weisheng; Morrissey, Christopher; Kumar, Swathi A; Mishra, Tejaswini; Jain, Deepti; Byrska-Bishop, Marta; Blankenberg, Daniel; Lajoie, Bryan R; Jain, Gaurav; Sanyal, Amartya; Chen, Kaun-Bei; Denas, Olgert; Taylor, James; Blobel, Gerd A; Weiss, Mitchell J; Pimkin, Max; Deng, Wulan; Marinov, Georgi K; Williams, Brian A; Fisher-Aylor, Katherine I; Desalvo, Gilberto; Kiralusha, Anthony; Trout, Diane; Amrhein, Henry; Mortazavi, Ali; Edsall, Lee; McCleary, David; Kuan, Samantha; Shen, Yin; Yue, Feng; Ye, Zhen; Davis, Carrie A; Zaleski, Chris; Jha, Sonali; Xue, Chenghai; Dobin, Alex; Lin, Wei; Fastuca, Meagan; Wang, Huaien; Guigo, Roderic; Djebali, Sarah; Lagarde, Julien; Ryba, Tyrone; Sasaki, Takayo; Malladi, Venkat S; Cline, Melissa S; Kirkup, Vanessa M; Learned, Katrina; Rosenbloom, Kate R; Kent, W James; Feingold, Elise A; Good, Peter J; Pazin, Michael; Lowdon, Rebecca F; Adams, Leslie B

    2012-08-13

    To complement the human Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project and to enable a broad range of mouse genomics efforts, the Mouse ENCODE Consortium is applying the same experimental pipelines developed for human ENCODE to annotate the mouse genome.

  16. Encyclopedia of electrochemistry. Vol. 5. Electrochemical engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bard, A.J. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Stratmann, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Eisenforschung GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany); Macdonald, D. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Center for Electrochemical Science and Engineering; Schmuki, P. (eds.) [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Dept. of Material Science

    2007-07-01

    This volume contains the following chapters: 1. Technical scale of electrochemistry; 2. Electrocatalysis; 3. Electrochemical composition; 4. Electrowinning of metals; 5. Electrowinning of other inorganic compounds; 6. Electrochemistry applied to organic synthesis: Principles and main achievements; 7. Batteries: Basic principles, technologies, and modeling; 8. Fuel cells; 9. The electrochemistry of nuclear reactor coolant circuits; 10. Electrochemical techniques for studying high-temperature subcritical and supercritical aqueous solutions; 11. Electrochemistry of silicon etching; 12. Electrochemical machining; 13. Environmental chemistry.

  17. Concise encyclopedia of semiconducting materials and related technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Mahajan, S M

    1992-01-01

    The development of electronic materials and particularly advances in semiconductor technology have played a central role in the electronics revolution by allowing the production of increasingly cheap and powerful computing equipment and advanced telecommunications devices. This Concise Encyclopedia, which incorporates relevant articles from the acclaimed Encyclopedia of Materials Science and Engineering as well as newly commissioned articles, emphasizes the materials aspects of semiconductors and the technologies important in solid-state electronics. Growth of bulk crystals and epitaxial layer

  18. THE REACH AND RICHNESS OF WIKINOMICS: IS THE FREE WEB-BASED ENCYCLOPEDIA WIKIPEDIA ONLY FOR RICH COUNTRIES?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten

    2007-01-01

    In this article, a model of the patterns of correlation in Wikipedia, reach and richness, lays the foundation for studying whether the free Web-based encyclopedia Wikipedia is only for developed countries. Based on data from 12 different Wikipedia language editions, the author finds that the cent......In this article, a model of the patterns of correlation in Wikipedia, reach and richness, lays the foundation for studying whether the free Web-based encyclopedia Wikipedia is only for developed countries. Based on data from 12 different Wikipedia language editions, the author finds...

  19. Utilizing the World Wide Web as an Encyclopedia: Extracting Term Descriptions from Semi-Structured Texts

    OpenAIRE

    Fujii, Atsushi; Ishikawa, Tetsuya

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a method to extract descriptions of technical terms from Web pages in order to utilize the World Wide Web as an encyclopedia. We use linguistic patterns and HTML text structures to extract text fragments containing term descriptions. We also use a language model to discard extraneous descriptions, and a clustering method to summarize resultant descriptions. We show the effectiveness of our method by way of experiments.

  20. Preferential attachment in the growth of social networks: the internet encyclopedia Wikipedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capocci, A; Servedio, V D P; Colaiori, F; Buriol, L S; Donato, D; Leonardi, S; Caldarelli, G

    2006-09-01

    We present an analysis of the statistical properties and growth of the free on-line encyclopedia Wikipedia. By describing topics by vertices and hyperlinks between them as edges, we can represent this encyclopedia as a directed graph. The topological properties of this graph are in close analogy with those of the World Wide Web, despite the very different growth mechanism. In particular, we measure a scale-invariant distribution of the in and out degree and we are able to reproduce these features by means of a simple statistical model. As a major consequence, Wikipedia growth can be described by local rules such as the preferential attachment mechanism, though users, who are responsible of its evolution, can act globally on the network.

  1. What Future for Traditional Encyclopedias in the Age of Wikipedia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Upshall

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The launch and rapid domination of Wikipedia as a reference tool for the Internet was as dramatic as it was unexpected. Wikipedia broke so many of the rules of reference publishing, which, even if not formally codified, had been widely accepted for many years: the use of (usually named authorities as expert contributors, and the presence of moderating editors to ensure balanced struc-ture. All this appeared to have been swept away with Wikipedia, and, not least because Wikipedia content is given away rather than sold, the competition between Wikipedia and most general-purpose encyclopedias was a sad and rather one-sided affair. One by one the existing commercial print general encyclopedias admitted defeat; among the latest is Brockhaus, the leading German encyclopedia brand, which ended publication early in 2013.

  2. The richness and reach of Wikinomics: Is the free web-based encyclopedia Wikipedia only for the rich countries?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a model of the patterns of correlation in Wikipedia, reach and richness, lays the foundation for studying whether or not the free web-based encyclopedia Wikipedia is only for developed countries. Based upon data from 12 different Wikipedia language editions, we find that the centra...

  3. The richness and reach of Wikinomics: Is the free web-based encyclopedia Wikipedia only for the rich countries?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a model of the patterns of correlation in Wikipedia, reach and richness, lays the foundation for studying whether or not the free web-based encyclopedia Wikipedia is only for developed countries. Based upon data from 12 different Wikipedia language editions, we find that the central...

  4. Land of 10,000 Facts: Minnesota's New Digital Encyclopedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly Huber

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Mnopedia is the recently created, born digital encyclopedia of the state of Minnesota. It is a project of the Minnesota Historical Society (MNHS, the state's leading cultural heritage institution and one of the largest and oldest historical societies in the nation. The MNHS has been in existence since 1849 and tells the story of Minnesota's past through exhibitions, extensive libraries and collections, twenty-six historic sites, educational programs, book publishing, and both financial and inkind assistance to county and local historical societies throughout the state. It provides a strong base for an encyclopedia to grow from.

  5. Encyclopedia of Gun Control and Gun Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utter, Glenn H.

    This reference volume provides information on gun control and gun rights, including resources on the debate surrounding the Second Amendment and individuals and organizations focused on gun issues, along with statutes, court cases, events, and publications surrounding this current topic. Highlighted are the important organizations and their…

  6. Intellectual interchanges in the history of the massive online open-editing encyclopedia, Wikipedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jinhyuk; Lee, Sang Hoon; Jeong, Hawoong

    2016-01-01

    Wikipedia is a free Internet encyclopedia with an enormous amount of content. This encyclopedia is written by volunteers with various backgrounds in a collective fashion; anyone can access and edit most of the articles. This open-editing nature may give us prejudice that Wikipedia is an unstable and unreliable source; yet many studies suggest that Wikipedia is even more accurate and self-consistent than traditional encyclopedias. Scholars have attempted to understand such extraordinary credibility, but usually used the number of edits as the unit of time, without consideration of real time. In this work, we probe the formation of such collective intelligence through a systematic analysis using the entire history of 34 534 110 English Wikipedia articles, between 2001 and 2014. From this massive data set, we observe the universality of both timewise and lengthwise editing scales, which suggests that it is essential to consider the real-time dynamics. By considering real time, we find the existence of distinct growth patterns that are unobserved by utilizing the number of edits as the unit of time. To account for these results, we present a mechanistic model that adopts the article editing dynamics based on both editor-editor and editor-article interactions. The model successfully generates the key properties of real Wikipedia articles such as distinct types of articles for the editing patterns characterized by the interrelationship between the numbers of edits and editors, and the article size. In addition, the model indicates that infrequently referred articles tend to grow faster than frequently referred ones, and articles attracting a high motivation to edit counterintuitively reduce the number of participants. We suggest that this decay of participants eventually brings inequality among the editors, which will become more severe with time.

  7. Encyclopedia of electrochemistry. Vol. 10. Modified electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bard, A.J. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Stratmann, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Eisenforschung GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany); Rubinstein, I. [Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot (Israel). Dept. of Materials and Interfaces; Fujihira, Masamichi [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama (Japan). Dept. of Biomolecular Engineering; Rusling, J.F. (eds.) [Connecticut Univ., Storrs, CT (United States). Dept. of Chemistry, U-60]|[Connecticut Univ., Storrs, CT (United States). Dept. of Pharmacology

    2007-07-01

    This volume contains the following topics: 1. Preparation of monolayer modified electrodes; 2. Layer-by-layer assemblies of thin films on electrodes; 3. Epitaxial electrochemical growth; 5. Other films; 6. Ex-situ methods; 7. In-situ methods; 8. Electron transfer; 9. Charge transport in polymer-modified electrodes; 10. Electrochemical reactions on modified electrodes; 11. Redox-active dendrimers in solution and as films on surfaces; 12. Electrochemical formation of organic thin films; 13. Electron transfer and transport in ordered enzyme layers.

  8. [Research on origin and evolution of Wan Mizhai's Medical Encyclopedia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, D

    1996-05-01

    This encyclopedia was lost early in the Ming dynasty. The current edition was blockprinted by Wan's fifth generation grandson in 1654-1659, then comes the next edition of Zhang Tanyi Shilu Tang of Hanyang edition blockprinted in 1712. Next comes Hu Leuqing Wei Tang of Jinxi's edition blockprinted in 1724, which was interpolatedly reprinted by Fuwentang, Tongrentang. The latter was entitled Wan Mizhai's Medical Encyclopedia when blockprinted in 1741. After 1778, there was also a Zhongxintang edition with unknown printed time. The modern printed edition of Luotian revised edition was printed in 1981-1986. The above editions are verified by textual research and material books by describing their printing, edition features and mutual relationship between its origin and development. Errors of printing of some editions are also dealt with.

  9. Interpreting hypernymic propositions in an online medical encyclopedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiszman, Marcelo; Rindflesch, Thomas C; Kilicoglu, Halil

    2003-01-01

    Interpretation of semantic propositions from bio-medical texts documents would provide valuable support to natural language processing (NLP) applications. We are developing a methodology to interpret a kind of semantic proposition, the hypernymic proposition, in MEDLINE abstracts. In this paper, we expanded the system to identify these structures in a different discourse domain: the Medical Encyclopedia from the National Library of Medi-cine's MEDLINEplus Website.

  10. Model Organisms Fact Sheet: Using Model Organisms to Study Health and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Model Organisms to Study Health and Disease Using Model Organisms to Study Health and Disease Tagline (Optional) ... and treating disease in humans. What is a model? The word model has many meanings, but in ...

  11. A brief review on the Human Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Hongzhu; Fang, Xiangdong

    2013-06-01

    The ENCyclopedia Of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project is an international research consortium that aims to identify all functional elements in the human genome sequence. The second phase of the project comprised 1640 datasets from 147 different cell types, yielding a set of 30 publications across several journals. These data revealed that 80.4% of the human genome displays some functionality in at least one cell type. Many of these regulatory elements are physically associated with one another and further form a network or three-dimensional conformation to affect gene expression. These elements are also related to sequence variants associated with diseases or traits. All these findings provide us new insights into the organization and regulation of genes and genome, and serve as an expansive resource for understanding human health and disease.

  12. Expansion of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinke, Christian; Sczyrba, Alex; Malfatti, Stephanie; Lee, Janey; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Stepanauskas, Ramunas; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Hallam, Steven; Inskeep, William P.; Hedlund, Brian P.; Sievert, Stefan M.; Liu, Wen-Tso; Tsiamis, George; Hugenholtz, Philip; Woyke, Tanja

    2011-06-02

    To date the vast majority of bacterial and archaeal genomes sequenced are of rather limited phylogenetic diversity as they were chosen based on their physiology and/ or medical importance. The Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea (GEBA) project (Wu et al. 2009) is aimed at systematically filling the gaps of the tree of life with phylogenetically diverse reference genomes. However more than 99 percent of microorganisms elude current culturing attempts, severely limiting the ability to recover complete or even partial genomes of these largely mysterious species. These limitations gave rise to the GEBA uncultured project. Here we propose to use single cell genomics to massively expand the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea by targeting 80 single cell representatives of uncultured candidate phyla which have no or very few cultured representatives. Generating these reference genomes of uncultured microbes will dramatically increase the discovery rate of novel protein families and biological functions, shed light on the numerous underrepresented phyla that likely play important roles in the environment, and will assist in improving the reconstruction of the evolutionary history of Bacteria and Archaea. Moreover, these data will improve our ability to interpret metagenomics sequence data from diverse environments, which will be of tremendous value for microbial ecology and evolutionary studies to come.

  13. Expansion of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinke, Christian; Sczyrba, Alex; Malfatti, Stephanie; Lee, Janye; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Stepanauskas, Ramunas; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Hallam, Steven; Inskeep, William P.; Hedlund, Brian P.; Sievert, Stefan M.; Liu, Wen-Tso; Tsiamis, George; Hugenholtz, Philip; Woyke, Tanja

    2011-03-20

    To date the vast majority of bacterial and archaeal genomes sequenced are of rather limited phylogenetic diversity as they were chosen based on their physiology and/ or medical importance. The Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea (GEBA) project (Wu et al. 2009) is aimed to systematically filling the gaps of the tree of life with phylogenetically diverse reference genomes. However more than 99percent of microorganisms elude current culturing attempts, severely limiting the ability to recover complete or even partial genomes of these largely mysterious species. These limitations gave rise to the GEBA uncultured project. Here we propose to use single cell genomics to massively expand the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea by targeting 80 single cell representatives of uncultured candidate phyla which have no or very few cultured representatives. Generating these reference genomes of uncultured microbes will dramatically increase the discovery rate of novel protein families and biological functions, shed light on the numerous underrepresented phyla that likely play important roles in the environment, and will assist in improving the reconstruction of the evolutionary history of Bacteria and Archaea. Moreover, these data will improve our ability to interpret metagenomics sequence data from diverse environments, which will be of tremendous value for microbial ecology and evolutionary studies to come.

  14. Organization customer behavior: Elected models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maričić Branko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper is dealing with business-to-business marketing issues with particular attention to some of models oriented to explain differences relative to FMCG marketing. Author describe the core principles of selected models including their basic features. In this paper some of models are in focus - Window and Webster-Window model as well as Sheets model, Nielsen model and Multivariation tools.

  15. Encyclopedia of Native American Jewelry: A Guide to History, People, and Terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Paula A.

    A current guide to significant people, techniques, design motifs, materials, and forms, this comprehensive encyclopedia covers Native American jewelry making from the first contact with the Europeans to the present, focusing primarily on the last 150 years of Native American jewelry making. The encyclopedia contains 350 cross-referenced entries…

  16. Encyclopedia of Native American Jewelry: A Guide to History, People, and Terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Paula A.

    A current guide to significant people, techniques, design motifs, materials, and forms, this comprehensive encyclopedia covers Native American jewelry making from the first contact with the Europeans to the present, focusing primarily on the last 150 years of Native American jewelry making. The encyclopedia contains 350 cross-referenced entries…

  17. A user's guide to the encyclopedia of DNA elements (ENCODE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    The mission of the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) Project is to enable the scientific and medical communities to interpret the human genome sequence and apply it to understand human biology and improve health. The ENCODE Consortium is integrating multiple technologies and approaches in a collective effort to discover and define the functional elements encoded in the human genome, including genes, transcripts, and transcriptional regulatory regions, together with their attendant chromatin states and DNA methylation patterns. In the process, standards to ensure high-quality data have been implemented, and novel algorithms have been developed to facilitate analysis. Data and derived results are made available through a freely accessible database. Here we provide an overview of the project and the resources it is generating and illustrate the application of ENCODE data to interpret the human genome.

  18. Dynamics models of soil organic carbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGLi-xia; PANJian-jun

    2003-01-01

    As the largest pool of terrestrial organic carbon, soils interact strongly with atmosphere composition, climate, and land change. Soil organic carbon dynamics in ecosystem plays a great role in global carbon cycle and global change. With development of mathematical models that simulate changes in soil organic carbon, there have been considerable advances in understanding soil organic carbon dynamics. This paper mainly reviewed the composition of soil organic matter and its influenced factors, and recommended some soil organic matter models worldwide. Based on the analyses of the developed results at home and abroad, it is suggested that future soil organic matter models should be developed toward based-process models, and not always empirical ones. The models are able to reveal their interaction between soil carbon systems, climate and land cover by technique and methods of GIS (Geographical Information System) and RS (Remote Sensing). These models should be developed at a global scale, in dynamically describing the spatial and temporal changes of soil organic matter cycle. Meanwhile, the further researches on models should be strengthen for providing theory basis and foundation in making policy of green house gas emission in China.

  19. Project-matrix models of marketing organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutić Dragutin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike theory and practice of corporation organization, in marketing organization numerous forms and contents at its disposal are not reached until this day. It can be well estimated that marketing organization today in most of our companies and in almost all its parts, noticeably gets behind corporation organization. Marketing managers have always been occupied by basic, narrow marketing activities as: sales growth, market analysis, market growth and market share, marketing research, introduction of new products, modification of products, promotion, distribution etc. They rarely found it necessary to focus a bit more to different aspects of marketing management, for example: marketing planning and marketing control, marketing organization and leading. This paper deals with aspects of project - matrix marketing organization management. Two-dimensional and more-dimensional models are presented. Among two-dimensional, these models are analyzed: Market management/products management model; Products management/management of product lifecycle phases on market model; Customers management/marketing functions management model; Demand management/marketing functions management model; Market positions management/marketing functions management model. .

  20. Cardiac Electromechanical Models: From Cell to Organ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia A Trayanova

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The heart is a multiphysics and multiscale system that has driven the development of the most sophisticated mathematical models at the frontiers of computation physiology and medicine. This review focuses on electromechanical (EM models of the heart from the molecular level of myofilaments to anatomical models of the organ. Because of the coupling in terms of function and emergent behaviors at each level of biological hierarchy, separation of behaviors at a given scale is difficult. Here, a separation is drawn at the cell level so that the first half addresses subcellular/single cell models and the second half addresses organ models. At the subcelluar level, myofilament models represent actin-myosin interaction and Ca-based activation. Myofilament models and their refinements represent an overview of the development in the field. The discussion of specific models emphasizes the roles of cooperative mechanisms and sarcomere length dependence of contraction force, considered the cellular basis of the Frank-Starling law. A model of electrophysiology and Ca handling can be coupled to a myofilament model to produce an EM cell model, and representative examples are summarized to provide an overview of the progression of field. The second half of the review covers organ-level models that require solution of the electrical component as a reaction-diffusion system and the mechanical component, in which active tension generated by the myocytes produces deformation of the organ as described by the equations of continuum mechanics. As outlined in the review, different organ-level models have chosen to use different ionic and myofilament models depending on the specific application; this choice has been largely dictated by compromises between model complexity and computational tractability. The review also addresses application areas of EM models such as cardiac resynchronization therapy and the role of mechano-electric coupling in arrhythmias and

  1. The Zebrafish Model Organism Database (ZFIN)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — ZFIN serves as the zebrafish model organism database. It aims to: a) be the community database resource for the laboratory use of zebrafish, b) develop and support...

  2. Modeling Virtual Organization Architecture with the Virtual Organization Breeding Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paszkiewicz, Zbigniew; Picard, Willy

    While Enterprise Architecture Modeling (EAM) methodologies become more and more popular, an EAM methodology tailored to the needs of virtual organizations (VO) is still to be developed. Among the most popular EAM methodologies, TOGAF has been chosen as the basis for a new EAM methodology taking into account characteristics of VOs presented in this paper. In this new methodology, referred as Virtual Organization Breeding Methodology (VOBM), concepts developed within the ECOLEAD project, e.g. the concept of Virtual Breeding Environment (VBE) or the VO creation schema, serve as fundamental elements for development of VOBM. VOBM is a generic methodology that should be adapted to a given VBE. VOBM defines the structure of VBE and VO architectures in a service-oriented environment, as well as an architecture development method for virtual organizations (ADM4VO). Finally, a preliminary set of tools and methods for VOBM is given in this paper.

  3. Modeling Virtual Organization Architecture with the Virtual Organization Breeding Methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Paszkiewicz, Zbigniew

    2011-01-01

    While Enterprise Architecture Modeling (EAM) methodologies become more and more popular, an EAM methodology tailored to the needs of virtual organizations (VO) is still to be developed. Among the most popular EAM methodologies, TOGAF has been chosen as the basis for a new EAM methodology taking into account characteristics of VOs presented in this paper. In this new methodology, referred as Virtual Organization Breeding Methodology (VOBM), concepts developed within the ECOLEAD project, e.g. the concept of Virtual Breeding Environment (VBE) or the VO creation schema, serve as fundamental elements for development of VOBM. VOBM is a generic methodology that should be adapted to a given VBE. VOBM defines the structure of VBE and VO architectures in a service-oriented environment, as well as an architecture development method for virtual organizations (ADM4VO). Finally, a preliminary set of tools and methods for VOBM is given in this paper.

  4. Modeling personnel turnover in the parametric organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Edwin B.

    1991-01-01

    A model is developed for simulating the dynamics of a newly formed organization, credible during all phases of organizational development. The model development process is broken down into the activities of determining the tasks required for parametric cost analysis (PCA), determining the skills required for each PCA task, determining the skills available in the applicant marketplace, determining the structure of the model, implementing the model, and testing it. The model, parameterized by the likelihood of job function transition, has demonstrated by the capability to represent the transition of personnel across functional boundaries within a parametric organization using a linear dynamical system, and the ability to predict required staffing profiles to meet functional needs at the desired time. The model can be extended by revisions of the state and transition structure to provide refinements in functional definition for the parametric and extended organization.

  5. Complex Systems and Self-organization Modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Bertelle, Cyrille; Kadri-Dahmani, Hakima

    2009-01-01

    The concern of this book is the use of emergent computing and self-organization modelling within various applications of complex systems. The authors focus their attention both on the innovative concepts and implementations in order to model self-organizations, but also on the relevant applicative domains in which they can be used efficiently. This book is the outcome of a workshop meeting within ESM 2006 (Eurosis), held in Toulouse, France in October 2006.

  6. 在线百科间的标签推荐算法%Tag Recommendation among Different Online Encyclopedia Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘阔; 姚舒扬; 邓志鸿

    2012-01-01

    Online encyclopedia systems have become an important way for people to acquire knowledge. As an important part of online encyclopedia systems, tags of each page not only help users get more relevant information for further reading, but also enhance the efficiency of the retrieval system. After taking full advantage of linkage relations between pages of online encyclopedia systems, this paper proposes a new method, HVSM (homogeneous principle based vector space model), which is universal and aims at recommending tags between different online encyclopedia systems. Experimental results show that this method can achieve a good accuracy which is higher than NAM (naive recommendation model). Some useful conclusions are obtained through the analysis of experimental results, which lay a solid foundation for further research.%信息社会中在线百科已成为人们获取知识的重要途径,而在线百科的标签系统作为其重要组成部分,不仅可以帮助人们在浏览某张页面时获取其他相关页面的信息,而且对于海量文本分类,以及提高在线百科检索系统的检索效率都有很大帮助.充分利用在线百科页面间的链接关系,提出了一种基于页面间的同质性原理和向量空间模型的全新针对在线百科的标签推荐算法HVSM(homogeneous principle based vector space model).该标签推荐算法具有普适性,可在不同在线百科系统间推荐标签.实验结果表明,通过与朴素推荐算法NAM(na(i)ve recommendation model)进行比较,新的推荐算法可以达到更高的准确率.并且通过对实验数据进行分析,得到了若干有益的结论,为今后的研究工作奠定了基础.

  7. Reol: R interface to the Encyclopedia of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banbury, Barbara L; O'Meara, Brian C

    2014-06-01

    The Encyclopedia of Life is a website that hosts information about life on Earth. Its mission is to increase awareness and understanding of living nature through a freely accessible digital source. Information is publicly available through graphical webpages (browser interface) or through an application programming interface (API). We developed Reol, an open-source package for the R environment, which downloads data from the EOL API, searches for and extracts specific information, and builds tables with quantitative data and/or hierarchical classifications. We provide a detailed description how Reol can be used as a bridge between the R environment and the EOL API to extract quantitative or hierarchical content. It will be particularly useful for researchers who want information about taxonomic groups of interest (for example: how much information is known about flatworm species? What are the taxonomic synonyms for bird species?) or construct a taxonomic tree. Reol is a tool for researchers who wish to download and gather data from EOL or its provider pages. We provide numerous functions within R for downloading, gathering data in different forms, creating taxonomic trees, and plotting data, which work with functions already available through various packages. It joins a growing body of R packages that interact with web-based APIs to streamline data acquisition, thereby easing the analysis of large publicly available datasets.

  8. Tumor suppressors status in cancer cell line Encyclopedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonkin, Dmitriy; Hassan, Mehedi; Murphy, Denis J; Tatarinova, Tatiana V

    2013-08-01

    Tumor suppressors play a major role in the etiology of human cancer, and typically achieve a tumor-promoting effect upon complete functional inactivation. Bi-allelic inactivation of tumor suppressors may occur through genetic mechanisms (such as loss of function mutation, copy number (CN) loss, or loss of heterozygosity (LOH)), epigenetic mechanisms (such as promoter methylation or histone modification), or a combination of the two. We report systematically derived status of 69 known or putative tumor suppressors, across 799 samples of the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia. In order to generate such resource we constructed a novel comprehensive computational framework for the assessment of tumor suppressor functional "status". This approach utilizes several orthogonal genomic data types, including mutation data, copy number, LOH and expression. Through correlation with additional data types (compound sensitivity and gene set activity) we show that this integrative method provides a more accurate assessment of tumor suppressor status than can be inferred by expression, copy number, or mutation alone. This approach has the potential for a more realistic assessment of tumor suppressor genes for both basic and translational oncology research.

  9. Batteries for sustainability selected entries from the encyclopedia of sustainability science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Brodd, Ralph J

    2012-01-01

    This collection of selected peer-reviewed papers from Springer's Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology covers a wide range of battery types, materials and applications, and includes a thorough assessment of their relative sustainability.

  10. Condensing Organic Aerosols in a Microphysical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y.; Tsigaridis, K.; Bauer, S.

    2015-12-01

    The condensation of organic aerosols is represented in a newly developed box-model scheme, where its effect on the growth and composition of particles are examined. We implemented the volatility-basis set (VBS) framework into the aerosol mixing state resolving microphysical scheme Multiconfiguration Aerosol TRacker of mIXing state (MATRIX). This new scheme is unique and advances the representation of organic aerosols in models in that, contrary to the traditional treatment of organic aerosols as non-volatile in most climate models and in the original version of MATRIX, this new scheme treats them as semi-volatile. Such treatment is important because low-volatility organics contribute significantly to the growth of particles. The new scheme includes several classes of semi-volatile organic compounds from the VBS framework that can partition among aerosol populations in MATRIX, thus representing the growth of particles via condensation of low volatility organic vapors. Results from test cases representing Mexico City and a Finish forrest condistions show good representation of the time evolutions of concentration for VBS species in the gas phase and in the condensed particulate phase. Emitted semi-volatile primary organic aerosols evaporate almost completely in the high volatile range, and they condense more efficiently in the low volatility range.

  11. Computing text semantic relatedness using the contents and links of a hypertext encyclopedia

    OpenAIRE

    Yazdani, Majid; Popescu-Belis, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    We propose a method for computing semantic relatedness between words or texts by using knowledge from hypertext encyclopedias such as Wikipedia. A network of concepts is built by filtering the encyclopedia's articles, each concept corresponding to an article. Two types of weighted links between concepts are considered: one based on hyperlinks between the texts of the articles, and another one based on the lexical similarity between them. We propose and implement an efficient random walk algor...

  12. Chemical information media in the chemistry lecture hall: a comparative assessment of two online encyclopedias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korosec, Lukas; Limacher, Peter Andreas; Lüthi, Hans Peter; Brändle, Martin Paul

    2010-01-01

    The chemistry encyclopedia Römpp Online and the German universal encyclopedia Wikipedia were assessed by first-year university students on the basis of a set of 30 articles about chemical thermodynamics. Criteria with regard to both content and form were applied in the comparison; 619 ratings (48% participation rate) were returned. While both encyclopedias obtained very good marks and performed nearly equally with regard to their accuracy, the average overall mark for Wikipedia was better than for Römpp Online, which obtained lower marks with regard to completeness and length. Analysis of the results and participants' comments shows that students attach importance to completeness, length and comprehensibility rather than accuracy, and also attribute less value to the availability of sources which validate an encyclopedia article. Both encyclopedias can be promoted as a starting reference to access a topic in chemistry. However, it is recommended that instructors should insist that students do not rely solely on encyclopedia texts, but use and cite primary literature in their reports.

  13. Putting "Organizations" into an Organization Theory Course: A Hybrid CAO Model for Teaching Organization Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah, David R.; Venkatachary, Ranga

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors present a retrospective analysis of an instructor's multiyear redesign of a course on organization theory into what is called a hybrid Classroom-as-Organization model. It is suggested that this new course design served to apprentice students to function in quasi-real organizational structures. The authors further argue…

  14. Web Resources for Model Organism Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bixia Tang; Yanqing Wang; Junwei Zhu; Wenming Zhao

    2015-01-01

    An ever-growing number of resources on model organisms have emerged with the continued development of sequencing technologies. In this paper, we review 13 databases of model organisms, most of which are reported by the National Institutes of Health of the United States (NIH; http://www.nih.gov/science/models/). We provide a brief description for each database, as well as detail its data source and types, functions, tools, and availability of access. In addition, we also provide a quality assessment about these databases. Significantly, the organism databases instituted in the early 1990s––such as the Mouse Genome Database (MGD), Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD), and FlyBase––have developed into what are now comprehensive, core authority resources. Furthermore, all of the databases mentioned here update continually according to user feedback and with advancing technologies.

  15. Mathematical Modeling Social Responsibility for Dynamic Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Chavoshbashi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic organizations as accountable organizations, for transparency and accountability to its stakeholders to stakeholders for their toward performance there should express their commitment to social responsibility are through their values and ensure that this commitment throughout the organization are now and thus will have a social responsibility for their mutual benefit, so there is more and more coherent in their ethical approach takes advantage and the community and stakeholders and the organization will have better performance and strengths. Because of interest in social responsibility, in this paper dynamic model is presented for Corporate Social Responsibility of Bionic organization. Model presented a new model is inspired by chaos theory and natural systems theory based on bifurcation in creation to be all natural systems, realizing the value of responsibility as one of the fundamental values of social and institutional development that the relationship between business and work environment in the global market economy and range will be specified. First Social Responsibility factors identified, then experts and scholars determine the weight of the components and technical coefficient for modeling and paired comparison has been done using MATLAB mathematical Software.

  16. Polymer models of chromosome (re)organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirny, Leonid

    Chromosome Conformation Capture technique (Hi-C) provides comprehensive information about frequencies of spatial interactions between genomic loci. Inferring 3D organization of chromosomes from these data is a challenging biophysical problem. We develop a top-down approach to biophysical modeling of chromosomes. Starting with a minimal set of biologically motivated interactions we build ensembles of polymer conformations that can reproduce major features observed in Hi-C experiments. I will present our work on modeling organization of human metaphase and interphase chromosomes. Our works suggests that active processes of loop extrusion can be a universal mechanism responsible for formation of domains in interphase and chromosome compaction in metaphase.

  17. A comparative encyclopedia of DNA elements in the mouse genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Feng; Cheng, Yong; Breschi, Alessandra; Vierstra, Jeff; Wu, Weisheng; Ryba, Tyrone; Sandstrom, Richard; Ma, Zhihai; Davis, Carrie; Pope, Benjamin D; Shen, Yin; Pervouchine, Dmitri D; Djebali, Sarah; Thurman, Robert E; Kaul, Rajinder; Rynes, Eric; Kirilusha, Anthony; Marinov, Georgi K; Williams, Brian A; Trout, Diane; Amrhein, Henry; Fisher-Aylor, Katherine; Antoshechkin, Igor; DeSalvo, Gilberto; See, Lei-Hoon; Fastuca, Meagan; Drenkow, Jorg; Zaleski, Chris; Dobin, Alex; Prieto, Pablo; Lagarde, Julien; Bussotti, Giovanni; Tanzer, Andrea; Denas, Olgert; Li, Kanwei; Bender, M A; Zhang, Miaohua; Byron, Rachel; Groudine, Mark T; McCleary, David; Pham, Long; Ye, Zhen; Kuan, Samantha; Edsall, Lee; Wu, Yi-Chieh; Rasmussen, Matthew D; Bansal, Mukul S; Kellis, Manolis; Keller, Cheryl A; Morrissey, Christapher S; Mishra, Tejaswini; Jain, Deepti; Dogan, Nergiz; Harris, Robert S; Cayting, Philip; Kawli, Trupti; Boyle, Alan P; Euskirchen, Ghia; Kundaje, Anshul; Lin, Shin; Lin, Yiing; Jansen, Camden; Malladi, Venkat S; Cline, Melissa S; Erickson, Drew T; Kirkup, Vanessa M; Learned, Katrina; Sloan, Cricket A; Rosenbloom, Kate R; Lacerda de Sousa, Beatriz; Beal, Kathryn; Pignatelli, Miguel; Flicek, Paul; Lian, Jin; Kahveci, Tamer; Lee, Dongwon; Kent, W James; Ramalho Santos, Miguel; Herrero, Javier; Notredame, Cedric; Johnson, Audra; Vong, Shinny; Lee, Kristen; Bates, Daniel; Neri, Fidencio; Diegel, Morgan; Canfield, Theresa; Sabo, Peter J; Wilken, Matthew S; Reh, Thomas A; Giste, Erika; Shafer, Anthony; Kutyavin, Tanya; Haugen, Eric; Dunn, Douglas; Reynolds, Alex P; Neph, Shane; Humbert, Richard; Hansen, R Scott; De Bruijn, Marella; Selleri, Licia; Rudensky, Alexander; Josefowicz, Steven; Samstein, Robert; Eichler, Evan E; Orkin, Stuart H; Levasseur, Dana; Papayannopoulou, Thalia; Chang, Kai-Hsin; Skoultchi, Arthur; Gosh, Srikanta; Disteche, Christine; Treuting, Piper; Wang, Yanli; Weiss, Mitchell J; Blobel, Gerd A; Cao, Xiaoyi; Zhong, Sheng; Wang, Ting; Good, Peter J; Lowdon, Rebecca F; Adams, Leslie B; Zhou, Xiao-Qiao; Pazin, Michael J; Feingold, Elise A; Wold, Barbara; Taylor, James; Mortazavi, Ali; Weissman, Sherman M; Stamatoyannopoulos, John A; Snyder, Michael P; Guigo, Roderic; Gingeras, Thomas R; Gilbert, David M; Hardison, Ross C; Beer, Michael A; Ren, Bing

    2014-11-20

    The laboratory mouse shares the majority of its protein-coding genes with humans, making it the premier model organism in biomedical research, yet the two mammals differ in significant ways. To gain greater insights into both shared and species-specific transcriptional and cellular regulatory programs in the mouse, the Mouse ENCODE Consortium has mapped transcription, DNase I hypersensitivity, transcription factor binding, chromatin modifications and replication domains throughout the mouse genome in diverse cell and tissue types. By comparing with the human genome, we not only confirm substantial conservation in the newly annotated potential functional sequences, but also find a large degree of divergence of sequences involved in transcriptional regulation, chromatin state and higher order chromatin organization. Our results illuminate the wide range of evolutionary forces acting on genes and their regulatory regions, and provide a general resource for research into mammalian biology and mechanisms of human diseases.

  18. A Comparative Encyclopedia of DNA Elements in the Mouse Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Feng; Cheng, Yong; Breschi, Alessandra; Vierstra, Jeff; Wu, Weisheng; Ryba, Tyrone; Sandstrom, Richard; Ma, Zhihai; Davis, Carrie; Pope, Benjamin D.; Shen, Yin; Pervouchine, Dmitri D.; Djebali, Sarah; Thurman, Bob; Kaul, Rajinder; Rynes, Eric; Kirilusha, Anthony; Marinov, Georgi K.; Williams, Brian A.; Trout, Diane; Amrhein, Henry; Fisher-Aylor, Katherine; Antoshechkin, Igor; DeSalvo, Gilberto; See, Lei-Hoon; Fastuca, Meagan; Drenkow, Jorg; Zaleski, Chris; Dobin, Alex; Prieto, Pablo; Lagarde, Julien; Bussotti, Giovanni; Tanzer, Andrea; Denas, Olgert; Li, Kanwei; Bender, M. A.; Zhang, Miaohua; Byron, Rachel; Groudine, Mark T.; McCleary, David; Pham, Long; Ye, Zhen; Kuan, Samantha; Edsall, Lee; Wu, Yi-Chieh; Rasmussen, Matthew D.; Bansal, Mukul S.; Keller, Cheryl A.; Morrissey, Christapher S.; Mishra, Tejaswini; Jain, Deepti; Dogan, Nergiz; Harris, Robert S.; Cayting, Philip; Kawli, Trupti; Boyle, Alan P.; Euskirchen, Ghia; Kundaje, Anshul; Lin, Shin; Lin, Yiing; Jansen, Camden; Malladi, Venkat S.; Cline, Melissa S.; Erickson, Drew T.; Kirkup, Vanessa M; Learned, Katrina; Sloan, Cricket A.; Rosenbloom, Kate R.; de Sousa, Beatriz Lacerda; Beal, Kathryn; Pignatelli, Miguel; Flicek, Paul; Lian, Jin; Kahveci, Tamer; Lee, Dongwon; Kent, W. James; Santos, Miguel Ramalho; Herrero, Javier; Notredame, Cedric; Johnson, Audra; Vong, Shinny; Lee, Kristen; Bates, Daniel; Neri, Fidencio; Diegel, Morgan; Canfield, Theresa; Sabo, Peter J.; Wilken, Matthew S.; Reh, Thomas A.; Giste, Erika; Shafer, Anthony; Kutyavin, Tanya; Haugen, Eric; Dunn, Douglas; Reynolds, Alex P.; Neph, Shane; Humbert, Richard; Hansen, R. Scott; De Bruijn, Marella; Selleri, Licia; Rudensky, Alexander; Josefowicz, Steven; Samstein, Robert; Eichler, Evan E.; Orkin, Stuart H.; Levasseur, Dana; Papayannopoulou, Thalia; Chang, Kai-Hsin; Skoultchi, Arthur; Gosh, Srikanta; Disteche, Christine; Treuting, Piper; Wang, Yanli; Weiss, Mitchell J.; Blobel, Gerd A.; Good, Peter J.; Lowdon, Rebecca F.; Adams, Leslie B.; Zhou, Xiao-Qiao; Pazin, Michael J.; Feingold, Elise A.; Wold, Barbara; Taylor, James; Kellis, Manolis; Mortazavi, Ali; Weissman, Sherman M.; Stamatoyannopoulos, John; Snyder, Michael P.; Guigo, Roderic; Gingeras, Thomas R.; Gilbert, David M.; Hardison, Ross C.; Beer, Michael A.; Ren, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Summary As the premier model organism in biomedical research, the laboratory mouse shares the majority of protein-coding genes with humans, yet the two mammals differ in significant ways. To gain greater insights into both shared and species-specific transcriptional and cellular regulatory programs in the mouse, the Mouse ENCODE Consortium has mapped transcription, DNase I hypersensitivity, transcription factor binding, chromatin modifications, and replication domains throughout the mouse genome in diverse cell and tissue types. By comparing with the human genome, we not only confirm substantial conservation in the newly annotated potential functional sequences, but also find a large degree of divergence of other sequences involved in transcriptional regulation, chromatin state and higher order chromatin organization. Our results illuminate the wide range of evolutionary forces acting on genes and their regulatory regions, and provide a general resource for research into mammalian biology and mechanisms of human diseases. PMID:25409824

  19. Microtechnology-Based Multi-Organ Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Hwan Lee

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Drugs affect the human body through absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination (ADME processes. Due to their importance, the ADME processes need to be studied to determine the efficacy and side effects of drugs. Various in vitro model systems have been developed and used to realize the ADME processes. However, conventional model systems have failed to simulate the ADME processes because they are different from in vivo, which has resulted in a high attrition rate of drugs and a decrease in the productivity of new drug development. Recently, a microtechnology-based in vitro system called “organ-on-a-chip” has been gaining attention, with more realistic cell behavior and physiological reactions, capable of better simulating the in vivo environment. Furthermore, multi-organ-on-a-chip models that can provide information on the interaction between the organs have been developed. The ultimate goal is the development of a “body-on-a-chip”, which can act as a whole body model. In this review, we introduce and summarize the current progress in the development of multi-organ models as a foundation for the development of body-on-a-chip.

  20. Microtechnology-Based Multi-Organ Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Hwan; Sung, Jong Hwan

    2017-05-21

    Drugs affect the human body through absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination (ADME) processes. Due to their importance, the ADME processes need to be studied to determine the efficacy and side effects of drugs. Various in vitro model systems have been developed and used to realize the ADME processes. However, conventional model systems have failed to simulate the ADME processes because they are different from in vivo, which has resulted in a high attrition rate of drugs and a decrease in the productivity of new drug development. Recently, a microtechnology-based in vitro system called "organ-on-a-chip" has been gaining attention, with more realistic cell behavior and physiological reactions, capable of better simulating the in vivo environment. Furthermore, multi-organ-on-a-chip models that can provide information on the interaction between the organs have been developed. The ultimate goal is the development of a "body-on-a-chip", which can act as a whole body model. In this review, we introduce and summarize the current progress in the development of multi-organ models as a foundation for the development of body-on-a-chip.

  1. New Federated Collaborative Networked Organization Model (FCNOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morcous M. Yassa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Formation of Collaborative Networked Organization (CNO usually comes upon expected business opportunities and needs huge of negotiation during its lifecycle, especially to increase the Dynamic Virtual Organization (DVO configuration automation. Decision makers need more comprehensive information about CNO system to support their decisions. Unfortunately, there is no single formal modeling, tool, approach or any comprehensive methodology that covers all perspectives. In spite of there are some approaches to model CNO have been existed, these approaches model the CNO either with respect to the technology, or business without considering organizational behavior, federation modeling, and external environments. The aim of this paper is to propose an integrated framework that combines the existed modeling perspectives, as well as, proposes new ones. Also, it provides clear CNO boundaries. By using this approach the view of CNO environment becomes clear and unified. Also, it minimizes the negotiations within CNO components during its life cycle, supports DVO configuration automation, as well as, helps decision making for DVO, and achieves harmonization between CNO partners. The proposed FCNOM utilizes CommonKADS methodology organization model for describing CNO components. Insurance Collaborative Network has been used as an example to proof the proposed FCNOM model.

  2. Organic production in a dynamic CGE model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lars Bo

    2004-01-01

    Concerns about the impact of modern agriculture on the environment have in recent years led to an interest in supporting the development of organic farming. In addition to environmental benefits, the aim is to encourage the provision of other “multifunctional” properties of organic farming...... such as rural amenities and rural development that are spillover benefit additional to the supply of food. In this paper we further develop an existing dynamic general equilibrium model of the Danish economy to specifically incorporate organic farming. In the model and input-output data each primary...... to illustrate the working of our theory by constructing a long term forecast for the development of the Danish economy. Moreover we simulate the effect of the recent agreed 2003 reform of the common agricultural policy....

  3. Safety Cultural Competency Modeling in Nuclear Organizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sa Kil; Oh, Yeon Ju; Luo, Meiling; Lee, Yong Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The nuclear safety cultural competency model should be supplemented through a bottom-up approach such as behavioral event interview. The developed model, however, is meaningful for determining what should be dealt for enhancing safety cultural competency of nuclear organizations. The more details of the developing process, results, and applications will be introduced later. Organizational culture include safety culture in terms of its organizational characteristics.

  4. Expanding on Successful Concepts, Models, and Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    If the goal of the AEP framework was to replace existing exposure models or databases for organizing exposure data with a concept, we would share Dr. von Göetz concerns. Instead, the outcome we promote is broader use of an organizational framework for exposure science. The f...

  5. Genomic Encyclopedia of Type Strains, Phase I: The one thousand microbial genomes (KMG-I) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrpides, Nikos C; Woyke, Tanja; Eisen, Jonathan A; Garrity, George; Lilburn, Timothy G; Beck, Brian J; Whitman, William B; Hugenholtz, Phil; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2014-06-15

    The Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea (GEBA) project was launched by the JGI in 2007 as a pilot project with the objective of sequencing 250 bacterial and archaeal genomes. The two major goals of that project were (a) to test the hypothesis that there are many benefits to the use the phylogenetic diversity of organisms in the tree of life as a primary criterion for generating their genome sequence and (b) to develop the necessary framework, technology and organization for large-scale sequencing of microbial isolate genomes. While the GEBA pilot project has not yet been entirely completed, both of the original goals have already been successfully accomplished, leading the way for the next phase of the project. Here we propose taking the GEBA project to the next level, by generating high quality draft genomes for 1,000 bacterial and archaeal strains. This represents a combined 16-fold increase in both scale and speed as compared to the GEBA pilot project (250 isolate genomes in 4+ years). We will follow a similar approach for organism selection and sequencing prioritization as was done for the GEBA pilot project (i.e. phylogenetic novelty, availability and growth of cultures of type strains and DNA extraction capability), focusing on type strains as this ensures reproducibility of our results and provides the strongest linkage between genome sequences and other knowledge about each strain. In turn, this project will constitute a pilot phase of a larger effort that will target the genome sequences of all available type strains of the Bacteria and Archaea.

  6. Emergent organization in a model market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Avinash Chand; Manchanda, Kaustubh; Ramaswamy, Ramakrishna

    2017-09-01

    We study the collective behaviour of interacting agents in a simple model of market economics that was originally introduced by Nørrelykke and Bak. A general theoretical framework for interacting traders on an arbitrary network is presented, with the interaction consisting of buying (namely consumption) and selling (namely production) of commodities. Extremal dynamics is introduced by having the agent with least profit in the market readjust prices, causing the market to self-organize. In addition to examining this model market on regular lattices in two-dimensions, we also study the cases of random complex networks both with and without community structures. Fluctuations in an activity signal exhibit properties that are characteristic of avalanches observed in models of self-organized criticality, and these can be described by power-law distributions when the system is in the critical state.

  7. Emergent organization in a model market

    CERN Document Server

    Yadav, Avinash Chand; Ramaswamy, Ramakrishna

    2016-01-01

    We study the collective behavior of interacting agents in a simple model of market economics originally introduced by N{\\o}rrelykke and Bak. A general theoretical framework for interacting traders on an arbitrary network is presented, with the interaction consisting of buying (namely, consumption) and selling (namely, production) of commodities. Extremal dynamics is introduced by having the agent with least profit in the market readjust prices, causing the market to self--organize. We study this model market on regular lattices in two--dimension as well as on random complex networks; in the critical state fluctuations in an activity signal exhibit properties that are characteristic of avalanches observed in models of self-organized criticality, and these can be described by power--law distributions.

  8. Self-organized model of cascade spreading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualdi, S.; Medo, M.; Zhang, Y.-C.

    2011-01-01

    We study simultaneous price drops of real stocks and show that for high drop thresholds they follow a power-law distribution. To reproduce these collective downturns, we propose a minimal self-organized model of cascade spreading based on a probabilistic response of the system elements to stress conditions. This model is solvable using the theory of branching processes and the mean-field approximation. For a wide range of parameters, the system is in a critical state and displays a power-law cascade-size distribution similar to the empirically observed one. We further generalize the model to reproduce volatility clustering and other observed properties of real stocks.

  9. Recursive self-organizing network models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Barbara; Micheli, Alessio; Sperduti, Alessandro; Strickert, Marc

    2004-01-01

    Self-organizing models constitute valuable tools for data visualization, clustering, and data mining. Here, we focus on extensions of basic vector-based models by recursive computation in such a way that sequential and tree-structured data can be processed directly. The aim of this article is to give a unified review of important models recently proposed in literature, to investigate fundamental mathematical properties of these models, and to compare the approaches by experiments. We first review several models proposed in literature from a unifying perspective, thereby making use of an underlying general framework which also includes supervised recurrent and recursive models as special cases. We shortly discuss how the models can be related to different neuron lattices. Then, we investigate theoretical properties of the models in detail: we explicitly formalize how structures are internally stored in different context models and which similarity measures are induced by the recursive mapping onto the structures. We assess the representational capabilities of the models, and we shortly discuss the issues of topology preservation and noise tolerance. The models are compared in an experiment with time series data. Finally, we add an experiment for one context model for tree-structured data to demonstrate the capability to process complex structures.

  10. Curation accuracy of model organism databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keseler, Ingrid M; Skrzypek, Marek; Weerasinghe, Deepika; Chen, Albert Y; Fulcher, Carol; Li, Gene-Wei; Lemmer, Kimberly C; Mladinich, Katherine M; Chow, Edmond D; Sherlock, Gavin; Karp, Peter D

    2014-01-01

    Manual extraction of information from the biomedical literature-or biocuration-is the central methodology used to construct many biological databases. For example, the UniProt protein database, the EcoCyc Escherichia coli database and the Candida Genome Database (CGD) are all based on biocuration. Biological databases are used extensively by life science researchers, as online encyclopedias, as aids in the interpretation of new experimental data and as golden standards for the development of new bioinformatics algorithms. Although manual curation has been assumed to be highly accurate, we are aware of only one previous study of biocuration accuracy. We assessed the accuracy of EcoCyc and CGD by manually selecting curated assertions within randomly chosen EcoCyc and CGD gene pages and by then validating that the data found in the referenced publications supported those assertions. A database assertion is considered to be in error if that assertion could not be found in the publication cited for that assertion. We identified 10 errors in the 633 facts that we validated across the two databases, for an overall error rate of 1.58%, and individual error rates of 1.82% for CGD and 1.40% for EcoCyc. These data suggest that manual curation of the experimental literature by Ph.D-level scientists is highly accurate. Database URL: http://ecocyc.org/, http://www.candidagenome.org//

  11. Pocketome: an encyclopedia of small-molecule binding sites in 4D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kufareva, Irina; Ilatovskiy, Andrey V; Abagyan, Ruben

    2012-01-01

    The importance of binding site plasticity in protein-ligand interactions is well-recognized, and so are the difficulties in predicting the nature and the degree of this plasticity by computational means. To assist in understanding the flexible protein-ligand interactions, we constructed the Pocketome, an encyclopedia of about one thousand experimentally solved conformational ensembles of druggable binding sites in proteins, grouped by location and consistent chain/cofactor composition. The multiplicity of pockets within the ensembles adds an extra, fourth dimension to the Pocketome entry data. Within each ensemble, the pockets were carefully classified by the degree of their pairwise similarity and compatibility with different ligands. The core of the Pocketome is derived regularly and automatically from the current releases of the Protein Data Bank and the Uniprot Knowledgebase; this core is complemented by entries built from manually provided seed ligand locations. The Pocketome website (www.pocketome.org) allows searching for the sites of interest, analysis of conformational clusters, important residues, binding compatibility matrices and interactive visualization of the ensembles using the ActiveICM web browser plugin. The Pocketome collection can be used to build multi-conformational docking and 3D activity models as well as to design cross-docking and virtual ligand screening benchmarks.

  12. Modeling plasmonic efficiency enhancement in organic photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taff, Y; Apter, B; Katz, E A; Efron, U

    2015-09-10

    Efficiency enhancement of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cells by means of the plasmonic effect is investigated by using finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) optical simulations combined with analytical modeling of exciton dissociation and charge transport efficiencies. The proposed method provides an improved analysis of the cell performance compared to previous FDTD studies. The results of the simulations predict an 11.8% increase in the cell's short circuit current with the use of Ag nano-hexagons.

  13. Self-organized model of cascade spreading

    CERN Document Server

    Gualdi, Stanislao; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2010-01-01

    We study simultaneous price drops of real stocks and show that for high drop thresholds they follow a power-law distribution. To reproduce these collective downturns, we propose a self-organized model of cascade spreading based on a probabilistic response of the system's elements to stress conditions. This model is solvable using the theory of branching processes and the mean-field approximation and displays a power-law cascade-size distribution-similar to the empirically observed one-over a wide range of parameters.

  14. Intellectual Interchanges in the History of Massive Online Open-editing Encyclopedia, Wikipedia

    CERN Document Server

    Yun, Jinhyuk; Jeong, Hawoong

    2016-01-01

    Wikipedia is a free Internet encyclopedia with enormous amount of contents. This encyclopedia is written by volunteers with various backgrounds in a collective fashion; anyone can access and edit most of the articles. This open editing nature may give us prejudice that Wikipedia is unstable and unreliable sources; yet many studies suggest that Wikipedia is even more accurate and self-consistent than traditional encyclopedias. Scholars have attempted to understand such extraordinary credibility, but usually used the edit number without consideration of real-time. In this work, we probe the formation of such collective intelligence through the systematic analysis using the entire history of 34,534,110 English Wikipedia articles, between 2001 and 2014. From this massive data set, we observe the universality of both timewise and lengthwise editing scales, which suggests that it is essential to consider the real-time dynamics. By considering real-time, we find the existence of various growth patterns that are unob...

  15. 传统百科全书与网络百科的比较研究%Comparative Analysis between Traditional Encyclopedia and Online Encyclopedia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭程

    2012-01-01

    随着数字化时代的到来,出版的概念日渐扩大,很多网络百科全书都已经出现、普及,传统纸质百科全书面·l盏网络百科全书的挑战。两种类型的百科全书在选词立目、释文要求、交叉平衡、附件等辞书编纂的重要方面有各自的优势和劣势,都存在很大的完善空间。%With the arrival of the digital age, the concept of publishing has broadened, and online encyclopedia has appeared. Faced with its challenges, the traditional encyclopedia meets the risk of being replaced. In view of the important factors of dictionary compilation ranging from words selection, interpretation requirements, balancing by transposition to attachments and so on, both types of encyclopedia have their advantages and disadvantages, along with improving methods and promising prospects.

  16. MODEL ORGANISMS USED IN MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OR MEDICAL RESEARCH

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey Govind

    2011-01-01

    A model organism is a non-human species that is studied to understand specific biological phenomena with the expectation that investigations made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms. The model organisms are widely used to explore potential causes and treatments for human as well as animal diseases when experiments on animals or humans would be unfeasible or considered less ethical. Studying model organisms may be informative, but care must be taken ...

  17. Expanding on Successful Concepts, Models, and Organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teeguarden, Justin G.; Tan, Yu-Mei; Edwards, Stephen W.; Leonard, Jeremy A.; Anderson, Kim A.; Corley, Richard A.; Kile, Molly L.; L. Massey Simonich, Staci; Stone, David; Tanguay, Robert L.; Waters, Katrina M.; Harper, Stacey L.; Williams, David E.

    2016-09-06

    In her letter to the editor1 regarding our recent Feature Article “Completing the Link between Exposure Science and Toxicology for Improved Environmental Health Decision Making: The Aggregate Exposure Pathway Framework” 2, Dr. von Göetz expressed several concerns about terminology, and the perception that we propose the replacement of successful approaches and models for exposure assessment with a concept. We are glad to have the opportunity to address these issues here. If the goal of the AEP framework was to replace existing exposure models or databases for organizing exposure data with a concept, we would share Dr. von Göetz concerns. Instead, the outcome we promote is broader use of an organizational framework for exposure science. The framework would support improved generation, organization, and interpretation of data as well as modeling and prediction, not replacement of models. The field of toxicology has seen the benefits of wide use of one or more organizational frameworks (e.g., mode and mechanism of action, adverse outcome pathway). These frameworks influence how experiments are designed, data are collected, curated, stored and interpreted and ultimately how data are used in risk assessment. Exposure science is poised to similarly benefit from broader use of a parallel organizational framework, which Dr. von Göetz correctly points out, is currently used in the exposure modeling community. In our view, the concepts used so effectively in the exposure modeling community, expanded upon in the AEP framework, could see wider adoption by the field as a whole. The value of such a framework was recognized by the National Academy of Sciences.3 Replacement of models, databases, or any application with the AEP framework was not proposed in our article. The positive role broader more consistent use of such a framework might have in enabling and advancing “general activities such as data acquisition, organization…,” and exposure modeling was discussed

  18. Modeling disordered morphologies in organic semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Tobias; Danilov, Denis; Lennartz, Christian; Wenzel, Wolfgang

    2013-12-05

    Organic thin film devices are investigated for many diverse applications, including light emitting diodes, organic photovoltaic and organic field effect transistors. Modeling of their properties on the basis of their detailed molecular structure requires generation of representative morphologies, many of which are amorphous. Because time-scales for the formation of the molecular structure are slow, we have developed a linear-scaling single molecule deposition protocol which generates morphologies by simulation of vapor deposition of molecular films. We have applied this protocol to systems comprising argon, buckminsterfullerene, N,N-Di(naphthalene-1-yl)-N,N'-diphenyl-benzidine, mer-tris(8-hydroxy-quinoline)aluminum(III), and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester, with and without postdeposition relaxation of the individually deposited molecules. The proposed single molecule deposition protocol leads to formation of highly ordered morphologies in argon and buckminsterfullerene systems when postdeposition relaxation is used to locally anneal the configuration in the vicinity of the newly deposited molecule. The other systems formed disordered amorphous morphologies and the postdeposition local relaxation step has only a small effect on the characteristics of the disordered morphology in comparison to the materials forming crystals.

  19. Virtuous organization: A structural equation modeling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Zamahani

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available For years, the idea of virtue was unfavorable among researchers and virtues were traditionally considered as culture-specific, relativistic and they were supposed to be associated with social conservatism, religious or moral dogmatism, and scientific irrelevance. Virtue and virtuousness have been recently considered seriously among organizational researchers. The proposed study of this paper examines the relationships between leadership, organizational culture, human resource, structure and processes, care for community and virtuous organization. Structural equation modeling is employed to investigate the effects of each variable on other components. The data used in this study consists of questionnaire responses from employees in Payam e Noor University in Yazd province. A total of 250 questionnaires were sent out and a total of 211 valid responses were received. Our results have revealed that all the five variables have positive and significant impacts on virtuous organization. Among the five variables, organizational culture has the most direct impact (0.80 and human resource has the most total impact (0.844 on virtuous organization.

  20. Interactive Encyclopedia of North American Weeds, DVD v.4.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    An interactive DVD-ROM encyclopedia of North American weeds was developed that includes home pages for 685 weed species descriptions, over 3700 color photos, illustrated collar regions for grasses, distribution maps, habitat information, crops affected, ecological information, and hot-linked illustr...

  1. Philosophy of Education: An Encyclopedia. Garland Reference Library of the Humanities. Vol. 1671.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambliss, J. J., Ed.

    This reference book charts the influence of philosophical ideas that have had the greatest influence on education from ancient Greece to the present. The book covers such classical thinkers as Plato, Augustine, Hypatia, Locke, and Rousseau, as well as such recent figures as Montessori, Heidegger, Du Bois, and Dewey. The encyclopedia consists of…

  2. Encyclopedia of Public International Law, 7 / Henn-Jüri Uibopuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri, 1929-2012

    1985-01-01

    Tutvustus.: Encyclopedia of Public International Law, published under the Auspices of the Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the Direction of Rudolf Bernhardt. (7. History of International Law. Foundations and Principles of International Law. Sources of International Law. Law of Treaties). Amsterdam, New York, Oxford: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1984

  3. Encyclopedia of Public International Law, 2 / Henn-Jüri Uibopuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri, 1929-2012

    1982-01-01

    Tutvustus: Encyclopedia of Public International Law, published under the Auspices of the Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the Direction of Rudolf Bernhardt. (2. Decisions of International Courts and Tribunals and International Arbitrations). Amsterdam, New York, Oxford: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1981

  4. Encyclopedia of Public International Law, 3 / Henn-Jüri Uibopuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri, 1929-2012

    1983-01-01

    Tutvustus.: Encyclopedia of Public International Law, published under the Auspices of the Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the Direction of Rudolf Bernhardt. 3 (A_M) and 4 (N-Z): Use of Force. War and Neutrality. Peace treaties. Amsterdam, New York, Oxford: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1982

  5. Encyclopedia of Public International Law, 8 / Henn-Jüri Uibopuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri, 1929-2012

    1986-01-01

    Tutvustus: Encyclopedia of Public International Law, published under the Auspices of the Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the Direction of Rudolf Bernhardt. (8. Human Rights and the Individual in International Law. International Economic Relations). Amsterdam, New York, Oxford: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1985

  6. The library without walls: images, medical dictionaries, atlases, medical encyclopedias free on web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giglia, E

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this article was to present the ''reference room'' of the Internet, a real library without walls. The reader will find medical encyclopedias, dictionaries, atlases, e-books, images, and will also learn something useful about the use and reuse of images in a text and in a web site, according to the copyright law.

  7. Effective Educational Programs: Meta-Findings from the Best Evidence Encyclopedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Robert E.; Lake, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    One of the major series of reviews in elementary and secondary education is the Best Evidence Encyclopedia, or the BEE. Up to now, findings for systematic reviews have largely been restricted to the reviews themselves, with few cases in which lessons learned across many reviews using similar methods can be synthesized. The completion of the Best…

  8. "Treaties with American Indians: An Encyclopedia of Rights, Conflicts, and Sovereignty"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Karla

    2009-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the three-volume reference set, "Treaties with American Indians: An Encyclopedia of Rights, Conflicts, and Sovereignty" published by ABC-CLIO. This reference work is edited by Donald Fixico, Arizona State University, and dedicated to the people of his tribes: (1) Shawnee; (2) Sac and Fox; (3) Seminole; and (4)…

  9. Encyclopedia of Public International Law, 3 / Henn-Jüri Uibopuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri, 1929-2012

    1983-01-01

    Tutvustus.: Encyclopedia of Public International Law, published under the Auspices of the Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the Direction of Rudolf Bernhardt. 3 (A_M) and 4 (N-Z): Use of Force. War and Neutrality. Peace treaties. Amsterdam, New York, Oxford: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1982

  10. Encyclopedia of Public International Law, 2 / Henn-Jüri Uibopuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri, 1929-2012

    1982-01-01

    Tutvustus: Encyclopedia of Public International Law, published under the Auspices of the Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the Direction of Rudolf Bernhardt. (2. Decisions of International Courts and Tribunals and International Arbitrations). Amsterdam, New York, Oxford: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1981

  11. Encyclopedia of Public International Law, 8 / Henn-Jüri Uibopuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri, 1929-2012

    1986-01-01

    Tutvustus: Encyclopedia of Public International Law, published under the Auspices of the Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the Direction of Rudolf Bernhardt. (8. Human Rights and the Individual in International Law. International Economic Relations). Amsterdam, New York, Oxford: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1985

  12. Encyclopedia of Public International Law, 7 / Henn-Jüri Uibopuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri, 1929-2012

    1985-01-01

    Tutvustus.: Encyclopedia of Public International Law, published under the Auspices of the Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the Direction of Rudolf Bernhardt. (7. History of International Law. Foundations and Principles of International Law. Sources of International Law. Law of Treaties). Amsterdam, New York, Oxford: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1984

  13. Girlhood in America: An Encyclopedia. Volumes 1 and 2. The American Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman-Brunell, Miriam, Ed.

    Girls, who used to be second-class citizens, are now coming into their own. Still, girls' lives, their experiences, and their roles in the social, cultural, economic, and political history of the United States have been widely overlooked. This reference encyclopedia presents more than 100 signed articles by 98 high-profile interdisciplinary…

  14. Native America in the Twentieth Century: An Encyclopedia. Garland Reference Library of Social Science, Vol. 452.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Mary B., Ed.; And Others

    This encyclopedia contains articles reviewing important aspects of Native American life in the United States during the 20th century. Articles are arranged alphabetically by subject and were written by Native Americans, historians, anthropologists, and other specialists. Overview articles cover subjects such as art, economic conditions,…

  15. Islamic Context of Electronic Encyclopedias in English Language: A Critical Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajjad ur Rehman

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A systematic evaluation of Islam and Muslim world in electronic encyclopedias was conducted by using two-dimensional criteria: searching and technological capabilities, and qualitative evaluation of their content. The factors used to assess searching and technological capabilities are related to direct link, hypertext, related articles, illustration, multimedia, Boolean searching, Internet links, and search history. Content evaluation was conducted in relation to length, scope, treatment level, currency, accuracy, bias, presentation, authorship, and bibliographic documentation. The researchers identified topics that are expected to be valid indicators of the coverage and treatment of Islam and the Muslim world. Some topics are related to theological doctrines, while the others pertained to socio-historical themes. Altogether 21 topics were searched in each title. Five encyclopedias used the same terminology for certain topics, while broader or narrower terms were used for other titles. Total articles thus identified were in the range of 13 to 19. As the search was conducted for a topic, search-related data were noted. Printouts of the identified articles were obtained, and evaluated against specific criteria. It has been found that each encyclopedia has its specific strengths in regard to software and searching capabilities. In content evaluation, it was found that about 30-40% of articles in each encyclopedia had problems with regard to accuracy of information objectivity, coverage, and presentation.

  16. Organic acid modeling and model validation: Workshop summary. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, T.J.; Eilers, J.M.

    1992-08-14

    A workshop was held in Corvallis, Oregon on April 9--10, 1992 at the offices of E&S Environmental Chemistry, Inc. The purpose of this workshop was to initiate research efforts on the entitled ``Incorporation of an organic acid representation into MAGIC (Model of Acidification of Groundwater in Catchments) and testing of the revised model using Independent data sources.`` The workshop was attended by a team of internationally-recognized experts in the fields of surface water acid-bass chemistry, organic acids, and watershed modeling. The rationale for the proposed research is based on the recent comparison between MAGIC model hindcasts and paleolimnological inferences of historical acidification for a set of 33 statistically-selected Adirondack lakes. Agreement between diatom-inferred and MAGIC-hindcast lakewater chemistry in the earlier research had been less than satisfactory. Based on preliminary analyses, it was concluded that incorporation of a reasonable organic acid representation into the version of MAGIC used for hindcasting was the logical next step toward improving model agreement.

  17. Organic acid modeling and model validation: Workshop summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, T.J.; Eilers, J.M.

    1992-08-14

    A workshop was held in Corvallis, Oregon on April 9--10, 1992 at the offices of E S Environmental Chemistry, Inc. The purpose of this workshop was to initiate research efforts on the entitled Incorporation of an organic acid representation into MAGIC (Model of Acidification of Groundwater in Catchments) and testing of the revised model using Independent data sources.'' The workshop was attended by a team of internationally-recognized experts in the fields of surface water acid-bass chemistry, organic acids, and watershed modeling. The rationale for the proposed research is based on the recent comparison between MAGIC model hindcasts and paleolimnological inferences of historical acidification for a set of 33 statistically-selected Adirondack lakes. Agreement between diatom-inferred and MAGIC-hindcast lakewater chemistry in the earlier research had been less than satisfactory. Based on preliminary analyses, it was concluded that incorporation of a reasonable organic acid representation into the version of MAGIC used for hindcasting was the logical next step toward improving model agreement.

  18. Modeling charge transport in organic photovoltaic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jenny; Kwiatkowski, Joe J; Kirkpatrick, James; Frost, Jarvist M

    2009-11-17

    The performance of an organic photovoltaic cell depends critically on the mobility of charge carriers within the constituent molecular semiconductor materials. However, a complex combination of phenomena that span a range of length and time scales control charge transport in disordered organic semiconductors. As a result, it is difficult to rationalize charge transport properties in terms of material parameters. Until now, efforts to improve charge mobilities in molecular semiconductors have proceeded largely by trial and error rather than through systematic design. However, recent developments have enabled the first predictive simulation studies of charge transport in disordered organic semiconductors. This Account describes a set of computational methods, specifically molecular modeling methods, to simulate molecular packing, quantum chemical calculations of charge transfer rates, and Monte Carlo simulations of charge transport. Using case studies, we show how this combination of methods can reproduce experimental mobilities with few or no fitting parameters. Although currently applied to material systems of high symmetry or well-defined structure, further developments of this approach could address more complex systems such anisotropic or multicomponent solids and conjugated polymers. Even with an approximate treatment of packing disorder, these computational methods simulate experimental mobilities within an order of magnitude at high electric fields. We can both reproduce the relative values of electron and hole mobility in a conjugated small molecule and rationalize those values based on the symmetry of frontier orbitals. Using fully atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of molecular packing, we can quantitatively replicate vertical charge transport along stacks of discotic liquid crystals which vary only in the structure of their side chains. We can reproduce the trends in mobility with molecular weight for self-organizing polymers using a cheap, coarse

  19. Ancient astronomy an encyclopedia of cosmologies and myth

    CERN Document Server

    Ruggles, Clive

    2005-01-01

    Long before astronomy was a science, humans used the stars to mark time, navigate, organize planting and dramatize myths. This encyclopaedia draws on archaeological evidence and oral traditions to reveal how prehistoric humans perceived the skies and celestial phenomena.

  20. A new atmospheric aerosol phase equilibrium model (UHAERO: organic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. R. Amundson

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available In atmospheric aerosols, water and volatile inorganic and organic species are distributed between the gas and aerosol phases in accordance with thermodynamic equilibrium. Within an atmospheric particle, liquid and solid phases can exist at equilibrium. Models exist for computation of phase equilibria for inorganic/water mixtures typical of atmospheric aerosols; when organic species are present, the phase equilibrium problem is complicated by organic/water interactions as well as the potentially large number of organic species. We present here an extension of the UHAERO inorganic thermodynamic model (Amundson et al., 2006c to organic/water systems. Phase diagrams for a number of model organic/water systems characteristic of both primary and secondary organic aerosols are computed. Also calculated are inorganic/organic/water phase diagrams that show the effect of organics on inorganic deliquescence behavior. The effect of the choice of activity coefficient model for organics on the computed phase equilibria is explored.

  1. A new atmospheric aerosol phase equilibrium model (UHAERO: organic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. R. Amundson

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In atmospheric aerosols, water and volatile inorganic and organic species are distributed between the gas and aerosol phases in accordance with thermodynamic equilibrium. Within an atmospheric particle, liquid and solid phases can exist at equilibrium. Models exist for computation of phase equilibria for inorganic/water mixtures typical of atmospheric aerosols; when organic species are present, the phase equilibrium problem is complicated by organic/water interactions as well as the potentially large number of organic species. We present here an extension of the UHAERO inorganic thermodynamic model (Amundson et al., 2006c to organic/water systems. Phase diagrams for a number of model organic/water systems characteristic of both primary and secondary organic aerosols are computed. Also calculated are inorganic/organic/water phase diagrams that show the effect of organics on inorganic deliquescence behavior. The effect of the choice of activity coefficient model for organics on the computed phase equilibria is explored.

  2. Model for Railway Infrastructure Management Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordan Stojić

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The provision of appropriate quality rail services has an important role in terms of railway infrastructure: quality of infrastructure maintenance, regulation of railway traffic, line capacity, speed, safety, train station organization, the allowable lines load and other infrastructure parameters.The analysis of experiences in transforming the railway systems points to the conclusion that there is no unique solution in terms of choice for institutional rail infrastructure management modes, although more than nineteen years have passed from the beginning of the implementation of the Directive 91/440/EEC. Depending on the approach to the process of restructuring the national railway company, adopted regulations and caution in its implementation, the existence or absence of a clearly defined transport strategy, the willingness to liberalize the transport market, there are several different ways for institutional management of railway infrastructure.A hybrid model for selection of modes of institutional rail infrastructure management was developed based on the theory of artificial intelligence, theory of fuzzy sets and theory of multicriteria optimization.KEY WORDSmanagement, railway infrastructure, organizational structure, hybrid model

  3. Knowledge Management Model on Educational Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsina Ferdinandus

    2015-12-01

    Key Words: model, knowledge management, educational organizations Abstrak: Penelitian ini bertujuan mendeskripsikan proses knowledge management yang dilakukan pada SMA Negeri 1 Pulau-pulau Aru dan SMA Yos Sudarso Dobo di Kabupaten Kepulauan Aru. Penelitian ini menggunakan jenis penelitian kualitatif dengan rancangan studi multi kasus. Data dikumpulkan dengan teknik observasi, wawancara mendalam dan dokumentasi kemudian dianalisis dengan teknik analisis data kasus individu dan analisis data lintas kasus. Temuan penelitian ini menggambarkan (1 guru-guru sudah melakukan transformasi pengetahuan explicit to tacit dengan baik ketika melakukan persiapan pembelajaran, transformasi pengetahuan tacit to explicit belum dilakukan dengan baik, dan transformasi pengetahuan tacit to tacit sudah dilakukan dengan baik; (2  sosialisasi dilakukan dengan baik, namun belum maksimal; (3  kepala sekolah SMA Negeri 1 Pulau-pulau Aru lebih demokratis dan kepala sekolah SMA Yos Sudarso Dobo lebih paternalistis; (4 peningkatan berupa upaya memasukan pengetahuan dari luar sekolah sudah dilakukan oleh kedua sekolah; dan (5  proses knowledge capture di kedua sekolah sudah berjalan dengan baik. Kata kunci: model, knowledge management, organisasi pendidikan

  4. COMPUTER MODEL FOR ORGANIC FERTILIZER EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenko Lončarić

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of manures, composts and growing media quality should include enough properties to enable an optimal use from productivity and environmental points of view. The aim of this paper is to describe basic structure of organic fertilizer (and growing media evaluation model to present the model example by comparison of different manures as well as example of using plant growth experiment for calculating impact of pH and EC of growing media on lettuce plant growth. The basic structure of the model includes selection of quality indicators, interpretations of indicators value, and integration of interpreted values into new indexes. The first step includes data input and selection of available data as a basic or additional indicators depending on possible use as fertilizer or growing media. The second part of the model uses inputs for calculation of derived quality indicators. The third step integrates values into three new indexes: fertilizer, growing media, and environmental index. All three indexes are calculated on the basis of three different groups of indicators: basic value indicators, additional value indicators and limiting factors. The possible range of indexes values is 0-10, where range 0-3 means low, 3-7 medium and 7-10 high quality. Comparing fresh and composted manures, higher fertilizer and environmental indexes were determined for composted manures, and the highest fertilizer index was determined for composted pig manure (9.6 whereas the lowest for fresh cattle manure (3.2. Composted manures had high environmental index (6.0-10 for conventional agriculture, but some had no value (environmental index = 0 for organic agriculture because of too high zinc, copper or cadmium concentrations. Growing media indexes were determined according to their impact on lettuce growth. Growing media with different pH and EC resulted in very significant impacts on height, dry matter mass and leaf area of lettuce seedlings. The highest lettuce

  5. Formal Modelling of Goals in Organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popova, Viara; Sharpanskykh, Alexei

    2008-01-01

    Each organization exists or is created for the achievement of one or more goals. To ensure continued success, the organization should monitor its performance with respect to the formulated goals. In practice the performance of an organization is often evaluated by estimating its performance indicato

  6. The Time Is Right to Focus on Model Organism Metabolomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur S. Edison

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Model organisms are an essential component of biological and biomedical research that can be used to study specific biological processes. These organisms are in part selected for facile experimental study. However, just as importantly, intensive study of a small number of model organisms yields important synergies as discoveries in one area of science for a given organism shed light on biological processes in other areas, even for other organisms. Furthermore, the extensive knowledge bases compiled for each model organism enable systems-level understandings of these species, which enhance the overall biological and biomedical knowledge for all organisms, including humans. Building upon extensive genomics research, we argue that the time is now right to focus intensively on model organism metabolomes. We propose a grand challenge for metabolomics studies of model organisms: to identify and map all metabolites onto metabolic pathways, to develop quantitative metabolic models for model organisms, and to relate organism metabolic pathways within the context of evolutionary metabolomics, i.e., phylometabolomics. These efforts should focus on a series of established model organisms in microbial, animal and plant research.

  7. The Time Is Right to Focus on Model Organism Metabolomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edison, Arthur S.; Hall, Robert D.; Junot, Christophe; Karp, Peter D.; Kurland, Irwin J.; Mistrik, Robert; Reed, Laura K.; Saito, Kazuki; Salek, Reza M.; Steinbeck, Christoph; Sumner, Lloyd W.; Viant, Mark R.

    2016-01-01

    Model organisms are an essential component of biological and biomedical research that can be used to study specific biological processes. These organisms are in part selected for facile experimental study. However, just as importantly, intensive study of a small number of model organisms yields important synergies as discoveries in one area of science for a given organism shed light on biological processes in other areas, even for other organisms. Furthermore, the extensive knowledge bases compiled for each model organism enable systems-level understandings of these species, which enhance the overall biological and biomedical knowledge for all organisms, including humans. Building upon extensive genomics research, we argue that the time is now right to focus intensively on model organism metabolomes. We propose a grand challenge for metabolomics studies of model organisms: to identify and map all metabolites onto metabolic pathways, to develop quantitative metabolic models for model organisms, and to relate organism metabolic pathways within the context of evolutionary metabolomics, i.e., phylometabolomics. These efforts should focus on a series of established model organisms in microbial, animal and plant research. PMID:26891337

  8. The Time Is Right to Focus on Model Organism Metabolomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edison, Arthur; Hall, Robert; Junot, Christophe; Karp, Peter; Kurland, Irwin; Mistrik, Robert; Reed, Laura; Saito, Kazuki; Salek, Reza; Steinbeck, Christoph; Sumner, Lloyd; Viant, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Model organisms are an essential component of biological and biomedical research that can be used to study specific biological processes. These organisms are in part selected for facile experimental study. However, just as importantly, intensive study of a small number of model organisms yields

  9. The Time Is Right to Focus on Model Organism Metabolomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edison, Arthur S; Hall, Robert D; Junot, Christophe; Karp, Peter D; Kurland, Irwin J; Mistrik, Robert; Reed, Laura K; Saito, Kazuki; Salek, Reza M; Steinbeck, Christoph; Sumner, Lloyd W; Viant, Mark R

    2016-02-15

    Model organisms are an essential component of biological and biomedical research that can be used to study specific biological processes. These organisms are in part selected for facile experimental study. However, just as importantly, intensive study of a small number of model organisms yields important synergies as discoveries in one area of science for a given organism shed light on biological processes in other areas, even for other organisms. Furthermore, the extensive knowledge bases compiled for each model organism enable systems-level understandings of these species, which enhance the overall biological and biomedical knowledge for all organisms, including humans. Building upon extensive genomics research, we argue that the time is now right to focus intensively on model organism metabolomes. We propose a grand challenge for metabolomics studies of model organisms: to identify and map all metabolites onto metabolic pathways, to develop quantitative metabolic models for model organisms, and to relate organism metabolic pathways within the context of evolutionary metabolomics, i.e., phylometabolomics. These efforts should focus on a series of established model organisms in microbial, animal and plant research.

  10. Self-Organized Criticality in a Random Network Model

    OpenAIRE

    Nirei, Makoto

    1998-01-01

    A new model of self-organized criticality is defined by incorporating a random network model in order to explain endogenous complex fluctuations of economic aggregates. The model can feature many globally interactive systems such as economies or societies.

  11. Encyclopedia of Public International Law, 9 / Henn-Jüri Uibopuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri, 1929-2012

    1988-01-01

    Tutvustus: Encyclopedia of Public International Law / published under the Auspices of the Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the Direction of Rudolf Bernhardt. (9. International Relations and Legal Cooperation in General. Diplomacy and Consular Relations and 10. States. Responsibility of Sates. International Law and Municipal Law). Amsterdam, New York, Oxford : North-Holland Publishing Company, 1986-1987. Pp. XV, 425 and pp. XV, 543

  12. Building Large Collections of Chinese and English Medical Terms from Semi-Structured and Encyclopedia Websites

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Xu; Yining Wang; Jian-Tao Sun; Jianwen Zhang; Junichi Tsujii; Eric Chang

    2013-01-01

    To build large collections of medical terms from semi-structured information sources (e.g. tables, lists, etc.) and encyclopedia sites on the web. The terms are classified into the three semantic categories, Medical Problems, Medications, and Medical Tests, which were used in i2b2 challenge tasks. We developed two systems, one for Chinese and another for English terms. The two systems share the same methodology and use the same software with minimum language dependent parts. We produced large...

  13. Safety: Special Effects of Thermal Runaway Chapter Heading for Encyclopedia of Electrochemical Power Sources (PREPRINT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-09

    Safety: Special Effects of Thermal Runaway Chapter Heading for Encyclopedia of Electrochemical Power Sources Henry A. Catherino U.S. Army... Power Sources (PREPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Henry A. Catherino 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e...Electrochemical Power Sources ", The original document contains color images. 14. ABSTRACT Any system that stores energy has the potential of becoming a

  14. "U-X-L Encyclopedia of U. S. History" Hones Students' Subject Search and Indexing Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Karla

    2010-01-01

    This article features the "U-X-L Encyclopedia of U.S. History" by Sonia Benson, Daniel E. Brannen, Jr., and Rebecca Valentine is a new eight-volume set available in print or ebook (2009). The set has 1,745 pages and 677 entries ranging from just under one page to around eight pages in length. The ebook option may be accessed through Gale…

  15. Medieval Sources and Present-Day Folklore Materials on Saints in an Electronic Encyclopedia

    OpenAIRE

    Rangochev, Konstantin; Dimitrova, Margaret; Paneva-Marinova, Desislava

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the variety of the digitized content of an electronic encyclopedia on the veneration of saints according to Bulgarian sources. The emphasis is on medieval Slavonic Church manuscripts and on present-day records of Bulgarian folklore narratives and songs. The combination of these sources provokes discussion of the so-called folklore Christianity and adds new dimensions to the understanding of the role of the cults of saints for culture and of the religiosity ...

  16. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology数据库介绍及实例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许旱峤; 杨舸

    2007-01-01

    介绍了Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology(化工技术百科全书)(第五版)电子图书网络版数据库,并对该数据库使用方法和检索途径作出了说明,且结合实例简单地介绍了该数据库的检索方法.

  17. "U-X-L Encyclopedia of U. S. History" Hones Students' Subject Search and Indexing Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Karla

    2010-01-01

    This article features the "U-X-L Encyclopedia of U.S. History" by Sonia Benson, Daniel E. Brannen, Jr., and Rebecca Valentine is a new eight-volume set available in print or ebook (2009). The set has 1,745 pages and 677 entries ranging from just under one page to around eight pages in length. The ebook option may be accessed through Gale Virtual…

  18. [Vladimir Zederbaum" (1883-1942): Physician, journalist, contributor to the Russian "Jewish, Encyclopedia". A research report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antipova, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    Vol. 15 o f the "Jewish Encyclopedia" (St. Petersburg 1908-1913) contains an article on Freud, signed by Vladimir Zederbaum. The data for the article were provided by Max Eitingon. This paper addresses the question of whether Zederbaum himself was Eitingon's contact. Several archives produced a lot of information about Zederbaum's medical and journalistic activities in St. Petersburg. However, to date no connection between the two men could be established.

  19. Encyclopedia of Public International Law, 9 / Henn-Jüri Uibopuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri, 1929-2012

    1988-01-01

    Tutvustus: Encyclopedia of Public International Law / published under the Auspices of the Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the Direction of Rudolf Bernhardt. (9. International Relations and Legal Cooperation in General. Diplomacy and Consular Relations and 10. States. Responsibility of Sates. International Law and Municipal Law). Amsterdam, New York, Oxford : North-Holland Publishing Company, 1986-1987. Pp. XV, 425 and pp. XV, 543

  20. Quantitative and Qualitative Evaluation of The Structural Designing of Medical Informatics Dynamic Encyclopedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safdari, Reza; Shahmoradi, Leila; Hosseini-beheshti, Molouk-sadat; Nejad, Ahmadreza Farzaneh; Hosseiniravandi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Encyclopedias and their compilation have become so prevalent as a valid cultural medium in the world. The daily development of computer industry and the expansion of various sciences have made indispensable the compilation of electronic, specialized encyclopedias, especially the web-based ones. Materials and Methods: This is an applied-developmental study conducted in 2014. First, the main terms in the field of medical informatics were gathered using MeSH Online 2014 and the supplementary terms of each were determined, and then the tree diagram of the terms was drawn based on their relationship in MeSH. Based on the studies done by the researchers, the tree diagram of the encyclopedia was drawn with respect to the existing areas in this field, and the terms gathered were put in related domains. Findings: In MeSH, 75 preferred terms together with 249 supplementary ones were indexed. One of the informatics’ sub-branches is biomedical informatics and health which itself consists of three sub-divisions of bioinformatics, clinical informatics, and health informatics. Medical informatics which is a subdivision of clinical informatics has developed from the three fields of medical sciences, management and social sciences, and computational sciences and mathematics. Results and Discussion: Medical Informatics is created of confluence and fusion and applications of the three major scientific branches include health and biological sciences, social sciences and management sciences, computing and mathematical sciences, and according to that the structure of MeSH is weak for future development of Encyclopedia of Medical Informatics. PMID:26635440

  1. Brazilian Sign Language Lexicography and Technology: Dictionary, Digital Encyclopedia, Chereme-based Sign Retrieval, and Quadriplegic Deaf Communication Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capovilla, Fernando C.; Duduchi, Marcelo; Raphael, Walkiria D.; Luz, Renato D.; Rozados, Daniela; Capovilla, Alessandra G. S.; Macedo, Elizeu C.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the Brazilian Sign language digital encyclopedia, which contains a databank of 5,600 signs glossed in Portuguese and English, along with descriptions and illustrations of their signed form. (Author/VWL)

  2. Study of Self-Organization Model of Multiple Mobile Robot

    OpenAIRE

    Li Shu-qin; Ceng Xian-yi; Xia De-shen

    2006-01-01

    A good organization model of multiple mobile robot should be able to improve the efficiency of the system, reduce the complication of robot interactions, and detract the difficulty of computation. From the sociology aspect of topology, structure and organization, this paper studies the multiple mobile robot organization formation and running mechanism in the dynamic, complicated and unknown environment. It presents and describes in detail a Hierarchical- Web Recursive Organization Model (HWRO...

  3. A Topological Model for C2 Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    functions of the organization, and the capabilities of its members, as these sets somehow efine the boundaries of organizational performance and the...and functions of the organization, and the capabilities of its members, as these sets somehow efine the boundaries of organizational performance and

  4. 3D Bioprinting of Tissue/Organ Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pati, Falguni; Gantelius, Jesper; Svahn, Helene Andersson

    2016-04-04

    In vitro tissue/organ models are useful platforms that can facilitate systematic, repetitive, and quantitative investigations of drugs/chemicals. The primary objective when developing tissue/organ models is to reproduce physiologically relevant functions that typically require complex culture systems. Bioprinting offers exciting prospects for constructing 3D tissue/organ models, as it enables the reproducible, automated production of complex living tissues. Bioprinted tissues/organs may prove useful for screening novel compounds or predicting toxicity, as the spatial and chemical complexity inherent to native tissues/organs can be recreated. In this Review, we highlight the importance of developing 3D in vitro tissue/organ models by 3D bioprinting techniques, characterization of these models for evaluating their resemblance to native tissue, and their application in the prioritization of lead candidates, toxicity testing, and as disease/tumor models.

  5. using stereochemistry models in teaching organic compounds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    (ii) provide the students with basic knowledge in chemical concepts and ... ethanol, ethan-l-ol and ethyl alcohol in some textbooks and they are the same. ... Considering class level, what is the performance of the students in naming organic.

  6. A Modeling Exercise for the Organic Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlock, Christine R.

    2010-01-01

    An in-class molecular modeling exercise is described. Groups of students are given molecular models to investigate and questions about the models to answer. This exercise is a quick and effective way to review nomenclature, stereochemistry, and conformational analysis.

  7. Self-Organizing Map Models of Language Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping eLi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Connectionist models have had a profound impact on theories of language. While most early models were inspired by the classic PDP architecture, recent models of language have explored various other types of models, including self-organizing models for language acquisition. In this paper we aim at providing a review of the latter type of models, and highlight a number of simulation experiments that we have conducted based on these models. We show that self-organizing connectionist models can provide significant insights into long-standing debates in both monolingual and bilingual language development.

  8. MODELING OF MANAGEMENT PROCESSES IN AN ORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Iovan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available When driving any major change within an organization, strategy and execution are intrinsic to a project’s success. Nevertheless, closing the gap between strategy and execution remains a challenge for many organizations [1]. Companies tend to focus more on execution than strategy for quick results, instead of taking the time needed to understand the parts that make up the whole, so the right execution plan can be put in place to deliver the best outcomes. A large part of this understands that business operations don’t fit neatly within the traditional organizational hierarchy. Business processes are often messy, collaborative efforts that cross teams, departments and systems, making them difficult to manage within a hierarchical structure [2]. Business process management (BPM fills this gap by redefining an organization according to its end-to-end processes, so opportunities for improvement can be identified and processes streamlined for growth, revenue and transformation. This white paper provides guidelines on what to consider when using business process applications to solve your BPM initiatives, and the unique capabilities software systems provides that can help ensure both your project’s success and the success of your organization as a whole. majority of medium and small businesses, big companies and even some guvermental organizations [2].

  9. Novel entries in a fungal biofilm matrix encyclopedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarnowski, Robert; Westler, William M; Lacmbouh, Ghislain Ade; Marita, Jane M; Bothe, Jameson R; Bernhardt, Jörg; Lounes-Hadj Sahraoui, Anissa; Fontaine, Joël; Sanchez, Hiram; Hatfield, Ronald D; Ntambi, James M; Nett, Jeniel E; Mitchell, Aaron P; Andes, David R

    2014-08-05

    Virulence of Candida is linked with its ability to form biofilms. Once established, biofilm infections are nearly impossible to eradicate. Biofilm cells live immersed in a self-produced matrix, a blend of extracellular biopolymers, many of which are uncharacterized. In this study, we provide a comprehensive analysis of the matrix manufactured by Candida albicans both in vitro and in a clinical niche animal model. We further explore the function of matrix components, including the impact on drug resistance. We uncovered components from each of the macromolecular classes (55% protein, 25% carbohydrate, 15% lipid, and 5% nucleic acid) in the C. albicans biofilm matrix. Three individual polysaccharides were identified and were suggested to interact physically. Surprisingly, a previously identified polysaccharide of functional importance, β-1,3-glucan, comprised only a small portion of the total matrix carbohydrate. Newly described, more abundant polysaccharides included α-1,2 branched α-1,6-mannans (87%) associated with unbranched β-1,6-glucans (13%) in an apparent mannan-glucan complex (MGCx). Functional matrix proteomic analysis revealed 458 distinct activities. The matrix lipids consisted of neutral glycerolipids (89.1%), polar glycerolipids (10.4%), and sphingolipids (0.5%). Examination of matrix nucleic acid identified DNA, primarily noncoding sequences. Several of the in vitro matrix components, including proteins and each of the polysaccharides, were also present in the matrix of a clinically relevant in vivo biofilm. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis demonstrated interaction of aggregate matrix with the antifungal fluconazole, consistent with a role in drug impedance and contribution of multiple matrix components. Importance: This report is the first to decipher the complex and unique macromolecular composition of the Candida biofilm matrix, demonstrate the clinical relevance of matrix components, and show that multiple matrix components are needed

  10. MARTINI Model for Physisorption of Organic Molecules on Graphite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gobbo, Cristian; Beurroies, Isabelle; de Ridder, David; Eelkema, Rienk; Marrink, Siewert J.; De Feyter, Steven; van Esch, Jan H.; de Vries, Alex H.

    2013-01-01

    An extension to the MARTINI coarse-grained model is presented to describe the adsorption of organic molecules on graphite surfaces. The model allows the study of the dynamics of the preferential adsorption of long-chain organic molecules from solvent and the formation of ordered structures on the su

  11. Yeast and filamentous fungi as model organisms in microbody research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klei, Ida J. van der; Veenhuis, Marten

    2006-01-01

    Yeast and filamentous fungi are important model organisms in microbody research. The value of these organisms as models for higher eukaryotes is underscored by the observation that the principles of various aspects of microbody biology are strongly conserved from lower to higher eukaryotes. This has

  12. The initiative on Model Organism Proteomes (iMOP) Session

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrimpf, Sabine P; Mering, Christian von; Bendixen, Emøke

    2012-01-01

    iMOP – the Initiative on Model Organism Proteomes – was accepted as a new HUPO initiative at the Ninth HUPO meeting in Sydney in 2010. A goal of iMOP is to integrate research groups working on a great diversity of species into a model organism community. At the Tenth HUPO meeting in Geneva...

  13. Modeling the Explicit Chemistry of Anthropogenic and Biogenic Organic Aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madronich, Sasha [Univ. Corporation for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2015-12-09

    The atmospheric burden of Secondary Organic Aerosols (SOA) remains one of the most important yet uncertain aspects of the radiative forcing of climate. This grant focused on improving our quantitative understanding of SOA formation and evolution, by developing, applying, and improving a highly detailed model of atmospheric organic chemistry, the Generation of Explicit Chemistry and Kinetics of Organics in the Atmosphere (GECKO-A) model. Eleven (11) publications have resulted from this grant.

  14. Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism: a comparative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiren Karathia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Model organisms are used for research because they provide a framework on which to develop and optimize methods that facilitate and standardize analysis. Such organisms should be representative of the living beings for which they are to serve as proxy. However, in practice, a model organism is often selected ad hoc, and without considering its representativeness, because a systematic and rational method to include this consideration in the selection process is still lacking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this work we propose such a method and apply it in a pilot study of strengths and limitations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism. The method relies on the functional classification of proteins into different biological pathways and processes and on full proteome comparisons between the putative model organism and other organisms for which we would like to extrapolate results. Here we compare S. cerevisiae to 704 other organisms from various phyla. For each organism, our results identify the pathways and processes for which S. cerevisiae is predicted to be a good model to extrapolate from. We find that animals in general and Homo sapiens in particular are some of the non-fungal organisms for which S. cerevisiae is likely to be a good model in which to study a significant fraction of common biological processes. We validate our approach by correctly predicting which organisms are phenotypically more distant from S. cerevisiae with respect to several different biological processes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The method we propose could be used to choose appropriate substitute model organisms for the study of biological processes in other species that are harder to study. For example, one could identify appropriate models to study either pathologies in humans or specific biological processes in species with a long development time, such as plants.

  15. MODEL OF LEARNING ORGANIZATION IN BROADCASTING ORGANIZATION OF ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Najafbagy

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This article tries to present a model of learning organization for Iran Broadcasting Organization which is under the management of the spiritual leader of Iran. The study is based on characteristics of Peter Senge’s original learning organization namely, personal stery, mental models, shared vision, team learning and systems thinking. The methodology was a survey research employed questionnaire among sample employees and managers of the Organization.Findings showed that the Organization is fairly far from an ffective learning organization.Moreover, it seems that employees’ performance in team learning and changes in mental models are more satisfactory than managers. Regarding other characteristics of learning organizations, there are similarities in learning attempts by employees and managers. The rganization lacks organizational vision, and consequently there is no shared vision in the Organization. It also is in need of organizational culture. As a kind of state-owned organization, there s no need of financial support which affect the need for learning organization. It also does not face the threat of sustainabilitybecause there is no competitive organization.Findings also show that IBO need a fundamental change in its rganizational learning process. In this context, the general idea is to unfreeze the mindset of leadership of IBO and creating a visionand organizational culture based on learning and staff development. Then gradually through incremental effective change and continual organizational learning process in dividual, team and organization levels engage in development and reinforcement of skills of personal mastery, mental models, shared vision, team learning and systems thinking, should lead IBO to learning organization.

  16. Integrated modelling of two xenobiotic organic compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindblom, Erik Ulfson; Gernaey, K.V.; Henze, Mogens

    2006-01-01

    compounds, is carried out. Sorption and specific biological degradation processes are integrated with standardised water process models to model the fate of both compounds. Simulated mass flows of the two compounds during one dry weather day and one wet weather day are compared for realistic influent flow...... rate and concentration profiles. The wet weather day induces resuspension of stored sediments, which increases the pollutant load on the downstream system. The potential of the model to elucidate important phenomena related to origin and fate of the model compounds is demonstrated....

  17. Chisinau (Encyclopedia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colesnic, Yurie

    A general overview of the History, Architecture, Culture and Actual state of the City of Chisinau has been given. Particularly, some part of the book illustrate former and actual Scientific Institutions,Universities and Colleges in the City. Another part gives short but comprehensive biographies of Scientists and Teaching Staff of Universities, borne, living or working in Chisinau during its 560-years History.

  18. Evolutionary Model to Traditional Culture and Program Organization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jing-xiao; JIN Wei-xing; YANG De-qin

    2006-01-01

    To study the relationship between the evolutions of Chinese Traditional Culture (CTC) and program organization, an outline of the CTC is generalized by reviewing literature, and which is also compartmentalized into two aspects according to economic philosophy views: traditional philosophy aspect and value judgment. Based on three dimensions, which are the philosophy aspect (P), program organization model (P), and value judgment from economic philosophy views (V), and this evolution sequence, the CTC's influence on the program organization model in the evolution is discussed; then the cultural spatial evolution model for program organization based on the three dimensions (PPV) is constructed. From analyzing the plane matrix of P-P and empirical investigating on the organizational model of construction enterprises, it is found that the ancient Chinese government organizational model still has prevailing influence on the modern program organizational model in China.

  19. Mathematical models of cell self-organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît Perthame

    2011-04-01

    More recently nonlinear hyperbolic and kinetic models also have been used to describe the phenomena at a smaller scale. We explain here some motivations for ‘microscopic’ descriptions, the mathematical difficulties arising in their analysis and how kinetic models can help in understanding the unity of these descriptions.

  20. Exploring Organic Mechanistic Puzzles with Molecular Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Gail; Schwartz, Gary

    2004-01-01

    The molecular modeling was used to reinforce more general skills such as deducing and drawing reaction mechanisms, analyzing reaction kinetics and thermodynamics and drawing reaction coordinate energy diagrams. This modeling was done through the design of mechanistic puzzles, involving reactions not familiar to the students.

  1. Osterbrock Prize Lecture: The Coming to Be of the Biographical Encyclopedia of Astronomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockey, Thomas A.

    2017-01-01

    The four-volume Biographical Encyclopedia of Astronomers (and cosmologists), second edition, is one of a kind: There is no discipline-specific counterpart in the physical or biological sciences. The BEA is the work of 430 authors, translators, and editors who produced biographies of approximately 1,800 persons, from the beginning of history to the beginning of the era of Big Science. How did this happen? The Editor-in-chief will give a “behind the pages” view of the construction of this first-look, first-reached-from-the-shelf reference work.

  2. Usage patterns of blue flower color representation by Encyclopedia of Life content providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal-Marie Wright

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Encyclopedia of Life (EOL is a resource for community-driven biodiversity data, focusing on species information and images. Research into blue flowers to compare color ('blueness' at different elevations revealed that data content providers describe flowers as blue for any color hue in the range from blue to magenta. We propose methods for standardizing color values and color searching within EOL by means of an expanded color vocabulary and improved access to image metadata, in order to improve the research capacity of this valuable resource.

  3. Usage patterns of blue flower color representation by Encyclopedia of Life content providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Chantal-Marie; Seltmann, Katja C

    2014-01-01

    Encyclopedia of Life (EOL) is a resource for community-driven biodiversity data, focusing on species information and images. Research into blue flowers to compare color ('blueness') at different elevations revealed that data content providers describe flowers as blue for any color hue in the range from blue to magenta. We propose methods for standardizing color values and color searching within EOL by means of an expanded color vocabulary and improved access to image metadata, in order to improve the research capacity of this valuable resource.

  4. Taxonomy and clustering in collaborative systems: the case of the on-line encyclopedia Wikipedia

    OpenAIRE

    Capocci, A.; Rao, F.; Caldarelli, G.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the nature and structure of the relation between imposed classifications and real clustering in a particular case of a scale-free network given by the on-line encyclopedia Wikipedia. We find a statistical similarity in the distributions of community sizes both by using the top-down approach of the categories division present in the archive and in the bottom-up procedure of community detection given by an algorithm based on the spectral properties of the graph. Reg...

  5. Encyclopedia of cosmology historical, philosophical, and scientific foundations of modern cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Hetherington, Norriss S

    2014-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Cosmology, first published in 1993, recounts the history, philosophical assumptions, methodological ambiguities, and human struggles that have influenced the various responses to the basic questions of cosmology through the ages, as well as referencing important scientific theories.Just as the recognition of social conventions in other cultures can lead to a more productive perspective on our own behaviour, so too a study of the cosmologies of other times and places can enable us recognise elements of our own cosmology that might otherwise pass as inevitable developments.Ap

  6. Fuel cells selected entries from the encyclopedia of sustainability science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Kreuer, Klaus-Dieter

    2012-01-01

    The expected end of the "oil age" will lead to increasing focus and reliance on alternative energy conversion devices, among which fuel cells have the potential to play an important role.  Not only can phosphoric acid and solid oxide fuel cells already efficiently convert today's fossil fuels, including methane, into electricity, but other types of fuel cells, such as polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells, have the potential to become the cornerstones of a possible future hydrogen economy. Featuring 21 peer-reviewed entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology, Fuel

  7. [Models of the organization of neonatal screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassio, A; Piazzi, S; Colli, C; Balsamo, A; Bozza, D; Salardi, S; Sprovieri, G; Cacciari, E

    1994-01-01

    The authors evaluate the different organizational strategies of a congenital hypothyroidism screening program. Positive and negative aspects of laboratory screening tests (TSH only, T4-supplemental TSH, TSH and T4), organization strategies (centralization or decentralization), recall and first follow-up criteria are examined. The authors consider that the necessity for an early diagnostic confirmation can be associated with a precise etiologic diagnosis and an evaluation of the prenatal severity of congenital hypothyroidism factors. Some European and North-American experiences are compared with the activity of a regional Italian screening center.

  8. Modeling the influence of organic acids on soil weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Corey; Harden, Jennifer; Maher, Kate

    2014-08-01

    Biological inputs and organic matter cycling have long been regarded as important factors in the physical and chemical development of soils. In particular, the extent to which low molecular weight organic acids, such as oxalate, influence geochemical reactions has been widely studied. Although the effects of organic acids are diverse, there is strong evidence that organic acids accelerate the dissolution of some minerals. However, the influence of organic acids at the field-scale and over the timescales of soil development has not been evaluated in detail. In this study, a reactive-transport model of soil chemical weathering and pedogenic development was used to quantify the extent to which organic acid cycling controls mineral dissolution rates and long-term patterns of chemical weathering. Specifically, oxalic acid was added to simulations of soil development to investigate a well-studied chronosequence of soils near Santa Cruz, CA. The model formulation includes organic acid input, transport, decomposition, organic-metal aqueous complexation and mineral surface complexation in various combinations. Results suggest that although organic acid reactions accelerate mineral dissolution rates near the soil surface, the net response is an overall decrease in chemical weathering. Model results demonstrate the importance of organic acid input concentrations, fluid flow, decomposition and secondary mineral precipitation rates on the evolution of mineral weathering fronts. In particular, model soil profile evolution is sensitive to kaolinite precipitation and oxalate decomposition rates. The soil profile-scale modeling presented here provides insights into the influence of organic carbon cycling on soil weathering and pedogenesis and supports the need for further field-scale measurements of the flux and speciation of reactive organic compounds.

  9. Modeling the influence of organic acids on soil weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Corey R.; Harden, Jennifer W.; Maher, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Biological inputs and organic matter cycling have long been regarded as important factors in the physical and chemical development of soils. In particular, the extent to which low molecular weight organic acids, such as oxalate, influence geochemical reactions has been widely studied. Although the effects of organic acids are diverse, there is strong evidence that organic acids accelerate the dissolution of some minerals. However, the influence of organic acids at the field-scale and over the timescales of soil development has not been evaluated in detail. In this study, a reactive-transport model of soil chemical weathering and pedogenic development was used to quantify the extent to which organic acid cycling controls mineral dissolution rates and long-term patterns of chemical weathering. Specifically, oxalic acid was added to simulations of soil development to investigate a well-studied chronosequence of soils near Santa Cruz, CA. The model formulation includes organic acid input, transport, decomposition, organic-metal aqueous complexation and mineral surface complexation in various combinations. Results suggest that although organic acid reactions accelerate mineral dissolution rates near the soil surface, the net response is an overall decrease in chemical weathering. Model results demonstrate the importance of organic acid input concentrations, fluid flow, decomposition and secondary mineral precipitation rates on the evolution of mineral weathering fronts. In particular, model soil profile evolution is sensitive to kaolinite precipitation and oxalate decomposition rates. The soil profile-scale modeling presented here provides insights into the influence of organic carbon cycling on soil weathering and pedogenesis and supports the need for further field-scale measurements of the flux and speciation of reactive organic compounds.

  10. Comparing risk attitudes of organic and non-organic farmers with a Bayesian random coefficient model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardebroek, C.

    2006-01-01

    Organic farming is usually considered to be more risky than conventional farming, but the risk aversion of organic farmers compared with that of conventional farmers has not been studied. Using a non-structural approach to risk estimation, a Bayesian random coefficient model is used to obtain indivi

  11. MODEL ORGANISMS USED IN MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OR MEDICAL RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey Govind

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A model organism is a non-human species that is studied to understand specific biological phenomena with the expectation that investigations made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms. The model organisms are widely used to explore potential causes and treatments for human as well as animal diseases when experiments on animals or humans would be unfeasible or considered less ethical. Studying model organisms may be informative, but care must be taken when generalizing from one organism to another. Often, model organisms are chosen on the basis that they are amenable to experimental manipulation. When researchers look for an organism to use in their studies, they look for several traits. Among these are size, generation time, accessibility, manipulation, genetics, conservation of mechanisms and potential economic benefit. As comparative molecular biology has become more common, some researchers have sought model organisms from a wider assortment of lineages on the tree of life. There are many model organisms, such as viruses (e.g., Phage lambda virus, Tobacco mosaic virus, etc., bacteria (e.g., Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Vibrio fischeri, etc., algae (e.g., Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Emiliania huxleyi, etc., molds (e.g., Aspergillus nidulans, Neurospora crassa, etc., yeasts (e.g., Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Ustilago maydis, etc., higher plants (e.g., Arabidopsis thaliana, Lemna gibba, Lotus japonicus, Nicotiana tabaccum, Oryza sativa, Physcomitrella patens, Zea mays, etc. and animals (e.g., Caenorhabditis elegans, guinea pig, hamster, mouse, rat, cat, chicken, dog, frog, Hydra, Drosophila melanogaster fruit fly, fish, etc..

  12. Daphnia as an Emerging Epigenetic Model Organism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kami D. M. Harris

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Daphnia offer a variety of benefits for the study of epigenetics. Daphnia’s parthenogenetic life cycle allows the study of epigenetic effects in the absence of confounding genetic differences. Sex determination and sexual reproduction are epigenetically determined as are several other well-studied alternate phenotypes that arise in response to environmental stressors. Additionally, there is a large body of ecological literature available, recently complemented by the genome sequence of one species and transgenic technology. DNA methylation has been shown to be altered in response to toxicants and heavy metals, although investigation of other epigenetic mechanisms is only beginning. More thorough studies on DNA methylation as well as investigation of histone modifications and RNAi in sex determination and predator-induced defenses using this ecologically and evolutionarily important organism will contribute to our understanding of epigenetics.

  13. MODELLING CONSUMERS' DEMAND FOR ORGANIC FOOD PRODUCTS: THE SWEDISH EXPERIENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Manuchehr Irandoust

    2016-01-01

    This paper attempts to examine a few factors characterizing consumer preferences and behavior towards organic food products in the south of Sweden using a proportional odds model which captures the natural ordering of dependent variables and any inherent nonlinearities. The findings show that consumer's choice for organic food depends on perceived benefits of organic food (environment, health, and quality) and consumer's perception and attitudes towards labelling system, message framing, and ...

  14. Organic production in a dynamic CGE model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lars Bo

    2004-01-01

    accumulation relationship for land, and an explicit modeling of the rate of stock accumulation (i.e., of land investment). We assume that land is industry specific, with land rentals adjusting to ensure that land supply equals land demand for each industry. Once the decision has been made to transform land...

  15. Nematodes: Model Organisms in High School Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, TJ; Anderson, Margery; Dillman, Adler; Yourick, Debra; Jett, Marti; Adams, Byron J.; Russell, RevaBeth

    2007-01-01

    In a collaborative effort between university researchers and high school science teachers, an inquiry-based laboratory module was designed using two species of insecticidal nematodes to help students apply scientific inquiry and elements of thoughtful experimental design. The learning experience and model are described in this article. (Contains 4…

  16. Representational Translation with Concrete Models in Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stull, Andrew T.; Hegarty, Mary; Dixon, Bonnie; Stieff, Mike

    2012-01-01

    In representation-rich domains such as organic chemistry, students must be facile and accurate when translating between different 2D representations, such as diagrams. We hypothesized that translating between organic chemistry diagrams would be more accurate when concrete models were used because difficult mental processes could be augmented by…

  17. Investigating ecological speciation in non-model organisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foote, Andrew David

    2012-01-01

    Background: Studies of ecological speciation tend to focus on a few model biological systems. In contrast, few studies on non-model organisms have been able to infer ecological speciation as the underlying mechanism of evolutionary divergence. Questions: What are the pitfalls in studying ecological...... speciation in non-model organisms that lead to this bias? What alternative approaches might redress the balance? Organism: Genetically differentiated types of the killer whale (Orcinus orca) exhibiting differences in prey preference, habitat use, morphology, and behaviour. Methods: Review of the literature...... variation underlie reproductive isolation between sympatric killer whale types. Perhaps ecological speciation has occurred, but it is hard to prove. We will probably face this outcome whenever we wish to address non-model organisms – species in which it is not easy to apply experimental approaches...

  18. Self-organizing map models of language acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Zhao, Xiaowei

    2013-01-01

    Connectionist models have had a profound impact on theories of language. While most early models were inspired by the classic parallel distributed processing architecture, recent models of language have explored various other types of models, including self-organizing models for language acquisition. In this paper, we aim at providing a review of the latter type of models, and highlight a number of simulation experiments that we have conducted based on these models. We show that self-organizing connectionist models can provide significant insights into long-standing debates in both monolingual and bilingual language development. We suggest future directions in which these models can be extended, to better connect with behavioral and neural data, and to make clear predictions in testing relevant psycholinguistic theories. PMID:24312061

  19. Self-organizing map models of language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Zhao, Xiaowei

    2013-11-19

    Connectionist models have had a profound impact on theories of language. While most early models were inspired by the classic parallel distributed processing architecture, recent models of language have explored various other types of models, including self-organizing models for language acquisition. In this paper, we aim at providing a review of the latter type of models, and highlight a number of simulation experiments that we have conducted based on these models. We show that self-organizing connectionist models can provide significant insights into long-standing debates in both monolingual and bilingual language development. We suggest future directions in which these models can be extended, to better connect with behavioral and neural data, and to make clear predictions in testing relevant psycholinguistic theories.

  20. Labour Quality Model for Organic Farming Food Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Gassner, B.; Freyer, B.; Leitner, H.

    2008-01-01

    The debate on labour quality in science is controversial as well as in the organic agriculture community. Therefore, we reviewed literature on different labour quality models and definitions, and had key informant interviews on labour quality issues with stakeholders in a regional oriented organic agriculture bread food chain. We developed a labour quality model with nine quality categories and discussed linkages to labour satisfaction, ethical values and IFOAM principles.

  1. Kineic Modelling of Degradation of Organic Compounds in Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGZONGSHENG; ZHANGSHUIMING; 等

    1997-01-01

    A set of equations in suggested to describe the kinetics of degradation of organic ompounds applied to soils ad the kinetics of growth of the inolved microorganisms:-dx/dt=jx+kxm dm/dt=-fm+gxm where x is the concentration of organic compound at time t,m is the numer of microorganisms capable of degrading the organic compound at time t,while j,k,f and g are positive constants,This model can satisfactorily be used to explain the degradation curve of organic compounds and the growth curve of the involved microorganisms.

  2. Using a digital marketing platform for the promotion of an internet based health encyclopedia in saudi arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ateeq, Asma; Al Moamary, Eman; Daghestani, Tahani; Al Muallem, Yahya; Al Dogether, Majed; Alsughayr, Abdulrahman; Altuwaijri, Majid; Househ, Mowafa

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the experiences of using a digital marketing platform to promote the use of an internet based health encyclopedia in Saudi Arabia. Key informant interviews, meeting documentation, and Google Analytics were the data collection sources used in the study. Findings show that using a digital marketing platform led to a significant increase in the number of visitors to the health encyclopedia. The results demonstrate that digital marketing platforms are effective tools to be used for promoting internet based health education interventions. Future work will examine long-term educational impacts and costs in using digital marketing platforms to promote online healthcare sites in Saudi Arabia.

  3. BUSINESS PROCESS MODELLING FOR PROJECTS COSTS MANAGEMENT IN AN ORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PĂTRAŞCU AURELIA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Using Information Technologies in organizations represents an evident progress for company, money economy, time economy and generates value for the organization. In this paper the author proposes to model the business processes for an organization that manages projects costs, because modelling is an important part of any software development process. Using software for projects costs management is essential because it allows the management of all operations according to the established parameters, the management of the projects groups, as well as the management of the projects and subprojects, at different complexity levels.

  4. Mathematical model for cyclodextrin alteration of bioavailability of organic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huihui; Cai, Xiyun; Chen, Jingwen

    2013-06-04

    While many cyclodextrin-based applications have been developed to assess or enhance bioavailability of organic pollutants, the choice of cyclodextrin (CD) is largely empirical, with little consideration of pollutant diversity and environmental matrix effects. This study aimed at developing a mathematical model for quantifying CD alteration of bioavailability of organic pollutants. Cyclodextrin appears to have multiple effects, together contributing to its bioavailability-enhancing property. Cyclodextrin is adsorbed onto the adsorbent matrix to different extents. The adsorbed CD is capable of sequestrating organic pollutants, highlighting the role of a pseudophase similar to solid environmental matrix. Aqueous CD can reduce adsorption of organic pollutants via inclusion complexation. The two effects cancel each other to a certain degree, which determines the levels of organic pollutants dissolved (comprising freely dissolved and CD-included forms). Additionally, the CD-included form is nearly identical in biological activity to the free form. A mathematical model of one variable (i.e., CD concentration) was derived to quantify effects of CD on the bioavailability of organic pollutants. Model analysis indicates that alteration of bioavailability of organic pollutants by CD depends on both CD (type and level) and environmental matrix. The selection of CD type and amendment level for a given application may be predicted by the model.

  5. A survey of financial planning models for health care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, J R; Kaminsky, F C; McGee, F

    1978-01-01

    This paper describes "what if?" financial planning models developed for health care administrators and financial managers to study and evaluate the economic impact of changes in a health care organization's charge structure, operating policies, reimbursement plans, and services and resources. Models for inpatient and outpatient care systems are presented. The models are described in terms of input, output, and application. An assessment of the state of the art of financial planning and prospects for the future of what if?models are given.

  6. Drosophila melanogaster as a model organism to study nanotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Cynthia; Yung, Lin-Yue Lanry; Cai, Yu; Bay, Boon-Huat; Baeg, Gyeong-Hun

    2015-05-01

    Drosophila melanogaster has been used as an in vivo model organism for the study of genetics and development since 100 years ago. Recently, the fruit fly Drosophila was also developed as an in vivo model organism for toxicology studies, in particular, the field of nanotoxicity. The incorporation of nanomaterials into consumer and biomedical products is a cause for concern as nanomaterials are often associated with toxicity in many in vitro studies. In vivo animal studies of the toxicity of nanomaterials with rodents and other mammals are, however, limited due to high operational cost and ethical objections. Hence, Drosophila, a genetically tractable organism with distinct developmental stages and short life cycle, serves as an ideal organism to study nanomaterial-mediated toxicity. This review discusses the basic biology of Drosophila, the toxicity of nanomaterials, as well as how the Drosophila model can be used to study the toxicity of various types of nanomaterials.

  7. Styles of International Mediation in Peace Processes Between States and Terrorist Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    way, both culturally and historically.40 Zartman and Faure seem to have a broader perspective on negotiating with terrorists, and they recommend...ensure that the leadership will actually 63 Glenn E. Robinson, “Palestine Liberation Organization,” The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World, Oxford...2007. Robinson, Glenn E. “Palestine Liberation Organization.” The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. Oxford Islamic Studies Online. Accessed 4

  8. Detection of the inferred interaction network in hepatocellular carcinoma from EHCO (Encyclopedia of Hepatocellular Carcinoma genes Online

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chang-Han

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The significant advances in microarray and proteomics analyses have resulted in an exponential increase in potential new targets and have promised to shed light on the identification of disease markers and cellular pathways. We aim to collect and decipher the HCC-related genes at the systems level. Results Here, we build an integrative platform, the Encyclopedia of Hepatocellular Carcinoma genes Online, dubbed EHCO http://ehco.iis.sinica.edu.tw, to systematically collect, organize and compare the pileup of unsorted HCC-related studies by using natural language processing and softbots. Among the eight gene set collections, ranging across PubMed, SAGE, microarray, and proteomics data, there are 2,906 genes in total; however, more than 77% genes are only included once, suggesting that tremendous efforts need to be exerted to characterize the relationship between HCC and these genes. Of these HCC inventories, protein binding represents the largest proportion (~25% from Gene Ontology analysis. In fact, many differentially expressed gene sets in EHCO could form interaction networks (e.g. HBV-associated HCC network by using available human protein-protein interaction datasets. To further highlight the potential new targets in the inferred network from EHCO, we combine comparative genomics and interactomics approaches to analyze 120 evolutionary conserved and overexpressed genes in HCC. 47 out of 120 queries can form a highly interactive network with 18 queries serving as hubs. Conclusion This architectural map may represent the first step toward the attempt to decipher the hepatocarcinogenesis at the systems level. Targeting hubs and/or disruption of the network formation might reveal novel strategy for HCC treatment.

  9. Phytoremediation and its models for organic contaminated soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Soil pollution has been attracting considerable public attentions over the last decades. Sorts of traditional physiochemical methods have been used to remove the organic pollutants from soils. However, the enormous costs and low efficiencies associated with these remediation technologies limit their availabilities. Phytoremediation is an emerging technology that uses plants to cleanup pollutants in soils. As overwhelmingly positive results have been shown, phytoremediation is a most economical and effective remediation technique for organic contaminated soils. In this paper phytoremediation and its models for organic contaminated soils is overviewed. The mechanisms of phytoremediation mainly include the direct plant uptake of organic pollutants, degradation by plant-derived degradative enzymes, and stimulated biodegradation in plant rhizosphere. Phytoremediation efficiency is tightly related to physicochemical properties of organic pollutants, environmental characteristics, and plant types. It is no doubt that soil amendments such as surfactants change the solubilities and availabilities of organic pollutants in soils. However, little information is available about effects of soil amendments on phytoremediation efficiencies. Phytoremediation models have been developed to simulate and predict the environmental behavior of organic pollutants, and progress of models is illustrated. In many ways phytoremediation is still in its initial stage, and recommendations for the future research on phytoremediation are presented.

  10. Modeling secondary organic aerosol formation through cloud processing of organic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Chen

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Interest in the potential formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA through reactions of organic compounds in condensed aqueous phases is growing. In this study, the potential formation of SOA from irreversible aqueous-phase reactions of organic species in clouds was investigated. A new proposed aqueous-phase chemistry mechanism (AqChem is coupled with the existing gas-phase Caltech Atmospheric Chemistry Mechanism (CACM and the Model to Predict the Multiphase Partitioning of Organics (MPMPO that simulate SOA formation. AqChem treats irreversible organic reactions that lead mainly to the formation of carboxylic acids, which are usually less volatile than the corresponding aldehydic compounds. Zero-dimensional model simulations were performed for tropospheric conditions with clouds present for three consecutive hours per day. Zero-dimensional model simulations show that 48-h averaged SOA formation are increased by 27% for a rural scenario with strong monoterpene emissions and 7% for an urban scenario with strong emissions of aromatic compounds, respectively, when irreversible organic reactions in clouds are considered. AqChem was also incorporated into the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ version 4.4 with CACM/MPMPO and applied to a previously studied photochemical episode (3–4 August 2004 focusing on the eastern United States. The CMAQ study indicates that the maximum contribution of SOA formation from irreversible reactions of organics in clouds is 0.28 μg m−3 for 24-h average concentrations and 0.60 μg m−3 for one-hour average concentrations at certain locations. On average, domain-wide surface SOA predictions for the episode are increased by 8.6% when irreversible, in-cloud processing of organics is considered.

  11. A Workforce Design Model: Providing Energy to Organizations in Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halm, Barry J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the change in performance realized by a professional services organization, which resulted in the Life Giving Workforce Design (LGWD) model through a grounded theory research design. This study produced a workforce design model characterized as an organizational blueprint that provides virtuous…

  12. Simple model of self-organized biological evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Jan; Derrida, Bernard; Flyvbjerg, Henrik; Jackson, Andrew D.; Wettig, Tilo

    1994-08-01

    We give an exact solution of a recently proposed self-organized critical model of biological evolution. We show that the model has a power law distribution of durations of coevolutionary ``avalanches'' with a mean field exponent 3/2. We also calculate analytically the finite size effects which cut off this power law at times of the order of the system size.

  13. Modeling organic compounds in the estuarine and coastal environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.W.P.M. Laane; D. van de Meent; P. de Voogt; J. Parsons; J. Hendriks; J. van Gils

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes the historical development and present applications of water-quality models for organic chemical compounds (e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)). Various types of water-quality models are described, varying in the amount of compar

  14. Fruit tree model for uptake of organic compounds from soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trapp, Stefan; Rasmussen, D.; Samsoe-Petersen, L.

    2003-01-01

    soils, regressions or models are in use, which were not intended to be used for tree fruits. A simple model for uptake of neutral organic contaminants into fruits is developed. It considers xylem and phloem transport to fruits through the stem. The mass balance is solved for the steady...

  15. Towards an Intelligent Project Based Organization Business Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alami Marrouni Oussama

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Global economy is undergoing a recession phase that had made competition tougher and imposed new business framework. Businesses have to shift from the classical management approaches to an Intelligent Project Based Organization (IPBO model that provides flexibility and agility. IPBO model is intended to reinforce the proven advantages of Project Based Organization (PBO by the use of suitable Enterprise Intelligence (EI Systems. The goal of this paper is to propose an IPBO model that combines benefits of PBO and EI and helps overcoming their pitfalls

  16. Xanthusbase: adapting wikipedia principles to a model organism database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshinoff, Bradley I; Suen, Garret; Just, Eric M; Merchant, Sohel M; Kibbe, Warren A; Chisholm, Rex L; Welch, Roy D

    2007-01-01

    xanthusBase (http://www.xanthusbase.org) is the official model organism database (MOD) for the social bacterium Myxococcus xanthus. In many respects, M.xanthus represents the pioneer model organism (MO) for studying the genetic, biochemical, and mechanistic basis of prokaryotic multicellularity, a topic that has garnered considerable attention due to the significance of biofilms in both basic and applied microbiology research. To facilitate its utility, the design of xanthusBase incorporates open-source software, leveraging the cumulative experience made available through the Generic Model Organism Database (GMOD) project, MediaWiki (http://www.mediawiki.org), and dictyBase (http://www.dictybase.org), to create a MOD that is both highly useful and easily navigable. In addition, we have incorporated a unique Wikipedia-style curation model which exploits the internet's inherent interactivity, thus enabling M.xanthus and other myxobacterial researchers to contribute directly toward the ongoing genome annotation.

  17. An Ising model for metal-organic frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höft, Nicolas; Horbach, Jürgen; Martín-Mayor, Victor; Seoane, Beatriz

    2017-08-01

    We present a three-dimensional Ising model where lines of equal spins are frozen such that they form an ordered framework structure. The frame spins impose an external field on the rest of the spins (active spins). We demonstrate that this "porous Ising model" can be seen as a minimal model for condensation transitions of gas molecules in metal-organic frameworks. Using Monte Carlo simulation techniques, we compare the phase behavior of a porous Ising model with that of a particle-based model for the condensation of methane (CH4) in the isoreticular metal-organic framework IRMOF-16. For both models, we find a line of first-order phase transitions that end in a critical point. We show that the critical behavior in both cases belongs to the 3D Ising universality class, in contrast to other phase transitions in confinement such as capillary condensation.

  18. Knowledge extraction and semantic annotation of text from the encyclopedia of life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne E Thessen

    Full Text Available Numerous digitization and ontological initiatives have focused on translating biological knowledge from narrative text to machine-readable formats. In this paper, we describe two workflows for knowledge extraction and semantic annotation of text data objects featured in an online biodiversity aggregator, the Encyclopedia of Life. One workflow tags text with DBpedia URIs based on keywords. Another workflow finds taxon names in text using GNRD for the purpose of building a species association network. Both workflows work well: the annotation workflow has an F1 Score of 0.941 and the association algorithm has an F1 Score of 0.885. Existing text annotators such as Terminizer and DBpedia Spotlight performed well, but require some optimization to be useful in the ecology and evolution domain. Important future work includes scaling up and improving accuracy through the use of distributional semantics.

  19. Proteopedia: Exciting Advances in the 3D Encyclopedia of Biomolecular Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prilusky, Jaime; Hodis, Eran; Sussman, Joel L.

    Proteopedia is a collaborative, 3D web-encyclopedia of protein, nucleic acid and other structures. Proteopedia ( http://www.proteopedia.org ) presents 3D biomolecule structures in a broadly accessible manner to a diverse scientific audience through easy-to-use molecular visualization tools integrated into a wiki environment that anyone with a user account can edit. We describe recent advances in the web resource in the areas of content and software. In terms of content, we describe a large growth in user-added content as well as improvements in automatically-generated content for all PDB entry pages in the resource. In terms of software, we describe new features ranging from the capability to create pages hidden from public view to the capability to export pages for offline viewing. New software features also include an improved file-handling system and availability of biological assemblies of protein structures alongside their asymmetric units.

  20. Earth System Monitoring Selected Entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Modern Earth System Monitoring represents a fundamental change in the way scientists study the Earth System.  In Oceanography, for the past two centuries, ships have provided the platforms for observing.  Expeditions on the continents and Earth’s poles are land-based analogues. Fundamental understanding of current systems, climate, natural hazards, and ecosystems has been greatly advanced. While these approaches have been remarkably successful, the need to establish measurements over time can only be made using Earth observations and observatories with exacting standards and continuous data.  The 19 peer-reviewed contributions in this volume provide early insights into this emerging view of Earth in both space and time in which change is a critical component of our growing understanding. Presents 19 authoritative, peer-reviewed entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology Covers a wide range of data collection platforms, including satellite remote sensing, aerial surveys, and l...

  1. Geoengineering Responses to Climate Change Selected Entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Vaughan, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    Failure by the international community to make substantive progress in reducing CO2 emissions, coupled with recent evidence of accelerating climate change, has brought increasing urgency to the search for additional remediation approaches.  This book presents a selection of state-of-the-art geoengineering methods for deliberately reducing the effects of anthropogenic climate change, either by actively removing greenhouse gases from the atmosphere or by decreasing the amount of sunlight absorbed at the Earth’s surface.  These methods contrast with more conventional mitigation approaches which focus on reducing emissions of greenhouse gases, especially carbon dioxide. Geoengineering technologies could become a key tool to be used in conjunction with emissions reduction to limit the magnitude of climate change.  Featuring authoritative, peer-reviewed entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology, this book presents a wide range of climate change remediation technologies. Examines th...

  2. IDENTIFICATION OF QUESTIONABLE EXCLUSION CRITERIA IN MENTAL DISORDER CLINICAL TRIALS USING A MEDICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Handong; Weng, Chunhua

    2016-01-01

    Precision medicine requires precise evidence-based practice and precise definition of the patients included in clinical studies for evidence generalization. Clinical research exclusion criteria define confounder patient characteristics for exclusion from a study. However, unnecessary exclusion criteria can weaken patient representativeness of study designs and generalizability of study results. This paper presents a method for identifying questionable exclusion criteria for 38 mental disorders. We extracted common eligibility features (CEFs) from all trials on these disorders from ClinicalTrials.gov. Network Analysis showed scale-free property of the CEF network, indicating uneven usage frequencies among CEFs. By comparing these CEFs' term frequencies in clinical trials' exclusion criteria and in the PubMed Medical Encyclopedia for matching conditions, we identified unjustified potential overuse of exclusion CEFs in mental disorder trials. Then we discussed the limitations in current exclusion criteria designs and made recommendations for achieving more patient-centered exclusion criteria definitions.

  3. Translating the ENCyclopedia Of DNA Elements Project findings to the clinic: ENCODE's implications for eye disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanfilippo, Paul G; Hewitt, Alex W

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 10 years after the Human Genome Project unravelled the sequence of our DNA, the ENCyclopedia Of DNA Elements (ENCODE) Project sought to interpret it. Data from the recently completed project have shed new light on the proportion of biologically active human DNA, assigning a biochemical role to much of the sequence previously considered to be 'junk'. Many of these newly catalogued functional elements represent epigenetic mechanisms involved in regulation of gene expression. Analogous to an Ishihara plate, a gene-coding region of DNA (target dots) only comes into context when the non-coding DNA (surrounding dots) is appreciated. In this review we provide an overview of the ENCODE project, discussing the significance of these data for ophthalmic research and eye disease. The novel insights afforded by the ENCODE project will in time allow for the development of new therapeutic strategies in the management of common blinding disorders.

  4. Knowledge extraction and semantic annotation of text from the encyclopedia of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thessen, Anne E; Parr, Cynthia Sims

    2014-01-01

    Numerous digitization and ontological initiatives have focused on translating biological knowledge from narrative text to machine-readable formats. In this paper, we describe two workflows for knowledge extraction and semantic annotation of text data objects featured in an online biodiversity aggregator, the Encyclopedia of Life. One workflow tags text with DBpedia URIs based on keywords. Another workflow finds taxon names in text using GNRD for the purpose of building a species association network. Both workflows work well: the annotation workflow has an F1 Score of 0.941 and the association algorithm has an F1 Score of 0.885. Existing text annotators such as Terminizer and DBpedia Spotlight performed well, but require some optimization to be useful in the ecology and evolution domain. Important future work includes scaling up and improving accuracy through the use of distributional semantics.

  5. The expanding epigenetic landscape of non-model organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonasio, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetics studies the emergence of different phenotypes from a single genotype. Although these processes are essential to cellular differentiation and transcriptional memory, they are also widely used in all branches of the tree of life by organisms that require plastic but stable adaptation to their physical and social environment. Because of the inherent flexibility of epigenetic regulation, a variety of biological phenomena can be traced back to evolutionary adaptations of few conserved molecular pathways that converge on chromatin. For these reasons chromatin biology and epigenetic research have a rich history of chasing discoveries in a variety of model organisms, including yeast, flies, plants and humans. Many more fascinating examples of epigenetic plasticity lie outside the realm of model organisms and have so far been only sporadically investigated at a molecular level; however, recent progress on sequencing technology and genome editing tools have begun to blur the lines between model and non-model organisms, opening numerous new avenues for investigation. Here, I review examples of epigenetic phenomena in non-model organisms that have emerged as potential experimental systems, including social insects, fish and flatworms, and are becoming accessible to molecular approaches.

  6. Regional Persistent Organic Pollutants' Environmental Impact Assessment and Control Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurgis Staniskis

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The sources of formation, environmental distribution and fate of persistent organic pollutants (POPs are increasingly seen as topics to be addressed and solved at the global scale. Therefore, there are already two international agreements concerning persistent organic pollutants: the Protocol of 1998 to the 1979 Convention on the Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution on Persistent Organic Pollutants (Aarhus Protocol; and the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants. For the assessment of environmental pollution of POPs, for the risk assessment, for the evaluation of new pollutants as potential candidates to be included in the POPs list of the Stokholmo or/and Aarhus Protocol, a set of different models are developed or under development. Multimedia models help describe and understand environmental processes leading to global contamination through POPs and actual risk to the environment and human health. However, there is a lack of the tools based on a systematic and integrated approach to POPs management difficulties in the region.

  7. Quantitative model studies for interfaces in organic electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfried, J. Michael

    2016-11-01

    In organic light-emitting diodes and similar devices, organic semiconductors are typically contacted by metal electrodes. Because the resulting metal/organic interfaces have a large impact on the performance of these devices, their quantitative understanding is indispensable for the further rational development of organic electronics. A study by Kröger et al (2016 New J. Phys. 18 113022) of an important single-crystal based model interface provides detailed insight into its geometric and electronic structure and delivers valuable benchmark data for computational studies. In view of the differences between typical surface-science model systems and real devices, a ‘materials gap’ is identified that needs to be addressed by future research to make the knowledge obtained from fundamental studies even more beneficial for real-world applications.

  8. MODELLING CONSUMERS' DEMAND FOR ORGANIC FOOD PRODUCTS: THE SWEDISH EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuchehr Irandoust

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to examine a few factors characterizing consumer preferences and behavior towards organic food products in the south of Sweden using a proportional odds model which captures the natural ordering of dependent variables and any inherent nonlinearities. The findings show that consumer's choice for organic food depends on perceived benefits of organic food (environment, health, and quality and consumer's perception and attitudes towards labelling system, message framing, and local origin. In addition, high willingness to pay and income level will increase the probability to buy organic food, while the cultural differences and socio-demographic characteristics have no effect on consumer behaviour and attitudes towards organic food products. Policy implications are offered.

  9. Understanding selection bias, time-lags and measurement bias in secondary data sources: Putting the Encyclopedia of Associations database in broader context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevan, Shaun; Baumgartner, Frank R; Johnson, Erik W; McCarthy, John D

    2013-11-01

    Secondary data gathered for purposes other than research play an important role in the social sciences. A recent data release has made an important source of publicly available data on associational interests, the Encyclopedia of Associations (EA), readily accessible to scholars (www.policyagendas.org). In this paper we introduce these new data and systematically investigate issues of lag between events and subsequent reporting in the EA, as these have important but under-appreciated effects on time-series statistical models. We further analyze the accuracy and coverage of the database in numerous ways. Our study serves as a guide to potential users of this database, but we also reflect upon a number of issues that should concern all researchers who use secondary data such as newspaper records, IRS reports and FBI Uniform Crime Reports. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Building large collections of Chinese and English medical terms from semi-structured and encyclopedia websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Yining; Sun, Jian-Tao; Zhang, Jianwen; Tsujii, Junichi; Chang, Eric

    2013-01-01

    To build large collections of medical terms from semi-structured information sources (e.g. tables, lists, etc.) and encyclopedia sites on the web. The terms are classified into the three semantic categories, Medical Problems, Medications, and Medical Tests, which were used in i2b2 challenge tasks. We developed two systems, one for Chinese and another for English terms. The two systems share the same methodology and use the same software with minimum language dependent parts. We produced large collections of terms by exploiting billions of semi-structured information sources and encyclopedia sites on the Web. The standard performance metric of recall (R) is extended to three different types of Recall to take the surface variability of terms into consideration. They are Surface Recall (R(S)), Object Recall (R(O)), and Surface Head recall (R(H)). We use two test sets for Chinese. For English, we use a collection of terms in the 2010 i2b2 text. Two collections of terms, one for English and the other for Chinese, have been created. The terms in these collections are classified as either of Medical Problems, Medications, or Medical Tests in the i2b2 challenge tasks. The English collection contains 49,249 (Problems), 89,591 (Medications) and 25,107 (Tests) terms, while the Chinese one contains 66,780 (Problems), 101,025 (Medications), and 15,032 (Tests) terms. The proposed method of constructing a large collection of medical terms is both efficient and effective, and, most of all, independent of language. The collections will be made publicly available.

  11. Building large collections of Chinese and English medical terms from semi-structured and encyclopedia websites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xu

    Full Text Available To build large collections of medical terms from semi-structured information sources (e.g. tables, lists, etc. and encyclopedia sites on the web. The terms are classified into the three semantic categories, Medical Problems, Medications, and Medical Tests, which were used in i2b2 challenge tasks. We developed two systems, one for Chinese and another for English terms. The two systems share the same methodology and use the same software with minimum language dependent parts. We produced large collections of terms by exploiting billions of semi-structured information sources and encyclopedia sites on the Web. The standard performance metric of recall (R is extended to three different types of Recall to take the surface variability of terms into consideration. They are Surface Recall (R(S, Object Recall (R(O, and Surface Head recall (R(H. We use two test sets for Chinese. For English, we use a collection of terms in the 2010 i2b2 text. Two collections of terms, one for English and the other for Chinese, have been created. The terms in these collections are classified as either of Medical Problems, Medications, or Medical Tests in the i2b2 challenge tasks. The English collection contains 49,249 (Problems, 89,591 (Medications and 25,107 (Tests terms, while the Chinese one contains 66,780 (Problems, 101,025 (Medications, and 15,032 (Tests terms. The proposed method of constructing a large collection of medical terms is both efficient and effective, and, most of all, independent of language. The collections will be made publicly available.

  12. Lotka-Volterra competition models for sessile organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Matthew; Tanner, Jason E

    2008-04-01

    Markov models are widely used to describe the dynamics of communities of sessile organisms, because they are easily fitted to field data and provide a rich set of analytical tools. In typical ecological applications, at any point in time, each point in space is in one of a finite set of states (e.g., species, empty space). The models aim to describe the probabilities of transitions between states. In most Markov models for communities, these transition probabilities are assumed to be independent of state abundances. This assumption is often suspected to be false and is rarely justified explicitly. Here, we start with simple assumptions about the interactions among sessile organisms and derive a model in which transition probabilities depend on the abundance of destination states. This model is formulated in continuous time and is equivalent to a Lotka-Volterra competition model. We fit this model and a variety of alternatives in which transition probabilities do not depend on state abundances to a long-term coral reef data set. The Lotka-Volterra model describes the data much better than all models we consider other than a saturated model (a model with a separate parameter for each transition at each time interval, which by definition fits the data perfectly). Our approach provides a basis for further development of stochastic models of sessile communities, and many of the methods we use are relevant to other types of community. We discuss possible extensions to spatially explicit models.

  13. Modeling nanostructure-enhanced light trapping in organic solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adam, Jost

    A promising approach for improving the power conversion efficiencies of organic solar cells (OSCs) is by incorporating nanostructures in their thin film architecture to improve the light absorption in the device’s active polymer layers. Here, we present a modelling framework for the prediction....... Diffraction by fractal metallic supergratings. Optics Express, 15(24), 15628–15636 (2007) [3] Goszczak, A. J. et al. Nanoscale Aluminum dimples for light trapping in organic thin films (submitted)...

  14. Modelling the formation of organic particles in the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anttila, T.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Kulmala, M.; Laaksonen, A.; O'Dowd, C.

    2003-12-01

    A modelling study investigating the formation of organic particles from inorganic, thermodynamically stable clusters was carried out. A recently-developed theory, the so-called nano-Köhler theory, which describes a thermodynamic equilibrium between a nanometer-size cluster, water and water-soluble organic compound, was implemented in a dynamical model along with a treatment of the appropriate aerosol and gas-phase processes. The obtained results suggest that both gaseous sulphuric acid and organic vapours contribute to organic particle formation. The initial growth of freshly-nucleated clusters having a diameter around 1 nm is driven by condensation of gaseous sulphuric acid and by a lesser extent cluster self-coagulation. After the clusters have reached sizes of around 2 nm in diameter, low-volatile organic vapours start to condense spontaneously into the clusters, thereby accelerating their growth to detectable sizes. A shortage of gaseous sulphuric acid or organic vapours limit, or suppress altogether, the particle formation, since freshly-nucleated clusters are rapidly coagulated away by pre-existing particles. The obtained modelling results were applied to explaining the observed seasonal cycle in the number of aerosol formation events in a continental forest site.

  15. Precisely parameterized experimental and computational models of tissue organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molitoris, Jared M; Paliwal, Saurabh; Sekar, Rajesh B; Blake, Robert; Park, JinSeok; Trayanova, Natalia A; Tung, Leslie; Levchenko, Andre

    2016-02-01

    Patterns of cellular organization in diverse tissues frequently display a complex geometry and topology tightly related to the tissue function. Progressive disorganization of tissue morphology can lead to pathologic remodeling, necessitating the development of experimental and theoretical methods of analysis of the tolerance of normal tissue function to structural alterations. A systematic way to investigate the relationship of diverse cell organization to tissue function is to engineer two-dimensional cell monolayers replicating key aspects of the in vivo tissue architecture. However, it is still not clear how this can be accomplished on a tissue level scale in a parameterized fashion, allowing for a mathematically precise definition of the model tissue organization and properties down to a cellular scale with a parameter dependent gradual change in model tissue organization. Here, we describe and use a method of designing precisely parameterized, geometrically complex patterns that are then used to control cell alignment and communication of model tissues. We demonstrate direct application of this method to guiding the growth of cardiac cell cultures and developing mathematical models of cell function that correspond to the underlying experimental patterns. Several anisotropic patterned cultures spanning a broad range of multicellular organization, mimicking the cardiac tissue organization of different regions of the heart, were found to be similar to each other and to isotropic cell monolayers in terms of local cell-cell interactions, reflected in similar confluency, morphology and connexin-43 expression. However, in agreement with the model predictions, different anisotropic patterns of cell organization, paralleling in vivo alterations of cardiac tissue morphology, resulted in variable and novel functional responses with important implications for the initiation and maintenance of cardiac arrhythmias. We conclude that variations of tissue geometry and topology

  16. Searching for the term -Nursing- in Greek dictionaries and encyclopedias from the establishment of the Modern Greek state until 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despina Sapountzi-Krepia

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The term "nursing" starts to be used in the Greek nursing field during the 40s and 50s, however, it continued to be almost unknown among the members of the Greek society. Thus, the search of the start of the inclusion of the term nursing in the Greek dictionaries and encyclopaedias is interesting for Greek nurses. Aim: The search of the term "nursing" in Greek dictionaries and encyclopedias. Material and method: An historical research was conducted for the period of 1833 until the year 2002. Sixty dictionaries and encyclopedias were found ans studied. Results: The first publications of this period are; the "Dictionary of Greek Language" (Vienna, 1836, the "Encyclopedia Lexicon" (Smyrna, 1864 and the "Encyclopedic Lexicon" (Eleftheroudakis, Athens 1890-1891. The term "nursing" it was not included in those publications. In the 20th century the publications of 54 dictionaries and encyclopedias dating 1900 to 1999 were found. In most of those publications the term "nursing" is not mentioned, and it strted aping only in the 90s in just 3 sources; the "Encyclopedia Papyros Larousse Britanicca" (Athens, 1991, the "Modern Lexicon of Greek Language" (Patakis Publications, 1991, reprint of "Greek Lexicon" Tegopoulos-Fytrakis (1999 and the "Lexicon of Modern Greek" by Babiniotis (1998. In the 21st century two dictionaries were found, in which the word "nursing" is not included, while it is mentioned in the "Big Lexicon of Modern Greek" (Bousnaki, 2002 and in the reprint of Babiniotis' Dictionary in 2002. Conclusions: The term "nursing" has started to be included in the dictionaries, however, more effort needs to be paid by the nursing authorities towards to the correct attribution of the term in publications.

  17. Modeling of Spatially Correlated Energetic Disorder in Organic Semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordt, Pascal; Andrienko, Denis

    2016-01-12

    Mesoscale modeling of organic semiconductors relies on solving an appropriately parametrized master equation. Essential ingredients of the parametrization are site energies (driving forces), which enter the charge transfer rate between pairs of neighboring molecules. Site energies are often Gaussian-distributed and are spatially correlated. Here, we propose an algorithm that generates these energies with a given Gaussian distribution and spatial correlation function. The method is tested on an amorphous organic semiconductor, DPBIC, illustrating that the accurate description of correlations is essential for the quantitative modeling of charge transport in amorphous mesophases.

  18. Biobanking of a Marine Invertebrate Model Organism: The Sea Urchin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estefania Paredes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The sea urchin has long been used as an invertebrate model organism in developmental biology, membrane transport and sperm oocyte interactions, and for the assessment of marine pollution. This review explores the effects of cryopreservation and biobanking in the biology and development of sea urchins, all the way from germaplasm through to juveniles. This review will provide an integral view of the process and all that is known so far about the biology of cryopreserved sea urchins, as well as provide an insight on the applications of the biobanking of these model organisms.

  19. ISA-97 Compliant Architecture Testbed (ICAT) Projectry Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-30

    by the System Integracion Directorate of the USAISEC, August 29, 1992. The report discusses the refinement of the ISA-97 Compliant Architecture Model...with her/him a social security number, and medical results. The output of the induction transaction is a set of orders and the creation of a personnel...file. In this example, the social security number is a write to the data encyclopedia and the medical results are a write to the data encyclopedia. We

  20. Workshop meeting report Organs-on-Chips: human disease models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Stolpe, Anja; den Toonder, Jaap

    2013-09-21

    The concept of "Organs-on-Chips" has recently evolved and has been described as 3D (mini-) organs or tissues consisting of multiple and different cell types interacting with each other under closely controlled conditions, grown in a microfluidic chip, and mimicking the complex structures and cellular interactions in and between different cell types and organs in vivo, enabling the real time monitoring of cellular processes. In combination with the emerging iPSC (induced pluripotent stem cell) field this development offers unprecedented opportunities to develop human in vitro models for healthy and diseased organ tissues, enabling the investigation of fundamental mechanisms in disease development, drug toxicity screening, drug target discovery and drug development, and the replacement of animal testing. Capturing the genetic background of the iPSC donor in the organ or disease model carries the promise to move towards "in vitro clinical trials", reducing costs for drug development and furthering the concept of personalized medicine and companion diagnostics. During the Lorentz workshop (Leiden, September 2012) an international multidisciplinary group of experts discussed the current state of the art, available and emerging technologies, applications and how to proceed in the field. Organ-on-a-chip platform technologies are expected to revolutionize cell biology in general and drug development in particular.

  1. Stochastic models for plant microtubule self-organization and structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Ezgi C; Dixit, Ram; Gautam, Natarajan

    2015-12-01

    One of the key enablers of shape and growth in plant cells is the cortical microtubule (CMT) system, which is a polymer array that forms an appropriately-structured scaffolding in each cell. Plant biologists have shown that stochastic dynamics and simple rules of interactions between CMTs can lead to a coaligned CMT array structure. However, the mechanisms and conditions that cause CMT arrays to become organized are not well understood. It is prohibitively time-consuming to use actual plants to study the effect of various genetic mutations and environmental conditions on CMT self-organization. In fact, even computer simulations with multiple replications are not fast enough due to the spatio-temporal complexity of the system. To redress this shortcoming, we develop analytical models and methods for expeditiously computing CMT system metrics that are related to self-organization and array structure. In particular, we formulate a mean-field model to derive sufficient conditions for the organization to occur. We show that growth-prone dynamics itself is sufficient to lead to organization in presence of interactions in the system. In addition, for such systems, we develop predictive methods for estimation of system metrics such as expected average length and number of CMTs over time, using a stochastic fluid-flow model, transient analysis, and approximation algorithms tailored to our problem. We illustrate the effectiveness of our approach through numerical test instances and discuss biological insights.

  2. Implementing Marine Organic Aerosols Into the GEOS-Chem Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew S.

    2015-01-01

    Marine-sourced organic aerosols (MOA) have been shown to play an important role in tropospheric chemistry by impacting surface mass, cloud condensation nuclei, and ice nuclei concentrations over remote marine and coastal regions. In this work, an online marine primary organic aerosol emission parameterization, designed to be used for both global and regional models, was implemented into the GEOS-Chem model. The implemented emission scheme improved the large under-prediction of organic aerosol concentrations in clean marine regions (normalized mean bias decreases from -79% when using the default settings to -12% when marine organic aerosols are added). Model predictions were also in good agreement (correlation coefficient of 0.62 and normalized mean bias of -36%) with hourly surface concentrations of MOA observed during the summertime at an inland site near Paris, France. Our study shows that MOA have weaker coastal-to-inland concentration gradients than sea-salt aerosols, leading to several inland European cities having > 10% of their surface submicron organic aerosol mass concentration with a marine source. The addition of MOA tracers to GEOS-Chem enabled us to identify the regions with large contributions of freshly-emitted or aged aerosol having distinct physicochemical properties, potentially indicating optimal locations for future field studies.

  3. Self-organized Criticality Model for Ocean Internal Waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Gang; LIN Min; QIAO Fang-Li; HOU Yi-Jun

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a simple spring-block model for ocean internal waves based on the self-organized criticality (SOC). The oscillations of the water blocks in the model display power-law behavior with an exponent of-2 in the frequency domain, which is similar to the current and sea water temperature spectra in the actual ocean and the universal Garrett and Munk deep ocean internal wave model [Geophysical Fluid Dynamics 2 (1972) 225; J. Geophys. Res. 80 (1975) 291]. The influence of the ratio of the driving force to the spring coefficient to SOC behaviors in the model is also discussed.

  4. Financial market model based on self-organized percolation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Chunxia; WANG Jie; ZHOU Tao; LIU Jun; XU Min; ZHOU Peiling; WANG Binghong

    2005-01-01

    Starting with the self-organized evolution of the trader group's structure, a parsimonious percolation model for stock market is established, which can be considered as a kind of betterment of the Cont-Bouchaud model. The return distribution of the present model obeys Lévy form in the center and displays fat-tail property, in accord with the stylized facts observed in real-life financial time series. Furthermore, this model reveals the power-law relationship between the peak value of the probability distribution and the time scales, in agreement with the empirical studies on the Hang Seng Index.

  5. Green Algae as Model Organisms for Biological Fluid Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Raymond E

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade the volvocine green algae, spanning from the unicellular Chlamydomonas to multicellular Volvox, have emerged as model organisms for a number of problems in biological fluid dynamics. These include flagellar propulsion, nutrient uptake by swimming organisms, hydrodynamic interactions mediated by walls, collective dynamics and transport within suspensions of microswimmers, the mechanism of phototaxis, and the stochastic dynamics of flagellar synchronization. Green algae are well suited to the study of such problems because of their range of sizes (from 10 μm to several millimetres), their geometric regularity, the ease with which they can be cultured and the availability of many mutants that allow for connections between molecular details and organism-level behavior. This review summarizes these recent developments and highlights promising future directions in the study of biological fluid dynamics, especially in the context of evolutionary biology, that can take advantage of these remarkable organisms.

  6. There Is No Simple Model of the Plasma Membrane Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardino de la Serna, Jorge; Schütz, Gerhard J.; Eggeling, Christian; Cebecauer, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Ever since technologies enabled the characterization of eukaryotic plasma membranes, heterogeneities in the distributions of its constituents were observed. Over the years this led to the proposal of various models describing the plasma membrane organization such as lipid shells, picket-and-fences, lipid rafts, or protein islands, as addressed in numerous publications and reviews. Instead of emphasizing on one model we in this review give a brief overview over current models and highlight how current experimental work in one or the other way do not support the existence of a single overarching model. Instead, we highlight the vast variety of membrane properties and components, their influences and impacts. We believe that highlighting such controversial discoveries will stimulate unbiased research on plasma membrane organization and functionality, leading to a better understanding of this essential cellular structure. PMID:27747212

  7. Review of existing terrestrial bioaccumulation models and terrestrial bioaccumulation modeling needs for organic chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protocols for terrestrial bioaccumulation assessments are far less-developed than for aquatic systems. This manuscript reviews modeling approaches that can be used to assess the terrestrial bioaccumulation potential of commercial organic chemicals. Models exist for plant, inver...

  8. A dynamical phyllotaxis model to determine floral organ number.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miho S Kitazawa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available How organisms determine particular organ numbers is a fundamental key to the development of precise body structures; however, the developmental mechanisms underlying organ-number determination are unclear. In many eudicot plants, the primordia of sepals and petals (the floral organs first arise sequentially at the edge of a circular, undifferentiated region called the floral meristem, and later transition into a concentric arrangement called a whorl, which includes four or five organs. The properties controlling the transition to whorls comprising particular numbers of organs is little explored. We propose a development-based model of floral organ-number determination, improving upon earlier models of plant phyllotaxis that assumed two developmental processes: the sequential initiation of primordia in the least crowded space around the meristem and the constant growth of the tip of the stem. By introducing mutual repulsion among primordia into the growth process, we numerically and analytically show that the whorled arrangement emerges spontaneously from the sequential initiation of primordia. Moreover, by allowing the strength of the inhibition exerted by each primordium to decrease as the primordium ages, we show that pentamerous whorls, in which the angular and radial positions of the primordia are consistent with those observed in sepal and petal primordia in Silene coeli-rosa, Caryophyllaceae, become the dominant arrangement. The organ number within the outmost whorl, corresponding to the sepals, takes a value of four or five in a much wider parameter space than that in which it takes a value of six or seven. These results suggest that mutual repulsion among primordia during growth and a temporal decrease in the strength of the inhibition during initiation are required for the development of the tetramerous and pentamerous whorls common in eudicots.

  9. Modeling organic matter stabilization during windrow composting of livestock effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudart, D; Paul, E; Robin, P; Paillat, J M

    2012-01-01

    Composting is a complex bioprocess, requiring a lot of empirical experiments to optimize the process. A dynamical mathematical model for the biodegradation of the organic matter during the composting process has been developed. The initial organic matter expressed by chemical oxygen demand (COD) is decomposed into rapidly and slowly degraded compartments and an inert one. The biodegradable COD is hydrolysed and consumed by microorganisms and produces metabolic water and carbon dioxide. This model links a biochemical characterization of the organic matter by Van Soest fractionating with COD. The comparison of experimental and simulation results for carbon dioxide emission, dry matter and carbon content balance showed good correlation. The initial sizes of the biodegradable COD compartments are explained by the soluble, hemicellulose-like and lignin fraction. Their sizes influence the amplitude of the carbon dioxide emission peak. The initial biomass is a sensitive variable too, influencing the time at which the emission peak occurs.

  10. Simple model of self-organized biological evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Boer, J.; Derrida, B.; Flyvbjerg, H.; Jackson, A.D.; Wettig, T. (Department of Physics, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 11794-3800 (United States) The Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences, 20 Clarkson Road, Cambridge, CB4 0EH (United Kingdom) Laboratoire de Physique Statistique, Ecole Normale Superieure, 24 rue Lhomond, F-75005 Paris (France) Service de Physique Theorique, Centre de Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, F-91191, Gif-Sur-Yvette (France) CONNECT, The Niels Bohr Institute, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark))

    1994-08-08

    We give an exact solution of a recently proposed self-organized critical model of biological evolution. We show that the model has a power law distribution of durations of coevolutionary avalanches'' with a mean field exponent 3/2. We also calculate analytically the finite size effects which cut off this power law at times of the order of the system size.

  11. BeetleBase: the model organism database for Tribolium castaneum

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Liangjiang; Wang, Suzhi; Li, Yonghua; Paradesi, Martin S. R.; Brown, Susan J

    2006-01-01

    BeetleBase () is an integrated resource for the Tribolium research community. The red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) is an important model organism for genetics, developmental biology, toxicology and comparative genomics, the genome of which has recently been sequenced. BeetleBase is constructed to integrate the genomic sequence data with information about genes, mutants, genetic markers, expressed sequence tags and publications. BeetleBase uses the Chado data model and software component...

  12. A two-site bipolaron model for organic magnetoresistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagemans, W.; Bloom, F. L.; Bobbert, P. A.; Wohlgenannt, M.; Koopmans, B.

    2008-04-01

    The recently proposed bipolaron model for large "organic magnetoresistance" (OMAR) at room temperature is extended to an analytically solvable two-site scheme. It is shown that even this extremely simplified approach reproduces some of the key features of OMAR, viz., the possibility to have both positive and negative magnetoresistance, as well as its universal line shapes. Specific behavior and limiting cases are discussed. Extensions of the model, to guide future experiments and numerical Monte Carlo studies, are suggested.

  13. Validation and Scenario Analysis of a Soil Organic Carbon Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yao; LIU Shi-liang; SHEN Qi-rong; ZONG Liang-gang; JIANG Ding-an; HUANG Hong-guang

    2002-01-01

    A model developed by the authors was validated against independent data sets. The data sets were obtained from field experiments of crop residue decomposition and a 7-year soil improvement in Yixing City, Jiangsu Province. Model validation indicated that soil organic carbon dynamics can be simulated from the weather variables of temperature, sunlight and precipitation, soil clay content and bulk density, grain yield of previous crops, qualities and quantities of the added organic matter. Model simulation in general agreed with the measurements. The comparison between computed and measured resulted in correlation coefficient γ2 values of 0.9291 * * * (n = 48) and 0. 6431 * * (n = 65) for the two experiments, respectively. Model prediction under three scenarios of no additional organic matter input, with an annual incorporation of rice and wheat straw at rates of 6.75t/ha and 9.0t/ha suggested that the soil organic carbon in Wanshi Township of Yixing City would be from an initial value of 7.85g/kg in 1983 to 6.30g/kg, 11.42g/kg and 13g/kg in 2014, respectively. Consequently, total nitrogen content of the soil was predicted to be respectively 0.49g/kg,0.89g/kg and 1.01g/kg under the three scenarios.

  14. Waste Reduction Model (WARM) Resources for Small Businesses and Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page provides a brief overview of how EPA’s Waste Reduction Model (WARM) can be used by small businesses and organizations. The page includes a brief summary of uses of WARM for the audience and links to other resources.

  15. An Integrated Model for Effective Knowledge Management in Chinese Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Xiaomi; Deng, Hepu; Wang, Yiwen; Chao, Lemen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide organizations in the Chinese cultural context with a conceptual model for an integrated adoption of existing knowledge management (KM) methods and to improve the effectiveness of their KM activities. Design/methodology/approaches: A comparative analysis is conducted between China and the western…

  16. Promoting Representational Competence with Molecular Models in Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stull, Andrew T.; Gainer, Morgan; Padalkar, Shamin; Hegarty, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Mastering the many different diagrammatic representations of molecules used in organic chemistry is challenging for students. This article summarizes recent research showing that manipulating 3-D molecular models can facilitate the understanding and use of these representations. Results indicate that students are more successful in translating…

  17. Editorial: Plant organ abscission: from models to crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    The shedding of plant organs is a highly coordinated process essential for both vegetative and reproductive development (Addicott, 1982; Sexton and Roberts, 1982; Roberts et al., 2002; Leslie et al., 2007; Roberts and Gonzalez-Carranza, 2007; Estornell et al., 2013). Research with model plants, name...

  18. A Process Model for the Comprehension of Organic Chemistry Notation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havanki, Katherine L.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines the cognitive processes individuals use when reading organic chemistry equations and factors that affect these processes, namely, visual complexity of chemical equations and participant characteristics (expertise, spatial ability, and working memory capacity). A six stage process model for the comprehension of organic…

  19. SOMPROF: A vertically explicit soil organic matter model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braakhekke, M.C.; Beer, M.; Hoosbeek, M.R.; Kruijt, B.; Kabat, P.

    2011-01-01

    Most current soil organic matter (SOM) models represent the soil as a bulk without specification of the vertical distribution of SOM in the soil profile. However, the vertical SOM profile may be of great importance for soil carbon cycling, both on short (hours to years) time scale, due to

  20. Promoting Representational Competence with Molecular Models in Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stull, Andrew T.; Gainer, Morgan; Padalkar, Shamin; Hegarty, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Mastering the many different diagrammatic representations of molecules used in organic chemistry is challenging for students. This article summarizes recent research showing that manipulating 3-D molecular models can facilitate the understanding and use of these representations. Results indicate that students are more successful in translating…

  1. Supramolecular organization of functional organic materials in the bulk and at organic/organic interfaces: a modeling and computer simulation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muccioli, Luca; D'Avino, Gabriele; Berardi, Roberto; Orlandi, Silvia; Pizzirusso, Antonio; Ricci, Matteo; Roscioni, Otello Maria; Zannoni, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    The molecular organization of functional organic materials is one of the research areas where the combination of theoretical modeling and experimental determinations is most fruitful. Here we present a brief summary of the simulation approaches used to investigate the inner structure of organic materials with semiconducting behavior, paying special attention to applications in organic photovoltaics and clarifying the often obscure jargon hindering the access of newcomers to the literature of the field. Special attention is paid to the choice of the computational "engine" (Monte Carlo or Molecular Dynamics) used to generate equilibrium configurations of the molecular system under investigation and, more importantly, to the choice of the chemical details in describing the molecular interactions. Recent literature dealing with the simulation of organic semiconductors is critically reviewed in order of increasing complexity of the system studied, from low molecular weight molecules to semiflexible polymers, including the challenging problem of determining the morphology of heterojunctions between two different materials.

  2. Modeling secondary organic aerosol formation through cloud processing of organic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Chen

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Interest in the potential formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA through reactions of organic compounds in condensed aqueous phases is growing. In this study, the potential formation of SOA from irreversible aqueous-phase reactions of organic species in clouds was investigated. A new proposed aqueous-phase chemistry mechanism (AqChem is coupled with the existing gas-phase Caltech Atmospheric Chemistry Mechanism (CACM and the Model to Predict the Multiphase Partitioning of Organics (MPMPO that simulate SOA formation. AqChem treats irreversible organic reactions that lead mainly to the formation of carboxylic acids, which are usually less volatile than the corresponding aldehydic compounds. Zero-dimensional model simulations were performed for tropospheric conditions with clouds present for three consecutive hours per day. Zero-dimensional model simulations show that 48-h average SOA formation is increased by 27% for a rural scenario with strong monoterpene emissions and 7% for an urban scenario with strong emissions of aromatic compounds, respectively, when irreversible organic reactions in clouds are considered. AqChem was also incorporated into the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ version 4.4 with CACM/MPMPO and applied to a previously studied photochemical episode (3–4 August 2004 focusing on the eastern United States. The CMAQ study indicates that the maximum contribution of SOA formation from irreversible reactions of organics in clouds is 0.28 μg m−3 for 24-h average concentrations and 0.60 μg m−3 for one-hour average concentrations at certain locations. On average, domain-wide surface SOA predictions for the episode are increased by 9% when irreversible, in-cloud processing of organics is considered. Because aldehydes of carbon number greater than four are assumed to convert fully to the corresponding carboxylic acids upon reaction with OH in cloud droplets and this assumption may overestimate

  3. Sustainable Organic Farming For Environmental Health A Social Development Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ijun Rijwan Susanto

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In this study the researcher attempted 1 to understand the basic features of organic farming in The Paguyuban Pasundans Cianjur 2 to describe and understand how the stakeholders were are able to internalize the challenges of organic farming on their lived experiences in the community 3 to describe and understand how the stakeholders were are able to internalize and applied the values of benefits of organic farming in support of environmental health on their lived experiences in the community 4 The purpose was to describe and understand how the stakeholders who are able to articulate their ideas regarding the model of sustainable organic farming 5 The Policy Recommendation for Organic Farming. The researcher employed triangulation thorough finding that provides breadth and depth to an investigation offering researchers a more accurate picture of the phenomenon. In the implementation of triangulation researchers conducted several interviews to get saturation. After completion of the interview results are written compiled and shown to the participants to check every statement by every participant. In addition researchers also checked the relevant documents and direct observation in the field The participants of this study were the stakeholders namely 1 The leader of Paguyuban Pasundans Organic Farmer Cianjur PPOFC 2 Members of Paguyuban Pasundans Organic FarmersCianjur 3 Leader of NGO 4 Government officials of agriculture 5 Business of organic food 6 and Consumer of organic food. Generally the findings of the study revealed the following 1 PPOFC began to see the reality as the impact of modern agriculture showed in fertility problems due to contaminated soil by residues of agricultural chemicals such as chemical fertilizers and chemical pesticides. So he wants to restore the soil fertility through environmentally friendly of farming practices 2 the challenges of organic farming on their lived experiences in the community farmers did not

  4. Global Modeling of the Oceanic Source of Organic Aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelios Myriokefalitakis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The global marine organic aerosol budget is investigated by a 3-dimensional chemistry-transport model considering recently proposed parameterisations of the primary marine organic aerosol (POA and secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation from the oxidation of marine volatile organic compounds. MODIS and SeaWiFS satellite data of Chlorophyll-a and ECMWF solar incoming radiation, wind speed, and temperature are driving the oceanic emissions in the model. Based on the adopted parameterisations, the SOA and the submicron POA marine sources are evaluated at about 5 Tg yr−1 (∼1.5 Tg C yr−1 and 7 to 8 Tg yr−1 (∼4 Tg C yr−1, respectively. The computed marine SOA originates from the dimethylsulfide oxidation (∼78%, the potentially formed dialkyl amine salts (∼21%, and marine hydrocarbon oxidation (∼0.1%. Comparison of calculations with observations indicates an additional marine source of soluble organic carbon that could be partially encountered by marine POA chemical ageing.

  5. Accounting for microbial habitats in modeling soil organic matter dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenu, Claire; Garnier, Patricia; Nunan, Naoise; Pot, Valérie; Raynaud, Xavier; Vieublé, Laure; Otten, Wilfred; Falconer, Ruth; Monga, Olivier

    2017-04-01

    The extreme heterogeneity of soils constituents, architecture and inhabitants at the microscopic scale is increasingly recognized. Microbial communities exist and are active in a complex 3-D physical framework of mineral and organic particles defining pores of various sizes, more or less inter-connected. This results in a frequent spatial disconnection between soil carbon, energy sources and the decomposer organisms and a variety of microhabitats that are more or less suitable for microbial growth and activity. However, current biogeochemical models account for C dynamics at the macroscale (cm, m) and consider time- and spatially averaged relationships between microbial activity and soil characteristics. Different modelling approaches have intended to account for this microscale heterogeneity, based either on considering aggregates as surrogates for microbial habitats, or pores. Innovative modelling approaches are based on an explicit representation of soil structure at the fine scale, i.e. at µm to mm scales: pore architecture and their saturation with water, localization of organic resources and of microorganisms. Three recent models are presented here, that describe the heterotrophic activity of either bacteria or fungi and are based upon different strategies to represent the complex soil pore system (Mosaic, LBios and µFun). These models allow to hierarchize factors of microbial activity in soil's heterogeneous architecture. Present limits of these approaches and challenges are presented, regarding the extensive information required on soils at the microscale and to up-scale microbial functioning from the pore to the core scale.

  6. Model Based Fuzzy Expert System for Measuring Organization Knowledge Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houshang Taghizadeh

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model based on fuzzy set theory for determining the score of knowledge management in organization. The introduced model has five stages. In the first stage, input and output variable of model are characterized by available theories. Inputs are as follows: knowledge acquisition, knowledge storage, knowledge creation, knowledge sharing and knowledge transfer. The output is as follow score of knowledge management in organization. In the second stage, the input and output are converted into fuzzy numbers after classification. Inference rules are explained in the third stage. In the fourth stage, defuzzification is performed, and in the fifth stage, the devised system is tested. The test result shows that the presented model has high validity. Ultimately, by using the designed model, the score of knowledge management for Tabriz Kar machinery industry was calculated. The statistical population consists of 50 members of this organization. All the population has been studied. A questionnaire was devised, and its validity and reliability were confirmed. The result indicated that the score of knowledge management in Tabriz Kar machinery industry with the membership rank of 0.924 was at an average level and with the membership rank of 0.076 was at a high

  7. Modeling organic nitrogen conversions in activated sludge bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makinia, Jacek; Pagilla, Krishna; Czerwionka, Krzysztof; Stensel, H David

    2011-01-01

    For biological nutrient removal (BNR) systems designed to maximize nitrogen removal, the effluent total nitrogen (TN) concentration may range from 2.0 to 4.0 g N/m(3) with about 25-50% in the form of organic nitrogen (ON). In this study, current approaches to modeling organic N conversions (separate processes vs. constant contents of organic fractions) were compared. A new conceptual model of ON conversions was developed and combined with Activated Sludge Model No. 2d (ASM2d). The model addresses a new insight into the processes of ammonification, biomass decay and hydrolysis of particulate and colloidal ON (PON and CON, respectively). Three major ON fractions incorporated are defined as dissolved (DON) (model parameter set, the behaviors of both inorganic N forms (NH4-N, NOX-N) and ON forms (DON, CON) in the batch experiments were predicted. The challenges to accurately simulate and predict effluent ON levels from BNR systems are due to analytical methods of direct ON measurement (replacing TKN) and lack of large enough database (in-process measurements, dynamic variations of the ON concentrations) which can be used to determine parameter value ranges.

  8. THE MODEL OF EXTERNSHIP ORGANIZATION FOR FUTURE TEACHERS: QUALIMETRIC APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taisiya A. Isaeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to present author’s model for bachelors – future teachers of vocational training. The model is been worked out from the standpoint of qualimetric approach and provides a pedagogical training.Methods. The process is based on the literature analysis of externship organization for students in higher education and includes the SWOT-analysis techniques in pedagogical training. The method of group expert evaluation is the main method of pedagogical qualimetry. Structural components of professional pedagogical competency of students-future teachers are defined. It allows us to determine a development level and criterion of estimation on mastering programme «Vocational training (branch-wise».Results. This article interprets the concept «pedagogical training»; its basic organization principles during students’ practice are stated. The methods of expert group formation are presented: self-assessment and personal data.Scientific novelty. The externship organization model for future teachers is developed. This model is based on pedagogical training, using qualimetric approach and the SWOT-analysis techniques. Proposed criterion-assessment procedures are managed to determine the developing levels of professional and pedagogical competency.Practical significance. The model is introduced into pedagogical training of educational process of Kalashnikov’s Izhevsk State Technical University, and can be used in other similar educational establishments.

  9. Self-organizing model of motor cortical activities during drawing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Siming H.; Si, Jennie; Schwartz, Andrew B.

    1996-05-01

    The population vector algorithm has been developed to combine the simultaneous direction- related activities of a population of motor cortical neurons to predict the trajectory of the arm movement. In our study, we consider a self-organizing model of a neural representation of the arm trajectory based on neuronal discharge rates. Self-organizing feature mapping (SOFM) is used to select the optimal set of weights in the model to determine the contribution of individual neuron to the overall movement. The correspondence between the movement directions and the discharge patterns of the motor cortical neurons is established in the output map. The topology preserving property of the SOFM is used to analyze real recorded data of a behavior monkey. The data used in this analysis were taken while the monkey was drawing spirals and doing the center out movement. Using such a statistical model, the monkey's arm moving directions could be well predicted based on the motor cortex neuronal firing information.

  10. 略论英美两部著名社会科学百科全书的异同--Encyclopedia of the Social Science 与 The Social Science Encyclopedia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩志敏

    2005-01-01

    美国出版发行的Encyclopedia of the Social Science和英国出版发行的The Social Science Encyclopedia,这两部著名的社会科学百科全书的中文译名都可以称为.这两部社会科学百科全书是世界上较有代表性的社会科学百科全书.它们编制目的不同、收录范围及行文特点也不同,但在反映内容方面却有着共同点.

  11. Review Essay: The New Complexity: Encyclopedias, Glossaries and Dictionaries on Qualitative Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günter Mey

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A new genre—glossaries and dictionaries on qualitative research—has started to enter the Anglo-American publishing market. Following Thomas A. SCHWANDT's Dictionary of Qualitative Inquiry, published for the first time in 1997 and now available in a 3rd edition, two new books have appeared: The SAGE Dictionary of Social Research Methods, edited by Victor JUPP, and Keywords in Qualitative Research, written by Michael BLOOR and Fiona WOOD. Similar volumes are in the pipeline, such as The SAGE Encyclopedia of Qualitative Research Methods, edited by Lisa M. GIVEN, which is to be published in spring 2008. In face of the diversification of qualitative research, such a development is not surprising: encyclopedias, glossaries and dictionaries promise a quick overview of an increasingly complex research area. Yet it is surprising that although more than 600 terms and concepts are defined and discussed in the books mentioned above, there is only a small group of about 30 terms common to all of them. Even for this common denominator descriptions are divergent and there is little overlap of the references provided for further reading in relation to each term. In this regard qualitative research seems to be something it is hard for encyclopedic endeavors to grasp. A further comparison of the English books with the only one currently available in German reveals the impact of language and national barriers: many terms familiar to at least some sections of the German qualitative research community do not exist at all in the English-language texts. The books discussed in this essay offer an overview but do not really do justice to the complexity and diversity of the research field. To purchase just one of them would bring only partial success to those hoping for a comprehensive overview of the field of qualitative research. And whether such fixed—print—reference guides will be attractive outside of libraries when the Internet, including Wikipedia and

  12. Rotation in turbulence of aquatic organisms modeled as particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variano, Evan; Byron, Margaret; Bellani, Gabriele

    2012-11-01

    We investigate which length and time scales are relevant for determining the rotation of aquatic organisms and their gametes. We are interested in parameter space beyond the Stokes regime, and also the effect of particle shape on rotation. We report experimental measurements that use custom-manufactured particles to model aquatic organisms, which are designed with the necessary optical properties so that we can measure their rotation, simultaneously with the vorticity statistics of the surrounding fluid. Lagrangian timeseries of particles' angular velocity allows investigation of rotational diffusion.

  13. Modeling stable isotope and organic carbon in hillslope stormflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusek, Jaromir; Vogel, Tomas; Dohnal, Michal; Marx, Anne; Jankovec, Jakub; Sanda, Martin; Votrubova, Jana; Barth, Johannes A. C.; Cislerova, Milena

    2016-04-01

    Reliable prediction of water movement and fluxes of dissolved substances (such as stable isotopes and organic carbon) at both the hillslope and the catchment scales remains a challenge due to complex boundary conditions and soil spatial heterogeneity. In addition, microbially mediated transformations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) are known to affect balance of DOC in soils, hence the transformations need to be included in a conceptual model of a DOC transport. So far, only few studies utilized stable isotope information in modeling and even fewer linked dissolved carbon fluxes to mixing and/or transport models. In this study, stormflow dynamics of oxygen-18 isotope and dissolved organic carbon was analyzed using a physically based modeling approach. One-dimensional dual-continuum vertical flow and transport model, based on Richards and advection-dispersion equations, was used to simulate the subsurface transport processes in a forest soil during several observed rainfall-runoff episodes. The transport of heat in the soil profile was described by conduction-advection equation. Water flow and transport of solutes and heat were assumed to take place in two mutually communicating porous domains, the soil matrix and the network of preferential pathways. The rate of microbial transformations of DOC was assumed to depend on soil water content and soil temperature. Oxygen-18 and dissolved organic carbon concentrations were observed in soil pore water, hillslope stormflow (collected in the experimental hillslope trench), and stream discharge (at the catchment outlet). The modeling was used to analyze the transformation of input solute signals into output hillslope signals observed in the trench stormflow. Signatures of oxygen-18 isotope in hillslope stormflow as well as isotope concentration in soil pore water were predicted reasonably well. Due to complex nature of microbial transformations, prediction of DOC rate and transport was associated with a high uncertainty.

  14. Experimentation and modeling of organic photocontamination on lithographic optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Roderick R.; Liberman, Vladimir; Downs, Deanna K.

    2000-07-01

    Photodeposition of organic films on transparent substrates irradiated in the presence of trace levels of hydrocarbons has been experimentally investigated and a model is presented that describes the film growth behavior. The efficacy of a given organic precursor at forming a deposit is proportional to the product of its surface coverage and by its photon absorption cross section. These measurement are important in predicting the transmission characteristics of lithographic optics operating at 157-, 193-, and 248-nm wavelength. For example, a lens element irradiated continuously for one year in the presence of 1 part per billion of t-butyl benzene would exhibit a transmission of approximately 87 percent at 193 nm. The effects of oxygen- containing ambients are also documented, and methods for elimination and/or prevention of organic contamination are suggested.

  15. Organic livestock production systems as a model of sustainability development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Pauselli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic farming and livestock production offer effective means of satisfying consumer demand for healthy and safe foods and reducing the environmental pressure of agricultural production. In Mediterranean areas organic livestock production could be considered a feasible systems to improve rural development in unfavourable areas and to maintain rural landscape. Constrains, like pasture availability during the year, determine the evolution of different strategies in livestock rearing to improve or maintain net income of population. Moreover the evaluation of the sustainability using a holistic approach using assessment criteria like Life Cycle Assessment (LCA and Emergy Assessment could be considered models to evaluate organic and conventional livestock production sustainability and at the same time new research fields.

  16. IT Business Value Model for Information Intensive Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Gastaud Maçada

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have highlighted the capacity Information Technology (IT has for generating value for organizations. Investments in IT made by organizations have increased each year. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to analyze the IT Business Value for Information Intensive Organizations (IIO - e.g. banks, insurance companies and securities brokers. The research method consisted of a survey that used and combined the models from Weill and Broadbent (1998 and Gregor, Martin, Fernandez, Stern and Vitale (2006. Data was gathered using an adapted instrument containing 5 dimensions (Strategic, Informational, Transactional, Transformational and Infra-structure with 27 items. The instrument was refined by employing statistical techniques such as Exploratory and Confirmatory Factorial Analysis through Structural Equations (first and second order Model Measurement. The final model is composed of four factors related to IT Business Value: Strategic, Informational, Transactional and Transformational, arranged in 15 items. The dimension Infra-structure was excluded during the model refinement process because it was discovered during interviews that managers were unable to perceive it as a distinct dimension of IT Business Value.

  17. Modeling self-organizing traffic lights with elementary cellular automata

    CERN Document Server

    Gershenson, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    There have been several highway traffic models proposed based on cellular automata. The simplest one is elementary cellular automaton rule 184. We extend this model to city traffic with cellular automata coupled at intersections using only rules 184, 252, and 136. The simplicity of the model offers a clear understanding of the main properties of city traffic and its phase transitions. We use the proposed model to compare two methods for coordinating traffic lights: a green-wave method that tries to optimize phases according to expected flows and a self-organizing method that adapts to the current traffic conditions. The self-organizing method delivers considerable improvements over the green-wave method. For low densities, the self-organizing method promotes the formation and coordination of platoons that flow freely in four directions, i.e. with a maximum velocity and no stops. For medium densities, the method allows a constant usage of the intersections, exploiting their maximum flux capacity. For high dens...

  18. Nonequilibrium drift-diffusion model for organic semiconductor devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felekidis, Nikolaos; Melianas, Armantas; Kemerink, Martijn

    2016-07-01

    Two prevailing formalisms are currently used to model charge transport in organic semiconductor devices. Drift-diffusion calculations, on the one hand, are time effective but assume local thermodynamic equilibrium, which is not always realistic. Kinetic Monte Carlo models, on the other hand, do not require this assumption but are computationally expensive. Here, we present a nonequilibrium drift-diffusion model that bridges this gap by fusing the established multiple trap and release formalism with the drift-diffusion transport equation. For a prototypical photovoltaic system the model is shown to quantitatively describe, with a single set of parameters, experiments probing (1) temperature-dependent steady-state charge transport—space-charge limited currents, and (2) time-resolved charge transport and relaxation of nonequilibrated photocreated charges. Moreover, the outputs of the developed kinetic drift-diffusion model are an order of magnitude, or more, faster to compute and in good agreement with kinetic Monte Carlo calculations.

  19. Modeling regional secondary organic aerosol using the Master Chemical Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingyi; Cleveland, Meredith; Ziemba, Luke D.; Griffin, Robert J.; Barsanti, Kelley C.; Pankow, James F.; Ying, Qi

    2015-02-01

    A modified near-explicit Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM, version 3.2) with 5727 species and 16,930 reactions and an equilibrium partitioning module was incorporated into the Community Air Quality Model (CMAQ) to predict the regional concentrations of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the eastern United States (US). In addition to the semi-volatile SOA from equilibrium partitioning, reactive surface uptake processes were used to simulate SOA formation due to isoprene epoxydiol, glyoxal and methylglyoxal. The CMAQ-MCM-SOA model was applied to simulate SOA formation during a two-week episode from August 28 to September 7, 2006. The southeastern US has the highest SOA, with a maximum episode-averaged concentration of ∼12 μg m-3. Primary organic aerosol (POA) and SOA concentrations predicted by CMAQ-MCM-SOA agree well with AMS-derived hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) and oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA) urban concentrations at the Moody Tower at the University of Houston. Predicted molecular properties of SOA (O/C, H/C, N/C and OM/OC ratios) at the site are similar to those reported in other urban areas, and O/C values agree with measured O/C at the same site. Isoprene epoxydiol is predicted to be the largest contributor to total SOA concentration in the southeast US, followed by methylglyoxal and glyoxal. The semi-volatile SOA components are dominated by products from β-caryophyllene oxidation, but the major species and their concentrations are sensitive to errors in saturation vapor pressure estimation. A uniform decrease of saturation vapor pressure by a factor of 100 for all condensable compounds can lead to a 150% increase in total SOA. A sensitivity simulation with UNIFAC-calculated activity coefficients (ignoring phase separation and water molecule partitioning into the organic phase) led to a 10% change in the predicted semi-volatile SOA concentrations.

  20. Model Establishment for Simulating Soil Organic Carbon Dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yao; LIU Shi-liang; SHEN Qi-rong; ZONG Liang-gang

    2002-01-01

    Assuming that decomposition of organic matter in soils follows the first-order kinetics reaction,a computer model was developed to simulate soil organic matter dynamics. Organic matter in soils is divided up into two parts that include incorporated organic carbon from crop residues or other organic fertilizer and soil intrinsic carbon. The incorporated organic carbon was assumed to consist of two components, labile-C and resistant-C. The model was represented by a differential equation of dCi/dt = Ki× fT × fw × fs × Ci ( i = l,r, S ) and an integral equation of Cit = Cio × EXP ( Ki X fT X fw X fs X t ). Effect of soil parameters of temperature, moisture and texture on the decomposition was functioned by the fT, fw and fs, respectively.Data from laboratory incubation experiments were used to determine the first-order decay rate Ki and the fraction of labile-C of crop residues by employing a nonlinear method. The values of K for the components of labile-C and resistant-C and the soil intrinsic carbon were evaluated to be 0. 025,0. 080 × 10-2 and 0. 065 ×10-3d-1, respectively. The labile-C fraction of wheat straw, wheat roots, rice straw and rice roots were0.50, 0.25, 0.40 and 0.20, respectively. These values are related to the initial residue carbon-to-nitrogen ratio ( C/N) and lignin content.

  1. Proteopedia: a status report on the collaborative, 3D web-encyclopedia of proteins and other biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prilusky, Jaime; Hodis, Eran; Canner, David; Decatur, Wayne A; Oberholser, Karl; Martz, Eric; Berchanski, Alexander; Harel, Michal; Sussman, Joel L

    2011-08-01

    Proteopedia is a collaborative, 3D web-encyclopedia of protein, nucleic acid and other biomolecule structures. Created as a means for communicating biomolecule structures to a diverse scientific audience, Proteopedia (http://www.proteopedia.org) presents structural annotation in an intuitive, interactive format and allows members of the scientific community to easily contribute their own annotations. Here, we provide a status report on Proteopedia by describing advances in the web resource since its inception three and a half years ago, focusing on features of potential direct use to the scientific community. We discuss its progress as a collaborative 3D-encyclopedia of structures as well as its use as a complement to scientific publications and PowerPoint presentations. We also describe Proteopedia's use for 3D visualization in structure-related pedagogy.

  2. Mobility dependent recombination models for organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenpfahl, Alexander

    2017-09-01

    Modern solar cell technologies are driven by the effort to enhance power conversion efficiencies. A main mechanism limiting power conversion efficiencies is charge carrier recombination which is a direct function of the encounter probability of both recombination partners. In inorganic solar cells with rather high charge carrier mobilities, charge carrier recombination is often dominated by energetic states which subsequently trap both recombination partners for recombination. Free charge carriers move fast enough for Coulomb attraction to be irrelevant for the encounter probability. Thus, charge carrier recombination is independent of charge carrier mobilities. In organic semiconductors charge carrier mobilities are much lower. Therefore, electrons and holes have more time react to mutual Coulomb-forces. This results in the strong charge carrier mobility dependencies of the observed charge carrier recombination rates. In 1903 Paul Langevin published a fundamental model to describe the recombination of ions in gas-phase or aqueous solutions, known today as Langevin recombination. During the last decades this model was used to interpret and model recombination in organic semiconductors. However, certain experiments especially with bulk-heterojunction solar cells reveal much lower recombination rates than predicted by Langevin. In search of an explanation, many material and device properties such as morphology and energetic properties have been examined in order to extend the validity of the Langevin model. A key argument for most of these extended models is, that electron and hole must find each other at a mutual spatial location. This encounter may be limited for instance by trapping of charges in trap states, by selective electrodes separating electrons and holes, or simply by the morphology of the involved semiconductors, making it impossible for electrons and holes to recombine at high rates. In this review, we discuss the development of mobility limited

  3. Model evaluation of marine primary organic aerosol emission schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gantt

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, several marine primary organic aerosol (POA emission schemes have been evaluated using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model in order to provide guidance for their implementation in air quality and climate models. These emission schemes, based on varying dependencies of chlorophyll a concentration ([chl a] and 10 m wind speed (U10, have large differences in their magnitude, spatial distribution, and seasonality. Model comparison with weekly and monthly mean values of the organic aerosol mass concentration at two coastal sites shows that the source function exclusively related to [chl a] does a better job replicating surface observations. Sensitivity simulations in which the negative U10 and positive [chl a] dependence of the organic mass fraction of sea spray aerosol are enhanced show improved prediction of the seasonality of the marine POA concentrations. A top-down estimate of submicron marine POA emissions based on the parameterization that compares best to the observed weekly and monthly mean values of marine organic aerosol surface concentrations has a global average emission rate of 6.3 Tg yr−1. Evaluation of existing marine POA source functions against a case study during which marine POA contributed the major fraction of submicron aerosol mass shows that none of the existing parameterizations are able to reproduce the hourly-averaged observations. Our calculations suggest that in order to capture episodic events and short-term variability in submicron marine POA concentration over the ocean, new source functions need to be developed that are grounded in the physical processes unique to the organic fraction of sea spray aerosol.

  4. Model evaluation of marine primary organic aerosol emission schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantt, B.; Johnson, M. S.; Meskhidze, N.; Sciare, J.; Ovadnevaite, J.; Ceburnis, D.; O'Dowd, C. D.

    2012-09-01

    In this study, several marine primary organic aerosol (POA) emission schemes have been evaluated using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model in order to provide guidance for their implementation in air quality and climate models. These emission schemes, based on varying dependencies of chlorophyll a concentration ([chl a]) and 10 m wind speed (U10), have large differences in their magnitude, spatial distribution, and seasonality. Model comparison with weekly and monthly mean values of the organic aerosol mass concentration at two coastal sites shows that the source function exclusively related to [chl a] does a better job replicating surface observations. Sensitivity simulations in which the negative U10 and positive [chl a] dependence of the organic mass fraction of sea spray aerosol are enhanced show improved prediction of the seasonality of the marine POA concentrations. A top-down estimate of submicron marine POA emissions based on the parameterization that compares best to the observed weekly and monthly mean values of marine organic aerosol surface concentrations has a global average emission rate of 6.3 Tg yr-1. Evaluation of existing marine POA source functions against a case study during which marine POA contributed the major fraction of submicron aerosol mass shows that none of the existing parameterizations are able to reproduce the hourly-averaged observations. Our calculations suggest that in order to capture episodic events and short-term variability in submicron marine POA concentration over the ocean, new source functions need to be developed that are grounded in the physical processes unique to the organic fraction of sea spray aerosol.

  5. Fine-scale map of encyclopedia of DNA elements regions in the Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Yeon-Kyeong; Ke, Xiayi; Hong, Sungwoo; Jang, Hye-Yoon; Park, Kyunghee; Kim, Sook; Ahn, TaeJin; Lee, Yeun-Du; Song, Okryeol; Rho, Na-Young; Lee, Moon Sue; Lee, Yeon-Su; Kim, Jaeheup; Kim, Young J; Yang, Jun-Mo; Song, Kyuyoung; Kimm, Kyuchan; Weir, Bruce; Cardon, Lon R; Lee, Jong-Eun; Hwang, Jung-Joo

    2006-09-01

    The International HapMap Project aims to generate detailed human genome variation maps by densely genotyping single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CEPH, Chinese, Japanese, and Yoruba samples. This will undoubtedly become an important facility for genetic studies of diseases and complex traits in the four populations. To address how the genetic information contained in such variation maps is transferable to other populations, the Korean government, industries, and academics have launched the Korean HapMap project to genotype high-density Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) regions in 90 Korean individuals. Here we show that the LD pattern, block structure, haplotype diversity, and recombination rate are highly concordant between Korean and the two HapMap Asian samples, particularly Japanese. The availability of information from both Chinese and Japanese samples helps to predict more accurately the possible performance of HapMap markers in Korean disease-gene studies. Tagging SNPs selected from the two HapMap Asian maps, especially the Japanese map, were shown to be very effective for Korean samples. These results demonstrate that the HapMap variation maps are robust in related populations and will serve as an important resource for the studies of the Korean population in particular.

  6. Potential use of DNA barcodes in regulatory science: applications of the Regulatory Fish Encyclopedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancy, Haile F; Zemlak, Tyler S; Mason, Jacquline A; Washington, Jewell D; Tenge, Bradley J; Nguyen, Ngoc-Lan T; Barnett, James D; Savary, Warren E; Hill, Walter E; Moore, Michelle M; Fry, Frederick S; Randolph, Spring C; Rogers, Patricia L; Hebert, Paul D N

    2008-01-01

    The use of a DNA-based identification system (DNA barcoding) founded on the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) was investigated for updating the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Regulatory Fish Encyclopedia (RFE; http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/-frf/rfe0.html). The RFE is a compilation of data used to identify fish species. It was compiled to help regulators identify species substitution that could result in potential adverse health consequences or could be a source of economic fraud. For each of many aquatic species commonly sold in the United States, the RFE includes high-resolution photographs of whole fish and their marketed product forms and species-specific biochemical patterns for authenticated fish species. These patterns currently include data from isoelectric focusing studies. In this article, we describe the generation of DNA barcodes for 172 individual authenticated fish representing 72 species from 27 families contained in the RFE. These barcode sequences can be used as an additional identification resource. In a blind study, 60 unknown fish muscle samples were barcoded, and the results were compared with the RFE barcode reference library. All 60 samples were correctly identified to species based on the barcoding data. Our study indicates that DNA barcoding can be a powerful tool for species identification and has broad potential applications.

  7. The Encyclopedia of Life v2: Providing Global Access to Knowledge About Life on Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Cynthia S; Wilson, Nathan; Leary, Patrick; Schulz, Katja S; Lans, Kristen; Walley, Lisa; Hammock, Jennifer A; Goddard, Anthony; Rice, Jeremy; Studer, Marie; Holmes, Jeffrey T G; Corrigan, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Life (EOL, http://eol.org) aims to provide unprecedented global access to a broad range of information about life on Earth. It currently contains 3.5 million distinct pages for taxa and provides content for 1.3 million of those pages. The content is primarily contributed by EOL content partners (providers) that have a more limited geographic, taxonomic or topical scope. EOL aggregates these data and automatically integrates them based on associated scientific names and other classification information. EOL also provides interfaces for curation and direct content addition. All materials in EOL are either in the public domain or licensed under a Creative Commons license. In addition to the web interface, EOL is also accessible through an Application Programming Interface. In this paper, we review recent developments added for Version 2 of the web site and subsequent releases through Version 2.2, which have made EOL more engaging, personal, accessible and internationalizable. We outline the core features and technical architecture of the system. We summarize milestones achieved so far by EOL to present results of the current system implementation and establish benchmarks upon which to judge future improvements. We have shown that it is possible to successfully integrate large amounts of descriptive biodiversity data from diverse sources into a robust, standards-based, dynamic, and scalable infrastructure. Increasing global participation and the emergence of EOL-powered applications demonstrate that EOL is becoming a significant resource for anyone interested in biological diversity.

  8. Complex Networks in Different Languages: A Study of an Emergent Multilingual Encyclopedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pembe, F. Canan; Bingol, Haluk

    There is an increasing interest to the study of complex networks in an interdisciplinary way. Language, as a complex network, has been a part of this study due to its importance in human life. Moreover, the Internet has also been at the center of this study by making access to large amounts of information possible. With these ideas in mind, this work aims to evaluate conceptual networks in different languages with the data from a large and open source of information in the Internet, namely Wikipedia. As an evolving multilingual encyclopedia that can be edited by any Internet user, Wikipedia is a good example of an emergent complex system. In this paper, different from previous work on conceptual networks which usually concentrated on single languages, we concentrate on possible ways to compare the usages of different languages and possibly the underlying cultures. This also involves the analysis of local network properties around certain coneepts in different languages. For an initial evaluation, the concept "family" is used to compare the English and German Wikipedias. Although, the work is currently at the beginning, the results are promising.

  9. Dissecting genetic and environmental mutation signatures with model organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segovia, Romulo; Tam, Annie S; Stirling, Peter C

    2015-08-01

    Deep sequencing has impacted on cancer research by enabling routine sequencing of genomes and exomes to identify genetic changes associated with carcinogenesis. Researchers can now use the frequency, type, and context of all mutations in tumor genomes to extract mutation signatures that reflect the driving mutational processes. Identifying mutation signatures, however, may not immediately suggest a mechanism. Consequently, several recent studies have employed deep sequencing of model organisms exposed to discrete genetic or environmental perturbations. These studies exploit the simpler genomes and availability of powerful genetic tools in model organisms to analyze mutation signatures under controlled conditions, forging mechanistic links between mutational processes and signatures. We discuss the power of this approach and suggest that many such studies may be on the horizon.

  10. Semantic network based component organization model for program mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王斌; 张尧学; 陈松乔

    2003-01-01

    Based on the definition of component ontology, an effective component classification mechanism and a facet named component relationship are proposed. Then an application domain oriented, hierarchical component organization model is established. At last a hierarchical component semantic network (HCSN) described by ontology interchange language(OIL) is presented and then its function is described. Using HCSN and cooperating with other components retrieving algorithms based on component description, other components information and their assembly or composite modes related to the key component can be found. Based on HCSN, component directory library is catalogued and a prototype system is constructed. The prototype system proves that component library organization based on this model gives guarantee to the reliability of component assembly during program mining.

  11. Cube Kohonen self-organizing map (CKSOM) model with new equations in organizing unstructured data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seng Poh; Haron, Habibollah

    2013-09-01

    Surface reconstruction by using 3-D data is used to represent the surface of an object and perform important tasks. The type of data used is important and can be described as either structured or unstructured. For unstructured data, there is no connectivity information between data points. As a result, incorrect shapes will be obtained during the imaging process. Therefore, the data should be reorganized by finding the correct topology so that the correct shape can be obtained. Previous studies have shown that the Kohonen self-organizing map (KSOM) could be used to solve data organizing problems. However, 2-D Kohonen maps are limited because they are unable to cover the whole surface of closed 3-D surface data. Furthermore, the neurons inside the 3-D KSOM structure should be removed in order to create a correct wireframe model. This is because only the outside neurons are used to represent the surface of an object. The aim of this paper is to use KSOM to organize unstructured data for closed surfaces. KSOM isused in this paper by testing its ability to organize medical image data because KSOM is mostly used in constructing engineering field data. Enhancements are added to the model by introducing class number and the index vector, and new equations are created. Various grid sizes and maximum iterations are tested in the experiments. Based on the results, the number of redundancies is found to be directly proportional to the grid size. When we increase the maximum iterations, the surface of the image becomes smoother. An area formula is used and manual calculations are performed to validate the results. This model is implemented and images are created using Dev C++ and GNUPlot.

  12. Mechanical models for the self-organization of tubular patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chin-Lin

    2013-01-01

    Organogenesis, such as long tubule self-organization, requires long-range coordination of cell mechanics to arrange cell positions and to remodel the extracellular matrix. While the current mainstream in the field of tissue morphogenesis focuses primarily on genetics and chemical signaling, the influence of cell mechanics on the programming of patterning cues in tissue morphogenesis has not been adequately addressed. Here, we review experimental evidence and propose quantitative mechanical models by which cells can create tubular patterns.

  13. 类书分类体系的发展演变%The Development of Encyclopedia Classification System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏南强

    2001-01-01

    Knowledge classification is the summary of people's re cognitionto the objective world and social practice, and the formation of encyclopedia classification system is based on human beings' knowledge classification . This paper summaries the knowledge classification before the encyclopedia classification system emerged and through analyzing some important representative en cyclopedia's classification characteristics, entry type, the thought and purpose of the classification and arrangement, it further marks the track of the development of encyclopedia classification system.%知识分类,是人类对客观世界和社会实践生活认识的归纳与总结。类书分类体系的形成,正是构建于人类知识分类基础之上的。本文概述了类书产生以前的知识分类,并对历史上一些重要的有代表性的类书的分类特点、类目类型、立类和排序的思想和目的,作了较深入的剖析,从而勾勒了类书分类体系发展演变的轨迹。

  14. [Mathematics, natural sciences and technology--parts of the encyclopedia Die Kultur der Gegenwart (The culture of today)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobies, Renate

    2008-03-01

    The paper explores the trend of the early 20th century to consolidate mathematics, natural sciences, medicine and technology under the umbrella of one integrative culture--a tendency which contrasts with the increasing mainstream trend of separating the humanities from the natural sciences. The unifying umbrella was framed by the great encyclopedia Die Kultur der Gegenwart which was published by B. G. Teubner from 1905 to 1925 and was planned to run up to 62 volumes. We analyze the quantitative rate of the parts devoted to the humanities, the natural sciences and technology, respectively, the degree to which these parts were completed in this encyclopedia. In particular, we investigate the role of mathematicians and their reasons to find a classification for the mathematical, natural scientific and engineering parts of culture as well as their reasons, to win Nobel prize winners and other famous scientists to become co-editors and authors. We examine the published volumes in the fields of mathematics, chemistry, physics, astronomy and technology in order to show what type of publication--professional or popular--was intended. Furthermore, we illuminate how the educational reform of mathematics, natural sciences and technology of this period--which included a reform of girls' and women's education--was reflected in the encyclopedia Die Kultur der Gegenwart.

  15. Spatial self-organization in hybrid models of multicellular adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonforti, Adriano; Duran-Nebreda, Salva; Montañez, Raúl; Solé, Ricard

    2016-10-01

    Spatial self-organization emerges in distributed systems exhibiting local interactions when nonlinearities and the appropriate propagation of signals are at work. These kinds of phenomena can be modeled with different frameworks, typically cellular automata or reaction-diffusion systems. A different class of dynamical processes involves the correlated movement of agents over space, which can be mediated through chemotactic movement or minimization of cell-cell interaction energy. A classic example of the latter is given by the formation of spatially segregated assemblies when cells display differential adhesion. Here, we consider a new class of dynamical models, involving cell adhesion among two stochastically exchangeable cell states as a minimal model capable of exhibiting well-defined, ordered spatial patterns. Our results suggest that a whole space of pattern-forming rules is hosted by the combination of physical differential adhesion and the value of probabilities modulating cell phenotypic switching, showing that Turing-like patterns can be obtained without resorting to reaction-diffusion processes. If the model is expanded allowing cells to proliferate and die in an environment where diffusible nutrient and toxic waste are at play, different phases are observed, characterized by regularly spaced patterns. The analysis of the parameter space reveals that certain phases reach higher population levels than other modes of organization. A detailed exploration of the mean-field theory is also presented. Finally, we let populations of cells with different adhesion matrices compete for reproduction, showing that, in our model, structural organization can improve the fitness of a given cell population. The implications of these results for ecological and evolutionary models of pattern formation and the emergence of multicellularity are outlined.

  16. Numerical model of multilayer organic light-emitting devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Yue; Rao Hai-Bo

    2009-01-01

    A numerical model of multilayer organic light-emitting devices is presented in this article.This model is based on the drift-diffusion equations which include charge injection,transport,space charge effects,trapping,heterojunction interface and recombination process.The device structure in the simulation is ITO/CuPc(20 nm)/NPD(40 nm)/Alq3(60 nm)/LiF/Al.There are two heterojunctions which should be dealt with in the simulation.The Ⅰ-Ⅴ characteristics,carrier distribution and recombination rate of a device are calculated.The simulation results and measured data are in good agreement.

  17. Conceptual hierarchical modeling to describe wetland plant community organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, A.M.; Guntenspergen, G.R.; Allen, T.F.H.

    2010-01-01

    Using multivariate analysis, we created a hierarchical modeling process that describes how differently-scaled environmental factors interact to affect wetland-scale plant community organization in a system of small, isolated wetlands on Mount Desert Island, Maine. We followed the procedure: 1) delineate wetland groups using cluster analysis, 2) identify differently scaled environmental gradients using non-metric multidimensional scaling, 3) order gradient hierarchical levels according to spatiotem-poral scale of fluctuation, and 4) assemble hierarchical model using group relationships with ordination axes and post-hoc tests of environmental differences. Using this process, we determined 1) large wetland size and poor surface water chemistry led to the development of shrub fen wetland vegetation, 2) Sphagnum and water chemistry differences affected fen vs. marsh / sedge meadows status within small wetlands, and 3) small-scale hydrologic differences explained transitions between forested vs. non-forested and marsh vs. sedge meadow vegetation. This hierarchical modeling process can help explain how upper level contextual processes constrain biotic community response to lower-level environmental changes. It creates models with more nuanced spatiotemporal complexity than classification and regression tree procedures. Using this process, wetland scientists will be able to generate more generalizable theories of plant community organization, and useful management models. ?? Society of Wetland Scientists 2009.

  18. Self-organized Collaboration Network Model Based on Module Emerging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongyong; Lu, Lan; Liu, Qiming

    Recently, the studies of the complex network have gone deep into many scientific fields, such as computer science, physics, mathematics, sociology, etc. These researches enrich the realization for complex network, and increase understands for the new characteristic of complex network. Based on the evolvement characteristic of the author collaboration in the scientific thesis, a self-organized network model of the scientific cooperation network is presented by module emerging. By applying the theoretical analysis, it is shown that this network model is a scale-free network, and the strength degree distribution and the module degree distribution of the network nodes have the same power law. In order to make sure the validity of the theoretical analysis for the network model, we create the computer simulation and demonstration collaboration network. By analyzing the data of the network, the results of the demonstration network and the computer simulation are consistent with that of the theoretical analysis of the model.

  19. Modelling nitrous oxide emissions from organic soils in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppelt, Thomas; Dechow, Rene; Gebbert, Sören; Freibauer, Annette

    2013-04-01

    The greenhouse gas emission potential of peatland ecosystems are mandatory for a complete annual emission budget in Europe. The GHG-Europe project aims to improve the modelling capabilities for greenhouse gases, e.g., nitrous oxide. The heterogeneous and event driven fluxes of nitrous oxide are challenging to model on European scale, especially regarding the upscaling purpose and certain parameter estimations. Due to these challenges adequate techniques are needed to create a robust empirical model. Therefore a literature study of nitrous oxide fluxes from organic soils has been carried out. This database contains flux data from boreal and temperate climate zones and covers the different land use categories: cropland, grassland, forest, natural and peat extraction sites. Especially managed crop- and grassland sites feature high emission potential. Generally nitrous oxide emissions increases significantly with deep drainage and intensive application of nitrogen fertilisation. Whereas natural peatland sites with a near surface groundwater table can act as nitrous oxide sink. An empirical fuzzy logic model has been applied to predict annual nitrous oxide emissions from organic soils. The calibration results in two separate models with best model performances for bogs and fens, respectively. The derived parameter combinations of these models contain mean groundwater table, nitrogen fertilisation, annual precipitation, air temperature, carbon content and pH value. Influences of the calibrated parameters on nitrous oxide fluxes are verified by several studies in literature. The extrapolation potential has been tested by an implemented cross validation. Furthermore the parameter ranges of the calibrated models are compared to occurring values on European scale. This avoid unknown systematic errors for the regionalisation purpose. Additionally a sensitivity analysis specify the model behaviour for each alternating parameter. The upscaling process for European peatland

  20. Modelling erosion and its interaction with soil organic carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyesiku-Blakemore, Joseph; Verrot, Lucile; Geris, Josie; Zhang, Ganlin; Peng, Xinhua; Hallett, Paul; Smith, Jo

    2017-04-01

    Water driven soil erosion removes and relocates a significant quantity of soil organic carbon. In China the quantity of carbon removed from the soil through water erosion has been reported to be 180+/-80 Mt y-1 (Yue et al., 2011). Being able to effectively model the movement of such a large quantity of carbon is important for the assessment of soil quality and carbon storage in the region and further afield. A large selection of erosion models are available and much work has been done on evaluating the performance of these in developed countries (Merritt et al., 2006). Fewer studies have evaluated the application of these models on soils in developing countries. Here we evaluate and compare the performance of two of these models, WEPP (Laflen et al., 1997) and RUSLE (Renard et al., 1991), for simulations of soil erosion and deposition at the slope scale on a Chinese Red Soil under cultivation using measurements taken at the site. We also describe work to dynamically couple the movement of carbon presented in WEPP to a model of soil organic matter and nutrient turnover, ECOSSE (Smith et al., 2010). This aims to improve simulations of both erosion and carbon cycling by using the simulated rates of erosion to alter the distribution of soil carbon, the depth of soil and the clay content across the slopes, changing the simulated rate of carbon turnover. This, in turn, affects the soil carbon available to be eroded in the next timestep, so improving estimates of carbon erosion. We compare the simulations of this coupled modelling approach with those of the unaltered ECOSSE and WEPP models to determine the importance of coupling erosion and turnover models on the simulation of carbon losses at catchment scale.

  1. Spatiotemporal Organization of Spin-Coated Supported Model Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, Adam Cohen

    All cells of living organisms are separated from their surroundings and organized internally by means of flexible lipid membranes. In fact, there is consensus that the minimal requirements for self-replicating life processes include the following three features: (1) information carriers (DNA, RNA), (2) a metabolic system, and (3) encapsulation in a container structure [1]. Therefore, encapsulation can be regarded as an essential part of life itself. In nature, membranes are highly diverse interfacial structures that compartmentalize cells [2]. While prokaryotic cells only have an outer plasma membrane and a less-well-developed internal membrane structure, eukaryotic cells have a number of internal membranes associated with the organelles and the nucleus. Many of these membrane structures, including the plasma membrane, are complex layered systems, but with the basic structure of a lipid bilayer. Biomembranes contain hundreds of different lipid species in addition to embedded or peripherally associated membrane proteins and connections to scaffolds such as the cytoskeleton. In vitro, lipid bilayers are spontaneously self-organized structures formed by a large group of amphiphilic lipid molecules in aqueous suspensions. Bilayer formation is driven by the entropic properties of the hydrogen bond network in water in combination with the amphiphilic nature of the lipids. The molecular shapes of the lipid constituents play a crucial role in bilayer formation, and only lipids with approximately cylindrical shapes are able to form extended bilayers. The bilayer structure of biomembranes was discovered by Gorter and Grendel in 1925 [3] using monolayer studies of lipid extracts from red blood cells. Later, a number of conceptual models were developed to rationalize the organization of lipids and proteins in biological membranes. One of the most celebrated is the fluid-mosaic model by Singer and Nicolson (1972) [4]. According to this model, the lipid bilayer component of

  2. Incorporating microbial ecology into the metabolic modelling of polyphosphate accumulating organisms and glycogen accumulating organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehmen, A; Carvalho, G; Lopez-Vazquez, C M; van Loosdrecht, M C M; Reis, M A M

    2010-09-01

    In the enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) process, the competition between polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAO) and glycogen accumulating organisms (GAO) has been studied intensively in recent years by both microbiologists and engineers, due to its important effects on phosphorus removal performance and efficiency. This study addresses the impact of microbial ecology on assessing the PAO-GAO competition through metabolic modelling, focussing on reviewing recent developments, discussion of how the results from molecular studies can impact the way we model the process, and offering perspectives for future research opportunities based on unanswered questions concerning PAO and GAO metabolism. Indeed, numerous findings that are seemingly contradictory could in fact be explained by the metabolic behaviour of different sub-groups of PAOs and/or GAOs exposed to different environmental and operational conditions. Some examples include the glycolysis pathway (i.e. Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP) vs. Entner-Doudoroff (ED)), denitrification capacity, anaerobic tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle activity and PAOs' ability to adjust their metabolism to e.g. a GAO-like metabolism. Metabolic modelling may further yield far-reaching influences on practical applications as well, and serves as a bridge between molecular/biochemical research studies and the optimisation of wastewater treatment plant operation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. MIANN models in medicinal, physical and organic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Díaz, Humberto; Arrasate, Sonia; Sotomayor, Nuria; Lete, Esther; Munteanu, Cristian R; Pazos, Alejandro; Besada-Porto, Lina; Ruso, Juan M

    2013-01-01

    Reducing costs in terms of time, animal sacrifice, and material resources with computational methods has become a promising goal in Medicinal, Biological, Physical and Organic Chemistry. There are many computational techniques that can be used in this sense. In any case, almost all these methods focus on few fundamental aspects including: type (1) methods to quantify the molecular structure, type (2) methods to link the structure with the biological activity, and others. In particular, MARCH-INSIDE (MI), acronym for Markov Chain Invariants for Networks Simulation and Design, is a well-known method for QSAR analysis useful in step (1). In addition, the bio-inspired Artificial-Intelligence (AI) algorithms called Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) are among the most powerful type (2) methods. We can combine MI with ANNs in order to seek QSAR models, a strategy which is called herein MIANN (MI & ANN models). One of the first applications of the MIANN strategy was in the development of new QSAR models for drug discovery. MIANN strategy has been expanded to the QSAR study of proteins, protein-drug interactions, and protein-protein interaction networks. In this paper, we review for the first time many interesting aspects of the MIANN strategy including theoretical basis, implementation in web servers, and examples of applications in Medicinal and Biological chemistry. We also report new applications of the MIANN strategy in Medicinal chemistry and the first examples in Physical and Organic Chemistry, as well. In so doing, we developed new MIANN models for several self-assembly physicochemical properties of surfactants and large reaction networks in organic synthesis. In some of the new examples we also present experimental results which were not published up to date.

  4. Modeling uptake of hydrophobic organic contaminants into polyethylene passive samplers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jay M; Hsieh, Ching-Hong; Luthy, Richard G

    2015-02-17

    Single-phase passive samplers are gaining acceptance as a method to measure hydrophobic organic contaminant (HOC) concentration in water. Although the relationship between the HOC concentration in water and passive sampler is linear at equilibrium, mass transfer models are needed for nonequilibrium conditions. We report measurements of organochlorine pesticide diffusion and partition coefficients with respect to polyethylene (PE), and present a Fickian approach to modeling HOC uptake by PE in aqueous systems. The model is an analytic solution to Fick's second law applied through an aqueous diffusive boundary layer and a polyethylene layer. Comparisons of the model with existing methods indicate agreement at appropriate boundary conditions. Laboratory release experiments on the organochlorine pesticides DDT, DDE, DDD, and chlordane in well-mixed slurries support the model's applicability to aqueous systems. In general, the advantage of the model is its application in the cases of well-agitated systems, low values of polyethylene-water partioning coefficients, thick polyethylene relative to the boundary layer thickness, and/or short exposure times. Another significant advantage is the ability to estimate, or at least bound, the needed exposure time to reach a desired CPE without empirical model inputs. A further finding of this work is that polyethylene diffusivity does not vary by transport direction through the sampler thickness.

  5. OBJECT ORIENTED MODELLING, A MODELLING METHOD OF AN ECONOMIC ORGANIZATION ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TĂNĂSESCU ANA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Now, most economic organizations use different information systems types in order to facilitate their activity. There are different methodologies, methods and techniques that can be used to design information systems. In this paper, I propose to present the advantages of using the object oriented modelling at the information system design of an economic organization. Thus, I have modelled the activity of a photo studio, using Visual Paradigm for UML as a modelling tool. For this purpose, I have identified the use cases for the analyzed system and I have presented the use case diagram. I have, also, realized the system static and dynamic modelling, through the most known UML diagrams.

  6. The many-body problem an encyclopedia of exactly solved models in one dimension

    CERN Document Server

    1993-01-01

    This book differs from its predecessor, Lieb & Mattis Mathematical Physics in One Dimension, in a number of important ways. Classic discoveries which once had to be omitted owing to lack of space - such as the seminal paper by Fermi, Pasta and Ulam on lack of ergodicity of the linear chain, or Bethe's original paper on the Bethe ansatz - can now be incorporated. Many applications which did not even exist in 1966 (some of which were originally spawned by the publication of Lieb & Mattis) are newly included. Among these, this new book contains critical surveys of a number of important developmen

  7. Multiscale Modeling and Simulation of Organic Solar Cells

    CERN Document Server

    de Falco, Carlo; Sacco, Riccardo; Verri, Maurizio

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we continue our mathematical study of organic solar cells (OSCs) and propose a two-scale (micro- and macro-scale) model of heterojunction OSCs with interface geometries characterized by an arbitrarily complex morphology. The microscale model consists of a system of partial and ordinary differential equations in an heterogeneous domain, that provides a full description of excitation/transport phenomena occurring in the bulk regions and dissociation/recombination processes occurring in a thin material slab across the interface. The macroscale model is obtained by a micro-to-macro scale transition that consists of averaging the mass balance equations in the normal direction across the interface thickness, giving rise to nonlinear transmission conditions that are parametrized by the interfacial width. These conditions account in a lumped manner for the volumetric dissociation/recombination phenomena occurring in the thin slab and depend locally on the electric field magnitude and orientation. Usi...

  8. Controlling self-organized criticality in sandpile models

    CERN Document Server

    Cajueiro, Daniel O

    2013-01-01

    We introduce an external control to reduce the size of avalanches in some sandpile models exhibiting self organized criticality. This rather intuitive approach seems to be missing in the vast literature on such systems. The control action, which amounts to triggering avalanches in sites that are near to be come critical, reduces the probability of very large events, so that energy dissipation occurs most locally. The control is applied to a directed Abelian sandpile model driven by both uncorrelated and correlated deposition. The latter is essential to design an efficient and simple control heuristic, but has only small influence in the uncontrolled avalanche probability distribution. The proposed control seeks a tradeoff between control cost and large event risk. Preliminary results hint that the proposed control works also for an undirected sandpile model.

  9. Genome Editing and Its Applications in Model Organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongyuan Ma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Technological advances are important for innovative biological research. Development of molecular tools for DNA manipulation, such as zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs, transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs, and the clustered regularly-interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR/CRISPR-associated (Cas, has revolutionized genome editing. These approaches can be used to develop potential therapeutic strategies to effectively treat heritable diseases. In the last few years, substantial progress has been made in CRISPR/Cas technology, including technical improvements and wide application in many model systems. This review describes recent advancements in genome editing with a particular focus on CRISPR/Cas, covering the underlying principles, technological optimization, and its application in zebrafish and other model organisms, disease modeling, and gene therapy used for personalized medicine.

  10. Intelligent Model for Measuring Organization Maturity in E-Business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadra Ahmadi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available E-Business is one of the most fascinating areas of information Technology. Managers should seek out means for making decision towards optimizing resource development in this area in order to control their expense and capital allocations at a higher, strategic level. To do this, manager must first identify their level of e-business development and plan to improve the status quo by identifying factors contributing to the growth in this approach. The present paper aims to construct and develop intelligent models for determining the organization status quo and management decision-making towards improving the situation using fuzzy [logic] tools. Thus for modeling these factors and their impact, the contributing factors in development of e-business approaches were identified by literature survey. These were later categorized using Delphi Method. Furthermore the FCM model was used to graphically illustrate the causal relationships among factors, including the mode and means of their mutual impact.

  11. Self-organized criticality model for brain plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Arcangelis, Lucilla; Perrone-Capano, Carla; Herrmann, Hans J

    2006-01-20

    Networks of living neurons exhibit an avalanche mode of activity, experimentally found in organotypic cultures. Here we present a model that is based on self-organized criticality and takes into account brain plasticity, which is able to reproduce the spectrum of electroencephalograms (EEG). The model consists of an electrical network with threshold firing and activity-dependent synapse strengths. The system exhibits an avalanche activity in a power-law distribution. The analysis of the power spectra of the electrical signal reproduces very robustly the power-law behavior with the exponent 0.8, experimentally measured in EEG spectra. The same value of the exponent is found on small-world lattices and for leaky neurons, indicating that universality holds for a wide class of brain models.

  12. Genome Editing and Its Applications in Model Organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dongyuan; Liu, Feng

    2015-12-01

    Technological advances are important for innovative biological research. Development of molecular tools for DNA manipulation, such as zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and the clustered regularly-interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas), has revolutionized genome editing. These approaches can be used to develop potential therapeutic strategies to effectively treat heritable diseases. In the last few years, substantial progress has been made in CRISPR/Cas technology, including technical improvements and wide application in many model systems. This review describes recent advancements in genome editing with a particular focus on CRISPR/Cas, covering the underlying principles, technological optimization, and its application in zebrafish and other model organisms, disease modeling, and gene therapy used for personalized medicine.

  13. Model for Triplet State Engineering in Organic Light Emitting Diodes

    CERN Document Server

    Prodhan, Suryoday; Ramasesha, S

    2014-01-01

    Engineering the position of the lowest triplet state (T1) relative to the first excited singlet state (S1) is of great importance in improving the efficiencies of organic light emitting diodes and organic photovoltaic cells. We have carried out model exact calculations of substituted polyene chains to understand the factors that affect the energy gap between S1 and T1. The factors studied are backbone dimerisation, different donor-acceptor substitutions and twisted geometry. The largest system studied is an eighteen carbon polyene which spans a Hilbert space of about 991 million. We show that for reverse intersystem crossing (RISC) process, the best system involves substituting all carbon sites on one half of the polyene with donors and the other half with acceptors.

  14. Targeting a complex transcriptome: the construction of the mouse full-length cDNA encyclopedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carninci, Piero; Waki, Kazunori; Shiraki, Toshiyuki; Konno, Hideaki; Shibata, Kazuhiro; Itoh, Masayoshi; Aizawa, Katsunori; Arakawa, Takahiro; Ishii, Yoshiyuki; Sasaki, Daisuke; Bono, Hidemasa; Kondo, Shinji; Sugahara, Yuichi; Saito, Rintaro; Osato, Naoki; Fukuda, Shiro; Sato, Kenjiro; Watahiki, Akira; Hirozane-Kishikawa, Tomoko; Nakamura, Mari; Shibata, Yuko; Yasunishi, Ayako; Kikuchi, Noriko; Yoshiki, Atsushi; Kusakabe, Moriaki; Gustincich, Stefano; Beisel, Kirk; Pavan, William; Aidinis, Vassilis; Nakagawara, Akira; Held, William A; Iwata, Hiroo; Kono, Tomohiro; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu; Lyons, Paul; Wells, Christine; Hume, David A; Fagiolini, Michela; Hensch, Takao K; Brinkmeier, Michelle; Camper, Sally; Hirota, Junji; Mombaerts, Peter; Muramatsu, Masami; Okazaki, Yasushi; Kawai, Jun; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide

    2003-06-01

    We report the construction of the mouse full-length cDNA encyclopedia,the most extensive view of a complex transcriptome,on the basis of preparing and sequencing 246 libraries. Before cloning,cDNAs were enriched in full-length by Cap-Trapper,and in most cases,aggressively subtracted/normalized. We have produced 1,442,236 successful 3'-end sequences clustered into 171,144 groups, from which 60,770 clones were fully sequenced cDNAs annotated in the FANTOM-2 annotation. We have also produced 547,149 5' end reads,which clustered into 124,258 groups. Altogether, these cDNAs were further grouped in 70,000 transcriptional units (TU),which represent the best coverage of a transcriptome so far. By monitoring the extent of normalization/subtraction, we define the tentative equivalent coverage (TEC),which was estimated to be equivalent to >12,000,000 ESTs derived from standard libraries. High coverage explains discrepancies between the very large numbers of clusters (and TUs) of this project,which also include non-protein-coding RNAs,and the lower gene number estimation of genome annotations. Altogether,5'-end clusters identify regions that are potential promoters for 8637 known genes and 5'-end clusters suggest the presence of almost 63,000 transcriptional starting points. An estimate of the frequency of polyadenylation signals suggests that at least half of the singletons in the EST set represent real mRNAs. Clones accounting for about half of the predicted TUs await further sequencing. The continued high-discovery rate suggests that the task of transcriptome discovery is not yet complete.

  15. Table of 3D organ model IDs and organ names (IS-A Tree) - BodyParts3D | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us BodyParts3D Table of 3D organ model IDs and organ names (IS-A Tree) Data detail Data name Table of 3D organ model...ontents List of downloadable 3D organ models in a tab-delimited text file format, describing the correspondence between 3D organ mode...| Contact Us Table of 3D organ model IDs and organ names (IS-A Tree) - BodyParts3D | LSDB Archive ...

  16. Developing an Enzyme Mediated Soil Organic Carbon Decomposition Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, M. A.; Post, W. M.; Wang, G.; Jagadamma, S.; Steinweg, J. M.; Schadt, C. W.

    2012-12-01

    We developed the Microbial-ENzyme-mediated Decomposition (MEND) model in order to mechanistically model the decomposition of soil organic carbon (C). This presentation is an overview of the concept and development of the model and of the design of complementary lab-scale experiments. The model divides soil C into five pools of particulate, mineral-associated, dissolved, microbial, and enzyme organic C (Wang et al. 2012). There are three input types - cellulose, lignin, and dissolved C. Decomposition is mediated via microbial extracellular enzymes using the Michaelis-Menten equation, resulting in the production of a common pool of dissolved organic C. Parameters for the Michaelis-Menten equation are obtained through a literature review (Wang and Post, 2012a). The dissolved C is taken up by microbial biomass and proportioned according to microbial maintenance and growth, which were recalculated according to Wang and Post (2012b). The model allows dissolved C to undergo adsorption and desorption reactions with the mineral-associated C, which was also parameterized based upon a literature review and complementary laboratory experiments. In the lab, four 14C-labeled substrates (cellulose, fatty acid, glucose, and lignin-like) were incubated with either the particulate C pool, the mineral-associated C pool, or to bulk soils. The rate of decomposition was measured via the production of 14CO2 over time, along with incorporation into microbial biomass, production of dissolved C, and estimation of sorbed C. We performed steady-state and dynamic simulations and sensitivity analyses under temperature increases of 1-5°C for a period of 100 y. Simulations indicated an initial decrease in soil organic C consisting of both cellulose and lignin pools. Over longer time intervals (> 6 y), however, a shrinking microbial population, a concomitant decrease in enzyme production, and a decrease in microbial carbon use efficiency together decreased CO2 production and resulted in greater

  17. Thermodynamic Modeling of Organic-Inorganic Aerosols with the Group-Contribution Model AIOMFAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuend, A.; Marcolli, C.; Luo, B. P.; Peter, T.

    2009-04-01

    Liquid aerosol particles are - from a physicochemical viewpoint - mixtures of inorganic salts, acids, water and a large variety of organic compounds (Rogge et al., 1993; Zhang et al., 2007). Molecular interactions between these aerosol components lead to deviations from ideal thermodynamic behavior. Strong non-ideality between organics and dissolved ions may influence the aerosol phases at equilibrium by means of liquid-liquid phase separations into a mainly polar (aqueous) and a less polar (organic) phase. A number of activity models exists to successfully describe the thermodynamic equilibrium of aqueous electrolyte solutions. However, the large number of different, often multi-functional, organic compounds in mixed organic-inorganic particles is a challenging problem for the development of thermodynamic models. The group-contribution concept as introduced in the UNIFAC model by Fredenslund et al. (1975), is a practical method to handle this difficulty and to add a certain predictability for unknown organic substances. We present the group-contribution model AIOMFAC (Aerosol Inorganic-Organic Mixtures Functional groups Activity Coefficients), which explicitly accounts for molecular interactions between solution constituents, both organic and inorganic, to calculate activities, chemical potentials and the total Gibbs energy of mixed systems (Zuend et al., 2008). This model enables the computation of vapor-liquid (VLE), liquid-liquid (LLE) and solid-liquid (SLE) equilibria within one framework. Focusing on atmospheric applications we considered eight different cations, five anions and a wide range of alcohols/polyols as organic compounds. With AIOMFAC, the activities of the components within an aqueous electrolyte solution are very well represented up to high ionic strength. We show that the semi-empirical middle-range parametrization of direct organic-inorganic interactions in alcohol-water-salt solutions enables accurate computations of vapor-liquid and liquid

  18. Contemporary model of language organization: an overview for neurosurgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Edward F; Raygor, Kunal P; Berger, Mitchel S

    2015-02-01

    Classic models of language organization posited that separate motor and sensory language foci existed in the inferior frontal gyrus (Broca's area) and superior temporal gyrus (Wernicke's area), respectively, and that connections between these sites (arcuate fasciculus) allowed for auditory-motor interaction. These theories have predominated for more than a century, but advances in neuroimaging and stimulation mapping have provided a more detailed description of the functional neuroanatomy of language. New insights have shaped modern network-based models of speech processing composed of parallel and interconnected streams involving both cortical and subcortical areas. Recent models emphasize processing in "dorsal" and "ventral" pathways, mediating phonological and semantic processing, respectively. Phonological processing occurs along a dorsal pathway, from the posterosuperior temporal to the inferior frontal cortices. On the other hand, semantic information is carried in a ventral pathway that runs from the temporal pole to the basal occipitotemporal cortex, with anterior connections. Functional MRI has poor positive predictive value in determining critical language sites and should only be used as an adjunct for preoperative planning. Cortical and subcortical mapping should be used to define functional resection boundaries in eloquent areas and remains the clinical gold standard. In tracing the historical advancements in our understanding of speech processing, the authors hope to not only provide practicing neurosurgeons with additional information that will aid in surgical planning and prevent postoperative morbidity, but also underscore the fact that neurosurgeons are in a unique position to further advance our understanding of the anatomy and functional organization of language.

  19. Performance Evaluation Based on EFQM Excellence Model in Sport Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasoul Faraji

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to evaluate the performance of physical education (P.E. general office of Tehran province through model of European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM. Questionnaire approach was used in this study. Therefore validity of the 50-item EFQM questionnaire verified by the experts and the reliability also calculated in a pilot study (α=0.928. 95 questionnaires distributed between subjects (N=n and 80 questionnaires returned and concluded in the statistical analysis. From nine EFQM criteria, the highest scores were gained in key performance results (37.62% and the lowest gained in people results (27.94%. Totally, this organization achieved 337.11 pointes out of a total of 1000. Additionally, there was a strong relationship (r=0.827, p=0.001 between enablers and results (P<0.05. Based on scores gained in the criteria, improving measures in all criteria is essential for this organization, especially in the people criterion from enablers and people results criterion from results domain. Furthermore, it is believed that the physical education area is one of the best fields for application of the excellence model towards the performance excellence and gaining better results and hence, it seems that the model has a high potential in responding to problems commonly seen in sport sector.

  20. Modeling of secondary organic aerosol yields from laboratory chamber data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Chan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A product-specific model for secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation and composition based on equilibrium gas-particle partitioning is evaluated. The model is applied to represent laboratory data on the ozonolysis of α-pinene under dry, dark, and low-NOx conditions in the presence of ammonium sulfate seed aerosol. Using five major identified products, the model is fit to the chamber data. From the optimal fitting, SOA oxygen-to-carbon (O/C and hydrogen-to-carbon (H/C ratios are modeled. The discrepancy between measured H/C ratios and those based on the oxidation products used in the model fitting suggests the potential importance of particle-phase reactions. Data fitting is also carried out using the volatility basis set, wherein oxidation products are parsed into volatility bins. The product-specific model is best used for an SOA precursor for which a substantial fraction of the aerosol-phase oxidation products has been identified.

  1. A Revised Iranian Model of Organ Donation as an Answer to the Current Organ Shortage Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidian Jahromi, Alireza; Fry-Revere, Sigrid; Bastani, Bahar

    2015-09-01

    Kidney transplantation has become the treatment of choice for patients with end-stage renal disease. Six decades of success in the field of transplantation have made it possible to save thousands of lives every year. Unfortunately, in recent years success has been overshadowed by an ever-growing shortage of organs. In the United States, there are currently more than 100 000 patients waiting for kidneys. However, the supply of kidneys (combined cadaveric and live donations) has stagnated around 17 000 per year. The ever-widening gap between demand and supply has resulted in an illegal black market and unethical transplant tourism of global proportions. While we believe there is much room to improve the Iranian model of regulated incentivized live kidney donation, with some significant revisions, the Iranian Model could serve as an example for how other countries could make significant strides to lessening their own organ shortage crises.

  2. Modeling the role of microplastics in Bioaccumulation of organic chemicals to marine aquatic organisms. Critical Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelmans, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that ingestion of microplastics may increase bioaccumulation of organic chemicals by aquatic organisms. This paper critically reviews the literature on the effects of plastic ingestion on the bioaccumulation of organic chemicals, emphasizing quantitative approaches and mechanistic

  3. Modeling the adsorption of weak organic acids on goethite: the ligand and charge distribution model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filius, J.D.

    2001-01-01

    A detailed study is presented in which the CD-MUSIC modeling approach is used in a new modeling approach that can describe the binding of large organic molecules by metal (hydr)oxides taking the full speciation of the adsorbed molecule into account. Batch equilibration experiments were performed usi

  4. Generic Modelling of Faecal Indicator Organism Concentrations in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl M. Stapleton

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available To meet European Water Framework Directive requirements, data are needed on faecal indicator organism (FIO concentrations in rivers to enable the more heavily polluted to be targeted for remedial action. Due to the paucity of FIO data for the UK, especially under high-flow hydrograph event conditions, there is an urgent need by the policy community for generic models that can accurately predict FIO concentrations, thus informing integrated catchment management programmes. This paper reports the development of regression models to predict base- and high-flow faecal coliform (FC and enterococci (EN concentrations for 153 monitoring points across 14 UK catchments, using land cover, population (human and livestock density and other variables that may affect FIO source strength, transport and die-off. Statistically significant models were developed for both FC and EN, with greater explained variance achieved in the high-flow models. Both land cover and, in particular, population variables are significant predictors of FIO concentrations, with r2 maxima for EN of 0.571 and 0.624, respectively. It is argued that the resulting models can be applied, with confidence, to other UK catchments, both to predict FIO concentrations in unmonitored watercourses and evaluate the likely impact of different land use/stocking level and human population change scenarios.

  5. Modeling financial markets by self-organized criticality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondo, Alessio Emanuele; Pluchino, Alessandro; Rapisarda, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    We present a financial market model, characterized by self-organized criticality, that is able to generate endogenously a realistic price dynamics and to reproduce well-known stylized facts. We consider a community of heterogeneous traders, composed by chartists and fundamentalists, and focus on the role of informative pressure on market participants, showing how the spreading of information, based on a realistic imitative behavior, drives contagion and causes market fragility. In this model imitation is not intended as a change in the agent's group of origin, but is referred only to the price formation process. We introduce in the community also a variable number of random traders in order to study their possible beneficial role in stabilizing the market, as found in other studies. Finally, we also suggest some counterintuitive policy strategies able to dampen fluctuations by means of a partial reduction of information.

  6. Modeling financial markets by self-organized criticality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondo, Alessio Emanuele; Pluchino, Alessandro; Rapisarda, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    We present a financial market model, characterized by self-organized criticality, that is able to generate endogenously a realistic price dynamics and to reproduce well-known stylized facts. We consider a community of heterogeneous traders, composed by chartists and fundamentalists, and focus on the role of informative pressure on market participants, showing how the spreading of information, based on a realistic imitative behavior, drives contagion and causes market fragility. In this model imitation is not intended as a change in the agent's group of origin, but is referred only to the price formation process. We introduce in the community also a variable number of random traders in order to study their possible beneficial role in stabilizing the market, as found in other studies. Finally, we also suggest some counterintuitive policy strategies able to dampen fluctuations by means of a partial reduction of information.

  7. Modelling Financial Markets by Self-Organized Criticality

    CERN Document Server

    Biondo, A E; Rapisarda, A

    2015-01-01

    We present a financial market model, characterized by self-organized criticality, that is able to generate endogenously a realistic price dynamics and to reproduce well-known stylized facts. We consider a community of heterogeneous traders, composed by chartists and fundamentalists, and focus on the role of informative pressure on market participants, showing how the spreading of information, based on a realistic imitative behavior, drives contagion and causes market fragility. In this model imitation is not intended as a change in the agent's group of origin, but is referred only to the price formation process. We introduce in the community also a variable number of random traders in order to study their possible beneficial role in stabilizing the market, as found in other studies. Finally we also suggest some counterintuitive policy strategies able to dampen fluctuations by means of a partial reduction of information.

  8. Partitioning of Nanoparticles into Organic Phases and Model Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posner, J.D.; Westerhoff, P.; Hou, W-C.

    2011-08-25

    There is a recognized need to understand and predict the fate, transport and bioavailability of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) in aquatic and soil ecosystems. Recent research focuses on either collection of empirical data (e.g., removal of a specific NP through water or soil matrices under variable experimental conditions) or precise NP characterization (e.g. size, degree of aggregation, morphology, zeta potential, purity, surface chemistry, and stability). However, it is almost impossible to transition from these precise measurements to models suitable to assess the NP behavior in the environment with complex and heterogeneous matrices. For decades, the USEPA has developed and applies basic partitioning parameters (e.g., octanol-water partition coefficients) and models (e.g., EPI Suite, ECOSAR) to predict the environmental fate, bioavailability, and toxicity of organic pollutants (e.g., pesticides, hydrocarbons, etc.). In this project we have investigated the hypothesis that NP partition coefficients between water and organic phases (octanol or lipid bilayer) is highly dependent on their physiochemical properties, aggregation, and presence of natural constituents in aquatic environments (salts, natural organic matter), which may impact their partitioning into biological matrices (bioaccumulation) and human exposure (bioavailability) as well as the eventual usage in modeling the fate and bioavailability of ENPs. In this report, we use the terminology "partitioning" to operationally define the fraction of ENPs distributed among different phases. The mechanisms leading to this partitioning probably involve both chemical force interactions (hydrophobic association, hydrogen bonding, ligand exchange, etc.) and physical forces that bring the ENPs in close contact with the phase interfaces (diffusion, electrostatic interactions, mixing turbulence, etc.). Our work focuses on partitioning, but also provides insight into the relative behavior of ENPs as either "more like

  9. Partitioning of Nanoparticles into Organic Phases and Model Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posner, J.D.; Westerhoff, P.; Hou, W-C.

    2011-08-25

    There is a recognized need to understand and predict the fate, transport and bioavailability of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) in aquatic and soil ecosystems. Recent research focuses on either collection of empirical data (e.g., removal of a specific NP through water or soil matrices under variable experimental conditions) or precise NP characterization (e.g. size, degree of aggregation, morphology, zeta potential, purity, surface chemistry, and stability). However, it is almost impossible to transition from these precise measurements to models suitable to assess the NP behavior in the environment with complex and heterogeneous matrices. For decades, the USEPA has developed and applies basic partitioning parameters (e.g., octanol-water partition coefficients) and models (e.g., EPI Suite, ECOSAR) to predict the environmental fate, bioavailability, and toxicity of organic pollutants (e.g., pesticides, hydrocarbons, etc.). In this project we have investigated the hypothesis that NP partition coefficients between water and organic phases (octanol or lipid bilayer) is highly dependent on their physiochemical properties, aggregation, and presence of natural constituents in aquatic environments (salts, natural organic matter), which may impact their partitioning into biological matrices (bioaccumulation) and human exposure (bioavailability) as well as the eventual usage in modeling the fate and bioavailability of ENPs. In this report, we use the terminology "partitioning" to operationally define the fraction of ENPs distributed among different phases. The mechanisms leading to this partitioning probably involve both chemical force interactions (hydrophobic association, hydrogen bonding, ligand exchange, etc.) and physical forces that bring the ENPs in close contact with the phase interfaces (diffusion, electrostatic interactions, mixing turbulence, etc.). Our work focuses on partitioning, but also provides insight into the relative behavior of ENPs as either "more like

  10. A Review of Routledge Encyclopedia of Translation Studies(2nd ed. )%翻译研究的全息扫描——Routledge Encyclopedia of Translation Studies第二版简评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方梦之

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1.概况 1998年Routledge出版公司出版了Routledge Encyclopedia of Translation Studies()(以下简称"一版").在一版的基础上,原编者Mona Baker与Gabeiela Saldanha合作,于2009年编辑出版了该书的第二版(以下简称"二版").如果说一版的厚重与宏富给译界带来普遍惊喜的话,那么二版的问世更让人们看到了译学的深邃与宽广.

  11. Correlated earthquakes in a self-organized model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Baiesi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the fact that empirical time series of earthquakes exhibit long-range correlations in space and time and the Gutenberg-Richter distribution of magnitudes, we propose a simple fault model that can account for these types of scale-invariance. It is an avalanching process that displays power-laws in the event sizes, in the epicenter distances as well as in the waiting-time distributions, and also aftershock rates obeying a generalized Omori law. We thus confirm that there is a relation between temporal and spatial clustering of the activity in this kind of models. The fluctuating boundaries of possible slipping areas show that the size of the largest possible earthquake is not always maximal, and the average correlation length is a fraction of the system size. This suggests that there is a concrete alternative to the extreme interpretation of self-organized criticality as a process in which every small event can cascade to an arbitrary large one: the new picture includes fluctuating domains of coherent stress field as part of the global self-organization. Moreover, this picture can be more easily compared with other scenarios discussing fluctuating correlations lengths in seismicity.

  12. Terrestrial and marine perspectives on modeling organic matter degradation pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burd, Adrian B; Frey, Serita; Cabre, Anna; Ito, Takamitsu; Levine, Naomi M; Lønborg, Christian; Long, Matthew; Mauritz, Marguerite; Thomas, R Quinn; Stephens, Brandon M; Vanwalleghem, Tom; Zeng, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Organic matter (OM) plays a major role in both terrestrial and oceanic biogeochemical cycles. The amount of carbon stored in these systems is far greater than that of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) in the atmosphere, and annual fluxes of CO2 from these pools to the atmosphere exceed those from fossil fuel combustion. Understanding the processes that determine the fate of detrital material is important for predicting the effects that climate change will have on feedbacks to the global carbon cycle. However, Earth System Models (ESMs) typically utilize very simple formulations of processes affecting the mineralization and storage of detrital OM. Recent changes in our view of the nature of this material and the factors controlling its transformation have yet to find their way into models. In this review, we highlight the current understanding of the role and cycling of detrital OM in terrestrial and marine systems and examine how this pool of material is represented in ESMs. We include a discussion of the different mineralization pathways available as organic matter moves from soils, through inland waters to coastal systems and ultimately into open ocean environments. We argue that there is strong commonality between aspects of OM transformation in both terrestrial and marine systems and that our respective scientific communities would benefit from closer collaboration.

  13. Modeling organic micro pollutant degradation kinetics during sewage sludge composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadef, Yumna; Poulsen, Tjalfe Gorm; Bester, Kai

    2014-11-01

    Degradation of 13 different organic micro-pollutants in sewage sludge during aerobic composting at 5 different temperatures over a 52 day period was investigated. Adequacy of two kinetic models: a single first order, and a dual first order expression (using an early (first 7 days) and a late-time (last 45 days) degradation coefficient), for describing micro-pollutant degradation, and kinetic constant dependency on composting temperature were evaluated. The results showed that both models provide relatively good descriptions of the degradation process, with the dual first order model being most accurate. The single first order degradation coefficient was 0.025 d(-1) on average across all compounds and temperatures. At early times, degradation was about three times faster than at later times. Average values of the early and late time degradation coefficients for the dual first order model were 0.066 d(-1) and 0.022 d(-1), respectively. On average 30% of the initial micro-pollutant mass present in the compost was degraded rapidly during the early stages of the composting process. Single first order and late time dual first order kinetic constants were strongly dependent on composting temperature with maximum values at temperatures of 35-65°C. In contrast the early time degradation coefficients were relatively independent of composting temperature.

  14. Mathematical modeling of wastewater-derived biodegradable dissolved organic nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Halis

    2016-11-01

    Wastewater-derived dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) typically constitutes the majority of total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) discharged to surface waters from advanced wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). When considering the stringent regulations on nitrogen discharge limits in sensitive receiving waters, DON becomes problematic and needs to be reduced. Biodegradable DON (BDON) is a portion of DON that is biologically degradable by bacteria when the optimum environmental conditions are met. BDON in a two-stage trickling filter WWTP was estimated using artificial intelligence techniques, such as adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems, multilayer perceptron, radial basis neural networks (RBNN), and generalized regression neural networks. Nitrite, nitrate, ammonium, TDN, and DON data were used as input neurons. Wastewater samples were collected from four different locations in the plant. Model performances were evaluated using root mean square error, mean absolute error, mean bias error, and coefficient of determination statistics. Modeling results showed that the R(2) values were higher than 0.85 in all four models for all wastewater samples, except only R(2) in the final effluent sample for RBNN modeling was low (0.52). Overall, it was found that all four computing techniques could be employed successfully to predict BDON.

  15. Priming and substrate quality interactions in soil organic matter models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Wutzler

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Interactions between different qualities of soil organic matter (SOM affecting their turnover are rarely represented in models. In this study we propose three mathematical strategies at different levels of abstraction for representing those interactions. Implementing these strategies into the Introductory Carbon Balance Model (ICBM and applying them to several scenarios of litter input show that the different levels of abstraction are applicable on different time scales. We present a simple one-parameter equation of substrate limitation applicable at decadal time scale that is straightforward to implement into other models of SOM dynamics. We show how substrate quality interactions can explain priming effects, acceleration of turnover times in FACE experiments, and the slowdown of decomposition in long-term bare fallow experiments as an effect of energy limitation of microbial biomass. The mechanisms of those interactions need to be further scrutinized empirically for a more complete understanding. Overall, substrate quality interactions offer a valuable way of understanding and quantitatively modelling SOM dynamics.

  16. Modeling organic aerosols during MILAGRO: importance of biogenic secondary organic aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hodzic

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The meso-scale chemistry-transport model CHIMERE is used to assess our understanding of major sources and formation processes leading to a fairly large amount of organic aerosols – OA, including primary OA (POA and secondary OA (SOA – observed in Mexico City during the MILAGRO field project (March 2006. Chemical analyses of submicron aerosols from aerosol mass spectrometers (AMS indicate that organic particles found in the Mexico City basin contain a large fraction of oxygenated organic species (OOA which have strong correspondence with SOA, and that their production actively continues downwind of the city. The SOA formation is modeled here by the one-step oxidation of anthropogenic (i.e. aromatics, alkanes, biogenic (i.e. monoterpenes and isoprene, and biomass-burning SOA precursors and their partitioning into both organic and aqueous phases. Conservative assumptions are made for uncertain parameters to maximize the amount of SOA produced by the model. The near-surface model evaluation shows that predicted OA correlates reasonably well with measurements during the campaign, however it remains a factor of 2 lower than the measured total OA. Fairly good agreement is found between predicted and observed POA within the city suggesting that anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions are reasonably captured. Consistent with previous studies in Mexico City, large discrepancies are encountered for SOA, with a factor of 2–10 model underestimate. When only anthropogenic SOA precursors were considered, the model was able to reproduce within a factor of two the sharp increase in OOA concentrations during the late morning at both urban and near-urban locations but the discrepancy increases rapidly later in the day, consistent with previous results, and is especially obvious when the column-integrated SOA mass is considered instead of the surface concentration. The increase in the missing SOA mass in the afternoon coincides with the sharp drop in POA

  17. Online encyclopedia entities tagging method based on page struc-ture and content%融合页面结构与内容的在线百科实体标注方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓静; 林海伦; 贾岩涛; 王元卓; 程学旗

    2015-01-01

    Online encyclopedia entity tagging aims to label online encyclopedia pages with standard named entity tags such as person, location and organization. It is crucial for a wide range of applications such as entity disambigu-ation, entity relation inference and knowledge base construction and so on. Features of encyclopedia pages can be divided as structure features (e.g., Infobox, title, and category) and content features (i.e., page content). Existing methods that only take one feature or simply combine both features in one classification cause low F1 value. These methods don’t make full use of the difference of these features. This paper presents an online encyclopedia entities tagging method based on page structure and content. This method firstly builds two classifiers with the two kinds of features respectively, and then builds a new classifier by linear combination of these two classifiers, so this method can accurately realize entities tagging. The experimental results show that this method can achieve F1 value improve-ment over the baseline methods on the task of encyclopedia entity tagging.%在线百科实体标注目的是标注出属于特定类别(如人名、地名、机构名等)的实体。百科实体标注对大量的应用,诸如实体消歧、实体关系挖掘、知识库构建都很重要。百科实体特征可以分为结构特征(属性框、标题、类别等)和内容特征(页面正文)。现有的标注方法大多只考虑一种特征或者一种分类器,导致F1值较低,无法充分发挥两种特征的优势。因此,提出了融合页面结构特征和内容特征的在线百科实体标注方法。该方法考虑了两种特征对标注结果的影响,分别构造分类器,并且对结果进行线性组合,能够更准确地实现百科实体的实体标注。实验表明,该方法在实体标注中F1值较其他对比实验方法均有所提高。

  18. Encyclopedia Logic and Literature Research%《小逻辑》与文学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    公炎冰

    2001-01-01

    Encyclopedia Logic is one of Hegal's works in which there is least idealism and most materialism. It illustrates the process in which the perceptual reflecting the material world develops into the consciousness reflecting the objective material world, in which medium lies in relations, and finally reaches the absolute ideal where the subjective and objective, theory and practice, the finite and infinite are united. Judging from the agreement between the course of history and logic, Hegal' s dialectical methods lie in his logical summary and outline, and his highest achievements and their essence. In this article, Hegal's dialectical methods of "the agreement and conversion between the thought and reality is used in the individual theoretical research of the literary practice-the literary form and its research method to try to reach the philosophical rational level in theoretical research.%《小逻辑》是黑格尔唯心主义最少,唯物主义最多的一部哲学著作。它论述的是由感性的反映物质世界,发展为由知性反映有中介性在关系中的客观现实世界,最后发展到理性的辩证的上升到主观与客观、理论与实践、有限与无限得到统一的全体的绝对理念。从历史的和逻辑的进程的一致来看,黑格尔逻辑学的总结和概要、最高成就和实质,就是辩证的方法。本文将黑格尔"思想与现实一致和转换"的辩证方法,运用于文学实践的个别理论研究之中--文学的形式和文学的研究方法,力图在理论研究层面,能上升到哲学的理性高度。

  19. The StarDate Black Hole Encyclopedia Website blackholes.stardate.org

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhardt, Karl; Benningfield, D.; Preston, S.

    2013-01-01

    The StarDate Black Hole Encyclopedia website was developed over the past seven years to provide an extensive but easy-to-read resource for the public and students. A Spanish-language version, Enciclopedia de agujeros negros, is also available at blackholes.radiouniverso.org. Evaluation shows that the sites are used by the public, students, and astronomy professionals, and the site is among the top references in most web searches for individual black holes. The site comprises seven major subsections: Basics, Directory, Research, History, Pop Culture, News, and Resources. The Basics section introduces black holes, explains how they are discovered and studied, and covers their basis in the theory of gravity. This section also includes a six-minute video introduction, “Black Holes: Stranger than Fiction.” The Directory section contains extensive descriptions of more than 80 well-known stellar, intermediate, and supermassive black holes as well as images and vital statistics of each. The Research section takes a look at three NSF-funded projects, including the work of Andrea Ghez, Karl Gebhardt and Jenny Greene, and the LIGO project. The History section provides a timeline of black holes from Isaac Newton to the present. Some of the best and worst roles played by black holes in films, TV shows, and books are included in the Pop Culture section (and pop culture references and images are sprinkled through the rest of the site). An archive of news reports about black holes is available in the News section, which provides links to the original stories or press releases. And the Resources section offers FAQs, articles from StarDate magazine and radio programs, activities for students that are tied to national standards, a glossary, and a reading list of books and websites. We have conducted both quantitative and qualitative evaluation on the black hole websites. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0935841. Any

  20. Modeling biogenic and anthropogenic secondary organic aerosol in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianlin; Wang, Peng; Ying, Qi; Zhang, Hongliang; Chen, Jianjun; Ge, Xinlei; Li, Xinghua; Jiang, Jingkun; Wang, Shuxiao; Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Yu; Zhang, Yingyi

    2017-01-01

    A revised Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model with updated secondary organic aerosol (SOA) yields and a more detailed description of SOA formation from isoprene oxidation was applied to study the spatial and temporal distribution of SOA in China in the entire year of 2013. Predicted organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon and volatile organic compounds agreed favorably with observations at several urban areas, although the high OC concentrations in wintertime in Beijing were under-predicted. Predicted summer SOA was generally higher (10-15 µg m-3) due to large contributions of isoprene (country average, 61 %), although the relative importance varies in different regions. Winter SOA was slightly lower and was mostly due to emissions of alkane and aromatic compounds (51 %). Contributions of monoterpene SOA was relatively constant (8-10 %). Overall, biogenic SOA accounted for approximately 75 % of total SOA in summer, 50-60 % in autumn and spring, and 24 % in winter. The Sichuan Basin had the highest predicted SOA concentrations in the country in all seasons, with hourly concentrations up to 50 µg m-3. Approximately half of the SOA in all seasons was due to the traditional equilibrium partitioning of semivolatile components followed by oligomerization, while the remaining SOA was mainly due to reactive surface uptake of isoprene epoxide (5-14 %), glyoxal (14-25 %) and methylglyoxal (23-28 %). Sensitivity analyses showed that formation of SOA from biogenic emissions was significantly enhanced due to anthropogenic emissions. Removing all anthropogenic emissions while keeping the biogenic emissions unchanged led to total SOA concentrations of less than 1 µg m-3, which suggests that manmade emissions facilitated biogenic SOA formation and controlling anthropogenic emissions would result in reduction of both anthropogenic and biogenic SOA.

  1. Nephrology around Europe: organization models and management strategies: Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Francisco, Angel L M; Piñera, Celestino

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of this report is to present a picture of the current organization of nephrology in Spain. The Spanish health system offers almost universal coverage, a wide variety of services and a high-quality network of hospitals and primary care centers. Spain has a specialized health care training system that is highly developed, highly regulated, with the capacity to provide high-quality training in 54 different specialties. Nephrology is basically a hospital-based specialty. There are no private dialysis patients in Spain. Hemodialysis centers are 40% public, 15% private and 45% run by companies. The National Health System covers 95% of the population, and there is no cost to patients for treatment of renal disease (dialysis and transplant). We observed a clear decrease of nephrology in residents' election rankings, with position 29 out of 47 specialties in 2007. Some of the reasons for this are the complexity of the subject, no clear information at the university, reduction of professional posts and a very good public service with minimal private practice. In Spain, a model of organization for transplantation was adopted based on a decentralized transplant coordinating network. For cadaveric donors, it compares favorably with rates in other Western countries. Living donor transplantation is very low in Spain--just 10% of total renal transplantation activity. New programs due to financial constraints need to include reduced dialysis costs, greater cost-effectiveness of prescriptions, better handling of ethical issues related to the need for using a clinical score of chronic kidney disease patients to make decisions about conservative or renal replacement therapy and an action plan for improvement of organ donation and transplantation. Recovery of skills (acute kidney injury, biopsies, vascular access, etc.), research and advances in autonomous activities (imaging, surgical and medical vascular training, etc.) are some of the future educational paths needed in

  2. Modeling evolutionary dynamics of epigenetic mutations in hierarchically organized tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Sottoriva

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The cancer stem cell (CSC concept is a highly debated topic in cancer research. While experimental evidence in favor of the cancer stem cell theory is apparently abundant, the results are often criticized as being difficult to interpret. An important reason for this is that most experimental data that support this model rely on transplantation studies. In this study we use a novel cellular Potts model to elucidate the dynamics of established malignancies that are driven by a small subset of CSCs. Our results demonstrate that epigenetic mutations that occur during mitosis display highly altered dynamics in CSC-driven malignancies compared to a classical, non-hierarchical model of growth. In particular, the heterogeneity observed in CSC-driven tumors is considerably higher. We speculate that this feature could be used in combination with epigenetic (methylation sequencing studies of human malignancies to prove or refute the CSC hypothesis in established tumors without the need for transplantation. Moreover our tumor growth simulations indicate that CSC-driven tumors display evolutionary features that can be considered beneficial during tumor progression. Besides an increased heterogeneity they also exhibit properties that allow the escape of clones from local fitness peaks. This leads to more aggressive phenotypes in the long run and makes the neoplasm more adaptable to stringent selective forces such as cancer treatment. Indeed when therapy is applied the clone landscape of the regrown tumor is more aggressive with respect to the primary tumor, whereas the classical model demonstrated similar patterns before and after therapy. Understanding these often counter-intuitive fundamental properties of (non-hierarchically organized malignancies is a crucial step in validating the CSC concept as well as providing insight into the therapeutical consequences of this model.

  3. Spectrophotometry and organic matter on Iapetus. 1: Composition models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Peter D.; Sagan, Carl

    1995-01-01

    Iapetus shows a greater hemispheric albedo asymmetry than any other body in the solar system. Hapke scattering theory and optical constants measured in the laboratory are used to identify possible compositions for the dark material on the leading hemisphere of Iapetus. The materials considered are poly-HCN, kerogen, Murchison organic residue, Titan tholin, ice tholin, and water ice. Three-component mixtures of these materials are modeled in intraparticle mixture of 25% poly-HCN, 10% Murchison residue, and 65% water ice is found to best fit the spectrum, albedo, and phase behavior of the dark material. The Murchison residue and/or water ice can be replaced by kerogen and ice tholin, respectively, and still produce very good fits. Areal and particle mixtures of poly-HCN, Titan tholin, and either ice tholin or Murchison residue are also possible models. Poly-HCN is a necessary component in almost all good models. The presence of poly-HCN can be further tested by high-resolution observations near 4.5 micrometers.

  4. In Vivo RNAi-Based Screens: Studies in Model Organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miki Yamamoto-Hino

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available RNA interference (RNAi is a technique widely used for gene silencing in organisms and cultured cells, and depends on sequence homology between double-stranded RNA (dsRNA and target mRNA molecules. Numerous cell-based genome-wide screens have successfully identified novel genes involved in various biological processes, including signal transduction, cell viability/death, and cell morphology. However, cell-based screens cannot address cellular processes such as development, behavior, and immunity. Drosophila and Caenorhabditis elegans are two model organisms whose whole bodies and individual body parts have been subjected to RNAi-based genome-wide screening. Moreover, Drosophila RNAi allows the manipulation of gene function in a spatiotemporal manner when it is implemented using the Gal4/UAS system. Using this inducible RNAi technique, various large-scale screens have been performed in Drosophila, demonstrating that the method is straightforward and valuable. However, accumulated results reveal that the results of RNAi-based screens have relatively high levels of error, such as false positives and negatives. Here, we review in vivo RNAi screens in Drosophila and the methods that could be used to remove ambiguity from screening results.

  5. Multiscale modelling of charge transport in organic electronic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jenny

    2010-03-01

    Charge transport in disordered organic semiconductors is controlled by a complex combination of phenomena that span a range of length and time scales. As a result, it is difficult to rationalize charge transport properties in terms of material parameters. Until now, efforts to improve charge mobilities in molecular semiconductors have proceeded largely by trial and error rather than through systematic design. However, recent developments have enabled the first predictive simulation studies of charge transport in disordered organic semiconductors. In this presentation we will show how a set of computational methods, namely molecular modelling methods to simulate molecular packing, quantum chemical calculations of charge transfer rates, and Monte Carlo simulations of charge transport can be used to reproduce experimental charge mobilities with few or no fitting parameters. Using case studies, we will show how such simulations can explain the relative values of electron and hole mobility and the effects of grain size, side chains and polymer molecular weight on charge mobility. Although currently applied to material systems of relatively high symmetry or well defined structure, this approach can be developed to address more complex systems such as multicomponent solids and conjugated polymers.

  6. EcoCyc: fusing model organism databases with systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keseler, Ingrid M; Mackie, Amanda; Peralta-Gil, Martin; Santos-Zavaleta, Alberto; Gama-Castro, Socorro; Bonavides-Martínez, César; Fulcher, Carol; Huerta, Araceli M; Kothari, Anamika; Krummenacker, Markus; Latendresse, Mario; Muñiz-Rascado, Luis; Ong, Quang; Paley, Suzanne; Schröder, Imke; Shearer, Alexander G; Subhraveti, Pallavi; Travers, Mike; Weerasinghe, Deepika; Weiss, Verena; Collado-Vides, Julio; Gunsalus, Robert P; Paulsen, Ian; Karp, Peter D

    2013-01-01

    EcoCyc (http://EcoCyc.org) is a model organism database built on the genome sequence of Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655. Expert manual curation of the functions of individual E. coli gene products in EcoCyc has been based on information found in the experimental literature for E. coli K-12-derived strains. Updates to EcoCyc content continue to improve the comprehensive picture of E. coli biology. The utility of EcoCyc is enhanced by new tools available on the EcoCyc web site, and the development of EcoCyc as a teaching tool is increasing the impact of the knowledge collected in EcoCyc.

  7. A self-organized critical model for evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flyvbjerg, H.; Bak, P.; Jensen, M.H.; Sneppen, K.

    1996-01-01

    A simple mathematical model of biological macroevolution is presented. It describes an ecology of adapting, interacting species. Species evolve to maximize their individual fitness in their environment. The environment of any given species is affected by other evolving species; hence it is not constant in time. The ecology evolves to a ``self-organized critical`` state where periods of stasis alternate with avalanches of causally connected evolutionary changes. This characteristic intermittent behaviour of natural history, known as ``punctuated equilibrium,`` thus finds a theoretical explanation as a selforganized critical phenomenon. In particular, large bursts of apparently simultaneous evolutionary activity require no external cause. They occur as the less frequent result of the very same dynamics that governs the more frequent small-scale evolutionary activity. Our results are compared with data from the fossil record collected by J. Sepkoski, Jr., and others.

  8. Modeling nanostructure-enhanced light trapping in organic solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adam, Jost

    A promising approach for improving the power conversion efficiencies of organic solar cells (OSCs) is by incorporating nanostructures in their thin film architecture to improve the light absorption in the device’s active polymer layers. Here, we present a modelling framework for the prediction...... of optical and plasmonic field enhancement by nanostructures in (or close to) the active layers and electrodes in OSCs. We incorporate finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculations alongside semi- analytical approaches, as the rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA) and mode-coupling theory. Our simulation......-compatible method for non-periodic electrode structuring by pores of controlled dimensions, formed through anodic oxidation of sputter-deposited high-purity aluminium films [3]. [1] Kluge, C., et al. Multi-periodic nanostructures for photon control. Optics Express, 22 (S5), A1363. (2014) [2] Skigin, D., et al...

  9. Corporate Social Responsibility And Islamic Business Organizations: A Proposed Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusnah Muhamad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of corporate social responsibility (CSR has been of growing concern among business communities in recent years. Various corporate leaders maintain that business is considered to contribute fully to the society if it is effi cient, profi table and socially responsible. Islam is considered as addin (a way of life, thus, providing comprehensive guidelines in every aspects of the believers’ life. It is the aim of this paper to propose an Islamic model of corporate social responsibility based on human relationships with the God (hablun min’Allah; with other fellow human being (hablun min’an-nas and with the environment.Keywords : Corporate Social Responsibility, Islamic Business Organization

  10. Azolla - A Model Organism for Plant Genomic Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin-Long Qiu; Jun Yu

    2003-01-01

    The aquatic ferns of the genus Azolla are nitrogen-fixing plants that have great potentials in agricultural production and environmental conservation. Azolla in many aspects is qualified to serve as a model organism for genomic studies because of its importance in agriculture, its unique position in plant evolution, its symbiotic relationship with the N2-fixing cyanobacterium, Anabaena azollae, and its moderate-sized genome. The goals of this genome project are not only to understand the biology of the Azolla genome to promote its applications in biological research and agriculture practice but also to gain critical insights about evolution of plant genomes. Together with the strategic and technical improvement as well as cost reduction of DNA sequencing, the deciphering of their genetic code is imminent.

  11. Azolla—A Model Organism for Plant Genomic Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin-LongQiu; JunYu

    2003-01-01

    The aquatic ferns of the genus Azolla are nitrogen-fixing plants that have great potentials in agricultural production and environmental conservation.Azolla in many aspects is qualified to serve as a model organism for genomic studies because of its importance in agriculture,its unique position in plant evolution,its symbiotic relationship with the N2-fixing cyanobacterium,Anabaena azollae,and its moderate-sized genome.The goals of this genome project are not only to understand the biology of the Azolla genome to promote its applications in biological research and agriculture practice but also to gain critical insights about evolution of plant genomes.Together with the strategic and technical improvement as well as cost reduction of DNA sequencing,the deciphering of their genetic code is imminent.

  12. Giant plasma membrane vesicles: models for understanding membrane organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levental, Kandice R; Levental, Ilya

    2015-01-01

    The organization of eukaryotic membranes into functional domains continues to fascinate and puzzle cell biologists and biophysicists. The lipid raft hypothesis proposes that collective lipid interactions compartmentalize the membrane into coexisting liquid domains that are central to membrane physiology. This hypothesis has proven controversial because such structures cannot be directly visualized in live cells by light microscopy. The recent observations of liquid-liquid phase separation in biological membranes are an important validation of the raft hypothesis and enable application of the experimental toolbox of membrane physics to a biologically complex phase-separated membrane. This review addresses the role of giant plasma membrane vesicles (GPMVs) in refining the raft hypothesis and expands on the application of GPMVs as an experimental model to answer some of key outstanding problems in membrane biology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Self-organized criticality in a computer network model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan; Ren; Shan

    2000-02-01

    We study the collective behavior of computer network nodes by using a cellular automaton model. The results show that when the load of network is constant, the throughputs and buffer contents of nodes are power-law distributed in both space and time. Also the feature of 1/f noise appears in the power spectrum of the change of the number of nodes that bear a fixed part of the system load. It can be seen as yet another example of self-organized criticality. Power-law decay in the distribution of buffer contents implies that heavy network congestion occurs with small probability. The temporal power-law distribution for throughput might be a reasonable explanation for the observed self-similarity in computer network traffic.

  14. Comparing and modelling land use organization in cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenormand, Maxime; Picornell, Miguel; Cantú-Ros, Oliva G.; Louail, Thomas; Herranz, Ricardo; Barthelemy, Marc; Frías-Martínez, Enrique; San Miguel, Maxi; Ramasco, José J.

    2015-01-01

    The advent of geolocated information and communication technologies opens the possibility of exploring how people use space in cities, bringing an important new tool for urban scientists and planners, especially for regions where data are scarce or not available. Here we apply a functional network approach to determine land use patterns from mobile phone records. The versatility of the method allows us to run a systematic comparison between Spanish cities of various sizes. The method detects four major land use types that correspond to different temporal patterns. The proportion of these types, their spatial organization and scaling show a strong similarity between all cities that breaks down at a very local scale, where land use mixing is specific to each urban area. Finally, we introduce a model inspired by Schelling's segregation, able to explain and reproduce these results with simple interaction rules between different land uses. PMID:27019730

  15. Comparing and modeling land use organization in cities

    CERN Document Server

    Lenormand, Maxime; Cantú-Ros, Oliva G; Louail, Thomas; Herranz, Ricardo; Barthelemy, Marc; Frías-Martínez, Enrique; Miguel, Maxi San; Ramasco, José J

    2015-01-01

    The advent of geolocated ICT technologies opens the possibility of exploring how people use space in cities, bringing an important new tool for urban scientists and planners, especially for regions where data is scarce or not available. Here we apply a functional network approach to determine land use patterns from mobile phone records. The versatility of the method allows us to run a systematic comparison between Spanish cities of various sizes. The method detects four major land use types that correspond to different temporal patterns. The proportion of these types, their spatial organization and scaling show a strong similarity between all cities that breaks down at a very local scale, where land use mixing is specific to each urban area. Finally, we introduce a model inspired by Schelling's segregation, able to explain and reproduce these results with simple interaction rules between different land uses.

  16. CONCEPTUAL MODEL OF MARKETING STRATEGIC PLANNING SPECIFIC TO PUBLIC ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionescu Florin Tudor

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In public services, the political component of the marketing environment has a major importance, as all decisions adopted within central administration influence both the objectives and measures implemented by units of local government and other public service providers. Any discontinuity in the activity of such entities might result in neglecting the real needs of citizens and slowing the reform process in the public sector. Therefore, all initiatives of public organizations must have a unitary goal and integrate harmoniously within a single process. A tool from the management-marketing literature that both contributes to this purpose and leads to an increased customer satisfaction and organizational performance is strategic marketing planning. This paper presents, firstly, requirements and particularities of this process in the public sector, focusing on the need for bottom-up planning, meaning from the functional levels of public service organizations, to the corporate level, where strategic decisions are taken. To achieve this goal, there should be included in the planning process the clients and other audiences, which can provide useful information about the services they want, the quality or the accessibility thereof, and news about the services they need in the future. There are also mentioned the factors that can influence the quality of strategic marketing planning in public services domain: the importance of marketing within the organization, marketing knowledge of employees in marketing departments and/or of management personnel, the efficiency of activities within the organization, and the manager’s marketing vision. In the final part of the paper there are presented the stages of the conceptual model of strategic marketing planning in public services field: (1 accepting the idea of bottom-up planning, (2 avoid or eliminate discrepancies between measures taken at high levels and executions carried out at operational

  17. ORGANIZING SCENARIO VARIABLES BY APPLYING THE INTERPRETATIVE STRUCTURAL MODELING (ISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Estima de Carvalho

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The scenario building method is a thought mode - taken to effect in an optimized, strategic manner - based on trends and uncertain events, concerning a large variety of potential results that may impact the future of an organization.In this study, the objective is to contribute towards a possible improvement in Godet and Schoemaker´s scenario preparation methods, by employing the Interpretative Structural Modeling (ISM as a tool for the analysis of variables.Given this is an exploratory theme, bibliographical research with tool definition and analysis, examples extraction from literature and a comparison exercise of referred methods, were undertaken.It was verified that ISM may substitute or complement the original tools for the analysis of variables of scenarios per Godet and Schoemaker’s methods, given the fact that it enables an in-depth analysis of relations between variables in a shorter period of time, facilitating both structuring and construction of possible scenarios.Key-words: Strategy. Future studies. Interpretative Structural Modeling.

  18. Self-Organization of Aging in a Modified Penna Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gi Ok; Shim, Sugie

    The Penna model for biological aging is modified so that the fertility of each individual is determined by means of the number of activated mutations at that time. A new concept of "good" mutation, which makes an individual to mature enough to reproduce, is introduced. It is assumed that each individual can reproduce only during adulthood, which is determined by the number of activated mutations. The results of Monte Carlo calculations using the modified model show that the ranges of the reproductive age are broadened as time goes by, thus showing self-organization in the biological aging to the direction of the maximum self-conservation. In addition, the population, the survival rate, and the average life span were calculated and analyzed by changing the number of new mutations at birth. It is observed that the higher is the considered number of new mutations at birth, the shorter is the obtained average life span. The mortality functions are also calculated and they showed the exponential increase in adulthood, satisfying the Gompertz law.

  19. Development of an analytical model for organic-fluid fouling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panchal, C.B.; Watkinson, A.P.

    1994-10-01

    The research goal of this project is to determine ways to effectively mitigate fouling in organic fluids: hydrocarbons and derived fluids. The fouling research focuses on the development of methodology for determining threshold conditions for fouling. Initially, fluid containing chemicals known to produce foulant is analyzed; subsequently, fouling of industrial fluids is investigated. The fouling model developed for determining the effects of physical parameters is the subject of this report. The fouling model is developed on the premise that the chemical reaction for generation of precursor can take place in the bulk fluid, in the thermal-boundary layer, or at the fluid/wall interface, depending upon the interactive effects of fluid dynamics, heat and mass transfer, and the controlling chemical reaction. In the analysis, the experimental data are examined for fouling deposition of polyperoxide produced by autoxidation of indene in kerosene. The effects of fluid and wall temperatures for two flow geometries are analyzed. The results show that the relative effects of physical parameters on the fouling rate differ for the three fouling mechanisms. Therefore, to apply the closed-flow-loop data to industrial conditions, the controlling mechanism must be identified.

  20. A Study of Some Leading Organ Transplant Models in Health Care Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasin Uzuntarla

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The most effective treatment method for patients with organ failure is an organ transplant. Although numerous patients are waiting to get organ transplants, the inadequacy in the supply of organs has become a chronic health problem around the whole world. Countries have made various regulations in their health systems that increase the supply of organs and, as a result, various organ transplantation models have been established. Organ transplantation models applied in Spain, the USA, the European Union, Iran, and Turkey have been examined in this study.

  1. KICS: A Model of Motivational Leadership in Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John N. N. Ugoani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This pure research gave birth to a Model of Motivational Leadership – KICS: which embraces knowledge, intelligence, collaboration and synergy. It is a synergistic  proposition based on the theory of emotional intelligence as the index of competencies needed for effective leadership. It opened with a general discussion on traditional models of leadership, then the roles of knowledge, intelligence, collaboration and synergy as they relate to motivational leadership. Issues of emotional intelligence clusters and synthesis of the model’s elements were discussed, emphasizing how KICS-based motivational leadership skills can be developed and sustained. Motivational leadership entails exciting people’s imaginations and inspiring them to move in a desired direction. It takes more than simple power to motivate and lead in organizations. Realizing that unity and cohesiveness are built from personal bonds, the best leaders ensure to deepen their rapport with employees and colleagues which enhances organizational performance. This pure research argues that the synergy of related emotional intelligence competencies can lead to motivational leadership behaviour. Knowledge is critical to leadership because there are different types of leadership and different situations require different kinds of knowledge, and the person possessing the knowledge demanded by a certain situation in most cases, tends to become the best leader. A knowledgeable person is one who is trained to consider his actions to undertake them deliberately, in a disciplined manner. Added to this ability is the intelligence to endure in a chosen course in the face of distraction, confusion and difficulty, all combined in producing a motivational leader. Knowledge tends to be procedural in nature and to operate outside of focal awareness. It also reflects the structure of the situation more closely than it does in the structure of formal disciplinary knowledge. The survey research design

  2. Review of existing terrestrial bioaccumulation models and terrestrial bioaccumulation modeling needs for organic chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobas, Frank A P C; Burkhard, Lawrence P; Doucette, William J; Sappington, Keith G; Verbruggen, Eric M J; Hope, Bruce K; Bonnell, Mark A; Arnot, Jon A; Tarazona, Jose V

    2016-01-01

    Protocols for terrestrial bioaccumulation assessments are far less-developed than for aquatic systems. This article reviews modeling approaches that can be used to assess the terrestrial bioaccumulation potential of commercial organic chemicals. Models exist for plant, invertebrate, mammal, and avian species and for entire terrestrial food webs, including some that consider spatial factors. Limitations and gaps in terrestrial bioaccumulation modeling include the lack of QSARs for biotransformation and dietary assimilation efficiencies for terrestrial species; the lack of models and QSARs for important terrestrial species such as insects, amphibians and reptiles; the lack of standardized testing protocols for plants with limited development of plant models; and the limited chemical domain of existing bioaccumulation models and QSARs (e.g., primarily applicable to nonionic organic chemicals). There is an urgent need for high-quality field data sets for validating models and assessing their performance. There is a need to improve coordination among laboratory, field, and modeling efforts on bioaccumulative substances in order to improve the state of the science for challenging substances.

  3. 《SAGE教育技术百科全书》:走进教育技术的知识本体--访主编迈克尔·斯佩克特博士%The SAGE Encyclopedia of Educational Technology:Into the Ontology of Educational Technology-Interview with Dr. Michael Spector as Chief Editor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张屹; 徐光涛; 范福兰; 李馨; 赵云建

    2015-01-01

    university. The Encyclopedia consists of 2 volumes, 915 pages, deifnes 28 general topical categories or thematic areas and 314 associated entries and more than 100 items. It includes chronology, resource guide and index with a lot of rich entries for the reader. The SAGE Encyclopedia of Educational Technology elaborates the learning theory, method, strategy and practice of the information technologies on education reform. Especially for the new educational technologies, teaching modes and research methods. In the interview, professor Spector shared with us the organization of the editorial team and the editing process. He analyzed the ontology of educational technology, research method of educational technology and educational technology development trend in the future. He emphasized the core foundation pillars of educational technology, and pointed we must be lfexible and logical in the educational technology research ifeld. He also showed us the importance of strategy in teaching research with his own work experience.

  4. 3D modeling of organic haze in Pluto's atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Tanguy; Forget, François

    2017-05-01

    The New Horizons spacecraft, which flew by Pluto on July 14, 2015, revealed the presence of haze in Pluto's atmosphere that were formed by CH4/N2 photochemistry at high altitudes in Pluto's atmosphere, as on Titan and Triton. In order to help the analysis of the observations and further investigate the formation of organic haze and its evolution at global scales, we have implemented a simple parameterization of the formation of organic haze in our Pluto General Circulation Model. The production of haze in our model is based on the different steps of aerosol formation as understood on Titan and Triton: photolysis of CH4 in the upper atmosphere by Lyman-α UV radiation, production of various gaseous species, and conversion into solid particles through accumulation and aggregation processes. The simulations use properties of aerosols similar to those observed in the detached haze layer on Titan. We compared two reference simulations ran with a particle radius of 50 nm: with, and without South Pole N2 condensation. We discuss the impact of the particle radius and the lifetime of the precursors on the haze distribution. We simulate CH4 photolysis and the haze formation up to 600 km above the surface. Results show that CH4 photolysis in Pluto's atmosphere in 2015 occurred mostly in the sunlit summer hemisphere with a peak at an altitude of 250 km, though the interplanetary source of Lyman-α flux can induce some photolysis even in the Winter hemisphere. We obtained an extensive haze up to altitudes comparable with the observations, and with non-negligible densities up to 500 km altitude. In both reference simulations, the haze density is not strongly impacted by the meridional circulation. With No South Pole N2 condensation, the maximum nadir opacity and haze extent is obtained at the North Pole. With South Pole N2 condensation, the descending parcel of air above the South Pole leads to a latitudinally more homogeneous haze density with a slight density peak at the South

  5. Towards Increased Relevance: Context-Adapted Models of the Learning Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Örtenblad, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes of this paper are to take a closer look at the relevance of the idea of the learning organization for organizations in different generalized organizational contexts; to open up for the existence of multiple, context-adapted models of the learning organization; and to suggest a number of such models.…

  6. Towards Increased Relevance: Context-Adapted Models of the Learning Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Örtenblad, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes of this paper are to take a closer look at the relevance of the idea of the learning organization for organizations in different generalized organizational contexts; to open up for the existence of multiple, context-adapted models of the learning organization; and to suggest a number of such models.…

  7. Evaluation of approaches focused on modelling of organic carbon stocks using the RothC model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koco, Štefan; Skalský, Rastislav; Makovníková, Jarmila; Tarasovičová, Zuzana; Barančíková, Gabriela

    2014-05-01

    The aim of current efforts in the European area is the protection of soil organic matter, which is included in all relevant documents related to the protection of soil. The use of modelling of organic carbon stocks for anticipated climate change, respectively for land management can significantly help in short and long-term forecasting of the state of soil organic matter. RothC model can be applied in the time period of several years to centuries and has been tested in long-term experiments within a large range of soil types and climatic conditions in Europe. For the initialization of the RothC model, knowledge about the carbon pool sizes is essential. Pool size characterization can be obtained from equilibrium model runs, but this approach is time consuming and tedious, especially for larger scale simulations. Due to this complexity we search for new possibilities how to simplify and accelerate this process. The paper presents a comparison of two approaches for SOC stocks modelling in the same area. The modelling has been carried out on the basis of unique input of land use, management and soil data for each simulation unit separately. We modeled 1617 simulation units of 1x1 km grid on the territory of agroclimatic region Žitný ostrov in the southwest of Slovakia. The first approach represents the creation of groups of simulation units based on the evaluation of results for simulation unit with similar input values. The groups were created after the testing and validation of modelling results for individual simulation units with results of modelling the average values of inputs for the whole group. Tests of equilibrium model for interval in the range 5 t.ha-1 from initial SOC stock showed minimal differences in results comparing with result for average value of whole interval. Management inputs data from plant residues and farmyard manure for modelling of carbon turnover were also the same for more simulation units. Combining these groups (intervals of initial

  8. Development and evaluation of a new sorption model for organic cations in soil: contributions from organic matter and clay minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droge, Steven T J; Goss, Kai-Uwe

    2013-12-17

    This study evaluates a newly proposed cation-exchange model that defines the sorption of organic cations to soil as a summed contribution of sorption to organic matter (OM) and sorption to phyllosilicate clay minerals. Sorption to OM is normalized to the fraction organic carbon (fOC), and sorption to clay is normalized to the estimated cation-exchange capacity attributed to clay minerals (CECCLAY). Sorption affinity is specified to a fixed medium composition, with correction factors for other electrolyte concentrations. The model applies measured sorption coefficients to one reference OM material and one clay mineral. If measured values are absent, then empirical relationships are available on the basis of molecular volume and amine type in combination with corrective increments for specific polar moieties. The model is tested using new sorption data generated at pH 6 for two Eurosoils, one enriched in clay and the other, OM, using 29 strong bases (pKa > 8). Using experimental data on reference materials for all tested compounds, model predictions for the two soils differed on average by only -0.1 ± 0.4 log units from measured sorption affinities. Within the chemical applicability domain, the model can also be applied successfully to various reported soil sorption data for organic cations. Particularly for clayish soils, the model shows that sorption of organic cations to clay minerals accounts for more than 90% of the overall affinity.

  9. Vienna Soil-Organic-Matter Modeler--Generating condensed-phase models of humic substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sündermann, Axel; Solc, Roland; Tunega, Daniel; Haberhauer, Georg; Gerzabek, Martin H; Oostenbrink, Chris

    2015-11-01

    Humic substances are ubiquitous in the environment and have manifold functions. While their composition is well known, information on the chemical structure and three-dimensional conformation is scarce. Here we describe the Vienna Soil-Organic-Matter Modeler, which is an online tool to generate condensed phase computer models of humic substances (http://somm.boku.ac.at). Many different models can be created that reflect the diversity in composition and conformations of the constituting molecules. To exemplify the modeler, 18 different models are generated based on two experimentally determined compositions, to explicitly study the effect of varying e.g. the amount of water molecules in the models or the pH. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed on the models, which were subsequently analyzed in terms of structure, interactions and dynamics, linking macroscopic observables to the microscopic composition of the systems. We are convinced that this new tool opens the way for a wide range of in silico studies on soil organic matter.

  10. Modeling adsorption and reactions of organic molecules at metal surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Tkatchenko, Alexandre; Scheffler, Matthias

    2014-11-18

    CONSPECTUS: The understanding of adsorption and reactions of (large) organic molecules at metal surfaces plays an increasingly important role in modern surface science and technology. Such hybrid inorganic/organic systems (HIOS) are relevant for many applications in catalysis, light-emitting diodes, single-molecule junctions, molecular sensors and switches, and photovoltaics. Obviously, the predictive modeling and understanding of the structure and stability of such hybrid systems is an essential prerequisite for tuning their electronic properties and functions. At present, density-functional theory (DFT) is the most promising approach to study the structure, stability, and electronic properties of complex systems, because it can be applied to both molecules and solids comprising thousands of atoms. However, state-of-the-art approximations to DFT do not provide a consistent and reliable description for HIOS, which is largely due to two issues: (i) the self-interaction of the electrons with themselves arising from the Hartree term of the total energy that is not fully compensated in approximate exchange-correlation functionals, and (ii) the lack of long-range part of the ubiquitous van der Waals (vdW) interactions. The self-interaction errors sometimes lead to incorrect description of charge transfer and electronic level alignment in HIOS, although for molecules adsorbed on metals these effects will often cancel out in total energy differences. Regarding vdW interactions, several promising vdW-inclusive DFT-based methods have been recently demonstrated to yield remarkable accuracy for intermolecular interactions in the gas phase. However, the majority of these approaches neglect the nonlocal collective electron response in the vdW energy tail, an effect that is particularly strong in condensed phases and at interfaces between different materials. Here we show that the recently developed DFT+vdW(surf) method that accurately accounts for the collective electronic

  11. The prisoner as model organism: malaria research at Stateville Penitentiary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comfort, Nathaniel

    2009-01-01

    In a military-sponsored research project begun during the Second World War, inmates of the Stateville Penitentiary in Illinois were infected with malaria and treated with experimental drugs that sometimes had vicious side effects. They were made into reservoirs for the disease and they provided a food supply for the mosquito cultures. They acted as secretaries and technicians, recording data on one another, administering malarious mosquito bites and experimental drugs to one another, and helping decide who was admitted to the project and who became eligible for early parole as a result of his participation. Thus, the prisoners were not simply research subjects; they were deeply constitutive of the research project. Because a prisoner’s time on the project was counted as part of his sentence, and because serving on the project could shorten one’s sentence, the project must be seen as simultaneously serving the functions of research and punishment. Michel Foucault wrote about such ‘mixed mechanisms’ in his Discipline and punish. His shining example of such a ‘transparent’ and subtle style of punishment was the panopticon, Jeremy Bentham’s architectural invention of prison cellblocks arrayed around a central guard tower. Stateville prison was designed on Bentham’s model; Foucault featured it in his own discussion. This paper, then, explores the power relations in this highly idiosyncratic experimental system, in which the various roles of model organism, reagent, and technician are all occupied by sentient beings who move among them fluidly. This, I argue, created an environment in the Stateville hospital wing more panoptic than that in the cellblocks. Research and punishment were completely interpenetrating, and mutually reinforcing. PMID:19720327

  12. The prisoner as model organism: malaria research at Stateville Penitentiary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comfort, Nathaniel

    2009-09-01

    In a military-sponsored research project begun during the Second World War, inmates of the Stateville Penitentiary in Illinois were infected with malaria and treated with experimental drugs that sometimes had vicious side effects. They were made into reservoirs for the disease and they provided a food supply for the mosquito cultures. They acted as secretaries and technicians, recording data on one another, administering malarious mosquito bites and experimental drugs to one another, and helping decide who was admitted to the project and who became eligible for early parole as a result of his participation. Thus, the prisoners were not simply research subjects; they were deeply constitutive of the research project. Because a prisoner's time on the project was counted as part of his sentence, and because serving on the project could shorten one's sentence, the project must be seen as simultaneously serving the functions of research and punishment. Michel Foucault wrote about such 'mixed mechanisms' in his Discipline and punish. His shining example of such a 'transparent' and subtle style of punishment was the panopticon, Jeremy Bentham's architectural invention of prison cellblocks arrayed around a central guard tower. Stateville prison was designed on Bentham's model; Foucault featured it in his own discussion. This paper, then, explores the power relations in this highly idiosyncratic experimental system, in which the various roles of model organism, reagent, and technician are all occupied by sentient beings who move among them fluidly. This, I argue, created an environment in the Stateville hospital wing more panoptic than that in the cellblocks. Research and punishment were completely interpenetrating, and mutually reinforcing.

  13. Modelling and Optimization of Organization of Workplaces in a Foundry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kukla S.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a practical example of improvement of foundry production systems in terms of post-finishing of nodular iron castings produced in the conditions of bulk production for automotive industry. The attention was paid to high labour-intensive efforts, which are difficult to be subjected to mechanization and automation. The times of actions related to grinding processing of castings in three grinding positions connected with a belt conveyor were estimated with the use of a time study method. A bottleneck as well as limiting factors were specified in a system. A number of improvements were proposed, aimed at improving work organization on the castings post-finishing line. An analysis of work ergonomics at the workplace was made in order to eliminate unnecessary and onerous for the employee actions. A model of production system using the Arena software, on which a simulation experiment was conducted, was drawn up in order to visualize the analysed phenomena. The effects of the project were shown on graphs comparing times, costs, work ergonomics and overall efficiency of production equipment indicator.

  14. [Epidemiological intelligence as a model of organization in health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues-Júnior, Antonio Luiz

    2012-03-01

    The concept of epidemiological intelligence, as a construction of information societies, goes beyond monitoring a list of diseases and the ability to elicit rapid responses. The concept should consider the complexity of the definition of epidemiology in the identification of this object of study without being limited to a set of actions in a single government sector. The activities of epidemiological intelligence include risk assessment, strategies for prevention and protection, subsystems of information, crisis management rooms, geographical analysis, etc. This concept contributes to the understanding of policies in health, in multisectorial and geopolitical dimensions, as regards the organization of services around public health emergencies, primary healthcare, as well as disasters. The activities of epidemiological intelligence should not be restricted to scientific research, but the researchers must beware of threats to public health. Lalonde's model enabled consideration of epidemiological intelligence as a way to restructure policies and share resources by creating communities of intelligence, whose purpose is primarily to deal with public health emergencies and disasters.

  15. Modelling Competences for Partner Selection in Service-Oriented Virtual Organization Breeding Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Paszkiewicz, Zbigniew

    2011-01-01

    In the context of globalization and dynamic markets, collaboration among organizations is a condition sine qua non for organizations, especially small and medium enterprises, to remain competitive. Virtual organizations have been proposed as an organizational structure adapted to collaboration among organizations. The concept of Virtual Organization Breeding Environment (VOBE) has been proposed as a means to support the creation and operation of virtual organizations. With the rise of the service-oriented architecture (SOA), the concept of service-oriented VOBE (SOVOBE) has been proposed as a VOBE systematically organized around the concept of services. In the context of SOVOBEs, novel competence models supporting both service orientation and collaboration among organizations have to be developed to support efficiently partner selection, a key aspect of VO creation. In this paper, such a competence model is presented. Our competence model consists of a competence description model, a competence verification m...

  16. Dissecting Ubiquitin Folding Using the Self-Organized Polymer Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Govardhan; Thirumalai, D

    2015-08-27

    Folding of Ubiquitin (Ub), a functionally important protein found in eukaryotic organisms, is investigated at low and neutral pH at different temperatures using simulations of the coarse-grained self-organized-polymer model with side chains (SOP-SC). The melting temperatures (Tm's), identified with the peaks in the heat capacity curves, decrease as pH decreases, in qualitative agreement with experiments. The calculated radius of gyration, showing dramatic variations with pH, is in excellent agreement with scattering experiments. At Tm, Ub folds in a two-state manner at low and neutral pH. Clustering analysis of the conformations sampled in equilibrium folding trajectories at Tm, with multiple transitions between the folded and unfolded states, shows a network of metastable states connecting the native and unfolded states. At low and neutral pH, Ub folds with high probability through a preferred set of conformations resulting in a pH-dependent dominant folding pathway. Folding kinetics reveal that Ub assembly at low pH occurs by multiple pathways involving a combination of nucleation-collapse and diffusion collision mechanism. The mechanism by which Ub folds is dictated by the stability of the key secondary structural elements responsible for establishing long-range contacts and collapse of Ub. Nucleation collapse mechanism holds if the stability of these elements are marginal, as would be the case at elevated temperatures. If the lifetimes associated with these structured microdomains are on the order of hundreds of microseconds, then Ub folding follows the diffusion-collision mechanism with intermediates, many of which coincide with those found in equilibrium. Folding at neutral pH is a sequential process with a populated intermediate resembling that sampled at equilibrium. The transition state structures, obtained using a Pfold analysis, are homogeneous and globular with most of the secondary and tertiary structures being native-like. Many of our findings for

  17. Models,Characteristics and Upgrade of Rural Tourism Industrial Organizations in Beijing Suburbs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongli; GENG

    2013-01-01

    This paper firstly introduces theoretical basis of researches on industrial organizations of rural tourism.It sums up major models of industrial organizations of rural tourism in Beijing suburbs.Then,it presents benefits and major problems of different models,sums up characteristics of development of rural tourism industrial organizations in Beijing suburbs.Finally,it comes up with recommendations for upgrade and development of rural tourism industrial organizations in Beijing suburbs.

  18. Modelling the subgenual organ of the honeybee, Apis mellifera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Jesper; Kilpinen, Ole

    1998-01-01

    In a recent study on the honeybee (Apis mellifera), the subgenual organ was observed moving inside the leg during sinusoidal vibrations of the leg (Kilpinen and Storm 1997). The subgenual organ of the honeybee is suspended in a haemolymph channel in the tibia of each leg. When the leg accelerates...

  19. Improving Organizations by Replacing the "Mechanical" Model with the "Organic" one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Organizations are currently viewed as artificial structures. However, in our opinion, organizations seem to match a biological structure much better. This paper explores this new approach with some interesting conclusions and results: organizations aim at perpetual exis-tence and continuous adaptation. We advance the ideas of organizational "instincts", organizational pathology and organizational optimization using genetic algorithms. In competitive markets, organizations are in a natural selection process, which actually is part of a natural genetic algorithm. This process may be simulated in an artificial multidisciplinary optimization environment, based on minimizing a Total Costs and Risks objective function. Unlike the gradient optimization methods, the genetic algorithms may be applied to such problems with thousands of degrees of freedom. This opens the way to the organizational structure optimization through genetic algorithms.

  20. Participatory plant breeding and organic agriculture: A synergistic model for organic variety development in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne C. Shelton

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Organic farmers require improved varieties that have been adapted to their unique soils, nutrient inputs, management practices, and pest pressures. One way to develop adapted varieties is to situate breeding programs in the environment of intended use, such as directly on organic farms, and in collaboration with organic farmers. This model is a form of participatory plant breeding, and was originally created in order to meet the needs of under-served, small-scale farmers in developing countries. A robust body of literature supports the quantitative genetic selection theory of participatory plant breeding, and helps to explain its increasing prevalence among organic breeding projects in the United States. The history of the organic farming movement in the United States highlights the cultural relevance of engaging organic farmers in the breeding process, complementing the biological rationale for participatory plant breeding. In addition, limited private investment in organic plant breeding encourages the involvement of plant breeders at public institutions. This paper synthesizes the biological, cultural, and economic justifications for utilizing participatory plant breeding as an appropriate methodology for organic cultivar development.

  1. Design of control adaptability system model for TV media organization structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dong-dong; WANG Ya-lin; MA Tao

    2008-01-01

    To resolve the control adaptability problem of TV media in complex competitive environment, a con-trol system model of TV media organization structure was designed. Based on the designed system model for TV media organization structure, the relations among the main factors of the system constitution, missions, organi-zing decision entity, and carrying bodies were analyzed. By means of applying multi-objective decision method and complex control system theory, and combining the integration model of TV media organization structure, the basic model was concluded and the corresponding parameters were designed. The current organization process of TV media is analyzed by this model, which comes to the adaptability appearance with different parameters. The results indicate that the model can estimate current TV media organization structure for the chain appearance of communications and the correlation between platforms and policy-making agencies.

  2. 76 FR 29249 - Medicare Program; Pioneer Accountable Care Organization Model: Request for Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ... participate in the Pioneer Accountable Care Organization Model for a period beginning in 2011 and ending...://innovations.cms.gov/areas-of-focus/seamless-and-coordinated-care-models/pioneer-aco . Application Submission... Accountable Care Organization Model or the application process. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background...

  3. 76 FR 34712 - Medicare Program; Pioneer Accountable Care Organization Model; Extension of the Submission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ...: This notice extends the deadlines for the submission of the Pioneer Accountable Care Organization Model...-coordinated-care-models/pioneer-aco . Application Submission Deadline: Applications must be postmarked on or before August 19, 2011. The Pioneer Accountable Care Organization Model ] Application is available...

  4. Stage-structured matrix models for organisms with non-geometric development times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Birt; Richard M. Feldman; David M. Cairns; Robert N. Coulson; Maria Tchakerian; Weimin Xi; James M. Guldin

    2009-01-01

    Matrix models have been used to model population growth of organisms for many decades. They are popular because of both their conceptual simplicity and their computational efficiency. For some types of organisms they are relatively accurate in predicting population growth; however, for others the matrix approach does not adequately model...

  5. The Liber Compostelle Attributed to Friar Bonaventura of Iseo: The Textual Tradition of a Thirteenth-Century Alchemical Encyclopedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Succurro, Maria Chiara

    2016-08-01

    The Liber Compostelle is an alchemical encyclopedia associated with the name of Bonaventura of Iseo, a friar of great reputation and an esteemed preacher around the middle of the thirteenth century. It is one of the first works to show an interest in medicine and pharmacology among the Friars Minor. Despite its importance, the Liber Compostelle has never been published. This article investigates the textual history of the treatise, and the problems of its authorship and dating, examining the eight manuscripts that contain the Liber. It shows that the text written around the mid-thirteenth century, probably by Bonaventura, was variously and freely adapted and modified around the end of the century, resulting in two versions of the text. Finally, the article examines the main characteristics of the treatise, such as its compilatory nature, its emphasis on practical applications, and the presence of typical themes of Franciscan alchemical literature.

  6. [The systematization of the sciences as a cultural task. Options for an open understanding of culture in Paul Hinneberg's encyclopedia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziche, Paul

    2008-03-01

    Paul Hinneberg promises, in his multi-volume Kultur der Gegenwart (1906sqq.), to capture the 'culture' of his time in its entirety; only a veritable encyclopedia could be adequate to the task of synthesizing the manifold and disparate tendencies of 'Kultur'. Surprisingly, however, any attempt to make explicit the systematic principles governing his encyclopedic synthesis is missing from his project. It is argued that this--unusual--feature of Hinneberg's Kultur der Gegenwart can itself be understood as a result of typical analyses of 'Kultur' at the turn of the century; culture, as an open, multi-sided, and integrative concept may indeed best be captured in an open system that avoids strict and explicit demarcations. In these respects, the task of capturing Kultur turns out to be closely linked to another task prominent around 1900: that of providing a systematic ordering of the various 'Wissenschaften'.

  7. The test of time. Art encyclopedia and the formation of the canon of seventeenth-century painters in the Low Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.R.R. Vermeylen (Filip); M.F. van Dijck (Maarten); V.J.U. de Laet (Veerle)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This paper deals with the process of canon formation for Flemish and Dutch painters from the seventeenth century onwards. We examine how the essential art-historical treatises and art encyclopedias since Houbraken’s Grote Schouburgh der Nederlandsche Konstschilders en S

  8. Current developments in soil organic matter modeling and the expansion of model applications: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Eleanor E.; Paustian, Keith

    2015-12-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) is an important natural resource. It is fundamental to soil and ecosystem functions across a wide range of scales, from site-specific soil fertility and water holding capacity to global biogeochemical cycling. It is also a highly complex material that is sensitive to direct and indirect human impacts. In SOM research, simulation models play an important role by providing a mathematical framework to integrate, examine, and test the understanding of SOM dynamics. Simulation models of SOM are also increasingly used in more ‘applied’ settings to evaluate human impacts on ecosystem function, and to manage SOM for greenhouse gas mitigation, improved soil health, and sustainable use as a natural resource. Within this context, there is a need to maintain a robust connection between scientific developments in SOM modeling approaches and SOM model applications. This need forms the basis of this review. In this review we first provide an overview of SOM modeling, focusing on SOM theory, data-model integration, and model development as evidenced by a quantitative review of SOM literature. Second, we present the landscape of SOM model applications, focusing on examples in climate change policy. We conclude by discussing five areas of recent developments in SOM modeling including: (1) microbial roles in SOM stabilization; (2) modeling SOM saturation kinetics; (3) temperature controls on decomposition; (4) SOM dynamics in deep soil layers; and (5) SOM representation in earth system models. Our aim is to comprehensively connect SOM model development to its applications, revealing knowledge gaps in need of focused interdisciplinary attention and exposing pitfalls that, if avoided, can lead to best use of SOM models to support policy initiatives and sustainable land management solutions.

  9. A 360° Vision for Virtual Organizations Characterization and Modelling: Two Intentional Level Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priego-Roche, Luz-María; Rieu, Dominique; Front, Agnès

    Nowadays, organizations aiming to be successful in an increasingly competitive market tend to group together into virtual organizations. Designing the information system (IS) of such virtual organizations on the basis of the IS of those participating is a real challenge. The IS of a virtual organization plays an important role in the collaboration and cooperation of the participants organizations and in reaching the common goal. This article proposes criteria allowing virtual organizations to be identified and classified at an intentional level, as well as the information necessary for designing the organizations’ IS. Instantiation of criteria for a specific virtual organization and its participants, will allow simple graphical models to be generated in a modelling tool. The models will be used as bases for the IS design at organizational and operational levels. The approach is illustrated by the example of the virtual organization UGRT (a regional stockbreeders union in Tabasco, Mexico).

  10. Modelling organic crystal structures using distributed multipole and polarizability-based model intermolecular potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Sarah L; Leslie, Maurice; Welch, Gareth W A; Habgood, Matthew; Price, Louise S; Karamertzanis, Panagiotis G; Day, Graeme M

    2010-08-14

    Crystal structure prediction for organic molecules requires both the fast assessment of thousands to millions of crystal structures and the greatest possible accuracy in their relative energies. We describe a crystal lattice simulation program, DMACRYS, emphasizing the features that make it suitable for use in crystal structure prediction for pharmaceutical molecules using accurate anisotropic atom-atom model intermolecular potentials based on the theory of intermolecular forces. DMACRYS can optimize the lattice energy of a crystal, calculate the second derivative properties, and reduce the symmetry of the spacegroup to move away from a transition state. The calculated terahertz frequency k = 0 rigid-body lattice modes and elastic tensor can be used to estimate free energies. The program uses a distributed multipole electrostatic model (Q, t = 00,...,44s) for the electrostatic fields, and can use anisotropic atom-atom repulsion models, damped isotropic dispersion up to R(-10), as well as a range of empirically fitted isotropic exp-6 atom-atom models with different definitions of atomic types. A new feature is that an accurate model for the induction energy contribution to the lattice energy has been implemented that uses atomic anisotropic dipole polarizability models (alpha, t = (10,10)...(11c,11s)) to evaluate the changes in the molecular charge density induced by the electrostatic field within the crystal. It is demonstrated, using the four polymorphs of the pharmaceutical carbamazepine C(15)H(12)N(2)O, that whilst reproducing crystal structures is relatively easy, calculating the polymorphic energy differences to the accuracy of a few kJ mol(-1) required for applications is very demanding of assumptions made in the modelling. Thus DMACRYS enables the comparison of both known and hypothetical crystal structures as an aid to the development of pharmaceuticals and other speciality organic materials, and provides a tool to develop the modelling of the

  11. Organic chemistry in the atmosphere. [laboratory modeling of Titan atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagan, C.

    1974-01-01

    The existence of an at least moderately complex organic chemistry on Titan is stipulated based on clear evidence of methane, and at least presumptive evidence of hydrogen in its atmosphere. The ratio of methane to hydrogen is the highest of any atmosphere in the solar system. Irradiation of hydrogen/methane mixtures produces aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons. A very reasonable hypothesis assumes that the red cloud cover of Titan is made of organic chemicals. Two-carbon hydrocarbons experimentally produced from irradiated mixtures of methane, ammonia, water, and hydrogen bear out the possible organic chemistry of the Titanian environment.

  12. PROCESS DOCUMENTATION: A MODEL FOR KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT IN ORGANIZATIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddadpoor, Asefeh; Taheri, Behjat; Nasri, Mehran; Heydari, Kamal; Bahrami, Gholamreza

    2015-10-01

    Continuous and interconnected processes are a chain of activities that turn the inputs of an organization to its outputs and help achieve partial and overall goals of the organization. These activates are carried out by two types of knowledge in the organization called explicit and implicit knowledge. Among these, implicit knowledge is the knowledge that controls a major part of the activities of an organization, controls these activities internally and will not be transferred to the process owners unless they are present during the organization's work. Therefore the goal of this study is identification of implicit knowledge and its integration with explicit knowledge in order to improve human resources management, physical resource management, information resource management, training of new employees and other activities of Isfahan University of Medical Science. The project for documentation of activities in department of health of Isfahan University of Medical Science was carried out in several stages. First the main processes and related sub processes were identified and categorized with the help of planning expert. The categorization was carried out from smaller processes to larger ones. In this stage the experts of each process wrote down all their daily activities and organized them into general categories based on logical and physical relations between different activities. Then each activity was assigned a specific code. The computer software was designed after understanding the different parts of the processes, including main and sup processes, and categorization, which will be explained in the following sections. The findings of this study showed that documentation of activities can help expose implicit knowledge because all of inputs and outputs of a process along with the length, location, tools and different stages of the process, exchanged information, storage location of the information and information flow can be identified using proper

  13. Optimization of de novo transcriptome assembly from high-throughput short read sequencing data improves functional annotation for non-model organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haznedaroglu Berat Z

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The k-mer hash length is a key factor affecting the output of de novo transcriptome assembly packages using de Bruijn graph algorithms. Assemblies constructed with varying single k-mer choices might result in the loss of unique contiguous sequences (contigs and relevant biological information. A common solution to this problem is the clustering of single k-mer assemblies. Even though annotation is one of the primary goals of a transcriptome assembly, the success of assembly strategies does not consider the impact of k-mer selection on the annotation output. This study provides an in-depth k-mer selection analysis that is focused on the degree of functional annotation achieved for a non-model organism where no reference genome information is available. Individual k-mers and clustered assemblies (CA were considered using three representative software packages. Pair-wise comparison analyses (between individual k-mers and CAs were produced to reveal missing Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG ortholog identifiers (KOIs, and to determine a strategy that maximizes the recovery of biological information in a de novo transcriptome assembly. Results Analyses of single k-mer assemblies resulted in the generation of various quantities of contigs and functional annotations within the selection window of k-mers (k-19 to k-63. For each k-mer in this window, generated assemblies contained certain unique contigs and KOIs that were not present in the other k-mer assemblies. Producing a non-redundant CA of k-mers 19 to 63 resulted in a more complete functional annotation than any single k-mer assembly. However, a fraction of unique annotations remained (~0.19 to 0.27% of total KOIs in the assemblies of individual k-mers (k-19 to k-63 that were not present in the non-redundant CA. A workflow to recover these unique annotations is presented. Conclusions This study demonstrated that different k-mer choices result in various quantities

  14. Public attitudes to financial incentive models for organs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeyer, Klaus; Schicktanz, Silke; Deleuran, Ida

    2013-01-01

    Waiting lists for organs have stimulated interest in the use of financial incentives for organ donation (FIs), but the literature does not contain an adequate overview of studies of public attitudes toward this mode of procurement. We conducted a literature review of international peer......-reviewed research published between 2002 and 2012 on how members of the public position themselves toward FIs. We identified and analyzed 23 studies using MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Sociological Abstracts and cross-reference search. The search included whole organs, donation, quantitative and empirical qualitative social...... scientific studies on, public attitudes (excluding professionals and medical students). The review reveals a broad divergence of public opinions on financial incentives. However, quantitative studies showed a low overall level of acceptance of payment for organs in living donation (LD); only a slightly...

  15. Modeling the neurodynamic organizations and interactions of teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Ronald H; Galloway, Trysha L

    2016-01-01

    Across-brain neurodynamic organizations arise when teams perform coordinated tasks. We describe a symbolic electroencephalographic (EEG) approach that identifies when team neurodynamic organizations occur and demonstrate its utility with scientific problem solving and submarine navigation tasks. Each second, neurodynamic symbols (NS) were created showing the 1-40 Hz EEG power spectral densities for each team member. These data streams contained a performance history of the team's across-brain neurodynamic organizations. The degree of neurodynamic organization was calculated each second from a moving window average of the Shannon entropy over the task. Decreased NS entropy (i.e., greater neurodynamic organization) was prominent in the ~16 Hz EEG bins during problem solving, while during submarine navigation, the maximum NS entropy decreases were ~10 Hz and were associated with establishing the ship's location. Decreased NS entropy also occurred in the 20-40 Hz bins of both teams and was associated with uncertainty or stress. The highest mutual information levels, calculated from the EEG values of team dyads, were associated with decreased NS entropy, suggesting a link between these two measures. These studies show entropy and mutual information mapping of symbolic EEG data streams from teams can be useful for identifying organized across-brain team activation patterns.

  16. An evaluation of the applicability of the EPA Organic Leachate Model to leaching of solvent and non-solvent wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Bosserman, Carolyn Whitney

    1989-01-01

    The author evaluated the applicability of the Environmental Protection Agency's Organic Leachate Model to wastes containing organic solvents and other organic compounds ("non-solvents"), and determined that the model tends to overestimate the leaching of organic solvents and other organic compounds. Furthermore, when evaluated for its ability to predict leaching of organic compounds, the model was found to predict the leaching of organic solvent compounds with some accuracy, with a correlatio...

  17. On the Implications of aerosol liquid water and phase separation for modeled organic aerosol mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current chemical transport models assume that organic aerosol (OA)-forming compounds partition mostly to a water-poor, organic-rich phase in accordance with their vapor pressures. However, in the southeast United States, a significant fraction of ambient organic compounds are wat...

  18. A depositional model for organic-rich Duvernay Formation mudstones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Levi J.; McMillan, Julia M.; Harris, Nicholas B.

    2017-01-01

    The Upper Devonian Duvernay Formation of western Canada is an organic-rich shale formation now targeted as a hydrocarbon reservoir. We present a detailed sedimentological analysis of the Duvernay Formation in order to better understand organic-rich mudstone depositional processes and conditions and to characterize the vertical and lateral heterogeneity of mudstone lithofacies that affect petrophysical and geomechanical rock properties. Organic-rich mudstone facies of the Duvernay Formation were deposited in a dynamic depositional environment by a variety of sediment transport mechanisms, including suspension settling, turbidity currents, and bottom water currents in variably oxygenated bottom waters. Suspension settling dominated in distal relatively deep areas of the basin, but evidence for weak turbidity currents and bottom water currents was observed in the form of graded beds and thin grain-supported siltstone laminae. Organic enrichment primarily occurred in distal areas as a result of bottom water anoxia and low depositional rates of inorganic sediment. In deep water locations near platform margins, alternating silty-sandy contourite beds and organic-rich mudstone beds are present, the former interpreted to have been deposited and reworked by bottom water currents flowing parallel to slope. In shallower, more oxygenated settings, mudstone lithologies vary from calcareous to argillaceous. These sediments were deposited from suspension settling, turbidity currents, and bottom water currents, although primary sedimentary structures are often obscured by extensive bioturbation. Locally, organic enrichment in dysoxic rather than anoxic bottom waters was driven by a slightly increased sedimentation rate and possibly also by aggregation of sedimentary particles in the water column due to interaction between organic matter and clay minerals. Large variations observed in sediment composition, from siliceous to calcareous to argillaceous, reflect multiple biogenic

  19. Application of several activity coefficient models to water-organic-electrolyte aerosols of atmospheric interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Raatikainen

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, existing and modified activity coefficient models are examined in order to assess their capabilities to describe the properties of aqueous solution droplets relevant in the atmosphere. Five different water-organic-electrolyte activity coefficient models were first selected from the literature. Only one of these models included organics and electrolytes which are common in atmospheric aerosol particles. In the other models, organic species were solvents such as alcohols, and important atmospheric ions like NH4+ could be missing. The predictions of these models were compared to experimental activity and solubility data in aqueous single electrolyte solutions with 31 different electrolytes. Based on the deviations from experimental data and on the capabilities of the models, four predictive models were selected for fitting of new parameters for binary and ternary solutions of common atmospheric electrolytes and organics. New electrolytes (H+, NH4+, Na+, Cl-, NO3- and SO42- and organics (dicarboxylic and some hydroxy acids were added and some modifications were made to the models if it was found useful. All new and most of the existing parameters were fitted to experimental single electrolyte data as well as data for aqueous organics and aqueous organic-electrolyte solutions. Unfortunately, there are very few data available for organic activities in binary solutions and for organic and electrolyte activities in aqueous organic-electrolyte solutions. This reduces model capabilities in predicting solubilities. After the parameters were fitted, deviations from measurement data were calculated for all fitted models, and for different data types. These deviations and the calculated property values were compared with those from other non-electrolyte and organic-electrolyte models found in the literature. Finally, hygroscopic growth factors were calculated for four 100 nm organic-electrolyte particles and these predictions were compared to

  20. Comparison of activity coefficient models for atmospheric aerosols containing mixtures of electrolytes, organics, and water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Chinghang; Clegg, Simon L.; Seinfeld, John H.

    Atmospheric aerosols generally comprise a mixture of electrolytes, organic compounds, and water. Determining the gas-particle distribution of volatile compounds, including water, requires equilibrium or mass transfer calculations, at the heart of which are models for the activity coefficients of the particle-phase components. We evaluate here the performance of four recent activity coefficient models developed for electrolyte/organic/water mixtures typical of atmospheric aerosols. Two of the models, the CSB model [Clegg, S.L., Seinfeld, J.H., Brimblecombe, P., 2001. Thermodynamic modelling of aqueous aerosols containing electrolytes and dissolved organic compounds. Journal of Aerosol Science 32, 713-738] and the aerosol diameter dependent equilibrium model (ADDEM) [Topping, D.O., McFiggans, G.B., Coe, H., 2005. A curved multi-component aerosol hygroscopicity model framework: part 2—including organic compounds. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 5, 1223-1242] treat ion-water and organic-water interactions but do not include ion-organic interactions; these can be referred to as "decoupled" models. The other two models, reparameterized Ming and Russell model 2005 [Raatikainen, T., Laaksonen, A., 2005. Application of several activity coefficient models to water-organic-electrolyte aerosols of atmospheric interest. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 5, 2475-2495] and X-UNIFAC.3 [Erdakos, G.B., Change, E.I., Pandow, J.F., Seinfeld, J.H., 2006. Prediction of activity coefficients in liquid aerosol particles containing organic compounds, dissolved inorganic salts, and water—Part 3: Organic compounds, water, and ionic constituents by consideration of short-, mid-, and long-range effects using X-UNIFAC.3. Atmospheric Environment 40, 6437-6452], include ion-organic interactions; these are referred to as "coupled" models. We address the question—Does the inclusion of a treatment of ion-organic interactions substantially improve the performance of the coupled models over

  1. Models of Micro-Organisms: Children's Knowledge and Understanding of Micro-Organisms from 7 to 14 Years Old

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the expressed models that children aged 7, 11, and 14 years have about micro-organisms and microbial activity. These were elicited using a variety of data collection techniques that complemented each other, resulting in a rich dataset, and provided information about the level of knowledge and progression of ideas across the…

  2. Health biomarkers in a rat model after intake of organically grown carrots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melballe Jensen, Maja; Jørgensen, Henry; Halekoh, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Organic foodis perceived as beingofbetter quality andhealthier than conventional foods although the scientific research on organic foodstuffs is highly contradictory. The aim of the present study was to investigate if intake of carrots from four different cultivation systems grown in two...... consecutive years would influence various biomarkers of health in a rat model. All rats were fed a diet with 40% carrot content. The carrots were grown under conventional (C), ‘minimalistic’ organic (O1), organic (O2), or ‘very’ organic cultivation systems (O3). A control group (CO) being fed standard rat...... as a framework for further studies of health in relation to organic foodstuff....

  3. 76 FR 33306 - Medicare Program; Pioneer Accountable Care Organization Model, Request for Applications; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... Care Organization Model: Request for Applications.'' FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Maria Alexander... http://innovations.cms.gov/areas-of-focus/seamless-and-coordinated-care-models/pioneer-aco... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Medicare Program; Pioneer Accountable...

  4. Importance of global aerosol modeling including secondary organic aerosol formed from monoterpene

    OpenAIRE

    Goto, Daisuke; Takemura, Toshihiko; Nakajima, Teruyuki

    2008-01-01

    A global three-dimensional aerosol transport-radiation model, coupled to an atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM), has been extended to improve the model process for organic aerosols, particularly secondary organic aerosols (SOA), and to estimate SOA contributions to direct and indirect radiative effects. Because the SOA formation process is complicated and unknown, the results in different model simulations include large differences. In this work, we simulate SOA production assuming v...

  5. Fair Trade Organizations and Social Enterprise. Social Innovation through Hybrid Organization Models

    OpenAIRE

    Huybrechts, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    For several decades, Fair Trade Social Enterprises (FTSEs) have set up partnerships with producer groups in the South and distributed the latter’s products through different types of channels in the North. However, while pioneers in the early years were relatively homogeneous (nonprofit organizations relying on voluntary work and selling through “worldshops”), organizational diversity has tremendously increased in recent times, including other types of legal forms, architectures, and governan...

  6. Keeping the Faith: A Model of Cultural Transmission in Formal Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, J. Richard; Carroll, Glenn R.

    1991-01-01

    Develops a cultural transmission model with the following variables: worker entry and exit rate, organization growth rate, recruiting selectivity, socialization intensity, and the rate that socialization decays if not reinforced. A computer simulation of the model found that cultural systems in organizations are highly robust and reach equilibrium…

  7. From Learning Object to Learning Cell: A Resource Organization Model for Ubiquitous Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shengquan; Yang, Xianmin; Cheng, Gang; Wang, Minjuan

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new model for organizing learning resources: Learning Cell. This model is open, evolving, cohesive, social, and context-aware. By introducing a time dimension into the organization of learning resources, Learning Cell supports the dynamic evolution of learning resources while they are being used. In addition, by introducing a…

  8. The Family FIRO Model: A Modest Proposal for Organizing Family Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, William J.; Colangelo, Nicholas

    1984-01-01

    Presents a model for organizing family issues and family treatment. Schutz's Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation (FIRO) model is offered as a framework for organizing family issues into inclusion, control, and affection categories, constituting a logical hierarchy of core issues to be dealt with in treating multiproblem families. (JAC)

  9. Plastic as a Carrier of POPs to Aquatic Organisms: A Model Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelmans, A.A.; Besseling, E.; Wegner, A.; Foekema, E.M.

    2013-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in microplastic may pose a risk to aquatic organisms. Here we develop and analyze a conceptual model that simulates the effects of plastic on bioaccumulation of POPs. The model accounts for dilution of exposure concentration by sorpt

  10. Modelling the fate of oxidisable organic contaminants in groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barry, D.A.; Prommer, H.; Miller, C.T.

    2002-01-01

    Subsurface contamination by organic chemicals is a pervasive environmental problem, susceptible to remediation by natural or enhanced attenuation approaches or more highly engineered methods such as pump-and-treat, amongst others. Such remediation approaches, along with risk assessment or the pre...

  11. Modeling emissions of volatile organic compounds from silage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Photochemical smog is a major air pollution problem and a significant cause of premature death in the U.S. Smog forms in the presence of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which are emitted primarily from industry and motor vehicles in the U.S. However, dairy farms may be an important source in so...

  12. Mitochondrial damage and ageing using skin as a model organ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Laura; Bowman, Amy; Rashdan, Eyman; Birch-Machin, Mark A

    2016-11-01

    Ageing describes the progressive functional decline of an organism over time, leading to an increase in susceptibility to age-related diseases and eventually to death, and it is a phenomenon observed across a wide range of organisms. Despite a vast repertoire of ageing studies performed over the past century, the exact causes of ageing remain unknown. For over 50 years it has been speculated that mitochondria play a key role in the ageing process, due mainly to correlative data showing an increase in mitochondrial dysfunction, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) with age. However, the exact role of the mitochondria in the ageing process remains unknown. The skin is often used to study human ageing, due to its easy accessibility, and the observation that the ageing process is able to be accelerated in this organ via environmental insults, such as ultra violet radiation (UVR). This provides a useful tool to investigate the mechanisms regulating ageing and, in particular, the role of the mitochondria. Observations from dermatological and photoageing studies can provide useful insights into chronological ageing of the skin and other organs such as the brain and liver. Moreover, a wide range of diseases are associated with ageing; therefore, understanding the cause of the ageing process as well as regulatory mechanisms involved could provide potentially advantageous therapeutic targets for the prevention or treatment of such diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Modelling Organic Surfaces with Self-Assembled Monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    reactive organic liquids. Fluorinated thiols form monolayers that are more water and oil-repellent than Teflon. The hydrophobicity and oleophobicity of...and are both hydrophobic and oleophobic . The surface of a monolayer containing an approximately equal mixture of the two components 13 resembles a

  14. Modeling the Current and Future Roles of Particulate Organic Nitrates in the Southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pye, Havala O T; Luecken, Deborah J; Xu, Lu; Boyd, Christopher M; Ng, Nga L; Baker, Kirk R; Ayres, Benjamin R; Bash, Jesse O; Baumann, Karsten; Carter, William P L; Edgerton, Eric; Fry, Juliane L; Hutzell, William T; Schwede, Donna B; Shepson, Paul B

    2015-12-15

    Organic nitrates are an important aerosol constituent in locations where biogenic hydrocarbon emissions mix with anthropogenic NOx sources. While regional and global chemical transport models may include a representation of organic aerosol from monoterpene reactions with nitrate radicals (the primary source of particle-phase organic nitrates in the Southeast United States), secondary organic aerosol (SOA) models can underestimate yields. Furthermore, SOA parametrizations do not explicitly take into account organic nitrate compounds produced in the gas phase. In this work, we developed a coupled gas and aerosol system to describe the formation and subsequent aerosol-phase partitioning of organic nitrates from isoprene and monoterpenes with a focus on the Southeast United States. The concentrations of organic aerosol and gas-phase organic nitrates were improved when particulate organic nitrates were assumed to undergo rapid (τ = 3 h) pseudohydrolysis resulting in nitric acid and nonvolatile secondary organic aerosol. In addition, up to 60% of less oxidized-oxygenated organic aerosol (LO-OOA) could be accounted for via organic nitrate mediated chemistry during the Southern Oxidants and Aerosol Study (SOAS). A 25% reduction in nitrogen oxide (NO + NO2) emissions was predicted to cause a 9% reduction in organic aerosol for June 2013 SOAS conditions at Centreville, Alabama.

  15. Modelling the cloud condensation nucleus activity of organic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Varga

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study vapour pressure osmometry was used to determine water activity in solutions of organic acids. The surface tension of the solutions was also monitored in parallel and then Köhler curves were calculated for nine organic acids (oxalic, malonic, succinic, glutaric, adipic acid, maleic acid, malic acid, citric acid and pinonic acid. Surface tension depression is negligible for most of the organic acids in dilute (≤1 w/w% solutions. Therefore, these compounds affect the supersaturation only in the beginning phase of droplet formation but not necessarily at the critical size. An exception is cis-pinonic acid which remarkably depress surface tension also in dilute (0.1 w/w% solution and hence at the critical point. The surface tension of organic acid solutions is influenced by the solubility of the compound, the length of the carbon chain and also by the polar functional groups present in the molecule. Similarly to surface tension solubility plays an important role also in water activity: compounds with higher solubility (e.g. malonic, maleic, and glutaric acid reduce water activity significantly in the early phase of droplet formation while less soluble acids (e.g. succinic and adipic acid are saturated in small droplets and the solution starts diluting only in bigger droplets. As a consequence, compounds with lower solubility have a minor effect on water activity in the early phase of droplet formation. To deduce the total effect Köhler curves were calculated and critical supersaturations were determined for the organic acids using measured surface tension and water activity. It was found that critical supersaturation grew with growing carbon number. Oxalic acid had the lowest critical supersaturation in the size range studied and it was comparable to the activation of ammonium sulfate. The Sc values obtained in this study were compared to data from CCNC measurements. In most cases good agreement was found.

  16. Designing an Effective Female Leadership Model in Governmental Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nosratollah MALEKI

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Since leadership is a critical factor for improving organizational performance, failure or success of an organization highly depends on the efficiency of leadership at all levels. Scholars elaborated that leadership is the ability of influencing one's attitudes, aptitudes and beliefs, in the way that it will lead to meet organizational objectives. The main purpose of this study is to consider two domains of efficient leadership and women’s leadership style, in order to determine and elaborate the dimensions of the new concept of “Women’s Efficient Leadership”. We intend to describe the characteristics of women’s efficient leadership in state organizations in Iran by means of offering a logical pattern, in order to be able to propose a favorable pattern, leading to increased efficiency in governmental organizations of the country. Innovation of this study can be divided into two parts: one is theoretical contribution and developing the knowledge of efficient leadership as well as women’s leadership style, and the second one is scientific contribution and proposing a pattern for women’s efficient leadership in state organizations, using compound approach. The outcomes of this study show that women’s efficient leadership in state organizations consists of 7 subjects, 17 dimensions, and 85 components, which represent various characteristics in different periods of time. The thesis that women’s efficient leadership has an evolving nature was approved and that it consists of a combination of factors such as capability of team making, having vision, cognitive and psychological capabilities, able to bring continuous improvement of organizational performance, mentoring and making effective relations. In this study, the influence of mentioned factors on women’s efficient leadership has been investigated by means of questionnaires and has been approved.

  17. Speciation of volatile organic compound emissions for regional air quality modeling of particulate matter and ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makar, P. A.; Moran, M. D.; Scholtz, M. T.; Taylor, A.

    2003-01-01

    A new classification scheme for the speciation of organic compound emissions for use in air quality models is described. The scheme uses 81 organic compound classes to preserve both net gas-phase reactivity and particulate matter (PM) formation potential. Chemical structure, vapor pressure, hydroxyl radical (OH) reactivity, freezing point/boiling point, and solubility data were used to create the 81 compound classes. Volatile, semivolatile, and nonvolatile organic compounds are included. The new classification scheme has been used in conjunction with the Canadian Emissions Processing System (CEPS) to process 1990 gas-phase and particle-phase organic compound emissions data for summer and winter conditions for a domain covering much of eastern North America. A simple postprocessing model was used to analyze the speciated organic emissions in terms of both gas-phase reactivity and potential to form organic PM. Previously unresolved compound classes that may have a significant impact on ozone formation include biogenic high-reactivity esters and internal C6-8 alkene-alcohols and anthropogenic ethanol and propanol. Organic radical production associated with anthropogenic organic compound emissions may be 1 or more orders of magnitude more important than biogenic-associated production in northern United States and Canadian cities, and a factor of 3 more important in southern U.S. cities. Previously unresolved organic compound classes such as low vapour pressure PAHs, anthropogenic diacids, dialkyl phthalates, and high carbon number alkanes may have a significant impact on organic particle formation. Primary organic particles (poorly characterized in national emissions databases) dominate total organic particle concentrations, followed by secondary formation and primary gas-particle partitioning. The influence of the assumed initial aerosol water concentration on subsequent thermodynamic calculations suggests that hydrophobic and hydrophilic compounds may form external

  18. Democracy versus Dictatorship in Self-Organized Models of Financial Markets

    CERN Document Server

    D'Hulst, R

    1999-01-01

    Models to mimic the transmission of information in financial markets are introduced. As an attempt to generate the demand process, we distinguish between dictatorship associations, where groups of agents rely on one of them to make decision, and democratic associations, where each agent takes part in the group decision. In the dictatorship model, agents segregate into two distinct populations, while the democratic model is driven towards a critical state where groups of agents of all sizes exist. Hence, both models display a level of organization, but only the democratic model is self-organized. We show that the dictatorship model generates less volatile markets than the democratic model.

  19. Explicit modeling of organic chemistry and secondary organic aerosol partitioning for Mexico City and its outflow plume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee-Taylor, J.; Madronich, Sasha; Aumont, B.; Baker, A.; Camredon, M.; Hodzic, Alma; Tyndall, G. S.; Apel, Eric; Zaveri, Rahul A.

    2011-12-21

    The evolution of organic aerosols (OA) in Mexico City and its outflow is investigated with the nearly explicit gas phase photochemistry model GECKO-A (Generator of Explicit Chemistry and Kinetics of Organics in the Atmosphere), wherein precursor hydrocarbons are oxidized to numerous intermediate species for which vapor pressures are computed and used to determine gas/particle partitioning in a chemical box model. Precursor emissions included observed C3-10 alkanes, alkenes, and light aromatics, as well as larger n-alkanes (up to C25) not directly observed but estimated by scaling to particulate emissions according to their volatility. Conditions were selected for comparison with observations made in March 2006 (MILAGRO). The model successfully reproduces the magnitude and diurnal shape for both primary (POA) and secondary (SOA) organic aerosols, with POA peaking in the early morning at 15-20 ug m-3, and SOA peaking at 10-15 μg m-3 during mid-day. The majority (> 75%) of the model SOA stems from the large n-alkanes, with the remainder mostly from the light aromatics. Simulated OA elemental composition reproduces observed H/C and O/C ratios reasonably well, although modeled ratios develop more slowly than observations suggest. SOA chemical composition is initially dominated by *- hydroxy ketones and nitrates from the large alkanes, with contributions from peroxy acyl nitrates and, at later times when NOx is lower, organic hydroperoxides. The simulated plume-integrated OA mass continues to increase for several days downwind despite dilution-induced particle evaporation, since oxidation chemistry leading to SOA formation remains strong. In this model, the plume SOA burden several days downwind exceeds that leaving the city by a factor of >3. These results suggest significant regional radiative impacts of SOA.

  20. Explicit modeling of organic chemistry and secondary organic aerosol partitioning for Mexico City and its outflow plume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lee-Taylor

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of organic aerosols (OA in Mexico City and its outflow is investigated with the nearly explicit gas phase photochemistry model GECKO-A (Generator of Explicit Chemistry and Kinetics of Organics in the Atmosphere, wherein precursor hydrocarbons are oxidized to numerous intermediate species for which vapor pressures are computed and used to determine gas/particle partitioning in a chemical box model. Precursor emissions included observed C3–10 alkanes, alkenes, and light aromatics, as well as larger n-alkanes (up to C25 not directly observed but estimated by scaling to particulate emissions according to their volatility. Conditions were selected for comparison with observations made in March 2006 (MILAGRO. The model successfully reproduces the magnitude and diurnal shape for both primary (POA and secondary (SOA organic aerosols, with POA peaking in the early morning at 15–20 μg m−3, and SOA peaking at 10–15 μg m−3 during mid-day. The majority (≥75 % of the model SOA stems from the large n-alkanes, with the remainder mostly from the light aromatics. Simulated OA elemental composition reproduces observed H/C and O/C ratios reasonably well, although modeled ratios develop more slowly than observations suggest. SOA chemical composition is initially dominated by δ-hydroxy ketones and nitrates from the large alkanes, with contributions from peroxy acyl nitrates and, at later times when NOx is lower, organic hydroperoxides. The simulated plume-integrated OA mass continues to increase for several days downwind despite dilution-induced particle evaporation, since oxidation chemistry leading to SOA formation remains strong. In this model, the plume SOA burden several days downwind exceeds that leaving the city by a factor of >3. These results suggest significant regional radiative impacts of SOA.

  1. Self-organized Critical Model Based on Complex Brain Networks with Hierarchical Organization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ying-Yue; ZHANG Gui-Qing; YANG Qiu-Ying; CHEN Tian-Lun

    2008-01-01

    The dynamical behavior in the cortical brain network of macaque is studied by modelling each cortical area with a subnetwork of interacting excitable neurons.We find that the avalanche of our model on different levels exhibits power-law.Furthermore the power-law exponent of the distribution and the average avalanche Size are affected by the topology of the network.

  2. Modelling the fate of organic micropollutants in stormwater ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vezzaro, Luca; Eriksson, Eva; Ledin, Anna;

    2011-01-01

    substance inherent properties to calculate MP fate but differ in their ability to represent the small physical scale and high temporal variability of stormwater treatment systems. Therefore the three models generate different results. A Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA) highlighted that settling....../resuspension of particulate matter was themost sensitive process for the dynamic model. The uncertainty of the estimated MP fluxes can be reduced by calibrating the dynamic model against total suspended solids data. This reduction in uncertainty was more significant for the substances with strong tendency to sorb, i...... models. The fate of four different MP in a stormwater retention pond was simulated by applying two steady-state multimedia fate models (EPI Suite and SimpleBox) commonly applied in chemical risk assessment and a dynamic multimedia fate model (Stormwater Treatment Unit Model for Micro Pollutants — STUMP...

  3. Modeling of multiphase transport of multicomponent organic contaminants and heat in the subsurface: Numerical model formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adenekan, A. E.; Patzek, T. W.; Pruess, K.

    1993-11-01

    A numerical compositional simulator (Multiphase Multicomponent Nonisothermal Organics Transport Simulator (M2NOTS)) has been developed for modeling transient, three-dimensional, nonisothermal, and multiphase transport of multicomponent organic contaminants in the subsurface. The governing equations include (1) advection of all three phases in response to pressure, capillary, and gravity forces; (2) interphase mass transfer that allows every component to partition into each phase present; (3) diffusion; and (4) transport of sensible and latent heat energy. Two other features distinguish M2NOTS from other simulators reported in the groundwater literature: (1) the simulator allows for any number of chemical components and every component is allowed to partition into all fluid phases present, and (2) each phase is allowed to completely disappear from, or appear in, any region of the domain during a simulation. These features are required to model realistic field problems involving transport of mixtures of nonaqueous phase liquid contaminants, and to quantify performance of existing and emerging remediation methods such as vacuum extraction and steam injection.

  4. Neotropical electric fishes (Gymnotiformes as model organisms for bioassays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Ferreira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Electric fishes (Gymnotiformes inhabit Central and South America and form a relatively large group with more than 200 species. Besides a taxonomic challenge due to their still unresolved systematic, wide distribution and the variety of habitats they occupy, these fishes have been intensively studied due to their peculiar use of bioelectricity for electrolocation and communication. Conventional analysis of cells, tissues and organs have been complemented with the studies on the electric organ discharges of these fishes. This review compiles the results of 13 bioassays developed during the last 50 years, which used the quickness, low costs and functionality of the bioelectric data collection of Gymnotiformes to evaluate the effects of environmental contaminants and neuroactive drugs.

  5. Neotropical electric fishes (Gymnotiformes) as model organisms for bioassays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Milena Ferreira; Isac Silva de Jesus; Eliana Feldberg; JoséAntônioAlves-Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Electric fishes (Gymnotiformes) inhabit Central and South America and form a relatively large group with more than 200 species. Besides a taxonomic challenge due to their still unresolved systematic, wide distribution and the variety of habitats they occupy, these fishes have been intensively studied due to their peculiar use of bioelectricity for electrolocation and communication. Conventional analysis of cells, tissues and organs have been complemented with the studies on the electric organ discharges of these fishes. This review compiles the results of 13 bioassays developed during the last 50 years, which used the quickness, low costs and functionality of the bioelectric data collection of Gymnotiformes to evaluate the effects of environmental contaminants and neuroactive drugs.

  6. Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatch, Mary Jo

    Most of us recognize that organizations are everywhere. You meet them on every street corner in the form of families and shops, study in them, work for them, buy from them, pay taxes to them. But have you given much thought to where they came from, what they are today, and what they might become...... in the future? How and why do they have so much influence over us, and what influences them? How do they contribute to and detract from the meaningfulness of lives, and how might we improve them so they better serve our needs and desires? This Very Short Introductions addresses all of these questions...

  7. [Emission model of volatile organic compounds from materials used indoors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, K

    1998-11-30

    Various materials, such as wall-paper, floor-wax, paint, multicolor wall-coat, air freshener and mothball were experimented in a simulated test chamber under constant selected temperature, humidity and air exchange rate. The relation between the total VOCs concentration and time was regressed by four emission models and the surface emission rate was calculated. The regressed results indicated the similarity among four emission models for the liquid materials with volatile-solvent such as paint and multicolor wall-coat. But for low volatile solid materials, such as wall-paper, floor-wax, mothball, the sink model and the empirical model were better than the dilution model and vapor pressure model. Only for air freshener, it was improper to the total VOCs concentration as a parameter.

  8. Modeling the release of organic contaminants during compost decomposition in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Chunnu; Haudin, Claire-Sophie; Zhang, Yuan; Lashermes, Gwenaëlle; Houot, Sabine; Garnier, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Composts, incorporated in soils as amendments, may release organic contaminants during their decomposition. COP-Soil is presented here as a new model to simulate the interaction between organic contaminants and compost, using one module for organic matter and one for organic pollutants, with these modules being linked by several assumptions. Published results of laboratory soil incubations using labeled carbon pollutants from compost were used to test the model for one polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), two surfactants and one herbicide. Several simulation scenarios were tested using (i) the organic pollutant module either alone or coupled to the organic matter module, (ii) various methods to estimate the adsorption coefficients (Kd) of contaminants on organic matter and (iii) different degrading biomasses. The simulations were improved if the organic pollutant module was coupled with the organic matter module. Multiple linear regression model for Kd as a function of organic matter quality yielded the most accurate simulation results. The inclusion of specific biomass in the model made it possible to successfully predict the PAH mineralization.

  9. CONCEPTUAL MODEL OF MARKETING STRATEGIC PLANNING SPECIFIC TO PUBLIC ORGANIZATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Ionescu Florin Tudor; Barbu Andreea Mihaela

    2012-01-01

    In public services, the political component of the marketing environment has a major importance, as all decisions adopted within central administration influence both the objectives and measures implemented by units of local government and other public service providers. Any discontinuity in the activity of such entities might result in neglecting the real needs of citizens and slowing the reform process in the public sector. Therefore, all initiatives of public organizations must have a unit...

  10. Organisms modeling: The question of radial basis function networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzy Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There exists usually a gap between bio-inspired computational techniques and what biologists can do with these techniques in their current researches. Although biology is the root of system-theory and artifical neural networks, computer scientists are tempted to build their own systems independently of biological issues. This publication is a first-step re-evalution of an usual machine learning technique (radial basis funtion(RBF networks in the context of systems and biological reactive organisms.

  11. Ames Culture Chamber System: Enabling Model Organism Research Aboard the international Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the genetic, physiological, and behavioral effects of spaceflight on living organisms and elucidating the molecular mechanisms that underlie these effects are high priorities for NASA. Certain organisms, known as model organisms, are widely studied to help researchers better understand how all biological systems function. Small model organisms such as nem-atodes, slime mold, bacteria, green algae, yeast, and moss can be used to study the effects of micro- and reduced gravity at both the cellular and systems level over multiple generations. Many model organisms have sequenced genomes and published data sets on their transcriptomes and proteomes that enable scientific investigations of the molecular mechanisms underlying the adaptations of these organisms to space flight.

  12. Protochordate amphioxus is an emerging model organism for comparative immunology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shicui Zhang; Yujun Liang; Guangdong Jia; Zhimeng Zhuang

    2009-01-01

    Protochordate amphioxus is an extant invertebrate regarded quite recently as a basal chordate. It has a vertebrate-like body plan including a circulation system with an organization similar to that of vertebrates. However, amphioxus is less complex than vertebrates for having a genome uncomplicated by extensive genomic duplication, and lacking lymphoid organs and free circulating blood cells.Recent studies on immunity have demonstrated the presence in amphioxus of both the constituent elements of key molecules involved in adaptive immunity such as proto-major histocompatibility complex (proto-MHC), V region-containing chitin-binding protein (VCBP)and V and C domain-bearing protein (VCP), and the complement system operating via the alternative and lectin pathways resembling those seen in vertebrates. In addition, the acute phase response profile in amphioxus has been shown to be similar to that observed in vertebrates. These findings together with the relative structural and genomic simplicity make amphioxus an ideal organism for gaining insights into the origin and evolution of the vertebrate immune system, especially adaptive immunity, and the composition and mech-anisms of the vertebrate innate immunity.

  13. Dynamic root uptake model for neutral lipophilic organics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trapp, Stefan

    2002-01-01

    and output to stem with the transpiration stream plus first-order metabolism and dilution by exponential growth. For chemicals with low or intermediate lipophilicity (log Kow , 2), there was no relevant difference between dynamic model and equilibrium approach. For lipophilic compounds, the dynamic model...... approach. Very lipophilic compounds (e.g., DDT) diffuse very slowly into plant tissue, so they are likely to remain in the peel of root vegetables. In addition, a dynamic (steady-state) flux model for uptake with transpiration water into thick roots is presented. The model considers input from soil...

  14. Modeling the surface tension of complex, reactive organic-inorganic mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwier, A. N.; Viglione, G. A.; Li, Z.; McNeill, V. Faye

    2013-11-01

    Atmospheric aerosols can contain thousands of organic compounds which impact aerosol surface tension, affecting aerosol properties such as heterogeneous reactivity, ice nucleation, and cloud droplet formation. We present new experimental data for the surface tension of complex, reactive organic-inorganic aqueous mixtures mimicking tropospheric aerosols. Each solution contained 2-6 organic compounds, including methylglyoxal, glyoxal, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, oxalic acid, succinic acid, leucine, alanine, glycine, and serine, with and without ammonium sulfate. We test two semi-empirical surface tension models and find that most reactive, complex, aqueous organic mixtures which do not contain salt are well described by a weighted Szyszkowski-Langmuir (S-L) model which was first presented by Henning et al. (2005). Two approaches for modeling the effects of salt were tested: (1) the Tuckermann approach (an extension of the Henning model with an additional explicit salt term), and (2) a new implicit method proposed here which employs experimental surface tension data obtained for each organic species in the presence of salt used with the Henning model. We recommend the use of method (2) for surface tension modeling of aerosol systems because the Henning model (using data obtained from organic-inorganic systems) and Tuckermann approach provide similar modeling results and goodness-of-fit (χ2) values, yet the Henning model is a simpler and more physical approach to modeling the effects of salt, requiring less empirically determined parameters.

  15. Modeling the surface tension of complex, reactive organic-inorganic mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Schwier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric aerosols can contain thousands of organic compounds which impact aerosol surface tension, affecting aerosol properties such as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN ability. We present new experimental data for the surface tension of complex, reactive organic-inorganic aqueous mixtures mimicking tropospheric aerosols. Each solution contained 2–6 organic compounds, including methylglyoxal, glyoxal, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, oxalic acid, succinic acid, leucine, alanine, glycine, and serine, with and without ammonium sulfate. We test two surface tension models and find that most reactive, complex, aqueous organic mixtures which do not contain salt are well-described by a weighted Szyszkowski–Langmuir (S–L model which was first presented by Henning et al. (2005. Two approaches for modeling the effects of salt were tested: (1 the Tuckermann approach (an extension of the Henning model with an additional explicit salt term, and (2 a new implicit method proposed here which employs experimental surface tension data obtained for each organic species in the presence of salt used with the Henning model. We recommend the use of method (2 for surface tension modeling because the Henning model (using data obtained from organic-inorganic systems and Tuckermann approach provide similar modeling fits and goodness of fit (χ2 values, yet the Henning model is a simpler and more physical approach to modeling the effects of salt, requiring less empirically determined parameters.

  16. Molecular Dynamics Modeling of Tethered Organics in Confined Spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waksburg, Avi [Monash University, Australia; Nguyen, M [Monash University, Australia; Chaffe, Alan [Monash University, Australia; Kidder, Michelle [ORNL; Buchanan III, A C [ORNL; Britt, Phillip F [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    A computational method for constructing and evaluating the dynamic behaviour of functionalised hexagonal mesoporous silica (HMS) MCM-41 models is reported. HMS with three pore diameters (1.7, 2.2 and 2.9 nm) were prepared, and, from these, two series of derivative structures were constructed - one with 1,3-diphenylpropyl (DPP) tethers and the other with smaller dimethylsilyl (DMS) tethers attached to the mesopores internal surfaces. Comparison with experimental data shows that simulation results correctly predict the maximum tether density that can be achieved for each tether and each pore diameter. For the smaller pore models, the extent of DPP functionalisation that can be achieved is limited by the available pore volume. However, for the larger pore model, the extent of functionalisation is limited by access to potentially reactive sites on the pore surface. The dynamic behaviour of the models was investigated over a range of temperatures (240-648 K). At lower temperatures (< 400 K), the mobility of DPP tethers in the 2.9 nm model is actually less than that observed in either the 2.2 nm model or the 1.7 nm model due to the extensive non-bonded interactions that are able to develop between tethers and the silica surface at this diameter. At higher temperatures, the free ends of these tethers break away from the surface, extend further into the pore space and the DPP mobility in the 2.9 nm model is higher than in the smaller pore systems.

  17. Modeling cadmium in the feed chain and cattle organs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.; Romkens, P.F.A.M.; Franz, E.; Raamsdonk, van L.W.D.

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate cadmium contamination levels in different scenarios related to soil characteristics and assumptions regarding cadmium accumulation in the animal tissues, using quantitative supply chain modeling. The model takes into account soil cadmium levels, soil pH,

  18. Modeling cadmium in the feed chain and cattle organs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.; Romkens, P.F.A.M.; Franz, E.; Raamsdonk, van L.W.D.

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate cadmium contamination levels in different scenarios related to soil characteristics and assumptions regarding cadmium accumulation in the animal tissues, using quantitative supply chain modeling. The model takes into account soil cadmium levels, soil pH,

  19. Drosophila melanogaster as a Model Organism of Brain Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Paulus

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila melanogaster has been utilized to model human brain diseases. In most of these invertebrate transgenic models, some aspects of human disease are reproduced. Although investigation of rodent models has been of significant impact, invertebrate models offer a wide variety of experimental tools that can potentially address some of the outstanding questions underlying neurological disease. This review considers what has been gleaned from invertebrate models of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, metabolic diseases such as Leigh disease, Niemann-Pick disease and ceroid lipofuscinoses, tumor syndromes such as neurofibromatosis and tuberous sclerosis, epilepsy as well as CNS injury. It is to be expected that genetic tools in Drosophila will reveal new pathways and interactions, which hopefully will result in molecular based therapy approaches.

  20. Incorporating sorption/desorption of organic pollutants into river water quality model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LOU Bao-feng; ZHU Li-zhong; YANG Kun

    2004-01-01

    Preliminary research was conducted about how to incorporate sorption/desorption of organic pollutants with suspended solids and sediments into single-chemical and one-dimensional water quality model of Jinghang Canal.Sedimentation-resuspension coefficient k3 was deduced; characteristics of organic pollutants, concentrations and components of suspended solids/sediments and hydrological and hydraulic conditions were integrated into k3 and further into river water quality model; impact of sorption/desorption of organic pollutants with suspended solids and sediments on prediction function of the model was discussed. Results demonstrated that this impact is pronounced for organic pollutants with relatively large Koc and Kow, especially when they are also conservative and foc of river suspended solids/sediments is high, and that incorporation of sorption/ desorption of organic pollutants into river water quality model can improve its prediction accuracy.

  1. EXTERNALITIES AND THE SIX FACETS MODEL OF TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT: GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS IN AGRIBUSINESS

    OpenAIRE

    STEPHEN R. LUXMORE; CLYDE EIRÍKUR HULL

    2010-01-01

    The Six Facets Model of technology management has previously only been applied to process innovation at the firm and the industry level. In this article, the model is applied to product innovation for the first time. In the context of genetically-modified organisms in the agribusiness industry, we examine radical product innovation through the Six Facets Model. We propose, based on the history of genetically-modified organisms in agribusiness, that when applied to product innovation the Six F...

  2. Modeling of iodine radiation chemistry in the presence of organic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taghipour, Fariborz; Evans, Greg J. E-mail: evansg@chem-eng.toronto.edu

    2002-06-01

    A kinetic-based model was developed that simulates the radiation chemistry of iodine in the presence of organic compounds. The model's mechanistic description of iodine chemistry and generic semi-mechanistic reactions for various classes of organics, provided a reasonable representation of experimental results. The majority of the model and experimental results of iodine volatilization rates were in agreement within an order of magnitude.

  3. Self-Organizing Maps for Fast LES Combustion Modeling Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Tremendous advances have been made in the development of large and accurate detailed reaction chemistry models for hydrocarbon fuels. Comparable progress has also...

  4. Soil Organic Matter Mapping by Decision Tree Modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Bin; ZHANG Xing-Gang; WANG Fan; WANG Ren-Chao

    2005-01-01

    Based on a case study of Longyou County, Zhejiang Province, the decision tree, a data mining method, was used to analyze the relationships between soil organic matter (SOM) and other environmental and satellite sensing spatial data.The decision tree associated SOM content with some extensive easily observable landscape attributes, such as landform,geology, land use, and remote sensing images, thus transforming the SOM-related information into a clear, quantitative,landscape factor-associated regular system. This system could be used to predict continuous SOM spatial distribution.By analyzing factors such as elevation, geological unit, soil type, land use, remotely sensed data, upslope contributing area, slope, aspect, planform curvature, and profile curvature, the decision tree could predict distribution of soil organic matter levels. Among these factors, elevation, land use, aspect, soil type, the first principle component of bitemporal Landsat TM, and upslope contributing area were considered the most important variables for predicting SOM. Results of the prediction between SOM content and landscape types sorted by the decision tree showed a close relationship with an accuracy of 81.1%.

  5. Presenting a comprehensive market oriented model and evaluating its impact on organization performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taqi Amini

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Like other innovative strategies, companies have paid more attention to market oriented strategies in recent years. This has been focused by organizations for improved effectiveness and the organization performance accelerated a lot in business competition. In responding to this fact, organizations are trying to formulate many of the issues familiar to large organizations, which have involved with market oriented strategy planning. This paper reviews key elements in market-oriented strategy planning with regard to competitiveness and performance in large organizations and outlines a comprehensive model for strategy planning in profit organizations. These elements include environment, top management, organization structure and market oriented strategy. Professional question of this study has a particularly important role in formulating relations of this model. These elements are well positioned to evaluate the impact of market-oriented strategy planning on organizations and their expected impacts on organization performance. A well-organized questionnaire to help organizations with their planning is proposed in this survey. Based on the proposed questionnaire, data obtained from Tehran food industry experts and analyzed by using SEM method. Results accepted eight hypotheses and rejected one.

  6. Retention modeling in combined pH/organic solvent gradient reversed-phase HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zisi, Ch; Fasoula, S; Nikitas, P; Pappa-Louisi, A

    2013-07-07

    An approach for retention modeling of double pH/organic solvent gradient data easily generated by automatically mixing two mobile phases with different pH and organic content according to a linear pump program is proposed. This approach is based on retention models arising from the evaluation of the retention data of a set of 17 OPA derivatives of amino acids obtained in 27 combined pH/organic solvent gradient runs performed between fixed initial pH/organic modifier values but different final ones and for different gradient duration. The derived general model is a ninth parameter equation easily manageable through a linear least-squares fitting but it requires eighteen initial pH/organic modifier gradient experiments for a satisfactory retention prediction in various double gradients of the same kind with those used in the fitting procedure. Two simplified versions of the general model, which were parameterized based on six only initial pH/organic modifier gradients, were also proposed, when one of the final double gradient conditions, pH or organic content was kept constant. The full and the simplified models allowed us to predict the experimental retention data in simultaneous pH/organic solvent double gradient mode very satisfactorily without the solution of the fundamental equation of gradient elution.

  7. A systematic study on drug-response associated genes using baseline gene expressions of the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoming; Yang, Jiasheng; Zhang, Yi; Fang, Yun; Wang, Fayou; Wang, Jun; Zheng, Xiaoqi; Yang, Jialiang

    2016-03-01

    We have studied drug-response associated (DRA) gene expressions by applying a systems biology framework to the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia data. More than 4,000 genes are inferred to be DRA for at least one drug, while the number of DRA genes for each drug varies dramatically from almost 0 to 1,226. Functional enrichment analysis shows that the DRA genes are significantly enriched in genes associated with cell cycle and plasma membrane. Moreover, there might be two patterns of DRA genes between genders. There are significantly shared DRA genes between male and female for most drugs, while very little DRA genes tend to be shared between the two genders for a few drugs targeting sex-specific cancers (e.g., PD-0332991 for breast cancer and ovarian cancer). Our analyses also show substantial difference for DRA genes between young and old samples, suggesting the necessity of considering the age effects for personalized medicine in cancers. Lastly, differential module and key driver analyses confirm cell cycle related modules as top differential ones for drug sensitivity. The analyses also reveal the role of TSPO, TP53, and many other immune or cell cycle related genes as important key drivers for DRA network modules. These key drivers provide new drug targets to improve the sensitivity of cancer therapy.

  8. Tu-yuan-ce-fu and Compilation of Encyclopedia in the Tang Dynasty%《兔园策府》与唐代类书的编纂

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王璐

    2015-01-01

    类书起源很早,是中国传统文化的产物。唐代修撰类书,始于建国之初,大抵是出于帝王之愿,试图把所有的知识进行分类便于提纲挈领地学习,因而唐代还有不少文人学士所编的类书就因循这样的法则。敦煌本《兔园策府》也是其中之一,它的白文本在唐宋间十分流行,《兔园策府》成书时间在《初学记》前,因而偶句之体例不是自徐坚始,很有可能始自《兔园策府》。%The encyclopedia originated early, is the product of Chinese traditional culture. The encyclopedias com-pilation started at the foundation of Tang Dynasty, which is probably out of the emperor willing to try to put all the knowledge classification facilitates learning focused on the vital. Then the encyclopedias compiled by scholars was procrastinating this rule as well in Tang Dynasty. Tu-yuan-ce-fu ( Encyclopedia Rabbit Garden) of Dunhuang edi-tion is one of them;its full form was very popular among the Tang and Song Dynasties. Tu-yuan-ce-fu was comple-ted before Chu-xue-ji ( The Primary Anthology) . Alternate style was not created by Xu Jian but probably from Tu-yuan-ce-fu.

  9. Tu-yuan-ce-fu and Compilation of Encyclopedia in the Tang Dynasty%《兔园策府》与唐代类书的编纂

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王璐

    2014-01-01

    类书起源很早,是中国传统文化的产物。唐代修撰类书,始于建国之初,大抵是出于帝王之愿,试图把所有的知识进行分类便于提纲挈领地学习,因而唐代还有不少文人学士所编的类书就因循这样的法则。敦煌本《兔园策府》也是其中之一,它的白文本在唐宋间十分流行,《兔园策府》成书时间在《初学记》前,因而偶句之体例不是自徐坚始,很有可能始自《兔园策府》。%The encyclopedia originated early, is the product of Chinese traditional culture. The encyclopedias com-pilation started at the foundation of Tang Dynasty, which is probably out of the emperor willing to try to put all the knowledge classification facilitates learning focused on the vital. Then the encyclopedias compiled by scholars was procrastinating this rule as well in Tang Dynasty. Tu-yuan-ce-fu ( Encyclopedia Rabbit Garden) of Dunhuang edi-tion is one of them;its full form was very popular among the Tang and Song Dynasties. Tu-yuan-ce-fu was comple-ted before Chu-xue-ji ( The Primary Anthology) . Alternate style was not created by Xu Jian but probably from Tu-yuan-ce-fu.

  10. A contrastive analysis of Chinese and American electronic encyclopedias%中美电子百科全书对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白崇远; 常爱东

    2001-01-01

    本文从基本数据、系统功能结构、检索途径三个方面对和Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia deluxe 99两种电子百科全书进行了对比分析,剖析了各自的特点,并总结了现代电子百科全书的发展趋势.

  11. Modeling the effects of organic nitrogen uptake by plants on the carbon cycling of boreal ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Zhu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Boreal forest and tundra are the major ecosystems in the northern high latitudes in which a large amount of carbon is stored. These ecosystems are nitrogen-limited due to slow mineralization rate of the soil organic nitrogen. Recently, abundant field studies have found that organic nitrogen is another important nitrogen supply for boreal ecosystems. In this study, we incorporated a mechanism that allowed boreal plants to uptake small molecular amino acids into a process-based biogeochemical model, the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM, to evaluate the impact of organic nitrogen uptake on ecosystem carbon cycling. The new version of the model was evaluated at both boreal forest and tundra sites. We found that the modeled organic nitrogen uptake accounted for 36–87% of total nitrogen uptake by plants in tundra ecosystems and 26–50% for boreal forests, suggesting that tundra ecosystem might have more relied on the organic form of nitrogen than boreal forests. The simulated monthly gross ecosystem production (GPP and net ecosystem production (NEP tended to be larger with the new version of the model since the plant uptake of organic nitrogen alleviated the soil nitrogen limitation especially during the growing season. The sensitivity study indicated that the most important factors controlling the plant uptake of organic nitrogen were the maximum root uptake rate (Imax and the radius of the root (r0 in our model. The model uncertainty due to uncertain parameters associated with organic nitrogen uptake at tundra ecosystem was larger than at boreal forest ecosystems. This study suggests that considering the organic nitrogen uptake by plants is important to boreal ecosystem carbon modeling.

  12. Study of elastic-plastic damage model of cement consolidated soil with high organic content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Huie; WANG Qing; CAI Keyi

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of elastic-plastic damage model of cement consolidated soil, the authors took organic contents into reasonable damage variable evolution equation in order to seek relation between the organic contents and parameters in the equation, and established the elastic-plastic damage model of cement consolidated soil considering organic contents. The results show that the parameters change correspondingly with difference of the organic contents. The higher the organic contents are, the less the valves of the parameters such as elastic modulus (E), material parameters (K, n) and damage evolution parameter (ε) become, but the larger strain damage threshold value (εd) of the sample is. Meanwhile, the calculation results obtained from established model are compared with the test data in the condition of common indoors test, which is testified with reliability.

  13. Role of Corporate Culture in Model of Logic Levels of Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya А. Aleksandrova

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the level of corporate culture in a model of logic levels of the organization. The modern organization is influenced by the external factors, and therefore it should have the ability to form and accumulate potential for corporate culture in order to ensure a timely response to the external environment and effectively manage the operation and development of numerous elements and subsystems of the organization.

  14. Study on the Organization Model of Wagon Flows in Railway Terminal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Railway terminal is an important part of railway network. Transport organization of railway terminal is the key of the railway transport organization. Moreover, the organization of transport work is based on the organization of wagon flows in the railway terminal. Because of the great amounts of equipment and a large number of train operations, the study on railway terminal transport organization is mostly focused on a marshalling station in railway terminal or a part of it. Systematic study taking railway terminal as a whole is very few. In this paper, the organization of wagon flows in a railway terminal is analyzed and a wagon flow model in a railway terminal is established. The main principles of organization of local trains are also presented.

  15. Electromagnetic Model Reliably Predicts Radar Scattering Characteristics of Airborne Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirkovic, Djordje; Stepanian, Phillip M.; Kelly, Jeffrey F.; Chilson, Phillip B.

    2016-10-01

    The radar scattering characteristics of aerial animals are typically obtained from controlled laboratory measurements of a freshly harvested specimen. These measurements are tedious to perform, difficult to replicate, and typically yield only a small subset of the full azimuthal, elevational, and polarimetric radio scattering data. As an alternative, biological applications of radar often assume that the radar cross sections of flying animals are isotropic, since sophisticated computer models are required to estimate the 3D scattering properties of objects having complex shapes. Using the method of moments implemented in the WIPL-D software package, we show for the first time that such electromagnetic modeling techniques (typically applied to man-made objects) can accurately predict organismal radio scattering characteristics from an anatomical model: here the Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis). The simulated scattering properties of the bat agree with controlled measurements and radar observations made during a field study of bats in flight. This numerical technique can produce the full angular set of quantitative polarimetric scattering characteristics, while eliminating many practical difficulties associated with physical measurements. Such a modeling framework can be applied for bird, bat, and insect species, and will help drive a shift in radar biology from a largely qualitative and phenomenological science toward quantitative estimation of animal densities and taxonomic identification.

  16. Modeling equilibrium adsorption of organic micropollutants onto activated carbon

    KAUST Repository

    De Ridder, David J.

    2010-05-01

    Solute hydrophobicity, polarizability, aromaticity and the presence of H-bond donor/acceptor groups have been identified as important solute properties that affect the adsorption on activated carbon. However, the adsorption mechanisms related to these properties occur in parallel, and their respective dominance depends on the solute properties as well as carbon characteristics. In this paper, a model based on multivariate linear regression is described that was developed to predict equilibrium carbon loading on a specific activated carbon (F400) for solutes reflecting a wide range of solute properties. In order to improve prediction accuracy, groups (bins) of solutes with similar solute properties were defined and solute removals were predicted for each bin separately. With these individual linear models, coefficients of determination (R2) values ranging from 0.61 to 0.84 were obtained. With the mechanistic approach used in developing this predictive model, a strong relation with adsorption mechanisms is established, improving the interpretation and, ultimately, acceptance of the model. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Modeling emissions of volatile organic compounds from silage storages and feed lanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    An initial volatile organic compound (VOC) emission model for silage sources, developed using experimental data from previous studies, was incorporated into the Integrated Farm System Model (IFSM), a whole-farm simulation model used to assess the performance, environmental impacts, and economics of ...

  18. An Introduction to Topic Modeling as an Unsupervised Machine Learning Way to Organize Text Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Robin M.

    2015-01-01

    The field of topic modeling has become increasingly important over the past few years. Topic modeling is an unsupervised machine learning way to organize text (or image or DNA, etc.) information such that related pieces of text can be identified. This paper/session will present/discuss the current state of topic modeling, why it is important, and…

  19. A Modified Earthquake Model of Self-Organized Criticality on Small World Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Min; ZHAO Xiao-Wei; CHEN Tian-Lun

    2004-01-01

    A modified Olami Feder-Christensen model of self-organized criticality on a square lattice with the properties of small world networks has been studied.We find that our model displays power-law behavior and the exponent τ of the model depends on φ,the density of long-range connections in our network.

  20. Online encyclopedia provides free health info for all. Interview by Fiona Fleck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilman, James

    2013-01-01

    Within a decade, Wikipedia has become one of the most popular health-content web sites in the world. James Heilman talks to Fiona Fleck about how the once free-wheeling website is moving closer to a formal publication model.