Sample records for model oil-in-water emulsions

  1. Use of olive oil-in-water gelled emulsions in model turkey breast emulsions (United States)

    Serdaroğlu, M.; Öztürk, B.


    Today, gelled emulsion systems offer a novel possibility in lipid modification of meat products. In this study, we aimed to investigate the quality characteristics of model turkey emulsions that were prepared with olive oil-in-water gelled emulsion (GE) as partial or total beef fat replacer. The results indicated that while most of the GE treatments showed equivalent emulsion characteristics in terms of emulsion stability, water-holding capacity and cook yield, utilization of 100% GE as the lipid source could increase total expressible fluid of the model turkey emulsion and thus negatively affect the quality. Utilization of GE was effective in total fat reduction, as the model turkey emulsions formulated with more than 50% GE had significantly lower fat content compared to full-beef fat control model emulsion. However, beef fat replacement with GE produced considerable changes in colour parameters. Finally, it was concluded that utilization of GE as a partial beef fat replacer has good potential to enhance stability and reduce total fat in turkey meat emulsion products.

  2. Data on the physical characterization of oil in water emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldana L. Zalazar


    Full Text Available This article contains experimental data and images for the physical characterization of oil in water emulsions. Mentioned data are related to the research article “Effect of stabilizers, oil level and structure on the growth of Zygosaccharomyces bailii and on physical stability of model systems simulating acid sauces” (A.L. Zalazar, M.F. Gliemmo, C.A. Campos, 2016 [1]. Physical characterization of emulsions was performed through the evaluation of Span and Specific Surface Area (SSA determined by light scattering using a Mastersizer. Furthermore, microscopy images were recorded by confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM. The latter are presented to collaborate in the analysis of emulsion microstructure.

  3. Data on the physical characterization of oil in water emulsions. (United States)

    Zalazar, Aldana L; Gliemmo, María F; Campos, Carmen A


    This article contains experimental data and images for the physical characterization of oil in water emulsions. Mentioned data are related to the research article "Effect of stabilizers, oil level and structure on the growth of Zygosaccharomyces bailii and on physical stability of model systems simulating acid sauces" (A.L. Zalazar, M.F. Gliemmo, C.A. Campos, 2016) [1]. Physical characterization of emulsions was performed through the evaluation of Span and Specific Surface Area (SSA) determined by light scattering using a Mastersizer. Furthermore, microscopy images were recorded by confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM). The latter are presented to collaborate in the analysis of emulsion microstructure.

  4. Separation kinetics of an oil-in-water emulsion under enhanced gravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krebs, T.; Schroën, C.G.P.H.; Boom, R.M.


    The breakup of crude oil emulsions to produce clean oil and water phases is an important task in crude oil processing. We have investigated the demulsification kinetics of a model oil-in-water emulsion in a centrifugal field to mimic the forces acting on emulsion droplets in oil/water separators

  5. Nonlinear Dynamic Characteristics of Oil-in-Water Emulsions (United States)

    Yin, Zhaoqi; Han, Yunfeng; Ren, Yingyu; Yang, Qiuyi; Jin, Ningde


    In this article, the nonlinear dynamic characteristics of oil-in-water emulsions under the addition of surfactant were experimentally investigated. Firstly, based on the vertical upward oil-water two-phase flow experiment in 20 mm inner diameter (ID) testing pipe, dynamic response signals of oil-in-water emulsions were recorded using vertical multiple electrode array (VMEA) sensor. Afterwards, the recurrence plot (RP) algorithm and multi-scale weighted complexity entropy causality plane (MS-WCECP) were employed to analyse the nonlinear characteristics of the signals. The results show that the certainty is decreasing and the randomness is increasing with the increment of surfactant concentration. This article provides a novel method for revealing the nonlinear dynamic characteristics, complexity, and randomness of oil-in-water emulsions with experimental measurement signals.

  6. Factors governing partial coalescence in oil-in-water emulsions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fredrick, E.; Walstra, P.; Dewettinck, K.


    The consequences of the instability mechanism partial coalescence in oil-in-water food emulsions show a discrepancy. On the one hand, it needs to be avoided in order to achieve an extended shelf life in food products like sauces, creams and several milk products. On the other hand, during the manufa

  7. Factors governing partial coalescence in oil-in-water emulsions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fredrick, E.; Walstra, P.; Dewettinck, K.


    The consequences of the instability mechanism partial coalescence in oil-in-water food emulsions show a discrepancy. On the one hand, it needs to be avoided in order to achieve an extended shelf life in food products like sauces, creams and several milk products. On the other hand, during the

  8. Ultrasonic splitting of oil-in-water emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Jens; König, Ralf; Benes, Ewald


    Standing resonant ultrasonic wave fields can be utilized for liquid–liquid separation of the dispersed particles and the fluid caused by the acoustic radiation pressure and the induced particle agglomeration or coagulation/coalescence process. For the splitting of oil-in-water emulsions...... emulsion samples have been investigated. The quality of the ultrasonic-induced particle separation/coagulation process is characterized by physical–chemical analysis of the separated oil- and water phase and by determining the change of the particle size distribution of the initial emulsion due...... of up to 24 W/cm2 into the sonication volume. The chosen resonance frequency is kept stable by automatic frequency control utilizing the maximum true power criterion. Physically and chemically well-defined low and high density pure laboratory and also industrially used cooling-lubricating oil-in-water...

  9. Stability of Concentrated Olive Oil-in-water Emulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Hsiao-Wei; MISRAN Mi-sni


    The stability of olive oil-in-water(o/w)emulsion stabilized with sucrose fatty acid ester(SFAE)was evaluated through an accelerated ageing test.The stability of the emulsion in this study was examined by the appearance of any phase separation in the emulsion,mean droplet size and rbeological properties over one month.The effect of accelerated ageing at 45 μ on the emulsion rheological properties was investigated using an amplitude sweep test,a frequency sweep test and a viscometry test.The rheological properties of the emulsion were examined at the one day,one week and one month of storage time.Among the series of emulsions prepared,the emulsion with 2 :8 of water to oil ratio(by weight)is the most stable one,which did not show any of phase separation.The amplitude sweep result shows that there was no significant change of the critical strain of the emulsion throughout one month of storage time.The dynamic properties as well as the steady flow behavior of the emulsion also show no significant changes for over one month of storage time.The mean droplet size of the emulsion remained stable around 2.5 μn within the period of investigation.

  10. Transport and Retention of Concentrated Oil-in-Water Emulsions in Sandy Porous Media (United States)

    Muller, K.; Esahani, S. G.; Steven, C. C.; Ramsburg, A.


    Oil-in-water emulsions are widely employed to promote biotic reduction of contaminants; however, emulsions can also be used to encapsulate and deliver active ingredients required for long-term subsurface treatment. Our research focuses on encapsulating alkalinity-releasing particles in oil-in-water emulsions for sustained control of subsurface pH. Typical characteristics of these emulsions include kinetically stable for >20 hr; 20% soybean oil; 1 g/mL density; 8-10 cP viscosity; and 1.5 μm droplet d50, with emulsions developed for favorable subsurface delivery. The viscosity of the oil-in-water emulsions was found to be a function of oil content. Ultimately we aim to model both emulsion delivery and alkalinity release (from retained emulsion droplets) to provide a description of pH treatment. Emulsion transport and retention was investigated via a series of 1-d column experiments using varying particle size fractions of Ottawa sand. Emulsions were introduced for approximately two pore volumes followed by a flush of background solution (approx. ρ=1 g/mL; μ=1cP). Emulsion breakthrough curves exhibit an early fall on the backside of the breakthrough curve along with tailing. Deposition profiles are found to be hyper-exponential and unaffected by extended periods of background flow. Particle transport models established for dilute suspensions are unable to describe the transport of the concentrated emulsions considered here. Thus, we explore the relative importance of additional processes driving concentrated droplet transport and retention. Focus is placed on evaluating the role of attachment-detachment-straining processes, as well as the influence of mixing from both viscous instabilities and variable water saturation due to deposited mass.

  11. Efficiency and mechanism of demulsification of oil-in-water emulsions using ionic liquid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, X.; Kersten, S.R.A.; Schuur, B.


    In this work, 13 ionic liquids (ILs), including 9 halogenide ILs and 4 non-halogenide ILs, were evaluated as demulsifiers for a model oil-in-water emulsion prepared with heptane and water, where sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS) was used as a surfactant. The separating efficiency (the fraction o

  12. Efficiency and mechanism of demulsification of oil-in-water emulsions using ionic liquid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, X.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Schuur, Boelo


    In this work, 13 ionic liquids (ILs), including 9 halogenide ILs and 4 non-halogenide ILs, were evaluated as demulsifiers for a model oil-in-water emulsion prepared with heptane and water, where sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS) was used as a surfactant. The separating efficiency (the fraction o

  13. Physical Stability of Oil in Water Emulsions in the Presence of Gamma Irradiated Gum Tragacanth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meybodi, Neda Mollakhalili; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin; Farhoodi, Mehdi


    Gum tragacanth (GT) exuded from an Iranian Astragalus species was γ-irradiated at 0, 0.75, 1.5, 3, 5, 7, 10 kGy and used to stabilize a model oil in water emulsion system. Stability and physicochemical properties of emulsion samples were investigated with respect to the effect of irradiation...... repulsion and structure strength for getting maximum emulsion stability. GT significantly reduced the interfacial tension of the oil and water system, but no significant differences were observed among all irradiation treated and non-irradiated samples. This study revealed that, GT acts as a bifunctional...... emulsifier and irradiation treatment has a great positive influence on its ability to reduce droplets collision frequency and stabilize oil in water emulsion....

  14. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure and high dynamic pressure on stability and rheological properties of model oil-in-water emulsions (United States)

    Bigikocin, Erman; Mert, Behic; Alpas, Hami


    Both static and dynamic high pressure applications provide interesting modifications in food structures which lead to new product formulations. In this study, the effects of two different treatments, high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) and high dynamic pressure (HDP), on oil-in-water emulsions were identified and compared. Microfluidization was selected from among the HDP homogenization techniques. The performance of each process was analyzed in terms of rheological modifications and emulsion stability improvements compared with the coarse emulsions. The stability of the emulsions was determined comparatively by using an analytical photo-centrifuge device employing novel analysis technology. Whey protein isolate (WPI) in combination with a food polysaccharide (xanthan gum, guar gum or locust bean gum) were used as emulsifying and stabilizing ingredients. The effective disruption of oil droplets and the degradation of polysaccharides by the shear forces under high pressure in HDP microfluidization yielded finer emulsions with lower viscosities, leading to distinctive improvements in emulsion stability. On the other hand, improvements in stability obtained with HHP treatment were due to the thickening of the emulsions mainly induced by protein unfolding. The corresponding increases in viscosity were intensified in emulsion formulations containing higher oil content. Apart from these, HHP treatment was found to be relatively more contributive to the enhancements in viscoelastic properties.

  15. Factors governing partial coalescence in oil-in-water emulsions. (United States)

    Fredrick, Eveline; Walstra, Pieter; Dewettinck, Koen


    The consequences of the instability mechanism partial coalescence in oil-in-water food emulsions show a discrepancy. On the one hand, it needs to be avoided in order to achieve an extended shelf life in food products like sauces, creams and several milk products. On the other hand, during the manufacturing of products like ice cream, butter and whipped toppings partial coalescence is required to achieve the desired product properties. It contributes to the structure formation, the physicochemical properties (stability, firmness,...) and the sensory perception, like fattiness and creaminess of the final food products. This review critically summarises the findings of partial coalescence in oil-in-water emulsions in order to provide insight in how to enhance and retard it. Next to the pioneering work, a large set of experimental results of more recent work is discussed. First, the general mechanism of partial coalescence is considered and a distinction is made between partial and 'true' coalescence. The main differences are: the required solid particles in the dispersed oil phase, the formation of irregular clusters and the increased aggregation rate. Second, the kinetics of partial coalescence is discussed. In more detail, potential parameters affecting the rate of partial coalescence are considered by means of the encounter frequency and capture efficiency of the fat globules. The flow conditions, the fat volume fraction and the physicochemical properties of continuous aqueous phase affect both the encounter frequency and capture efficiency while the actual temperature, temperature history and the composition and formulation of the emulsion mainly affect the capture efficiency.

  16. Microencapsulation using an oil-in-water-in-air 'dry water emulsion'. (United States)

    Carter, Benjamin O; Weaver, Jonathan V M; Wang, Weixing; Spiller, David G; Adams, Dave J; Cooper, Andrew I


    We describe the first example of a tri-phasic oil-in-water-in-air 'dry water emulsion'. The method combines highly stable oil-in-water emulsions prepared using branched copolymer surfactants, with aqueous droplet encapsulation using 'dry water' technology.

  17. Influence of fat crystals in the oil phase on stability of oil-in-water emulsions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekel, van M.A.J.S.


    Coalescence at rest and during flow was studied in emulsions of paraffin oil in water with several surfactants and with crystals of solid paraffin or tristearate in the oil phase. Solid fat in the oil phase was estimated by pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance. Without crystals, oil-in-water emulsions

  18. Preparation, characterization, and in vitro gastrointestinal digestibility of oil-in-water emulsion-agar gels. (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Neves, Marcos A; Kobayashi, Isao; Uemura, Kunihiko; Nakajima, Mitsutoshi


    Soybean oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion-agar gel samples were prepared and their digestibility evaluated by using an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion model. Emulsion-agar sols were obtained by mixing the prepared O/W emulsions with a 1.5 wt % agar solution at 60 °C, and their subsequent cooling at 5 °C for 1 h formed emulsion-agar gels. Their gel strength values increased with increasing degree of polymerization of the emulsifiers, and the relative gel strength increased in the case of droplets with an average diameter smaller than 700 nm. Flocculation and coalescence of the released emulsion droplets depended strongly on the emulsifier type; however, the emulsifier type hardly affected the ζ-potential of emulsion droplets released from the emulsion-agar gels during in vitro digestion. The total FFA content released from each emulsion towards the end of the digestion period was nearly twice that released from the emulsion-agar gel, indicating that gelation of the O/W emulsion may have delayed lipid hydrolysis.

  19. Effect of Leaves of Caesalpinia decapetala on Oxidative Stability of Oil-in-Water Emulsions (United States)

    Gallego, María Gabriela; Skowyra, Monika; Gordon, Michael H.; Azman, Nurul Aini Mohd; Almajano, María Pilar


    Caesalpinia decapetala (Roth) Alston (Fabaceae) (CD) is used in folk medicine to prevent colds and treat bronchitis. This plant has antitumor and antioxidant activity. The antioxidant effects of an extract from Caesalpinia decapetala (Fabaceae) were assessed by storage of model food oil-in-water emulsions with analysis of primary and secondary oxidation products. The antioxidant capacity of the plant extract was evaluated by the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays and by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Lyophilized extracts of CD were added at concentrations of 0.002%, 0.02% and 0.2% into oil-in-water emulsions, which were stored for 30 days at 33 ± 1 °C, and then, oxidative stability was evaluated. The CD extract had high antioxidant activity (700 ± 70 µmol Trolox/g dry plant for the ORAC assay), mainly due to its phenolic components: gallic acid, quercetin, catechin, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and p-coumaric acid. At a concentration of 0.2%, the extract significantly reduced the oxidative deterioration of oil-in-water emulsions. The results of the present study show the possibility of utilizing CD as a promising source of natural antioxidants for retarding lipid oxidation in the food and cosmetic industries. PMID:28273843

  20. Preparation of microstructured hydroxyapatite microspheres using oil in water emulsions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T S Pradeesh; M C Sunny; H K Varma; P Ramesh


    Hydroxyapatite (HAP) microspheres with peculiar spheres-in-sphere morphology were prepared by using oil-in-water emulsions and solvent evaporation technique. Ethylene vinyl acetate co-polymer (EVA) was used as the binder material. Preparation of HAP/EVA microspheres was followed by the thermal debinding and sintering at 1150°C for 3 h to obtain HAP microspheres. Each microsphere of 100–1000 m was in turn composed of spherical hydroxyapatite granules of 2–15 m size which were obtained by spray drying the precipitated HAP. The parameters such as percentage of initial HAP loading, type of stabilizer, concentration of stabilizer, stirring speed and temperature of microsphere preparation were varied to study their effect on the particle size and geometry of the microspheres obtained. It was observed that these parameters do have an effect on the size and shape of the microspheres obtained, which in turn will affect the sintered HAP microstructure. Of the three stabilizers used viz. polyoxyethylene(20) sorbitan monopalmitate (Tween-40), sodium laurate and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), only PVA with a concentration not less than 0.1 wt% showed controlled stabilization of HAP granules resulting in spherical microspheres of required size. Morphologically better spherical microspheres were obtained at 20°C. Increasing the stirring speed produced smaller microspheres. Smaller microspheres having size < 50 m were obtained at a stirring speed of 1500 ± 50 rpm. A gradual decrease in pore size was observed in the sintered microspheres with increase in HAP loading.

  1. Mannan-stabilized oil-in-water beverage emulsions (United States)

    The stabilizing effect of spruce galactoglucomannan (GGM) on a model beverage emulsion system was studied and compared to that of guar gum and locust bean gum galactomannans, konjac glucomannan, and corn arabinoxylan. In addition, enzymatic modification was applied on guar gum to examine the effect ...

  2. Antioxidant Activity of Potato Peel Extracts in a Fish-RapeseedOil Mixture and in Oil-in-Water Emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farvin, Sabeena; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte


    oil mixture and oil-in-water emulsions. Multiple antioxidant activity of the potato peel extracts was evident from in-vitro systems as they showed strong reducing power, radical scavenging ability, ferrous ion chelating activity and prevented oxidation in a liposome model system. The Sava variety...

  3. Increased potency of an inactivated trivalent polio vaccine with oil-in-water emulsions. (United States)

    Baldwin, Susan L; Fox, Christopher B; Pallansch, Mark A; Coler, Rhea N; Reed, Steven G; Friede, Martin


    The use of inactivated poliovirus vaccines (IPV) will be required to achieve, world-wide eradication of polio. The current expense of IPV is however prohibitive for, some countries, and therefore efforts to decrease the costs of the vaccine are a high, priority. Our results show that the addition of oil-in-water emulsion adjuvants to an, inactivated trivalent poliovirus vaccine are dose-sparing and are capable of enhancing, neutralizing antibody titers in the rat potency model. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Interactions of flavoured oil in-water emulsions with polylactide. (United States)

    Salazar, Rómulo; Domenek, Sandra; Ducruet, Violette


    Polylactide (PLA), a biobased polymer, might prove suitable as eco-friendly packaging, if it proves efficient at maintaining food quality. To assess interactions between PLA and food, an oïl in-water model emulsion was formulated containing aroma compounds representing different chemical structure classes (ethyl esters, 2-nonanone, benzaldehyde) at a concentration typically found in foodstuff (100 ppm). To study non-equilibrium effects during food shelf life, the emulsions were stored in a PLA pack (tray and lid). To assess equilibrium effects, PLA was conditioned in vapour contact with the aroma compounds at concentrations comparable to headspace conditions of real foods. PLA/emulsion interactions showed minor oil and aroma compound sorption in the packaging. Among tested aroma compounds, benzaldehyde and ethyl acetate were most sorbed and preferentially into the lid through the emulsion headspace. Equilibrium effects showed synergy of ethyl acetate and benzaldehyde, favouring sorption of additional aroma compounds in PLA. This should be anticipated during the formulation of food products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The emulsifying and tribological properties of modified graphene oxide in oil-in-water emulsion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Yinglei; Zeng, Xiangqiong; Ren, Tianhui; de Vries, Erik G.; van der Heide, Emile


    Graphene oxide (GO) was asymmetric chemically modified with myristyltrimethylammonium bromide (TTAB) to get modified graphene oxide (MGO). This MGO was used as an emulsifier and additive in oil-in-water emulsion. The emulsifying tests showed MGO greatly improved the stability of base emulsion and

  6. Coalescence kinetics of oil-in-water emulsions studied with microfluidics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krebs, T.; Schroen, C.G.P.H.; Boom, R.M.


    We report the results of experiments on the coalescence dynamics in flowing oil-in-water emulsions using an integrated microfluidic device. The microfluidic circuit permits direct observation of shear-induced collisions and coalescence events between emulsion droplets. Three mineral oils with a rang

  7. Emulsification technique affects oxidative stability of fish oil-in-water emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard

    In oil-in-water emulsions, lipid oxidation is expected to be initiated at the oil-water interface. The properties of the emulsifier used, and the structure at the interface is therefore expected to be of great importance for lipid oxidation in emulsions. Previous studies have shown that e...... of this study was to compare lipid oxidation in 10% fish oil-in-water emulsions prepared by two different kinds of high pressure homogenizers i.e. a microfluidizer and a two valve high pressure homogenizer. Emulsions were made with equal droplet sizes, and with either 1% sodium caseinate or 1% whey protein.......g. homogenization pressure can affect how proteins locate themselves at the interface of an emulsion. The hypothesis is therefore that emulsions produced with different emulsification equipments differ in their oxidative stability due to differences in the behaviour of the proteins at the interface. The aim...

  8. Emulsification technique affects oxidative stability of fish oil-in-water emulsion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard

    In oil-in-water emulsions, lipid oxidation is expected to be initiated at the oil-water interface. The properties of the emulsifier used, and the structure at the interface is therefore expected to be of great importance for lipid oxidation in emulsions. Previous studies have shown that e...... of this study was therefore to compare lipid oxidation in 10% fish oil-in-water emulsions prepared by two different kinds of high pressure homogenizers i.e. a microfluidizer and a two valve high pressure homogenizer. Emulsions were made with equal droplet sizes, and with either 1% sodium caseinate or 1% whey.......g. homogenization pressure can affect how proteins locate themselves at the interface of an emulsion. The hypothesis is therefore that emulsions produced with different emulsification equipments differ in their oxidative stability due to differences in the behaviour of the proteins at the interface. The aim...

  9. Physical and Oxidative Stability of Functional olive Oil-in-Water Emulsions Formulated Using Olive Mill Wastewater and Whey Proteins


    Caporaso, Nicola; Genovese, Alessandro; Burke, Roisin; Barry-Ryan, Catherine; Sacchi, Raffaele


    The present paper reports on the use of phenolic extracts from olive mill wastewater (OMW) in model olive oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions to study their effect on their physical and chemical stability. Spray-dried OMW polyphenols were added to a model 20% olive O/W emulsion stabilized with whey protein isolate (WPI) and xanthan gum, in phosphate buffer solution at pH 7. The emulsions were characterised under accelerated storage conditions (40 °C) up to 30 days. Physical stability was evaluated b...

  10. Physical Stability of Whippable Oil-in-Water Emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Merete Bøgelund

    is a prevalent problem causing deteriorated products. Increased viscosity is a consequence of aggregation of dispersed fat globules, which is referred to as physical instability. The aim of the project was to obtain detailed knowledge of the destabilization mechanisms in whippable emulsions by understanding...... on physical stability of whippable emulsions. Addition of LACTEM increased emulsion viscosity considerably at 20 °C, but low viscosity could almost be entirely regained by cooling the emulsions to 5 °C under appliance of shear. GMS did not induce fat globule aggregation in emulsions which remained low viscous...... was enhanced when GMU was added in combination with LACTEM. Physical stability of whippable emulsions was also influenced by concentrations of proteins and stabilizers, and type of dispersed fat phase. Factors related to the dispersed fat phase with effect on emulsion stability was solid fat content, broadness...

  11. Rheological properties of oil-in-water emulsions prepared with oil and protein isolates from sesame (Sesamum Indicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ramirez BREWER


    Full Text Available In this study, food emulsions of oil in water from sesame (Sesamum indicum protein isolates and their oil were formulated and standardised. The effect of the concentrations of sesame (Sesamum indicum protein isolates and base oil and the speed of the emulsification process for the food emulsion stability was studied. The protein isolates were achieved from the defatted sesame flour (DSF, obtaining a percentage of 80% ± 0.05% of protein. Emulsions were formulated through a factorial design 23. The rheological behaviour of sesame (Sesamum indicum protein isolates-stabilised emulsions and microstructural composition were investigated. Stable emulsions with suitable rheological properties and microstructure were formulated at a concentration of 10% sesame oil and different concentrations of protein isolates, between 1.5% and 2.5%, with the best droplet distribution characteristics being shown for the 2.5% sesame protein isolates. The emulsions showed a non-Newtonian fluid behaviour, adjusting the Sisko model.

  12. Physical Stability of Whippable Oil-in-Water Emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Merete Bøgelund

    the impact of ingredient composition, with focus on low-molecular-weight (LMW) emulsifiers. Three monoglyceride-based LMW-emulsifiers were selected: Lactic acid ester of saturated monoglyceride (LACTEM), unsaturated monoglyceride (GMU), and saturated monoglyceride (GMS). LMW-emulsifiers had major impact...... on physical stability of whippable emulsions. Addition of LACTEM increased emulsion viscosity considerably at 20 °C, but low viscosity could almost be entirely regained by cooling the emulsions to 5 °C under appliance of shear. GMS did not induce fat globule aggregation in emulsions which remained low viscous...... despite appliance of shear and temperature changes from 5 to 20 °C. Globule aggregation induced by LACTEM was impeded when used in combination with GMS. On the contrary, GMU induced very dense fat globule networks in emulsions which transformed emulsions into very firm solid-like pastes. This effect...

  13. Interaction Mechanism of Oil-in-Water Emulsions with Asphaltenes Determined Using Droplet Probe AFM. (United States)

    Shi, Chen; Zhang, Ling; Xie, Lei; Lu, Xi; Liu, Qingxia; Mantilla, Cesar A; van den Berg, Frans G A; Zeng, Hongbo


    Emulsions with interface-active components at the oil/water interface have long been of fundamental and practical interest in many fields. In this work, the interaction forces between two oil droplets in water in the absence/presence of asphaltenes were directly measured using droplet probe atomic force microscopy (AFM) and analyzed using a theoretical model based on Reynolds lubrication theory and the augmented Young-Laplace equation by including the effects of disjoining pressure. It was revealed that the interaction forces measured between two pristine oil droplets (i.e., toluene) could be well described by the classical Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory, while an additional steric interaction should be included in the presence of asphaltenes in the oil. The surface interaction and the stability of oil droplets in aqueous solution were demonstrated to be significantly influenced by the asphaltenes concentration in oil, salt concentration, pH, and presence of divalent ions (Ca(2+)) in water. Adsorbed asphaltenes at the oil/water interface led to more negative surface potential of the oil/water interface and also induced steric repulsion between oil droplets, inhibiting the drop coalescence and stabilizing the oil-in-water emulsion. Lower pH of aqueous solution could lead to less negative surface potential and weaken the repulsion between oil droplets. Addition of divalent ions (Ca(2+)) was found to disrupt the protecting effects of adsorbed asphaltenes at oil/water interface and induce coalescence of oil droplets. Our results provide a useful methodology for quantifying the interaction forces and investigating the properties of asphaltenes at the oil/water interfaces and provide insights into the stabilization mechanism of oil-in-water emulsions due to asphaltenes in oil production and water treatment.

  14. Physical and Oxidative Stability of Fish Oil-In-Water Emulsions Stabilized with Fish Protein Hydrolysates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García Moreno, Pedro Jesús; Guadix, Antonio; Guadix, Emilia M.


    The emulsifying and antioxidant properties of fish protein hydrolysates (FPH) for the physical and oxidative stabilization of 5% (by weight) fish oil-in-water emulsions were investigated. Muscle proteins from sardine (Sardina pilchardus) and small-spotted catshark (Scyliorhinus canicula) were......% yielded a physically stable emulsion with low concentration of unsaturated aldehydes. These results show the potential of FPH as alternative protein emulsifiers for the production of oxidatively stable fish oil-in-water emulsions....... hydrolyzed to degrees of hydrolysis (DH) of 3-4-5-6% with subtilisin. Sardine hydrolysates with low DH, 3% and 4%, presented the most effective peptides to physically stabilize emulsions with smaller droplet size. This implied more protein adsorbed at the interface to act as physical barrier against...

  15. Spruce galactoglucomannans inhibit the lipid oxidation in rapeseed oil-in-water emulsions (United States)

    Oil-in-water emulsions are functional and industrially valuable systems, whose large interfacial area makes them prone to deterioration, due in part to as the oxidation and oligomerization of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Spruce galactoglucomannans (GGM), wood biomacromolecules abundantly available f...

  16. Depletion - flocculation in oil-in-water emulsions using fibrillar protein assemblies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blijdenstein, T.B.J.; Veerman, C.; Linden, van der E.


    This paper shows that low concentrations of -lactoglobulin fibrils can induce depletion-flocculation in -lactoglobulin-stabilized oil-in-water emulsions. The minimum required fibril concentration for flocculation was determined experimentally for fibril lengths of about 3 and 0.1 m. The minimum fibr

  17. Rapid detection of bacteriophages in starter culture using water-in-oil-in-water emulsion microdroplets. (United States)

    Wang, Min S; Nitin, Nitin


    Bacteriophage contamination of starter culture and raw material poses a major problem in the fermentation industry. In this study, a rapid detection of lytic phage contamination in starter culture using water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) emulsion microdroplets was described. A model bacteria with varying concentrations of lytic phages were encapsulated in W/O/W emulsion microdroplets using a simple needle-in-tube setup. The detection of lytic phage contamination was accomplished in 1 h using the propidium iodide labeling of the phage-infected bacteria inside the W/O/W emulsion microdroplets. Using this approach, a detection limit of 10(2) PFU/mL of phages was achieved quantitatively, while 10(4) PFU/mL of phages could be detected qualitatively based on visual comparison of the fluorescence images. Given the simplicity and sensitivity of this approach, it is anticipated that this method can be adapted to any strains of bacteria and lytic phages that are commonly used for fermentation, and has potential for a rapid detection of lytic phage contamination in the fermentation industry.

  18. Characterization of hydrophobic flavor release profile in oil-in-water emulsions. (United States)

    Giroux, H J; Perreault, V; Britten, M


    An instrumental approach to better understand the release and persistence of flavor in oil-in-water emulsions has been developed. Emulsions were prepared with various whey protein (0.1% to 3.16%), sunflower oil (1% to 8%), and ethyl hexanoate (0% to 0.04%) concentrations. Flavor release profile in real time was measured at 37 degrees C using a specially designed glass cell connected directly to a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector. The intensity of flavor released from the emulsion stirred at a shear rate of 100 s(-1) was monitored as a function of time and data were fitted to a 1st-order kinetic equation. Maximum intensity and decay rate constant were both determined from the model and the persistence index (inversely associated to decay rate constant) was calculated. For constant aroma concentration in the emulsion, maximum intensity significantly decreased as whey protein and oil concentrations increased. For increasing aroma concentration, maximum intensity was directly proportional to the ethyl hexanoate concentration when the oil content was kept constant but leveled off when oil content was increased. Persistence of flavor significantly increased with increasing protein and oil concentrations while aroma concentrations had no effect when oil content was constant. The results showed that oil concentration had a greater influence on flavor release characteristics than protein concentration. Aroma concentration in the oil phase, rather than in the emulsion, determines the kinetics of hydrophobic flavor release. The method provides a useful tool for the rapid and reproducible measurement of flavor release profile.

  19. Partial coalescence in oil-in-water emulsions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boode, K.


    The influence of crystals on the stability against partial coalescence at rest and during Couette flow was examined in emulsions of saturated triglycerides in SDS- or caseinate solutions and in natural cream. Partial coalescence was characterized by determining changes in globule size distribution

  20. Spruce galactoglucomannans in rapeseed oil-in-water emulsions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mikkonen, Kirsi S.; Xu, Chunlin; Berton-Carabin, Claire; Schroën, Karin


    Food emulsions can be stabilized by various components, and their cost is important for the food industry that is always looking for cheaper alternatives. Consumer demand is leading food companies toward a clean label policy, and natural ingredients are the way to go. Modern forestry biorefinerie

  1. Ultra structure of oil-in-water emulsions a comparison of different microscopy- and preparation methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard; Loussert, C.; Humbel, B.M.

    We compare chemical fixation/ room temperature embedding in resin, cryofixation/ freeze substitution, and cryofixation/cryo imaging (freeze-fracture cryo-SEM) on several oil-in-water food emulsions. This is for visualization of the structure and thickness of the emulsifying layers consisting...... of the samples while ensuring at the same time that the samples are stabilized so they do not collapse when the water is removed.These protocols give an interesting view of the emulsions and the organisation of the interface layer surrounding the oil droplets. With cryofixation we could image more details...... of combining different microscopic approaches to access the ultra structure of the oil-in-water emulsions due to their complexity and instability....

  2. Strategies for Efficient Microfiltration of Oil-in-Water Emulsions (United States)

    Darvishzadeh, Tohid; Priezjev, Nikolai


    This study addresses the issue of the separation of oil droplets from water for oil spill mitigation and produced water treatment. The effective separation of oil-in-water dispersions involves high flux of water through a membrane and, at the same time, high rejection rate of oil droplets, while avoiding membrane fouling. In this study, the effects of transmembrane pressure and crossflow velocity on rejection of oil droplets by pores of different cross-section are investigated numerically by solving the Navier-Stokes equation. We found that in the absence of crossflow, the critical transmembrane pressure, which is required for the oil droplet entry into a circular pore of given surface hydrophobicity, agrees well with analytical predictions based on the Young-Laplace equation. With increasing crossflow velocity, the shape of the oil droplet residing at the pore entrance is elongated along the flow and the critical pressure increases. In the case of pores with an elliptical cross-section, the water flux through the membrane is enhanced, in agreement with simple analytical considerations. The results of the numerical simulations are used to outline strategies for the experimental design of porous filters for oil spill remediation and produced water treatment applications.

  3. Treatment of surfactant stabilized oil-in-water emulsions by means of chemical oxidation and coagulation. (United States)

    Kulik, N; Trapido, M; Veressinina, Y; Munter, R


    The model wastewater samples investigated in the current study represented oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions with small oil (diesel/black oil) and high surfactant (Anrol/Decon90) concentrations generated during washing of oil tankers or tank-wagons. Coagulation with aluminium sulphate, ferric chloride and lime milk, and chemical oxidation by hydrogen peroxide catalyzed ferrous ions were applied as traditional and advanced treatment processes, respectively. Coagulation proved more feasible for oil content removal than for COD reduction. Both COD and oil content removal, were higher if Anrol was used as a surface active agent. The comparison of wastewater samples with different oil products but the same detergent showed more effective black oil removal. Coagulation was found ineffective as a pre-treatment technology for biodegradability improvement and toxicity reduction in surfactant stabilized O/W emulsion wastewater samples. The application of Fenton chemistry showed significant COD, UV absorbance and BOD removal, but no improvement in wastewater samples biodegradability. The maximum COD reduction and oil content removal from wastewater samples was above 90%. The oxidation of wastewater containing Decon90 required higher dosages of the Fenton reagent than wastewater with Anrol. Both Anrol and Decon90 contaminated wastewater samples were found to be detoxified even after moderate hydrogen peroxide dosages had been applied in the oxidation step.

  4. Viscosity of the oil-in-water Pickering emulsion stabilized by surfactant-polymer and nanoparticle-surfactant-polymer system (United States)

    Sharma, Tushar; Kumar, G. Suresh; Chon, Bo Hyun; Sangwai, Jitendra S.


    Information on the viscosity of Pickering emulsion is required for their successful application in upstream oil and gas industry to understand their stability at extreme environment. In this work, a novel formulation of oil-in-water (o/w) Pickering emulsion stabilized using nanoparticle-surfactant-polymer (polyacrylamide) system as formulated in our earlier work (Sharma et al., Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 2014) is investigated for rheological stability at high pressure and high temperature (HPHT) conditions using a controlled-strain rheometer. The nanoparticle (SiO2 and clay) concentration is varied from 1.0 to 5.0 wt%. The results are compared with the rheological behavior of simple o/w emulsion stabilized by surfactant-polymer system. Both the emulsions exhibit non-Newtonian shear thinning behavior. A positive shift in this behavior is observed for surfactant-polymer stabilized emulsion at high pressure conditions. Yield stress is observed to increase with pressure for surfactant-polymer emulsion. In addition, increase in temperature has an adverse effect on the viscosity of emulsion stabilized by surfactant-polymer system. In case of nanoparticle-surfactant-polymer stabilized o/w emulsion system, the viscosity and yield stress are predominantly constant for varying pressure and temperature conditions. The viscosity data for both o/w emulsion systems are fitted by the Herschel-Bulkley model and found to be satisfactory. In general, the study indicates that the Pickering emulsion stabilized by nanoparticle-surfactant-polymer system shows improved and stable rheological properties as compared to conventional emulsion stabilized by surfactant-polymer system indicating their successful application for HPHT environment in upstream oil and gas industry.

  5. Physical and oxidation stability of self-emulsifying krill oil-in-water emulsions. (United States)

    Wu, Qian; Uluata, Sibel; Cui, Leqi; Wang, Chao; Li, Dongsheng; Mcclements, Julian; Decker, Eric A


    Krill oil is a unique source of omega-3 fatty acids since it is a mixture of phospholipids and triacylglycerols. Due to the presence of phospholipids, it can form oil-in-water emulsions without additional food additives. In this work, the physical stability of krill oil-in-water emulsions was determined at various pH values (3-7) and NaCl concentrations (50-1000 mM). The initial particle size ranged from 150 to 165 nm. The emulsions were the most stable at pH ≥ 5.0 and salt concentrations below 100 mM. Lipid oxidation was accelerated by iron and inhibited by Trolox and α-tocopherol. Trolox was a more effective antioxidant than α-tocopherol. α-Tocopherol had a better inhibitory effect when it was added after homogenization than when added to the lipid prior to homogenization. These results indicate that krill oil emulsions could represent a self-emulsifying, oxidatively stable source of omega-3 fatty acids that may be used in functional foods.

  6. Recovery of oil from oil-in-water emulsion using biopolymers by adsorptive method. (United States)

    Elanchezhiyan, S Sd; Sivasurian, N; Meenakshi, Sankaran


    In the present study, it is aimed to identify, a low cost sorbent for the recovery of oil from oil-in-water emulsion using biopolymers such as chitin and chitosan. Chitin has the greater adsorption capacity than chitosan due to its hydrophobic nature. The characterizations of chitin and chitosan were done using FTIR, SEM, EDAX, XRD, TGA and DSC techniques. Under batch equilibrium mode, a systematic study was performed to optimize the various equilibrium parameters viz., contact time, pH, dosage, initial concentration of oil, and temperature. The adsorption process reached equilibrium at 40 min of contact time and the percentage removal of oil was found to be higher (90%) in the acidic medium. The Freundlich and Langmuir models were applied to describe the equilibrium isotherms and the isotherm constants were calculated. Thermodynamic parameters such as ΔG°, ΔH° and ΔS° were calculated to find out the nature of the sorption mechanism. The kinetic studies were investigated with reaction-based and diffusion-based models. The suitable mechanism for the removal of oil has been established.

  7. Oil-in-Water Emulsion Exhibits Bitterness-Suppressing Effects in a Sensory Threshold Study. (United States)

    Torrico, Damir Dennis; Sae-Eaw, Amporn; Sriwattana, Sujinda; Boeneke, Charles; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon


    Little is known about how emulsion characteristics affect saltiness/bitterness perception. Sensory detection and recognition thresholds of NaCl, caffeine, and KCl in aqueous solution compared with oil-in-water emulsion systems were evaluated. For emulsions, NaCl, KCl, or caffeine were dissolved in water + emulsifier and mixed with canola oil (20% by weight). Two emulsions were prepared: emulsion 1 (viscosity = 257 cP) and emulsion 2 (viscosity = 59 cP). The forced-choice ascending concentration series method of limits (ASTM E-679-04) was used to determine detection and/or recognition thresholds at 25 °C. Group best estimate threshold (GBET) geometric means were expressed as g/100 mL. Comparing NaCl with KCl, there were no significant differences in detection GBET values for all systems (0.0197 - 0.0354). For saltiness recognition thresholds, KCl GBET values were higher compared with NaCl GBET (0.0822 - 0.1070 compared with 0.0471 - 0.0501). For NaCl and KCl, emulsion 1 and/or emulsion 2 did not significantly affect the saltiness recognition threshold compared with that of the aqueous solution. However, the bitterness recognition thresholds of caffeine and KCl in solution were significantly lower than in the emulsions (0.0242 - 0.0586 compared with 0.0754 - 0.1025). Gender generally had a marginal effect on threshold values. This study showed that, compared with the aqueous solutions, emulsions did not significantly affect the saltiness recognition threshold of NaCl and KCl, but exhibited bitterness-suppressing effects on KCl and/or caffeine. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. Interfacial behaviour of sodium stearoyllactylate (SSL) as an oil-in-water pickering emulsion stabiliser. (United States)

    Kurukji, D; Pichot, R; Spyropoulos, F; Norton, I T


    The ability of a food ingredient, sodium stearoyllactylate (SSL), to stabilise oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions against coalescence was investigated, and closely linked to its capacity to act as a Pickering stabiliser. Results showed that emulsion stability could be achieved with a relatively low SSL concentration (≥0.1 wt%), and cryogenic-scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM) visualisation of emulsion structure revealed the presence of colloidal SSL aggregates adsorbed at the oil-water interface. Surface properties of SSL could be modified by altering the size of these aggregates in water; a faster decrease in surface tension was observed when SSL dispersions were subjected to high pressure homogenisation (HPH). The rate of SSL adsorption at the sunflower oil-water interface also increased after HPH, and a higher interfacial tension (IFT) was observed with increasing SSL concentration. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) enabled a comparison of the thermal behaviour of SSL in aqueous dispersions with SSL-stabilised O/W emulsions. SSL melting enthalpy depended on emulsion interfacial area and the corresponding DSC data was used to determine the amount of SSL adsorbed at the oil-water interface. An idealised theoretical interfacial coverage calculation based on Pickering emulsion theory was in general agreement with the mass of SSL adsorbed as predicted by DSC.

  9. Demulsification of crude oil-in-water emulsions by means of fungal spores (United States)

    Vallejo-Cardona, Alba Adriana; Martínez-Palou, Rafael; Chávez-Gómez, Benjamín; García-Caloca, Graciela; Guerra-Camacho, Jairo; Cerón-Camacho, Ricardo; Reyes-Ávila, Jesús; Karamath, James Robert


    The present feature describes for the first time the application of spores from Aspergillus sp. IMPMS7 to break out crude oil-in-water emulsions (O/W). The fungal spores were isolated from marine sediments polluted with petroleum hydrocarbons. The spores exhibited the ability to destabilize different O/W emulsions prepared with medium, heavy or extra-heavy Mexican crude oils with specific gravities between 10.1 and 21.2°API. The isolated fungal spores showed a high hydrophobic power of 89.3 ± 1.9% and with 2 g of spores per liter of emulsion, the half-life for emulsion destabilization was roughly 3.5 and 0.7 h for extra-heavy and medium crude oil, respectively. Then, the kinetics of water separation and the breaking of the O/W emulsion prepared with heavy oil through a spectrofluorometric technique were studied. A decrease in the fluorescence ratio at 339 and 326 nm (I339/I326) was observed in emulsions treated with spores, which is similar to previously reported results using chemical demulsifiers. PMID:28234917

  10. Spreading of an Oil-in-Water Emulsion on a Glass Plate: Phase Inversion and Pattern Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deblais, A.; Harich, R.; Bonn, D.; Colin, A.; Kellay, H.


    Rigid blade coating of glass plates by oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by surfactants is studied. Complete surface coverage is obtained only for speeds exceeding a threshold velocity dependent on the height between the blade end and the surface. Below this threshold, the emulsion can be inverted

  11. Transport of Oil-in-Water Emulsions Designed to Deliver Reactive Iron Particles in Porous Media (United States)

    Crocker, J. J.; Berge, N. D.; Ramsburg, C. A.


    Treatment of subsurface regions contaminated with DNAPL is a significant challenge to environmental restoration. The focus of remediation has recently shifted from technologies that recover the contamination to technologies that destroy the contamination in situ. One method of in situ contaminant destruction employs nano- or submicron-size particles of reactive iron metal. Application of iron-based destruction technologies is currently limited by poor delivery of the reactive particles (i.e., lack of contact between the iron particles and the DNAPL). Encapsulation of the reactive particles within an oil-in-water emulsion is a novel approach that may facilitate delivery. The goal of this project was to investigate the transport behavior of emulsions (Tallow oil, Tween 80, and Span 80) within porous media. One-dimensional column experiments were conducted to evaluate pore-clogging when emulsions containing encapsulated reactive particles were passed through two homogeneous sands with an order of magnitude difference in intrinsic permeability. In these experiments, passing an emulsion through the sand column (4.8 cm i.d.) at a constant flow rate (0.86 mL/min) increased the hydraulic gradient by a factor of approximately three. The hydraulic gradient in each experiment was observed to stabilize after one pore volume of emulsion. Subsequent flushing with water recovered the initial hydraulic gradient. Together, these observations indicate that conductivity reductions during emulsion flushing were the result of viscosity and not the result of extensive pore-clogging. Analysis of effluent samples confirmed that there was minimal retention of the emulsion within the sand column. Results from these experiments suggest that emulsion encapsulation may be an effective means for transporting reactive iron particles within the subsurface environment.

  12. Heat-induced destabilization of oil-in-water emulsions formed from hydrolyzed whey protein. (United States)

    Euston, S R; Finnigan, S R; Hirst, R L


    The emulsifying ability, heat stability, and coalescence stability of oil-in-water emulsions prepared with whey protein of varied degrees of hydrolysis (DH), and at varied protein contents, was studied. Whey protein hydrolysates (WPH) with a DH of 4% and 10% had poorer emulsifying ability than non-hydrolyzed whey protein concentrate (WPC), but were more heat stable. Increasing DH between 10 and 27% improved emulsifying ability and further improved the heat stability of the emulsion droplets. Increasing DH from 27 to 35% led to a big decrease in both emulsifying ability and heat stability. The quiescent coalescence stability of WPH emulsions was relatively good up to a DH of 27%. Above DH 27% emulsions become highly unstable. It appears that two mechanisms of instability are at work here. At low DH heat-induced denaturation and aggregation occur. In the DH range of 4-20% heat stability increases as protein globular structure is disrupted. At a DH greater than 27% we see a change from a hydrolysis-induced increase in heat-stability to coalescence instability, with a resultant large increase in emulsion breakdown during heating.

  13. Properties and stability of oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by coconut skim milk proteins. (United States)

    Onsaard, Ekasit; Vittayanont, Manee; Srigam, Sukoncheun; McClements, D Julian


    Protein fractions were isolated from coconut: coconut skim milk protein isolate (CSPI) and coconut skim milk protein concentrate (CSPC). The ability of these proteins to form and stabilize oil-in-water emulsions was compared with that of whey protein isolate (WPI). The solubility of the proteins in CSPI, CSPC, and WPI was determined in aqueous solutions containing 0, 100, and 200 mM NaCl from pH 3 to 8. In the absence of salt, the minimum protein solubility occurred between pH 4 and 5 for CSPI and CSPC and around pH 5 for WPI. In the presence of salt (100 and 200 mM NaCl), all proteins had a higher solubility than in distilled water. Corn oil-in-water emulsions (10 wt %) with relatively small droplet diameters (d32 approximately 0.46, 1.0, and 0.5 mum for CSPI, CSPC, and WPI, respectively) could be produced using 0.2 wt % protein fraction. Emulsions were prepared with different pH values (3-8), salt concentrations (0-500 mM NaCl), and thermal treatments (30-90 degrees C for 30 min), and the mean particle diameter, particle size distribution, zeta-potential, and creaming stability were measured. Considerable droplet flocculation occurred in the emulsions near the isoelectric point of the proteins: CSPI, pH approximately 4.0; CSPC, pH approximately 4.5; WPI, pH approximately 4.8. Emulsions with monomodal particle size distributions, small mean droplet diameters, and good creaming stability could be produced at pH 7 for CSPI and WPI, whereas CSPC produced bimodal distributions. The CSPI and WPI emulsions remained relatively stable to droplet aggregation and creaming at NaCl concentrations of < or =50 and < or =100 mM, respectively. In the absence salt, the CSPI and WPI emulsions were also stable to thermal treatments at < or =80 and < or =90 degrees C for 30 min, respectively. These results suggest that CSPI may be suitable for use as an emulsifier in the food industry.

  14. Physico-chemical characteristics of oil-in-water emulsions based on whey protein-phospholipid mixtures. (United States)

    Sünder, A; Scherze, I; Muschiolik, G


    Emulsions prepared with whey proteins, phospholipids and 10% of vegetable oil were used for a model typifying dressings, coffee whitener and balanced diets. For the present study, two whey proteins (partial heat-denatured whey protein concentrate (WPC) and undenatured whey protein isolate (WPI)) in combination with different phospholipids (hydrolysed and unmodified deoiled lecithin) were chosen to investigate the interactions between proteins, phospholipids and salt (sodium chloride) in such emulsion systems. Oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions (10 wt.% sunflower oil) containing various concentrations of commercial whey proteins (1-2%), phospholipids (0.39-0.78%) and salt (0.5-1.5%) were prepared using a laboratory high pressure homogeniser under various preparation conditions. Each emulsion was characterised by droplet size, creaming rate, flow behaviour and protein load. The dynamic surface activity of the whey proteins and lecithins at the oil-water interface was determined using the drop volume method. The properties of emulsions were significantly influenced by the content of whey protein. Higher protein levels improved the emulsion behaviour (smaller oil droplets and increased stability) independent of the protein or lecithin samples used. An increase of the protein content resulted in a lower tendency for oil droplet aggregation of emulsions with WPC to occur and emulsions tending towards a Newtonian flow behaviour. The emulsification temperature was especially important using the partial heat-denatured WPC in combination with the deoiled lecithin. A higher emulsification temperature (60 degrees C) promoted oil droplet aggregation, as well as an increased emulsion consistency. Emulsions with the WPC were significantly influenced by the NaCl content, as well as the protein-salt ratio. Increasing the NaCl content led to an increase of the droplet size, higher oil droplet aggregation, as well as to a higher creaming rate of the emulsions. An increase of the lecithin

  15. Antioxidant Activity of Seaweed Extracts: In Vitro Assays, Evaluation in 5 % Fish Oil-in-Water Emulsions and Characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farvin Habebullah, Sabeena; Jacobsen, Charlotte


    In this study the antioxidant activity of absolute ethanol, 50 % ethanol and water extracts of two species of seaweeds, namely Fucus serratus and Polysiphonia fucoides, were evaluated both in in vitro assays and in 5 % fish oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions. The 50 % ethanolic extracts of P. fucoides...... showed higher antioxidant activity both in in vitro assays and in 5 % oil-in-water emulsion in the presence or absence of iron. In spite of the higher phenolic content and very good antioxidant activity in some of the in vitro assays, the absolute ethanol extracts of both the species showed a pro......-oxidative tendency in 5 % fish oil-in-water emulsion in the presence or absence of iron. In order to investigate the reason for the higher antioxidant activity of 50 % ethanolic extracts of P. fucoides, these extracts were further fractionated into polyphenol-rich, protein-rich, polysaccharide-rich and low...

  16. Effect of glycation on the flocculation behavior of protein-stabilized oil-in-water emulsions. (United States)

    Delahaije, Roy J B M; Gruppen, Harry; van Nieuwenhuijzen, Neleke H; Giuseppin, Marco L F; Wierenga, Peter A


    Glycation of proteins by the Maillard reaction is often considered as a method to prevent flocculation of protein-stabilized oil-in-water emulsions. The effect has been suggested, but not proven, to be the result of steric stabilization, and to depend on the molecular mass of the carbohydrate moiety. To test this, the stabilities of emulsions of patatin glycated to the same extent with different mono- and oligosaccharides (xylose, glucose, maltotriose, and maltopentaose) were compared under different conditions (pH and electrolyte concentration). The emulsions with non-modified patatin flocculate under conditions in which the zeta potential is decreased (around the iso-electric point and at high ionic strength). The attachment of monosaccharides (i.e., glucose) did not affect the flocculation behavior. Attachment of maltotriose and maltopentaose (Mw > 500 Da), on the other hand, provided stability against flocculation at the iso-electric point. Since the zeta potential and the interfacial properties of the emulsion droplets are not affected by the attachment of the carbohydrate moieties, this is attributed to steric stabilization. Experimentally, a critical thickness of the adsorbed layer required for steric stabilization against flocculation was found to be 2.29-3.90 nm. The theoretical determination based on the DLVO interactions with an additional steric interaction coincides with the experimental data. Hence, it can be concluded that the differences in stability against pH-induced flocculation are caused by steric interactions.

  17. Simulation of phase separation with large component ratio for oil-in-water emulsion in ultrasound field. (United States)

    Wang, Heping; Li, Xiaoguang; Li, Yanggui; Geng, Xingguo


    This paper presents an exploration for separation of oil-in-water and coalescence of oil droplets in ultrasound field via lattice Boltzmann method. Simulations were conducted by the ultrasound traveling and standing waves to enhance oil separation and trap oil droplets. The focus was to the effect of ultrasound irradiation on oil-in-water emulsion properties in the standing wave field, such as oil drop radius, morphology and growth kinetics of phase separation. Ultrasound fields were applied to irradiate the oil-in-water emulsion for getting flocculation of the oil droplets in 420kHz case, and larger dispersed oil droplets and continuous phases in 2MHz and 10MHz cases, respectively. The separated phases started to rise along the direction of sound propagation after several periods. The rising rate of the flocks was significantly greater in ultrasound case than that of oil droplets in the original emulsion, indicating that ultrasound irradiation caused a rapid increase of oil droplet quantity in the progress of the separation. The separation degree was also significantly improved with increasing frequency or irradiation time. The dataset was rearranged for growth kinetics of ultrasonic phase separation in a plot by spherically averaged structure factor and the ratio of oil and emulsion phases. The analyses recovered the two different temporal regimes: the spinodal decomposition and domain growth stages, which further quantified the morphology results. These numerical results provide guidance for setting the optimum condition for the separation of oil-in-water emulsion in the ultrasound field.

  18. Formation of oil-in-water emulsions from natural emulsifiers using spontaneous emulsification: sunflower phospholipids. (United States)

    Komaiko, Jennifer; Sastrosubroto, Ashtri; McClements, David Julian


    This study examined the possibility of producing oil-in-water emulsions using a natural surfactant (sunflower phospholipids) and a low-energy method (spontaneous emulsification). Spontaneous emulsification was carried out by titrating an organic phase (oil and phospholipid) into an aqueous phase with continuous stirring. The influence of phospholipid composition, surfactant-to-oil ratio (SOR), initial phospholipids location, storage time, phospholipid type, and preparation method was tested. The initial droplet size depended on the nature of the phospholipid used, which was attributed to differences in phospholipid composition. Droplet size decreased with increasing SOR and was smallest when the phospholipid was fully dissolved in the organic phase rather than the aqueous phase. The droplets formed using spontaneous emulsification were relatively large (d > 10 μm), and so the emulsions were unstable to gravitational separation. At low SORs (0.1 and 0.5), emulsions produced with phospholipids had a smaller particle diameter than those produced with a synthetic surfactant (Tween 80), but at a higher SOR (1.0), this trend was reversed. High-energy methods (microfluidization and sonication) formed significantly smaller droplets (d < 10 μm) than spontaneous emulsification. The results from this study show that low-energy methods could be utilized with natural surfactants for applications for which fine droplets are not essential.

  19. Oil-in-water Pickering emulsions stabilized by colloidal particles from the water-insoluble protein zein


    de Folter, J.W.J.; van Ruijven, M.W.M.; Velikov, K.


    Few fully natural and biocompatible materials are available for the effective particle-stabilization of emulsions since strict requirements, such as insolubility in both fluid phases and intermediate wettability, need to be met. In this paper, we demonstrate the first use of water-insoluble proteins, employing the corn protein zein as a representative of this family, as effective particle-stabilizers of oil-in-water emulsions of natural oils and water. For this purpose, we synthesized zein co...

  20. Effect of Processing Conditions on the Crystallization behavior and Destabilization Kinetics of Oil-in-Water Emulsions


    Martini, Silvana; Tippetts, Megan


    The objective of this research was to systematically study the effect of processing conditions on the crystallization behavior and destabilization mechanisms of oil-in-water emulsions. The effect of crystallization temperature (T c) and homogenization conditions on both thermal behavior and destabilization mechanisms were analyzed. Results show that the crystallization of lipids present in the emulsions was inhibited when compared with bulk lipids as evidenced by a lower onset and peak temper...

  1. Antioxidant Activity of Fish Protein Hydrolysates in in vitro Assays and in Oil-in-Water Emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farvin, Sabeena; Andersen, Lisa Lystbæk; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    The aim of this study was to screen different protein hydrolysates with respect to their antioxidative properties in order to select the most promising extracts for further evaluation in oil-in-water emulsions. Three fractions of protein hydrolysates (Crude, >5kDa and 5kDa, 3-5kDa and...

  2. Microchannel emulsification study on formulation and stability characterization of monodisperse oil-in-water emulsions encapsulating quercetin. (United States)

    Khalid, Nauman; Kobayashi, Isao; Neves, Marcos A; Uemura, Kunihiko; Nakajima, Mitsutoshi; Nabetani, Hiroshi


    The study used microchannel emulsification (MCE) to encapsulate quercetin in food grade oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions. A silicon microchannel plate (Model WMS 1-2) comprised of 10,300 discrete 10×104μm microslots was connected to a circular microhole with an inner diameter of 10μm. 1% (w/w) Tween 20 was used as optimized emulsifier in Milli-Q water, while 0.4mgml(-1) quercetin in different oils served as a dispersed phase. The MCE was carried by injecting the dispersed phase at 2mlh(-1). Successful emulsification was conducted below the critical dispersed phase flux, with a Sauter mean diameter of 29μm and relative span factor below 0.25. The O/W emulsions remained stable in terms of droplet coalescence at 4 and 25°C for 30days. The encapsulation efficiency of quercetin in the O/W emulsions was 80% at 4°C and 70% at 25°C during the evaluated storage period.

  3. Influence of maltodextrin dextrose equivalent value on rheological and dispersion properties of sunflower oil in water emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dokić Petar P.


    Full Text Available Effect of dextrose equivalent (DE of maltodextrin present in continuous phase on flow along with dispersion properties of sunflower oil in water emulsions has been investigated. Both, rheological and disperse characteristics of the emulsions were greatly influenced by continuous phase viscosity and thus by the DE value of maltodextrin.. The smaller DE value the greater high shear viscosity and the smaller the droplet size. Irrespective of the amount and DE value of maltodextrin used was, all the emulsions showed a pseudoplastic behaviour.

  4. Influence of morphology and polymorphic transformation of fat crystals on the freeze-thaw stability of mayonnaise-type oil-in-water emulsions. (United States)

    Ishibashi, C; Hondoh, H; Ueno, S


    This study examined the destabilization of an oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion by freeze-thawing with a focus on the influence of the morphology and polymorph of fat crystals. For a model of food emulsion, this study used a mayonnaise-type O/W emulsion containing 70wt% canola oil (canola emulsion) or soybean oil (soybean emulsion) stored at -15, -20, and -30°C. The freeze-thaw stabilities of the emulsions were evaluated by measuring the upper oil layer after freeze-thawing. The soybean emulsion kept at -20°C had the highest stability; the other emulsions were destabilized during 6h of storage. Crystallization in the emulsions was determined using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), time variation of temperature, X-ray diffraction measurement, and polarized light microscopy. DSC thermograms indicated that crystallization in emulsions occurred first in the high-melting fraction of oil, followed by water and, last, in the low-melting fraction of oil during cooling to -40°C. In the canola emulsion, the amount of fat crystals derived from the low-melting fraction of oil increased during storage at all temperatures, resulting in partial coalescence. The soybean emulsion was expected to be destabilized by polymorphic transformation (sub-α to β' and β) of fat crystals derived from the high-melting fraction during storage at -15 and -20°C. However, the soybean emulsion did not exhibit polymorphic transformation stored at -30°C, and the amount of fat crystals did not increase during freezing; thus, it was destabilized via a different mechanism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Soy protein nanoparticle aggregates as pickering stabilizers for oil-in-water emulsions. (United States)

    Liu, Fu; Tang, Chuan-He


    In recent years, there have been increasing interests in developing food-grade Pickering stabilizers, due to their potential applications in formulations of novel functional foods. The present work was to investigate the potential of soy proteins to be developed into a kind of Pickering-like stabilizer for oil-in-water emulsions. The nanoparticle aggregates of soy protein isolate (SPI) were formed by sequential treatments of heating at 95 °C for 15 min and then electrostatic screening with NaCl addition. The particle size and microstructure of these aggregates were characterized using dynamic light scattering and atomic force microscopy, indicating that the fabricated nanoparticle aggregates were ∼100 nm in size with more surface hydrophobic nature (relative to unheated SPI). The influence of particle concentration (c; 0.5-6.0%, w/w) and increasing oil fraction (ϕ; in the range 0.2-0.6) on the droplet size and coalescence and/or creaming stability of the emulsions stabilized by these nanoparticle aggregates was investigated. The results showed that, at ϕ = 0.2, increasing the c resulted in a progressive but slight decrease in droplet size, and improved the stability against coalescence and creaming; at a specific c, the creaming stability was progressively increased by increasing the ϕ, with better improvement observed at a higher c (e.g., 6.0% vs 2.0%). The improvement of creaming stability was largely associated with the formation of a gel-like network that could entrap the oil droplets within the network. The observations are generally consistent with those observed for the conventional Pickering emulsions, confirming that soy proteins could be applied as a kind of effective Pickering-like stabilizer. The finding may have important implications for the design and fabrication of protein-based emulsion formulations, and even for the development of soy protein products with some unique functions. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first work to report

  6. Influence of protein type on oxidation and digestibility of fish oil-in-water emulsions: gliadin, caseinate, and whey protein. (United States)

    Qiu, Chaoying; Zhao, Mouming; Decker, Eric Andrew; McClements, David Julian


    The influence of three surface-active proteins on the oxidative stability and lipase digestibility of emulsified ω-3 oils was examined: deamidated wheat gliadin (gliadin); sodium caseinate (CN); whey protein isolate (WPI). Gliadin and WPI were more effective at inhibiting lipid oxidation (hydroperoxides and TBARS) of fish oil-in-water emulsions than CN. Protein oxidation during storage was determined by measuring the loss of tryptophan fluorescence. The CN-emulsions exhibited the highest loss of tryptophan fluorescence during aging, as well as the highest amount of lipid oxidation. Potential reasons for the differences in oxidative stability of the emulsions with different proteins include differences in interfacial film thickness, protein chelating ability, and antioxidant amino acids profiles. During in vitro digestion, gliadin-stabilized emulsions had the lowest digestion rate of the three proteins. These results have important implications for using proteins to fabricate emulsion-based delivery systems for ω-3 oils.

  7. Nylon 6,6 Nonwoven Fabric Separates Oil Contaminates from Oil-in-Water Emulsions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan A Ortega

    Full Text Available Industrial oil spills into aquatic environments can have catastrophic environmental effects. First responders to oil spills along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico in the southern United States have used spunbond nylon fabric bags and fences to separate spilled oil and oil waste from contaminated water. Low area mass density spunbond nylon is capable of sorbing more than 16 times its mass in low viscosity crude oil and more than 26 times its mass in higher viscosity gear lube oil. Nylon bags separated more than 95% of gear lube oil contaminate from a 4.5% oil-in-water emulsion. Field testing of spunbond nylon fences by oil spill first responders has demonstrated the ability of this material to contain the oily contaminate while allowing water to flow through. We hypothesize that the effectiveness of nylon as an oil filter is due to the fact that it is both more oleophilic and more hydrophilic than other commonly used oil separation materials. The nylon traps oil droplets within the fabric or on the surface, while water droplets are free to flow through the fabric to the water on the opposite side of the fabric.

  8. Cellulose gel dispersion: From pure hydrogel suspensions to encapsulated oil-in-water emulsions. (United States)

    Napso, Sofia; Rein, Dmitry M; Khalfin, Rafail; Kleinerman, Olga; Cohen, Yachin


    Cellulose hydrogel particles were fabricated from molecularly-dissolved cellulose/IL solutions. The characteristics of the formed hydrogels (cellulose content, particles' size and porosity) were determined as a function of cellulose concentration in the precursor solutions. There is a significant change in the hydrogel structure when the initial cellulose solution concentration increases above about 7-9%wt. These changes include increase of the cellulose content in the hydrogel, and decrease in its pore size. The finest cellulose particle dispersions can be obtained using low concentration cellulose/IL solutions (cellulose concentration in dispersion less than 2%wt.) or hydrogels (concentration less than 1%wt.) in a dispersing medium consisting of IL with no more than 20%wt. water. Stable paraffin oil-in-water emulsions are achieved by mixing oil and water with cellulose/IL solutions. The optimal conditions for obtaining the finest particles (about 20μm in diameter) are attained using cellulose solutions of concentration between 0.7 and 4%wt. at temperature of 70°C and oil/cellulose mass ratios between 1 and 1.5.

  9. Nylon 6,6 Nonwoven Fabric Separates Oil Contaminates from Oil-in-Water Emulsions (United States)

    Carter, Erin S.; Ortega, Albert E.


    Industrial oil spills into aquatic environments can have catastrophic environmental effects. First responders to oil spills along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico in the southern United States have used spunbond nylon fabric bags and fences to separate spilled oil and oil waste from contaminated water. Low area mass density spunbond nylon is capable of sorbing more than 16 times its mass in low viscosity crude oil and more than 26 times its mass in higher viscosity gear lube oil. Nylon bags separated more than 95% of gear lube oil contaminate from a 4.5% oil-in-water emulsion. Field testing of spunbond nylon fences by oil spill first responders has demonstrated the ability of this material to contain the oily contaminate while allowing water to flow through. We hypothesize that the effectiveness of nylon as an oil filter is due to the fact that it is both more oleophilic and more hydrophilic than other commonly used oil separation materials. The nylon traps oil droplets within the fabric or on the surface, while water droplets are free to flow through the fabric to the water on the opposite side of the fabric. PMID:27411088


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somaris Elena Quintana


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The design, formulation and development of a new product or the improvement of a traditional product are dependent on the knowledge of the physicochemical, bromatological and rheological characteristics of that product. An important aspect of the study of food is complex dispersions such as emulsions. For preparation and formulation of emulsions, surfactants like protein are used to constitute a molecular barrier that helps emulsions to form and stabilizes dispersions. The aim of this work was to standardize an oil in water (O/W food emulsion with Arencas (Triportheus magdalenae isolated protein. For this procedure, a physicochemical and bromatological characterization of fish muscle has been done, in which a protein percentage of 17.85±0.12 has been achieved. This has allowed for the recovery of 72-90% of isolated protein to be used in food products such as salad dressing, mayonnaise, spreads, dressings and other products. Stable emulsions with adequate rheological and microstructural characteristics were prepared using 40% w/w palm oil and different concentrates of isolated protein from Arenca, between 2.5 and 3.5% w/w. Therefore, we have obtained an oil in water (O/W food emulsion with isolated proteins from Arenca that presented non-Newtonian fluid type pseudoplasticity and homogeneous distribution of droplets.

  11. Stabilization mechanisms of oil-in-water emulsions by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (United States)

    Moreira, Thais Caldas Paiva; da Silva, Vanessa Martins; Gombert, Andreas Karoly; da Cunha, Rosiane Lopes


    A multiphase system is commonly formed during the oil production by microbial route, which can lead to stable emulsions hindering product recovery. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the mechanisms of emulsion stabilization by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in order to contribute with processes development of oil production by fermentation. A model system using hexadecane as oil phase and yeast suspension as aqueous phase was used to prepare O/W emulsions. The yeast was subjected to different treatments as inactivation (autoclaving) and washing before to be resuspended in water. The washing water (water from the first washing) and suspension of commercial yeast (active) were also used as aqueous phase. After 24h of preparation, the emulsions separated into three phases: top (cream), intermediate, and bottom phase. The top or cream phase was a concentrated emulsion that kept stable during seven days, except for those prepared from washed yeast that were stable only for a short period of time. Emulsions prepared with washed yeast showed higher cell adhesion to the droplets interface, which implied in a higher amount of yeast into the cream phase in comparison to other formulations. Therefore, yeast cells adhesion plays a role on emulsion stability, but the greater contribution was provided by cell material dispersed into the aqueous phase, regardless of cell viability.

  12. Macro-cellular silica foams: synthesis during the natural creaming process of an oil-in-water emulsion. (United States)

    Sen, T; Tiddy, G J T; Casci, J L; Anderson, M W


    The room-temperature synthesis of a macro-mesoporous silica material during the natural creaming process of an oil-in-water emulsion is reported. The material has 3-dimensional interconnected macropores with a strut-like structure similar to meso-cellular silica foams with mesoporous walls of worm-hole structure. The material has very high surface area (approximately 800 m2 g(-1)) with narrow mesopore size distribution.

  13. Engineering interfacial properties by anionic surfactant-chitosan complexes to improve stability of oil-in-water emulsions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zinoviadou, K.; Scholten, E.; Moschakis, T.; Biliaderis, C.G.


    Oil-in-water emulsions (10% w/w n-tetradecane) were prepared at pH = 5.7 by using, as surface active agents, electrostatically formed complexes of sodium stearoyl lactylate (SSL) at a concentration of 0.4% (w/w) and chitosan (CH) in a concentration range between 0 and 0.48% w/w. The use of complexes

  14. Boundary lubrication of stainless steel and CoCrMo alloy based on phosphorous and boron compounds in oil-in-water emulsion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, J.; Zeng, X.; Ren, T.; Heide, E. van der


    Emulsion lubrication is widely used in metal forming operations and has potential applications in the biomedical field, yet the emulsion lubrication mechanism is not well understood. This work explores the possibilities of three different oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions containing dibutyl

  15. Boundary lubrication of stainless steel and CoCrMo alloy based on phosphorous and boron compounds in oil-in-water emulsion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, J.; Zeng, X.; Ren, T.; Heide, E. van der


    Emulsion lubrication is widely used in metal forming operations and has potential applications in the biomedical field, yet the emulsion lubrication mechanism is not well understood. This work explores the possibilities of three different oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions containing dibutyl octadecylphos

  16. Effects of Several Natural Macromolecules on the Stability and Controlled Release Properties of Water-in-Oil-in-Water Emulsions. (United States)

    Li, Jinlong; Shi, Yiheng; Zhu, Yunping; Teng, Chao; Li, Xiuting


    Water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) emulsions are effective vehicles for embedding application of active compounds but limited by their thermodynamic instability and rapid release properties. The present study added bovine serum albumin, whey protein isolate, whey protein hydrolysate, sodium caseinate, carboxymethylcellulose sodium, fish gelatin, apple pectin, gum arabic, ι-carrageenan, and hydroxypropyl chitosan separately to the internal or external aqueous phase to investigate their effects on the physical stabilities and controlled release properties of W/O/W emulsions. The effects of the natural macromolecules in the internal and external aqueous phases were different and depended upon the macromolecule structure and its mass fraction. The addition of the natural macromolecule strengthened the interfaces of emulsions, which improved the physical stability. The natural macromolecules that improved the stability often did not improve controlled release. Therefore, the balance between these properties needs to be considered when adding natural macromolecules to a W/O/W emulsion.

  17. Selective retardation of perfume oil evaporation from oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by either surfactant or nanoparticles. (United States)

    Binks, Bernard P; Fletcher, Paul D I; Holt, Benjamin L; Beaussoubre, Pascal; Wong, Kenneth


    We have used dynamic headspace analysis to investigate the evaporation rates of perfume oils from stirred oil-in-water emulsions into a flowing gas stream. We compare the behavior of an oil of low water solubility (limonene) and one of high water solubility (benzyl acetate). It is shown how the evaporation of an oil of low water solubility is selectively retarded and how the retardation effect depends on the oil volume fraction in the emulsion. We compare how the evaporation retardation depends on the nature of the adsorbed film stabilizing the emulsion. Surfactant films are less effective than adsorbed films of nanoparticles, and the retardation can be further enhanced by compression of the adsorbed nanoparticle films by preshrinking the emulsion drops.

  18. Manufacturing techniques and excipients used during the formulation of oil-in-water type nanosized emulsions for medical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunmugaperumal Tamilvanan


    Full Text Available Medically, the oil-in-water nanosized emulsions are used mainly as delivery carriers for lipophilic drug molecules which show therapeutic activity when administered via parenteral, ocular and transdermal routes. To extract multifunctional activities, the nanosized emulsions containing neutral, anionic and cationic charges over dispersed oil droplets are designed with the help of variety of excipients especially emulsifiers. This type of decoration on the dispersed oil droplet’s surface allows the nanosized emulsions to be useful for drug delivery and/or drug targeting to otherwise inaccessible internal organs of human body. The aim of this review is to address the various manufacturing techniques and excipients used during the formulation of the multifunctional o/w nanosized emulsions for medical applications.

  19. Treatment of a waste oil-in-water emulsion from a copper-rolling process by ultrafiltration and vacuum evaporation. (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Gemma; Lobo, Alberto; Benito, José M; Coca, José; Pazos, Carmen


    A process is proposed for the treatment of a waste oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion generated in an industrial copper-rolling operation. The use of demulsifier agents improves the subsequent treatment by techniques such as ultrafiltration (UF) or evaporation. The effluent COD is reduced up to 50% when the O/W emulsion is treated by UF using a flat 30 nm TiO(2) ceramic membrane (ΔP = 0.1 MPa) and up to 70% when it is treated by vacuum evaporation, after an emulsion destabilization pretreatment in both cases. Increases in the UF permeate flux and in the evaporation rate are observed when a chemical demulsifier is used in the pretreatment step. A combined process consisting of destabilization/settling, UF, and vacuum evaporation can yield a very high-quality aqueous effluent that could be used for process cooling or emulsion reformulation.

  20. Factor affecting the properties of water-in-oil-in-water emulsions for encapsulation of minerals and vitamins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nattapong Prichapan


    Full Text Available The direct fortification of minerals and vitamins into food may induce chemical degradation, change the level of bioavailability or decrease the sensory quality of food products. The strategy to solve these problems is encapsulation technology. Numerous investigations described the use of water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W emulsions as encapsulation system. The properties and encapsulation efficiency of W/O/W emulsions are influenced by emulsion components, the emulsification processes, and environmental conditions. The recently published results of research done on the factors affecting the properties of W/O/W emulsions for encapsulation of minerals and vitamins including form and concentration of core materials, concentration of inner water phase and lipophilic emulsifier, type and concentration of oil phase, type and concentration of hydrophilic emulsifier and stabilizer and the pH of the outer water phase have been reviewed in this article.

  1. Influence of environmental conditions on the stability of oil in water emulsions containing droplets stabilized by lecithin-chitosan membranes. (United States)

    Ogawa, Satoshi; Decker, Eric A; McClements, D Julian


    Oil-in-water emulsions containing cationic droplets stabilized by lecithin-chitosan membranes were produced using a two-stage process. A primary emulsion containing anionic lecithin-coated droplets was prepared by homogenizing oil and emulsifier solution using a high-pressure valve homogenizer (5 wt % corn oil, 1 wt % lecithin, 100 mM acetic acid, pH 3.0). A secondary emulsion containing cationic lecithin-chitosan-coated droplets was formed by diluting the primary emulsion with an aqueous chitosan solution (1 wt % corn oil, 0.2 wt % lecithin, 100 mM acetic acid, and 0.036 wt % chitosan). The stabilities of the primary and secondary emulsions with the same oil concentration to thermal processing, freeze-thaw cycling, high calcium chloride concentrations, and lipid oxidation were determined. The results showed that the secondary emulsions had better stability to droplet aggregation during thermal processing (30-90 degrees C for 30 min), freeze-thaw cycling (-10 degrees C for 22 h/30 degrees C for 2 h), and high calcium chloride contents (emulsions. The interfacial engineering technology used in this study could lead to the creation of food emulsions with improved stability to environmental stresses.

  2. Characterization of Whey Protein Oil-In-Water Emulsions with Different Oil Concentrations Stabilized by Ultra-High Pressure Homogenization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essam Hebishy


    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of ultra-high-pressure homogenization (UHPH: 100 or 200 MPa at 25 °C, in comparison to colloid mill (CM: 5000 rpm at 20 °C and conventional homogenization (CH: 15 MPa at 60 °C, on the stability of oil-in-water emulsions with different oil concentrations (10, 30 or 50 g/100 g emulsified by whey protein isolate (4 g/100 g was investigated. Emulsions were characterized for their microstructure, rheological properties, surface protein concentration (SPC, stability to creaming and oxidative stability under light (2000 lux/m2. UHPH produced emulsions containing lipid droplets in the sub-micron range (100–200 nm and with low protein concentrations on droplet surfaces. Droplet size (d3.2, µm was increased in CH and UHPH emulsions by increasing the oil concentration. CM emulsions exhibited Newtonian flow behaviour at all oil concentrations studied; however, the rheological behaviour of CH and UHPH emulsions varied from Newtonian flow (n ≈ 1 to shear-thinning (n ˂ 1 and thixotropic behaviour in emulsions containing 50% oil. This was confirmed by the non-significant differences in the d4.3 (µm value between the top and bottom of emulsions in tubes left at room temperature for nine days and also by a low migration velocity measured with a Turbiscan LAB instrument. UHPH emulsions showed significantly lower oxidation rates during 10 days storage in comparison to CM and CH emulsions as confirmed by hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS. UHPH emulsions treated at 100 MPa were less oxidized than those treated at 200 MPa. The results from this study suggest that UHPH treatment generates emulsions that have a higher stability to creaming and lipid oxidation compared to colloid mill and conventional treatments.

  3. Stability assessment of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) oil-in-water beverage emulsion formulated with acacia and xanthan gums. (United States)

    Nikbakht Nasrabadi, Maryam; Goli, Sayed Amir Hossein; Nasirpour, Ali


    The development of a conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) oil-in-water beverage emulsion containing acacia gum (AG) and xanthan gum (XG) was investigated. D-optimal design and response surface method was used and 10% w/w AG, 3.5% w/w CLA and 0.3% w/w XG was introduced as the optimum formula. Afterward the effect of storage time on the physicochemical properties of selected formulation including specific gravity, turbidity, viscosity, average droplet size, span, size index, creaming index, oxidation measurements and stability in its diluted form, were determined. Findings revealed that the size of oil droplets increased after six weeks and resulted in instability of the emulsion concentrate. Peroxide value increased until 21 days and then decreased dramatically, whereas TBA and Totox values began to increase after this time. Turbidity loss rate was low demonstrating the good stability of the diluted emulsion. The results revealed that it is possible to produce a stable CLA oil-in-water emulsion for using in beverages.

  4. Co-delivery of hydrophobic curcumin and hydrophilic catechin by a water-in-oil-in-water double emulsion. (United States)

    Aditya, N P; Aditya, Sheetal; Yang, Hanjoo; Kim, Hye Won; Park, Sung Ook; Ko, Sanghoon


    Curcumin and catechin are naturally occurring phytochemicals with extreme sensitivity to oxidation and low bioavailability. We fabricated a water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) double emulsion encapsulating hydrophilic catechin and hydrophobic curcumin simultaneously. The co-loaded emulsion was fabricated using a two-step emulsification method, and its physicochemical properties were characterised. Volume-weighted mean size (d43) of emulsion droplets was ≈3.88 μm for blank emulsions, whereas it decreased to ≈2.8-3.0 μm for curcumin and/or catechin-loaded emulsions, which was attributed to their capacity to act as emulsifiers. High entrapment efficiency was observed for curcumin and/or catechin-loaded emulsions (88-97%). Encapsulation of catechin and curcumin within an emulsion increased their stability significantly in simulated gastrointestinal fluid, which resulted in a four-fold augmentation in their bioaccessibility compared to that of freely suspended curcumin and catechin solutions. Co-loading of curcumin and catechin did not have adverse effects on either compound's stability or bioaccessibility.

  5. Interactions between iron, phenolic compounds, emulsifiers, and pH in omega-3-enriched oil-in-water emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Haahr, Anne-Mette; Becker, E.M.


    in a 10% oil-in-water emulsion. The emulsifiers tested were Tween 80 and Citrem, and the phenolic compounds were naringenin, rutin, caffeic acid, and coumaric acid. Lipid oxidation was evaluated at all levels, that is, formation of radicals (ESR), hydroperoxides (PV), and secondary volatile oxidation......The behavior of antioxidants in emulsions is influenced by several factors such as pH and emulsifier type. This study aimed to evaluate the interaction between selected food emulsifiers, phenolic compounds, iron, and pH and their effect on the oxidative stability of n-3 polyunsaturated lipids...... significant effects, as caffeic acid was found to be prooxidative irrespective of pH, emulsifier type, and presence of iron, although the degrees of lipid oxidation were different at the different experimental conditions. The other evaluated phenols were prooxidative at pH 3 in Citrem-stabilized emulsions...

  6. Enhancement of the antimicrobial properties of bacteriophage-K via stabilization using oil-in-water nano-emulsions. (United States)

    Esteban, Patricia Perez; Alves, Diana R; Enright, Mark C; Bean, Jessica E; Gaudion, Alison; Jenkins, A T A; Young, Amber E R; Arnot, Tom C


    Bacteriophage therapy is a promising new treatment that may help overcome the threat posed by antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria, which are increasingly identified in hospitalized patients. The development of biocompatible and sustainable vehicles for incorporation of viable bacterial viruses into a wound dressing is a promising alternative. This article evaluates the antimicrobial efficacy of Bacteriophage K against Staphylococcus aureus over time, when stabilized and delivered via an oil-in-water nano-emulsion. Nano-emulsions were formulated via thermal phase inversion emulsification, and then bacterial growth was challenged with either native emulsion, or emulsion combined with Bacteriophage K. Bacteriophage infectivity, and the influence of storage time of the preparation, were assessed by turbidity measurements of bacterial samples. Newly prepared Bacteriophage K/nano-emulsion formulations have greater antimicrobial activity than freely suspended bacteriophage. The phage-loaded emulsions caused rapid and complete bacterial death of three different strains of S. aureus. The same effect was observed for preparations that were either stored at room temperature (18-20°C), or chilled at 4°C, for up to 10 days of storage. A response surface design of experiments was used to gain insight on the relative effects of the emulsion formulation on bacterial growth and phage lytic activity. More diluted emulsions had a less significant effect on bacterial growth, and diluted bacteriophage-emulsion preparations yielded greater antibacterial activity. The enhancement of bacteriophage activity when delivered via nano-emulsions is yet to be reported. This prompts further investigation into the use of these formulations for the development of novel anti-microbial wound management strategies. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  7. Volatile composition of sunflower oil-in-water emulsions during initial lipid oxidation: influence of pH. (United States)

    van Ruth, S M; Roozen, J P; Posthumus, M A; Jansen, F J


    The formation of odor active compounds resulting from initial lipid oxidation in sunflower oil-in-water emulsions was examined during storage at 60 degrees C. The emulsions differed in initial pH, that is, pH 3 and 6. The volatile compounds were isolated under mouth conditions and were analyzed by gas chromatography/sniffing port analysis. The lipid oxidation rate was followed by the formation of conjugated hydroperoxide dienes and headspace hexanal. The initial pH affected the lipid oxidation rate in the emulsions: the formation of conjugated diene hydroperoxides and the hexanal concentration in the static headspace were increased at pH 6. Pentanal, hexanal, 3-pentanol, and 1-octen-3-one showed odor activity in the emulsions after 6 days of storage, for both pH 3 and 6. Larger amounts of odor active compounds were released from the pH 6 emulsion with extended storage. It was shown that this increased release at pH 6 was not due to increased volatility because an increase in pH diminished the static headspace concentrations of added compounds in emulsions.

  8. Investigations into aggregate formation with oppositely charged oil-in-water emulsions at different pH values. (United States)

    Maier, Christiane; Zeeb, Benjamin; Weiss, Jochen


    The pH-dependent formation and stability of food-grade heteroaggregates from oppositely charged oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions was investigated. After screening suitable emulsifiers, 10% (w/w) oil in-water emulsions (d32≈1 μm) were prepared at pH 3-7 using a positively charged emulsifier (Na-lauroyl-l-arginine ethyl ester; LAE) and four negatively charged ones (citric esters of mono- and diglycerides, soy lecithin, sugar beet pectin, and Quillaja saponin). The oppositely charged emulsions were then combined at constant pH values at a volume flow rate ratio of 1:1. Emulsions and heteroaggregates were characterized by their surface charge, particle size distribution and microstructure using dynamic and static light scattering as well as confocal laser scanning microscopy. The emulsifier type was found to greatly influence the type of heteroaggregates formed, as well as the pH value, specifically in combined LAE/Quillaja saponin emulsions. Larger aggregates particularly were formed with increasing pH values (2.71±1.21 to 46.53±4.30 μm from pH 3 to 7, respectively), while LAE/pectin aggregates appeared not to be affected by pH over the full pH range investigated (3.80±2.89 to 3.94±2.78 μm from pH 3 to 7, respectively). Our study thus provides valuable first insights into the mechanism of the formation of food-grade heteroaggregates for later use in food systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Surface Film Adsorption and Lubricity of Soybean Oil In-Water Emulsion and Triblock Copolymer Aqueous Solution: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Taheri


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the surface film adsorption and lubricity of two different types of potential environmentally friendly cold metal forming lubricants: soybean vegetable oil in water VO/W emulsions and triblock copolymer aqueous solutions. The lubricants have different visual appearance, surface film adsorption characteristic, lubricity and surface cleaning behaviour. The effects of concentration, temperature and emulsification ultrasonic energy (for VO/W emulsion are studied. The result shows that the soybean VO/W emulsions have stronger adsorption, superior lubricity and anti-wear property compared to the copolymer solutions. The effect of temperature is investigated at 30 °C and 65 °C which are below and above cloud point of the aqueous copolymer solutions. Both lubricants show improved friction and anti-wear property at 65 °C. However, tenacious residual film remained on the discs surface after surface cleaning indicates lower cleanability of the soybean VO/W emulsions compared to the copolymer solutions, postulating the need for extra post-processing cleaning operations after cold forming process with VO/W emulsion lubricant.

  10. New oil-in-water magnetic emulsion as contrast agent for in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). (United States)

    Ahmed, Naveed; Jaafar-Maalej, Chiraz; Eissa, Mohamed Mahmoud; Fessi, Hatem; Elaissari, Abdelhamid


    Nowadays, bio-imaging techniques are widely applied for the diagnosis of various diseased/tumoral tissues in the body using different contrast agents. Accordingly, the advancement in bionanotechnology research is enhanced in this regard. Among contrast agents used, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were developed by many researchers and applied for in vive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this study, a new oil-in-water magnetic emulsion was used as contrast agent in MRI, after being characterized in terms of particle size, iron oxide content, magnetic properties and colloidal stability using dynamic light scattering (DLS), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and zeta potential measurement techniques, respectively. The hydrodynamic size and magnetic content of the magnetic colloidal particles were found to be 250 nm and 75 wt%, respectively. In addition, the used magnetic emulsion possesses superparamagentic properties and high colloidal stability in aqueous medium. Then, the magnetic emulsion was highly diluted and administered intravenously to the Sprague dawley rats to be tested as contrast agent for in vivo MRI. In this preliminary study, MRI images showed significant enhancement in contrast, especially for T2 (relaxation time) contrast enhancement, indicating the distribution of magnetic colloidal nanoparticles within organs, like liver, spleen and kidneys of the Sprague dawley rats. In addition, it was found that 500 microL of the highly diluted magnetic emulsion (0.05 wt%) was found adequate for MRI analysis. This seems to be useful for further investigations especially in theranostic applications of magnetic emulsion.

  11. Fouling reduction by ozone-enhanced backwashing process in ultrafiltration of petroleum-based oil in water emulsion (United States)

    Aryanti, Nita; Prihatiningtyas, Indah; Kusworo, Tutuk Djoko


    Ultrafiltration membrane has been successfully applied for oily waste water treatment. However, one significant drawback of membrane technology is fouling which is responsible for permeate flux decline as well as reducing membrane performance. One method commonly used to reduce fouling is a backwashing process. The backwashing is carried out by a push of reversed flow from permeate side to the feed side of a membrane to remove fouling on the membrane pore and release fouling release fouling layer on the external side. However, for adsorptive fouling, the backwashing process was not effective. On the other hand, Ozone demonstrated great performance for reducing organics fouling. Hence this research was focused on backwashing process with ozone for removing fouling due to ultrafiltration of petroleum based oil emulsion. Gasoline and diesel oil were selected as dispersed phase, while as continuous phase was water added with Tween 80 as a surfactant. This research found that the Ozone backwashing was effective to improve flux recovery. In ultrafiltration of gasoline emulsion, the flux recovery after Ozone backwashing was in the range of 42-74%. For ultrafiltration of diesel oil emulsion, the permeate flux recovery was about 35-84%. In addition, foulant deposition was proposed and predicting that foulant deposition for ultrafiltration of gasoline-in-water emulsion was surfactant as the top layer and the oil was underneath the surfactant. On the other hand, for ultrafiltration of diesel oil-in-water emulsion, the oil was predicted as a top layer above the surfactant foulant.

  12. Oil-in-water emulsions characterization by laser granulometry and impact on γ-decalactone production in Yarrowia lipolytica. (United States)

    Gomes, Nelma; Waché, Yves; Teixeira, José A; Belo, Isabel


    Oil-in-water emulsions composed of methyl ricinoleate (MR) or castor oil (CO) as the organic phase, stabilized by Tween 80, are in the basis of the biotechnological production of γ-decalactone. Yarrowia lipolytica was used due to its ability to grow on hydrophobic substrates and to carry out the biotransformation. The characterization of oil droplets size distribution by laser granulometry was performed under different oil concentrations. The impact of the presence of cells on droplets size was also analyzed as well as the relevance of washing inoculum cells. Furthermore, the granulometric characterization of the emulsions was related with γ-decalactone production and it was observed that, in the presence of non-washed cells, the smaller droplets disappeared, using both oils, which increased γ-decalactone concentration. This suggests that the access of cells to the substrate occurs by their adhesion around larger oil droplets.

  13. Effect of Colloidal Interactions on the Rate of Interdroplet Heterogeneous Nucleation in Oil-in-Water Emulsions (United States)

    McClements; Dungan


    Pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance was used to monitor the crystallization of supercooled liquid droplets in 30 wt% n-hexadecane oil-in-water emulsions at 6°C. Crystallization was induced in the liquid droplets when solid droplets of the same material were present. The rate of induced crystallization increased as the concentration of free non-ionic surfactant (polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate) in the aqueous phase increased from 0 to 14 wt%. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements indicated that free surfactant had no effect on crystal nucleation of individual droplets. These results indicate that the surfactant enhances induced crystallization by altering colloidal interactions between droplets. Creaming measurements showed that flocculation was enhanced in emulsions when the free surfactant concentration was increased. We propose that the presence of free surfactant micelles increases the attraction between droplets because of an osmotic effect, and this attraction facilitates the ability of solid crystals from one droplet to induce crystallization in an adjacent liquid droplet.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of chitosan/Mg-Al layered double hydroxide composite for the removal of oil particles from oil-in-water emulsion. (United States)

    Elanchezhiyan, S Sd; Meenakshi, Sankaran


    The recovery of oil from oil-in-water emulsion has been investigated using chitosan/magnesium-aluminium layered double hydroxide hybrid composite (CS-LDHCs) by a single co-precipitation method. Resulting better adsorption efficiency of CS-LDHCs could be observed, indicating the synthesized material was effective to adsorb oil particles from oil-in-water emulsion at acidic pH (pH 3.0) than as-prepared LDH and raw chitosan. The enhancement of adsorption properties by CS-LDHCs material were attributed to the high content of LDH in chitosan, which makes the material more effective towards immobilization of oily particles. Batch experiment study has been elucidated by varying different physicochemical parameters such as time, pH, dose, initial oil concentration and temperature. The as-synthesized CS-LDHCs was characterized by various spectro analytical techniques viz., FTIR, SEM with EDAX, XRD, TGA and DSC analysis. To find out the best fit for the sorption process, the obtained adsorption equilibrium data was explained with Freundlich, Langmuir, Dubinin-Radushkevich and Tempkin isotherm models. The mechanism of adsorption process was demonstrated by calculating ΔG°, ΔH° and ΔS° values from thermodynamic parameters in order to understand the nature of sorption process. The schematic representation of oil removal using CS-LDHCs was explored in detail. This work provides an apparent proposal for the growth of oil removal technology.

  15. Systemically administered gp100 encoding DNA vaccine for melanoma using water-in-oil-in-water multiple emulsion delivery systems. (United States)

    Kalariya, Mayurkumar; Amiji, Mansoor M


    The purpose of this study was to develop a water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) multiple emulsions-based vaccine delivery system for plasmid DNA encoding the gp100 peptide antigen for melanoma immunotherapy. The gp100 encoding plasmid DNA was encapsulated in the inner-most aqueous phase of squalane oil containing W/O/W multiple emulsions using a two-step emulsification method. In vitro transfection ability of the encapsulated plasmid DNA was investigated in murine dendritic cells by transgene expression analysis using fluorescence microscopy and ELISA methods. Prophylactic immunization using the W/O/W multiple emulsions encapsulated the gp100 encoding plasmid DNA vaccine significantly reduced tumor volume in C57BL/6 mice during subsequent B16-F10 tumor challenge. In addition, serum Th1 cytokine levels and immuno-histochemistry of excised tumor tissues indicated activation of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes mediated anti-tumor immunity causing tumor growth suppression. The W/O/W multiple emulsions-based vaccine delivery system efficiently delivers the gp100 plasmid DNA to induce cell-mediated anti-tumor immunity.

  16. An injectable hybrid nanoparticle-in-oil-in-water submicron emulsion for improved delivery of poorly soluble drugs (United States)

    Wang, Shuo; Wang, Hua; Liang, Wenquan; Huang, Yongzhuo


    Poor drugability problems are commonly seen in a class of chemical entities with poor solubility in water and oil, and moreover, physicochemical instability of these compounds poses extra challenges in design of dosage forms. Such problems contribute a significant high failure rate in new drug development. A hybrid nanoparicle-in-oil-in-water (N/O/W) submicron emulsion was proposed for improved delivery of poorly soluble and unstable drugs (e.g., dihydroartemisinin (DHA)). DHA is known for its potent antimalarial effect and antitumor activity. However, its insolubility and instability impose big challenges for formulations, and so far, no injectable dosage forms are clinically available yet. Therefore, an injectable DHA N/O/W system was developed. Unlike other widely-explored systems (e.g., liposomes, micelles, and emulsions), in which low drug load and only short-term storage are often found, the hybrid submicron emulsion possesses three-fold higher drug-loading capacity than the conventional O/W emulsion. Of note, it can be manufactured into a freeze-drying form and can render its storage up to 6 months even in room temperature. The in vivo studies demonstrated that the PK profiles were significantly improved, and this injectable system was effective in suppressing tumor growth. The strategy provides a useful solution to effective delivery of such a class of drugs.

  17. Physical and oxidative stability of functional olive oil-in-water emulsions formulated using olive mill wastewater biophenols and whey proteins. (United States)

    Caporaso, Nicola; Genovese, Alessandro; Burke, Róisín; Barry-Ryan, Catherine; Sacchi, Raffaele


    The present paper reports on the use of phenolic extracts from olive mill wastewater (OMW) in model olive oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions to study their effect on their physical and chemical stability. Spray-dried OMW polyphenols were added to a model 20% olive O/W emulsion stabilized with whey protein isolate (WPI) and xanthan gum, in phosphate buffer solution at pH 7. The emulsions were characterised under accelerated storage conditions (40 °C) up to 30 days. Physical stability was evaluated by analysing the creaming rate, mean particle size distribution and mean droplet size, viscosity and rheological properties, while chemical stability was assessed through the measurement of primary and secondary oxidation products. The rheological behaviour and creaming stability of the emulsions were dramatically improved by using xanthan gum, whereas the concentration of WPI and the addition of encapsulated OMW phenolics did not result in a significant improvement of physical stability. The formation of oxidation products was higher when higher concentrations of encapsulated polyphenols were used, indicating a possible binding with the WPI added in the system as a natural emulsifier. This paper might help in solving the issue of using the olive mill wastewater from olive processing in formulating functional food products with high antioxidant activity and improved health properties.

  18. Novel preparation method for sustained-release PLGA microspheres using water-in-oil-in-hydrophilic-oil-in-water emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong X


    Full Text Available Xiaoyun Hong,1,2,* Liangming Wei,3,* Liuqing Ma,2 Yinghui Chen,4 Zhenguo Liu,1 Weien Yuan2,* 1Department of Neurology, Xinhua Hospital affiliated to Shanghai JiaoTong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 2School of Pharmacy, Shanghai JiaoTong University, 3Key Laboratory for Thin Film and Microfabrication Technology, Ministry of Education, Research Institute of Micro/Nanometer Science and Technology, Shanghai JiaoTong University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 4Department of Neurology, Jinshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: An increasing number of drugs are needing improved formulations to optimize patient compliance because of their short half-lives in blood. Sustained-release formulations of drugs are often required for long-term efficacy, and microspheres are among the most popular ones. When drugs are encapsulated into microsphere formulations, different methods of preparation need to be used according to specific clinical requirements and the differing physicochemical characteristics of individual drugs. In this work, we developed a novel method for sustained-release drug delivery using a water-in-oil-in-hydrophilic oil-in-water (w/o/oh/w emulsion to encapsulate a drug into poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA microspheres. Different effects were achieved by varying the proportions and concentrations of hydrophilic oil and PLGA. Scanning electron and optical microscopic images showed the surfaces of the microspheres to be smooth and that their morphology was spherical. Microspheres prepared using the w/o/oh/w emulsion were able to load protein efficiently and had sustained-release properties. These results indicate that the above-mentioned method might be useful for developing sustained-release microsphere formulations in the future. Keywords: protein, microspheres, water-in-oil-in-hydrophilic oil-in-water

  19. Fabrication of Silica Nanospheres Coated Membranes: towards the Effective Separation of Oil-in-Water Emulsion in Extremely Acidic and Concentrated Salty Environments. (United States)

    Chen, Yuning; Liu, Na; Cao, Yingze; Lin, Xin; Xu, Liangxin; Zhang, Weifeng; Wei, Yen; Feng, Lin


    A superhydrophilic and underwater superoleophobic surface is fabricated by simply coating silica nanospheres onto a glass fiber membrane through a sol-gel process. Such membrane has a complex framework with micro and nano structures covering and presents a high efficiency (more than 98%) of oil-in-water emulsion separation under harsh environments including strong acidic and concentrated salty conditions. This membrane also possesses outstanding stability since no obvious decline in efficiency is observed after different kinds of oil-in-water emulsions separation, which provides it candidate for comprehensive applicability.

  20. Fabrication of Silica Nanospheres Coated Membranes: towards the Effective Separation of Oil-in-Water Emulsion in Extremely Acidic and Concentrated Salty Environments (United States)

    Chen, Yuning; Liu, Na; Cao, Yingze; Lin, Xin; Xu, Liangxin; Zhang, Weifeng; Wei, Yen; Feng, Lin


    A superhydrophilic and underwater superoleophobic surface is fabricated by simply coating silica nanospheres onto a glass fiber membrane through a sol-gel process. Such membrane has a complex framework with micro and nano structures covering and presents a high efficiency (more than 98%) of oil-in-water emulsion separation under harsh environments including strong acidic and concentrated salty conditions. This membrane also possesses outstanding stability since no obvious decline in efficiency is observed after different kinds of oil-in-water emulsions separation, which provides it candidate for comprehensive applicability.

  1. Stabilization of oil-in-water emulsions by enzyme catalyzed oxidative gelation of sugar beet pectin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abang Zaidel, Dayang Norulfairuz; Chronakis, Ioannis S.; Meyer, Anne S.


    Enzyme catalyzed oxidative cross-linking of feruloyl groups can promote gelation of sugar beet pectin (SBP). It is uncertain how the enzyme kinetics of this cross-linking reaction are affected in emulsion systems and whether the gelation affects emulsion stability. In this study, SBP (2.5% w...

  2. Antioxidant Efficacies of Rutin and Rutin Esters in Bulk Oil and Oil-in-Water Emulsion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lue, Bena-Marie; Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Jacobsen, Charlotte


    concentrations (25 and 200 µM) was assessed in bulk oil and in an o/w emulsion system without and with iron addition. All evaluated compounds revealed antioxidant effects. However, rutin and BHT were the most efficient antioxidants in bulk oil followed by rutin palmitate, whereas rutin laurate acted as either...... an antioxidant or a prooxidant at low and high concentrations (25 and 200 µM), respectively. In emulsions, rutin and BHT in high concentration (200 µM) were more efficient than rutin esters. Thus, alcylation of rutin with medium chain fatty acids did not improve the antioxidant ability, neither in bulk oil nor...... in o/w emulsion. Interestingly, rutin had stronger antioxidative effect than BHT upon iron addition to the emulsion. Practical application: According to the antioxidant hypothesis the polar paradox more amphiphilic antioxidants should perform as better antioxidants in emulsions than more polar...

  3. Formulation and characterization of esterified xylo-oligosaccharides-stabilized oil-in-water emulsions using microchannel emulsification. (United States)

    Udomrati, Sunsanee; Khalid, Nauman; Gohtani, Shoichi; Nakajima, Mitsutoshi; Uemura, Kunihiko; Kobayashi, Isao


    A series of amphiphilically esterified xylo-oligosaccharides (xylo esters) with different fatty acids residues - decanoic acid (C-10), lauric acid (C-12) and palmitic acid (C-16) - were enzymatically modified at 60°C for 4h. These xylo esters were used as emulsifiers to formulate oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions by microchannel emulsification (MCE). Grooved and straight-through MCE was used to investigate the droplet generation and/or emulsion stability. Xylo ester-stabilized oil droplets were generated smoothly from microchannels arranged linearly or two dimensionally, while xylo ester-stabilized emulsions were less monodispersed owing to low surface activity of the xylo esters. The combined use of xylo esters (2.5% (w/w)) and Tween series (0.1% (w/w)) in the continuous phase can improve the monodispersity of the resultant oil. Successful droplet generation was achieved with the straight-through MCE using 2.5% (w/w) xylo laurate and 0.1% (w/w) Tween 20. The optimized combination of xylo laurate and Tween 20 inhibited coalescence and oiling off more efficiently than the droplets solely stabilized by Tween 20 during 30days of storage.

  4. Pharmacokinetic advantages of a newly developed tacrolimus oil-in-water-type emulsion via the enteral route. (United States)

    Uno, T; Kazui, T; Suzuki, Y; Hashimoto, H; Suzuki, K; Muhammad, B A


    We developed an oleic acid oil-in-water (o/w)-type emulsion of a new tacrolimus formulation that presented an improvement in the delivery of the drug for oral absorption. This investigation was undertaken to assess a sustained release drug delivery system and selective drug transfer into the lymphatic system. The whole blood concentration profiles after oral administration at a dose of 2 mg/kg and bone marrow, spleen, liver, lung, small intestine, kidney, brain, and whole blood distribution after oral administration at a dose of 1 mg/kg of o/w emulsion formulation of tacrolimus (O/W group) were compared with those of commercially available formulation (T group) in the rat. The mean diameter of the o/w emulsion droplets was 0.47 microm immediately after preparation. The tacrolimus entrapping efficiency of o/w emulsion was 71.3+/-5.0% in 12 h and did not change for 2 d. The area under the whole blood concentration-time curve (AUC) in the O/W group was significantly higher (P<0.01) than that in the T group. In contrast, the values of constant elimination rate and total clearance in the O/W group were significantly lower (P<0.01) than those in the T group, with a comparative bioavailability of 115.9%. The tissue concentration of tacrolimus in the O/W group was significantly higher levels in the bone marrow, spleen, liver, lung, and small intestine, and significantly lower in the brain and kidney, relative to the T group. The o/w emulsion of tacrolimus may be an improved dosage form via the enteral route.

  5. Silica-decorated polypropylene microfiltration membranes with a mussel-inspired intermediate layer for oil-in-water emulsion separation. (United States)

    Yang, Hao-Cheng; Pi, Jun-Ke; Liao, Kun-Jian; Huang, He; Wu, Qing-Yun; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Xu, Zhi-Kang


    Silica-decorated polypropylene microfiltration membranes were fabricated via a facile biomimetic silicification process on the polydopamine/polyethylenimine-modified surfaces. The membranes exhibit superhydrophilicity and underwater superoleophobicity derived from the inherent hydrophilicity and the well-defined micronanocomposite structures of the silica-decorated surfaces. They can be applied in varieties of oil-in-water emulsions separation with high permeate flux (above 1200 L/m(2)h under 0.04 MPa) and oil rejection (above 99%). The membranes also have relatively high oil breakthrough pressure reaching 0.16 MPa due to the microporous structure, showing great potential for practical applications. Furthermore, such mussel-inspired intermediate layer provides us a convenient and powerful tool to fabricate organic-inorganic hybrid membranes for advanced applications.

  6. Lipid oxidation in fish oil enriched oil-in-water emulsions and cream cheese with pre-emulsified fish oil is affected differently by the emulsifier used

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Andersen, Ulf

    will include results from studies on lipid oxidation in simple oil-in-water emulsions prepared with milk proteins alone or combinations of milk proteins and phospholipids. In addition, a study on fish oil enriched cream cheese will be presented. In this study, the cream cheese was enriched with either neat...... fish oil or a fish oil-in-water delivery emulsion prepared with whey protein isolate, sodium caseinate or a commercially available emulsifier that consisted of ~20% milk phospholipids and ~50% milk proteins. Results showed that simple emulsions prepared with a combination of milk proteins...... acids to foods invariably increases the risk of lipid oxidation. A possible strategy to avoid lipid oxidation and the consecutive development of unpleasant off-flavours is to protect the oil in a delivery emulsion in which the oil droplets are shielded from its possible pro-oxidative surroundings...

  7. Oil-in-water emulsions flow through constricted micro-capillarities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, Oswaldo Robles; Carvalho, Marcio da Silveira [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering


    The effect of the oil concentration and the drop size distribution on the characteristics of the flow of an emulsion through a constricted capillary was experimentally analyzed and quantified by the ratio of the pressure drop of the continuous phase flow to the pressure drop of the emulsion flow, at the same flow rate. The results confirm that the ratio between the capillary constriction diameter and the oil drop size is one of the most important parameters for this flow. For large oil drop size emulsions, the deformation of the drop as it flows through the constriction leads to a high extra pressure drop at low capillary numbers. For small oil drop size emulsions, the extra pressure drop is a function of the viscosity ratio and the disperse phase concentration. (author)

  8. Influence of Casein-Phospholipid Combinations as Emulsifier on the Physical and Oxidative Stability of Fish Oil-in-Water Emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García Moreno, Pedro Jesús; Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Jacobsen, Charlotte


    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of casein (0.3% w/w) and phospholipid (0.5% w/w) emulsifier combinations on the physical and oxidative stability of 10% fish oil-in-water emulsions at pH 7. For that purpose, three phospholipids were evaluated, namely, lecithin (LC...... and lecithin, which could result in a favorable structure and thickness of the interfacial layer, prevented lipid oxidation in this emulsion....

  9. Effect of Phytosterols on the Crystallization Behavior of Oil-in-Water Milk Fat Emulsions. (United States)

    Zychowski, Lisa M; Logan, Amy; Augustin, Mary Ann; Kelly, Alan L; Zabara, Alexandru; O'Mahony, James A; Conn, Charlotte E; Auty, Mark A E


    Milk has been used commercially as a carrier for phytosterols, but there is limited knowledge on the effect of added plant sterols on the properties of the system. In this study, phytosterols dispersed in milk fat at a level of 0.3 or 0.6% were homogenized with an aqueous dispersion of whey protein isolate (WPI). The particle size, morphology, ζ-potential, and stability of the emulsions were investigated. Emulsion crystallization properties were examined through the use of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Synchrotron X-ray scattering at both small and wide angles. Phytosterol enrichment influenced the particle size and physical appearance of the emulsion droplets, but did not affect the stability or charge of the dispersed particles. DSC data demonstrated that, at the higher level of phytosterol addition, crystallization of milk fat was delayed, whereas, at the lower level, phytosterol enrichment induced nucleation and emulsion crystallization. These differences were attributed to the formation of separate phytosterol crystals within the emulsions at the high phytosterol concentration, as characterized by Synchrotron X-ray measurements. X-ray scattering patterns demonstrated the ability of the phytosterol to integrate within the milk fat triacylglycerol matrix, with a concomitant increase in longitudinal packing and system disorder. Understanding the consequences of adding phytosterols, on the physical and crystalline behavior of emulsions may enable the functional food industry to design more physically and chemically stable products.

  10. Effects of crossflow velocity and transmembrane pressure on microfiltration of oil-in-water emulsions

    CERN Document Server

    Darvishzadeh, Tohid


    This study addresses the issue of oil removal from water using hydrophilic porous membranes. The effective separation of oil-in-water dispersions involves high flux of water through the membrane and, at the same time, high rejection rate of the oil phase. The effects of transmembrane pressure and crossflow velocity on rejection of oil droplets and thin oil films by pores of different cross-section are investigated numerically by solving the Navier-Stokes equation. We found that in the absence of crossflow, the critical transmembrane pressure, which is required for the oil droplet entry into a circular pore of a given surface hydrophilicity, agrees well with analytical predictions based on the Young-Laplace equation. With increasing crossflow velocity, the shape of the oil droplet is strongly deformed near the pore entrance and the critical pressure of permeation increases. We determined numerically the phase diagram for the droplet rejection, permeation, and breakup depending of the transmembrane pressure and...

  11. Mometasone furoate-loaded cold processed oil-in-water emulsions: in vitro and in vivo studies. (United States)

    Raposo, Sara; Tavares, Rita; Gonçalves, Lídia; Simões, Sandra; Urbano, Manuela; Ribeiro, Helena M


    Over the years, research has focused on strategies to increase benefit/risk ratio of corticoids. However, vehicles intended for topical glucocorticoids delivery with an improved benefit/risk ratio are still on demand. The aim of this work was the in vitro and in vivo characterization of cold processed oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions intended for mometasone furoate (MF) delivery to induce drug targeting to upper skin strata, decreasing adverse effects. Two o/w emulsions, containing 0.1% of MF, were developed differing in the glycol used (2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol - PT and ethoxydiglycol - TC emulsions). In vitro permeation studies revealed that these emulsions are suitable vehicles for the delivery of MF containing ingredients which are responsible for a drastically increased on the permeability coefficients of MF from a theoretical value of 1.18 × 10(-4 )cm/h to 5.20 × 10(-4) ± 2.05 × 10(-4 )cm/h and 6.30 × 10(-4) ± 2.94 × 10(-4 )cm/h, for PT and TC, respectively. The tape stripping results showed that the amount of drug that reached the viable skin layers was very low (1.99 %) and the amount that remained in the stratum corneum (SC) was 10.61%. The in vivo studies showed that the developed formulations decreased the edema and erythema in mice skin in more that 90%, assuring, at least, the same anti-inflammatory effect compared with the commercial cream. PT placebo demonstrated to contribute to restore the skin barrier by increasing the amount of lipids within the human skin.

  12. Role of Counterions in Controlling the Properties of Ultrasonically Generated Chitosan-Stabilized Oil-in-Water Emulsions. (United States)

    Colombo, Enrico; Cavalieri, Francesca; Ashokkumar, Muthupandian


    An oil-in-water emulsion was ultrasonically prepared in aqueous chitosan solutions containing different counterions. Tetradecane was used as the oil phase in order to mimic nonpolar substances used in food processes. Various acids were used to dissolve chitosan, and we found that conjugate bases of the acids used, which act as counterions to neutralize the positive charges of ammonium ions present in the chitosan backbone, played a significant role in controlling the size, size distribution, and stability of chitosan-encapsulated tedradecane emulsion droplets (microspheres). The counterion effect is also found to be strongly dependent upon tetradecane (TD)/chitosan (CS) ratio and ultrasonic power. Key observations are: (i) for a given TD/CS ratio, the size and size distribution decrease when the acid is varied from nitric acid to benzenesulfonic acid at high TD/CS ratio, and the effect becomes less significant at low TD/CS ratio; (ii) for a given acid, the size and size distribution increase with an increase in TD/CS ratio; and (iii) at low TD/CS ratio the size and size distribution are significantly influenced by the viscosity of the system. A possible mechanism for the observed counterion effect is proposed. The role of counterions, solution viscosity, and ultrasonic power in controlling the physical and functional properties of ultrasonically generated chitosan-stabilized tetradecane microspheres is discussed in detail. The key new finding of this study is that it is possible to form stable emulsions without the addition of external emulsifiers and stabilizers, but only using chitosan with different acids to dissolve chitosan. This strategy could be used in the generation of stable food emulsions.

  13. Effect of fibrous filter properties on the oil-in-water-emulsion separation and filtration performance. (United States)

    Bansal, Swarna; von Arnim, Volkmar; Stegmaier, Thomas; Planck, Heinrich


    Separation of secondary emulsions of dispersed droplet size less than 10 μm, by means of fibrous medium is a very complex but important process. The study investigates the influence of thin fibrous filter properties, i.e. surface energy, pore size and porosity on the separation performance of an isooctane in water emulsion (0.2%, mean drop size 2 μm). Experiments were carried out on five different filter media with a wide variation in their pore size (2-51 μm), surface energy (14-46 mN/m) and porosity (0.46-0.87) at similar process conditions. Filter media with different wettability are obtained by applying various hydrophobic and hydrophilic coatings. All the used coatings contain nanoparticles (25 nm) to impart nanoscale surface roughness at the single fiber surface. Besides emulsion properties and operating conditions, the phase separation mechanism and performance highly depends on pore size, surface energy and porosity of the filter media. More complete coalescence takes place at reduced pore size and at a surface preferentially wetted by the dispersed phase. Whereas when the pore size equals to the influent droplet size, then the surface wettability of filter is less effective and the separation mechanism is governed by inflow velocity. The emulsion inflow velocity and pressure drop are significantly affected by the filter media air permeability but do not depend on filter surface energy.

  14. Protein-Protein Multilayer Oil-in-Water Emulsions for the Microencapsulation of Flaxseed Oil: Effect of Whey and Fish Gelatin Concentration. (United States)

    Fustier, Patrick; Achouri, Allaoua; Taherian, Ali R; Britten, Michel; Pelletier, Marylène; Sabik, Hassan; Villeneuve, Sébastien; Mondor, Martin


    The impact of whey protein isolate (WPI) and fish gelatin (FG) deposited sequentially at concentrations of 0.1, 0.5, and 0.75% on the surface of primary oil-in-water emulsions containing 5% flaxseed oil stabilized with either 0.5% fish gelatin or whey protein, respectively, was investigated. The results revealed that the adsorption of WPI/FG or FG/WPI complexes to the emulsion interface led to the formation of oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions with different stabilities and different protection degrees of the flaxseed oil. Deposition of FG on the WPI primary emulsion increased the particle size (from 0.53 to 1.58 μm) and viscosity and decreased electronegativity (from -23.91 to -11.15 mV) of the complexes. Different trends were noted with the deposition of WPI on the FG primary emulsion, resulting in decreasing particle size and increasing electronegativity and viscosity to a lower extent. Due to the superior tension-active property of WPI, the amount of protein load in the WPI primary emulsion as well as in WPI/FG complex was significantly higher than the FG counterparts. A multilayer emulsion made with 0.5% WPI/0.75% FG exhibited the lowest oxidation among all of the multilayered emulsions tested (0.32 ppm of hexanal) after 21 days, likely due to the charge effect of FG that may prevent pro-oxidant metals to interact with the flaxseed oil.

  15. Effects of xanthan-locust bean gum mixtures on the physicochemical properties and oxidative stability of whey protein stabilised oil-in-water emulsions. (United States)

    Khouryieh, Hanna; Puli, Goutham; Williams, Kevin; Aramouni, Fadi


    The effects of xanthan gum (XG)-locust bean gum (LBG) mixtures (0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2 and 0.5 wt%) on the physicochemical properties of whey protein isolate (WPI) stabilised oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions containing 20% v/v menhaden oil was investigated. At higher concentrations, the apparent viscosity of the emulsions containing XG/LBG mixtures was significantly higher (pbean gum showed the greatest phase separation, followed by XG. Microstructure images showed depletion flocculation at lower biopolymer concentrations, and thus led to an increase in creaming instability and apparent viscosity of the emulsions. Addition of 0.15, 0.2 and 0.5 wt% XG/LBG mixtures greatly decreased the creaming of the emulsions. The rate of lipid oxidation for 8-week storage was significantly lower (p<0.05) in emulsions containing XG/LBG mixtures than in emulsions containing either of the biopolymer alone.

  16. Numerical Study of Crossflow Enhanced Microfiltration of Oil-in-Water Emulsions (United States)

    Darvishzadeh, Tohid; Priezjev, Nikolai; Tarabara, Volodymyr


    The effective separation of dilute oil-in-water mixtures involves high flux of water through a porous membrane while maintaining high rejection rate of the oil phase. In this study, the effects of transmembrane pressure and crossflow velocity on rejection of oil droplets and thin oil films by pores of different cross-section are investigated numerically by solving the Navier-Stokes equation. We found that the presence of crossflow increases the efficiency of microfiltration by sweeping the dispersed phase away from the pore entrance at the membrane surface and thus enhancing overall water flux. With further increasing crossflow velocity, however, the shape of the droplet becomes strongly deformed near the pore entrance; and, at sufficiently high transmembrane pressures, the droplet breaks up into two fragments, one of which penetrates into the pore. The dynamics of an oil droplet near the pore entrance and the critical pressure of permeation are studied as a function of the oil viscosity, ratio of drop to pore radii, surface tension, and contact angle.

  17. Chitosan-Based Aerogel Membrane for Robust Oil-in-Water Emulsion Separation. (United States)

    Chaudhary, Jai Prakash; Vadodariya, Nilesh; Nataraj, Sanna Kotrappanavar; Meena, Ramavatar


    Here, we demonstrate direct recovery of water from stable emulsion waste using aerogel membrane. Chitosan-based gel was transformed into highly porous aerogel membrane using bio-origin genipin as cross-linking agent. Aerogel membranes were characterized for their morphology using SEM, chemical composition by FTIR and solid-UV. Further, aerogel was tested for recovery of high quality water from oil spill sample collected from ship breaking yard. High quality (with >99% purity) water was recovered with a flux rate of >600 L·m(-2)·h(-1)·bar(-1). After repeated use, aerogel membranes were tested for greener disposal possibilities by biodegrading membrane in soil.

  18. Tribology of steel/steel interaction in oil-in-water emulsion; a rationale for lubricity. (United States)

    Kumar, Deepak; Daniel, Jency; Biswas, S K


    Oil droplets are dispersed in water by an anionic surfactant to form an emulsion. The lubricity of this emulsion in steel/steel interaction is explored in a ball on flat nanotribometer. The droplet size and charge are measured using dynamic light scattering, while the substrate charge density is estimated using the pH titration method. These data are combined to calculate the DLVO forces for the droplets generated for a range of surfactant concentration and two oil to water volume ratios. The droplets have a clear bi-modal size distribution. The study shows that the smaller droplets which experience weak repulsion are situated (at the highest DLVO barrier) much closer to the substrate than the bigger droplets, which experience the same DLVO force, are. We suggest that the smaller droplets thus play a more important role in lubricity than what the bigger droplets do. The largest volume of such small droplets occurs in the 0.5 mM-1 mM range of surfactant concentration and 1% oil to water volume ratio, where the coefficient of friction is also observed to be the least.

  19. Physical and Oxidative Stability of Flaxseed Oil-in-Water Emulsions Fabricated from Sunflower Lecithins: Impact of Blending Lecithins with Different Phospholipid Profiles. (United States)

    Liang, Li; Chen, Fang; Wang, Xingguo; Jin, Qingzhe; Decker, Eric Andrew; McClements, David Julian


    There is great interest in the formulation of plant-based foods enriched with nutrients that promote health, such as polyunsaturated fatty acids. This study evaluated the impact of sunflower phospholipid type on the formation and stability of flaxseed oil-in-water emulsions. Two sunflower lecithins (Sunlipon 50 and 90) with different phosphatidylcholine (PC) levels (59 and 90%, respectively) were used in varying ratios to form emulsions. Emulsion droplet size, charge, appearance, microstructure, and oxidation were measured during storage at 55 °C in the dark. The physical and chemical stability increased as the PC content of the lecithin blends decreased. The oxidative stability of emulsions formulated using Sunlipon 50 was better than emulsions formulated using synthetic surfactants (SDS or Tween 20). The results are interpreted in terms of the impact of emulsifier type on the colloidal interactions between oil droplets and on the molecular interactions between pro-oxidants and oil droplet surfaces.

  20. Effect of xanthan/enzyme-modified guar gum mixtures on the stability of whey protein isolate stabilized fish oil-in-water emulsions. (United States)

    Chityala, Pavan Kumar; Khouryieh, Hanna; Williams, Kevin; Conte, Eric


    The effect of xanthan gum (XG) and enzyme-modified guar (EMG) gum mixtures on the physicochemical properties and oxidative stability of 2wt% whey protein isolate (WPI) stabilized oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions containing 20%v/v fish oil was investigated. EMG was obtained by hydrolyzing native guar gum using α-galactosidase enzyme. At higher gum concentrations (0.2 and 0.3wt%), the viscosity of the emulsions containing XG/EMG gum mixtures was significantly higher (Pgum mixtures did not affect the droplet size of emulsions. Microstructure images revealed decreased flocculation at higher concentrations. Primary and secondary lipid oxidation measurements indicated a slower rate of oxidation in emulsions containing XG/EMG gum mixtures, compared to XG, guar (GG), and XG/GG gum mixtures. These results indicate that XG/EMG gum mixtures can be used in O/W emulsions to increase physical and oxidative stabilities of polyunsaturated fatty acids in foods.

  1. Characterization of a novel oil-in-water emulsion adjuvant for swine influenza virus and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccines. (United States)

    Galliher-Beckley, A; Pappan, L K; Madera, Rachel; Burakova, Y; Waters, A; Nickles, M; Li, X; Nietfeld, J; Schlup, J R; Zhong, Q; McVey, S; Dritz, S S; Shi, J


    Vaccines consisting of subunit or inactivated bacteria/virus and potent adjuvants are widely used to control and prevent infectious diseases. Because inactivated and subunit antigens are often less antigenic than live microbes, a growing need exists for the development of new and improved vaccine adjuvants that can elicit rapid and long-lasting immunity. Here we describe the development and characterization of a novel oil-in-water emulsion, OW-14. OW-14 contains low-cost plant-based emulsifiers and was added to antigen at a ratio of 1:3 with simple hand mixing. OW-14 was stable for prolonged periods of time at temperatures ranging from 4 to 40°C and could be sterilized by autoclaving. Our results showed that OW-14 adjuvanted inactivated swine influenza viruses (SIV; H3N2 and H1N1) and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyo) vaccines could be safely administered to piglets in two doses, three weeks apart. Injection sites were monitored and no adverse reactions were observed. Vaccinated pigs developed high and prolonged antibody titers to both SIV and M. hyo. Interestingly, antibody titers were either comparable or greater than those produced by commercially available FluSure (SIV) or RespiSure (M. hyo) vaccines. We also found that OW-14 can induce high antibody responses in pigs that were vaccinated with a decreased antigen dose. This study provides direct evidence that we have developed an easy-to-use and low-cost emulsion that can act as a powerful adjuvant in two common types of swine vaccines.

  2. Eco-Friendly Superwetting Material for Highly Effective Separations of Oil/Water Mixtures and Oil-in-Water Emulsions (United States)

    Wang, Chih-Feng; Yang, Sheng-Yi; Kuo, Shiao-Wei


    Because the treatment of oily wastewater, generated from many industrial processes, has become an increasing environmental concern, the search continues for simple, inexpensive, eco-friendly, and readily scalable processes for fabricating novel materials capable of effective oil/water separation. In this study we prepared an eco-friendly superhydrophilic and underwater superoleophobic polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-modified cotton that mediated extremely efficient separations of mixtures of oil/water and oil/corrosive solutions. This PVP-modified cotton exhibited excellent antifouling properties and could be used to separate oil/water mixtures continuously for up to 20 h. Moreover, the compressed PVP-modified cotton could separate both surfactant-free and -stabilized oil-in-water emulsions with fluxes of up to 23,500 L m−2 h−1 bar−1—a level one to two orders of magnitude higher than that possible when using traditional ultrafiltration membranes having similar rejection properties. The high performance of our PVP-modified cotton and its green, low-energy, cost-effective preparation suggest its great potential for practical applications. PMID:28216617

  3. Technology transfer of oil-in-water emulsion adjuvant manufacturing for pandemic influenza vaccine production in Romania. (United States)

    Fox, Christopher B; Huynh, Chuong; O'Hara, Michael K; Onu, Adrian


    Many developing countries lack or have inadequate pandemic influenza vaccine manufacturing capacity. In the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, this led to delayed and inadequate vaccine coverage in the developing world. Thus, bolstering developing country influenza vaccine manufacturing capacity is urgently needed. The Cantacuzino Institute in Bucharest, Romania has been producing seasonal influenza vaccine since the 1970s, and has the capacity to produce ∼5 million doses of monovalent vaccine in the event of an influenza pandemic. Inclusion of an adjuvant in the vaccine could enable antigen dose sparing, expanding vaccine coverage and potentially allowing universal vaccination of the Romanian population and possibly neighboring countries. However, adjuvant formulation and manufacturing know-how are difficult to access. This manuscript describes the successful transfer of oil-in-water emulsion adjuvant manufacturing and quality control technologies from the Infectious Disease Research Institute in Seattle, USA to the Cantacuzino Institute. By describing the challenges and accomplishments of the project, it is hoped that the knowledge and experience gained will benefit other institutes involved in similar technology transfer projects designed to facilitate increased vaccine manufacturing capacity in developing countries. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Preparation of fluidized catalytic cracking slurry oil-in-water emulsion as anti-collapse agent for drilling fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengqiang Xiong


    Full Text Available Fluidized catalytic cracking slurry oil-in-water emulsion (FCCSE was prepared by using interfacial complexes generation method that was simple and versatile. The critical factors influencing the sample preparation process were optimized, for instance, the optimum value of the mixed hydrophile-lipophile balance of compound emulsifier was 11.36, the content of compound emulsifier was 4 wt%, the emulsification temperature was 75 °C, the agitation speed was 200 rpm, and the emulsification time was 30–45 min. The performance as a drilling fluid additive was also investigated with respect to rheological properties, filtration loss and inhibition of FCCSE. Experimental results showed that FCCSE was favorable to inhibiting clay expansion and dispersion and reducing fluid loss. Furthermore, it had good compatibility with other additives and did not affect the rheological properties of drilling fluids. FCCSE exhibited better performance than the available emulsified asphalt. It has a promising application as anti-collapse agent in petroleum and natural gas drilling.

  5. From water-in-oil to oil-in-water emulsions to optimize the production of fatty acids using ionic liquids in micellar systems. (United States)

    Santos, Luísa D F; Coutinho, João A P; Ventura, Sónia P M


    Biocatalysis is nowadays considered as one of the most important tools in green chemistry. The elimination of multiple steps involved in some of the most complex chemical synthesis, reducing the amounts of wastes and hazards, thus increasing the reaction yields and decreasing the intrinsic costs, are the major advantages of biocatalysis. This work aims at improving the enzymatic hydrolysis of olive oil to produce valuable fatty acids through emulsion systems formed by long alkyl chain ionic liquids (ILs). The optimization of the emulsion and the best conditions to maximize the production of fatty acids were investigated. The stability of the emulsion was characterized considering the effect of several parameters, namely, the IL and its concentration and different water/olive oil volumetric ratios. ILs from the imidazolium and phosphonium families were evaluated. The results suggest that the ILs effect on the hydrolysis performance varies with the water concentration and the emulsion system formed, that is, water-in-oil or oil-in-water emulsion. Although at low water concentrations, the presence of ILs does not present any advantages for the hydrolysis reaction, at high water contents (in oil-in-water emulsions), the imidazolium-based IL acts as an enhancer of the lipase catalytic capacity, super-activating 1.8 times the enzyme, and consequently promoting the complete hydrolysis of the olive oil for the highest water contents [85% (v/v)].

  6. Rheological characterization of coloured oil-in-water food emulsions with lutein and phycocyanin added to the oil and aqueous phases


    Sousa, Isabel; Batista, Ana Paula; Raymundo, Anabela; Empis, José


    The use of natural colourings in food products presents nutritional advantages, and certain pigments are associated with functional properties, e.g. antioxidant effects. This can be very advantageous in food products with high fat contents like mayonnaises. The aim of this work was to study the effect of adding natural pigments, lutein and phycocyanin, to the water and oil phases, respectively, of oil-in-water pea protein-stabilized emulsions, beyond the desirable and expected develo...

  7. Fabrication of Silica Nanospheres Coated Membranes: towards the Effective Separation of Oil-in-Water Emulsion in Extremely Acidic and Concentrated Salty Environments


    Yuning Chen; Na Liu; Yingze Cao; Xin Lin; Liangxin Xu; Weifeng Zhang; Yen Wei; Lin Feng


    A superhydrophilic and underwater superoleophobic surface is fabricated by simply coating silica nanospheres onto a glass fiber membrane through a sol-gel process. Such membrane has a complex framework with micro and nano structures covering and presents a high efficiency (more than 98%) of oil-in-water emulsion separation under harsh environments including strong acidic and concentrated salty conditions. This membrane also possesses outstanding stability since no obvious decline in efficienc...

  8. Influence of maltodextrin and environmental stresses on stability of whey protein concentrate/κ-carrageenan stabilized sesame oil-in-water emulsions. (United States)

    Onsaard, E; Putthanimon, J; Singthong, J; Thammarutwasik, P


    The influence of maltodextrin with different concentrations (0-30%) and dextrose equivalent (dextrose equivalent 10 and dextrose equivalent 15) under different environmental stresses (pH 3-8, NaCl 0-500 mM, and sucrose 0-20%) on the stability of whey protein concentrate/κ-carrageenan stabilized sesame oil-in-water emulsions was investigated by mean particle diameter, particle size distribution, ζ-potential, microstructure, and viscosity. Sesame oil-in-water emulsions containing anionic droplets stabilized by interfacial membranes comprising whey protein concentrate/κ-carrageenan/maltodextrin (15% sesame oil, 0.5% whey protein concentrate, 0.2% κ-carrageenan, 0.02% sodium azide and 0-30% maltodextrin with dextrose equivalent of 10 and 15, 5 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7) were produced using a homogenizer. The primary emulsion (1°) containing whey protein concentrate-coated droplets was prepared by homogenizing. The secondary emulsion (2°) containing whey protein concentrate-κ-carrageenan in the absence or presence of maltodextrin was produced by mixing the 1° emulsion with an aqueous κ-carrageenan in the absence or presence of maltodextrin solution. There were no significant changes in mean droplet diameter and ζ-potential of droplets at any maltodextrin concentration (0-30%) or dextrose equivalent (10 and 15) after 24 h storage. The apparent viscosity of emulsions increased when the maltodextrin concentration increased. The 2° emulsion containing 15% maltodextrin with dextrose equivalent of 10 had the stability to aggregation at pH 6-8, NaCl ≤ 300 mM, and sucrose 0-20%. The addition of maltodextrin to emulsion can be used to form emulsions with different physicochemical properties for various applications in food processing (for example, encapsulation).

  9. Effects of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester and 4-Vinylcatechol on the Stabilities of Oil-in-Water Emulsions of Stripped Soybean Oil. (United States)

    Jia, Cai-Hua; Shin, Jung-Ah; Lee, Ki-Teak


    Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) and 4-vinylcatechol (4-VC) were prepared for studying their antioxidative activities in emulsion. Oil-in-water emulsions of stripped soybean oil containing 200 ppm of CAPE, 4-VC, or α-tocopherol were stored at 40 °C in the dark for 50 days, and proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) was used to identify and quantify the oxidation products. Emulsion droplet sizes, peroxide values, and levels of primary oxidation products (i.e., hydroperoxides) and secondary oxidation products (i.e., aldehydes) were determined. The results showed that CAPE (200 ppm) and 4-VC (200 ppm) had significantly greater antioxidant activities on the oxidation of stripped soybean oil-in-water emulsions than α-tocopherol (200 ppm). The peroxide values of CAPE (8.4 mequiv/L emulsion) and 4-VC (15.0 mequiv/L emulsion) were significantly lower than that of α-tocopherol (33.4 mequiv/L emulsion) (p < 0.05) on 36 days. In addition, the combinations of CAPE + α-tocopherol (100 + 100 ppm) or 4-VC + α-tocopherol (100 + 100 ppm) had better antioxidant activities than α-tocopherol (200 ppm). For CAPE + α-tocopherol, 4-VC + α-tocopherol, and α-tocopherol, the amounts of conjugated diene forms were 16.67, 13.72, and 16.32 mmol/L emulsion, and the concentrations of aldehydes were 2.15, 1.13, and 4.26 mmol/L emulsion, respectively, after 50 days of storage.

  10. Physical and oxidative stability of fish oil-in-water emulsions fortified with enzymatic hydrolysates from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) roe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghelichi, Sakhi; Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; García Moreno, Pedro Jesús


    Physical and oxidative stability of 5% (by weight) cod liver oil-in-water emulsions fortified with common carp (C. carpio) roe protein hydrolysate (CRPH) were examined. CRPH was obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of discarded roe by using Alcalase 2.4 L for 30, 60, 90, and 120 min to yield different...... degrees of hydrolysis (DH). All the hydrolysates showed in vitro antioxidant activity in terms of radical scavenging and chelating properties. CRPH-containing emulsions had significantly smaller droplets than control (p ...

  11. Oxidative stability of fish and algae oils containing long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in bulk and in oil-in-water emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankel, E.N.; Satue-Gracia, T.; Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge


    , and the presence and activity of transition metals. Fish and algal oils were initially much more stable to oxidation in bulk systems than in the corresponding oil-in-water emulsions. The oxidative stability of emulsions cannot, therefore, be predicted on the basis of stability data obtained with bulk long...... from algae are unusually stable to oxidation, Addition of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) prevented oxidation of both fish and algal oil emulsions without added iron and at low iron:EDTA molar concentrations. EDTA, however, promoted the oxidation of the corresponding emulsions that contained......The oxidative stability of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-containing fish and algae oils varies widely according to their fatty acid composition, the physical and colloidal states of the lipids, the contents of tocopherols and other antioxidants...

  12. Production of highly concentrated oil-in-water emulsions using dual-channel microfluidization: Use of individual and mixed natural emulsifiers (saponin and lecithin). (United States)

    Luo, Xiang; Zhou, Yanyan; Bai, Long; Liu, Fuguo; Zhang, Ruojie; Zhang, Zipei; Zheng, Bingjing; Deng, Yihui; McClements, David Julian


    The fabrication of concentrated oil-in-water emulsions is useful for reducing storage and transportation costs, as well as for providing desirable textural, optical, stability, and release characteristics in commercial products. In this study, 50wt% oil-in-water emulsions were produced from natural emulsifiers using high-pressure dual-channel microfluidization (89.6MPa, 1 pass). The particle size and charge characteristics of emulsions stabilized using a hydrophilic biosurfactant (quillaja saponin) or mixtures of hydrophilic and hydrophobic biosurfactants (quillaja saponin+soy lecithin) were measured. The physical stability of the emulsions was determined during storage under quiescent conditions (pH7, 25°C). The mean droplet diameter and polydispersity decreased with increasing hydrophilic and hydrophobic biosurfactant concentration. Surface potential measurements indicated that interfacial composition depended on the amount of hydrophilic and hydrophobic biosurfactant present. The inclusion of hydrophobic emulsifier in the oil phase and hydrophilic emulsifier in the aqueous phase prior to homogenization, led to the formation of smaller oil droplets than using the hydrophilic emulsifier alone. The relatively small size and polydispersity of the droplets in the mixed-emulsifier systems led to a higher emulsion viscosity and a better aggregation stability, i.e., there was a smaller change in particle size during storage. However, some creaming was still observed in the emulsions due to the presence of a fraction of relatively large droplets. In summary, concentrated emulsions stabilized by mixed biosurfactants may be advantageous for commercial application in certain food, beverage, and pharmaceutical products. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Multilayer Oil-in-Water Emulsions: Formation, Characteristics and Application as the Carriers for Lipophilic Bioactive Food Components – a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bortnowska Grażyna


    Full Text Available This review article demonstrates fundamentals regarding the manufacturing of multilayer oil-in-water (M-O/W emulsions and factors affecting stability of these systems. Moreover, characteristics of major bioactive lipophilic components and ingredients mostly applied to form multilayered membranes as well analytical methods used to examine properties of M-O/W emulsions are specified. It has been shown that production of M-O/W systems is based on the layer-by-layer (LbL electrostatic deposition technique which makes use of the electrostatic attraction of oppositely charged surfactants and biopolymers to form multicomposite protective layers around emulsion droplets. Finally, limitations regarding studies of M-O/W systems which should be developed are specified.

  14. Effect of α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin on the oxidative stability of 10% fish oil-in-water emulsions depends on pH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Wulff, Tune; Nielsen, Nina Skall


    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of pH on lipid oxidation and protein partitioning in 10% fish oil-in-water emulsions prepared with different whey protein isolates with varying ratios of α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin. Results showed that an increase in pH increased...... lipid oxidation irrespective of the emulsifier used. At pH 4, lipid oxidation was not affected by the type of whey protein emulsifier used or the partitioning of proteins between the interface and the water phase. However, at pH 7 the emulsifier with the highest concentration of β......-lactoglobulin protected more effectively against oxidation during emulsion production, whereas the emulsions with the highest concentration of α-lactalbumin were most stable to oxidation during storage. These differences were explained by differences in the pressure and adsorption induced unfolding of the individual...

  15. Biodegradable Poly(D,L-Lactide/Lipid Blend Microparticles Prepared by Oil-in-Water Emulsion Method for Controlled Release Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaowalak Srisuwan


    Full Text Available The effects of blend ratio and drug loading content of poly(D,L-lactide (PDLL/stearic acid blends on microparticle characteristics and drug release behaviors were evaluated. The blend microparticles were prepared by an oil-in-water emulsion solvent evaporation method for drug delivery of a poorly water-soluble model drug, indomethacin. The microparticles were characterized using a combination of scanning electron microscopy (SEM, light scattering particle size analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and UV-vis spectrophotometry. The blend microparticles with a PDLL/stearic acid blend ratio in the range 100/0-95/5 (w/w exhibited a spherical shape with a smooth surface. Blend microparticles with a similar size (167-177 µm and drug loading efficiency (60-67% were obtained. The drug loading content did not affect the characteristics of the blend microparticles. An in vitro drug release test demonstrated that the level of drug release decreased as the stearic acid blend ratio increased and the drug loading content decreased. The overall results indicated that it was possible to use PDLL/stearic acid blend microparticles as a controlled release drug delivery system.

  16. Treatment of acute radiodermatitis with an oil-in-water emulsion following radiation therapy for breast cancer. A controlled, randomized trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Jens-Michael; Gau, Tanja; Foelster-Holst, Regina; Proksch, Ehrhardt [Kiel Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Dermatology; Schultze, Juergen [Kiel Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Therapeutic Radiology; Lemmnitz, Gunter; Abels, Christoph [Dr. August Wolff GmbH und Co. KG Arzneimittel, Bielefeld (Germany); May, Theodor [Gesellschaft fuer Biometrie und Psychometrie GbR, Bielefeld (Germany)


    A side effect of radiotherapy for breast cancer is acute radiodermatitis. It is a common practice to keep irradiated skin dry on account of data from the 1950s that suggested this regimen limits dermatitis. However, severe dryness of the skin induced by irradiation results in itching and discomfort. Dry skin is characterized by scaliness, epidermal barrier dysfunction, and reduced stratum corneum hydration, and these signs and symptoms are reduced by treatment with an emulsion. We performed a randomized, controlled, open-label study with 66 patients (ITT population), treating the irradiated skin in one group (n = 34) with an oil-in-water emulsion (WO1932), while leaving the other group untreated (n = 32). Clinical scoring (ONS radiation skin reaction scoring, pruritus) and biophysical measurements (stratum corneum hydration and transepidermal water loss (TEWL), as a marker of skin barrier function) were determined at day 1 (directly after termination of the radiation therapy), day 8, and day 47 ({+-} 7). Irradiation increased the ONS score and pruritus, whereas skin hydration and TEWL were reduced. The primary hypothesis that the increase in skin hydration was significantly greater in the emulsion-treated compared to the untreated group as early as after 8 days of treatment could not be confirmed. At the end of the study (day 47 {+-} 7), however, normalization of stratum corneum hydration was more advanced in the treatment group compared to the untreated group and nearly reached the values of the contralateral healthy breast skin. ONS score and pruritus also revealed an advantage for the emulsion-treated group. TEWL did not show significant changes during emulsion treatment. No adverse events were caused by the treatment regimens. Treatment of radiodermatitis with an oil-in-water emulsion was well tolerated, enhanced stratum corneum hydration, improved clinical indicators, and provided relief from itching. (orig.)

  17. Oil-in-water emulsion gels stabilized with chia (Salvia hispanica L.) and cold gelling agents: Technological and infrared spectroscopic characterization. (United States)

    Pintado, T; Ruiz-Capillas, C; Jiménez-Colmenero, F; Carmona, P; Herrero, A M


    This paper reports on the development of olive oil-in-water emulsion gels containing chia (Salvia hispanica L.) (flour or seed) and cold gelling agents (transglutaminase, alginate or gelatin). The technological and structural characteristics of these emulsion gels were evaluated. Both structural and technological changes in emulsion gels resulting from chilled storage were also determined. The color and texture of emulsion gels depend on both the cold gelling agents used and chilled storage. Lipid oxidation increased (p < 0.05) during storage in emulsion gels containing transglutaminase or alginate. Analyses of the half-bandwidth of the 2923 cm(-1) band and the area of the 3220 cm(-1) band suggest that the order/disorder of the oil lipid chain related to lipid interactions and droplet size in the emulsion gels could be decisive in determining their textural properties. The half-bandwidth of 2923 cm(-1) band and area of 3220 cm(-1) band did not show significant differences during chilled storage.

  18. Effects of composition and processing variables on the oxidative stability of protein-based and oil-in-water food emulsions. (United States)

    Kiokias, Sotirios; Gordon, Michael H; Oreopoulou, Vassiliki


    Because many common foods are emulsions (mayonnaise, coffee creamers, salad dressing, etc.), a better understanding of lipid oxidation mechanisms in these systems is crucial for the formulation, production, and storage of the relevant consumer products. A research body has focused on the microstructural and oxidative stability of protein-stabilized oil-in-water emulsions that are structurally similar to innovative products that have been recently developed by the food industry (e.g., non-dairy creams, vegetable fat spreads, etc.) This review presents recent findings about the factors that determine the development of lipid oxidation in emulsions where proteins constitute the stabilizing interface. Emphasis is given to "endogenous" factors, such as those of compositional (e.g., protein/lipid phases, pH, presence of transition metals) or processing (e.g., temperature, droplet size) nature. Improved knowledge of the conditions that favor the oxidative protection of protein in emulsions can lead to their optimized use as food ingredients and thereby improve the organoleptic and nutritional value of the related products.

  19. Influence of casein-phospholipid combinations as emulsifier on the physical and oxidative stability of fish oil-in-water emulsions. (United States)

    García-Moreno, Pedro J; Frisenfeldt Horn, Anna; Jacobsen, Charlotte


    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of casein (0.3% w/w) and phospholipid (0.5% w/w) emulsifier combinations on the physical and oxidative stability of 10% fish oil-in-water emulsions at pH 7. For that purpose, three phospholipids were evaluated, namely, lecithin (LC), phosphatidylcholine (PC), and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). The emulsion stabilized with LC showed the best physical stability having the most negative zeta potential and the lowest mean droplet size. In addition, this emulsion was also the least oxidized in terms of peroxide value and concentration of the volatile oxidation product 1-penten-3-ol. This finding is not explained by the antioxidant activity of LC because it showed similar DPPH scavenging activity and lower metal chelating activity than the other phospholipids. Therefore, these results suggested that other factors such as the combination of casein and lecithin, which could result in a favorable structure and thickness of the interfacial layer, prevented lipid oxidation in this emulsion.

  20. Antioxidant activity of alkyl gallates and glycosyl alkyl gallates in fish oil in water emulsions: relevance of their surface active properties and of the type of emulsifier. (United States)

    González, María J; Medina, Isabel; Maldonado, Olivia S; Lucas, Ricardo; Morales, Juan C


    The antioxidant activity of gallic acid and a series of alkyl gallates (C4-C18) and glycosylated alkyl gallates (C4-C18) on fish oil-in-water emulsions was studied. Three types of emulsifiers, lecithin, Tween-20 and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) were tested. A nonlinear behavior of the antioxidant activity of alkyl gallates when increasing alkyl chain length was observed for emulsions prepared with lecithin. Medium-size alkyl gallates (C6-C12) were the best antioxidants. In contrast, for emulsions prepared with Tween-20, the antioxidants seem to follow the polar paradox. Glucosyl alkyl gallates were shown previously to be better surfactants than alkyl gallates. Nevertheless, they exhibited a worse antioxidant capacity than their corresponding alkyl gallates, in emulsions prepared with lecithin or Tween-20, indicating the greater relevance of having three OH groups at the polar head in comparison with having improved surfactant properties but just a di-ortho phenolic structure in the antioxidant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A low-cost mullite-titania composite ceramic hollow fiber microfiltration membrane for highly efficient separation of oil-in-water emulsion. (United States)

    Zhu, Li; Chen, Mingliang; Dong, Yingchao; Tang, Chuyang Y; Huang, Aisheng; Li, Lingling


    Oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion is considered to be difficult to treat. In this work, a low-cost multi-layer-structured mullite-titania composite ceramic hollow fiber microfiltration membrane was fabricated and utilized to efficiently remove fine oil droplets from (O/W) emulsion. In order to reduce membrane cost, coal fly ash was effectively recycled for the first time to fabricate mullite hollow fiber with finger-like and sponge-like structures, on which a much more hydrophilic TiO2 layer was further deposited. The morphology, crystalline phase, mechanical and surface properties were characterized in details. The filtration capability of the final composite membrane was assessed by the separation of a 200 mg·L(-1) synthetic (O/W) emulsion. Even with this microfiltration membrane, a TOC removal efficiency of 97% was achieved. Dilute NaOH solution backwashing was used to effectively accomplish membrane regeneration (∼96% flux recovery efficiency). This study is expected to guide an effective way to recycle waste coal fly ash not only to solve its environmental problems but also to produce a high-valued mullite hollow fiber membrane for highly efficient separation application of O/W emulsion with potential simultaneous functions of pure water production and oil resource recovery.

  2. Stabilization of water in oil in water (W/O/W) emulsion using whey protein isolate-conjugated durian seed gum: enhancement of interfacial activity through conjugation process. (United States)

    Tabatabaee Amid, Bahareh; Mirhosseini, Hamed


    The present work was conducted to investigate the effect of purification and conjugation processes on functional properties of durian seed gum (DSG) used for stabilization of water in oil in water (W/O/W) emulsion. Whey protein isolate (WPI) was conjugated to durian seed gum through the covalent linkage. In order to prepare WPI-DSG conjugate, covalent linkage of whey protein isolate to durian seed gum was obtained by Maillard reaction induced by heating at 60 °C and 80% (±1%) relative humidity. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to test the formation of the covalent linkage between whey protein isolate and durian seed gum after conjugation process. In this study, W/O/W stabilized by WPI-conjugated DSG A showed the highest interface activity and lowest creaming layer among all prepared emulsions. This indicated that the partial conjugation of WPI to DSG significantly improved its functional characteristics in W/O/W emulsion. The addition of WPI-conjugated DSG to W/O/W emulsion increased the viscosity more than non-conjugated durian seed gum (or control). This might be due to possible increment of the molecular weight after linking the protein fraction to the structure of durian seed gum through the conjugation process.

  3. The influence of xanthan andlambda-carrageenan on the creaming and flocculation of an oil-in-water emulsion containing soy protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.G. Santiago


    Full Text Available The effect of polysaccharide content on the stability of an oil-in-water emulsion (20% oil, droplet diameter 6.5 mum, pH = 7 containing soy protein (5 mg/ml as the emulsifying agent was studied. Flocculation occurs by addition of two depletion flocculants: xanthan (0.01- 0.4% and lambda-carrageenan (0.001- 2%. We report that in both cases the onset of flocculation occurs below the overlap polymer concentration (c* = 0.15 % for xanthan and c* = 0.58% for lambda-carrageenan. The strength of depletion interaction is dependent on such factors as polymer concentration, molecular weight and also the presence of other macromolecules. Profiles of the creaming behaviour of the sample emulsions were obtained by measuring the height of the boundary between the cream phase and the serum as a function of time for each emulsion. The result indicates that creaming kinetics is dependent on polymer concentration in a complex way. The turbidity of the serum gave an indication of whether the system was fully flocculated or contained flocks together with unflocculated droplets. At very low polymer concentrations the droplets cream individually or in small aggregates at the top of the container. At higher concentrations the droplets appear to cream as a single entity, with a sharp lower boundary separating the cream phase from a clear serum. In these emulsions and in some of the coexistent ones, there is a delay before creaming starts. The presence of the polymers at higher concentrations resulted in a stable emulsion with a very high apparent viscosity for the continuous phase and/or a strong emulsion gel network. The length of the delay phase increased with increasing concentration of both polymers.

  4. Influence of polysaccharides on the rate of coalescence in oil-in-water emulsions formed with highly hydrolyzed whey proteins. (United States)

    Ye, Aiqian; Hemar, Yacine; Singh, Harjinder


    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of added xanthan gum, guar gum, or kappa-carrageenan on the formation and properties of emulsions (4 wt % corn oil) formed with an extensively hydrolyzed commercial whey protein (WPH) product under a range of conditions. The rate of coalescence was calculated on the basis of the changes in the droplet size of emulsions during storage of the emulsions at 20 degrees C. Compared with the emulsion made without the addition of polysaccharides, the rate of creaming and coalescence in emulsions containing xanthan gum, guar gum, or kappa-carrageenan was markedly enhanced with increasing concentration of polysaccharides during storage for up to 7 days. At a given concentration, the rate of coalescence was highest in the emulsions containing guar gum, whereas it was lowest in the emulsions containing kappa-carrageenan. All emulsions containing xanthan gum, guar gum, or kappa-carrageenan showed flocculation of oil droplets by a depletion mechanism. This flocculation was considered to enhance the coalescence of oil droplets. The different rates of coalescence could be explained on the basis of the strength of the depletion potential, which was dependent on the molecular weight and the radius of gyration of the polysaccharides.

  5. Impact of antioxidants on the formation of volatile secondary lipid oxidation products in oil-in-water emulsions (United States)

    Food emulsions are particularly susceptible to lipid oxidation, which leads to the formation of off-flavors and odors, and ultimately, shorter product shelf lives. Here we examine antioxidants for use in emulsions from a variety of different sources, including natural product extracts as well as rat...

  6. Technology transfer of oil-in-water emulsion adjuvant manufacturing for pandemic influenza vaccine production in Romania: Preclinical evaluation of split virion inactivated H5N1 vaccine with adjuvant. (United States)

    Stavaru, Crina; Onu, Adrian; Lupulescu, Emilia; Tucureanu, Catalin; Rasid, Orhan; Vlase, Ene; Coman, Cristin; Caras, Iuliana; Ghiorghisor, Alina; Berbecila, Laurentiu; Tofan, Vlad; Bowen, Richard A; Marlenee, Nicole; Hartwig, Airn; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Baldwin, Susan L; Van Hoeven, Neal; Vedvick, Thomas S; Huynh, Chuong; O'Hara, Michael K; Noah, Diana L; Fox, Christopher B


    Millions of seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccine doses containing oil-in-water emulsion adjuvant have been administered in order to enhance and broaden immune responses and to facilitate antigen sparing. Despite the enactment of a Global Action Plan for Influenza Vaccines and a multi-fold increase in production capabilities over the past 10 years, worldwide capacity for pandemic influenza vaccine production is still limited. In developing countries, where routine influenza vaccination is not fully established, additional measures are needed to ensure adequate supply of pandemic influenza vaccines without dependence on the shipment of aid from other, potentially impacted first-world countries. Adaptation of influenza vaccine and adjuvant technologies by developing country influenza vaccine manufacturers may enable antigen sparing and corresponding increases in global influenza vaccine coverage capacity. Following on previously described work involving the technology transfer of oil-in-water emulsion adjuvant manufacturing to a Romanian vaccine manufacturing institute, we herein describe the preclinical evaluation of inactivated split virion H5N1 influenza vaccine with emulsion adjuvant, including immunogenicity, protection from virus challenge, antigen sparing capacity, and safety. In parallel with the evaluation of the bioactivity of the tech-transferred adjuvant, we also describe the impact of concurrent antigen manufacturing optimization activities. Depending on the vaccine antigen source and manufacturing process, inclusion of adjuvant was shown to enhance and broaden functional antibody titers in mouse and rabbit models, promote protection from homologous virus challenge in ferrets, and facilitate antigen sparing. Besides scientific findings, the operational lessons learned are delineated in order to facilitate adaptation of adjuvant technologies by other developing country institutes to enhance global pandemic influenza preparedness.

  7. Impact of Endogenous Phenolics in Canola Oil on the Oxidative Stability of Oil-in-Water Emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Friel, James; Moser, Jill

    of unsaturated lipid makes canola oil susceptible towards lipid oxidation. Many food products are lipid containing emulsions and a lot of efforts have been put into developing methods to protect the lipids against oxidation. Since lipid oxidation has a negative influence on the shelf life of the foods, efficient......, the effect of these endogenous antioxidants on lipid oxidation in o/w emulsion is yet unknown. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the endogenous phenolics in Canola oil on lipid oxidation in o/w emulsion. For this purpose individual phenolics were extracted from defatted grinded...... canola seeds. Fractionated extracts of Sinapic acid, Sinapine and Canolol was used as well as a non fractionated extract. These extracts was added (100 and 350 μM) to 10% o/w emulsion with stripped canola oil in order to evaluate their effect on lipid oxidation in emulsions. For comparison...

  8. PERAN MISEL SURFAKTAN TERHADAP PARTISI ANTIOKSIDAN DAN STABILITAS OKSIDATIF EMULSI MINYAK DALAM AIR [The Role of Surfactant Micelles on the Partitioning of Antioxidant and the Oxidative Stability of Oil-in- Water Emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Posman Sibuea1


    Full Text Available Lipid oxidation system in which the fat is dispersed as emulsion droplets is stiil not well understood, although a large number of food exist partially or entirely in the form of emulsions. Therefore, this study was intended to examine how surfactant micelles influence the partitioning of antioxidants and hydroperoxides and how it alter the oxidative stability of oil-in-water emulsion. To determine the ability of surfactant micelles upon the partitioning of antioxidant in oil-in-water emulsion, this type of emulsion, containing quercetin at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 ppm, were prepared with polyoxyethylene 100 stearyl ether (Brij 700 or polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate (Tween 20 with acetate or phosphate buffer (pH 3.0 or 7.0. Structurally Brij 700 has 5 times longer polyoxyethylene groups than Tween 20. After preparation of the emulsion, surfactant micelles (0 – 2% were incorporated into the continuous phase to give a final lipid concentration of 5%. Lipid oxidation rates, as determined by the formation of lipid hydroperoxides, decreased with increasing quercetin concentrations. At pH 3, the peroxide value was higher than that at pH 7. Brij 700 decreased production of lipid hydroperoxides from palm oil-in-water-emulsions compared to the emulsions stabilized by Tween 20. The result showed that solubilization of quercetin into the aqueous phase by Brij or Tween micelles did not alter the oxidative stability of palm oil-in-water emulsion, suggesting that surfactant micelle influenced the oxidation rate by mechanism other than antioxidant solubilization.

  9. Antioxidant activity of gallic acid and methyl gallate in triacylglycerols of Kilka fish oil and its oil-in-water emulsion. (United States)

    Asnaashari, Maryam; Farhoosh, Reza; Sharif, Ali


    The anti-DPPH radical effect as well as anti-peroxide activity of gallic acid, methyl gallate, and α-tocopherol in a bulk Kilka fish oil and its oil-in-water emulsion stabilized by soy protein isolate at 55°C were investigated. Gallic acid with the lowest hydrophobicity (log P=-0.28) was found to be the most active antiradical agent (IC50=29.5 μM), followed by methyl gallate (IC50=38.0 μM, log P=-0.23) and α-tocopherol (IC50=105.3 μM, log P=0.70). The anti-peroxide activity in the bulk oil system decreased in the order of methyl gallate>gallic acid>α-tocopherol. In the emulsion system, methyl gallate still behaved better than gallic acid, but the highest activity belonged to α-tocopherol. Based on the calculation of a number of kinetic parameters, the antioxidants, in general, showed better performances in the bulk oil system than in the emulsion system.

  10. In situ quantification of β-carotene partitioning in oil-in-water emulsions by confocal Raman microscopy. (United States)

    Wan Mohamad, W A Fahmi; Buckow, Roman; Augustin, MaryAnn; McNaughton, Don


    Confocal Raman microscopy (CRM) was able to quantify the β-carotene concentration in oil droplets and determine the partitioning characteristics of β-carotene within the emulsion system in situ. The results were validated by a conventional method involving solvent extraction of β-carotene separately from the total emulsion as well as the aqueous phase separated by centrifugation, and quantification by absorption spectrophotometry. CRM also enabled the localization of β-carotene in an emulsion. From the Raman image, the β-carotene partitioning between the aqueous and oil phases of palm olein-in-water emulsions stabilized by whey protein isolate (WPI) was observed. Increasing the concentration of β-carotene in an emulsion (from 0.1 to 0.3g/kg emulsion) with a fixed gross composition (10% palm olein:2% WPI) decreased the concentration of β-carotene in the oil droplet. CRM is a powerful tool for in situ analyses of components in heterogeneous systems such as emulsions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Oil-in-water Pickering emulsions stabilized by colloidal particles from the water-insoluble protein zein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Folter, J.W.J.; van Ruijven, M.W.M.; Velikov, K.


    Few fully natural and biocompatible materials are available for the effective particle-stabilization of emulsions since strict requirements, such as insolubility in both fluid phases and intermediate wettability, need to be met. In this paper, we demonstrate the first use of water-insoluble proteins

  12. Krill Oil-In-Water Emulsion Protects against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Proinflammatory Activation of Macrophages In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel A. Bonaterra


    Full Text Available Background: Parenteral nutrition is often a mandatory therapeutic strategy for cases of septicemia. Likewise, therapeutic application of anti-oxidants, anti-inflammatory therapy, and endotoxin lowering, by removal or inactivation, might be beneficial to ameliorate the systemic inflammatory response during the acute phases of critical illness. Concerning anti-inflammatory properties in this setting, omega-3 fatty acids of marine origin have been frequently described. This study investigated the anti-inflammatory and LPS-inactivating properties of krill oil (KO-in-water emulsion in human macrophages in vitro. Materials and Methods: Differentiated THP-1 macrophages were activated using specific ultrapure-LPS that binds only on the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 in order to determine the inhibitory properties of the KO emulsion on the LPS-binding capacity, and the subsequent release of TNF-α. Results: KO emulsion inhibited the macrophage binding of LPS to the TLR4 by 50% (at 12.5 µg/mL and 75% (at 25 µg/mL, whereas, at 50 µg/mL, completely abolished the LPS binding. Moreover, KO (12.5 µg/mL, 25 µg/mL, or 50 µg/mL also inhibited (30%, 40%, or 75%, respectively the TNF-α release after activation with 0.01 µg/mL LPS in comparison with LPS treatment alone. Conclusion: KO emulsion influences the LPS-induced pro-inflammatory activation of macrophages, possibly due to inactivation of the LPS binding capacity.

  13. Screening of Antioxidant Activity of Gentian Lutea Root and Its Application in Oil-in-Water Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Aini Mohd Azman


    Full Text Available Gentiana Lutea root (G. Lutea is a medicinal herb, traditionally used as a bitter tonic in gastrointestinal ailments for improving the digestive system. The active principles of G. Lutea were found to be secoiridoid bitter compounds as well as many other active compounds causing the pharmacological effects. No study to date has yet determined the potential of G. Lutea antioxidant activity on lipid oxidation. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an extract of G. Lutea on lipid oxidation during storage of an emulsion. G. Lutea extracts showed excellent antioxidant activity measured by DPPH scavenging assay and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC assays. An amount of 0.5% w/w G. Lutea lyophilise was able to inhibit lipid oxidation throughout storage (p < 0.05. A mixture of G. Lutea with 0.1% (w/w BSA showed a good synergic effect and better antioxidant activity in the emulsion. Quantitative results of HPLC showed that G. Lutea contained secoiridoid-glycosides (gentiopiocroside and sweroside and post column analysis displayed radical scavenging activity of G. Lutea extract towards the ABTS radical. The results from this study highlight the potential of G. Lutea as a food ingredient in the design of healthier food commodities.

  14. Clarification and filtration of the floculated partuicles suspension from a chemical treatment of waste oil-in-water emulsions from a non-ferrous metalworking plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarević Vesna B.


    Full Text Available The effects of the coagulation/floculation conditions on clarification and filtration of the floculated particle suspension obtained by the chemical treatment of the waste oil-in-water emulsion (OWE from a non-ferrous metalworking plant were studied. The treatment involved the addition of aluminum(III sulfate and lime to the OWE. The main goal was to define the optimum conditions for clarification and filtration of the floculated particle suspension. The factors involved were amounts lime (i.e. pH and filter aid added the OWE on clarification and filtration rates. At pH>10, the clarification rate was increased and the final volume of the concentrated suspension (sludge was reduced, while filter aid affected negatively the clarification rate. The filtration rate was also increased when the coagulation was carried out at pH>10. The floculated particle suspension should be concentrated before filtration in order to decrease the filtration duration. The most efficient filter aid was Celite standard super-cel, its optimum initial concentration being found to be 2 g/dm3.

  15. Effect of Transition Metal Ions on the B Ring Oxidation of Sterols and their Kinetics in Oil-in-Water Emulsions (United States)

    Lu, Baiyi; Hu, Yinzhou; Huang, Weisu; Wang, Mengmeng; Jiang, Yuan; Lou, Tiantian


    This study investigated the effect of metal ions on the oxidation of sterols and their kinetics in oil-in-water emulsions. Sterol substrates were added with different metal ions (Cu2+, Fe2+, Mn2+, Zn2+, Na+, and Mg2+) of five concentrations and investigated after 2 h of heating at 90 °C. The substrates added with Fe2+ and Cu2+ were heated continuously to evaluate the kinetics of four sterols and their corresponding sterol oxidation products (SOPs). Sterol oxidation increased as the metal ion concentration increased and the heating time was prolonged. The capability of the metal ions oxidizing sterols ranked as followed: Fe2+ > Cu2+ > Mn2+ > Zn2+ > Mg2+ ≈ Na+. 7-Ketosterol, 7β/7α-Hydroxysterol, 5β,6β/5α,6α-Epoxysterol, and Triols were the main oxides on the B ring, whereas 6β-Hydroxysterol was not or only slightly influenced. The acceleration of sterol degradation induced by Fe2+ and Cu2+, as well as the formation of oxidation products, followed first-order formation/elimination kinetics. The acceleration effect may be partly ascribed to the increase in elimination rate constant and formation rate constant. Transition metal ions can significantly induce sterol oxidation, which reduces food nutritional quality and triggers the formation of undesirable compounds, such as SOPs.

  16. Effect of pectins on the mass transfer kinetics of monosaccharides, amino acids, and a corn oil-in-water emulsion in a Franz diffusion cell. (United States)

    Espinal-Ruiz, Mauricio; Restrepo-Sánchez, Luz-Patricia; Narváez-Cuenca, Carlos-Eduardo


    The effect of high (HMP) and low (LMP) methoxylated pectins (2%w/w) on the rate and extent of the mass transfer of monosaccharides, amino acids, and a corn oil-in-water emulsion across a cellulose membrane was evaluated. A sigmoidal response kinetic analysis was used to calculate both the diffusion coefficients (rate) and the amount of nutrients transferred through the membrane (extent). In all cases, except for lysine, HMP was more effective than LMP in inhibiting both the rate and extent of the mass transfer of nutrients through the membrane. LMP and HMP, e.g., reduced 1.3 and 3.0times, respectively, the mass transfer rate of glucose, as compared to control (containing no pectin), and 1.3 and 1.5times, respectively, the amount of glucose transferred through the membrane. Viscosity, molecular interactions, and flocculation were the most important parameters controlling the mass transfer of electrically neutral nutrients, electrically charged nutrients, and emulsified lipids, respectively.

  17. Scaling up the chemical treatment of spent oil-in-water emulsions from a non-ferrous metal-processing plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarević Vesna B.


    Full Text Available The treatment of spent oil-in-water emulsion (SOWE from a non-ferrous metal-processing plant by using aluminum sulfate and hydrated lime was studied to determine the purification efficiency, to optimize the operating conditions and to scale up the treatment process. The purification efficiency was estimated by comparing the compositions of the SOWE and the processed wastewater. The treatment efficiency does not depend on the type of mineral oil and filter aid. The optimum doses of aluminum sulfate and hydrated lime must be experimentally determined for each batch of SOWEs, but the results obtained at laboratory level are applicable at pilot level. The processed wastewater and the filter cake from the process can be safely disposed into public sewage systems and at municipal waste landfills, respectively. The purification efficiency was higher than 98% with respect to total suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand and oil and grease, and was comparable to the known treatment processes based on coagulation/flocculation followed by sedimentation.

  18. Feasibility evaluation of neutron capture therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma using selective enhancement of boron accumulation in tumour with intra-arterial administration of boron-entrapped water-in-oil-in-water emulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagie, Hironobu, E-mail: [Dept of Nuclear Engineering and Management, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)] [Cooperative Unit of Medicine and Engineering, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Kumada, Hiroaki [Proton Medical Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Nakamura, Takemi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Ibaraki (Japan); Higashi, Syushi [Dept of Surgery, Ebihara Memorial Hospital, Miyazaki (Japan)] [Kyushu Industrial Sources Foundation, Miyazaki (Japan); Ikushima, Ichiro [Dept of Radiology, Miyakonojyo Metropolitan Hospital, Miyazaki (Japan); Morishita, Yasuyuki [Dept of Human and Molecular Pathology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Shinohara, Atsuko [Dept of Humanities, Graduate School of Seisen University, Tokyo (Japan); Fijihara, Mitsuteru [SPG Techno Ltd. Co., Miyazaki (Japan); Suzuki, Minoru; Sakurai, Yoshinori [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Osaka (Japan); Sugiyama, Hirotaka [Cooperative Unit of Medicine and Engineering, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Kajiyama, Tetsuya [Kyushu Industrial Sources Foundation, Miyazaki (Japan); Nishimura, Ryohei [Dept of Veternary Surgery, University of Tokyo Veternary Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Ono, Koji [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Osaka (Japan); Nakajima, Jun; Ono, Minoru [Dept of Cardiothracic Surgery, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Eriguchi, Masazumi [Cooperative Unit of Medicine and Engineering, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)] [Department of Surgery, Shin-Yamanote Hospital, Saitama (Japan); Takahashi, Hiroyuki [Dept of Nuclear Engineering and Management, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)] [Cooperative Unit of Medicine and Engineering, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)


    Introduction: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most difficult to cure with surgery, chemotherapy, or other combinational therapies. In the treatment of HCC, only 30% patients can be operated due to complication of liver cirrhosis or multiple intrahepatic tumours. Tumour cell destruction in boron neutron-capture therapy (BNCT) is due to the nuclear reaction between {sup 10}B atoms and thermal neutrons, so it is necessary to accumulate a sufficient quantity of {sup 10}B atoms in tumour cells for effective tumour cell destruction by BNCT. Water-in-oil-in-water (WOW) emulsion has been used as the carrier of anti-cancer agents on intra-arterial injections in clinical. In this study, we prepared {sup 10}BSH entrapped WOW emulsion by double emulsifying technique using iodized poppy-seed oil (IPSO), {sup 10}BSH and surfactant, for selective intra-arterial infusion to HCC, and performed simulations of the irradiation in order to calculate the dose delivered to the patients. Materials and methods: WOW emulsion was administrated with intra-arterial injections via proper hepatic artery on VX-2 rabbit hepatic tumour models. We simulated the irradiation of epithermal neutron and calculated the dose delivered to the tissues with JAEA computational dosimetry system (JCDS) at JRR4 reactor of Japan Atomic Research Institute, using the CT scans of a HCC patient. Results and discussions: The {sup 10}B concentrations in VX-2 tumour obtained by delivery with WOW emulsion were superior to those by conventional IPSO mix emulsion. According to the rabbit model, the boron concentrations (ppm) in tumour, normal liver tissue, and blood are 61.7, 4.3, and 0.1, respectively. The results of the simulations show that normal liver biologically weighted dose is restricted to 4.9 Gy-Eq (CBE; liver tumour: 2.5, normal liver: 0.94); the maximum, minimum, and mean tumour weighted dose are 43.1, 7.3, and 21.8 Gy-Eq, respectively, in 40 min irradiation. In this study, we show that {sup 10}B

  19. Surface-active properties of lipophilic antioxidants tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol fatty acid esters: a potential explanation for the nonlinear hypothesis of the antioxidant activity in oil-in-water emulsions. (United States)

    Lucas, Ricardo; Comelles, Francisco; Alcántara, David; Maldonado, Olivia S; Curcuroze, Melanie; Parra, Jose L; Morales, Juan C


    Our group has recently observed a nonlinear tendency in antioxidant capacity of different hydroxytyrosol fatty acid esters in fish oil-in-water emulsions, where a maximum of antioxidant efficiency appeared for hydroxytyrosol octanoate. These results appear to disagree with the antioxidant polar paradox. Because the physical location of the antioxidants in an oil-water interface has been postulated as an important factor in explaining this behavior, we have prepared a series of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol fatty acid esters with different chain length and studied their surface-active properties in water, because these physicochemical parameters could be directly related to the preferential placement at the interface. We have found that tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol fatty acid esters are relevant surfactants when the right hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) is attained and, in some cases, as efficient as emulsifiers commonly used in industry, such as Brij 30 or Tween 20. Moreover, a nonlinear dependency of surfactant effectiveness is observed with the increase in chain length of the lipophilic antioxidants. This tendency seems to fit quite well with the reported antioxidant activity in emulsions, and the best antioxidant of the series (hydroxytyrosol octanoate) is also a very effective surfactant. This potential explanation of the nonlinear hypothesis will help in the rational design of antioxidants used in oil-in-water emulsions.

  20. Effects of visible and UV light on the characteristics and properties of crude oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions. (United States)

    Genuino, Homer C; Horvath, Dayton T; King'ondu, Cecil K; Hoag, George E; Collins, John B; Suib, Steven L


    The effects of visible and UV light on the characteristics and properties of Prudhoe Bay (PB) and South Louisiana (SL) emulsions were investigated to better understand the role of sunlight on the fate of spilled crude oils that form emulsions with a dispersant in the aquatic environment. Before irradiation, crude oil emulsions showed the presence of dispersed crude oil micelles in a continuous water phase and crude oil components floating on the surface. The crude oil micelles decreased in size with irradiation, but emulsions retained their high degree of polydispersity. UV irradiation reduced the stability of emulsions more effectively than visible light. The reduction of micelles size caused the viscosity of emulsions to increase and melting point to decrease. Further, irradiation increased acid concentrations and induced ion formation which lowered the pH and increased the conductivity of emulsions, respectively. Ni and Fe in PB emulsions were extracted from crude oil with UV irradiation, which may provide an efficient process for metal removal. The emulsions were stable toward freeze/thaw cycles and their melting temperatures generally decreased with irradiation. Evidence of ˙OH production existed when emulsions were exposed to UV but not to visible light. The presence of H(2)O(2) enhanced the photodegradation of crude oil. Overall, the changes in emulsion properties were attributed to direct photodegradation and photooxidation of crude oil components.

  1. Extraction of Antioxidants from Borage (Borago officinalis L. Leaves—Optimization by Response Surface Method and Application in Oil-in-Water Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Segovia


    Full Text Available Borage (Borago officinalis L. is a typical Spanish plant. During processing, 60% are leaves. The aim of this work is to model and optimize the extraction of polyphenol from borage leaves using the response surface method (RSM and to use this extract for application in emulsions. The responses were: total polyphenol content (TPC, antioxidant capacity by ORAC, and rosmarinic acid by HPLC. The ranges of the variables temperature, ethanol content and time were 50–90 °C, 0%–30%–60% ethanol (v/v, and 10–15 min. For ethanolic extraction, optimal conditions were at 75.9 °C, 52% ethanol and 14.8 min, yielding activity of 27.05 mg GAE/g DW TPC; 115.96 mg TE/g DW in ORAC and 11.02 mg/L rosmarinic acid. For water extraction, optimal activity was achieved with extraction at 98.3 °C and 22 min, with responses of 22.3 mg GAE/g DW TPC; 81.6 mg TE/g DW in ORAC and 3.9 mg/L rosmarinic acid. The significant variables were ethanol concentration and temperature. For emulsions, the peroxide value was inhibited by 60% for 3% extract concentration; and 80% with 3% extract concentration and 0.2% of BSA. The p-anisidine value between the control and the emulsion with 3% extract was reduced to 73.6% and with BSA 86.3%, and others concentrations had similar behavior.

  2. Extraction of Antioxidants from Borage (Borago officinalis L.) Leaves—Optimization by Response Surface Method and Application in Oil-in-Water Emulsions (United States)

    Segovia, Francisco; Lupo, Bryshila; Peiró, Sara; Gordon, Michael H.; Almajano, María Pilar


    Borage (Borago officinalis L.) is a typical Spanish plant. During processing, 60% are leaves. The aim of this work is to model and optimize the extraction of polyphenol from borage leaves using the response surface method (RSM) and to use this extract for application in emulsions. The responses were: total polyphenol content (TPC), antioxidant capacity by ORAC, and rosmarinic acid by HPLC. The ranges of the variables temperature, ethanol content and time were 50–90 °C, 0%–30%–60% ethanol (v/v), and 10–15 min. For ethanolic extraction, optimal conditions were at 75.9 °C, 52% ethanol and 14.8 min, yielding activity of 27.05 mg GAE/g DW TPC; 115.96 mg TE/g DW in ORAC and 11.02 mg/L rosmarinic acid. For water extraction, optimal activity was achieved with extraction at 98.3 °C and 22 min, with responses of 22.3 mg GAE/g DW TPC; 81.6 mg TE/g DW in ORAC and 3.9 mg/L rosmarinic acid. The significant variables were ethanol concentration and temperature. For emulsions, the peroxide value was inhibited by 60% for 3% extract concentration; and 80% with 3% extract concentration and 0.2% of BSA. The p-anisidine value between the control and the emulsion with 3% extract was reduced to 73.6% and with BSA 86.3%, and others concentrations had similar behavior. PMID:26784875

  3. Physical and oxidative stability of high fat fish oil-in-water emulsions stabilized with combinations of sodium caseinate and sodium alginate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yesiltas, Betül; García Moreno, Pedro Jesús; Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke


    of primary oxidation products in the emulsions was very low (0.93 meq peroxides/kg oil). Secondary oxidation products were detected in small amounts (formulation concerning physical parameters was suggested as 61.8% fish oil content, 1.4% total stabilizer and 1...... of high fat emulsions when compared to low fat delivery emulsions. This results in minor changes of the product's original structure. Examples for enrichment of food products with omega-3 are dressings, cream cheese, yoghurt and mayonnaise....

  4. In line monitoring of the preparation of water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) type multiple emulsions via dielectric spectroscopy. (United States)

    Beer, Sebastian; Dobler, Dorota; Gross, Alexander; Ost, Martin; Elseberg, Christiane; Maeder, Ulf; Schmidts, Thomas Michael; Keusgen, Michael; Fiebich, Martin; Runkel, Frank


    Multiple emulsions offer various applications in a wide range of fields such as pharmaceutical, cosmetics and food technology. Two features are known to yield a great influence on multiple emulsion quality and utility as encapsulation efficiency and prolonged stability. To achieve a prolonged stability, the production of the emulsions has to be observed and controlled, preferably in line. In line measurements provide available parameters in a short time frame without the need for the sample to be removed from the process stream, thereby enabling continuous process control. In this study, information about the physical state of multiple emulsions obtained from dielectric spectroscopy (DS) is evaluated for this purpose. Results from dielectric measurements performed in line during the production cycle are compared to theoretically expected results and to well established off line measurements. Thus, a first step to include the production of multiple emulsions into the process analytical technology (PAT) guidelines of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is achieved. DS proved to be beneficial in determining the crucial stopping criterion, which is essential in the production of multiple emulsions. The stopping of the process at a less-than-ideal point can severely lower the encapsulation efficiency and the stability, thereby lowering the quality of the emulsion. DS is also expected to provide further information about the multiple emulsion like encapsulation efficiency.

  5. Effect of lyophilized water extracts of Melissa officinalis on the stability of algae and linseed oil-in-water emulsion to be used as a functional ingredient in meat products. (United States)

    de Ciriano, Mikel García-Iñiguez; Rehecho, Sheyla; Calvo, Maria Isabel; Cavero, Rita Yolanda; Navarro, Iñigo; Astiasarán, Iciar; Ansorena, Diana


    Previous work pointed out the possibility to enhance the nutritional value of meat products using long chain omega-3 PUFA enriched emulsions. Oil-in-water emulsions elaborated with a mixture of algae and linseed oils (15:10) in order to be used as functional ingredient were stabilized with BHA (butylhydroxyanisol) or with a lyophilized water extract of Melissa officinalis L. (Lemon balm). The lipid profile of the oil mixture showed a high amount of DHA (31.7%), oleic (25.4%) and alpha-linolenic acid (12.7%) resulting in a very low omega-6/omega-3 ratio (0.12). The lyophilized extract of M. officinalis showed a high antioxidant activity (being 62ppm of the lyophilized water extract of Melissa equivalent to 200ppm of BHA, using the DPPH assay as reference), and high total phenolic content. Studying the oxidation process in the emulsions during 15days at room temperature, it could be concluded that this extract was as efficient as BHA in order to control the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) formation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Development of a water-in-oil-in-water multiple emulsion system integrating biomimetic aqueous-core lipid nanodroplets for protein entity stabilization. Part II: process and product characterization. (United States)

    Glasser, Cássia A; Vila, Marta M D C; Pereira, Júlio C; Chaud, Marco V; Oliveira Júnior, José M; Tubino, Matthieu; Balcão, Victor M


    The aqueous-core enclosed in lipid nanoballoons integrating multiple emulsions of the type water-in-oil-in-water mimic, at least in theory, the environment within viable cells, thus being suitable for housing hydrophilic protein entities such as bioactive proteins, peptides and bacteriophage particles. This study reports a complete physicochemical characterization of optimized biomimetic aqueous-core lipid nanoballoons housing hydrophilic (BSA) protein entities, evolved from a statistical 2(3)×3(1) factorial design study (three variables at two levels and one variable at three levels) that was the subject of the first paper of a series of three, aiming at complete stabilization of the three-dimensional structure of protein entities attempted via housing the said molecular entities within biomimetic aqueous-core lipid nanoballoons integrating a multiple (W/O/W) emulsion. The statistical factorial design followed led to the production of an optimum W/O/W multiple emulsion possessing quite homogeneous particles with an average hydrodynamic size of (186.2 ± 2.6) nm and average Zeta potential of (-36.5 ± 0.9) mV, and exhibiting a polydispersity index of 0.206 ± 0.014. Additionally, the results obtained for the diffusion coefficient of the lipid nanoballoons integrating the optimized W/O/W multiple emulsion were comparable and of the same order of magnitude (10(-12) m(2) s(-1)) as those published by other authors since, typically, diffusion coefficients for molecules range from 10(-10) to 10(-7) m(2) s(-1), but diffusion coefficients for nanoparticles are typically of the order of magnitude of 10(-12) m(2) s(-1).

  7. Application of neutron capture autoradiography to Boron Delivery seeking techniques for selective accumulation of boron compounds to tumor with intra-arterial administration of boron entrapped water-in-oil-in-water emulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikado, S. [Physical Science Laboratories, College of Industrial Technology, Nihon University, Chiba (Japan)], E-mail:; Yanagie, H. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Cooperative Unit of Medicine and Engineering, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Yasuda, N. [Fundamental Technology Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Higashi, S.; Ikushima, I. [Miyakonojyo Metropolitan Hospital, Miyazaki (Japan); Mizumachi, R.; Murata, Y. [Department of Pharmacology, Kumamoto Institute Branch, Mitsubishi Chemical Safety Institute Ltd., Kumamoto (Japan); Morishita, Y. [Department of Human and Molecular Pathology, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Nishimura, R. [Faculty of Agriculture, Laboratory of Veterinary Surgery, University of Tokyo (Japan); Shinohara, A. [Department of Humanities, The Graduate School of Seisen University, Tokyo (Japan); Ogura, K. [Physical Science Laboratories, College of Industrial Technology, Nihon University, Chiba (Japan); Sugiyama, H. [Cooperative Unit of Medicine and Engineering, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Iikura, H.; Ando, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki (Japan); Ishimoto, M. [Department of Nuclear Professional School, University of Tokyo (Japan); Takamoto, S. [Cooperative Unit of Medicine and Engineering, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Cardiac Surgery, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Eriguchi, M. [Cooperative Unit of Medicine and Engineering, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Microbiology, Syowa University School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokyo (Japan); Takahashi, H. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Cooperative Unit of Medicine and Engineering, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Kimura, M. [Department of Physics, Toho University, Chiba (Japan)


    It is necessary to accumulate the {sup 10}B atoms selectively to the tumor cells for effective Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). In order to achieve an accurate measurement of {sup 10}B accumulations in the biological samples, we employed a technique of neutron capture autoradiography (NCAR) of sliced samples of tumor tissues using CR-39 plastic track detectors. The CR-39 track detectors attached with the biological samples were exposed to thermal neutrons in the thermal column of the JRR3 of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). We obtained quantitative NCAR images of the samples for VX-2 tumor in rabbit liver after injection of {sup 10}BSH entrapped water-in-oil-in-water (WOW) emulsion by intra-arterial injection via proper hepatic artery. The {sup 10}B accumulations and distributions in VX-2 tumor and normal liver of rabbit were investigated by means of alpha-track density measurements. In this study, we showed the selective accumulation of {sup 10}B atoms in the VX-2 tumor by intra-arterial injection of {sup 10}B entrapped WOW emulsion until 3 days after injection by using digitized NCAR images (i.e. alpha-track mapping)

  8. Monodisperse Water-in-Oil-in-Water (W/O/W Double Emulsion Droplets as Uniform Compartments for High-Throughput Analysis via Flow Cytometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yan


    Full Text Available Here we report the application of monodisperse double emulsion droplets, produced in a single step within partially hydrophilic/partially hydrophobic microfluidic devices, as defined containers for quantitative flow cytometric analysis. Samples with varying fluorophore concentrations were generated, and a clear correlation between dye concentration and fluorescence signals was observed.

  9. [Research on Analysis of Oil in Water Based on the Joint Optimization of Savitzky-Golay Smoothing and IBPLS Models]. (United States)

    Hou, Pei-guo; Li, Ning; Chang, Jiang; Wang, Shu-tao; Song, Tao


    Rapidly and accurately detection of the type and content of mineral oil in water pollution has important significance for the timely screening and control of pollution sources. The use of infrared spectral analysisi technology to detect mineral oil has advantanges of efficient, fast and pollution-free. Infrared spectrum technology is very for the detection of mineral oil in the water. In order to obtain a more reliable results, Fourier transforms attenuated total reflection infrared spectrometry (FITR-ATR) technology is used to get the spectral information of the mineral oil sample, and SPXY method is used to divide the sample set. The paper not only analyzed partial least squares (PLS) and iterative Bagging partial least squares (IBPLS) the two different methods to build regression model, also compared the difference of using the method of the combination of Savitzky-Golay (SG) smoothing and the method of a single iterative Bagging partial least squares (IBPLS) regression model. Based on the comparison of the predictive regression curve, we can get that the SG smooth has a better reflection on the results. And when the method of the combination of Savitzky-Golay (SG) smoothing and the method of a single iterative Bagging partial least squares (IBPLS) is used to build the regression model, the gasoline model parameters RMSEP is 0.001 125 g x mL(-1), R is 0.992 5; diesel model parameters RMSEP is 0.001 384 g x mL(-1), R is 0.989 3.

  10. Effect of high-pressure homogenization preparation on mean globule size and large-diameter tail of oil-in-water injectable emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Peng


    Full Text Available The effect of different high pressure homogenization energy input parameters on mean diameter droplet size (MDS and droplets with > 5 μm of lipid injectable emulsions were evaluated. All emulsions were prepared at different water bath temperatures or at different rotation speeds and rotor-stator system times, and using different homogenization pressures and numbers of high-pressure system recirculations. The MDS and polydispersity index (PI value of the emulsions were determined using the dynamic light scattering (DLS method, and large-diameter tail assessments were performed using the light-obscuration/single particle optical sensing (LO/SPOS method. Using 1000 bar homogenization pressure and seven recirculations, the energy input parameters related to the rotor-stator system will not have an effect on the final particle size results. When rotor-stator system energy input parameters are fixed, homogenization pressure and recirculation will affect mean particle size and large diameter droplet. Particle size will decrease with increasing homogenization pressure from 400 bar to 1300 bar when homogenization recirculation is fixed; when the homogenization pressure is fixed at 1000 bar, the particle size of both MDS and percent of fat droplets exceeding 5 μm (PFAT5 will decrease with increasing homogenization recirculations, MDS dropped to 173 nm after five cycles and maintained this level, volume-weighted PFAT5 will drop to 0.038% after three cycles, so the “plateau” of MDS will come up later than that of PFAT5, and the optimal particle size is produced when both of them remained at plateau. Excess homogenization recirculation such as nine times under the 1000 bar may lead to PFAT5 increase to 0.060% rather than a decrease; therefore, the high-pressure homogenization procedure is the key factor affecting the particle size distribution of emulsions. Varying storage conditions (4–25°C also influenced particle size, especially the PFAT

  11. Transport de pétroles bruts lourds sous forme d'émulsion huile dans eau Transporting Heavy Crude Oils in Oil in Water Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briant J.


    Full Text Available Des études préliminaires concernant le comportement visqueux d'émulsions d'un pétrole lourd très visqueux (Boscan, Venezuela dans de l'eau additionnée d'un tensioactif anionique ont été réalisées. Elles montrent que, pour la gamme des vitesses de cisaillement existant dans le transport par oléoduc, des réductions de viscosité de plusieurs ordres de grandeur par rapport à la viscosité du pétrole peuvent être obtenues avec des fractions volumiques de la phase dispersée de l'ordre de 60 %. This article describes a preliminary research on the viscous behavior of emulsions of a highly viscous heavy crude oil (Boscan, Venezuela in water containing an anionic surfactant. In the range of the shear rates usually encountered in pipelines, it is shown that the viscosity can be reduced by several orders of magnitude as compared with the crude oil viscosity, and th is for volume fractions of the dispersed phase in the range of 60%.

  12. Physicochemical properties of three different oil in water emulsions%三种不同脂肪酸组成的油脂乳化液的理化性质研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱波; 蒋将; 李进伟; 孟宗; 刘元法


    研究了以天然豌豆蛋白(NPPI)及pH12偏移处理豌豆蛋白(BPPI)作为乳化剂,与三种不饱和脂肪酸含量差异很大的植物油(山茶油、葵花籽油和亚麻籽油)形成O/W乳化液,探讨蛋白改性和植物油种类对乳状液的乳化性能、氧化稳定性、流变性能和微观结构的影响.结果表明,BPPI有利于改善乳状液的理化性质.富含油酸的山茶油乳状液的氧化稳定性较好,但乳化稳定性最差,富含亚麻酸的亚麻籽油乳化液则相反,实际应用中可选择营养丰富、价格低廉的葵花籽油作为乳化液的油相.对开发高附加值的豌豆蛋白产品及拓宽其应用领域有一定的现实意义.%Native pea protein isolate (NPPI) and pH12-shifting pea protein isolate (BPPI) as emuLsifiers,were used to form oil-in-water emuLsions with three vegetable oils(camellia oil,sunflower seed oil,linseed oil) which contained remarkable different unsaturated fatty acid content.The effect of structurally-modified PPI and vegetable oil types on emuLsifying properties,antioxidant activity,rheological properties and microstructure were investigated.The result showed that BPPI was beneficial to improve the physicochemical properties.The oxidative stability of camellia oil emulsion was the best and the emuLsion stability was the worst,which was contrary of linseed oil emuLsion.In practical application,sunflower seed oil could be as the oil phase of emuLsion.The ultimate goal was to develop the expansion of the utility of pea proteins as value-added functional products.

  13. Impact of acoustic cavitation on food emulsions. (United States)

    Krasulya, Olga; Bogush, Vladimir; Trishina, Victoria; Potoroko, Irina; Khmelev, Sergey; Sivashanmugam, Palani; Anandan, Sambandam


    The work explores the experimental and theoretical aspects of emulsification capability of ultrasound to deliver stable emulsions of sunflower oil in water and meat sausages. In order to determine optimal parameters for direct ultrasonic emulsification of food emulsions, a model was developed based on the stability of emulsion droplets in acoustic cavitation field. The study is further extended to investigate the ultrasound induced changes to the inherent properties of raw materials under the experimental conditions of sono-emulsification.

  14. Applications of p-adics to geophysics: Linear and quasilinear diffusion of water-in-oil and oil-in-water emulsions (United States)

    Oleschko, K.; Khrennikov, A. Yu.


    In a very general setting, we discuss possibilities of applying p-adics to geophysics using a p-adic diffusion representation of the master equations for the dynamics of a fluid in capillaries in porous media and formulate several mathematical problems motivated by such applications. We stress that p-adic wavelets are a powerful tool for obtaining analytic solutions of diffusion equations. Because p-adic diffusion is a special case of fractional diffusion, which is closely related to the fractal structure of the configuration space, p-adic geophysics can be regarded as a new approach to fractal modeling of geophysical processes.

  15. Ultrafiltration of oil-in-water emulsions and cyclohexane microemulsions using a rotating disk system; Ultrafiltration d'emulsions huile-eau et de microemulsions de cyclohexane par un systeme a disque rotatif

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moulai-Mostefa, N. [Centre Universitaire Yahia Fares, Ain D' Heb, Medea (Algeria); Brou, A.; Ding, L.H.; Jaffrin, M.Y. [Universite de Technologie de Compiegne, UMR CNRS 6600, Dept. Genie Bilogique, 60 (France)


    Oil separation from oil-water effluents containing secondary emulsions is very difficult by traditional techniques and requires using ultrafiltration through a membrane. Oil-water emulsions were ultra-filtered using a prototype of a rotating disk dynamic filtration system equipped with a 190 cm{sup 2} 50 kDa circular membrane. The turbidity of initial solution at 4%wt oil concentration (21 900 NTU) dropped to 2 NTU in the permeate after 15 min of filtration, representing an oil rejection coefficient of 99.5%. Permeate fluxes increased with disk rotation speed to reach 90 l.h{sup -1}.m{sup -2} at 2000 rpm and 24 deg. C. The addition of 6 mm vanes on the disk increased the permeate flux by 100% at the same speed. Micro emulsions were composed of 4 to 20% of cyclohexane, 0.5 to 16% of 2-butanol and 0.25 to 8% of dodecyl sodium sulphate (SDS) in pure water. Permeate fluxes, which were very high (200 l.h{sup -1}.m{sup -2}) at 2000 rpm with a smooth disk and the most dilute solution, dropped to 15 l.h{sup -1}.m{sup -2} for the most concentrated one. Addition of vanes permitted to increase these fluxes by 100%. (authors)

  16. Optimization of cell-wall skeleton derived from Mycobacterium bovis BCG Tokyo 172 (SMP-105) emulsion in delayed-type hypersensitivity and antitumor models. (United States)

    Miyauchi, M; Murata, M; Fukushima, A; Sato, T; Nakagawa, M; Fujii, T; Koseki, N; Chiba, N; Kashiwazaki, Y


    Cell-wall skeleton prepared from Mycobacterium bovis BCG (BCG-CWS) is known as a potent adjuvant and has been shown to possess antitumor activity in many non-clinical and clinical studies. As there are no approved BCG-CWS formulations for cancer therapy, we investigated the potential for cancer immunotherapy of SMP-105, our originally produced BCG-CWS. For optimizing SMP-105 emulsion, we compared the effects of drakeoland squalane-based SMP-105 emulsions on IFN-γ production in rats and evaluated their ability to induce skin reaction in guinea pigs. Both emulsions had the same activity in both experiments. We selected squalane as base material and produced two types of squalane-based formulations (vialed emulsion and pumped emulsion) that can easily be prepared as oil-in-water emulsions. Although the vialed emulsion showed the same pattern of distribution as a usual homogenized emulsion, the pumped emulsion showed more uniform distribution than the other two emulsions. Whereas both emulsions enhanced strong delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction in a mouse model, the pumped emulsion induced slightly smaller edema. Data on oil droplet size distribution suggest that few micrometer oil droplet size might be appropriate for oil-in-water microemulsion of SMP-105. The antitumor potency of SMP-105 emulsion was stronger than that of some of the launched toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists (Aldara cream, Picibanil, and Immunobladder). Aldara and Picibanil showed limited antitumor effectiveness, while Immunobladder had almost the same effect as SMP-105 at the highest dose, but needed about 10 times the amount of SMP-105. These findings first indicate that SMP-105 has great potential in cancer immunotherapy.

  17. High pressure versus heat treatments for pasteurisation and sterilisation of model emulsions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, van der C.; Courvoisier, C.; Matser, A.M.


    Heat treatments can have considerable influence on the droplet size distribution of oil-in-water emulsions. In the present study, high-pressure (HP) pasteurisation and sterilisation were evaluated as alternatives for heat preservation of emulsions. HP conditions used were 600 MPa, 5 min, room temper

  18. Aging mechanism in model Pickering emulsion (United States)

    Fouilloux, Sarah; Malloggi, Florent; Daillant, Jean; Thill, Antoine

    We study the stability of a model Pickering emulsion system. A special counter-flow microfluidics set-up was used to prepare monodisperse Pickering emulsions, with oil droplets in water. The wettability of the monodisperse silica nanoparticles (NPs) could be tuned by surface grafting and the surface coverage of the droplets was controlled using the microfluidics setup. A surface coverage as low as 23$\\%$ is enough to stabilize the emulsions and we evidence a new regime of Pickering emulsion stability where the surface coverage of emulsion droplets of constant size increases in time, in coexistence with a large amount of dispersed phase. Our results demonstrate that the previously observed limited coalescence regime where surface coverage tends to control the average size of the final droplets must be put in a broader perspective.

  19. Impact of model fat emulsions on sensory perception using repeated spoon to spoon ingestion. (United States)

    Appelqvist, I A M; Poelman, A A M; Cochet-Broch, M; Delahunty, C M


    Eating is a dynamic behaviour, in which food interacts with the mechanical and physiological environment of the mouth. This dynamic interaction changes the oral surfaces leaving particles of food and building up a film on the oral surfaces, which may impact on the temporal perception during the eating experience. The effect of repeated spoon to spoon ingestion of oil in water emulsion products (2%-50% w/w oil) was evaluated using descriptive in-mouth and after swallowing sensory attributes. Descriptive sensory analysis indicated that fatty mouthfeel and afterfeel perception (measured post swallowing) increased with the number of spoonfuls for emulsions containing 50% fat. This effect is likely due to the build-up of oil droplet layers deposited on the mouth surfaces. There was an enhancement of fatty afterfeel intensity for 50% fat emulsions containing the more lipophilic aroma ethylhexanoate compared to ethyl butanoate, indicating a cross-modal interaction. No increase in these attributes from spoon to spoon was observed for the low oil emulsions; since most of the oil in the emulsion was swallowed and very little oil was likely to be left in the mouth. Sweetness perception increased as fat level increased in the emulsion due to an increase in the effective concentration of sugar in the aqueous phase. However, the sweetness perceived did not change from spoon to spoon, suggesting that any oil-droplets deposited on the oral surfaces did not form a complete barrier, restricting access of the sucrose to the taste buds. This study highlights the importance of measuring the dynamic nature of eating and demonstrated change in sensory perception occurring with repeated ingestion of model emulsions, which was likely due to a change in mouth environment.

  20. Developing an emulsion model system containing canthaxanthin biosynthesized by Dietzia natronolimnaea HS-1. (United States)

    Gharibzahedi, Seyed Mohammad Taghi; Razavi, Seyed Hadi; Mousavi, Seyed Mohammad


    An acceptable strategy to incorporate canthaxanthin (CX) as a natural colorant into products is by means of oil-in-water emulsions. The used CX in this study was produced by bacterium Dietzia natronolimnaea HS-1 using a batch bioreactor system. A central composite rotatable design-response surface methodology (CCRD-RSM) consisting of three-factored factorial design with five levels was applied for analysis of the results to obtain the optimal formulation of emulsions. Three independent variables including fenugreek gum (FG, 0.2-0.5%, w/w), coconut oil (CO, 6-10%, w/w), and CO/CX ratio (10:1-50:1) were transformed to coded values and second-order polynomial models was developed to predict the responses (pproperties such as volume-weighted mean diameter (D₄₃), specific surface area (S(v)) and polydispersity index (PDI) of emulsions. The 3-D response surface plot derived from the mathematical models was used to determine the optimal conditions. Main emulsion components under the optimum conditions ascertained presently by RSM: 50:1 CO/CX ratio, 0.49% (w/w) FG content and 6.28% (w/w) CO concentration. At this optimum point, stability, viscosity, D₄₃, S(v) and PDI were 90.6%, 0.0118 Pas, 0.595 μm, 12.03 m²/ml and 1.380, respectively.

  1. High pressure inactivation of Clostridium botulinum type E endospores in model emulsion systems (United States)

    Schnabel, Juliane; Lenz, Christian A.; Vogel, Rudi F.


    Clostridium botulinum type E is a cold-tolerant, neurotoxigenic, endospore-forming organism, primarily associated with aquatic environments. High pressure thermal (HPT) processing presents a promising tool to enhance food safety and stability. The effect of fat on HPT inactivation of C. botulinum type E spores was investigated using an emulsion model system. The distribution of spores in oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions and their HPT (300-750 MPa, 45-75 °C, 10 min) inactivation was determined as a function of emulsion fat content (30-70% (v/v) soybean oil in buffer). Approximately 26% and 74% of the spores were located at the oil-buffer interface and the continuous phase, respectively. Spore inactivation in emulsion systems decreased with increasing oil contents, which suggests that the fat content of food plays an important role in the protection of C. botulinum type E endospores against HPT treatments. These results can be helpful for future safety considerations. This paper was presented at the 8th International Conference on High Pressure Bioscience & Biotechnology (HPBB 2014), in Nantes (France), 15-18 July 2014.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available There are many developed strategies in the emulsion stability evaluation, for purpose of determining the life circle of emulsions. Most of them are based on the reological properties of the emulsions. There are very few which relay on the direct emulsion observations. In this paper we present the developed method for the emulsion stability evaluation by the direct observation of optical properties. As the stability quantification measure we propose the fractal dimension approach. The method is based on the measure of the emulsion transmittance properties, which are directly dependent on the emulsion stability at the moment of measurement. As the test emulsion the oil in the water emulsion was used. The system is classified as the stable emulsion and our intention was to find the moment when the emulsion starts to break. The emulsion transmittance properties were measured using an acquisition system, consisting of a CCD camera and a fast PC configuration equipped with the capturing software. The fractal dimensions were determined by the so called box counting method. The experimental emulsions were measured continuously within the period of 1200 h, from the moment of the emulsion creation. The changes of fractal dimensions were observed which indicates that the emulsion changed its state and therefore the stability during the time. Three regions of the emulsion life circle were divided according to the fractal dimensions measurement, which can be connected with the stable, unstable, and meta-stable states of the emulsion life circle. In the end, the model of the emulsion behavior was developed for the purpose of quantifying the changes in the experimental emulsion.

  3. A multi-module microfluidic platform for continuous pre-concentration of water-soluble ions and separation of oil droplets from oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions using a DC-biased AC electrokinetic technique. (United States)

    Das, Dhiman; Phan, Dinh-Tuan; Zhao, Yugang; Kang, Yuejun; Chan, Vincent; Yang, Chun


    A novel continuous flow microfluidic platform specifically designed for environmental monitoring of O/W emulsions during an aftermath of oil spills is reported herein. Ionized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons which are toxic are readily released from crude oil to the surrounding water phase through the smaller oil droplets with enhanced surface area. Hence, a multi-module microfluidic device is fabricated to form ion enrichment zones in the water phase of O/W emulsions for the ease of detection and to separate micron-sized oil droplets from the O/W emulsions. Fluorescein ions in the water phase are used to simulate the presence of these toxic ions in the O/W emulsion. A DC-biased AC electric field is employed in both modules. In the first module, a nanoporous Nafion membrane is used for activating the concentration polarization effect on the fluorescein ions, resulting in the formation of stable ion enrichment zones in the water phase of the emulsion. A 35.6% amplification of the fluorescent signal is achieved in the ion enrichment zone; corresponding to 100% enrichment of the fluorescent dye concentration. In this module, the main inlet is split into two channels by using a Y-junction so that there are two outlets for the oil droplets. The second module located downstream of the first module consists of two oil droplet entrapment zones at two outlets. By switching on the appropriate electrodes, either one of the two oil droplet entrapment zones can be activated and the droplets can be blocked in the corresponding outlet.

  4. 凹凸棒颗粒稳定的Pickering乳状液的制备条件及形成机理研究%Study on the Preparation Conditions of Olive Oil in Water Pickering Emulsions Stabilized by Attapulgite Particles and Formation Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈浩; 张晓优; 徐樟浩; 赵杰


    In this work, attapulgite was selected as emulsifier and the effects of pH value, particle concentration, volume fraction of oil phase and salts of different valences on stability of olive oil-in-water Pickering emulsion were systematically investigated. The results show that the pH value in the range of 4~9 favours the formation of stable emulsions. The increase in concentration of particles can enhance coalescence stability of emulsion. With the increasing volume fraction of oil phase, diameter of the emulsion droplets increases firstly and then decreases. Introduction of the inorganic salt into system doesn’t impact the volumes of the emulsion phase and water phase, but the size distribution of the emulsion droplets are significantly affected. Herein, the increase of NaCl concentration is conducive to the increase in average diameter of emulsion droplets. While CaCl2 concentration increases, average diameter of emulsion droplets increases first and then decreases. Microscope image shows attapulgite particles are mainly attached in the oil-water interface through network structure of aggregates, which plays a role in stabilizing emulsion droplets.%  选取凹凸棒作为乳化剂,系统研究pH值、颗粒质量分数、油相体积分数以及不同价态盐对橄榄油/水型Pickering乳状液稳定性的影响。结果表明,体系pH值在4~9范围内可制备出稳定的乳状液;颗粒质量分数提高可增强乳液的分层和聚结稳定性;乳液液滴直径随油相体积分数的增加先增大后减小;无机盐的引入不会对乳液相及水相体积产生影响,但对乳液液滴的尺寸分布影响显著,其中NaCl浓度的增加有利于乳状液液滴数均直径的增加,而CaCl2浓度增加时,乳状液液滴数均直径呈现先增大后减小的变化趋势。显微镜图片显示,凹凸棒颗粒主要以聚集体网状结构的方式附着在油-水界面处,从而起到稳定乳液液滴的效果。

  5. Spontaneous oil-in-water emulsification induced by charge-stabilized dispersions of various inorganic colloids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sacanna, S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/311471676; Kegel, W.K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/113729464; Philipse, A.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073532894


    Charge-stabilized dispersions of inorganic colloids are shown to induce spontaneous emulsification of hydrophobic (TPM) molecules to stable oil-in-water emulsions, with monodisperse, mesoscopic oil droplet diameters in the range of 30-150 nm, irrespective of the polydispersity of the starting

  6. Thermodynamically Stable Pickering Emulsions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sacanna, S.; Kegel, W.K.; Philipse, A.P.


    We show that under appropriate conditions, mixtures of oil, water, and nanoparticles form thermodynamically stable oil-in-water emulsions with monodisperse droplet diameters in the range of 30–150 nm. This observation challenges current wisdom that so-called Pickering emulsions are at most metastabl

  7. An overview of Preparation, Evaluation and Applications of Multiple Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandip Prajapati


    Full Text Available Multiple emulsions are also known as emulsions of emulsions, liquid membrane system or double emulsion. Multiple emulsions are polydispersed systems where both oil in water & water in oil emulsions exist simultaneously. This review focuses on preparation, characterization and potential applications of multiple emulsions. Multiple emulsions can be classified as water-in oil-in water (W/O/W or oil-in-water-in-oil (O/W/O emulsions. This review described five methods to prepare multiple emulsions viz. two-step emulsification method, modified two-step emulsification method, phase inversion method, membrane emulsification & micro channel emulsification method. The Multiple emulsion is characterized by average globule size & size distribution, area of interfaces, number of globules, rheological evaluation, zeta potential, percentage drug entrapment, In-vitro drug release. Multiple emulsions have been proposed to have numerous uses including their use as prolonged drug delivery system.

  8. Stability of β-carotene in protein-stabilized oil-in-water delivery systems. (United States)

    Cornacchia, Leonardo; Roos, Yrjo H


    Inclusion of liposoluble bioactive compounds in fortified foods represents a complex challenge due to the labile nature of such compounds and the instability of oil-in-water emulsion-based delivery systems. In the present study, dispersions prepared with 10% (w/w) sunflower oil (SO) or hydrogenated palm kernel oil (HPKO) containing 0.05% (w/w) β-carotene were stabilized by various concentrations of whey protein isolate (WPI) or sodium caseinate (NaCas) (0.1 to 2.0% w/w) in 30% (w/w) sucrose aqueous solutions. Physicochemical characterization of emulsions was done considering the particle size, the particle surface protein coverage, and the physical state of continuous and dispersed phases. Physical stability of the systems and their protection properties on β-carotene were compared. The lipid carrier type and interfacial structure were investigated as the two key factors which regulate the stability of labile lipophilic bioactive molecules in food model systems. Our results showed high β-carotene stability when O/W systems were stable (protein concentration ≥0.8% w/w.) A (partially) solid lipid carrier (HPKO) enhanced protection compared to the liquid carrier (SO) as the bioactive molecules were entrapped in isolated domains within the solid lattice and kept apart from reactive species in the surroundings. NaCas provided a better barrier than WPI due to the different amino acid composition and interface structure which significantly reduced β-carotene degradation rate.

  9. Oscillating flux in petroleum emulsions irradiated with laser; Flujo oscilatorio en emulsiones de petroleo irradiadas con laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, G. Da; Parra, J.E.; Mosqueda, F. [Departamento de Fisica, Laboratorio de Optica y Fluidos, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Apartado Postal 89000, Caracas 1080-A, (Venezuela)]. e-mail:; Romanelli, A.; Sicardi-Schifino, A. [Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Julio Herrera y Reissig 565, Montevideo, (Uruguay)]. e-mail


    Oil-in-water emulsions are irradiated with a Cw laser beam. A floating oil layer grows up in the water free surface. Laser-induced wave propagation in the oil layer gives rise to space-time self-modulation of the reflected light beam. A theoretical model explains main features of observed phenomena. (Author)

  10. Altering Emulsion Stability with Heterogeneous Surface Wettability (United States)

    Meng, Qiang; Zhang, Yali; Li, Jiang; Lammertink, Rob G. H.; Chen, Haosheng; Tsai, Peichun Amy


    Emulsions–liquid droplets dispersed in another immiscible liquid–are widely used in a broad spectrum of applications, including food, personal care, agrochemical, and pharmaceutical products. Emulsions are also commonly present in natural crude oil, hampering the production and quality of petroleum fuels. The stability of emulsions plays a crucial role in their applications, but controlling the stability without external driving forces has been proven to be difficult. Here we show how heterogeneous surface wettability can alter the stability and dynamics of oil-in-water emulsions, generated by a co-flow microfluidic device. We designed a useful methodology that can modify a micro-capillary of desired heterogeneous wettability (e.g., alternating hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions) without changing the hydraulic diameter. We subsequently investigated the effects of flow rates and heterogeneous wettability on the emulsion morphology and motion. The experimental data revealed a universal critical timescale of advective emulsions, above which the microfluidic emulsions remain stable and intact, whereas below they become adhesive or inverse. A simple theoretical model based on a force balance can be used to explain this critical transition of emulsion dynamics, depending on the droplet size and the Capillary number–the ratio of viscous to surface effects. These results give insight into how to control the stability and dynamics of emulsions in microfluidics with flow velocity and different wettability.

  11. Influence of Droplet Size on Exergy Destruction in Flow of Concentrated Non-Newtonian Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajinder Pal


    Full Text Available The influence of droplet size on exergy destruction rate in flow of highly concentrated oil-in-water emulsions was investigated experimentally in a cone and plate geometry. The oil concentration was fixed at 74.5% by volume. At this dispersed-phase (oil concentration, two different droplet size emulsions were prepared: fine and coarse emulsions. The fine and coarse emulsions were mixed in different proportions to vary the droplet size distribution. Although the dispersed and matrix phases of the emulsions were Newtonian in nature, the emulsions exhibited a non-Newtonian (shear-thinning behavior due to the high droplet concentration. The shear stress—shear rate data of the emulsions could be described adequately by a power law model. At low shear rates, the exergy destruction rate per unit volume of emulsion exhibited a minimum at a fine emulsion proportion of 35%. The results from the cone and plate geometry were used to simulate exergy loss in pipeline flow of emulsions. The pumping of emulsions becomes more efficient thermodynamically upon mixing of fine and coarse emulsions provided that the flow regime is maintained to be laminar and that the Reynolds number is kept at a low to moderate value. In the turbulent regime, the exergy loss generally increases upon mixing the fine and coarse emulsions.

  12. Antioxidant Properties of Artemisia annua Extracts in Model Food Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Skowyra


    Full Text Available Artemisia annua is currently the only commercial source of the sesquiterpene lactone artemisinin. Although artemisinin is a major bioactive component present in this Chinese herb, leaf flavonoids have shown a variety of biological activities. The polyphenolic profile of extract from leaves of A. annua was assessed as a source of natural antioxidants. Total phenolic content and total flavonoid content were established and three assays were used to measure the antioxidant capacity of the plant extract. The measurement of scavenging capacity against the 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS radical cation, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP were 314.99 µM Trolox equivalents (TE/g DW, 736.26 µM TE/g DW and 212.18 µM TE/g DW, respectively. A. annua extracts also showed good antioxidant properties in 10% sunflower oil-in-water emulsions during prolonged storage (45 days at 32 °C. Artemisia extract at 2 g/L was as effective as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA at 0.02 g/L in slowing down the formation of hydroperoxides as measured by peroxide value and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. The results of this study indicate that extract of A. annua may be suitable for use in the food matrix as substitutes for synthetic antioxidants.

  13. Antioxidant Properties of Artemisia annua Extracts in Model Food Emulsions. (United States)

    Skowyra, Monika; Gallego, Maria Gabriela; Segovia, Francisco; Almajano, Maria Pilar


    Artemisia annua is currently the only commercial source of the sesquiterpene lactone artemisinin. Although artemisinin is a major bioactive component present in this Chinese herb, leaf flavonoids have shown a variety of biological activities. The polyphenolic profile of extract from leaves of A. annua was assessed as a source of natural antioxidants. Total phenolic content and total flavonoid content were established and three assays were used to measure the antioxidant capacity of the plant extract. The measurement of scavenging capacity against the 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radical cation, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were 314.99 µM Trolox equivalents (TE)/g DW, 736.26 µM TE/g DW and 212.18 µM TE/g DW, respectively. A. annua extracts also showed good antioxidant properties in 10% sunflower oil-in-water emulsions during prolonged storage (45 days) at 32 °C. Artemisia extract at 2 g/L was as effective as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) at 0.02 g/L in slowing down the formation of hydroperoxides as measured by peroxide value and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. The results of this study indicate that extract of A. annua may be suitable for use in the food matrix as substitutes for synthetic antioxidants.

  14. Selective boron delivery by intra-arterial injection of BSH-WOW emulsion in hepatic cancer model for neutron capture therapy. (United States)

    Yanagie, Hironobu; Dewi, Novriana; Higashi, Syushi; Ikushima, Ichiro; Seguchi, Koji; Mizumachi, Ryoji; Murata, Yuji; Morishita, Yasuyuki; Shinohara, Atsuko; Mikado, Shoji; Yasuda, Nakahiro; Fujihara, Mitsuteru; Sakurai, Yuriko; Mouri, Kikue; Yanagawa, Masashi; Iizuka, Tomoya; Suzuki, Minoru; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Masunaga, Shin-Ichiro; Tanaka, Hiroki; Matsukawa, Takehisa; Yokoyama, Kazuhito; Fujino, Takashi; Ogura, Koichi; Nonaka, Yasumasa; Sugiyama, Hirotaka; Kajiyama, Tetsuya; Yui, Sho; Nishimura, Ryohei; Ono, Koji; Takamoto, Sinichi; Nakajima, Jun; Ono, Minoru; Eriguchi, Masazumi; Hasumi, Kenichiro; Takahashi, Hiroyuki


    Boron neutron-capture therapy (BNCT) has been used to inhibit the growth of various types of cancers. In this study, we developed a (10)BSH-entrapped water-in-oil-in-water (WOW) emulsion, evaluated it as a selective boron carrier for the possible application of BNCT in hepatocellular carcinoma treatment. We prepared the (10)BSH-entrapped WOW emulsion using double emulsification technique and then evaluated the delivery efficacy by performing biodistribution experiment on VX-2 rabbit hepatic tumour model with comparison to iodized poppy-seed oil mix conventional emulsion. Neutron irradiation was carried out at Kyoto University Research Reactor with an average thermal neutron fluence of 5 × 10(12) n cm(-2). Morphological and pathological analyses were performed on Day 14 after neutron irradiation. Biodistribution results have revealed that (10)B atoms delivery with WOW emulsion was superior compared with those using iodized poppy-seed oil conventional emulsion. There was no dissemination in abdomen or lung metastasis observed after neutron irradiation in the groups treated with (10)BSH-entrapped WOW emulsion, whereas many tumour nodules were recognized in the liver, abdominal cavity, peritoneum and bilateral lobes of the lung in the non-injected group. Tumour growth suppression and cancer-cell-killing effect was observed from the morphological and pathological analyses of the (10)BSH-entrapped WOW emulsion-injected group, indicating its feasibility to be applied as a novel intra-arterial boron carrier for BNCT. Advances in knowledge: The results of the current study have shown that entrapped (10)BSH has the potential to increase the range of therapies available for hepatocellular carcinoma which is considered to be one of the most difficult tumours to cure.

  15. Effect of emulsifier on oxidation properties of fish oil-based structured lipid emulsions. (United States)

    Fomuso, Lydia B; Corredig, Milena; Akoh, Casimir C


    The effects of the emulsifiers lecithin, Tween 20, whey protein isolate, mono-/diacylglycerols, and sucrose fatty acid ester on oxidation stability of a model oil-in-water emulsion prepared with enzymatically synthesized menhaden oil-caprylic acid structured lipid were evaluated. Oxidation was monitored by measuring lipid hydroperoxides, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and the ratio of combined docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) contents to palmitic acid in the emulsion. After high-pressure homogenization, all emulsions, except those prepared with lecithin, had similar droplet size distributions. All structured lipid emulsions, except for the lecithin-stabilized emulsions, were stable to creaming over the 48-day period studied. Emulsifier type and concentration affected oxidation rate, with 0.25% emulsifier concentration generally having a higher oxidation rate than 1% emulsifier concentration. Overall, oxidation did not progress significantly enough in 48 days of storage to affect DHA and EPA levels in the emulsion.

  16. Multi-body coalescence in Pickering emulsions (United States)

    Wu, Tong; Wang, Haitao; Jing, Benxin; Liu, Fang; Burns, Peter C.; Na, Chongzheng


    Particle-stabilized Pickering emulsions have shown unusual behaviours such as the formation of non-spherical droplets and the sudden halt of coalescence between individual droplets. Here we report another unusual behaviour of Pickering emulsions—the simultaneous coalescence of multiple droplets in a single event. Using latex particles, silica particles and carbon nanotubes as model stabilizers, we show that multi-body coalescence can occur in both water-in-oil and oil-in-water emulsions. The number of droplets involved in the nth coalscence event equals four times the corresponding number of the tetrahedral sequence in close packing. Furthermore, coalescence is promoted by repulsive latex and silica particles but inhibited by attractive carbon nanotubes. The revelation of multi-body coalescence is expected to help better understand Pickering emulsions in natural systems and improve their designs in engineering applications.

  17. A Computational Study of Internal Flows in a Heated Water-Oil Emulsion Droplet

    KAUST Repository

    Sim, Jaeheon


    The vaporization characteristics of water-oil emulsion droplets are investigated by high fidelity computational simulations. One of the key objectives is to identify the physical mechanism for the experimentally observed behavior that the component in the dispersed micro-droplets always vaporizes first, for both oil-in-water and water-in-oil emulsion droplets. The mechanism of this phenomenon has not been clearly understood. In this study, an Eulerian-Lagrangian method was implemented with a temperature-dependent surface tension model and a dynamic adaptive mesh refinement in order to effectively capture the thermo-capillary effect of a micro-droplet in an emulsion droplet efficiently. It is found that the temperature difference in an emulsion droplet creates a surface tension gradient along the micro-droplet surface, inducing surface movement. Subsequently, the outer shear flow and internal flow circulation inside the droplet, referred to as the Marangoni convection, are created. The present study confirms that the Marangoni effect can be sufficiently large to drive the micro-droplets to the emulsion droplet surface at higher temperature, for both water-in-oil and oil-and-water emulsion droplets. A further parametric study with different micro-droplet sizes and temperature gradients demonstrates that larger micro-droplets move faster with larger temperature gradient. The oil micro-droplet in oil-in-water emulsion droplets moves faster due to large temperature gradients by smaller thermal conductivity.

  18. To Model Chemical Reactivity in Heterogeneous Emulsions, Think Homogeneous Microemulsions. (United States)

    Bravo-Díaz, Carlos; Romsted, Laurence Stuart; Liu, Changyao; Losada-Barreiro, Sonia; Pastoriza-Gallego, Maria José; Gao, Xiang; Gu, Qing; Krishnan, Gunaseelan; Sánchez-Paz, Verónica; Zhang, Yongliang; Dar, Aijaz Ahmad


    Two important and unsolved problems in the food industry and also fundamental questions in colloid chemistry are how to measure molecular distributions, especially antioxidants (AOs), and how to model chemical reactivity, including AO efficiency in opaque emulsions. The key to understanding reactivity in organized surfactant media is that reaction mechanisms are consistent with a discrete structures-separate continuous regions duality. Aggregate structures in emulsions are determined by highly cooperative but weak organizing forces that allow reactants to diffuse at rates approaching their diffusion-controlled limit. Reactant distributions for slow thermal bimolecular reactions are in dynamic equilibrium, and their distributions are proportional to their relative solubilities in the oil, interfacial, and aqueous regions. Our chemical kinetic method is grounded in thermodynamics and combines a pseudophase model with methods for monitoring the reactions of AOs with a hydrophobic arenediazonium ion probe in opaque emulsions. We introduce (a) the logic and basic assumptions of the pseudophase model used to define the distributions of AOs among the oil, interfacial, and aqueous regions in microemulsions and emulsions and (b) the dye derivatization and linear sweep voltammetry methods for monitoring the rates of reaction in opaque emulsions. Our results show that this approach provides a unique, versatile, and robust method for obtaining quantitative estimates of AO partition coefficients or partition constants and distributions and interfacial rate constants in emulsions. The examples provided illustrate the effects of various emulsion properties on AO distributions such as oil hydrophobicity, emulsifier structure and HLB, temperature, droplet size, surfactant charge, and acidity on reactant distributions. Finally, we show that the chemical kinetic method provides a natural explanation for the cut-off effect, a maximum followed by a sharp reduction in AO efficiency with

  19. Flow behaviour of emulsions containing small and large droplets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, R. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada)


    Steady flow and visco-elastic properties of kerosene-in-water and mineral oil-in-water emulsions were studied using a controlled-stress rheometer. Results showed that the viscosity, storage and loss moduli of kerosene-in-water and mineral oil-in-water increase substantially when droplet size is reduced. The emulsion became more elastic and shear-thinning. The minimum in viscosity occurs only at low shear stresses in both kerosene-in-water and mineral oil-in-water emulsions. 59 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs.

  20. Phenolics and Lipophilized Phenolics as Antioxidants in Fish Oil Enriched Emulsions,

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    Emulsions containing omega-3 LC PUFA are highly susceptible to oxidation. This causes formation of undesirable flavors and loss of health beneficial fatty acids. Many omega-3 enriched food products on the market are oil-in-water emulsions. According to the so called “polar paradox”, polar compounds...... work better as antioxidants in bulk oil, whereas lipophilic compounds are better antioxidants in emulsions. This presentation is an overview of our previous work in the area of fish oil enriched emulsions with antioxidants. Our studies have shown that the lipophilicity of the compounds is not the only...... factor determining their efficacy as antioxidants in simple model systems. Interactions between the antioxidants, emulsifier and pH also influence the antioxidant behavior. Moreover, studies with lipophilized phenolics in a food emulsion showed that there is no linear increase of antioxidant activity...

  1. How emulsions composition and structure affect sensory perception of low-viscosity model emulsions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vingerhoeds, M.H.; Wijk, de R.A.; Zoet, F.D.; Nixdorf, R.R.; Aken, van G.A.


    The oral residence time of low-viscosity emulsions, like milk, is relatively short. Despite this short residence time, people can easily perceive differences between these emulsions. Our research is dedicated to unravel the oral behaviour of emulsions in relation to sensory perception. The aim of

  2. How emulsions composition and structure affect sensory perception of low-viscosity model emulsions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vingerhoeds, M.H.; Wijk, de R.A.; Zoet, F.D.; Nixdorf, R.R.; Aken, van G.A.


    The oral residence time of low-viscosity emulsions, like milk, is relatively short. Despite this short residence time, people can easily perceive differences between these emulsions. Our research is dedicated to unravel the oral behaviour of emulsions in relation to sensory perception. The aim of th

  3. Adjuvanted pandemic influenza vaccine: variation of emulsion components affects stability, antigen structure, and vaccine efficacy. (United States)

    Fox, Christopher B; Barnes V, Lucien; Evers, Tara; Chesko, James D; Vedvick, Thomas S; Coler, Rhea N; Reed, Steven G; Baldwin, Susan L


    Adjuvant formulations are critical components of modern vaccines based on recombinant proteins, which are often poorly immunogenic without additional immune stimulants. Oil-in-water emulsions comprise an advanced class of vaccine adjuvants that are components of approved seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccines. However, few reports have been published that systematically evaluate the in vitro stability and in vivo adjuvant effects of different emulsion components. To evaluate distinct classes of surfactants, oils, and excipients, for their effects on emulsion particle size stability, antigen structural interactions, and in vivo activity when formulated with a recombinant H5N1 antigen. Emulsions were manufactured by high pressure homogenization and characterized alone or in the presence of vaccine antigen by dynamic light scattering, zeta potential, viscosity, pH, hemolytic activity, electron microscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and SDS-PAGE. In vivo vaccine activity in the murine model was characterized by measuring antibody titers, antibody-secreting plasma cells, hemagglutination inhibition titers, and cytokine production. We demonstrate that surfactant class and presence of additional excipients are not critical for biological activity, whereas oil structure is crucial. Moreover, we report that simplified two-component emulsions appear more stable by particle size than more complex formulations.Finally, differences in antigen structural interactions with the various emulsions do not appear to correlate with in vivo activity. Oil-in-water emulsions can significantly enhance antibody and cellular immune responses to a pandemic influenza antigen. The dramatic differences in adjuvant activity between squalene-based emulsion and medium chain triglyceride-based emulsion are due principally to the biological activity of the oil composition rather than physical interactions of the antigen with the emulsion. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Amphiphile grafted membranes for the separation of oil-in-water dispersions. (United States)

    Howarter, John A; Youngblood, Jeffrey P


    Perfluorinated end-capped polyethylene glycol surfactants were covalently attached to fritted glass membranes as a means to improve the separation of oil-in-water emulsions. Hexadecane was used as representative oil for the oil-in-water emulsions; membrane pore size was varied between 10 and 174 microm. Membranes were characterized with respect to contact angle, permeability of bulk fluids, and separation efficiency. Performance was compared to similar metrics applied to unmodified membranes. Modified membranes demonstrated static hexadecane contact angles which were higher than static water contact angles converse to their unmodified counterparts. The relative hydrophilicity and corresponding oleophobicity of the modified membranes resulted in greater water permeability as compared to hexadecane permeability. The presence of the perfluorinated constituent of the amphiphile retarded the flow of hexadecane. For modified membranes, suspended hexadecane coalesced at the membrane surface, was undercut by water, and floated to the surface such that only trace amounts of oil were present in the permeate. Therefore, modified membranes resisted fouling from oil due to the self-cleaning properties of the attached amphiphile.

  5. Emulsion-based encapsulation and delivery of nanoparticles for the controlled release of alkalinity within the subsurface environment (United States)

    Ramsburg, C. A.; Muller, K.; Gill, J.


    Many current approaches to managing groundwater contamination rely on further advances in amendment delivery in order to initiate and sustain contaminant degradation or immobilization. In fact, limited or ineffective delivery is often cited when treatment objectives are not attained. Emulsions, specifically oil-in-water emulsions, have demonstrated potential to aid delivery of remediation amendments. Emulsions also afford opportunities to control the release of active ingredients encapsulated within the droplets. Our research is currently focused on the controlled release of nanoparticle-based buffering agents using oil-in-water emulsions. This interest is motivated by the fact that chemical and biological processes employed for the remediation and stewardship of contaminated sites often necessitate control of pH during treatment and, in some cases, long thereafter. Alkalinity-release nanoparticles (e.g., CaCO3, MgO) were suspended within soybean oil and subsequently encapsulated by through the creation of oil-in-water emulsions. These oil-in-water emulsions are designed to have physical properties which are favorable for subsurface delivery (nominal properties: 1 g/mL density; 10 cP viscosity; and 1.5 μm droplet diameter). Buffer capacity titrations suggest that MgO particles are moderately more accessible within the oil phase and nearly twice as effective (on a per mass basis) at releasing alkalinity (as compared to the CaCO3 particles). Results from experiments designed to assess the release kinetics suggest that a linear driving force model is capable of describing the release process and mass transfer coefficients are constant through the reactive life of the emulsion. The release kinetics in emulsions containing MgO particles were found to be three orders of magnitude faster than those quantified for emulsions containing CaCO3. The slower release kinetics of the emulsions containing CaCO3 particles may prove beneficial when considering pH control at sites

  6. Progression of radical reactions on microscopic scale in food emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raudsepp, Piret

    Understanding the progression of lipid oxidation in oil-in-water emulsions from the aspect of the food quality and safety, consumer satisfaction and cleaner food label is of importance, because most of the food emulsions are oil-in-water emulsions. There is an increasing tendency in the food...... industry to incorporate unsaturated oils into food products, but that results in shortened shelf-life. Therefore, studying the factors and consequences of the oxidative instability provides beneficial insight into prolonging the antioxidative stage and inhibiting undergoing oxidation processes to improve...... the food quality and increase the shelflife of the food products. In the present work, lipid oxidation in oil-in-water emulsions was studied via conventional analytical and via novel state-of-the-art techniques. For the first time, the effect of mixing emulsions made of saturated medium-chain triglyceride...

  7. Progression of radical reactions on microscopic scale in food emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raudsepp, Piret

    Understanding the progression of lipid oxidation in oil-in-water emulsions from the aspect of the food quality and safety, consumer satisfaction and cleaner food label is of importance, because most of the food emulsions are oil-in-water emulsions. There is an increasing tendency in the food...... the food quality and increase the shelflife of the food products. In the present work, lipid oxidation in oil-in-water emulsions was studied via conventional analytical and via novel state-of-the-art techniques. For the first time, the effect of mixing emulsions made of saturated medium-chain triglyceride...... industry to incorporate unsaturated oils into food products, but that results in shortened shelf-life. Therefore, studying the factors and consequences of the oxidative instability provides beneficial insight into prolonging the antioxidative stage and inhibiting undergoing oxidation processes to improve...

  8. Entropy Generation in Flow of Highly Concentrated Non-Newtonian Emulsions in Smooth Tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajinder Pal


    Full Text Available Entropy generation in adiabatic flow of highly concentrated non-Newtonian emulsions in smooth tubes of five different diameters (7.15–26.54 mm was investigated experimentally. The emulsions were of oil-in-water type with dispersed-phase concentration (Φ ranging from 59.61–72.21% vol. The emulsions exhibited shear-thinning behavior in that the viscosity decreased with the increase in shear rate. The shear-stress (τ versus shear rate (˙γ data of emulsions could be described well by the power-law model: τ=K˙γn. The flow behavior index n was less than 1 and it decreased sharply with the increase in Φ whereas the consistency index K increased rapidly with the increase in Φ . For a given emulsion and tube diameter, the entropy generation rate per unit tube length increased linearly with the increase in the generalized Reynolds number ( Re_n on a log-log scale. For emulsions with Φ ≤65.15 % vol., the entropy generation rate decreased with the increase in tube diameter. A reverse trend in diameter-dependence was observed for the emulsion with Φ of 72.21% vol. New models are developed for the prediction of entropy generation rate in flow of power-law emulsions in smooth tubes. The experimental data shows good agreement with the proposed models.

  9. Research on Analysis of Oil in Water Based on the Joint Optimization of Savitzky-Golay Smoothing and IBPLS Models%SG平滑和IB PLS联合优化水中油分析方法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯培国; 李宁; 常江; 王书涛; 宋涛


    快速准确地检测水中矿物油的种类与含量对污染源及时排查和控制具有重要的意义,而红外光谱分析技术检测水中矿物油具有高效、快速、无污染的优势。为获得更加可靠的分析结果应用傅里叶变换衰减全反射红外光谱(FTIR‐ATR)技术获取矿物油样品的光谱信息,采用SPXY法划分样本集。对偏最小二乘法(PLS)和迭代Bagging偏最小二乘法(IBPLS)这两种建立回归模型的方法进行对比分析,还比较了采用Savitzky‐Golay(SG)平滑方法与迭代Bagging偏最小二乘法(IBPLS)相结合和单一采用迭代Bagging偏最小二乘法建立回归模型的区别。通过对预测回归曲线进行对比,得出通过SG平滑的预测效果明显优于未做的。而且采用SG平滑方法和IBPLS相结合的方法建立回归模型时,汽油模型参数RMSEP为0.001125 g・mL -1,r为0.9925;柴油模型参数RMSEP为0.001384 g・mL -1,r为0.9893。%Rapidly and accurately detection of the type and content of mineral oil in water pollution has important significance for the timely screening and control of pollution sources .The use of infrared spectral analysisi technology to detect mineral oil has advantanges of efficient ,fast and pollution‐free .Infrared spectrum technology is very for the detection of mineral oil in the wa‐ter .In order to obtain a more reliable results ,Fourier transforms attenuated total reflection infrared spectrometry (FITR‐ATR) technology is used to get the spectral information of the mineral oil sample ,and SPXY method is used to divide the sample set . The paper not only analyzed partial least squares (PLS) and iterative Bagging partial least squares (IBPLS) the two different methods to build regression model ,also compared the difference of using the method of the combination of Savitzky‐Golay (SG) smoothing and the method of a single iterative Bagging partial least squares (IBPLS) regression

  10. Cosmetic emulsion from virgin olive oil: Formulation and bio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cosmetic emulsion from virgin olive oil: Formulation and bio-physical ... virgin olive oil was developed by entrapping it in the oily phase of oil-in-water (o/w) emulsion. ... The evaluation parameters consisted of color, smell, phase separation, ...

  11. In vitro lipid digestion of chitin nanocrystal stabilized o/w emulsions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tzoumaki, M.V.; Moschakis, T.; Scholten, E.; Biliaderis, C.G.


    Chitin nanocrystals (ChN) have been shown to form stable Pickering emulsions. These oil-in-water emulsions were compared with conventional milk (whey protein isolate, WPI, and sodium caseinate, SCn) protein-stabilized emulsions in terms of their lipid digestion kinetics using an in vitro enzymatic p

  12. Impact of starch-based emulsions on the antibacterial efficacies of nisin and thymol in cantaloupe juice. (United States)

    Sarkar, Preetam; Bhunia, Arun K; Yao, Yuan


    The use of antimicrobial compounds to prevent foodborne pathogens from contaminating fresh-cut produce has received broad attentions; however, the applications of these compounds are hindered by their rapid depletion in foods. To prolong their efficacies, the use of delivery systems is essential. In this study, oil-in-water emulsions formed using starch octenyl succinate (starch-OS) were used to stabilize nisin and thymol in cantaloupe juice-containing fluid. Listeria monocytogenes V7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium were used as model pathogens to evaluate the antimicrobial activities of nisin and thymol formulations in cantaloupe juice. The results showed that the emulsions had much greater capability to retain nisin and thymol over the storage and displayed much greater effect to inhibit Listeria and Salmonella than non-emulsion, aqueous formulations. Starch-OS based emulsions not only retained nisin and thymol activities separately, but also exhibited their cooperative antibacterial effects. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Mycobacteria emulsified in olive oil-in-water trigger a robust immune response in bladder cancer treatment (United States)

    Noguera-Ortega, Estela; Blanco-Cabra, Núria; Rabanal, Rosa Maria; Sánchez-Chardi, Alejandro; Roldán, Mónica; Guallar-Garrido, Sandra; Torrents, Eduard; Luquin, Marina; Julián, Esther


    The hydrophobic composition of mycobacterial cell walls leads to the formation of clumps when attempting to resuspend mycobacteria in aqueous solutions. Such aggregation may interfere in the mycobacteria-host cells interaction and, consequently, influence their antitumor effect. To improve the immunotherapeutic activity of Mycobacterium brumae, we designed different emulsions and demonstrated their efficacy. The best formulation was initially selected based on homogeneity and stability. Both olive oil (OO)- and mineral oil-in-water emulsions better preserved the mycobacteria viability and provided higher disaggregation rates compared to the others. But, among both emulsions, the OO emulsion increased the mycobacteria capacity to induce cytokines’ production in bladder tumor cell cultures. The OO-mycobacteria emulsion properties: less hydrophobic, lower pH, more neutralized zeta potential, and increased affinity to fibronectin than non-emulsified mycobacteria, indicated favorable conditions for reaching the bladder epithelium in vivo. Finally, intravesical OO-M. brumae-treated mice showed a significantly higher systemic immune response, together with a trend toward increased tumor-bearing mouse survival rates compared to the rest of the treated mice. The physicochemical characteristics and the induction of a robust immune response in vitro and in vivo highlight the potential of the OO emulsion as a good delivery vehicle for the mycobacterial treatment of bladder cancer. PMID:27265565

  14. Modeling and simulation of milk emulsion drying in spray dryers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Birchal


    Full Text Available This work aims at modeling and simulating the drying of whole milk emulsion in spray dryers. Drops and particles make up the discrete phase and are distributed into temporal compartments following their residence time in the dryer. Air is the continuous and well-mixed phase. Mass and energy balances are developed for each phase, taking into account their interactions. Constitutive equations for describing the drop swelling and drying mechanisms as well as the heat and mass transfer between particles and hot air are proposed and analyzed. A set of algebraic-differential equations is obtained and solved by specific numerical codes. Results from experiments carried out in a pilot spray dryer are used to validate the model developed and the numerical algorithm. Comparing the simulated and experimental data, it is shown that the model predicts well the individual drop-particle history inside the dryer as well as the overall outlet air-particle temperature and humidity.

  15. Introducing diffusing wave spectroscopy as a process analytical tool for pharmaceutical emulsion manufacturing. (United States)

    Reufer, Mathias; Machado, Alexandra H E; Niederquell, Andreas; Bohnenblust, Katharina; Müller, Beat; Völker, Andreas Charles; Kuentz, Martin


    Emulsions are widely used for pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic applications. To guarantee that their critical quality attributes meet specifications, it is desirable to monitor the emulsion manufacturing process. However, finding of a suitable process analyzer has so far remained challenging. This article introduces diffusing wave spectroscopy (DWS) as an at-line technique to follow the manufacturing process of a model oil-in-water pharmaceutical emulsion containing xanthan gum. The DWS results were complemented with mechanical rheology, microscopy analysis, and stability tests. DWS is an advanced light scattering technique that assesses the microrheology and in general provides information on the dynamics and statics of dispersions. The obtained microrheology results showed good agreement with those obtained with bulk rheology. Although no notable changes in the rheological behavior of the model emulsions were observed during homogenization, the intensity correlation function provided qualitative information on the evolution of the emulsion dynamics. These data together with static measurements of the transport mean free path (l*) correlated very well with the changes in droplet size distribution occurring during the emulsion homogenization. This study shows that DWS is a promising process analytical technology tool for development and manufacturing of pharmaceutical emulsions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  16. Influence of a microemulsion vehicle on cutaneous bioequivalence of a lipophilic model drug assessed by microdialysis and pharmacodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreilgaard, Mads; Kemme, M J; Burggraaf, J


    The aim of the study was to investigate the cutaneous bioequivalence of a lipophilic model drug (lidocaine) applied in a novel topical microemulsion vehicle, compared to a conventional oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion, assessed by a pharmacokinetics microdialysis model and a pharmacodynamic method....

  17. Optimization on the Stability of Linseed Oil-in-Water Nanoemulsions Generated by Ultrasonic Emulsification Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Hosseini


    Full Text Available Oil-in-water (O/W nanoemulsions formed from bioactive compounds such as polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, are commercially attractive because of the potential health benefits associated with their consumption. Emulsions with a mean droplet size as small as 72±5.14 nm and viscosity 3.84±0.26 mPa·s were achieved using a mixture of 10:100 (V/V linseed oil and water in the presence of surfactants i.e. Tween 80 and Span 60 with the HLB of 11.7. The zeta potential of the generated nanoemulsion was approximately -18 mV at its original pH of 5.9. Results of this study indicated that desired zeta potential might be achieved by changing the pH of final emulsion.

  18. Effect of Replacing Beef Fat with Chicken Skin on Some Properties of Model System Chicken Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslı Zungur


    Full Text Available Model system chicken emulsions were prepared by replacing 5, 10, 15 and 20 % beef fat with chicken skin. Moisture, protein, fat, ash and pH were determined in raw and heat processed emulsions. Emulsion samples were evaluated for cooking characteristics, TBA values and colour parameters (L*, a*, b*. Addition of chicken skin decreased fat content and increased moisture and protein content of emulsion samples. Chicken skin replacement significantly increased water holding capacity and cooking yield and decreased fluid release. Increasing chicken skin in formulation increased a* and b* values of emulsion samples. Therefore, adding of chicken skin instead of beef fat is useful in improving technological quality and producing low fat formulation.

  19. Mitigation of Oil in Water Column: Concept Development (United States)


    Project No. 4702 7. Author(s) Alexander Balsley, Dr. Michele Fitzpatrick, Peter A. Tebeau 8. Performing Report No. RDC UDI # 1291 9...of Mexico . Figure A-4. Sorbent pom-poms from the Detroit River 1996. Figure A-5. Vessel-Submerged Oil Recovery System. Mitigation of Oil in... Mexico Droplets from chemical and possibly natural dispersion. None Mitigation of Oil in Water Column: Concept Development B-2 UNCLAS//Public

  20. Textural perception of liquid emulsions: Role of oil content, oil viscosity and emulsion viscosity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aken, van G.A.; Vingerhoeds, M.H.; Wijk, de R.A.


    This work describes a study on the in-mouth textural perception of thickened liquid oil-in-water emulsions. The variables studied are oil content, oil viscosity, and the concentration of polysaccharide thickener. Gum arabic was chosen as the thickener because of the nearly Newtonian behavior of its

  1. Ibuprofen-in-cyclodextrin-in-W/O/W emulsion - Improving the initial and long-term encapsulation efficiency of a model active ingredient. (United States)

    Hattrem, Magnus N; Kristiansen, Kåre A; Aachmann, Finn L; Dille, Morten J; Draget, Kurt I


    A challenge in formulating water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) emulsions is the uncontrolled release of the encapsulated compound prior to application. Pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals usually have amphipathic nature, which may contribute to leakage of the active ingredient. In the present study, cyclodextrins (CyDs) were used to impart a change in the relative polarity and size of a model compound (ibuprofen) by the formation of inclusion complexes. Various inclusion complexes (2-hydroxypropyl (HP)-β-CyD-, α-CyD- and γ-CyD-ibuprofen) were prepared and presented within W/O/W emulsions, and the initial and long-term encapsulation efficiency was investigated. HP-β-CyD-ibuprofen provided the highest encapsulation of ibuprofen in comparison to a W/O/W emulsion with unassociated ibuprofen confined within the inner water phase, with a four-fold increase in the encapsulation efficiency. An improved, although lower, encapsulation efficiency was obtained for the inclusion complex γ-CyD-ibuprofen in comparison to HP-β-CyD-ibuprofen, whereas α-CyD-ibuprofen had a similar encapsulation efficiency to that of unassociated ibuprofen. The lower encapsulation efficiency of ibuprofen in combination with α-CyD and γ-CyD was attributed to a lower association constant for the γ-CyD-ibuprofen inclusion complex and the ability of α-CyD to form inclusion complexes with fatty acids. For the W/O/W emulsion prepared with HP-β-CyD-ibuprofen, the highest encapsulation of ibuprofen was obtained at hyper- and iso-osmotic conditions and by using an excess molar ratio of CyD to ibuprofen. In the last part of the study, it was suggested that the chemical modification of the HP-β-CyD molecule did not influence the encapsulation of ibuprofen, as a similar encapsulation efficiency was obtained for an inclusion complex prepared with mono-1-glucose-β-CyD.

  2. Study on the Stability of DeoxyArbutin in an Anhydrous Emulsion System


    Chiu-Wen Chen; Shu-Mei Lee; Yi-Shyan Chen; Pey-Shiuan Wu; Nai-Fang Chang; Chao-Hsun Yang; Chih-Chien Lin


    The skin-whitening agent, deoxyArbutin, is a potent tyrosinase inhibitor that is safer than hydroquinone and arbutin. However, it is thermolabile in aqueous solutions, where it decomposes to hydroquinone. Pharmaceutical and cosmetic emulsions are normally oil-in-water (o/w) or water-in-oil (w/o) systems; however, emulsions can be formulated with no aqueous phase to produce an anhydrous emulsion system. An anhydrous emulsion system could offer a stable vehicle for compounds that are sensitive ...

  3. The Effect of Perilla frutescens Extract on the Oxidative Stability of Model Food Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Skowyra


    Full Text Available The polyphenolic profile of leaves and stalks of Perilla frutescens, was assessed as a source of natural antioxidants. The amount of caffeic and rosmarinic acids, determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, were 0.51 mg/g dry weight (DW and 2.29 mg/g DW, respectively. The measurement of scavenging capacity against the 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS radical cation, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC, and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP were 65.03 mg Trolox equivalents (TE/g DW, 179.60 mg TE/g DW and 44.46 mg TE/g DW, respectively. P. frutescens extracts also showed good antioxidant properties in 10% sunflower oil-in-water emulsions during storage at 32 °C. Perilla extract at 320 ppm was as effective as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA at 20 ppm in slowing down the formation of hydroperoxides as measured by peroxide value, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and hexanal content. The results of this study indicate that extract of P. frutescens may be suitable for use in the food matrix to help achieve potential health benefits.

  4. Development and Applications of the Solid Emulsifier Used to Improve the Performance of Oil-in-water Drilling Fluids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YanJienian; WangFuhua


    The oil-in-water emulsion drilling fluids, prepared by adding 5-12% (by volume) of mineral oil (or diesel) to water-based muds, have been widely used for stuck-pipe prevention in the Shengli Oilfield. In some cases, the emulsion stability of this kind of mud system is not strong enough to meet the requirements of drilling operations. To overcome this drawback, a solid emulsifer, which is characterized by its very small particle size and special wetting behavior (slightly water-wet), has been developed and successfully applied to improve the emulsion stability and other performances of these drilling fluids. Prior to the development of this technology, an extensive study was conducted to deal with the influence of various kinds of finely divided insoluble solid particles on oil/water emulsification. The substances used include bentonite, organophilic clay, kaolinite, barite, two kinds of calcium carbonate with different particle sizes, two kinds of silica with different wetting behaviors, and a newly developed solid emulsifier. Both the emulsion stability experiments and the drop coalescence experiments are performed to evaluate the contribution of these particles to emulsification. The measured final emulsion volume disappears after 12 hours and the half-life for water and oil drops are used as the measures of emulsion stability. The experimental data show that the type, size, concentration and wettability of the particles, and the presence of some surfactants control the type and stability of emulsions for a given oil/water system, and the fine particles of the solids emulsifier provide the most effective stabilization for water-continuous emulsions compared with other kinds of particles. Meanwhile, it can be observed that these particles also stabilize oil-continuous emulsions effectively in some cases since their wetting behavior is close to neutral. The O/W emulsion mud stabilized by the newly developed solid emulsifier has become one of the major mud systems

  5. Relations between interfacial properties and heavy crude oil emulsions stability; Relations entre les proprietes interfaciales et la stabilite des emulsions de brut lourd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoebler-Poteau, S.


    Oil in water emulsions are currently being investigated to facilitate the transport of viscous heavy oils. The behavior of these emulsions is largely controlled by oil / water interfaces. The surface-active components of crude oil such as asphaltenes and naphthenic acids compete among themselves at these interfaces and also with possibly added synthetic surfactant emulsifier.Here, we present a study of dynamic interfacial tension and rheology of interfaces between water and a model oil (toluene) in which asphaltenes and other surface active molecules from crude oil are dissolved. We show that different parameters such as aging of the interface, asphaltenes concentration, the pH and salinity of the aqueous phase have a strong influence on interfacial properties of asphaltenes at the oil/water interface. Several micro-pipette experiments, in which micrometric drops have been manipulated, are described as well as small angle neutron scattering measurements. The influence of lower molecular weight surface-active species, such as the natural naphthenic acids contained in maltenes (crude oil without asphaltenes) has been investigated, and an interaction between asphaltenes and maltenes which facilitates molecular arrangement at the interface was detected. The microscopic properties of the different interfaces and the stability of the corresponding emulsions are determined to be correlated.The results obtained on model emulsions and model oil/water interfaces were found to be helpful in order to explain and predict the behavior of heavy crude oil emulsions. (author)

  6. Rheology of unstable mineral emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolović Dunja S.


    Full Text Available In this paper, the rheology of mineral oils and their unstable water emulsion were investigated. The oil samples were domestic crude oil UA, its fractions UA1, UA4 and blend semi-product UP1, while the concentration of oil in water emulsions was in the range from 1 up to 30%. The results were analyzed based on shear stress. The oil samples UA, UA1 and UP1 are Newtonian fluids, while UA4 is pseudoplastic fluid. The samples UA and UA4 show higher value of shear stress (83.75 Pa, 297 Pa, then other two samples UA1 and UP1 (18.41 Pa, 17.52 Pa. Rheology of investigated oils due to its complex chemical composition should be analyzed as a simultaneous effect of all their components. Therefore, structural composition of the oils was determined, namely content of paraffins, naphthenes, aromatics and asphaltenes. All samples contain paraffins, naphthenes and aromatics but only oils UA and UA4 contain asphaltenes as well. All investigated emulsions except 30% EUA4 are Newtonian fluids. The EUA4 30% emulsion shows pseudoplastic behaviour, and it is the only 30% emulsion among investigated ones that achieves lower shear stress then its oil. The characteristics of oil samples that could have an influence on their properties and their emulsion rheology, were determined. These characteristics are: neutralization number, interfacial tension, dielectric constant, and emulsivity. Oil samples UA and UA4 have significantly higher values of neutralization number, dielectric constants, and emulsivity. The sample UA has the lowest value of interface tension and the greatest emulsivity, indicating that this oil, among all investigated, has the highest preference for building emulsion. This could be the reason why 20% and 30% emulsions of the oil UA achieve the highest shear stress among all investigated emulsions.

  7. Formation of curcumin nanoparticles by flash nanoprecipitation from emulsions. (United States)

    Margulis, Katherine; Magdassi, Shlomo; Lee, Han Seung; Macosko, Christopher W


    Nanometric particles of a model hydrophobic substance curcumin were prepared by a novel method, namely, flash nanoprecipitation from a coarse oil-in-water emulsion. The method employs turbulent co-mixing of water with curcumin-loaded emulsion using manually-operated confined impingement jets mixer. A clear and stable dispersion of nanoparticles was formed in this process, and could be converted to dry, easily water-dispersible powder by spray drying. The mean size of the particles was about 40 nm by DLS, confirmed by Cryo-TEM. The obtained particles contained 20.4 wt% curcumin, X-ray analysis showed it was amorphous. The significant advantages of the studied process are its feasibility, speed and low cost. It does not require any special high-energy input equipment to reduce the droplet size of the initial emulsion as required by the vast majority of other methods, and relies on rapid turbulent mixing and on flow-induced shear stress formed in the simple, manually-operated mixer. Control experiments clearly indicate that employing emulsion, instead of a plain solution and flash nanoprecipitation instead of a simple antisolvent precipitation are advantageous in terms of particle size and stability.

  8. Developing novel one-step processes for obtaining food-grade O/W emulsions from pressurized fluid extracts: processes description, state of the art and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Tresinari SANTOS


    Full Text Available AbstractIn this work, a novel on-line process for production of food-grade emulsions containing oily extracts, i.e. oil-in-water (O/W emulsions, in only one step is presented. This process has been called ESFE, Emulsions from Supercritical Fluid Extraction. With this process, emulsions containing supercritical fluid extracts can be obtained directly from plant materials. The aim in the conception of this process is to propose a new rapid way to obtain emulsions from supercritical fluid extracts. Nowadays the conventional emulsion formulation method is a two-step procedure, i.e. first supercritical fluid extraction for obtaining an extract; secondly emulsion formulation using another device. Other variation of the process was tested and successfully validated originating a new acronymed process: EPFE (Emulsions from Pressurized Fluid Extractions. Both processes exploit the supercritical CO2-essential oils miscibility, in addition, EPFE process exploits the emulsification properties of saponin-rich pressurized aqueous plant extracts. The feasibility of this latter process was demonstrated using Pfaffia glomerata roots as source of saponin-rich extract, water as extracting solvent and clove essential oil, directly extracted using supercritical CO2, as a model dispersed phase. In addition, examples of pressurized fluid-based coupled processes applied for adding value to food bioactive compounds developed in the past five years are reviewed.

  9. Programmed emulsions for sodium reduction in emulsion based foods. (United States)

    Chiu, Natalie; Hewson, Louise; Fisk, Ian; Wolf, Bettina


    In this research a microstructure approach to reduce sodium levels in emulsion based foods is presented. If successful, this strategy will enable reduction of sodium without affecting consumer satisfaction with regard to salty taste. The microstructure approach comprised of entrapment of sodium in the internal aqueous phase of water-in-oil-in-water emulsions. These were designed to destabilise during oral processing when in contact with the salivary enzyme amylase in combination with the mechanical manipulation of the emulsion between the tongue and palate. Oral destabilisation was achieved through breakdown of the emulsion that was stabilised with a commercially modified octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA)-starch. Microstructure breakdown and salt release was evaluated utilising in vitro, in vivo and sensory methods. For control emulsions, stabilised with orally inert proteins, no loss of structure and no release of sodium from the internal aqueous phase was found. The OSA-starch microstructure breakdown took the initial form of oil droplet coalescence. It is hypothesised that during this coalescence process sodium from the internalised aqueous phase is partially released and is therefore available for perception. Indeed, programmed emulsions showed an enhancement in saltiness perception; a 23.7% reduction in sodium could be achieved without compromise in salty taste (p sodium reduction in liquid and semi-liquid emulsion based foods.

  10. Stabilization of Model Crude Oil Emulsion using Different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Dec 31, 2015 ... from treated Ondo State oil sand bitumen with n-hexane in a 40:1 solvent to bitumen ratio .... Table 1: Volume of water resolved for 0.05 % asphaltene stabilized emulsion per time ... (Table 4), there was a drop in the degree of.

  11. Orthokinetic flocculation of caseinate-stabilized emulsions : influence of calcium concentration, shear rate and protein content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schokker, E.P.; Dalgleish, D.G.


    Calcium-induced flocculation of caseinate-stabilized soybean oil-in- water emulsions in conditions of Couette flow was studied. A concentrated emulsion (20% oil, 0.5-2.0% sodium caseinate in 20 mM imidazole, pH 7) was diluted 20 times in buffer containing concentrations of CaCl2 between 9 and 17 mM

  12. Matrix properties affect the sensory perception of emulsion-filled gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sala, G.; Wijk, de R.A.; Velde, van de F.; Aken, van G.A.


    The breakdown properties and sensory perception of emulsion-filled gels with different matrices were studied at varying emulsion concentrations. The gel matrices used were cold-set whey protein isolate (WPI), gelatin, ¿-carrageenan and a mixture of ¿-carrageenan and ¿-carrageenan. The oil-in-water e

  13. Characterization of Emulsions of Fish Oil and Water by Cryo Scanning Electron Microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard; Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    to the many double bonds. Emulsions of fish oil in water are potential candidates for a delivery system of fish oil to food products. It has been suggested that oxidation of oil-in-water emulsions is initiated at the interface between oil and water. It has also been proposed that oxidation is to some extent...... dependent on the ultra structure of the emulsion; including the size of oil droplets, their distribution and the thickness of the interface between oil and water. This interface is stabilized by macromolecules such as proteins, phospholipids and hydrocolloids. The main objective of this study...... is to characterize fish oil in water emulsions with respect to oil droplet size, distribution, and ultimately to view the structure and thickness of the interface layer. A freeze-fractured surface viewed at low temperatures under the scanning electron microscope is a promising strategy to reveal variations...

  14. Surface-particle-emulsion heat transfer model between fluidized bed and horizontal immersed tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A mathematical model, surface-particle-emulsion heat transfer model, is presented by considering voidage variance in emulsion in the vicinity of an immersed surface. Heat transfer near the surface is treated by dispersed particles touching the surface and through the emulsion when the distance from the surface is greater than the diameter of a particle. A film with an adjustable thickness which separates particles from the surface is not introduced in this model. The coverage ratio of particles on the surface is calculated by a stochastic model of particle packing density on a surface. By comparison of theoretical solutions with experimental data from some references, the mathematical model shows better qualitative and quantitative prediction for local heat transfer coefficients around a horizontal immersed tube in a fluidized bed.

  15. Protection of broiler breeders by an inactivated combined water-in-oil-in-water viral vaccine. (United States)

    Bidin, Z; Cajavec, S; Sladić, D; Ergotić, N; Cizelj, A; Pokrić, B


    A four-component vaccine, prepared by combining the single vaccines, contains subunits of Newcastle disease and infectious bronchitis viruses, as well as whole inactivated infectious bursal disease and egg drop syndrome viruses. The vaccine is prepared in the form of a low-viscosity water-in-oil-in-water emulsion with low mineral oil content. Heavy breeders were vaccinated at the age of 20 weeks by intramuscular administration of 0.5 ml vaccine/bird in an experiment carried out under field conditions, involving 5000 female and 450 male parents. The birds had previously been vaccinated with live vaccines according to an obligatory field vaccination programme. Vaccination with the WOWE vaccine near the point of lay elicited serological responses protecting both the parents and their progeny. Each of the antigens administered in the four-component vaccine was as effective as the respective single component vaccine. The mortality, recorded during the 31-week experimental period, was 6.2%. Mortality and morbidity were not triggered by viruses against which vaccination was carried out. Egg production was not affected by the vaccination and was 170.2 eggs per hen during the 28-week production period.

  16. Efficacy of water- and oil-in-water-formulated Metarhizium anisopliae in Rhipicephalus sanguineus eggs and eclosing larvae. (United States)

    Luz, Christian; D'Alessandro, Walmirton Bezerra; Rodrigues, Juscelino; Fernandes, Éverton Kort Kamp


    Conidia of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Ascomycota: Clavicipitaceae) were assessed against Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Arachnida: Ixodidae) eggs under laboratory conditions. Clusters of 25 eggs were applied either directly with the fungal conidial formulations or set on previously fungus-treated filter paper. Treatments consisted of conidia formulated in water or an oil-in-water emulsion at final concentrations of 3.3 × 10(3), 10(4), 3.3 × 10(4), 10(5), or 3.3 × 10(5) conidia/cm(2). The development of mycelium and new conidia on egg clusters incubated at 25 °C and humidity close to saturation depended on conidial concentration, formulation, and application technique. No larvae eclosed from eggs after direct applications of conidia regardless of the formulation. The eclosion and survival of larvae from indirectly treated egg clusters depended on the type of formulation and conidial concentration applied. Oil-in-water formulations of conidia demonstrated the highest activity against eggs of R. sanguineus.

  17. The choice of homogenisation equipment affects lipid oxidation in emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard


    in emulsions has been shown to be affected by the emulsification conditions. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of homogenisation equipment (microfluidizer vs. two-stage valve homogeniser) on lipid oxidation in 10% fish oil-in-water emulsions prepared with two different milk proteins....... Emulsions were prepared at pH 7 with similar droplet sizes. Results showed that the oxidative stability of emulsions prepared with sodium caseinate was not influenced by the type of homogeniser used. In contrast, the type of homogenisation equipment significantly influenced lipid oxidation when whey protein...

  18. Bond Graph Modeling and Validation of an Energy Regenerative System for Emulsion Pump Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilei Li


    Full Text Available The test system for emulsion pump is facing serious challenges due to its huge energy consumption and waste nowadays. To settle this energy issue, a novel energy regenerative system (ERS for emulsion pump tests is briefly introduced at first. Modeling such an ERS of multienergy domains needs a unified and systematic approach. Bond graph modeling is well suited for this task. The bond graph model of this ERS is developed by first considering the separate components before assembling them together and so is the state-space equation. Both numerical simulation and experiments are carried out to validate the bond graph model of this ERS. Moreover the simulation and experiments results show that this ERS not only satisfies the test requirements, but also could save at least 25% of energy consumption as compared to the original test system, demonstrating that it is a promising method of energy regeneration for emulsion pump tests.

  19. A Dewetting Model for Double-Emulsion Droplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanxiao Kang


    Full Text Available The evolution of double-emulsion droplets is of great importance for the application of microdroplets and microparticles. We study the driving force of the dewetting process, the equilibrium configuration and the dewetting time of double-emulsion droplets. Through energy analysis, we find that the equilibrium configuration of a partial engulfed droplet depends on a dimensionless interfacial tension determined by the three relevant interfacial tensions, and the engulfing part of the inner phase becomes larger as the volume of the outer phase increases. By introducing a dewetting boundary, the dewetting time can be calculated by balancing the driving force, caused by interfacial tensions, and the viscous force. Without considering the momentum change of the continuous phase, the dewetting time is an increasing function against the viscosity of the outer phase and the volume ratio between the outer phase and inner phase.

  20. A Comparative Study of the Physicochemical Properties of a Virgin Coconut Oil Emulsion and Commercial Food Supplement Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yih Phing Khor


    Full Text Available Food manufacturers are interested in developing emulsion-based products into nutritional foods by using beneficial oils, such as fish oil and virgin coconut oil (VCO. In this study, the physicochemical properties of a VCO oil-in-water emulsion was investigated and compared to other commercial oil-in-water emulsion products (C1, C2, C3, and C4. C3 exhibited the smallest droplet size of 3.25 µm. The pH for the emulsion samples ranged from 2.52 to 4.38 and thus were categorised as acidic. In a texture analysis, C2 was described as the most firm, very adhesive and cohesive, as well as having high compressibility properties. From a rheological viewpoint, all the emulsion samples exhibited non-Newtonian behaviour, which manifested as a shear-thinning property. The G'G'' crossover illustrated by the VCO emulsion in the amplitude sweep graph but not the other commercial samples illustrated that the VCO emulsion had a better mouthfeel. In this context, the VCO emulsion yielded the highest zeta potential (64.86 mV, which was attributed to its strong repulsive forces, leading to a good dispersion system. C2 comprised the highest percentage of fat among all emulsion samples, followed by the VCO emulsion, with 18.44% and 6.59%, respectively.

  1. A comparative study of the physicochemical properties of a virgin coconut oil emulsion and commercial food supplement emulsions. (United States)

    Khor, Yih Phing; Koh, Soo Peng; Long, Kamariah; Long, Shariah; Ahmad, Sharifah Zarah Syed; Tan, Chin Ping


    Food manufacturers are interested in developing emulsion-based products into nutritional foods by using beneficial oils, such as fish oil and virgin coconut oil (VCO). In this study, the physicochemical properties of a VCO oil-in-water emulsion was investigated and compared to other commercial oil-in-water emulsion products (C1, C2, C3, and C4). C3 exhibited the smallest droplet size of 3.25 µm. The pH for the emulsion samples ranged from 2.52 to 4.38 and thus were categorised as acidic. In a texture analysis, C2 was described as the most firm, very adhesive and cohesive, as well as having high compressibility properties. From a rheological viewpoint, all the emulsion samples exhibited non-Newtonian behaviour, which manifested as a shear-thinning property. The G'G'' crossover illustrated by the VCO emulsion in the amplitude sweep graph but not the other commercial samples illustrated that the VCO emulsion had a better mouthfeel. In this context, the VCO emulsion yielded the highest zeta potential (64.86 mV), which was attributed to its strong repulsive forces, leading to a good dispersion system. C2 comprised the highest percentage of fat among all emulsion samples, followed by the VCO emulsion, with 18.44% and 6.59%, respectively.

  2. EFEKTIVITAS MIKROEMULSI O/W DENGAN SURFAKTAN NON IONIK DALAM MENGHAMBAT FOTOOKSIDASI VITAMIN C PADA MODEL MINUMAN (Effectiveness of Oil-in-Water Microemulsions with Nonionic Surfactants in Inhibiting Photooxidation of Vitamin C in Beverage Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutfi Suhendra


    (o/w dibentuk dari campuran minyak–surfaktan (15:85 v/v dengan perbandingan surfaktan Tween 80:Span 80:Tween 20 = 92:5,5: 2,5 (% v/v dengan kadar air 65%. Mikroemulsi o/w diuji stabilitas terhadap pH dan pengenceran dengan cara mengencerkan mikroemulsi dengan media air dan buffer sitrat (pH: 3,5; 4,5 dan aquades pH 6,5 dengan proporsi 1:1. 1:9 dan 1:99, selanjutnya mikroemulsi o/w yang telah dilakukan pengenceran dengan pH berbeda ini diuji stabilitasnya pada pemanasan 105 °C selama 5 jam dan stabilitas penyimpanan selama 8 minggu pada suhu ruang. Model minuman terdiri dari larutan vitamin C (450 mg/L, asam sitrat (1% dan sukrosa (6%. Mikroemulsi o/w yang ditambahkan ke dalam model minuman adalah mikroemulsi diencerkan 50 kali dan 100 kali dengan aquades pH 6,5. Selanjutnya ditambahkan dengan/tanpa eritrosin sehingga masing-masing larutan mengandung eritrosin 5 ppm sebagai sensitiser. Sampel tersebut kemudian dipapar dengan lampu fl uoresen dengan intensitas cahaya 2000 lux. Konsentrasi vitamin C diukur dengan metode ribofl avin-sensitized photodynamic UV spectrophotometry tiap 2 jam. Mikroemulsi o/w stabil pada pH 3,5 sampai 6,5 dan pengenceran (1:1. 1:9 dan 1:99, pemanasan dan penyimpanan. Mikroemulsi o/w diencerkan 100 kali efektif meningkatkan stabilitas vitamin C, namun mikroemulsi o/w diencerkan 50 kali lebih efektif untuk menghambat laju kerusakan vitamin C akibat fotooksidasi pada model minuman. Kata kunci: Mikroemulsi, vitamin C, fotooksidsi, surfaktan

  3. Properties of emulsions stabilised by sodium caseinate–chitosan complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zinoviadou, K.; Scholten, E.; Moschakis, T.; Biliaderis, C.G.


    Oil-in-water emulsions (10%, w/w, oil) were prepared at pH 5.7 by using electrostatically formed complexes of 0.5% (w/w) sodium caseinate (Na-CAS) and 0–0.6% (w/w) chitosan. Emulsions stabilized by complexes with increased levels of chitosan (>0.2% w/w) had a smaller average droplet size and exhi

  4. Properties of emulsions stabilised by sodium caseinate–chitosan complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zinoviadou, K.; Scholten, E.; Moschakis, T.; Biliaderis, C.G.


    Oil-in-water emulsions (10%, w/w, oil) were prepared at pH 5.7 by using electrostatically formed complexes of 0.5% (w/w) sodium caseinate (Na-CAS) and 0–0.6% (w/w) chitosan. Emulsions stabilized by complexes with increased levels of chitosan (>0.2% w/w) had a smaller average droplet size and

  5. Crystallization in Emulsions: A Thermo-Optical Method to Determine Single Crystallization Events in Droplet Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serghei Abramov


    Full Text Available Delivery systems with a solid dispersed phase can be produced in a melt emulsification process. For this, dispersed particles are melted, disrupted, and crystallized in a liquid continuous phase (melt emulsification. Different to bulk crystallization, droplets in oil-in-water emulsions show individual crystallization behavior, which differs from droplet to droplet. Therefore, emulsion droplets may form liquid, amorphous, and crystalline structures during the crystallization process. The resulting particle size, shape, and physical state influence the application properties of these colloidal systems and have to be known in formulation research. To characterize crystallization behavior of single droplets in micro emulsions (range 1 µm to several hundred µm, a direct thermo-optical method was developed. It allows simultaneous determination of size, size distribution, and morphology of single droplets within droplet clusters. As it is also possible to differentiate between liquid, amorphous, and crystalline structures, we introduce a crystallization index, CIi, in dispersions with a crystalline dispersed phase. Application of the thermo-optical approach on hexadecane-in-water model emulsion showed the ability of the method to detect single crystallization events of droplets within emulsion clusters, providing detailed information about crystallization processes in dispersions.

  6. Rheology and microstructure of gluten and soya-based o/w emulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bengoechea, Carlos; Cordobes, Felipe; Guerrero, Antonio [Universidad de Sevilla, Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Sevilla (Spain)


    Highly concentrated oil-in-water (o/w) emulsion stabilised by means of gluten and soya protein isolate (SPI) at low pH have been characterized by means of linear dynamic viscoelasticity and droplet size distribution analysis (DSD). The microstructure of these emulsions has been characterized at a colloidal level by using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and light microscopy (LM). These emulsions always exhibited a behaviour characteristic of highly flocculated emulsions with a mechanical spectrum showing a well-developed plateau region. DSD results generally showed log normal bimodal profiles. Microstructure images revealed occurrence of a close packing of droplets with a broad distribution of sizes participating in the formation of a three dimensional flocculated network. The Mason model of elasticity of compressed emulsions has been used to correlate viscoelastic and microstructural parameters giving adequate fitting but underestimating the elastic properties obtained for the highest concentration of gluten. These deviations may be explained in terms of an enhancement of the elastic network formed in the aqueous phase in which the glutenin fraction must play an important role. (orig.)

  7. Pickering emulsions stabilized by oppositely charged colloids: Stability and pattern formation (United States)

    Christdoss Pushpam, Sam David; Basavaraj, Madivala G.; Mani, Ethayaraja


    A binary mixture of oppositely charged colloids can be used to stabilize water-in-oil or oil-in-water emulsions. A Monte Carlo simulation study to address the effect of charge ratio of colloids on the stability of Pickering emulsions is presented. The colloidal particles at the interface are modeled as aligned dipolar hard spheres, with attractive interaction between unlike-charged and repulsive interaction between like-charged particles. The optimum composition (fraction of positively charged particles) required for the stabilization corresponds to a minimum in the interaction energy per particle. In addition, for each charge ratio, there is a range of compositions where emulsions can be stabilized. The structural arrangement of particles or the pattern formation at the emulsion interface is strongly influenced by the charge ratio. We find well-mixed isotropic, square, and hexagonal arrangements of particles on the emulsion surface for different compositions at a given charge ratio. The distribution of coordination numbers is calculated to characterize structural features. The simulation study is useful for the rational design of Pickering emulsifications wherein oppositely charged colloids are used, and for the control of pattern formation that can be useful for the synthesis of colloidosomes and porous shells derived thereof.

  8. Modelling and optimising of physicochemical features of walnut-oil beverage emulsions by implementation of response surface methodology: effect of preparation conditions on emulsion stability. (United States)

    Homayoonfal, Mina; Khodaiyan, Faramarz; Mousavi, Mohammad


    The major purpose of this study is to apply response surface methodology to model and optimise processing conditions for the preparation of beverage emulsions with maximum emulsion stability and viscosity, minimum particle size, turbidity loss rate, size index and peroxide value changes. A three-factor, five-level central composite design was conducted to estimate the effects of three independent variables: ultrasonic time (UT, 5-15 min), walnut-oil content (WO, 4-10% (w/w)) and Span 80 content (S80, 0.55-0.8). The results demonstrated the empirical models were satisfactorily (p viscosity and peroxide value changes, respectively.

  9. Characteristics and behavior of emulsion at nuclear fuel reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonda, K.; Nemoto, T.; Oka, K.


    The characteristics and behavior of the emulsion formed in mixer-settlers during nuclear fuel reprocessing were studied with the dissolver solution of spent fuel burned up to 28,000 MWd/MTU and a palladium colloidal solution, respectively. The emulsion was observed to be oil in water where nonsoluble residues of spent fuel were condensed as emulsifiers. Emulsion formed at interfaces in the settler showed electric conductivity due to continuity of the aqueous phase of the emulsion and viscosity due to the creamy state of the emulsion. The higher the palladium particle concentration was, the larger the amount of emulsion formed. This result agreed well with experience obtained in the Tokai Reprocessing Plant operation that both nonsoluble residues and emulsion formation increased remarkably on fuels in which burnup exceeded 20 000 MWd/MTU.

  10. Assay of Acetylcholinesterase Activity and Electrochemical Determination of Fenthion in Oil-in-water Emulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Kai; He JingJing; Miao YuQing


    @@ Organophosphates (OPs) have been widely used as pesticides,insecticides or even chemical warfare agents.Acetylcholinesterase (ACHE) inhibition has been employed to develop verious assay methods for detection of pesticides with the advantages of low cost,simple procedure and quick assay time.The study of acetylcholinesterase (ACHE) activity and OPs inhibition in the solution containing organic solvent is extremely important owing to poor solubility of Ops in water and a higher solubility in organic solvents.

  11. Lipid oxidation in oil-in-water emulsions: Involvement of the interfacial layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berton-Carabin, C.C.; Ropers, M.H.; Genot, C.


    More polyunsaturated fats in processed foods and fewer additives are a huge demand of public health agencies and consumers. Consequently, although foods have an enhanced tendency to oxidize, the usage of antioxidants, especially synthetic antioxidants, is restrained. An alternate solution is to bett

  12. Novel Routes to Model Colloids: ellipsoids, latices and stable meso-emulsions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sacanna, S.


    The research described in this thesis focuses on novel synthetic strategies for the preparation of well-defined model colloids. The preparation routes, involving self-assembly, emulsions and colloidal templating, are meant to facilitate design and fabrication of complex multi-shell composite

  13. The effect of different levels of sunflower head pith addition on the properties of model system emulsions prepared from fresh and frozen beef. (United States)

    Sariçoban, Cemalettin; Yilmaz, Mustafa Tahsin; Karakaya, Mustafa; Tiske, Sümeyra Sultan


    The effect of sunflower head pith on the functional properties of emulsions was studied by using a model system. Oil/water (O/W) model emulsion systems were prepared from fresh and frozen beef by the addition of the pith at five concentrations. Emulsion capacity (EC), stability (ES), viscosity (EV), colour and flow properties of the prepared model system emulsions were analyzed. The pith addition increased the EC and ES and the highest EC and ES values were reached when 5% of pith added; however, further increase in the pith concentration caused an inverse trend in these values. Fresh beef emulsions had higher EC and ES values than did frozen beef emulsions. One percent pith concentration was the critic level for the EV values of fresh beef emulsions. EV values of the emulsions reached a maximum level at 5% pith level, followed by a decrease at 7% pit level.

  14. Surrogate Models for Online Monitoring and Process Troubleshooting of NBR Emulsion Copolymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Mouli R. Madhuranthakam


    Full Text Available Chemical processes with complex reaction mechanisms generally lead to dynamic models which, while beneficial for predicting and capturing the detailed process behavior, are not readily amenable for direct use in online applications related to process operation, optimisation, control, and troubleshooting. Surrogate models can help overcome this problem. In this research article, the first part focuses on obtaining surrogate models for emulsion copolymerization of nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR, which is usually produced in a train of continuous stirred tank reactors. The predictions and/or profiles for several performance characteristics such as conversion, number of polymer particles, copolymer composition, and weight-average molecular weight, obtained using surrogate models are compared with those obtained using the detailed mechanistic model. In the second part of this article, optimal flow profiles based on dynamic optimisation using the surrogate models are obtained for the production of NBR emulsions with the objective of minimising the off-specification product generated during grade transitions.

  15. Surfactant-enhanced cellulose nanocrystal Pickering emulsions. (United States)

    Hu, Zhen; Ballinger, Sarah; Pelton, Robert; Cranston, Emily D


    The effect of surfactants on the properties of Pickering emulsions stabilized by cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) was investigated. Electrophoretic mobility, interfacial tension, confocal microscopy and three-phase contact angle measurements were used to elucidate the interactions between anionic CNCs and cationic alkyl ammonium surfactants didecyldimethylammonium bromide (DMAB) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). Both surfactants were found to adsorb onto CNCs with concentration-dependent morphology. At low concentrations, individual surfactant molecules adsorbed with alkyl tails pointing outward leading to hydrophobic CNCs. At higher concentrations, above the surfactant's apparent critical micelle concentration, surfactant aggregate morphologies on CNCs were inferred and the hydrophobicity of CNCs decreased. DMAB, which has two alkyl tails, rendered the CNCs more hydrophobic than CTAB which has only a single alkyl tail, at all surfactant concentrations. The change in CNC wettability from surfactant adsorption was directly linked to emulsion properties; adding surfactant increased the emulsion stability, decreased the droplet size, and controlled the internal phase of CNC Pickering emulsions. More specifically, a double transitional phase inversion, from oil-in-water to water-in-oil and back to oil-in-water, was observed for emulsions with CNCs and increasing amounts of DMAB (the more hydrophobic surfactant). With CNCs and CTAB, no phase inversion was induced. This work represents the first report of CNC Pickering emulsions with surfactants as well as the first CNC Pickering emulsions that can be phase inverted. The ability to surface modify CNCs in situ and tailor emulsions by adding surfactants may extend the potential of CNCs to new liquid formulations and extruded/spray-dried materials.

  16. Phase and sedimentation behavior of oil (octane) dispersions in the presence of model mineral aggregates. (United States)

    Gupta, Anju; Sender, Maximilian; Fields, Sarah; Bothun, Geoffrey D


    Adsorption of suspended particles to the interface of surfactant-dispersed oil droplets can alter emulsion phase and sedimentation behavior. This work examines the effects of model mineral aggregates (silica nanoparticle aggregates or SNAs) on the behavior of oil (octane)-water emulsions prepared using sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (DOSS). Experiments were conducted at different SNA hydrophobicities in deionized and synthetic seawater (SSW), and at 0.5mM and 2.5mM DOSS. SNAs were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and dynamic light scattering (DLS), and the emulsions were examined by optical and cryogenic scanning electron microscopy. In deionized water, oil-in-water emulsions were formed with DOSS and the SNAs did not adhere to the droplets or alter emulsion behavior. In SSW, water-in-oil emulsions were formed with DOSS and SNA-DOSS binding through cation bridging led to phase inversion to oil-in-water emulsions. Droplet oil-mineral aggregates (OMAs) were observed for hydrophilic SNAs, while hydrophobic SNAs yielded quickly sedimenting agglomerated OMAs.

  17. Ultrasonic attenuation spectroscopy of emulsions with droplet sizes greater than 10 microm. (United States)

    Richter, Andreas; Voigt, Tino; Ripperger, Siegfried


    Ultrasonic attenuation measurement is a frequently used tool for non-destructive determination of dispersion characteristics. Useful information like particle or droplet size and their concentration can be obtained, if the relation between size and attenuation of the dispersion is known. In this work, the theoretical model by Faran for the intermediate sound wave regime (IWR) is presented in combination with experimental data. In the IWR, the acoustic behavior is governed by elastic scattering rather than by dissipative effects. Experiments with emulsion of droplet sizes greater than 10 mum were carried out. Silicone oil, sunflower oil and olive oil were selected for the disperse phase of the oil-in-water emulsions. First, emulsions having droplets in the micrometer range were created. Afterwords, attenuation measurements of different concentrated emulsion were carried out. Some adjustments reflecting concentration influence were performed to outline the agreement between calculations and measurements. The validity of the model can be confirmed, if the volume fraction of the disperse phase is considered as a variable. Finally, droplet size distributions from theoretical attenuation spectra could be calculated based on a log-normal distribution.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa KARAKAYA


    Full Text Available Emulsion parameters of different meat by-products (beef head-meat, beef heart and liver and animal fats and oil (beef fat, mutton fat, sheep tail-fat and corn oil were studied in a model system. The results of the study showed that the highest emulsion capacity (EC was with the heart meat and beef fat emulsion while the lowest EC was measured in the beef head-meat and sheep tail-fat combination. Corn oil gave the best emulsification with beef head-meat and liver, and beef fat resulted the second best results. Beef head-meat gave the most stable emulsion with all fats, but the emulsions prepared with heart and liver were generally unstable.

  19. Temperature and emulsifier concentration effects on gallic acid distribution in a model food emulsion. (United States)

    Losada-Barreiro, Sonia; Sánchez-Paz, Verónica; Bravo-Díaz, Carlos; Paiva-Martins, Fátima; Romsted, Laurence S


    We determined the effects of emulsifier concentration and temperature on the distribution of gallic acid (GA) in a food-grade emulsion composed of 1:9 vol:vol stripped corn oil, acidic water and Tween 20. The distribution of GA can be defined by the partition constant between the aqueous and the interfacial regions, P(W)(I), which was determined by using a kinetic method and the pseudophase kinetic model. Once P(W)(I) is known, determining the distribution of GA is straightforward. Our results show that at least 40% of the total GA is located in the interfacial region of the emulsion at 0.005 volume fraction of Tween 20, and this percentage increases to ca. 85% of the total GA at 0.04 volume fraction of Tween 20. The variation of P(W)(I) with the temperature was used to estimate the thermodynamic parameters for the GA transfer from the aqueous to the interfacial region of the emulsion and the activation parameters for the reaction between 16-ArN(2)(+) and GA in the interfacial region. The free energy of transfer from the aqueous to the interfacial region, ΔG(T)(0,W→I), is negative, the enthalpy of transfer is small and negative, but the entropy of transfer is large and positive. Our results demonstrate that the partitioning of GA in acidic emulsions between aqueous and interfacial regions depends primarily on droplet concentration and is only slightly dependent on temperature.

  20. Hydroplasticization of polymers: model predictions and application to emulsion polymers. (United States)

    Tsavalas, John G; Sundberg, Donald C


    The plasticization of a polymer by solvent has a dramatic impact on both its thermal and mechanical behavior. With increasing demand for zero volatile organic compound materials and coatings, water is often the sole solvent used both in the polymer synthesis and in formulation and application; latex colloids derived from emulsion polymerization are a good example. The impact of water on the glass transition temperature of a polymer thus becomes a critical physical property to predict. It has been shown here that in order to do so, one simply needs the dry state glass transition temperature (T(g)) of the (co)polymer, the T(g) of water, and the saturated weight fraction of water for the sample in question. Facile calculation of the later can be achieved using water sorption data and the group additivity method. With these readily available data, we show that a form of the Flory-Fox equation can be used to predict the hydroplasticized state of copolymers in exceptional agreement with direct experimental measurement. Furthermore, extending the prediction to include the impact of the degree of ionization for pH responsive components, only with extra knowledge of the pK(a), was also validated by experiment.

  1. Enhanced mucosal and systemic immune response with squalane oil-containing multiple emulsions upon intranasal and oral administration in mice. (United States)

    Shahiwala, Aliasgar; Amiji, Mansoor M


    The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate squalane oil-containing water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) multiple emulsion for mucosal administration of ovalbumin (OVA) as a model candidate vaccine in BALB/c mice. Control and optimized OVA-containing W/O/W emulsion (OVA-Emul) and chitosan-modified W/O/W emulsion (OVA-Emul-Chi) formulations were administered intranasally and orally at an OVA dose of 100 mug. The mucosal and systemic immune responses were evaluated after the first and second immunization. The OVA-Emul formulations resulted in higher immunoglobulin-G (IgG) and immunoglobulin-A (IgA) responses as compared with aqueous solution. In addition, significant IgG and IgA responses were observed after the second immunization dose using the emulsions with both routes of administration. Intranasal vaccination was more effective in generating the systemic OVA-specific IgG response than the mucosal OVA-specific IgA response. Oral immunizations, on the other hand, showed a much higher systemic IgG and mucosal IgA responses as compared with the nasally treated groups. The results of this study show that squalane oil-containing W/O/W multiple emulsion formulations can significantly enhance the local and systemic immune responses, especially after oral administration, and may be adopted as a better alternative in mucosal delivery of prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines.

  2. Effect of Surfactant Concentration in the Emulsions on the Process of Oleophilic Porous Structures Imbibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shtyka Olga S.


    Full Text Available The spontaneous imbibition has been a subject of the scientific interest being a background process for numerous industrial technologies and occurring in the natural environment. In literature the experimental and theoretical results regarding this phenomenon describe a media imbibition with single-phase liquids and the relation between the process rate and media characteristics. The imbibition of oleophilic porous structures with two-phase liquids, only one phase of which was wetting, is an objective of the current publication. The main purpose is to estimate the influence of both surfactant fraction and the dispersed phase concentration on the mentioned process. The imbibition rate was investigated during model experiments with stabilized oil-in-water emulsions having the dispersed phase concentrations of 10 vol%, 30 vol% and 50 vol%. The prepared emulsions differed with fraction of the added surfactant, i.e. 1 vol%, 2 vol% and 5 vol%. The obtained results allowed to conclude that at the him≥0.02 m, the dispersed phase concentration and viscosity decreased versus height. However, the raise of the surfactant fraction caused the increase of mass and height of the imbibed emulsions in porous medium. Moreover, this provided increasing of viscosity and a change of emulsions behaviour as a liquid.

  3. Dynamics of Pickering Emulsions in the Presence of an Interfacial Reaction: A Simulation Study. (United States)

    Zhao, Shuangliang; Zhan, Bicai; Hu, Yaofeng; Fan, Zhaoyu; Pera-Titus, Marc; Liu, Honglai


    Pickering emulsions combining surface-active and catalytic properties offer a promising platform for conducting interfacial reactions between immiscible reagents. Despite the significant progress in the design of Pickering interfacial catalysts for a broad panel of reactions, the dynamics of Pickering emulsions under reaction conditions is still poorly understood. Herein, using benzene hydroxylation with aqueous H2O2 as a model system, we explored the dynamics of benzene/water Pickering emulsions during reaction by dissipative particle dynamics. Our study points out that the surface wettability of the silica nanoparticles is affected to a higher extent by the degree of polymer grafting rather than an increase of the chain length of hydrophobic polymer moieties. A remarkable decline of the oil-in-water (O/W) interfacial tension was observed when increasing the yield of the reaction product (phenol), affecting the emulsion stability. However, phenol did not alter to an important extent the distribution of immiscible reagents around the nanoparticles sitting at the benzene/water interface. A synergistic effect between phenol and silica nanoparticles on the O/W interfacial tension of the biphasic system could be ascertained.

  4. Averaged model for probabilistic coalescence avalanches in two-dimensional emulsions: Insights into uncertainty propagation (United States)

    Danny Raj, M.; Rengaswamy, R.


    A two-dimensional concentrated emulsion exhibits spontaneous rapid destabilization through an avalanche of coalescence events which propagate through the assembly stochastically. We propose a deterministic model to explain the average dynamics of the avalanching process. The dynamics of the avalanche phenomenon is studied as a function of a composite parameter, the decay time ratio, which characterizes the ratio of the propensity of coalescence to cease propagation to that of propagation. When this ratio is small, the avalanche grows autocatalytically to destabilize the emulsion. Using a scaling analysis, we unravel the relation between a local characteristic of the system and a global system wide effect. The anisotropic nature of local coalescence results in a system size dependent transition from nonautocatalytic to autocatalytic behavior. By incorporating uncertainty into the parameters in the model, several possible realizations of the coalescence avalanche are generated. The results are compared with the Monte Carlo simulations to derive insights into how the uncertainty propagates in the system.

  5. Using the pseudophase kinetic model to interpret chemical reactivity in ionic emulsions: determining antioxidant partition constants and interfacial rate constants. (United States)

    Gu, Qing; Bravo-Díaz, Carlos; Romsted, Laurence S


    Kinetic results obtained in cationic and anionic emulsions show for the first time that pseudophase kinetic models give reasonable estimates of the partition constants of reactants, here t-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) between the oil and interfacial region, P(O)(I), and the water and interfacial region, P(W)(I), and of the interfacial rate constant, k(I), for the reaction with an arenediazonium ion in emulsions containing a 1:1 volume ratio of a medium chain length triglyceride, MCT, and aqueous acid or buffer. The results provide: (a) an explanation for the large difference in pH, >4 pH units, required to run the reaction in CTAB (pH 1.54, added HBr) and SDS (pH 5.71, acetate buffer) emulsions; (b) reasonable estimates of PO(I) and k(I) in the CTAB emulsions; (c) a sensible interpretation of added counterion effects based on ion exchange in SDS emulsions (Na(+)/H3O(+) ion exchange in the interfacial region) and Donnan equilibrium in CTAB emulsions (Br(-) increasing the interfacial H3O(+)); and (d) the significance of the effect of the much greater solubility of TBHQ in MCT versus octane, 1000/1, as the oil. These results should aid in interpreting the effects of ionic surfactants on chemical reactivity in emulsions in general and in selecting the most efficient antioxidant for particular food applications.

  6. Study of Pickering emulsions stabilized by mixed particles of silica and calcite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sha Wang; Yongjun He; Yong Zou


    Picketing emulsions were prepared using mixed particles of silica and calcite as emulsifiers.The effects of the silica content in the mixed particles on the stability and the drop size of the Pickering emulsions were investigated.The results showed that the Pickering emulsions were of the oil-in-water type.With increasing silica content in the mixed particles,the stability and the drop size of the Pickering emulsions decreased.Larger silica particles had more influence on the stability of the emulsions,while smaller ones had more influence on the drop size of the emulsions.The effect of the silica particles on the emulsions was attributed to their adsorptive behavior at the oil-water interfaces of the Pickering emulsions.

  7. Core-shell-structured silica/polyacrylate particles prepared by Pickering emulsion: influence of the nucleation model on particle interfacial organization and emulsion stability. (United States)

    Ji, Jing; Shu, Shi; Wang, Feng; Li, Zhilin; Liu, Jingjun; Song, Ye; Jia, Yi


    This work reports a new evidence of the versatility of silica sol as a stabilizer for Pickering emulsions. The organization of silica particles at the oil-water interface is a function of the nucleation model. The present results show that nucleation model, together with monomer hydrophobicity, can be used as a trigger to modify the packing density of silica particles at the oil-water interface: Less hydrophobic methylmethacrylate, more wettable with silica particles, favors the formation of core-shell-structured composite when the composite particles are prepared by miniemulsion polymerization in which monomers are fed in batch (droplet nucleation). By contrast, hydrophobic butylacrylate promotes the encapsulating efficiency of silica when monomers are fed dropwise (homogeneous nucleation). The morphologies of polyacrylate-nano-SiO2 composites prepared from different feed ratio of methylmethacrylate/butylacrylate (with different hydrophobicity) and by different feed processes are characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The results from SEM and TEM show that the morphologies of the as-prepared polyacrylate/nano-SiO2 composite can be a core-shell structure or a bare acrylic sphere. The stability of resulting emulsions composed of these composite particles is strongly dependent on the surface coverage of silica particles. The emulsion stability is improved by densely silica-packed composite particles.

  8. Effect of High Pressure Homogenization on the Physicochemical Properties of Natural Plant-based Model Emulsion Applicable for Dairy Products (United States)

    Park, Sung Hee; Min, Sang-Gi; Jo, Yeon-Ji; Chun, Ji-Yeon


    In the dairy industry, natural plant-based powders are widely used to develop flavor and functionality. However, most of these ingredients are water-insoluble; therefore, emulsification is essential. In this study, the efficacy of high pressure homogenization (HPH) on natural plant (chocolate or vanilla)-based model emulsions was investigated. The particle size, electrical conductivity, Brix, pH, and color were analyzed after HPH. HPH significantly decreased the particle size of chocolate-based emulsions as a function of elevated pressures (20-100 MPa). HPH decreased the mean particle size of chocolate-based emulsions from 29.01 μm to 5.12 μm, and that of vanilla-based emulsions from 4.18 μm to 2.44 μm. Electrical conductivity increased as a function of the elevated pressures after HPH, for both chocolate- and vanilla-based model emulsions. HPH at 100 MPa increased the electrical conductivity of chocolate-based model emulsions from 0.570 S/m to 0.680 S/m, and that of vanilla-based model emulsions from 0.573 S/m to 0.601 S/m. Increased electrical conductivity would be attributed to colloidal phase modification and dispersion of oil globules. Brix of both chocolate- and vanilla-based model emulsions gradually increased as a function of the HPH pressure. Thus, HPH increased the solubility of plant-based powders by decreasing the particle size. This study demonstrated the potential use of HPH for enhancing the emulsification process and stability of the natural plant powders for applications with dairy products. PMID:26761891

  9. Model-based optimization of the operation procedure of emulsification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stork, M.


    Emulsions are widely encountered in the food and cosmetic industry. The first food we consume is an emulsion, namely breast milk. Other common emulsions are mayonnaise, dressings, skin creams and lotions. Equipment often used for the production of oil-in-water emulsions in the food industry consist

  10. Forces acting in quasi 2d emulsions (United States)

    Orellana, Carlos; Lowensohn, Janna; Weeks, Eric

    We study the forces in a quasi two dimensional emulsion system. Our samples are oil-in-water emulsions confined between two close-spaced parallel plates, so that the oil droplets are deformed into pancake shapes. By means of microscopy, we measure the droplet positions and their deformation, which we can relate to the contact forces due to surface tension. We improve over prior work in our lab, achieving a better force resolution. We use this result to measure and calibrate the viscous forces acting in our system, which fully determine all the forces on the droplets. Our results can be applied to study static configurations of emulsion, as well as faster flows.

  11. Preparation and Application of Water-in-Oil Emulsions Stabilized by Modified Graphene Oxide


    Xiaoma Fei; Lei Xia; Mingqing Chen; Wei Wei; Jing Luo; Xiaoya Liu


    A series of alkyl chain modified graphene oxides (AmGO) with different alkyl chain length and content was fabricated using a reducing reaction between graphene oxide (GO) and alkyl amine. Then AmGO was used as a graphene-based particle emulsifier to stabilize Pickering emulsion. Compared with the emulsion stabilized by GO, which was oil-in-water type, all the emulsions stabilized by AmGO were water-in-oil type. The effects of alkyl chain length and alkyl chain content on the emulsion properti...

  12. Structure- and oil type-based efficacy of emulsion adjuvants. (United States)

    Jansen, Theo; Hofmans, Marij P M; Theelen, Marc J G; Manders, Frans; Schijns, Virgil E J C


    Oil-based emulsions are well-known immunopotentiators for inactivated, "killed" vaccines. We addressed the relationship between emulsion structure and levels of in vivo antibody formation to inactivated New Castle Disease virus (NDV) and Infectious Bronchitis virus (IBV) as antigens in 3-week-old chickens. The use of a polymeric emulsifier allowed for direct comparison of three types of emulsions, water-in-oil (W/O), oil-in-water (O/W) and W/O-in-water (W/O/W), while maintaining an identical content of components for each vehicle. They were prepared with either non-metabolizable, mineral oil or metabolizable, Miglyol 840. In addition, we assessed the inherent release capacity of each emulsion variant in vitro. Remarkably, we noted that W/O-type emulsions induced the best immune responses, while they released no antigen during 3 weeks. In general, mineral oil vaccines showed superior efficacy compared to Miglyol 840-based vaccines.

  13. Factors affecting the oxidative stability of omega-3 emulsions prepared with milk proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    Omega-3 fatty acids are prone to lipid oxidation due to their unsaturated nature. In oil-in-water emulsions, lipid oxidation is expected to be initiated at the oil-water interface. The properties of the emulsifier used and the structure at the interface are therefore expected to be of great...... importance for the resulting oxidation. This presentation will give an overview of parameters that are expected to change the properties and structure of milk protein components at the interface of 10% fish oil-in-water emulsions. Results from three different studies will be included. The first study...... compared the effect of two different high pressure homogenizers on oxidation in caseinate and whey protein isolate emulsions. The second study evaluated the effect of homogenization pressure and temperature on emulsions prepared either with whey proteins or a combination of caseinate and β...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In the past 10 years, the need for biodegradable lubricants has been more and more emphasized. The use of vegetable oils as lubricants offers several advantages. The vegetable oils are biodegradable; thus, the environmental pollution is minimal either during or after their use. The aim of this paper is to presents a preliminary study concerning the influence of some preparation conditions on the stability of vegetable oil-in-water (O/W emulsions as eco-friendly lubricants stabilized by nonionic surfactant. In this context, vegetable oil-in-water emulsions characteristics where assessed using microscopically observation and zeta potential. In addition, the color of these emulsions can be evaluated. It can be observed that the emulsions tend to stabilize in time.

  15. Effects of Surface-Engineered Nanoparticle-Based Dispersants for Marine Oil Spills on the Model Organism Artemia franciscana


    Rodd, April L.; Creighton, Megan A.; Vaslet, Charles A.; Rangel-Mendez, J. Rene; Hurt, Robert H.; Kane, Agnes B.


    Fine particles are under active consideration as alternatives to chemical dispersants for large-scale petroleum spills. Fine carbon particles with engineered surface chemistry have been shown to stabilize oil-in-water emulsions, but the environmental impacts of large-scale particle introduction to the marine environment are unknown. Here we study the impact of surface-engineered carbon-black materials on brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) as a model marine microcrustacean. Mortality was chara...

  16. Exploration of Breadfruit, Jicama, and Rice Starches as Stabilizer in Food Emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Haryani Anwar


    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate the ability of three native starches from Indonesia to stabilize oil in water emulsion with and without the addition of lecithin as surfactant. Breadfruit, bengkuang (jicama, and rice starches were extracted from local sources in Banda Aceh - Indonesia. Two variables studied were type of starches and the amount of oil added into emulsion (15 and 25%. Proximate analysis showed that the starch content of breadfruit, jicama and rice were 77.57, 67.41, and 80.51% respectively and the amylose content were 20.50, 16.5, and 13.6%. Results showed that the emulsification index (EI of emulsion prepared with jicama and rice starches were lower than the EI of emulsion stabilized by breadfruit starch. However, the viscosity of breadfruit emulsion was higher than the other two emulsions. Storage stability test in room temperature also demonstrated that oil in water emulsion made from breadfruit starch had the lowest separation rate over storage period compared to jicama and rice emulsions. Overall, stabilization of 25% oil in breadfruit emulsion was slightly better than addition of 15% oil where the visible boundaries or serum layer of the emulsion was in the range of 5-6 ml at the end of storage test. Breadfruit starch was further modified by reacting it with octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA to produce OSA-modified breadfruit starch. The degree of substitution (DS of OSA modified breadfruit starch was 0.0231. OSA-modified breadfruit starch is highly potential to be used as food emulsifier and therefore studied further to examine its ability to stabilize oil in water emulsion.

  17. Effects of spray drying on physicochemical properties of milk protein-stabilised emulsions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sliwinski, E.L.; Lavrijsen, B.W.M.; Vollenbroek, J.M.; Stege, van der H.J.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Wouters, J.T.M.


    The effect of spray drying and reconstitution has been studied for oil-in-water emulsions (20.6% maltodextrin, 20% soybean oil, 2.4% protein, 0.13 M NaCl, pH 6.7) with varying ratios of sodium caseinate and whey protein, but with equal size distribution (d(32) = 0.77 mum). When the concentration of

  18. Physicochemical stability of lycopene-loaded emulsions stabilized by plant or dairy proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, Kacie; Schroen, C.G.P.H.; San Martín-González, M.F.; Berton-Carabin, C.C.


    Lycopene is a lipophilic bioactive compound that can be challenging to deliver in vivo. To mediate this, delivery strategies, such as protein-stabilized oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions, have been suggested to improve the physicochemical stability and bioavailability of lycopene. In this research, the e

  19. Physicochemical stability of lycopene-loaded emulsions stabilized by plant or dairy proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, Kacie; Schroen, C.G.P.H.; San Martín-González, M.F.; Berton-Carabin, C.C.


    Lycopene is a lipophilic bioactive compound that can be challenging to deliver in vivo. To mediate this, delivery strategies, such as protein-stabilized oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions, have been suggested to improve the physicochemical stability and bioavailability of lycopene. In this research, the

  20. The effect of electrolytes on emulsions stabilized by non-ionic surfactants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boomgaard, van den A.


    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of high electrolyte concentrations on the stability of oil-in-water- emulsions stabilized by nonionic surfactants.In chapter 1 several stability mechanisms are briefly outlined and the distinction between coalescence and flocculation of an em

  1. Characterisation of liquid-liquid interfaces related to offshore produced water treatment - interfacial activity of model Components


    Olhaye, Omar


    Produced water is one of the biggest environmental challenges in gas and crude oil production, and the stability of oil in water emulsions makes separation during treatments difficult.The objective of this work is to find out how interfacial active compounds contribute to the stability of oil/water emulsions. A model naphthenic acid dissolved in model oil was used together with a synthetic aqueous brine of different pH values in order to mimic produced water conditions. The experiment was con...

  2. A study of hydrate formation and dissociation from high water cut emulsions and the impact on emulsion inversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greaves, D.P.; Boxall, J.A.; Mulligan, J.; Dendy Sloan, E.; Koh, C.A. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Center for Hydrate Research


    The challenges facing the petroleum industry regarding clathrate hydrate formation were discussed, with particular reference to the costly and dangerous pipeline blocking plugs that form upon hydrate accumulation and agglomeration. Although a variety of inhibitors are used to prevent hydrate plug formation, they are not designed for high water content production. As oil and gas are produced from less profitable or older wells, there is a greater probability of higher water cuts. Therefore, this study focused on methane hydrate formation and dissociation from these high water content (greater than 60 per cent volume) emulsions of water-in-oil (W/O) and oil-in-water (O/W). At high water cuts, the system can quickly agglomerate with hydrate formation, while dissociation can lead to a significant change in the emulsion type. Although inhibition can be costly at high water cuts, it must be considered because of the risk of immediate agglomeration and plug formation with hydrates. In this study, the hydrate formation and dissociation from W/O emulsions destabilized the emulsion, with the final emulsion formulation favouring a water continuous state following re-emulsification. After dissociation, the W/O emulsion formed a multiple o/W/O emulsion or inverted at even higher water cuts, forming an O/W emulsion with 68 per cent water volume. In contrast, hydrate formation and dissociation from O/W emulsions with more than 71 per cent water volume stablized the O/W emulsion. 24 refs., 13 figs.

  3. Oil-in-water emulsification using confined impinging jets. (United States)

    Siddiqui, Shad W; Norton, Ian T


    A confined impinging jet mixing device has been used to investigate the continuous sunflower oil/water emulsification process under turbulent flow conditions with oil contents between 5% (v/v) and 10% (v/v). Various emulsifiers (Tween20, Span80, Whey Protein, Lecithin and Sodium Dodecylsulphate) varying in molecular weights have been studied. Mean droplet sizes varied with the emulsifiers used and smallest droplets were obtained under fully turbulent flow regime, i.e. at the highest jet flow rate and highest jet Reynolds Number conditions. Sodium Dodecylsulfate (SDS) produced droplets in the range of 3.8 μm while 6 μm droplets were obtained with Whey Protein. Similar droplet sizes were obtained under fully turbulent flow conditions (610 mL/min; Reynolds Number=13,000) for oil content varying between 5% (v/v) and 10% (v/v). To investigate the smallest droplet size possible in the device, the emulsion was passed through the geometry multiple times. Multi-pass emulsification resulted in reduction in droplet size indicating that longer residence in the flow field under high shear condition allowed for breakage of droplets as well as the time for the emulsifier to stabilize the newly formed droplets, decreasing the impact of coalescence. This was confirmed by timescale analysis of the involved process steps for the droplet data obtained via experiments. Dependence of mean droplet size on the o/w interfacial tension and peak energy dissipation was also investigated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Electrostatic Enhancement of Coalescence of Oil Droplets (in Nanometer Scale) in Water Emulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Oil droplets in nanometer scale which are dispersed in water cannot be separated easily. An attractive technique is carried out by electrical phenomena to demulsify oil in water emulsion. In this research, non-uniform electric field or dielectrophoresis (DEP) is applied to remove sunflower oil (which is dispersed in the water). Effectsof temperature, time and voltage (using AC-electric field) were considered to get the highest DEP-force (Fdi) and the best results. The oil particles sizes with average of approximately 76 nm have been shown using a ZetaSizer Nano ZS, Model ZEN 1600 (Malvem Instrument Ltd.). The maximum separation efficiency of 85% is obtained at the optimum temperature of 38 ℃ and voltage of 3000 V.

  5. Comparative Safety and Efficacy Profile of a Novel Oil in Water Vaccine Adjuvant Comprising Vitamins A and E and a Catechin in Protective Anti-Influenza Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapna Patel


    Full Text Available Non-replicating vaccines, such as those based on recombinant proteins, require adjuvants and delivery systems, which have thus far depended on mimicking pathogen danger signals and strong pro-inflammatory responses. In search of a safer and more efficacious alternative, we tested whether vaccinations with influenza recombinant hemagglutinin (HA mixed with a novel vegetable oil in water emulsion adjuvant (Natural Immune-enhancing Delivery System, NIDS, based on the immune-enhancing synergy of vitamins A and E and a catechin, could protect against intra-nasal challenge with live influenza virus. Vaccinations of inbred Brag Albino strain c (BALB/c mice, with HA mixed with NIDS compared to other adjuvants, i.e., a squalene oil in water emulsion (Sq. oil, and the Toll Like Receptor 3 (TLR3 agonist Poly (I:C, induced significantly lower select innate pro-inflammatory responses in serum, but induced significantly higher adaptive antibody and splenic T Helper 1 (TH1 or TH2, but not TH17, responses. Vaccinations with NIDS protected against infection, as measured by clinical scores, lung viral loads, and serum hemagglutination inhibition titers. The NIDS exhibited a strong dose sparing effect and the adjuvant action of NIDS was intact in the outbred CD1 mice. Importantly, vaccinations with the Sq. oil, but not NIDS, induced a significantly higher Serum Amyloid P component, an acute phase reactant secreted by hepatocytes, and total serum IgE. Thus, the NIDS may be used as a clinically safer and more efficacious vaccine adjuvant against influenza, and potentially other infectious diseases.

  6. Time Irreversibility from Time Series for Analyzing Oil-in-Water Flow Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Meng


    Full Text Available We first experimentally collect conductance fluctuation signals of oil-in-water two-phase flow in a vertical pipe. Then we detect the flow pattern asymmetry character from the collected signals with multidimensional time irreversibility and multiscale time irreversibility index. Moreover, we propose a novel criterion, that is, AMSI (average of multiscale time irreversibility, to quantitatively investigate the oil-in-water two-phase flow pattern dynamics. The results show that AMSI is sensitive to the flow pattern evolution that can be used to predict the flow pattern transition and bubble coalescence.

  7. Multiple emulsion-mediated enhancement of the therapeutic effect of tetrandine against silicosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, D.H.; Ma, J.Y.C.; Malanga, C.J.; Banks, D.E.; Hubbs, A.F.; Rojanasakul, Y.; Castranova, V.; Ma, J.K.H. [West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States). School of Pharmacy


    Using a water-in-oil-in-water multiple emulsion system developed for pulmonary drug targeting, the effectiveness of tetrandrine as an antifibrotic agent and the therapeutic advantage of a tetrandrine emulsion over drug in solution for the treatment of silicosis were investigated in rats. Previously it was shown that the action of tetrandrine is attributed to its ability to inhibit the release of reactive oxygen metabolites and inflammatory cytokines by alveolar macrophages, and that targeted delivery of tetrandrine to alveolar macrophages using a multiple emulsion system minimizes drug toxicity, maintains the drug`s pharmacological activity, and enhances tetrandrine distribution in the lungs while reducing systemic drug distribution. This study provides in vivo evidence of emulsion-mediated enhancement of drug action in the lungs against silica-induced lung injury using a rat model. The antifibrotic action of tetrandrine was evaluated by examinations of lung histology, alveolar cell differentials, in vivo drug effect on macrophage respiratory burst, and the measurements of lung weight and collagen content. Tetradrine was shown to inhibit the macrophage-orchestrated inflammatory process in response to silica exposure, preventing infiltration of neutrophils into the alveolar space, it also protected the cells from silica-induced toxicity and stimulation, and restored healthy alveolar macrophage populations in the alveolar region. Intervention of the silica effect with tetrandrine markedly decreased light microscopic lung lesions. These results were supported by inhibition of a silica-induced increase in lung weight and collagen content by tetrandrine. In all experiments the tetrandrine emulsion system was shown to be consistently more efficacious than the solution dosage form in the treatment of silica-induced granulomatous pneumonia, alveolar lipoproteinosis consistent with acute silicosis, and fibrosis. 45 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Cellulose nanofibrils for one-step stabilization of multiple emulsions (W/O/W) based on soybean oil. (United States)

    Carrillo, Carlos A; Nypelö, Tiina E; Rojas, Orlando J


    Cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) were incorporated in water-in-oil (W/O) microemulsions and emulsions, as well as water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) multiple emulsions using soybean oil. The addition of CNF to the aqueous phase expanded the composition range to obtain W/O/W emulsions. CNF also increased the viscosity of the continuous phase and reduced the drop size both of which increased the stability and effective viscosity of the emulsions. The effects of oil type and polarity on the properties of the W/O/W emulsions were tested with limonene and octane, which compared to soybean oil produced a smaller emulsion drop size, and thus a higher emulsion viscosity. Overall, CNF are a feasible alternative to conventional polysaccharides as stability enhancers for normal and multiple emulsions that exhibit strong shear thinning behavior.

  9. Insulin versus Lipid Emulsion in a Rabbit Model of Severe Propranolol Toxicity: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyn Harvey


    Full Text Available Background and objective. Beta-blocker overdose may result in intractable cardiovascular collapse despite conventional antidotal treatments. High dose insulin/glucose (ING, and more recently intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE, have been proposed as potentially beneficial therapies in beta blocker intoxication. We compare efficacy of the novel antidotes ING, with ILE, in a rabbit model of combined enteric/intravenous propranolol toxicity. Methods. Sedated, mechanically ventilated and invasively monitored New Zealand White rabbits underwent mini-laparotomy and enterostomy formation with 40 mg/kg propranolol instilled into the proximal small bowel. At 30 minutes propranolol infusion was commenced at 4 mg/kg/hr and continued to a target mean arterial pressure (MAP of 50% baseline MAP. Animals were resuscitated with insulin at 3 U/kg plus 0.5 g/kg glucose (ING group, or 10 mL/kg 20% Intralipid (ILE group. Results. Rate pressure product (RPP; RPP = heart rate × mean arterial pressure was greatest in the ING group at 60 minutes (P<.05. A trend toward greater heart rate was observed in the ING group (P=.06. No difference was observed in survival between groups (4/5 ING versus 2/5 ILE; P=.524. Conclusions. High dose insulin resulted in greater rate pressure product compared with lipid emulsion in this rabbit model of severe enteric/intravenous propranolol toxicity.

  10. Aging mechanisms of perfluorocarbon emulsions using image analysis. (United States)

    Freire, Mara G; Dias, Ana M A; Coelho, Maria A Z; Coutinho, João A P; Marrucho, Isabel M


    The aging mechanisms of perfluorocarbon emulsions were investigated using image analysis. Oil-in-water emulsions of two perfluorocarbons, n-perfluorohexane and perfluorodecalin, were prepared with three emulsifiers, Lecithin, Span 20, and Pluronic F-68. The effect of the temperature and the replacement of water by an aqueous phase consisting of a microbial culture medium were also studied. The emulsions were prepared by sonication and their stability was followed through analysis of the evolution of mean droplet size. The results indicate that the stability of perfluorocarbon in water emulsions depends on all the parameters investigated and that two aging mechanisms, coalescence and molecular diffusion, may take place. Analysis of the evolution of the mean droplet size during long time periods indicate that coalescence is more common than previously reported for these systems and seems to be favored by a temperature increase.

  11. Formation and stability studies of multiple (w/o/w) emulsions prepared with newly synthesized rosin-based polymeric surfactants. (United States)

    Dhanorkar, V T; Gogte, B B; Dorle, A K


    The multiple (water-in-oil-in-water, w/o/w) emulsions were prepared using newly synthesized rosin-based polymeric surfactants. The oil phase used was liquid paraffin. These emulsions were evaluated for stability by various methods: conductivity, viscosity, particle size, and visual inspection. The stability studies were carried out at 37 degrees C and 4 degrees C for 1 month. The multiple emulsion prepared with polymer 7 was found to be more stable compared to the emulsions prepared with polymer 2.

  12. Development and field application of a novel emulsion system O/W for well drilling of low pressure reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arellano, J.; Ojeda, A.; Blanco, J.; Medina, N.; Gutierrez, X.; Carrasquero, M.; Briceno, H. [PDVSA (Venezuela)


    In Venezuela, there are important reserves of hydrocarbons in low pressure reservoirs but accessing to these reserves is a major challenge. This paper presents a new oil in water emulsion (O/W) system, using fatty acids and their salts as surfactant additives for use in such reservoirs, and the results obtained in field applications. Emulsions were prepared using two oil types and multiple salt (KCl) concentrations. Tests were then conducted to determine their thermal stability and return permeability percentage. Results showed good tolerance of high concentrations of KCl, as well as good stability under high temperatures and a good rheological behavior. The field test showed that the O/W emulsion system presents technological and cost advantages over other commercial technologies. This paper presented a new oil in water emulsion system which is a good alternative to water based fluids for well drilling in low pressure reservoirs.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Jiyauddin *, A. Fadli , J. C. Wei , A. Jawad , A. D. Samer , M. Kaleemullah, S. Budiasih, S. Rasha , M. R. Rasny , Y. K. Sung , A. H. Junainah , H. Todo and Y. Eddy


    Full Text Available Nano-emulsions consist of fine oil-in-water or water-in-oil dispersions, having droplets covering the size range of 10 - 600 nm. The aim of this study is to formulate nano-emulsion of Clindamycin by using Emulsion Phase Inversion method and olive oil as the oil phase. Pseudo ternary phase diagram was first developed by using distilled water, olive oil and mixture of surfactants (Tween®80 and Span®20 at a ratio of 1:1. Then, appearance test and microscopic examination were done for all the pre-formulation. Three potential pre-formulation were then selected and incorporated with the Clindamycin Phosphate and Methyl Paraben. The mean droplet size and stability studies were done for these three formulations. Clindamycin Nano-emulsions were not obtained using the Emulsion Phase Inversion (EPI method in this study, whereby the mean droplet sizes were in micro-range. However, out of all the three formulations which undergone extensive studies which include the heating-cooling cycle, whereby the formulation F8 and F17 were found to be physically stable. Significant differences were identified on the pH value and viscosity measurement for all the three formulations which undergone the heating-cooling cycle; except for the pH in F17. Furthermore, the formulation F8 had the smallest droplet size of 0.92 µm. Future research on this topic is needed to reduce the droplet size of the formulation.

  14. Entropically Driven Colloidal Assembly in Emulsions (United States)

    Lin, Keng-Hui; Lai, Liang-Jie; Chen, Hui


    Using the techniques developed by Manoharan [1], we encapsulate small numbers of colloidal microspheres and polymers in oil-in-water emulsion droplets, remove the oil and generate colloidal clusters covered with polymers. We observe two types of arrangement in the clusters. The first kind is the same as the type reported in [1] of which the clusters are formed without polymer. The second kind is the same as the structure reported in [2] of which the clusters are formed by binary colloidal microspheres. The polymers we put in the emulsions induce depletion interactions between colloidal particles. We will show that two types of structures are from the interplay between the depletion interactions and surface tension. [1] Manoharan, Elsesser, Pine, Science 301, 483(2003). [2] Cho et al. JACS 127, 15968 (2005).

  15. Homogenization Pressure and Temperature Affect Protein Partitioning and Oxidative Stability of Emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Barouh, Nathalie; Nielsen, Nina Skall


    The oxidative stability of 10 % fish oil-in-water emulsions was investigated for emulsions prepared under different homogenization conditions. Homogenization was conducted at two different pressures (5 or 22.5 MPa), and at two different temperatures (22 and 72 °C). Milk proteins were used...... as the emulsifier. Hence, emulsions were prepared with either a combination of α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin or with a combination of sodium caseinate and β-lactoglobulin. Results showed that an increase in pressure increased the oxidative stability of emulsions with caseinate and β-lactoglobulin, whereas...... it decreased the oxidative stability of emulsions with α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin. For both types of emulsions the partitioning of proteins between the interface and the aqueous phase appeared to be important for the oxidative stability. The effect of pre-heating the aqueous phase with the milk proteins...

  16. Emulsifier type, metal chelation and pH affect oxidative stability of n-3-enriched emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Anne-Mette; Jacobsen, Charlotte


    -enriched oil-in-water emulsion. The selected food emulsifiers were Tween 80, Citrem, sodium caseinate and lecithin. Lipid oxidation was evaluated by determination of peroxide values and secondary volatile oxidation products. Moreover, the zeta potential and the droplet sizes were determined. Twen resulted...... in the least oxidatively stable emulsions, followed by Citrem. When iron was present, caseinate-stabilized emulsions oxidized slower than lecithin emulsions at pH 3, whereas the opposite was the case at pH 7. Oxidation generally progressed faster at pH 3 than at pH 7, irrespective of the addition of iron. EDTA...... generally reduced oxidation, as evaluated by volatiles formation in all emulsions, irrespective of pH and emulsifier type, except in the lecithin and cascinate emulsions where a pro-oxidative effect was observed for some volatiles. The different effects of the emulsifier types could be related...

  17. Dynamic Oil-in-Water Concentration Acquisition on a Pilot-Scaled Offshore Water-Oil Separation Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar Durdevic


    Full Text Available This article is a feasibility study on using fluorescence-based oil-in-water (OiW monitors for on-line dynamic efficiency measurement of a deoiling hydrocyclone. Dynamic measurements are crucial in the design and validation of dynamic models of the hydrocyclones, and to our knowledge, no dynamic OiW analysis of hydrocyclones has been carried out. Previous studies have extensively studied the steady state efficiency perspective of hydrocyclones, and have related them to different key parameters, such as the pressure drop ratio (PDR, inlet flow rate, and the flow-spilt. Through our study, we were able to measure the dynamics of the hydrocyclone’s efficiency ( ϵ response to step changes in the inlet flow rate with high accuracy. This is a breakthrough in the modelling, control, and monitoring of hydrocyclones.

  18. Dynamic Oil-in-Water Concentration Acquisition on a Pilot-Scaled Offshore Water-Oil Separation Facility. (United States)

    Durdevic, Petar; Raju, Chitra S; Bram, Mads V; Hansen, Dennis S; Yang, Zhenyu


    This article is a feasibility study on using fluorescence-based oil-in-water (OiW) monitors for on-line dynamic efficiency measurement of a deoiling hydrocyclone. Dynamic measurements are crucial in the design and validation of dynamic models of the hydrocyclones, and to our knowledge, no dynamic OiW analysis of hydrocyclones has been carried out. Previous studies have extensively studied the steady state efficiency perspective of hydrocyclones, and have related them to different key parameters, such as the pressure drop ratio (PDR), inlet flow rate, and the flow-spilt. Through our study, we were able to measure the dynamics of the hydrocyclone's efficiency ( ϵ ) response to step changes in the inlet flow rate with high accuracy. This is a breakthrough in the modelling, control, and monitoring of hydrocyclones.

  19. Design of an Emulsion-based Personal Detergent through a Model-based Chemical Product Design Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattei, Michele; Hill, Michael; Kontogeorgis, Georgios;


    An extended systematic methodology for the design of emulsion-based Chemical products is presented. The methodology consists of a model-based framework involving seven sequential hierarchical steps: starting with the identification of the needs to be satisfied by the product and then adding one...

  20. Design of an Emulsion-based Personal Detergent through a Model-based Chemical Product Design Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattei, Michele; Hill, Michael; Kontogeorgis, Georgios


    An extended systematic methodology for the design of emulsion-based Chemical products is presented. The methodology consists of a model-based framework involving seven sequential hierarchical steps: starting with the identification of the needs to be satisfied by the product and then adding one-b...

  1. Stability Emulsion and Sensory Characteristics Low Fat Mayonnaise Using Kefir as Emulsifier Replacer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herly Evanuarini


    Full Text Available Mayonnaise is a kind of semi solid oil in water (o/w emulsion which containing pasteurized egg yolk as an emulsifier. The consumers have demanded that the use of egg yolk be reduced. Kefir was used to develop a low fat mayonnaise as emulsifier replacer to egg yolk. The objective of this research was to observe the emulsion stability, sensory characteristics of low fat mayonnaise prepare during kefir as emulsifier replacer. The research method was using experimental design. The result showed that formulation of low fat mayonnaise by using Rice bran oil 40%, kefir 20% produces the optimal low fat mayonnaise in emulsion stability and accepted by the panelist.

  2. Stability studies of cosmetic emulsions prepared from natural products such as wine, grape seed oil and mastic resin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glampedaki, P.; Dutschk, V.


    An attempt was made in this study to use diluted wine as the aqueous phase and grapeseed oil as the oil phase for the preparation of oil-in-water cosmetic emulsions. Two monovarietal wines of Hellenic origin were used in this study; a red one from Sangiovese grapes and a white one from Muscat of Sam

  3. Second Law Analysis of Adiabatic and Non-Adiabatic Pipeline Flows of Unstable and Surfactant-Stabilized Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajinder Pal


    Full Text Available Entropy generation, and hence exergy destruction, in adiabatic flow of unstable and surfactant-stabilized emulsions was investigated experimentally in different diameter pipes. Four types of emulsion systems are investigated covering a broad range of the dispersed-phase concentration: (a unstable oil-in-water (O/W emulsions without surfactant; (b surfactant-stabilized O/W emulsions; (c unstable water-in-oil (W/O emulsions without surfactant; and (d surfactant-stabilized W/O emulsions. The entropy generation rate per unit pipe length is affected by the type of the emulsion as well as its stability. Unstable emulsions without any surfactant present at the interface generate less entropy in the turbulent regime as compared with the surfactant-stabilized emulsions of the same viscosity and density. The effect of surfactant is particularly severe in the case of W/O emulsions. In the turbulent regime, the rate of entropy generation in unstable W/O emulsions is much lower in comparison with that observed in the stable W/O emulsions. A significant delay in the transition from laminar to turbulent regime is also observed in the case of unstable W/O emulsion. Finally, the analysis and simulation results are presented on non-adiabatic pipeline flow of emulsions.

  4. 3D printing of concentrated emulsions into multiphase biocompatible soft materials. (United States)

    Sommer, Marianne R; Alison, Lauriane; Minas, Clara; Tervoort, Elena; Rühs, Patrick A; Studart, André R


    3D printing via direct ink writing (DIW) is a versatile additive manufacturing approach applicable to a variety of materials ranging from ceramics over composites to hydrogels. Due to the mild processing conditions compared to other additive manufacturing methods, DIW enables the incorporation of sensitive compounds such as proteins or drugs into the printed structure. Although emulsified oil-in-water systems are commonly used vehicles for such compounds in biomedical, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic applications, printing of such emulsions into architectured soft materials has not been fully exploited and would open new possibilities for the controlled delivery of sensitive compounds. Here, we 3D print concentrated emulsions into soft materials, whose multiphase architecture allows for site-specific incorporation of both hydrophobic and hydrophilic compounds into the same structure. As a model ink, concentrated emulsions stabilized by chitosan-modified silica nanoparticles are studied, because they are sufficiently stable against coalescence during the centrifugation step needed to create a bridging network of droplets. The resulting ink is ideal for 3D printing as it displays high yield stress, storage modulus and elastic recovery, through the formation of networks of droplets as well as of gelled silica nanoparticles in the presence of chitosan. To demonstrate possible architectures, we print biocompatible soft materials with tunable hierarchical porosity containing an encapsulated hydrophobic compound positioned in specific locations of the structure. The proposed emulsion-based ink system offers great flexibility in terms of 3D shaping and local compositional control, and can potentially help address current challenges involving the delivery of incompatible compounds in biomedical applications.

  5. Oil components modulate physical characteristics and function of the natural oil emulsions as drug or gene delivery system. (United States)

    Chung, H; Kim, T W; Kwon, M; Kwon, I C; Jeong, S Y


    Oil-in-water (o/w) type lipid emulsions were formulated by using 18 different natural oils and egg phosphatidylcholine (egg PC) to investigate how emulsion particle size and stability change with different oils. Cottonseed, linseed and evening primrose oils formed emulsions with very large and unstable particles. Squalene, light mineral oil and jojoba bean oil formed stable emulsions with small particles. The remaining natural oils formed moderately stable emulsions. Emulsions with smaller initial particle size were more stable than those with larger particles. The correlation between emulsion size made with different oils and two physical properties of the oils was also investigated. The o/w interfacial tension and particle size of the emulsion were inversely proportional. The effect of viscosity was less pronounced. To study how the oil component in the emulsion modulates the in vitro release characteristics of lipophilic drugs, three different emulsions loaded with two different drugs were prepared. Squalene, soybean oil and linseed oil emulsions represented the most, medium and the least stable systems, respectively. For the lipophilic drugs, release was the slowest from the most stable squalene emulsion, followed by soybean oil and then by linseed oil emulsions. Cationic emulsions were also prepared with the above three different oils as gene carriers. In vitro transfection activity was the highest for the most stable squalene emulsion followed by soybean oil and then by linseed oil emulsions. Even though the in vitro transfection activity of emulsions were lower than the liposome in the absence of serum, the activity of squalene emulsion, for instance, was ca. 30 times higher than that of liposome in the presence of 80% (v/v) serum. In conclusion, the choice of oil component in o/w emulsion is important in formulating emulsion-based drug or gene delivery systems.

  6. Effects of spray-drying on w/o/w multiple emulsions prepared from a stearic acid matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mlalila N


    Full Text Available Nichrous Mlalila,1 Hulda Swai,2 Lonji Kalombo,2 Askwar Hilonga3 1School of Life Sciences and Bioengineering, Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology, Arusha, Tanzania; 2Materials Science and Manufacturing, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria, South Africa; 3Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology, Arusha, Tanzania Abstract: The goal of this study was to explore the effects of spray-drying on w/o/w double emulsions of methyltestosterone (MT loaded in a stearic acid matrix. MT-loaded nanoparticles were formulated by a water-in-oil-in-water emulsion technique using 50, 75, and 100 mg of stearic acid, 2% and 3% w/v polyvinyl alcohol, 5% w/v lactose, and 0.2% w/v chitosan. The emulsions were immediately spray-dried based on an optimized model of inlet temperature and pump rate, and characterized for optimized responses with regard to particle size, polydispersity index, and zeta potential, for both emulsion and powder samples. Dynamic light scattering analysis shown that the nanoparticles increased in size with increasing concentrations of polyvinyl alcohol and stearic acid. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that the MT-loaded nanoparticles were spherical in shape, had a smooth surface, and were in an amorphous state, which was confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry. These MT-loaded nanoparticles are a promising candidate carrier for the delivery of MT; however, further studies are needed in order to establish the stability of the system and the cargo release profile under normal conditions of use. Keywords: double emulsions, nanoparticles, pump rate, spray-drying, testosterone

  7. Enhanced stabilization of cloudy emulsions with gum Arabic and whey protein isolate. (United States)

    Klein, Miri; Aserin, Abraham; Svitov, Inna; Garti, Nissim


    Cloudy emulsions are oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions normally prepared as concentrates, further diluted, per request, into the final beverage. The cloudy emulsion provides flavor, color, and cloud (turbidity) to the soft drink. These systems are stabilized by emulsifiers and/or amphiphilic polysaccharides. Cloudy emulsions based on naturally occurring food grade emulsifiers were studied in the present work. Two charged natural biopolymers, whey protein isolate (WPI) and gum Arabic (GA), are interacted in aqueous solution to form charge-charge interactions improving the emulsion stability. The emulsions were high sheared (Microfluidizer) and characterized by particle size distribution analysis (DLS), optical centrifugation (LUMiFuge), optical microscopy observations, and turbidity measurements. Emulsions obtained from 10wt% of 3:1wt. ratio WPI:GA, at pH 7 (10wt% canola oil) show better stability than emulsions stabilized by GA or WPI alone. The droplet sizes were smaller than 1microm and did not grow significantly during 1 month of incubation at 25 degrees C. The D-limonene-based emulsion droplets were larger (> 2microm) than those made with vegetable oils immediately after preparation and underwent significant droplet size increase (coalescence) within 1 month (>8 microm). The emulsion with turbidity suitable as a cloudy emulsion was composed of 3wt% WPI:GA (3:1) and 20wt% canola oil.



    J.G. Dzul-Cauich; C. Lobato-Calleros; J.P. Pérez-Orozco; J. Alvarez-Ramirez; E.J. Vernon-Carter


    The interfacial shear viscosity (r¡iJlt) and the creep compliance-time (J(t» behavior of mi1k fat globule membrane (MFGM) films (4, 5 and 6% w/w) formed at the water-oil interface were evaluated. Films with higher MFGM concentration displayed higher r¡int and interfacial viscoelastic properties. When esters of polyglycerol and polyriciniolate fatty acids (PGPR) were added to the oil phase, a competitive adsorption at the interface took place between PGPR and MFGM which caused a decrease in th...

  9. Grape pomace extracts derived from Midwestern grapes as natural antioxidants in edible oil and oil-in-water emulsions (United States)

    Natural antioxidants to extend the shelf life and fry life of edible oils are in high demand. Wine grapes are widely cultivated around the world, and the grape pomace generated during the winemaking process is an abundant, inexpensive, and often discarded source of polyphenolic antioxidants. We exam...

  10. Boiling heat transfer in dilute emulsions

    CERN Document Server

    Roesle, Matthew Lind


    Boiling Heat Transfer in Dilute Emulsions synthesizes recent advances and established understanding on the subject of boiling in dilute emulsions. Experimental results from various sources are collected and analyzed, including contemporary experiments that correlate visualization with heat transfer data. Published models of boiling heat transfer in dilute emulsions, and their implementation, are described and assessed against experimental data.

  11. Lipid emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robins, Margaret M.


    Full Text Available Emulsions are liquid-liquid mixtures with one liquid contained as droplets within the other. The droplets are typically 1mm in diameter, and the properties of the emulsions are very dependent on the droplet structure, which is stabilised by surface-active emulsifier molecules. Most food emulsions are made from the raw ingredients using an homogenisation process to form small droplets. The paper describes methods of measuring droplet size and emulsion stability, and discusses the physical origin of emulsion texture, flavour and appearance.Las emulsiones son mezclas líquido-líquido con un líquido contenido en forma de gotas dentro de otro líquido. Las gotas tienen normalmente 1 mm de diámetro y las propiedades de las emulsiones dependen en gran medida de la estructura de la gota, la cual está estabilizada por las moléculas emulsionantes. La mayoría de las emulsiones alimenticias están constituidas a partir de materias primas usando un proceso de homogeneización que permite formar gotas pequeñas. El artículo describe métodos de medida del tamaño de gota y estabilidad de las emulsiones, y discute el origen físico de la textura, flavor y apariencia de la emulsión.

  12. Composition and antioxidant capacity of low-salt meat emulsion model systems containing edible seaweeds. (United States)

    López-López, I; Bastida, S; Ruiz-Capillas, C; Bravo, L; Larrea, M T; Sánchez-Muniz, F; Cofrades, S; Jiménez-Colmenero, F


    The study was designed to determine the influence of the addition of edible seaweeds, Sea Spaghetti (Himanthalia elongata), Wakame (Undaria pinnatifida), and Nori (Porphyra umbilicalis), on fatty acid composition, amino acid profile, protein score, mineral content and antioxidant capacity in low-salt meat emulsion model systems. The addition of seaweeds caused an increase (P<0.05) in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and a decrease (P<0.05) in the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio. The thrombogenic index significantly decreased (P<0.05) in Nori and Wakame meat samples. Meat systems made with added seaweeds had lower (P<0.05) sodium contents than control samples. In general, addition of seaweeds to products increased (P<0.05) the concentrations of K, Ca, Mg and Mn. The presence of Nori caused an increase (P<0.05) in levels of serine, glycine, alanine, valine, tyrosine, phenylalanine and arginine, whereas Wakame and Sea Spaghetti produced no significant changes in amino acid profiles in the model systems. The inclusion of Sea Spaghetti increased the sulphur amino acid score by 20%. The added seaweeds supplied the meat samples with soluble polyphenolic compounds, which increased the antioxidant capacity of the systems. The polyphenol supply and antioxidant increase were greatest (P<0.05) in the samples containing Sea Spaghetti.

  13. Stabilization of heavy oil-water emulsions using a bio/chemical emulsifier mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahbakhsh, A.; Taghizadeh, M.; Movagharnejad, K. [Chemical Engineering Department, Babol University of Technology, Babol (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yakhchali, B. [National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    In this study, the viscosity reduction of heavy oil has been investigated through the formation of oil-water emulsion using a bio/chemical emulsifier mixture. Four bioemulsifiers from indigenous Rhodococcus ergthropolis and Bacillus licheniformis strains were used to stabilize a highly-viscous oil-in-water emulsion. The Taguchi method with an L{sub 9} orthogonal array design was used to investigate the effect of various control factors on the formation of the oil/water emulsions. An emulsion with lowest viscosity was formed using ACO4 strain. The substantial stability of the oil-in-water emulsion allows the heavy oil to be transported practically over long distances or remain stationary for a considerable period of time prior to utilization. As the result of Taguchi analysis, the temperature and concentration of the emulsifier had a significant influence on viscosity reduction of the emulsion. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Modeling of tri-chloro-fluoro-methane hydrate formation in a w/o emulsion submitted to steady cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avendano-Gomez, Juan Ramon; Limas-Ballesteros, Roberto [Laboratorio de Investigacion en Ingenieria Quimica Ambiental, SEPI-ESIQIE, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Unidad Profesional Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Zacatenco, Edificio 8, 3. piso 07738, Mexico DF (Mexico); Garcia-Sanchez, Fernando [Laboratorio de Termodinamica, Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas 152, 07730 Mexico DF (Mexico)


    The aim of this work is to study the modeling of the thermal evolution inside an hydrate forming system which is submitted to an imposed steady cooling. The study system is a w/o emulsion where the formulation considers the CCl{sub 3}F as the hydrate forming molecule dissolved in the oil phase. The hydrate formation occurs in the aqueous phase of the emulsion, i.e. in the dispersed phase. The model equation is based on the resolution of the continuity equation in terms of a heat balance for the dispersed phase. The crystallization of the CCl{sub 3}F hydrate occurs at supercooling conditions (T{sub c}emulsion. The results provided by the model equation subjected to boundary conditions allow to depict the evolution of temperature in the dispersed phase. The most singular point in the temperature-time curve is the onset time of hydrate crystallization. Three time intervals characterize the evolution of temperature during the steady cooling of the w/o emulsion: (1) steady cooling, (2) hydrate formation with a release of heat, (3) a last interval of steady cooling. (author)

  15. Hydrodynamic cavitation as an efficient method for the formation of sub-100 nm O/W emulsions with high stability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiliang Zhang; Guangquan Wang; Yong Nie; Jianbing Ji


    Hydrodynamic cavitation, a newly developed process intensification technique, has demonstrated immense po-tential for intensifying diverse physical and chemical processes. In this study, hydrodynamic cavitation was ex-plored as an efficient method for the formation of sub-100 nm oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions with high stability. O/W emulsion with an average droplet size of 27 nm was successful y prepared. The average droplet size of O/W emulsions decreased with the increase of the inlet pressure, number of cavitation passes and surfac-tant concentration. The formed emulsion exhibited admirable physical stability during 8 months. Moreover, the hydrodynamic cavitation method can be generalized to fabricate large varieties of O/W emulsions, which showed great potential for large-scale formation of O/W emulsions with lower energy consumption.

  16. A novel non-mineral oil-based adjuvant. II. Efficacy of a synthetic sulfolipopolysaccharide in a squalane-in-water emulsion in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.A.Th. Hilgers (L. A Th); P.L.I. Platenburg (P. L I); A. Luitjens (A.); B. Groenveld (B.); T. Dazelle (T.); J.T.M. Weststrate


    textabstractThe adjuvanticity of a sulfolipopolysaccharide (SLP) incorporated into a squalane-in-water emulsion (SLP/S/W) was compared with that of a mineral oil-in-water (O/W) adjuvant currently used in commercial porcine vaccines. Groups of pigs were immunized twice with vaccines comprising either

  17. Effect of emulsion properties on release of esters under static headspace, in vivo, and artificial throat conditions in relation to sensory intensity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weel, K.G.C.; Boelrijk, A.E.M.; Burger, J.J.; Jacobs, M.A.; Gruppen, H.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Smit, G.


    The effects of oil content and droplet size distributions of dilute oil-in-water emulsions on release of four esters with different hydrophobicities were studied under in vivo, static headspace, and artificial throat conditions. The effect of oil content on orthonasal and retronasal perceived

  18. Effect of emulsion properties on release of esters under static headspace, in vivo, and artificial throat conditions in relation to sensory intensity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weel, K.G.C.; Boelrijk, A.E.M.; Burger, J.J.; Jacobs, M.A.; Gruppen, H.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Smit, G.


    The effects of oil content and droplet size distributions of dilute oil-in-water emulsions on release of four esters with different hydrophobicities were studied under in vivo, static headspace, and artificial throat conditions. The effect of oil content on orthonasal and retronasal perceived intens

  19. Ultrathin cellulose nanosheet membranes for superfast separation of oil-in-water nanoemulsions (United States)

    Zhou, Ke; Zhang, Qiu Gen; Li, Hong Mei; Guo, Nan Nan; Zhu, Ai Mei; Liu, Qing Lin


    Oily wastewater is generated in diverse industrial processes, and its treatment has become crucial due to increasing environmental concerns. Herein, novel ultrathin nanoporous membranes of cellulose nanosheets have been fabricated for separation of oil-in-water nanoemulsions. The fabrication approach is facile and environmentally friendly, in which cellulose nanosheets are prepared by freeze-extraction of a very dilute cellulose solution. The as-prepared membranes have a cellulose nanosheet layer with a cut-off of 10-12 nm and a controllable thickness of 80-220 nm. They allow ultrafast water permeation and exhibit excellent size-selective separation properties. A 112 nm-thick membrane has a water flux of 1620 l m-2 h-1 bar-1 and a ferritin rejection of 92.5%. These membranes have been applied to remove oil from its aqueous nanoemulsions successfully, and they show an ultrafast and effective separation of oil-in-water nanoemulsions. The newly developed ultrathin cellulose membranes have a wide application in oily wastewater treatment, separation and purification of nanomaterials.Oily wastewater is generated in diverse industrial processes, and its treatment has become crucial due to increasing environmental concerns. Herein, novel ultrathin nanoporous membranes of cellulose nanosheets have been fabricated for separation of oil-in-water nanoemulsions. The fabrication approach is facile and environmentally friendly, in which cellulose nanosheets are prepared by freeze-extraction of a very dilute cellulose solution. The as-prepared membranes have a cellulose nanosheet layer with a cut-off of 10-12 nm and a controllable thickness of 80-220 nm. They allow ultrafast water permeation and exhibit excellent size-selective separation properties. A 112 nm-thick membrane has a water flux of 1620 l m-2 h-1 bar-1 and a ferritin rejection of 92.5%. These membranes have been applied to remove oil from its aqueous nanoemulsions successfully, and they show an ultrafast and effective

  20. Oxidative enzymatic gelation of sugar beet pectin for emulsion stabilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abang Zaidel, Dayang Norulfairuz; Meyer, Anne S.


    emulsions has recently been investigated in model food emulsions. This paper reviews the pectin chemistry, enzymatic oxidative gelation mechanisms, interaction mechanisms of the sugar beet pectin with the emulsion droplets and explores how the gelation affects the rheology and stability of emulsion systems...

  1. Analyzing Benzene and Cyclohexane Emulsion Droplet Collisions on Ultramicroelectrodes. (United States)

    Li, Yan; Deng, Haiqiang; Dick, Jeffrey E; Bard, Allen J


    We report the collisions of single emulsion oil droplets with extremely low dielectric constants (e.g., benzene, ε of 2.27, or cyclohexane, ε of 2.02) as studied via emulsion droplet reactor (EDR) on an ultramicroelectrode (UME). By applying appropriate potentials to the UME, we observed the electrochemical effects of single-collision signals from the bulk electrolysis of single emulsion droplets. Different hydrophobic redox species (ferrocene, decamethyl-ferrocene, or metalloporphyrin) were trapped in a mixed benzene (or cyclohexane) oil-in-water emulsion using an ionic liquid as the supporting electrolyte and emulsifier. The emulsions were prepared using ultrasonic processing. Spike-like responses were observed in each i-t response due to the complete electrolysis of all of the above-mentioned redox species within the droplet. On the basis of these single-particle collision results, the collision frequency, size distribution, i-t decay behavior of the emulsion droplets, and possible mechanisms are analyzed and discussed. This work demonstrated that bulk electrolysis can be achieved in a few seconds in these attoliter reactors, suggesting many applications, such as analysis and electrosynthesis in low dielectric constant solvents, which have a much broader potential window.

  2. Crude Oil Model Emulsion Characterised by means of Near Infrared Spectroscopy and Multivariate Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallevik, H.; Hansen, Susanne Brunsgaard; Sæther, Ø.


    Water-in-oil emulsions are investigated by means of multivariate analysis of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopic profiles in the range 1100 - 2250 nm. The oil phase is a paraffin-diluted crude oil from the Norwegian Continental Shelf. The influence of water absorption and light scattering of the wa......Water-in-oil emulsions are investigated by means of multivariate analysis of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopic profiles in the range 1100 - 2250 nm. The oil phase is a paraffin-diluted crude oil from the Norwegian Continental Shelf. The influence of water absorption and light scattering...

  3. Rheological Properties of Nanoparticle Silica-Surfactant Stabilized Crude Oil Emulsions: Influence of Temperature, Nanoparticle Concentration and Water Volume Fraction" (United States)

    Kinsey, Erin; Pales, Ashley; Li, Chunyan; Mu, Linlin; Bai, Lingyun; Clifford, Heather; Darnault, Christophe


    Oil in water emulsions occur during oil extraction due to the presence of water, naturally-occurring surface-active agents and mechanical mixing in pipelines or from oil spillage. Emulsions present difficulties for use of oil in fuel and their rheological properties are important to treat environmental impacts of spills. The objective of this study is to assess the rheological characteristics of oil in water emulsions stabilized by 5% NaCl brine, Tween 20 surfactant and silica nanoparticles to gain knowledge about the behavior of oil flow in pipelines and characterize them for environmental applications. Rheological behaviors such as shear rate, shear stress, and viscosity of Prudhoe Bay crude oil emulsions were analyzed with varying percent of water volume fractions (12.5, 25 and 50%), varying weight percent of silica nanoparticles (0.001, 0.01 and 0.1 weight %), with and without 2 CMC Tween 20 nonionic surfactant. Emulsions with varying water volume fractions were analyzed at 20, 40 and 60 degrees Celsius. Flow curve analysis of the emulsions was performed using an Anton-Paar rheometer. Preliminary findings indicate that increased temperature and increasing the concentration of nanoparticles both produced lower shear stress and that the addition of surfactant decreased the viscosity and shear stress of the emulsions.

  4. Comparison of Effects of Separate and Combined Sugammadex and Lipid Emulsion Administration on Hemodynamic Parameters and Survival in a Rat Model of Verapamil Toxicity. (United States)

    Tulgar, Serkan; Kose, Halil Cihan; Demir Piroglu, Isılay; Karakilic, Evvah; Ates, Nagihan Gozde; Demir, Ahmet; Gergerli, Ruken; Guven, Selin; Piroglu, Mustafa Devrim


    Toxicity of calcium channel blockers leads to high patient mortality and there is no effective antidote. The benefit of using 20% lipid emulsion and sugammadex has been reported. The present study measured the effect of sugammadex and 20% lipid emulsion on hemodynamics and survival in a rat model of verapamil toxicity. In this single-blinded randomized control study, rats were separated into 4 groups of 7 rats each: Sugammadex (S), Sugammadex plus 20% lipid emulsion (SL), 20% lipid emulsion (L), and control (C). Heart rates and mean arterial pressures were monitored and noted each minute until death. Average time to death was 21.0±9.57 minutes for group C, 35.57±10.61 minutes for group S, 37.14±16.6 minutes for group L and 49.86±27.56 minutes for group SL. Time to death was significantly longer in other groups than in the control group (psugammadex and lipid emulsion had a positive effect on survival in patients with calcium channel blocker toxicity. Sugammadex and intralipid increased survival in a rat model of verapamil toxicity. The combination of both drugs may decrease cardiotoxicity. Sugammadex alone or combined with 20% lipid emulsion reduce the need for inotropic agents. The mechanism requires clarification with larger studies.

  5. Oil/water nano-emulsion loaded with cobalt ferrite oxide nanocubes for photo-acoustic and magnetic resonance dual imaging in cancer: in vitro and preclinical studies. (United States)

    Vecchione, Raffaele; Quagliariello, Vincenzo; Giustetto, Pierangela; Calabria, Dominic; Sathya, Ayyappan; Marotta, Roberto; Profeta, Martina; Nitti, Simone; Silvestri, Niccolò; Pellegrino, Teresa; Iaffaioli, Rosario V; Netti, Paolo Antonio


    Dual imaging dramatically improves detection and early diagnosis of cancer. In this work we present an oil in water (O/W) nano-emulsion stabilized with lecithin and loaded with cobalt ferrite oxide (Co0.5Fe2.5O4) nanocubes for photo-acoustic and magnetic resonance dual imaging. The nanocarrier is responsive in in vitro photo-acoustic and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) tests. A clear and significant time-dependent accumulation in tumor tissue is shown in in vivo photo-acoustic studies on a murine melanoma xenograft model. The proposed O/W nano-emulsion exhibits also high values of r2/r1 (ranging from 45 to 85, depending on the magnetic field) suggesting a possible use as T2 weighted image contrast agents. In addition, viability and cellular uptake studies show no significant cytotoxicity on the fibroblast cell line. We also tested the O/W nano-emulsion loaded with curcumin against melanoma cancer cells demonstrating a significant cytotoxicity and thus showing possible therapeutic effects in addition to the in vivo imaging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Polysaccharide-based oleogels prepared with an emulsion-templated approach. (United States)

    Patel, Ashok R; Cludts, Nick; Bin Sintang, Mohd Dona; Lewille, Benny; Lesaffer, Ans; Dewettinck, Koen


    The preparation and characterization of oleogels structured by using a combination of a surface-active and a non-surface-active polysaccharide through an emulsion-templated approach is reported. Specifically, the oleogels were prepared by first formulating a concentrated oil-in-water emulsion, stabilized with a combination of cellulose derivatives and xanthan gum, followed by the selective evaporation of the continuous water phase to drive the network formation, resulting in an oleogel with a unique microstructure and interesting rheological properties, including a high gel strength, G'>4000 Pa, shear sensitivity, good thixotropic recovery, and good thermostability.

  7. The structure of omega3 food emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard; Loussert, C.; Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt

    Fish oil is rich in polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3 PUFAs) which are generally recognized as being beneficial to the health [1]. The addition of fish oil to food products is attractive to both the consumers and the food industry. Indeed, these components will improve nutritional value...... and add product value. Omega-3 PUFAs are rich in double bonds in their fatty acid chains and this attribute renders them highly susceptible to lipid oxidation. Omega-3 PUFAs can be added to food products as neat oil or as a delivery system such as oil-in-water emulsions. In this last configuration...... and the prooxidants. But this protective aspect is a really complex process and it is dependent on the food matrix to which the oil is added [2]. Oxidation is presumed to be initiated at the emulsifier layer, i.e. the interface layer between the oil and water where the oil is most likely to come into contact...

  8. Formulation, Characterization and Properties of Hemp Seed Oil and Its Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Mikulcová


    Full Text Available The formulation, characterization, and anticipated antibacterial properties of hemp seed oil and its emulsions were investigated. The oil obtained from the seeds of Cannabis sativa L. in refined and unrefined form was characterized using iodine, saponification, acid values, and gas chromatography, and was employed for the preparation of stable oil-in-water emulsions. The emulsions were prepared using pairs of non-ionic surfactants (Tween, Span. The effects of the emulsification method (spontaneous emulsification vs. high-intensity stirring, hydrophilic lipophilic balance (HLB, type and concentration of surfactant, and oil type on the size and distribution of the emulsion particles were investigated. It was found that the ability to form stable emulsions with small, initial particle sizes is primarily dependent on the given method of preparation and the HLB value. The most efficient method of emulsification that afforded the best emulsions with the smallest particles (151 ± 1 nm comprised the high-energy method, and emulsions stable over the long-term were observed at HBL 9 with 10 wt % concentration of surfactants. Under high-intensity emulsification, refined and unrefined oils performed similarly. The oils as well as their emulsions were tested against the growth of selected bacteria using the disk diffusion and broth microdilution methods. The antibacterial effect of hemp seed oil was documented against Micrococcus luteus and Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus. The formulated emulsions did not exhibit the antibacterial activity that had been anticipated.

  9. The effect of oil components on the physicochemical properties and drug delivery of emulsions: tocol emulsion versus lipid emulsion. (United States)

    Hung, Chi-Feng; Fang, Chia-Lang; Liao, Mei-Hui; Fang, Jia-You


    An emulsion system composed of vitamin E, coconut oil, soybean phosphatidylcholine, non-ionic surfactants, and polyethylene glycol (PEG) derivatives (referred to as the tocol emulsion) was characterized in terms of its physicochemical properties, drug release, in vivo efficacy, toxicity, and stability. Systems without vitamin E (referred to as the lipid emulsion) and without any oils (referred to as the aqueous micelle system) were prepared for comparison. A lipophilic antioxidant, resveratrol, was used as the model drug for emulsion loading. The incorporation of Brij 35 and PEG derivatives reduced the vesicle diameter to tocol emulsion>lipid emulsion. Treatment of resveratrol dramatically reduced the intimal hyperplasia of the injured vascular wall in rats. There was no significant difference in this reduction when resveratrol was delivered by either emulsion or the aqueous micelle system. The percentages of erythrocyte hemolysis by the emulsions and aqueous micelle system were approximately 0 and approximately 10%, respectively. Vitamin E prevented the aggregation of emulsion vesicles. The mean vesicle size of the tocol emulsion remained unchanged during 30 days at 37 degrees C. The lipid emulsion and aqueous micelle system, respectively, showed 11- and 16-fold increases in vesicle size after 30 days of storage.

  10. Effects of pH on the ability of flavonoids to act as Pickering emulsion stabilizers. (United States)

    Luo, Zijun; Murray, Brent S; Ross, Anne-Lise; Povey, Malcolm J W; Morgan, Michael R A; Day, Andrea J


    The flavonoids tiliroside, rutin and naringin have been investigated as stabilizers of Pickering oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions. The mean droplet size of tetradecane emulsions was considerably smaller at higher pH, especially for rutin. The solubility of flavonoids in the aqueous phase was 4-6 times higher at pH 8 compared to pH 2 for tiliroside and rutin, although all absolute solubilities remained low (tiliroside and rutin at the O-W interface at pH 8 compared to pH 2. However, improved emulsion stabilization at higher pH is better explained by the significant increase in ζ-potential of the flavonoid particles to more negative values at pH 8, which will improve particle dispersion and increase the charge on the droplets stabilized by them. A buckwheat tea extract, rich in rutin, was also shown to be an effective stabilizer of sunflower O/W emulsions.

  11. Switchable Pickering emulsions stabilized by silica nanoparticles hydrophobized in situ with a conventional cationic surfactant. (United States)

    Zhu, Yue; Jiang, Jianzhong; Liu, Kaihong; Cui, Zhenggang; Binks, Bernard P


    A stable oil-in-water Pickering emulsion stabilized by negatively charged silica nanoparticles hydrophobized in situ with a trace amount of a conventional cationic surfactant can be rendered unstable on addition of an equimolar amount of an anionic surfactant. The emulsion can be subsequently restabilized by adding a similar trace amount of cationic surfactant along with rehomogenization. This destabilization-stabilization behavior can be cycled many times, demonstrating that the Pickering emulsion is switchable. The trigger is the stronger electrostatic interaction between the oppositely charged ionic surfactants compared with that between the cationic surfactant and the (initially) negatively charged particle surfaces. The cationic surfactant prefers to form ion pairs with the added anionic surfactant and thus desorbs from particle surfaces rendering them surface-inactive. This access to switchable Pickering emulsions is easier than those employing switchable surfactants, polymers, or surface-active particles, avoiding both the complicated synthesis and the stringent switching conditions.

  12. Evaluation and improvement of micro-surfacing mix design method and modelling of asphalt emulsion mastic in terms of filler-emulsion interaction (United States)

    Robati, Masoud

    This Doctorate program focuses on the evaluation and improving the rutting resistance of micro-surfacing mixtures. There are many research problems related to the rutting resistance of micro-surfacing mixtures that still require further research to be solved. The main objective of this Ph.D. program is to experimentally and analytically study and improve rutting resistance of micro-surfacing mixtures. During this Ph.D. program major aspects related to the rutting resistance of micro-surfacing mixtures are investigated and presented as follow: 1) evaluation of a modification of current micro-surfacing mix design procedures: On the basis of this effort, a new mix design procedure is proposed for type III micro-surfacing mixtures as rut-fill materials on the road surface. Unlike the current mix design guidelines and specification, the new mix design is capable of selecting the optimum mix proportions for micro-surfacing mixtures; 2) evaluation of test methods and selection of aggregate grading for type III application of micro-surfacing: Within the term of this study, a new specification for selection of aggregate grading for type III application of micro-surfacing is proposed; 3) evaluation of repeatability and reproducibility of micro-surfacing mixture design tests: In this study, limits for repeatability and reproducibility of micro-surfacing mix design tests are presented; 4) a new conceptual model for filler stiffening effect on asphalt mastic of micro-surfacing: A new model is proposed, which is able to establish limits for minimum and maximum filler concentrations in the micro-surfacing mixture base on only the filler important physical and chemical properties; 5) incorporation of reclaimed asphalt pavement and post-fabrication asphalt shingles in micro-surfacing mixture: The effectiveness of newly developed mix design procedure for micro-surfacing mixtures is further validated using recycled materials. The results present the limits for the use of RAP and RAS

  13. Stability at comminution chopping temperatures of model chicken breast muscle emulsions. (United States)

    Perchonok, M H; Regenstein, J M


    Mixtures of vegetable oil and protein solutions extracted from chicken breast muscle were heated to 10°C, 20°C and 30°C before or after the Omni-mixer step of timed emulsification. Emulsion stability (ES) was determined by placing the extracted cream layer between layers of filter paper and polyester mesh and measuring the weight loss after 96 h at 0-1°C. All natural actomyosin and exhaustively washed chicken breast muscle emulsions lost no more than 50% of their original weight after heating and were defined as being stable. Even excessive chopping temperatures (30°C) failed to effect timed emulsification or ES. This study suggests that any instability of finished commercial sausage-type products is not due to changes in the protein caused by excessively high chopping temperatures generated during comminution.

  14. Physical properties of emulsion-based hydroxypropyl methylcellulose films: effect of their microstructure. (United States)

    Zúñiga, R N; Skurtys, O; Osorio, F; Aguilera, J M; Pedreschi, F


    The initial characteristics of emulsions and the rearrangement of the oil droplets in the film matrix during film drying, which defines its microstructure, has an important role in the physical properties of the emulsion-based films. The objective of this work was to study the effect of the microstructure (two droplet size distributions) and stability (with or without surfactant) of HPMC oil-in-water emulsions over physical properties of HPMC emulsion-based edible films. HPMC was used to prepare sunflower oil-in-water emulsions containing 0.3 or 1.0% (w/w) of oil with or without SDS, as surfactant, using an ultrasonic homogenizer. Microstructure, rheological properties and stability of emulsions (creaming) were measured. In addition, microstructure, coalescence of oil droplets, surface free energy, optical and mechanical properties and water vapor transfer of HPMC films were evaluated. Image analysis did not show differences among droplet size distributions of emulsions prepared at different oil contents; however, by using SDS the droplet size distributions were shifted to lower values. Volume mean diameters were 3.79 and 3.77 μm for emulsions containing 0.3 and 1.0% without surfactant, respectively, and 2.72 and 2.71 μm for emulsions with SDS. Emulsions formulated with 1.0% of oil presented higher stability, with almost no change during 5 and 3 days of storage, for emulsions with and without SDS, respectively. Internal and surface microstructure of emulsion-based films was influenced by the degree of coalescence and creaming of the oil droplets. No effect of microstructure over the surface free energy of films was found. The incorporation of oil impaired the optical properties of films due to light scattering of light. Addition of oil and SDS decreased the stress at break of the emulsion-based films. The replace of HPMC by oil and SDS produce a lower "amount" of network structure in the films, leading to a weakening of their structure. The oil content and SDS

  15. Crude Oil Model Emulsion Characterised by means of Near Infrared Spectroscopy and Multivariate Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallevik, H.; Hansen, Susanne Brunsgaard; Sæther, Ø.


    Water-in-oil emulsions are investigated by means of multivariate analysis of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopic profiles in the range 1100 - 2250 nm. The oil phase is a paraffin-diluted crude oil from the Norwegian Continental Shelf. The influence of water absorption and light scattering...... of the water droplets are shown to be strong. Despite the strong influence of the water phase, the NIR technique is still capable of predicting the composition of the investigated oil phase....

  16. Cost-Effective ERT Technique for Oil-in-Water Measurement for Offshore Hydrocyclone Installations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løhndorf, Petar Durdevic; Hansen, Leif; Mai, Christian


    The goal of this paper is to introduce and design a cost-effective Oil-in-Water (OiW) measuring instrument, which will be investigated for its value in increasing the efficiency of a deoiling hydrocyclone. The technique investigated is based on Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), which basic...... principle is to measure the resistivity of substances from multiple electrodes and from these measurements create a 2-D image of the oil and gas component in the water. This technique requires the measured components to have different electrical resistances, such as seawater which has a lower electrical...... resistance than hydrocarbon oil and gas. This work involves construction of a pilot plant, for testing the feasibility of ERT for OiW measurements, and further exploring if this measured signal can be applied as a reliable feedback signal in optimization of the hydrocyclone's efficiency. Different algorithms...

  17. Preparation of Pickering double emulsions using block copolymer worms. (United States)

    Thompson, Kate L; Mable, Charlotte J; Lane, Jacob A; Derry, Mathew J; Fielding, Lee A; Armes, Steven P


    The rational formulation of Pickering double emulsions is described using a judicious combination of hydrophilic and hydrophobic block copolymer worms as highly anisotropic emulsifiers. More specifically, RAFT dispersion polymerization was utilized to prepare poly(lauryl methacrylate)-poly(benzyl methacrylate) worms at 20% w/w solids in n-dodecane and poly(glycerol monomethacrylate)-poly(2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate)-poly(benzyl methacrylate) worms at 13% w/w solids in water by polymerization-induced self-assembly (PISA). Water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) double emulsions can be readily prepared with mean droplet diameters ranging from 30 to 80 μm using a two-stage approach. First, a w/o precursor emulsion comprising 25 μm aqueous droplets is prepared using the hydrophobic worms, followed by encapsulation within oil droplets stabilized by the hydrophilic worms. The double emulsion droplet diameter and number of encapsulated water droplets can be readily varied by adjusting the stirring rate employed during the second stage. For each stage, the droplet volume fraction is relatively high at 0.50. The double emulsion nature of the final formulation was confirmed by optical and fluorescence microscopy studies. Such double emulsions are highly stable to coalescence, with little or no change in droplet diameter being detected over storage at 20 °C for 10 weeks as judged by laser diffraction. Preliminary experiments indicate that the complementary o/w/o emulsions can also be prepared using the same pair of worms by changing the order of homogenization, although somewhat lower droplet volume fractions were required in this case. Finally, we demonstrate that triple and even quadruple emulsions can be formulated using these new highly anisotropic Pickering emulsifiers.

  18. Tunable Pickering emulsions with polymer-grafted lignin nanoparticles (PGLNs). (United States)

    Silmore, Kevin S; Gupta, Chetali; Washburn, Newell R


    Lignin is an abundant biopolymer that has native interfacial functions but aggregates strongly in aqueous media. Polyacrylamide was grafted onto kraft lignin nanoparticles using reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) chemistry to form polymer-grafted lignin nanoparticles (PGLNs) that tune aggregation strength while retaining interfacial activities in forming Pickering emulsions. Polymer graft density on the particle surface, ionic strength, and initial water and cyclohexane volume fractions were varied and found to have profound effects on emulsion characteristics, including emulsion volume fraction, droplet size, and particle interfacial concentration that were attributed to changes in lignin aggregation and hydrophobic interactions. In particular, salt concentration was found to have a significant effect on aggregation, zeta potential, and interfacial tension, which was attributed to changes in solubility of both the kraft lignin and the polyacrylamide grafts. Dynamic light scattering, UV-vis spectroscopy, optical microscopy, and tensiometry were used to quantify emulsion properties and nanoparticle behavior. Under all conditions, the emulsions exhibited relatively fast creaming but were stable against coalescence and Ostwald ripening for a period of months. All emulsions were also oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions, as predicted by the Bancroft rule, and no catastrophic phase inversions were observed for any nanoparticle compositions. We conclude that lower grafting density of polyacrylamide on a lignin core resulted in high levels of interfacial activity, as characterized by higher concentration at the water-cyclohexane interface with a corresponding decrease in interfacial tension. These results indicate that the interfacial properties of polymer-grafted lignin nanoparticles are primarily due to the native hydrophobic interactions of the lignin core. These results suggest that the forces that drive aggregation are also correlated with interfacial

  19. Effects of green tea extract and α-tocopherol on the lipid oxidation rate of omega-3 oils, incorporated into table spreads, prepared using multiple emulsion technology. (United States)

    Dwyer, Sandra P O'; O'Beirne, David; Ní Eidhin, Deirdre; O'Kennedy, Brendan T


    This study examined the effectiveness of fat and water soluble antioxidants on the oxidative stability of omega (ω)-3 rich table spreads, produced using novel multiple emulsion technology. Table spreads were produced by dispersing an oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion (500 g/kg 85 camelina/15 fish oil blend) in a hardstock/rapeseed oil blend, using sodium caseinate and polyglycerol polyricinoleate as emulsifiers. The O/W and oil-in-water-in-oil (O/W/O) emulsions contained either a water soluble antioxidant (green tea extract [GTE]), an oil soluble antioxidant (α-Tocopherol), or both. Spreads containing α-Tocopherol had the highest lipid hydroperoxide values, whereas spreads containing GTE had the lowest (P spreads. By the end of storage, none of the spreads had significantly different G' values. Firmness (Newtons) of all spreads generally increased during storage (P Food Technologists®

  20. Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes at the Interface of Pickering Emulsions. (United States)

    Briggs, Nicholas M; Weston, Javen S; Li, Brian; Venkataramani, Deepika; Aichele, Clint P; Harwell, Jeffrey H; Crossley, Steven P


    Carbon nanotubes exhibit very unique properties in biphasic systems. Their interparticle attraction leads to reduced droplet coalescence rates and corresponding improvements in emulsion stability. Here we use covalent and noncovalent techniques to modify the hydrophilicity of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and study their resulting behavior at an oil-water interface. By using both paraffin wax/water and dodecane/water systems, the thickness of the layer of MWNTs at the interface and resulting emulsion stability are shown to vary significantly with the approach used to modify the MWNTs. Increased hydrophilicity of the MWNTs shifts the emulsions from water-in-oil to oil-in-water. The stability of the emulsion is found to correlate with the thickness of nanotubes populating the oil-water interface and relative strength of the carbon nanotube network. The addition of a surfactant decreases the thickness of nanotubes at the interface and enhances the overall interfacial area stabilized at the expense of increased droplet coalescence rates. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time the interfacial thickness of modified carbon nanotubes has been quantified and correlated to emulsion stability.

  1. Solid-stabilized emulsion formation using stearoyl lactylate coated iron oxide nanoparticles (United States)

    Vengsarkar, Pranav S.; Roberts, Christopher B.


    Iron oxide nanoparticles can exhibit highly tunable physicochemical properties that are extremely important in applications such as catalysis, biomedicine and environmental remediation. The small size of iron oxide nanoparticles can be used to stabilize oil-in-water Pickering emulsions due to their high energy of adsorption at the interface of oil droplets in water. The objective of this work is to investigate the effect of the primary particle characteristics and stabilizing agent chemistry on the stability of oil-in-water Pickering emulsions. Iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by the co-precipitation method using stoichiometric amounts of Fe2+ and Fe3+ salts. Sodium stearoyl lactylate (SSL), a Food and Drug Administration approved food additive, was used to functionalize the iron oxide nanoparticles. SSL is useful in the generation of fat-in-water emulsions due to its high hydrophilic-lipophilic balance and its bilayer-forming capacity. Generation of a monolayer or a bilayer coating on the nanoparticles was controlled through systematic changes in reagent concentrations. The coated particles were then characterized using various analytical techniques to determine their size, their crystal structure and surface functionalization. The capacity of these bilayer coated nanoparticles to stabilize oil-in-water emulsions under various salt concentrations and pH values was also systematically determined using various characterization techniques. This study successfully demonstrated the ability to synthesize iron oxide nanoparticles (20-40 nm) coated with SSL in order to generate stable Pickering emulsions that were pH-responsive and resistant to significant destabilization in a saline environment, thereby lending themselves to applications in advanced oil spill recovery and remediation.

  2. Ultrastructure of emulsions - a comparative electron microscopy study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard

    without off flavors. But the highly unsaturated nature of the fatty acids renders them especially subjective to oxidation; a process which creates undesired off flavors and deteriorates the nutritional value. It is therefore of interest to protect the fish oil against oxidation. One method suggested to do...... is added. The Nanomega project, which is a cooperation between the National Food Institute, the Center for Electron Nanoscopy and the Department of Mechanical Engineering, all at the Technical University of Denmark, has dealt mainly with pure oil in water emulsions to describe the oxidation without...... as a consequence of whether the emulsion has been processed at high pressure or not. The results suggest a structural similarity with the native casein micelle and a similar response to high pressure conditions, but diverging slightly in the resulting structure. This deviation can probably be ascribed to missing...

  3. Influence of calcium, magnesium, or potassium ions on the formation and stability of emulsions prepared using highly hydrolyzed whey proteins. (United States)

    Ramkumar, C; Singh, H; Munro, P A; Singh, A M


    Oil-in-water emulsions (4 wt % soy oil) containing 4 wt % whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) (27% degree of hydrolysis) and different levels of calcium, magnesium, or potassium chloride were prepared in a two-stage homogenizer. Other emulsions containing 4 wt % WPH but including 0.35 wt % hydroxylated lecithin and different levels of the above minerals were similarly prepared. The formation and stability of these emulsions were determined by measuring oil droplet size distributions using laser light scattering and by confocal scanning laser microscopy and a gravity creaming test. Both lecithin-free and lecithin-containing emulsions showed no change in droplet size distributions with increasing concentration of potassium in the range 0-37.5 mM. In contrast, the diameter of emulsion droplets increased with increasing calcium or magnesium concentration >12.5 mM. Emulsions containing hydroxylated lecithin were more sensitive to the addition of calcium or magnesium than the lecithin-free emulsions. Storage of emulsions at 20 degrees C for 24 h further increased the diameter of droplets and resulted in extensive creaming in emulsions containing >25 mM calcium or magnesium. It appears that both flocculation and coalescence processes were involved in the destabilization of emulsions induced by the addition of divalent cations.

  4. Preparation and Application of Water-in-Oil Emulsions Stabilized by Modified Graphene Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoma Fei


    Full Text Available A series of alkyl chain modified graphene oxides (AmGO with different alkyl chain length and content was fabricated using a reducing reaction between graphene oxide (GO and alkyl amine. Then AmGO was used as a graphene-based particle emulsifier to stabilize Pickering emulsion. Compared with the emulsion stabilized by GO, which was oil-in-water type, all the emulsions stabilized by AmGO were water-in-oil type. The effects of alkyl chain length and alkyl chain content on the emulsion properties of AmGO were investigated. The emulsions stabilized by AmGO showed good stability within a wide range of pH (from pH = 1 to pH = 13 and salt concentrations (from 0.1 to 1000 mM. In addition, the application of water-in-oil emulsions stabilized by AmGO was investigated. AmGO/polyaniline nanocomposite (AmGO/PANi was prepared through an emulsion approach, and its supercapacitor performance was investigated. This research broadens the application of AmGO as a water-in-oil type emulsion stabilizer and in preparing graphene-based functional materials.

  5. A synthetic TLR4 agonist formulated in an emulsion enhances humoral and Type 1 cellular immune responses against GMZ2 - A GLURP-MSP3 fusion protein malaria vaccine candidate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lousada-Dietrich, Susana; Jogdand, Prajakta S; Jepsen, Søren


    ) agonists in CB6F1 mice to identify an improved formulation of GMZ2 suitable for further human clinical studies. GMZ2 formulated in an oil-in-water emulsion plus the synthetic TLR4 agonist GLA elicits the highest (a) vaccine-specific IgG2a and total IgG titers, (b) parasite-specific IFA titers, (c) levels...

  6. Directed weighted network structure analysis of complex impedance measurements for characterizing oil-in-water bubbly flow (United States)

    Gao, Zhong-Ke; Dang, Wei-Dong; Xue, Le; Zhang, Shan-Shan


    Characterizing the flow structure underlying the evolution of oil-in-water bubbly flow remains a contemporary challenge of great interests and complexity. In particular, the oil droplets dispersing in a water continuum with diverse size make the study of oil-in-water bubbly flow really difficult. To study this issue, we first design a novel complex impedance sensor and systematically conduct vertical oil-water flow experiments. Based on the multivariate complex impedance measurements, we define modalities associated with the spatial transient flow structures and construct modality transition-based network for each flow condition to study the evolution of flow structures. In order to reveal the unique flow structures underlying the oil-in-water bubbly flow, we filter the inferred modality transition-based network by removing the edges with small weight and resulting isolated nodes. Then, the weighted clustering coefficient entropy and weighted average path length are employed for quantitatively assessing the original network and filtered network. The differences in network measures enable to efficiently characterize the evolution of the oil-in-water bubbly flow structures.

  7. Effects of replacing beef fat with pre-emulsified pumpkin seed oil on some quality characteristics of model system chicken meat emulsions (United States)

    Serdaroğlu, M.; Nacak, B.; Karabıyıkoğlu, M.; Tepe, M.; Baykara, I.; Kökmen, Y.


    In this study, the effects of adding pumpkin seed oil (PSO) in water emulsion to model system chicken meat emulsions (MSME) on product quality and oxidative stability were investigated. MSME were produced by replacing 25% (P25) and 50% (P50) of beef fat with PSO-in-water emulsion (PSO/W) while control treatment was prepared with only beef fat. Addition of PSO/W to the formulation resulted in significant differences in chemical composition and pH values of both raw and cooked MSME treatments. The use of PSO/W produced significant improvements to emulsion stability, oxidative stability and cooking yield of MSME. It was determined that the use of PSO/W formulation results in decreased total expressible fluid values and increased cooking yields of the emulsions. It was observed that the highest cooking yield and the lowest total expressible fluid were found in the sample containing 50% PSO/W. It should be a feasible strategy to produce fat-reduced meat products with healthier lipid profiles by using PSO/W.

  8. Role of naphthenic acids in stabilizing water-in-diluted model oil emulsions. (United States)

    Gao, Song; Moran, Kevin; Xu, Zhenghe; Masliyah, Jacob


    The need for alkaline conditions in oil sands processing is, in part, to produce natural surfactants from bitumen. Previous studies have shown that the produced surfactants are primarily carboxylic salts of naphthenic acids with the possibility of sulfonic salts as well. The role of these natural surfactants, particularly those in the naphthenate class, is to provide a physicochemical basis for several subprocesses in bitumen extraction. In this study, it was found that the content of indigenous naphthenic acids in bitumen can destabilize, to some extent, the water-in-oil emulsion by lowering the interfacial tension, reducing the rigidity and promoting the coalescence of water droplets.

  9. Pretreatment with Fish Oil-Based Lipid Emulsion Modulates Muscle Leukocyte Chemotaxis in Murine Model of Sublethal Lower Limb Ischemia (United States)

    Shih, Yao-Ming; Shih, Juey-Ming; Yeh, Chiu-Li; Li, Cheng-Che


    This study investigated the effects of a fish oil- (FO-) based lipid emulsion on muscle leukocyte chemotaxis and inflammatory responses in a murine model of limb ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Mice were assigned randomly to 1 sham (sham) group, 2 ischemic groups, and 2 IR groups. The sham group did not undergo the ischemic procedure. The mice assigned to the ischemic or IR groups were pretreated intraperitoneally with either saline or FO-based lipid emulsion for 3 consecutive days. The IR procedure was induced by applying a 4.5 oz orthodontic rubber band to the left thigh above the greater trochanter for 120 min and then cutting the band to allow reperfusion. The ischemic groups were sacrificed immediately while the IR groups were sacrificed 24 h after reperfusion. Blood, IR-injured gastrocnemius, and lung tissues were collected for analysis. The results showed that FO pretreatment suppressed the local and systemic expression of several IR-induced proinflammatory mediators. Also, the FO-pretreated group had lower blood Ly6ChiCCR2hi monocyte percentage and muscle M1/M2 ratio than the saline group at 24 h after reperfusion. These findings suggest that FO pretreatment may have a protective role in limb IR injury by modulating the expression of proinflammatory mediators and regulating the polarization of macrophage. PMID:28182087

  10. Impact of weighting agents and sucrose on gravitational separation of beverage emulsions. (United States)

    Chanamai, R; McClements, D J


    The influence of weighting agents and sucrose on gravitational separation in 1 wt % oil-in-water emulsions was studied by measuring changes in the intensity of backscattered light from the emulsions with height. Emulsions with different droplet densities were prepared by mixing weighting agents [brominated vegetable oil (BVO), ester gum (EG), damar gum (DG), or sucrose acetate isobutyrate (SAIB)] with soybean oil prior to homogenization. Sedimentation or creaming occurred when the droplet density was greater than or lower than the aqueous phase density, respectively. The weighting agent concentrations required to match the oil and aqueous phase densities were 25 wt % BVO, 55 wt % EG, 55 wt % DG, and 45 wt % SAIB. The efficiency of droplet reduction during homogenization also depended on weighting agent type (BVO > SAIB > DG, EG) due to differences in oil phase viscosity. The influence of sucrose (0-13 wt %) on the creaming stability of 1 wt % soybean oil-in-water emulsions was also examined. Sucrose increased the aqueous phase viscosity (retarding creaming) and increased the density contrast between droplets and aqueous phase (accelerating creaming). These two effects largely canceled one another so that the creaming stability was relatively insensitive to sucrose concentration.

  11. Food-grade Pickering emulsions stabilised with solid lipid particles. (United States)

    Pawlik, Aleksandra; Kurukji, Daniel; Norton, Ian; Spyropoulos, Fotis


    Aqueous dispersions of tripalmitin particles (with a minimum size of 130 nm) were produced, via a hot sonication method, with and without the addition of food-grade emulsifiers. Depending on their relative size and chemistry, the emulsifiers altered the properties of the fat particles (e.g. crystal form, dispersion state and surface properties) by two proposed mechanisms. Firstly, emulsifiers modify the rate and/or extent of polymorphic transitions, resulting in the formation of fat crystals with a range of polarities. Secondly, the adsorption of emulsifiers at the particle interface modifies crystal surface properties. Such emulsifier-modified fat particles were then used to stabilise emulsions. As the behaviour of these particles was predisposed by the kind of emulsifier employed for their manufacture, the resulting particles showed different preferences to which of the emulsion phases (oil or water) became the continuous one. The polarity of the fat particles decreased as follows: Whey Protein Isolate > Soy Lecithin > Soy Lecithin + Tween 20 > Tween 20 > Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate > no emulsifier. Consequently, particles stabilised with WPI formed oil-in-water emulsions (O/W); particles stabilised solely with lecithin produced a highly unstable W/O emulsion; and particles stabilised with a mixture of lecithin and Tween 20 gave a stable W/O emulsion with drop size up to 30 μm. Coalescence stable, oil-continuous emulsions (W/O) with drop sizes between 5 and 15 μm were produced when the tripalmitin particles were stabilised with solely with Tween 20, solely with polyglycerol polyricinoleate, or with no emulsifier at all. It is proposed that the stability of the latter three emulsions was additionally enhanced by sintering of fat particles at the oil-water interface, providing a mechanical barrier against coalescence.

  12. [Feature abstraction and spectral reconstruction of three-dimensional fluorescence spectra of oil in water]. (United States)

    Tian, Guang-Jun


    In the present paper, spectral reconstruction of three-dimensional fluorescence spectra of oil was studied based on singular value division (SVD) of fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM). Depending on oil components, three-dimensional (3-D) fluorescence spectra of oils can be seen as their "fingerprints". Feature abstraction and selection of 3-D fluorescence spectra is important to oil identification. Statistic parameters such as the average, standard error, centroid, kurtosis, geometrical distribution as well as main-shaft slope selected, forming "apparent statistic feature" vector of 3-D fluorescence spectra of oils, are limited due to their roughness. And the apparent statistic feature vector can not support spectral reconstruction reversely. In this paper, with singular-value features abstracted from EEMs composing the feature chain, reversal spectral reconstruction can be realized, and its information loss can be estimated. In other words, a pan-gene series of 3-D fluorescence spectra consists of singular values and their corresponding accompanying vectors. By SVD operation on EEMs of dozens of oil samples in water, their singular values accompanied with corresponding vectors were calculated showing obviously gathering energy distribution. With singular values being properly cut, principal feature parameters were selected and combined with their accompanying vectors composing the pan-gene series (or singular-value pan-gene chain) and spectral reconstruction was reversely completed. A couple of spectra (original and reconstructed) of diesel as the typical oil in water were presented for comparison. It can be seen that there is no obvious difference between the reconstructed and original spectra. Certainly, information loss exists but in an scheduled extent. It is shown that the singular-value features of fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) represent spectral gathering energy, and the length-limited pan-gene chain has the ability to reconstruct

  13. Comparison of Rate-All-That-Apply (RATA) and Descriptive sensory Analysis (DA) of model double emulsions with subtle perceptual differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppermann, A.K.L.; Graaf, de C.; Scholten, E.; Stieger, M.A.; Piqueras Fiszman, Phd Betina


    The Rate-All-That-Apply (RATA) method, an intensity-based Check-All-That-Apply (CATA) variant, has recently been developed for sensory characterization involving untrained panellists. The aim of this study was to investigate the sensory profiles of ten model (double) emulsions with subtle perceptual

  14. An Underwater Superoleophobic Sepiolite Fibrous Membrane (SFM) for Oil­‐in­‐water Emulsion Separation

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Pinjiang


    Separating oil/water emulsions is significant for the ecosystem and the petroleum and processing industry. To this end, we prepared an underwater superoleophobic membrane inspired by unique wettability of the fish scales. This membrane was fabricated by a facile vacuum filtration process of sepiolite nanofibers and chitosan, and after the cross-linking via glutaraldehyde, a self-standing membrane was obtained. The as-prepared membrane exhibited excellent capability of separating both the surfactant-free and surfactant-stabilized oil-in-water emulsions with high efficiency. This sepiolite fibrous membrane offers a convenient, reliable and efficient way for the large-scale de-emulsification process.

  15. Determination of diesel fuel and motor oil in water and wastes by a modified diesel-range organics total petroleum hydrocarbon method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draper, W.M.; Dhaliwal, J.S.; Perera, S.K.; Baumann, F.J. [California Department of Health Services, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    The American Petroleum Institute method for determination of diesel-range total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) by gas-liquid chromatography with flame ionization detection was modified to allow simultaneous determination of motor oil. Motor oil elutes as a broad hump of unresolved alkanes and can be distinguished readily from diesel fuel and other fuel oils by its profile. The boiling point ranges for No. 2 diesel fuel and motor oil are C{sub 10{minus}} C{sub 21} and C{sub 21}-C{sub 38}, respectively, and these ranges define TPHs in diesel fuel (TPH-D) and motor oil (TPH-M). By this convention, less than 6% of No. 2 diesel is characterized as TPH-M, and less than 9% of motor oil is quantitated as TPH-D. Inlet discrimination was observed when motor oil was injected with a splitless injector. Accurate motor oil quantitation with splitless sample introduction requires calibration with the product or triacontane, which has a similar response factor. Detector response to motor oil (and other petroleum products) and a homologous series of n-alkanes was nearly constant when on-column injection was used. Instrument detection limit for motor oil was about 0.5 {mu}g (splitless injection, total area under the curve), and the widest linear range (up to 100 {mu}g) was obtained by subtracting the solvent chromatogram. Procedures for isolation of motor oil from oil-in-water (O/W) and water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions are described. Method detection limits for diesel fuel and motor oil in purified water were 0.041 and 1.5 mg/L, respectively. 11 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Balsamo

    Full Text Available Abstract The demulsification of model water-in-oil (w/o emulsions containing 1% wt. water by [Omim][PF6] and Aliquat® 336 ionic liquids (IL as demulsifiers was investigated in batch mode at different temperatures (30, 45 and 60 °C and demulsifier concentrations (2.5×10‒3, 1.2×10‒2 and 2.9×10‒2 mol L‒1. The model oil is a mixture n-heptane/toluene (70/30% wt. with 1% wt. of Span® 83 as a surfactant. Experimental results showed that the main differences in demulsification dynamics between systems containing IL and blank (i.e., in the absence of demulsifier are detected at 30 °C and for short demulsification times (t≤4 h. In particular, the demulsification efficiency is 8, 21 and 74% for the blank sample, [Omim][PF6] and Aliquat® 336 tested under the more concentrated IL condition, respectively. The superior demulsification performances of Aliquat® 336 with respect to [Omim][PF6] were related to the greater molecular weight and more hydrophobic character of its cation, likely able to induce a faster desorption of the surfactant at the w/o interface and consequently promoting water droplet coalescence. Moreover, the kinetic demulsification data were successfully interpreted by an empirical pseudo-first order model. In general, the obtained outcomes encourage future research efforts in the use of ionic liquids for the removal of low water fractions from w/o emulsions.

  17. Effect of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin-Gelatin Colloidal Complexes on Stability and in Vitro Digestion of Fish Oil Emulsions. (United States)

    Su, Yu-Ru; Tsai, Yi-Chin; Hsu, Chun-Hua; Chao, An-Chong; Lin, Cheng-Wei; Tsai, Min-Lang; Mi, Fwu-Long


    The colloidal complexes composed of grape seed proanthocyanidin (GSP) and gelatin (GLT), as natural antioxidants to improve stability and inhibit lipid oxidation in menhaden fish oil emulsions, were evaluated. The interactions between GSP and GLT, and the chemical structures of GSP/GLT self-assembled colloidal complexes, were characterized by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), circular dichroism (CD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic (FTIR) studies. Fish oil was emulsified with GLT to obtain an oil-in-water (o/w) emulsion. After formation of the emulsion, GLT was fixed by GSP to obtain the GSP/GLT colloidal complexes stabilized fish oil emulsion. Menhaden oil emulsified by GSP/GLT(0.4 wt %) colloidal complexes yielded an emulsion with smaller particles and higher emulsion stability as compared to its GLT emulsified counterpart. The GSP/GLT colloidal complexes inhibited the lipid oxidation in fish oil emulsions more effectively than free GLT because the emulsified fish oil was surrounded by the antioxidant GSP/GLT colloidal complexes. The digestion rate of the fish oil emulsified with the GSP/GLT colloidal complexes was reduced as compared to that emulsified with free GLT. The extent of free fatty acids released from the GSP/GLT complexes stabilized fish oil emulsions was 63.3% under simulated digestion condition, indicating that the fish oil emulsion was considerably hydrolyzed with lipase.

  18. Performance and Selectivity of Ceramic Membranes in the Ultrafiltration of Model Emulsion in Saline (United States)

    Ćwirko, Konrad; Kalbarczyk-Jedynak, Agnieszka


    Oily wastewaters from different onshore and offshore installations and from maritime transport pose a serious threat to the environment so they must be treated by multistage separation also including membrane processes. The main advantages of such membranes are high performance and selectivity, high resistance for temperature and pressure, resistance for acids, bases and solvents, long service life and for application - significant reduction of industries and transport environmental impact. This work presents the results of the process of separation of oil from the emulsion with NaCl addition. Research was performed with a use of laboratory installation with ceramic 300 kDa membrane. The analysis concerned performance and selectivity of a membrane in the function of time and test results have been subsequently compared with the requirements of the IMO.

  19. The role of fat in flavor perception: effect of partition and viscosity in model emulsions. (United States)

    Bayarri, Sara; Taylor, Andrew J; Hort, Joanne


    Decreasing the fat content of a food, while maintaining the same aroma content, changes both aroma release (due to partition effects) and the viscosity of the food. To understand the relative contribution of these two factors on flavor perception, a series of flavored emulsions were prepared to control aroma release and viscosity using different aroma, oil, and hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) contents. Samples were formulated to deliver the same aroma-release in vitro and in vivo, and their viscosity was measured using the Kokini oral shear stress parameter. Despite the in vivo aroma release being constant, there were perceptual differences between the samples, and the flavor intensity decreased as in-mouth viscosity increased. For these iso release samples, the Kokini oral shear stress parameter correlated well with the decrease in perception, suggesting that there may be a viscosity stimulus or that the viscosity affects release of tastant and hinders aroma-taste interactions.

  20. Emulsion forming drug delivery system for lipophilic drugs. (United States)

    Wadhwa, Jyoti; Nair, Anroop; Kumria, Rachna


    In the recent years, there is a growing interest in the lipid-based formulations for delivery of lipophilic drugs. Due to their potential as therapeutic agents, preferably these lipid soluble drugs are incorporated into inert lipid carriers such as oils, surfactant dispersions, emulsions, liposomes etc. Among them, emulsion forming drug delivery systems appear to be a unique and industrially feasible approach to overcome the problem of low oral bioavailability associated with the BCS class II drugs. Self-emulsifying formulations are ideally isotropic mixtures of oils, surfactants and co-solvents that emulsify to form fine oil in water emulsions when introduced in aqueous media. Fine oil droplets would pass rapidly from stomach and promote wide distribution of drug throughout the GI tract, thereby overcome the slow dissolution step typically observed with solid dosage forms. Recent advances in drug carrier technologies have promulgated the development of novel drug carriers such as control release self-emulsifying pellets, microspheres, tablets, capsules etc. that have boosted the use of "self-emulsification" in drug delivery. This article reviews the different types of formulations and excipients used in emulsion forming drug delivery system to enhance the bioavailability of lipophilic drugs.

  1. Modeling of Nitric Oxide Formation in Single Cylinder Direct Injection Diesel Engine Using Diesel-Water Emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kannan


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Water injection into the combustion chamber of diesel engine found to be one of best method for in-cylinder control of NOx formation. Approach: The combustion of water-diesel emulsion in diesel engine was simulated using a computer program to estimate the heat release rate, cylinder pressure, brake thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption and NO formation. Results: The numerical simulation was performed at different equivalence ratios, engine speeds and water percentages. The numerical simulation was preferred to study the combustion behavior and emission of diesel engine because the experimental investigations were time consuming and costly affair. Conclusion/Recommendations: Experiments also conducted to validate the predicted results of computer simulation. Though the zero dimensional simulation models predicted NO formation during combustion process, the first appearance of NO could not be identified using this method which can be solved by CFD technique.

  2. Study on the Stability of DeoxyArbutin in an Anhydrous Emulsion Systemy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu-Wen Chen


    Full Text Available The skin-whitening agent, deoxyArbutin, is a potent tyrosinase inhibitor that is safer than hydroquinone and arbutin. However, it is thermolabile in aqueous solutions, where it decomposes to hydroquinone. Pharmaceutical and cosmetic emulsions are normally oil-in-water (o/w or water-in-oil (w/o systems; however, emulsions can be formulated with no aqueous phase to produce an anhydrous emulsion system. An anhydrous emulsion system could offer a stable vehicle for compounds that are sensitive to hydrolysis or oxidation. Therefore, to enhance the stability of deoxyArbutin in formulations, we chose the polyol-in-silicone, anhydrous emulsion system as the basic formulation for investigation. The quantity of deoxyArbutin and the accumulation of hydroquinone in both hydrous and anhydrous emulsions at various temperatures were analyzed through an established high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC method. The results indicated that water increased the decomposition of deoxyArbutin in the formulations and that the polyol-in-silicone, oil-based, anhydrous emulsion system provided a relatively stable surrounding for the deoxyArbutin that delayed its degradation at 25 °C and 45 °C. Moreover, the composition of the inner hydrophilic phase, containing different amounts of glycerin and propylene glycol, affected the stability of deoxyArbutin. Thus, these results will be beneficial when using deoxyArbutin in cosmetics and medicines in the future.

  3. Stability and in vitro digestibility of emulsions containing lecithin and whey proteins. (United States)

    Mantovani, Raphaela Araujo; Cavallieri, Ângelo Luiz Fazani; Netto, Flavia Maria; Cunha, Rosiane Lopes


    The effect of pH and high-pressure homogenization on the properties of oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions stabilized by lecithin and/or whey proteins (WPI) was evaluated. For this purpose, emulsions were characterized by visual analysis, droplet size distribution, zeta potential, electrophoresis, rheological measurements and their response to in vitro digestion. Lecithin emulsions were stable even after 7 days of storage and WPI emulsions were unstable only at pH values close to the isoelectric point (pI) of proteins. Systems containing the mixture of lecithin and WPI showed high kinetic instability at pH 3, which was attributed to the electrostatic interaction between the emulsifiers oppositely charged at this pH value. At pH 5.5 and 7, the mixture led to reduction of the droplet size with enhanced emulsion stability compared to the systems with WPI or lecithin. The stability of WPI emulsions after the addition of lecithin, especially at pH 5.5, was associated with the increase of droplet surface charge density. The in vitro digestion evaluation showed that WPI emulsion was more stable against gastrointestinal conditions.

  4. Effect of pH and ionic strength on the physicochemical properties of coconut milk emulsions. (United States)

    Tangsuphoom, N; Coupland, J N


    Coconut milk (16% to 17% fat, 1.8% to 2% protein) was extracted from coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) endosperm and diluted in buffer to produce natural oil-in-water emulsions (10 wt% oil). The effect of pH (3 to 7) and NaCl (0 to 200 mM) on the properties and stability, namely, mean particle size, zeta-potential, viscosity, microstructure, and creaming stability, of the natural coconut milk emulsions was investigated. At pH values close to the isoelectric point (IEP) of the coconut proteins (pH 3.5 to 4) and in the absence of NaCl, coconut milk flocculated, but did not coalesce. Flocculation corresponded to low surface charges and was accompanied by an increase in emulsion viscosity. Adding up to 200 mM NaCl to those flocculated emulsions did not change the apparent degree of flocculation. Coconut milk emulsion at pH 6 was negatively charged and not flocculated. Upon addition of salt, the zeta-potential decreased from -16 to -6 mV (at 200 mM NaCl) but this was not sufficient to induce flocculation in coconut milk emulsions. At low pH (coconut milk emulsions only flocculated when the NaCI concentration exceeded 50 mM, as the zeta-potential approached zero.

  5. Lipid digestion of protein stabilized emulsions investigated in a dynamic in vitro gastro-intestinal model system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helbig, A.; Silletti, E.; Aken, G.A. van; Oosterveld, A.; Minekus, M.; Hamer, R.J.; Gruppen, H.


    This study investigated the effect of gastric passage of protein stabilized emulsions, i.e., whey protein isolate (WPI) and lysozyme, under dynamic in vitro conditions on both the gastric and intestinal lipolysis. Emulsions were prepared at neutral pH to enable an opposite surface charge. Experiment

  6. Lipid Digestion of Protein Stabilized Emulsions Investigated in a Dynamic In Vitro Gastro-Intestinal Model System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helbig, A.; Silletti, E.; Aken, van G.A.; Oosterveld, A.; Minekus, M.; Hamer, R.J.; Gruppen, H.


    This study investigated the effect of gastric passage of protein stabilized emulsions, i.e., whey protein isolate (WPI) and lysozyme, under dynamic in vitro conditions on both the gastric and intestinal lipolysis. Emulsions were prepared at neutral pH to enable an opposite surface charge. Experiment

  7. Cryo-FIB SEM for Characterization of the Structure of Fish Oil Emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard; Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Jacobsen, Charlotte;


    The addition of fish oil to industrial food products is appealing both to the food industry and consumers for reasons such as health benefits and the extra commercial value. Fish oil is rich in long chain omega-3 fatty acids, which contain a large number of double bonds. This feature causes...... such strategy is to add the oil as an emulsion rather than as neat oil. Studies so far have indicated that emulsification of the fish oil changes the oxidative stability of the product but whether emulsification is an advantage seems to be dependent on the food matrix to which the emulsion is added [1, 2...... can be stabilized by food grade emulsifiers such as proteins and phospholipids from milk. The main objective of this study is to characterize fish oil in water emulsions with respect to oil droplet size, size distribution, and ultimately to view the thickness, structure and morphology of the interface...

  8. Kinetics of crosslinking in emulsion polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghielmi, A.; Fiorentino, S.; Morbidelli, M. [Universitaetstrasse Zuerich (Switzerland)] [and others


    A mathematical model for evaluating the chain length distribution of nonlinear polymers produced in emulsions is presented. The heterogeneous emulsion polymerization process is described. The aim of the analysis is the distribution of active polymer chains and pairs of chains with a given growth time in latex particles in state.

  9. Oil-in-water biocompatible microemulsion as a carrier for the antitumor drug compound methyl dihydrojasmonate (United States)

    da Silva, Gisela Bevilacqua Rolfsen Ferreira; Scarpa, Maria Virginia; Carlos, Iracilda Zepone; Quilles, Marcela Bassi; Lia, Raphael Carlos Comeli; do Egito, Eryvaldo Socrates Tabosa; de Oliveira, Anselmo Gomes


    Methyl dihydrojasmonate (MJ) has been studied because of its application as an antitumor drug compound. However, as MJ is a poorly water-soluble compound, a suitable oil-in-water microemulsion (ME) has been studied in order to provide its solubilization in an aqueous media and to allow its administration by the parenteral route. The ME used in this work was characterized on the pseudo-ternary phase diagram by dynamic light scattering and rheological measurements. Regardless of the drug presence, the droplet size was directly dependent on the oil/surfactant (O/S) ratio. Furthermore, the drug incorporation into the ME significantly increased the ME diameter, mainly at low O/S ratios. The rheological evaluation of the systems showed that in the absence of drug a Newtonian behavior was observed. On the other hand, in the presence of MJ the ME systems revealed pseudoplastic behavior, independently of the O/S ratio. The in vivo studies demonstrated that not only was the effect on the tumor inhibition inversely dependent on the MJ-loaded ME administered dose, but also it was slightly higher than the doxorubicin alone, which was used as the positive control. Additionally, a small antiangiogenic effect for MJ-loaded ME was found at doses in which it possesses antitumor activity. MJ revealed to be nontoxic at doses higher than 350 mg/kg, which was higher than the dose that provides tumor-inhibition effect in this study. Because the MJ-loaded ME was shown to have anticancer activity comparable to doxorubicin, the ME described here may be considered a suitable vehicle for parenteral administration of MJ. PMID:25609963

  10. Lipid emulsion pretreatment has different effects on mepivacaine and bupivacaine cardiac toxicity in an isolated rat heart model. (United States)

    Aumeier, C; Kasdorf, B; Gruber, M; Busse, H; Wiese, C H; Zink, W; Graf, B M; Zausig, Y A


    The use of lipid emulsions to reduce cardiac toxicity of local anaesthetics (LAs) has shown success in experimental studies and some clinical cases, and thus has been implemented in clinical practice. However, lipid treatment is usually given after the occurrence of neurological or cardiovascular symptoms of systemic intoxication. The aim of this study was to determine if pretreatment with lipid emulsion reduces cardiac toxicity produced by bupivacaine or mepivacaine. Isolated rat hearts were perfused with or without lipid emulsion (0.25 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) before administration of equipotent doses of bupivacaine (250 µM) or mepivacaine (1000 µM). Haemodynamic parameters and times from start of perfusion LA to a 1 min period of asystole and recovery were determined. Pretreatment with lipid emulsion extended the time until occurrence of asystole and decreased times to recovery in bupivacaine-induced cardiac toxicity but not in mepivacaine-induced cardiac toxicity compared with control. Lipid pretreatment impaired rate-pressure product recovery in mepivacaine-intoxicated hearts. This study confirms that pretreatment with a lipid emulsion reduces cardiac toxicity of LAs. The efficacy of pretreatment with lipid emulsion was LA-dependent, so pharmacokinetic properties, such as lipophilicity, might influence the effects of lipid emulsion pretreatment.

  11. Bespoke contrast-matched diblock copolymer nanoparticles enable the rational design of highly transparent Pickering double emulsions (United States)

    Rymaruk, Matthew J.; Thompson, Kate L.; Derry, Matthew J.; Warren, Nicholas J.; Ratcliffe, Liam P. D.; Williams, Clive N.; Brown, Steven L.; Armes, Steven P.


    We report the preparation of highly transparent oil-in-water Pickering emulsions using contrast-matched organic nanoparticles. This is achieved via addition of judicious amounts of either sucrose or glycerol to an aqueous dispersion of poly(glycerol monomethacrylate)56-poly(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl methacrylate)500 [PGMA-PTFEMA] diblock copolymer nanoparticles prior to high shear homogenization with an equal volume of n-dodecane. The resulting Pickering emulsions comprise polydisperse n-dodecane droplets of 20-100 μm diameter and exhibit up to 96% transmittance across the visible spectrum. In contrast, control experiments using non-contrast-matched poly(glycerol monomethacrylate)56-poly(benzyl methacrylate)300 [PGMA56-PBzMA300] diblock copolymer nanoparticles as a Pickering emulsifier only produced conventional highly turbid emulsions. Thus contrast-matching of the two immiscible phases is a necessary but not sufficient condition for the preparation of highly transparent Pickering emulsions: it is essential to use isorefractive nanoparticles in order to minimize light scattering. Furthermore, highly transparent oil-in-water-in-oil Pickering double emulsions can be obtained by homogenizing the contrast-matched oil-in-water Pickering emulsion prepared using the PGMA56-PTFEMA500 nanoparticles with a contrast-matched dispersion of hydrophobic poly(lauryl methacrylate)39-poly(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl methacrylate)800 [PLMA39-PTFEMA800] diblock copolymer nanoparticles in n-dodecane. Finally, we show that an isorefractive oil-in-water Pickering emulsion enables fluorescence spectroscopy to be used to monitor the transport of water-insoluble small molecules (pyrene and benzophenone) between n-dodecane droplets. Such transport is significantly less efficient than that observed for the equivalent isorefractive surfactant-stabilized emulsion. Conventional turbid emulsions do not enable such a comparison to be made because the intense light scattering leads to substantial spectral

  12. The evaluation of cosmetic and pharmaceutical emulsions aging process using classical techniques and a new method: FTIR. (United States)

    Masmoudi, H; Dréau, Y Le; Piccerelle, P; Kister, J


    The purpose of this paper is to show how the utilization of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy can be interesting in stability studying of cosmetic or pharmaceutical "oil in water" (O/W) emulsions. In this study temperature storage tests were performed to accelerate the aging process and evaluate the stability of five emulsions. Emulsions were analyzed by FTIR and classical methods (conductivity, viscosity, pH, texture analysis) in order to determine a method that would enable predicting the emulsion's stability. During the aging process, modifications of chemical functions are measured by FTIR (using spectrometric indices), such modifications included: a decrease of unsaturation index, an increase of carbonyl index and a broadening of the carbonyl band. This band was deconvoluted to evaluate the contribution of different species in the broadening phenomenon, which seems to be caused by the appearance of free fatty acids. Conductimetry seems to be the most sensitive technique to assess physical modifications during emulsion's aging. Concerning the most unstable emulsions, a progressive increasing of conductivity was observed several months before the emulsion destabilizes. Consequently, FTIR and conductimetry are two complementary techniques. Conductimetry is a useful technique to predict emulsion destabilization while FTIR allows the measurement of chemical modifications and helps to understand the chemical mechanisms which occur during the oxidation.

  13. Encapsulation of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in PLA microspheres using supercritical emulsion extraction to produce bactericidal nanocomposites (United States)

    Campardelli, R.; Della Porta, G.; Gomez, V.; Irusta, S.; Reverchon, E.; Santamaria, J.


    In this work, PLA microparticles containing TiO2 (anatase) nanoparticles have been produced using the Continuous Supercritical Emulsion Extraction technique (SEE-C). A stabilized anatase colloidal suspension (15 ± 5 nm) in ethanol aqueous solution was obtained by precipitation from solutions of titanium alkoxides and directly used as the water internal phase of a water-in-oil in water double emulsion or suspended as a powder in the organic phase of a solid-in-oil in water emulsion. Micro- (0.9 ± 0.5 μm) and submicro-particles (203 ± 40 nm) have been produced, with TiO2 nominal loadings of 1.2, 2.4, and 3.6 wt%. High TiO2 encapsulation efficiencies up to about 90 % have been obtained. PLA/TiO2 particles have been characterized by TEM and XPS to investigate the dispersion of the metal oxide in the polymeric matrix. The photo-assisted bactericidal activity of TiO2-containing microparticles against a biofilm-forming strain of Staphylococcus aureus was investigated in specific assays under UV light. Pure TiO2 nanoparticles and PLA/TiO2 particles showed the same bactericidal activity.

  14. Encapsulation of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in PLA microspheres using supercritical emulsion extraction to produce bactericidal nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campardelli, R., E-mail:; Della Porta, G. [University of Salerno, Department of Industrial Engineering (Italy); Gomez, V.; Irusta, S. [University of Zaragoza, Aragon Institute of Nanoscience (INA) (Spain); Reverchon, E., E-mail: [University of Salerno, Department of Industrial Engineering (Italy); Santamaria, J., E-mail: [University of Zaragoza, Aragon Institute of Nanoscience (INA) (Spain)


    In this work, PLA microparticles containing TiO{sub 2} (anatase) nanoparticles have been produced using the Continuous Supercritical Emulsion Extraction technique (SEE-C). A stabilized anatase colloidal suspension (15 {+-} 5 nm) in ethanol aqueous solution was obtained by precipitation from solutions of titanium alkoxides and directly used as the water internal phase of a water-in-oil in water double emulsion or suspended as a powder in the organic phase of a solid-in-oil in water emulsion. Micro- (0.9 {+-} 0.5 {mu}m) and submicro-particles (203 {+-} 40 nm) have been produced, with TiO{sub 2} nominal loadings of 1.2, 2.4, and 3.6 wt%. High TiO{sub 2} encapsulation efficiencies up to about 90 % have been obtained. PLA/TiO{sub 2} particles have been characterized by TEM and XPS to investigate the dispersion of the metal oxide in the polymeric matrix. The photo-assisted bactericidal activity of TiO{sub 2}-containing microparticles against a biofilm-forming strain of Staphylococcus aureus was investigated in specific assays under UV light. Pure TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles and PLA/TiO{sub 2} particles showed the same bactericidal activity.

  15. Oil-in-water biocompatible microemulsion as a carrier for the antitumor drug compound methyl dihydrojasmonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva GB


    Full Text Available Gisela Bevilacqua Rolfsen Ferreira da Silva,1 Maria Virginia Scarpa,1 Iracilda Zepone Carlos,2 Marcela Bassi Quilles,2 Raphael Carlos Comeli Lia,3 Eryvaldo Socrates Tabosa do Egito,4 Anselmo Gomes de Oliveira1 1Departamento de Fármacos e Medicamentos, 2Departamento de Análises Clínicas, UNESP–Universidade Estadual Paulista, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, PPG em Nanotecnologia Farmacêutica, Rodovia Araraquara-Jaú Km 01, Araraquara, SP, Brazil; 3Instituto de Patologia Cirúrgica e Citopatologia (IPC, Araraquara, SP, Brazil; 4UFRN–Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências da Saúde, Natal, RN, Brazil Abstract: Methyl dihydrojasmonate (MJ has been studied because of its application as an antitumor drug compound. However, as MJ is a poorly water-soluble compound, a suitable oil-in-water microemulsion (ME has been studied in order to provide its solubilization in an aqueous media and to allow its administration by the parenteral route. The ME used in this work was characterized on the pseudo-ternary phase diagram by dynamic light scattering and rheological measurements. Regardless of the drug presence, the droplet size was directly dependent on the oil/surfactant (O/S ratio. Furthermore, the drug incorporation into the ME significantly increased the ME diameter, mainly at low O/S ratios. The rheological evaluation of the systems showed that in the absence of drug a Newtonian behavior was observed. On the other hand, in the presence of MJ the ME systems revealed pseudoplastic behavior, independently of the O/S ratio. The in vivo studies demonstrated that not only was the effect on the tumor inhibition inversely dependent on the MJ-loaded ME administered dose, but also it was slightly higher than the doxorubicin alone, which was used as the positive control. Additionally, a small antiangiogenic effect for MJ-loaded ME was found at doses in which it possesses antitumor activity. MJ revealed to

  16. Insight into electric field-induced rupture mechanism of water-in-toluene emulsion films from a model system (United States)

    Dimova, Desislava; Pisov, Stoyan; Panchev, Nikolay; Nedyalkova, Miroslava; Madurga, Sergio; Proykova, Ana


    This paper presents a model, which we have designed to get insight into the development of electro-induced instability of a thin toluene emulsion film in contact with the saline aqueous phase. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations demonstrate the role of charge accumulation in the toluene-film rupture induced by a DC electric field. Two ensembles—NVT and NPT—are used to determine the critical value of the external field at which the film ruptures, the charge distribution and capacitance of the thin film, number densities, and the film structure. The rupture mechanism as seen from this model is the following: in both NVT and NPT ensembles, condenser plates, where the charge density is maximal, are situated at the very border between the bulk aqueous (water) phase and the mixed layer. No ion penetration is observed within the toluene core, thus leaving all the distribution of charges within the mixed zone and the bulk phase that could be attributed to the formation of hydration shells. When the critical electric field is reached within a certain time after the field application, electric discharge occurs indicating the beginning of the rupturing process. The MD simulations indicate that the NPT ensemble predicts a value of the critical field that is closer to the experimental finding.

  17. Characterization of Sodium Mobility and Binding by (23) Na NMR Spectroscopy in a Model Lipoproteic Emulsion Gel for Sodium Reduction. (United States)

    Okada, Kyle S; Lee, Youngsoo


    The effects of formulation and processing parameters on sodium availability in a model lipid/protein-based emulsion gel were studied for purposes of sodium reduction. Heat-set model gels were prepared with varying levels of protein, lipid, and NaCl contents and high pressure homogenization treatments. Single quantum and double quantum-filtered (23) Na NMR spectroscopy experiments were used to characterize sodium mobility, structural order around "bound" (restricted mobility) sodium, and sodium binding, which have been correlated to saltiness perception in food systems previously. Total sodium mobility was lower in gels with higher protein or fat content, and was not affected by changes in homogenization pressure. The gels with increased protein, fat, or homogenization pressure had increased structure surrounding "bound" sodium and more relative "bound" sodium due to increased interfacial protein interactions. The data obtained in this study provide information on factors affecting sodium availability, which can be applied towards sodium reduction in lipid/protein-based foods. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  18. Ptychographic X-ray computed tomography of extended colloidal networks in food emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou Nielsen, Mikkel; Bøgelund Munk, Merete; Diaz, Ana


    of suitable non-destructive 3D imaging techniques with submicron resolution. We present results of quantitative ptychographic X-ray computed tomography applied to a palm kernel oil based oil-in-water emulsion. The measurements were carried out at ambient pressure and temperature. The 3D structure...... of the extended colloidal network of fat globules was obtained with a resolution of around 300 nm. Through image analysis of the network structure, the fat globule size distribution was computed and compared to previous findings. In further support, the reconstructed electron density values were within 4...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sayer


    Full Text Available Dynamic mathematical models are developed to simulate styrene emulsion polymerization reactions carried out in pulsed tubular reactors. Two different modeling approaches, the tanks-in-series model and the axial dispersion model, are compared. The models developed were validated with experimental data from the literature and used to study the dynamics during transient periods, e.g., the start-up of the reactor and the response to disturbances. The effect of the Peclet number on process variables such as conversion and particle concentration was also verified.

  20. Barrier properties of heat treated starch Pickering emulsions. (United States)

    Sjöö, Malin; Emek, Sinan Cem; Hall, Tina; Rayner, Marilyn; Wahlgren, Marie


    There is a recognized technological need for delivery systems encapsulating lipophilic substances in food and pharmaceutical products. Pickering emulsions can provide well-defined and highly stable systems, but may not provide good enough barrier properties. Starch granules, recently being used for Pickering stabilization, have the advantage of the ability to swell during gelatinization. Hence, this property could be used to tune and control barrier properties. Oil-in-water Pickering emulsions stabilized by starch were subject to heat treatment at different conditions. The influence of temperature, time, and storage on emulsion drop characteristics was evaluated. In order to further evaluate the barrier properties, lipolysis using the pH-stat method was applied and the effect of starch concentration, treatment temperature, and preliminary oral conditions were also investigated. A better encapsulating barrier was obtained by starch swelling at the oil drop interface. This was seen as reduced lipase activity. The internal oil drop size remained intact and the starch was kept at the interface during heat treatment. The extent of swelling could be controlled by the heating conditions and had impact on the ability to prevent lipase transport through the starch barrier layer. Addition of α-amylase simulating oral digestion only had minor impact on the barrier effect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Stabilization of emulsions using polymeric surfactants based on inulin. (United States)

    Tadros, Th F; Vandamme, A; Levecke, B; Booten, K; Stevens, C V


    The use of polymeric surfactants for stabilization of emulsions is described. A brief account of general classification and description of polymeric surfactants is given. This is followed by a description of the adsorption and conformation of polymeric surfactants at interfaces. The theoretical approaches for studying polymer adsorption are briefly described. This is followed by a section on the experimental techniques that can be applied to study adsorption and conformation of polymers at the interface. Examples are given to illustrate the experimental techniques. A section is devoted to the interaction between droplets containing adsorbed polymer layers (steric stabilization). The last section gives results on oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions stabilised with a novel graft copolymeric surfactant based on inulin that has been modified by introducing alkyl groups. Two oils were used, namely Isopar M (isoparaffinic oil) and cyclomethicone. Emulsions prepared using the inulin-based surfactant have large droplets, but this could be significantly reduced by addition of a cosurfactant in the oil phase, namely Span 20. The stability of the emulsions was investigated in water, in 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2 mol dm(-3) NaCl and in 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2 mol dm(-3) MgSO(4). These emulsions were stable for more than 1 year up to 50 degrees C in NaCl concentrations up to 2 mol dm(-3) and 1 mol dm(-3) MgSO(4). This high stability in high electrolyte concentrations could be attributed to the nature of the hydrophilic (stabilizing) polyfructose chain. This was confirmed using cloud point measurements, which showed high hydration of the polyfructose chain in such high electrolyte concentrations. This ensured the long-term physical stability resulting from the strong steric repulsion between the polyfructose chains.

  2. Theory of RBE. Third triennial report, 1 January 1967--31 December 1975. [Model based on tracks of heavy ions in nuclear emulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, R.


    From a single set of themes, the theory of RBE has developed a picture of the response of many biological, physical, and chemical systems to radiations of different quality, that depends on a model of the structure of the tracks of nuclear projectiles in condensed matter. Its characterizations arise from the tracks of heavy ions in nuclear emulsions, as extended to accommodate biological cells. Most recently emulsions have been identified whose radiosensitivity changes with radiation quality parallel those of biological cells. From experimentally determined radiosensitivity parameters, the theory predicts response to a range of radiations, and includes synergistic effects of mixed radiation fields, making it possible to calculate the RBE of a mixed field of neutrons and gamma-rays, and to specify the dosimetric measurements required to make these predictions. (auth)

  3. Effect of inorganic additives on solutions of nonionic surfactants V: Emulsion stability. (United States)

    Schott, H; Royce, A E


    Electrolytes often break emulsions to which they were added as active ingredients, adjuvants, or impurities. The stability of oil-in-water emulsions containing octoxynol 9 NF as the emulsifier and various added electrolytes was investigated by measuring droplet size, turbidity, and oil separation on storage at various temperatures and in a centrifugal field at 25 degrees. Electrolytes were added to hexadecane emulsions after emulsification (direct addition); alternatively, hexadecane was emulsified in octoxynol 9-electrolyte mixtures (reverse addition). Xylene emulsions were prepared by direct addition only. Hexadecane emulsions containing 0.10% octoxynol 9 were considerably more stable than xylene emulsions containing 0.60% because the surfactant is practically insoluble in hexadecane, but miscible in all proportions with xylene. An emulsifier soluble in the disperse phase as well as the continuous phase evidently forms less stable interfacial films. The electrolytes investigated were sulfuric and hydrochloric acids, magnesium nitrate, and aluminum nitrate, which salt octoxynol 9 in by complexation between its ether groups and their cations; sodium thiocyanate, which salts the surfactant in by destructuring water; and sodium chloride and sodium sulfate, which salt octoxynol 9 out. The addition of these electrolytes at concentrations up to 2 or 3 m to hexadecane emulsions produced fast and extensive creaming, little or no flocculation, no coalescence, and only minor changes in droplet size or turbidity on storage at room temperature. The extent of coalescence during centrifugation was actually reduced by the additives. Such stability is unusual. Droplet size and turbidity depended mainly on octoxynol 9 concentration. The greatest decrease in the former and increase in the latter occurred when the concentration was increased from 0.10 to approximately 0.4%. All emulsions became slightly coarser on storage at 25 degrees. Stability at 50 degrees was impaired by

  4. Evaluation of percutaneous permeation of repellent DEET and sunscreen oxybenzone from emulsion-based formulations in artificial membrane and human skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wang


    Full Text Available Insect repellent DEET and sunscreen ingredient oxybenzone play an essential role in minimizing vector-borne diseases and skin cancers. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of emulsion type, addition of thickening agent and droplet size in three emulsion-based lotions on percutaneous permeation of DEET and oxybenzone using in vitro diffusion experiments, in order to minimize overall systemic permeation of the substances. Formulation C (water-in-oil emulsion significantly increased overall permeation of DEET through human skin (56% compared to Formulation A (oil-in-water emulsion. Formulation B (oil-in-water emulsion with thickening agent xanthan gum significantly decreased the size of oil droplet containing DEET (16%, but no effect on oil droplets containing oxybenzone. Adding xanthan gum also increased overall permeation of DEET and oxybenzone (21% and 150% when compared to Formulation A; presence of both ingredients in Formulation B further increased their permeation (36% and 23% in comparison to its single counterparts. Overall permeation of oxybenzone through LDPE was significantly higher by 26%–628% than that through human skin; overall permeation of DEET through human skin was significantly higher by 64%–338% than that through LDPE.

  5. Transitional phase inversion of crude oil emulsions by solid particles; Inversao transicional de emulsoes de petroleo com particulas solidas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Troner A. de; Scheer, Agnes P.; Soares, Cristyan R.; Luz Junior, Luiz Fernando de Lima [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Oliveira, Marcia Cristina K. de [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)


    In petroleum production water-in-oil emulsions (W/O) can be found, due to simultaneous flowing of the oil and formation water. This emulsions provide an increase in the viscosity; that can be reduced for the phase inversion in oil-in-water emulsions (O/W), resulting in pressure drop and consequently cost production reduction. The petroleum emulsions W/O were prepared at 60 deg C, with 50% v/v of saline water containing 50 g.L{sup -1} of NaCl. The hydrophilic solids content was varied between 0,5% and 8%, mass fraction, related to the water. The quantity of solids needed to phase inversion of the emulsion was measured by conductivimetry. The stability of the emulsions was verified, at 60 deg C, for the time determination in order to have two phases in four hours, checking the viability for production; and during 24 hours, checking the viability for transportation. Under dynamics conditions, was also noted the stability at 20 deg C, for reproduce the flowing condition. Two of the hydrophilic particles tested in the transitional phase inversion of petroleum emulsions presented better results in quantity and stability. Preliminaries rheological properties measurements were carried out adjusting the temperature of the sample in the range of 30 deg C to 12 deg C a shear rate from 20s{sup -1} to 250s {sup -1}, viscosity decrease was observed until two orders of magnitude. (author)

  6. Emulsion, problem or solution for the flow of heavy crude oil; Emulsao, problema ou solucao para o escoamento de oleos pesados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Carlos Henrique Monteiro de; Oliveira, Roberto Carlos Goncalves de [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas]. E-mail:;


    During the last decades, giant offshore crude oil reserves were discovered around the world. Most of them comprise heavy and high viscosity crude oils. During oil production, it is common to have co-production of emulsified water. The water may originate from the producing formation itself or be a consequence of recovery processes. The formation of water in oil emulsions (W/O) during production is highly undesirable due to the increase of the oil viscosity. Several studies have been carried out to prevent the formation of this type of emulsion or even to promote phase inversion production, creating oil in water emulsions (O/W) of low viscosity. In the present work experimental results are presented that show the influence of emulsion type on flow parameters. The flow parameters were evaluated from a flow simulator especially designed for this purpose. (author)

  7. A new nano-engineered hierarchical membrane for concurrent removal of surfactant and oil from oil-in-water nanoemulsion (United States)

    Qin, Detao; Liu, Zhaoyang; Bai, Hongwei; Sun, Darren Delai; Song, Xiaoxiao


    Surfactant stabilized oil-in-water nanoemulsions pose a severe threat to both the environment and human health. Recent development of membrane filtration technology has enabled efficient oil removal from oil/water nanoemulsion, however, the concurrent removal of surfactant and oil remains unsolved because the existing filtration membranes still suffer from low surfactant removal rate and serious surfactant-induced fouling issue. In this study, to realize the concurrent removal of surfactant and oil from nanoemulsion, a novel hierarchically-structured membrane is designed with a nanostructured selective layer on top of a microstructured support layer. The physical and chemical properties of the overall membrane, including wettability, surface roughness, electric charge, thickness and structures, are delicately tailored through a nano-engineered fabrication process, that is, graphene oxide (GO) nanosheet assisted phase inversion coupled with surface functionalization. Compared with the membrane fabricated by conventional phase inversion, this novel membrane has four times higher water flux, significantly higher rejections of both oil (~99.9%) and surfactant (as high as 93.5%), and two thirds lower fouling ratio when treating surfactant stabilized oil-in-water nanoemulsion. Due to its excellent performances and facile fabrication process, this nano-engineered membrane is expected to have wide practical applications in the oil/water separation fields of environmental protection and water purification.

  8. Technology transfer of an oil-in-water vaccine-adjuvant for strengthening pandemic influenza preparedness in Indonesia. (United States)

    Ventura, Roland; Brunner, Livia; Heriyanto, Bambang; de Boer, Otto; O'Hara, Michael; Huynh, Chuong; Suhardono, Mahendra; Collin, Nicolas


    With the current enzootic circulation of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses, the ability to increase global pandemic influenza vaccine production capacity is of paramount importance. This has been highlighted by, and is one of the main pillars of, the WHO Global Action Plan for Influenza Vaccines (GAP). Such capacity expansion is especially relevant in developing countries. The Vaccine Formulation Laboratory at University of Lausanne is engaged in the technology transfer of an antigen-sparing oil-in-water adjuvant in order to empower developing countries vaccine manufacturers to increase pandemic influenza vaccine capacity. In a one-year project funded by United States Department of Health and Human Services, the Vaccine Formulation Laboratory transferred the process know-how and associated equipment for the pilot-scale manufacturing of an oil-in-water adjuvant to Bio Farma, Indonesia's state-owned vaccine manufacturer, for subsequent formulation with H5N1 pandemic influenza vaccines. This paper describes the experience acquired and lessons learnt from this technology transfer project.

  9. A novel infrared spectrophotometric method for the rapid determination of petroleum hydrocarbons, and animal and vegetable oils in water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Lin Tang; Yong Zhang; Sheng Zhong; Ai Min Li


    To determine the concentrations of total oils,petroleum hydrocarbons,and animal and vegetable oils in water,the conventional analytical methods involve two scans as well as a step of magnesium silicate adsorption to remove the animal and vegetable oils in water samples.In this study,a novel analytical method was developed to determine the above oils in wastewater samples through just one scan-the concentration of animal and vegetable oils,and that of total oils were determined by measuring the absorbance of the >C=O bond in the peak area between 1750 cm-1 and 1735 cm-1,and ofthe C-H bond at 2930cm-1,2960 cm-1,and 3030 cm- 1,respectively.The concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons was then calculated by subtracting the concentration of animal and vegetable oils from that of total oils.Compared with the well-known analytical method GB/T 16488-1996,the novel approach displayed similar accuracy in the quantitative determination of oils in wastewater samples,but significantly reduced material cost and operation time.

  10. Interactions between poly(ethylene glycol) and protein in dichloromethane/water emulsions. 2. Conditions required to obtain spontaneous emulsification allowing the formation of bioresorbable poly(D,L lactic acid) microparticles. (United States)

    Malzert-Fréon, Aurélie; Schönhammer, Karin; Benoît, Jean-Pierre; Boury, Frank


    From microscopic observations, it was established that an oil-in-water emulsion with droplets of a size in the micrometer range can spontaneously form at room temperature without additional external stirring as soon as a solvent that is only partly miscible to water-like dichloromethane (DCM) is put in contact with an aqueous mixture of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and a protein. Experimental results show that emulsification only occurs if the system simultaneously includes PEG with middle chain, an organic solvent partly miscible to water and for which PEG affinity is sufficiently high, and a protein. From adsorption kinetics, it appears that this spontaneous emulsification process is related to the rapid diffusion of DCM towards water through the formation of interfacial turbulences, once the accumulation of PEG close to the DCM/water interface occurs. The oil droplets formed would be then stabilized by adsorbed protein molecules. Since the presence of polylactic acid in the organic phase did not prevent the emulsion formation, we studied the feasibility of formulating microparticles using this polymer. From results, it appears that microcapsules with a polymeric shell, with a homogeneous size of about 50 microm and able to encapsulate a model hydrophobic drug, such as amiodarone, can be obtained by using this spontaneous emulsification method.

  11. Synergistic performance of lecithin and glycerol monostearate in oil/water emulsions. (United States)

    Moran-Valero, María I; Ruiz-Henestrosa, Víctor M Pizones; Pilosof, Ana M R


    The effects of the combination of two low-molecular weight emulsifiers (lecithin and glycerol-monostearate (GMS)) on the stability, the dynamic interfacial properties and rheology of emulsions have been studied. Different lecithin/GMS ratios were tested in order to assess their impact in the formation and stabilization of oil in water emulsions. The combination of the two surfactants showed a synergistic behaviour, mainly when combined at the same ratio. The dynamic film properties and ζ-potential showed that lecithin dominated the surface of oil droplets, providing stability to the emulsions against flocculation and coalescence, while allowing the formation of small oil droplets. At long times of adsorption, all of the mixtures showed similar interfacial activity. However, higher values of interfacial pressure at the initial times were reached when lecithin and GMS were at the same ratio. Interfacial viscoelasticity and viscosity of mixed films were also similar to that of lecithin alone. On the other hand, emulsions viscosity was dominated by GMS. The synergistic performance of lecithin-GMS blends as stabilizers of oil/water emulsions is attributed to their interaction both in the bulk and at the interface. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Sugar Beet Extract (Beta vulgaris L.) as a New Natural Emulsifier: Emulsion Formation. (United States)

    Ralla, Theo; Salminen, Hanna; Edelmann, Matthias; Dawid, Corinna; Hofmann, Thomas; Weiss, Jochen


    The interfacial and emulsion-forming properties of sugar beet extract (Beta vulgaris L.) were examined and compared to a Quillaja extract that is widely used within the food industry. We investigated the influence of extract concentration on surface activity at oil-water and air-water interfaces and on the formation of oil-in-water emulsions (10% w/w, pH 7). Sugar beet extract reduced the interfacial tension up to 38% at the oil-water interface, and the surface tension up to 33% at the air-water surface. The generated emulsions were negatively charged (ζ ≈ -46 mV) and had the smallest particle sizes (d43) of ∼1.3 μm at a low emulsifier-to-oil ratio of 0.75:10. Applying lower or higher extract concentrations increased the mean particle sizes. The smallest emulsions were formed at an optimum homogenization pressure of 69 MPa. Higher homogenization pressures led to increased particle sizes. Overall, sugar beet extract showed high surface activity. Furthermore, the formation of small emulsion droplets was successful; however, the droplets were bigger compared to those from the Quillaja extract. These results indicate sugar beet as an effective natural emulsifier that may be utilized for a variety of food and beverage applications.

  13. Preparation of emulsions by rotor-stator homogenizer and ultrasonic cavitation for the cosmeceutical industry. (United States)

    Han, Ng Sook; Basri, Mahiran; Abd Rahman, Mohd Basyaruddin; Abd Rahman, Raja Noor Zaliha Raja; Salleh, Abu Bakar; Ismail, Zahariah


    Oil-in-water (O/W) nanoemulsions play an important key role in transporting bioactive compounds into a range of cosmeceutical products to the skin. Small droplet sizes have an inherent stability against creaming, sedimentation, flocculation, and coalescence. O/W emulsions varying in manufacturing process were prepared. The preparation and characterization of O/W nanoemulsions with average diameters of as low as 62.99 nm from palm oil esters were carried out. This was achieved using rotor-stator homogenizer and ultrasonic cavitation. Ultrasonic cell was utilized for the emulsification of palm oil esters and water in the presence of mixed surfactants, Tween 80 and Span 80 emulsions with a mean droplet size of 62.99 nm and zeta potential value at -37.8 mV. Results were comparable with emulsions prepared with rotor-stator homogenizer operated at 6000 rpm for 5 min. The stability of the emulsions was evaluated through rheology measurement properties. This included non-Newtonian viscosity, elastic modulus G', and loss modulus G″. A highly stable emulsion was prepared using ultrasonic cavitation comprising a very small particle size with higher zeta potential value and G' > G″ demonstrating gel-like behavior.

  14. Aggregate and emulsion properties of enzymatically-modified octenylsuccinylated waxy starches. (United States)

    Sweedman, Michael C; Schäfer, Christian; Gilbert, Robert G


    Sorghum and maize waxy starches were hydrophobically modified with octenylsuccinic anhydride (OSA) and treated with enzymes before being used to emulsify β-carotene (beta,beta-carotene) and oil in water. Enzyme treatment with β-amylase resulted in emulsions that were broken (separated) earlier and suffered increased degradation of β-carotene, whereas treatment with pullulanase had little effect on emulsions. Combinations of surfactants with high and low hydrodynamic volume (V(h)) indicated that there is a relationship between V(h) and emulsion stability. Degree of branching (DB) had little direct influence on emulsions, though surfactants with the highest DB were poor emulsifiers due to their reduced molecular size. Results indicate that V(h) and branch length (including linear components) are the primary influences on octenylsuccinylated starches forming stable emulsions, due to the increased steric hindrance from short amphiphilic branches, consistent with current understanding of electrosteric stabilization. The success of OSA-modified sorghum starch points to possible new products of interest in arid climates.

  15. Rheology and phase behavior of aggregating emulsions related to droplet-droplet interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. A. Berli


    Full Text Available The present work deals with the relationship between colloidal interactions and physical properties of emulsions, in particular rheology and gel transition. Experimental data on protein-stabilized oil-in-water emulsions are considered. In this system, the excess of protein in the aqueous phase yields reversible droplet aggregation by the mechanism of depletion. Thus both phase and flow behaviors can be controlled by changing protein concentration, ionic strength and temperature. Calculations of the potential of interaction between droplets are carried out in the framework of colloid science. Particular emphasis is placed on the role that droplet-droplet interaction plays in defining the morphology of the aggregates, hence the microstructure and finally, the bulk physical properties. This understanding offers new perspectives in the study of complex food systems.

  16. Double Emulsion Droplets as Microreactors for Synthesis of Magnetic Macroporous Polymer Beads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-cai Wang; Chao Peng; Kai Shi; Yan-xiong Pan; Hai-shan Zhang; Xiang-ling Ji


    An easy method is presented to fabricate monodisperse magnetic macroporous polymer beads (MMPBs).Waterin-oil high intemal phase emulsion (HIPE) is prepared by emulsifying aqueous iron ions solution in an oil phase containing monomers.The HIPE is introduced into a simple microfluidic device to fabricate monodisperse (water-in-oil)-in-water double emulsion droplets.The droplets serve as microreactors to synthesize Fe3O4 nanoparticles and are on-line polymerized to form MMPBs.The prepared MMPBs display uniform size,interconnected porous structure,superparamagnetic behavior and uniform distribution of Fe3O4 in polymer matrix.The MMPBs are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM),Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR),X-ray diffraction (XRD),transmission electron microscopy (TEM),vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM).We believe that this method is a universal technique in preparing macroporous nanocomposite beads.

  17. Thermodynamic signature of secondary nano-emulsion formation by isothermal titration calorimetry. (United States)

    Fotticchia, Iolanda; Fotticchia, Teresa; Mattia, Carlo Andrea; Netti, Paolo Antonio; Vecchione, Raffaele; Giancola, Concetta


    The stabilization of oil in water nano-emulsions by means of a polymer coating is extremely important; it prolongs the shelf life of the product and makes it suitable for a variety of applications ranging from nutraceutics to cosmetics and pharmaceutics. To date, an effective methodology to assess the best formulations in terms of thermodynamic stability has yet to be designed. Here, we perform a complete physicochemical characterization based on isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) compared to conventional dynamic light scattering (DLS) to identify polymer concentration domains that are thermodynamically stable and to define the degree of stability through thermodynamic functions depending upon any relevant parameter affecting the stability itself, such as type of polymer coating, droplet distance, etc. For instance, the method was proven by measuring the energetics in the case of two different biopolymers, chitosan and poly-L-lysine, and for different concentrations of the emulsion coated with poly-L-lysine.

  18. Singly and Doubly Charged Projectile Fragments in Nucleus-Emulsion Collisions at Dubna Energy in the Framework of the Multi-Source Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Er-Qin; LIU Fu-Hu; Magda A.Rahim; S.Fakhraddin; SUN Jian-Xin


    @@ The multiplicity distributions of projectile fragments emitted in interactions of different nuclei with emulsion are studied by using a multi-source model.Our calculated results show that the projectile fragments can be described by the model and each source contributes an exponential distribution.As the weighted sum of the folding result of many exponential distributions,a multi-component Erlang distribution is used to describe the experimental data.The relationship between the height(or width)of the distribution and the mass of the incident projectile,as well as the dependence of projectile fragments on target groups,are investigated too.

  19. Emulsion Science Basic Principles

    CERN Document Server

    Leal-Calderon, Fernando; Schmitt, Véronique


    Emulsions are generally made out of two immiscible fluids like oil and water, one being dispersed in the second in the presence of surface-active compounds.They are used as intermediate or end products in a huge range of areas including the food, chemical, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, paint, and coating industries. Besides the broad domain of technological interest, emulsions are raising a variety of fundamental questions at the frontier between physics and chemistry. This book aims to give an overview of the most recent advances in emulsion science. The basic principles, covering aspects of emulsions from their preparation to their destruction, are presented in close relation to both the fundamental physics and the applications of these materials. The book is intended to help scientists and engineers in formulating new materials by giving them the basics of emulsion science.

  20. 纳米玉米醇溶蛋白微球稳定的O/W型Pickering乳液%Oil-in-water Pickering Emulsions Stabilized by Nanometer Zein Microspheres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马亚鲁; 靳晓宁; 刘娜; 林光宇; 冯天时


    利用相分离工艺制备玉米醇溶蛋白(zein)纳米微球,微球粒径可控制在40 nm左右;经旋转蒸发制得zein溶胶体系,zein溶胶具有明显的丁达尔现象,静置数月不聚沉,Zeta电位法测得zein微球在pH值为4.0时分散性能最佳.以纳米zein微球为固相稳定剂制备O/W型Pickering乳液,考察了zein胶体加入量、油水体积比等因素对乳液稳定性的影响.实验结果表明,zein胶体加入量的质量分数控制为0.4%,高油水体积比将有利于Pickering乳液的长时间稳定.基于zein分子的两亲结构和界面组装特点,提出了zein微球稳定Pickering乳液的作用机制.

  1. The physicochemical properties of legume protein isolates and their ability to stabilize oil-in-water emulsions with and without genipin. (United States)

    Johnston, Stuart P; Nickerson, Michael T; Low, Nicholas H


    The physicochemical and emulsifying properties of legume protein isolates prepared from chickpea (CPI), faba bean (FPI), lentil (LPI) and soy (SPI) were investigated in the presence and absence of genipin. Solubility was highest for CPI (~94 %), followed by LPI (~90 %), FPI (~85 %) and SPI (~50 %). Surface characteristics revealed similar zeta potentials (~ - 47 mV) for CPI, LPI and FPI, but lower for SPI (~ - 44 mV). Contrastingly, surface hydrophobicity was greatest for CPI (~137 arbitrary units, AU), followed by SPI/LPI (~70 AU) and FPI (~24 AU). A significant (from 16.73 to ~8.42 mN/m) reduction in interfacial tension was observed in canola oil-water mixtures in the presence of non-crosslinked legume protein isolates. The extent of legume protein isolate-genipin crosslinking was found to be similar for all isolates. Overall, creaming stability increased in the presence of genipin, with maximum stability observed for SPI (65 %), followed by FPI (61 %), LPI (56 %) and finally CPI (50 %).

  2. Viscoelastic Emulsion Improved the Bioaccessibility and Oral Bioavailability of Crystalline Compound: A Mechanistic Study Using in Vitro and in Vivo Models. (United States)

    Ting, Yuwen; Jiang, Yike; Lan, Yaqi; Xia, Chunxin; Lin, Zhenyu; Rogers, Michael A; Huang, Qingrong


    The oral bioavailability of hydrophobic compound is usually limited by the poor aqueous solubility in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Various oral formulations were developed to enhance the systemic concentration of such molecules. Moreover, compounds with high melting temperature that appear as insoluble crystals imposed a great challenge to the development of oral vehicle. Polymethoxyflavone, an emerging category of bioactive compounds with potent therapeutic efficacies, were characterized as having a hydrophobic and highly crystalline chemical structure. To enhance the oral dosing efficiency of polymethoxyflavone, a viscoelastic emulsion system with a high static viscosity was developed and optimized using tangeretin, one of the most abundant polymethoxyflavones found in natural sources, as a modeling compound. In the present study, different in vitro and in vivo models were used to mechanistically evaluate the effect of emulsification on oral bioavailability of tangeretin. In vitro lipolysis revealed that emulsified tangeretin was digested and became bioaccessible much faster than unprocessed tangeretin oil suspension. By simulating the entire human GI tract, TNO's gastrointestinal model (TIM-1) is a valuable tool to mechanistically study the effect of emulsification on the digestion events that lead to a better oral bioavailability of tangeretin. TIM-1 result indicated that tangeretin was absorbed in the upper GI tract. Thus, a higher oral bioavailability can be expected if the compound becomes bioaccessible in the intestinal lumen soon after dosing. In vivo pharmacokinetics analysis on mice again confirmed that the oral bioavailability of tangeretin increased 2.3 fold when incorporated in the viscoelastic emulsion than unformulated oil suspension. By using the combination of in vitro and in vivo models introduced in this work, the mechanism that underlie the effect of viscoelastic emulsion on the oral bioavailability of tangeretin was well-elucidated.

  3. Incorporation of iodine in polymeric microparticles and emulsions (United States)

    Kolontaeva, Olga A.; Khokhlova, Anastasia R.; Markina, Natalia E.; Markin, Alexey V.; Burmistrova, Natalia A.


    Application of different methods for formation of microcontainers containing iodine is proposed in this paper. Two types of microcontainers: microemulsions and microparticles have been investigated, conditions and methods for obtaining microcontainers were optimized. Microparticles were formed by layer-by-layer method with cores of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) as templates. Incorporation of complexes of iodine with polymers (chitosan, starch, polyvinyl alcohol) into core, shell and hollow capsules was investigated and loadings of microparticles with iodine were estimated. It was found that the complex of iodine with chitosan adsorbed at CaCO3 core is the most stable under physiological conditions and its value of loading can be 450 μg of I2 per 1 g of CaCO3. Moreover, chitosan was chosen as a ligand because of its biocompatibility and biodegradability as well as very low toxicity while its complex with iodine is very stable. A small amount of microparticles containing a iodine-chitosan complex can be used for prolonged release of iodine in the human body since iodine daily intake for adults is around 100 μg. "Oil-in-water" emulsions were prepared by ultrasonication of iodinated oils (sunflower and linseed) with sodium laurilsulfate (SLS) as surfactant solution. At optimal conditions, the homogenous emulsions remained stable for weeks, with total content of iodine in such emulsion being up to 1% (w/w). The oil:SLS ratio was equal to 1:10 (w/w), optimal duration and power of ultrasound exposure were 1.5 min and 7 W, correspondingly. Favorable application of iodized linseed oil for emulsion preparation with suitable oil microdroplets size was proved.

  4. O/W emulsions stabilised by both low molecular weight surfactants and colloidal particles: The effect of surfactant type and concentration. (United States)

    Pichot, R; Spyropoulos, F; Norton, I T


    The stability against coalescence of O/W emulsions in the presence of both surfactants and colloidal particles was investigated. In particular the effect of the surfactant type and concentration in these emulsifier mixtures on the O/W emulsions' stability was studied. Two types of surfactants were selected; those that have the ability to stabilise O/W emulsions on their own (O/W surfactants) and those that cannot (W/O surfactants). Tween 60 and Sodium Caseinate were selected as the O/W surfactants and lecithin as the W/O surfactant. Oil-in-water emulsions prepared with both particles and any of the three surfactants were stable against coalescence but, depending on the type of surfactant, the behaviour of the systems was found to depend on surfactant concentration. The droplet sizes of emulsions stabilised by mixed emulsifier systems containing low concentrations of O/W surfactants (Tween 60 or Sodium Caseinate) were smaller than those solely stabilised by either the surfactant or particles alone. At intermediate O/W surfactants concentrations, the droplet sizes of the emulsions increased. Further increases in the O/W surfactants' concentration, resulted in the complete removal of particles from the interface with the system now behaving as a surfactant-only stabilised emulsion. The behaviour of emulsions stabilised by emulsifier mixtures containing W/O surfactants was not dependent on the concentration of surfactant: no removal of particles was observed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Formation of Superlattices of Gold Nanoparticles Using Ostwald Ripening in Emulsions: Transition from fcc to bcc Structure. (United States)

    Schmitt, Julien; Hajiw, Stéphanie; Lecchi, Amélie; Degrouard, Jéril; Salonen, Anniina; Impéror-Clerc, Marianne; Pansu, Brigitte


    An efficient method to form 3D superlattices of gold nanoparticles inside oil emulsion droplets is presented. We demonstrate that this method relies on Ostwald ripening, a well-known phenomenon occurring during the aging of emulsions. The key point is that the nanoparticle concentration inside the smaller droplets is increasing very slowly with time, thus inducing the crystallization of the nanoparticles into superlattices. Using oil-in-water emulsions doped with hydrophobic gold nanoparticles, we demonstrate that this method is efficient for different types of oils (toluene, cyclohexane, dodecane, and hexadecane). 3D superlattices of the nanoparticles are obtained, with dimensions reaching a hundred nanometers. The kinetics of the crystallization depends on the solubility of the oil in water but also on the initial concentration of the gold nanoparticles in oil. This method also provides an innovative way to obtain the complete phase diagram of nanoparticle suspensions with concentration. Indeed, during this slow crystallization process, a transition from a disordered suspension to a fcc structure is observed, followed by a transition toward a bcc structure. This evolution with time provides key results to understand the role played by the ligands located at the surface of the nanoparticles in order to control the type of superlattices which are formed.

  6. Hierarchical Porous Polymer Beads Prepared by Polymerization-induced Phase Separation and Emulsion-template in a Microfluidic Device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-cai Wang; Yan-xiong Pan; Kai Shi; Chao Peng; Xiang-ling Ji


    Porous polymer beads (PPBs) containing hierarchical bimodal pore structure with gigapores and meso-macropores were prepared by polymerization-induced phase separation (PIPS) and emulsion-template technique in a glass capillary microfluidic device (GCMD).Fabrication procedure involved the preparation of water-in-oil emulsion by emulsifying aqueous solution into the monomer solution that contains porogen.The emulsion was added into the GCMD to fabricate the (water-in-oil)-in-water double emulsion droplets.The flow rate of the carrier continuous phase strongly influenced the formation mechanism and size of droplets.Formation mechanism transformed from dripping to jetting and size of droplets decreased from 550 μm to 250 μm with the increase in flow rate of the carrier continuous phase.The prepared droplets were initiated for polymerization by on-line UV-irradiation to form PPBs.The meso-macropores in these beads were generated by PIPS because of the presence ofporogen and gigapores obtained from the emulsion-template.The pore morphology and pore size distribution of the PPBs were investigated extensively by scanning electron microscopy and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP).New pore morphology was formed at the edge of the beads different from traditional theory because of different osmolarities between the water phase of the emulsion and the cartier continuous phase.The morphology and proportion of bimodal pore structure can be tuned by changing the kind and amount of porogen.

  7. Solid-state nanoparticle coated emulsions for encapsulation and improving the chemical stability of all-trans-retinol. (United States)

    Ghouchi-Eskandar, Nasrin; Simovic, Spomenka; Prestidge, Clive A


    Submicron oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions stabilised with conventional surfactants and silica nanoparticles were prepared and freeze-dried to obtain free-flowing powders with good redispersibility and a three-dimensional porous matrix structure. Solid-state emulsions were characterised for visual appearance, particle size distribution, zeta potential and reconstitution properties after freeze-drying with various sugars and at a range of sugar to oil ratios. Comparative degradation kinetics of all-trans-retinol from freeze-dried and liquid emulsions was investigated as a function of storage temperatures. Optimum stability was observed for silica-coated oleylamine emulsions at 4 °C in their wet state. The half-life of all-trans-retinol was 25.66 and 22.08 weeks for silica incorporation from the oil and water phases respectively. This was ∼4 times higher compared to the equivalent solid-state emulsions with drug half-life of 6.18 and 6.06 weeks at 4 °C. Exceptionally, at a storage temperature of 40 °C, the chemical stability of the drug was 3 times higher in the solid-state compared to the wet emulsions which confirmed that freeze-drying is a promising approach to improve the chemical stability of water-labile compounds provided that the storage conditions are optimised.

  8. Physical stability of N,N-dimethyldecanamide/α-pinene-in-water emulsions as influenced by surfactant concentration. (United States)

    Trujillo-Cayado, L A; Alfaro, M C; García, M C; Muñoz, J


    In recent years, interest in submicron emulsions has increased due to their high stability and potential applications in the encapsulation and release of active ingredients in many industrial fields, such as the food industry, pharmaceuticals or agrochemicals. Furthermore, the social demand for eco-friendly solutions to replace hazardous solvents in many dispersion formulations has steadily risen. In this study, the influence of surfactant concentration on the formation and physical stability of submicron oil-in-water emulsions using a high-pressure dual-channel homogenizer (microfluidizer) has been investigated. The formulation involved the use of a blend of two green solvents (N,N-dimethyldecanamide and α-pinene) as dispersed phase and a nonionic polyoxyethylene glycerol ester derived from coconut oil as emulsifier (Levenol(®) C-201), which enjoys a European eco-label. Therefore, these emulsions may find applications as matrices for agrochemicals. Physical stability and rheological properties of the emulsions studied showed an important dependence on the eco-friendly surfactant concentration. The lowest surfactant concentration (1wt%) yielded the onset of a creaming process after a short aging time and was not enough to avoid recoalescence during emulsification. On the other hand, the higher surfactant concentrations (4-5wt%) resulted in depletion flocculation, which in turn triggered emulsion destabilization by coalescence. The optimum physical stability was exhibited by emulsions containing intermediate surfactant concentrations (2-3wt%) since coalescence was hardly significant and the onset of a weak creaming destabilization process was substantially delayed.

  9. [Study on the concentration of mineral oil in water by online intelligent detection based on fluorescence spectrum]. (United States)

    Tang, Yuan-he; Liu, Qing-song; Ivieng, Lei; Liu, Han-chen; Liu, Qian; Li, Cun-xia


    In order to monitor the oil pollution of water real time and accurately for the environmental protection, an intelligent online detection system for the mineral oil in water is put forward in the present paper, based on the technology of ultraviolet fluorescence and internet of things (IOT). For this system, the resolution can be improved by using the higher precision asymmetric Czemy-Turner monochromator; the impact of light fluctuations on the results of exploration can be corrected by a bunch reference light; the optical system deviation caused by the instrument vibration can be reduced by optical fiber transmission; the coupling efficiency of fiber and output signal can be increased by a special fiber beam; the real-time measurement, data processing and remote control can be achieved by the control module and wireless communication module. This system has characteristics of high integration, high precision and good stability etc. The concentration of the unknown sample can be accurately calculated by the methods of parallel algorithms of chemometric metrology and the calculation errors caused by different components can be reduced by the theory of chemical correction factor analysis. The fluorescence spectra of three kinds of sample solution, diesel, engine and crude oil in preparative concentration of 10, 25, 50 and 100 mg x L(-1) were measured by this system respectively. The absorption wavelengths of the above-mentioned three oils were measured to be 256, 365 and 397 nm by a grating spectrometer; their absorbances were measured to be 0.028, 0.036 and 0.041 by fluorescence spectrophotometer, respectively. Their fluorescence emission wavelengths are 355, 419 and 457 nm respectively. Finally the concentration detection limits of the mineral oil in water of diesel, engine and crude oil were obtained, i.e., 0.03, 0.04 and 0.06 mg x L(-1) respectively. Their relative errors are 2.1%, 1.0% and 2.8% respectively.

  10. Rheological Behavior of Immiscible PS/LDPE Blends: A Comparative Study of the Palierne Emulsion Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatchai KUNYAWUT


    Full Text Available The rheological behavior of polystyrene (PS/low density polyethylene (LDPE blends have been investigated. Blends with 10, 20 and 30 wt% LDPE were prepared using a co-rotating twin-screw extruder at a melt mixing temperature of 180°C. SEM micrographs revealed that all blends exhibited droplet-type dispersion morphology. Rheological measurements were performed at the same temperature as the mixing temperature. The complex viscosity of the blends laid between those of the PS and the LDPE and decreased with increasing LDPE concentration. The plots of tand of blends with 10 and 20 wt% LDPE suggested that the elasticity of these blends was comparable to that of the pure PS. By contrast, the elasticity behavior of the blend with 30 wt% LDPE was shown to be similar to that of LDPE. Palierne model predictions were in very good agreement with the experimental data for the blends having 10 and 20 wt% LDPE. For the 30 wt% LDPE blend, agreement with the prediction and the experimental data was not as good. Within the frequency range of the rheological measurements, the second plateau at low frequency which results from an increase of the elasticity was not observed in any of the blends studied. This is expected to be due to the long relaxation times of the relatively large LDPE droplets of these blends.

  11. Lipolysis of emulsion models of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins is altered in male patients with abdominal aorta aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J. Hosni


    Full Text Available Disorders of the lipid metabolism may play a role in the genesis of abdominal aorta aneurysm. The present study examined the intravascular catabolism of chylomicrons, the lipoproteins that carry the dietary lipids absorbed by the intestine in the circulation in patients with abdominal aorta aneurysm. Thirteen male patients (72 ± 5 years with abdominal aorta aneurysm with normal plasma lipid profile and 13 healthy male control subjects (73 ± 5 years participated in the study. The method of chylomicron-like emulsions was used to evaluate this metabolism. The emulsion labeled with 14C-cholesteryl oleate and ³H-triolein was injected intravenously in both groups. Blood samples were taken at regular intervals over 60 min to determine the decay curves. The fractional clearance rate (FCR of the radioactive labels was calculated by compartmental analysis. The FCR of the emulsion with ³H-triolein was smaller in the aortic aneurysm patients than in controls (0.025 ± 0.017 vs 0.039 ± 0.019 min-1; P < 0.05, but the FCR of14C-cholesteryl oleate of both groups did not differ. In conclusion, as indicated by the triglyceride FCR, chylomicron lipolysis is diminished in male patients with aortic aneurysm, whereas the remnant removal which is traced by the cholesteryl oleate FCR is not altered. The results suggest that defects in the chylomicron metabolism may represent a risk factor for development of abdominal aortic aneurysm.

  12. Optimization of a gelled emulsion intended to supply ω-3 fatty acids into meat products by means of response surface methodology. (United States)

    Poyato, Candelaria; Ansorena, Diana; Berasategi, Izaskun; Navarro-Blasco, Iñigo; Astiasarán, Iciar


    The optimization of a gelled oil-in-water emulsion was performed for use as fat replacer in the formulation of ω-3 PUFA-enriched cooked meat products. The linseed oil content, carrageenan concentration and surfactant-oil ratio were properly combined in a surface response design for maximizing the hardness and minimizing the syneresis of the PUFA delivery system. The optimal formulation resulted in a gelled emulsion containing 40% of oil and 1.5% of carrageenan, keeping a surfactant-oil ratio of 0.003. The gel was applied as a partial fat replacer in a Bologna-type sausage and compared to the use of an O/W emulsion also enriched in ω-3. Both experimental sausages contributed with higher ω-3 PUFA content than the control. No sensory differences were found among formulations. The selected optimized gelled oil-in-water emulsion was demonstrated to be a suitable lipophilic delivery system for ω-3 PUFA compounds and applicable in food formulations as fat replacer.

  13. Evaluation of the stability of concentrated emulsions for lemon beverages using sequential experimental designs. (United States)

    Almeida, Teresa Cristina Abreu; Larentis, Ariane Leites; Ferraz, Helen Conceição


    The study of the stability of concentrated oil-in-water emulsions is imperative to provide a scientific approach for an important problem in the beverage industry, contributing to abolish the empiricism still present nowadays. The use of these emulsions would directly imply a reduction of transportation costs between production and the sales points, where dilution takes place. The goal of this research was to evaluate the influence of the main components of a lemon emulsion on its stability, aiming to maximize the concentration of oil in the beverage and to correlate its physicochemical characteristics to product stability, allowing an increase of shelf life of the final product. For this purpose, analyses of surface and interface tension, electrokinetic potential, particle size and rheological properties of the emulsions were conducted. A 2(4-1) fractional factorial design was performed with the following variables: lemon oil/water ratio (30% to 50%), starch and Arabic gum concentrations (0% to 30%) and dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate (0 mg/L to 100 mg/L), including an evaluation of the responses at the central conditions of each variable. Sequentially, a full design was prepared to evaluate the two most influential variables obtained in the first plan, in which concentration of starch and gum ranged from 0% to 20%, while concentration of lemon oil/water ratio was fixed at 50%, without dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate. Concentrated emulsions with stability superior to 15 days were obtained with either starch or Arabic gum and 50% lemon oil. The most stable formulations presented viscosity over 100 cP and ratio between the surface tension of the emulsion and the mucilage of over 1. These two answers were selected, since they better represent the behavior of emulsions in terms of stability and could be used as tools for an initial selection of the most promising formulations.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guanghui Ma; Fangling Gong; Guohua Hu; Dongxia Hao; Rong Liu; Renwei Wang


    Multi-scale structures involved in emulsion and microsphere complex systems are presented and discussed. The stability and spatio-temporal structures of emulsions, as well as nano-structures formed on the surface of microspheres after polymerization, are affected by the molecular emulsifier/stabilizer structures and the adsorbed emulsifier/stabilizer nano-structures on the oil/water interface. The broad size distribution and variation of surface features of droplets are responsible for variations of the adsorbed emulsifier/stabilizer structures and the stability of the emulsions.On the other hand, preparation of a uniformly sized emulsion and employment of a combined emulsifier/stabilizer system can preserve the stability of the emulsions and microspheres. The above phenomena should be modeled by a multiscale method, in order to maintain the stability of individual emulsion systems and realize the desired nano-structures of microspheres by choosing adequate emulsifier/stabilizer and experimental parameters.

  15. Pickering emulsion templated interfacial atom transfer radical polymerization for microencapsulation. (United States)

    Li, Jian; Hitchcock, Adam P; Stöver, Harald D H


    This Article describes a new microencapsulation method based on a Pickering emulsion templated interfacial atom transfer radical polymerization (PETI-ATRP). Cationic LUDOX CL nanoparticles were coated electrostatically with an anionic polymeric ATRP initiator, poly(sodium styrene sulfonate-co-2-(2-bromoisobutyryloxy)ethyl methacrylate) (PSB), prepared by radical copolymerization of sodium styrene sulfonate and 2-(2-bromoisobutyryloxy)ethyl methacrylate (BIEM). The resulting PSB-modified CL particles were surface active and could be used to stabilize oil-in-water Pickering emulsions. ATRP of water-soluble cross-linking monomers, confined to the oil-water interface by the surface-bound PSB, then led to nanoparticle/polymer composite shells. This method allowed encapsulation of core solvents (xylene, hexadecane, perfluoroheptane) with different solubility parameters. The microcapsule (MC) wall chemistry could accommodate different monomers, demonstrating the versatility of this method. Double-walled MCs were formed by sequentially carrying out PETI-ATRP and in situ polymerization of encapsulated monomers. The double-walled structure was verified by both transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM).

  16. Emulsions inside Gargamelle

    CERN Multimedia


    A feasibility test was made with a 2.5 litre emulsion stack installed within the chamber. The stack was contained in a thermally insulated aluminium alloy pressure vessel (photo). See Annual Report 1978 p. 79 Fig. 5.

  17. Magnetoresistive emulsion analyzer. (United States)

    Lin, Gungun; Baraban, Larysa; Han, Luyang; Karnaushenko, Daniil; Makarov, Denys; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio; Schmidt, Oliver G


    We realize a magnetoresistive emulsion analyzer capable of detection, multiparametric analysis and sorting of ferrofluid-containing nanoliter-droplets. The operation of the device in a cytometric mode provides high throughput and quantitative information about the dimensions and magnetic content of the emulsion. Our method offers important complementarity to conventional optical approaches involving ferrofluids, and paves the way to the development of novel compact tools for diagnostics and nanomedicine including drug design and screening.

  18. Properties of the Langmuir films made by petroleum asphaltenes. Model systems of crude oil-water emulsions; Proprietes des films de Langmuir formes par des asphaltenes du petrole. Systemes modeles des emulsions eau - petrole brut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deghais, S.; Solimando, R. [Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine, Ecole Nationale Superieure des Industries Chimiques, Lab. de Thermodynamique des Separations, 54 - Nancy (France); Zywocinski, A.; Rogalska, E. [Universite Henri Poincare, Lab. de Physco-Chimie des Colloides, UMR CNRS 7565, 54 - Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France); Rogalski, M.; Rogalska, E. [Metz Univ., Lab. de Thermodynamique et d' Analyse Chimique, 57 (France)


    This work deals with the analysis of the properties of the water-petroleum fluid interfaces using the Langmuir films technique. The stability of the water-petroleum emulsions is ensured by complex interactions which exist at the interface between paraffins and heavy petroleum compounds like asphaltenes and resins. The experiments performed have shown that the stabilizing properties of the asphaltene films depend on the dielectric constant of the fluid, on the presence or not of resins, and on the presence of possible paraffinic depositions. (J.S.)

  19. Bioaccessibility and Cellular Uptake of β-Carotene Encapsulated in Model O/W Emulsions: Influence of Initial Droplet Size and Emulsifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Lu


    Full Text Available The effects of the initial emulsion structure (droplet size and emulsifier on the properties of β-carotene-loaded emulsions and the bioavailability of β-carotene after passing through simulated gastrointestinal tract (GIT digestion were investigated. Exposure to GIT significantly changed the droplet size, surface charge and composition of all emulsions, and these changes were dependent on their initial droplet size and the emulsifiers used. Whey protein isolate (WPI-stabilized emulsion showed the highest β-carotene bioaccessibility, while sodium caseinate (SCN-stabilized emulsion showed the highest cellular uptake of β-carotene. The bioavailability of emulsion-encapsulated β-carotene based on the results of bioaccessibility and cellular uptake showed the same order with the results of cellular uptake being SCN > TW80 > WPI. An inconsistency between the results of bioaccessibility and bioavailability was observed, indicating that the cellular uptake assay is necessary for a reliable evaluation of the bioavailability of emulsion-encapsulated compounds. The findings in this study contribute to a better understanding of the correlation between emulsion structure and the digestive fate of emulsion-encapsulated nutrients, which make it possible to achieve controlled or potential targeted delivery of nutrients by designing the structure of emulsion-based carriers.

  20. Production of a New Emulsifier Material for the Formation Heavy Hydrocarbon/Water Emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Farahbakhsh


    Full Text Available Emulsifiers are a unique class of compounds that have proved to have a variety of potential applications in formation of hydrocarbon in water emulsion, in enhancement of oil recovery and in the reduction of heavy oil viscosity. In this paper, a bio emulsifier was synthesized by a strain of Bacillus licheniformis and was separated by an autoclave and centrifugal process; the purification of bio emulsifier and the increase quality of product was done by adding sulfuric acid (H2SO4 (98% to the solution and centrifuging this compound again. This bio emulsifier has the property of emulsification to a wide range of heavy hydrocarbon to form a stable hydrocarbon-water emulsion. This bio emulsifier could reduce Iranian Nuroze high viscosity oil of about 10000 cP down to 250 cP. This means about 97% decreases in the viscosity. The emulsion stable this condition for 48 hr and the viscosity slowly increases to 4000cp until 192 hr. The stability of the oil in water emulsion during 48hr allows the heavy oil to be transported practically over lengthy distances or remain stable for long periods of time prior to utilization.

  1. Influence of propylene glycol on aqueous silica dispersions and particle-stabilized emulsions. (United States)

    Binks, Bernard P; Fletcher, Paul D I; Thompson, Michael A; Elliott, Russell P


    We have studied the influence of adding propylene glycol to both aqueous dispersions of fumed silica nanoparticles and emulsions of paraffin liquid and water stabilized by the same particles. In the absence of oil, aerating mixtures of aqueous propylene glycol and particles yields either stable dispersions, aqueous foams, climbing particle films, or liquid marbles depending on the glycol content and particle hydrophobicity. The presence of glycol in water promotes particles to behave as if they are more hydrophilic. Calculations of their contact angle at the air-aqueous propylene glycol surface are in agreement with these findings. In the presence of oil, particle-stabilized emulsions invert from water-in-oil to oil-in-water upon increasing either the inherent hydrophilicity of the particles or the glycol content in the aqueous phase. Stable multiple emulsions occur around phase inversion in systems of low glycol content, and completely stable, waterless oil-in-propylene glycol emulsions can also be prepared. Accounting for the surface energies at the respective interfaces allows estimation of the contact angle at the oil-polar phase interface; reasonable agreement between measured and calculated phase inversion conditions is found assuming no glycol adsorption on particle surfaces.

  2. In Situ Assembly of Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Nanoparticles at Oil-Water Interfaces as a Versatile Strategy To Form Stable Emulsions. (United States)

    Saha, Amitesh; John, Vijay T; Bose, Arijit


    We report a conceptually new strategy for forming particle-stabilized emulsions. We begin with stable, dilute suspensions of highly hydrophilic nanoparticles in water and hydrophobic nanoparticles in oil. When the two suspensions are mixed, attractive interactions between the hydrophilic and hydrophobic particles cause them to assemble at the oil-water interfaces into partially wettable or Janus-like clusters that effectively stabilize emulsions. By tuning the ratio of hydrophilic to hydrophobic particles in the clusters, both water-in-oil as well as oil-in-water emulsions can be formed. The van der Waals interaction energy between two particle types across an aqueous-organic interface provide a systematic guide to particle and liquid combinations that can form stable emulsions using our strategy, or identify when emulsions will not form. Our experiments and analysis provide a new platform for the formation of particle-stabilized emulsions and can be used to combine particles of different functionalities at emulsion droplet surfaces for generating novel materials.

  3. Physical evidence that the variations in the efficiency of homologous series of antioxidants in emulsions are a result of differences in their distribution. (United States)

    Costa, Marlene; Losada-Barreiro, Sonia; Paiva-Martins, Fátima; Bravo-Díaz, Carlos


    The relationships between the hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) of antioxidants (AOs) and their distributions and efficiencies in emulsions are not fully understood. Recent reports indicate that, for series of homologous antioxidants of different hydrophobicity, the variation of their efficiency with the HLB of the AO increases with the alkyl chain length up to a maximum (C3 -C8 ester) followed by a decrease (cut-off effect). We determined the distributions of a series of caffeic acid derivatives in intact soybean emulsions by employing a specifically designed chemical probe located in the interfacial region of the emulsion. We also determined the AO efficiencies in the very same emulsions. We demonstrate that the variation of the percentage of AO in the interfacial region of soybean oil-in-water emulsions with the AO HLB parallels that of their antioxidant efficiency. The results provide physical evidence that the variations in the efficiency of homologous series of antioxidants in emulsions are the result of differences in their distribution. The results confirm that, with other things being equal, there is a direct relationship between the percentage of AO in the interfacial region of the emulsions and their efficiency, providing a natural explanation, based on molecular properties, of the cut-off effect. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Enhanced humoral and Type 1 cellular immune responses with Fluzone adjuvanted with a synthetic TLR4 agonist formulated in an emulsion. (United States)

    Baldwin, Susan L; Shaverdian, Narek; Goto, Yasuyuki; Duthie, Malcolm S; Raman, Vanitha S; Evers, Tara; Mompoint, Farah; Vedvick, Thomas S; Bertholet, Sylvie; Coler, Rhea N; Reed, Steven G


    Impairments in anti-influenza T helper 1 (Th1) responses are associated with greater risk of influenza-related mortality in the elderly. Addition of adjuvants to existing influenza vaccines could improve immune responses in the elderly. In this study, the activity of three adjuvants, an oil-in-water emulsion and a synthetic lipid A adjuvant formulated with or without the emulsion, is compared. Our results show that Fluzone combined with lipid A plus an emulsion effectively leads to greater vaccine-specific IgG2a and IgG titers, enhances hemagglutination-inhibition titers and induces Type 1 cytokine responses (IFN-gamma and IL-2) to each of the Fluzone components.

  5. Electrospraying of water in oil emulsions for thin film coating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, M.K.I.; Maan, A.A.; Schutyser, M.A.I.; Schroën, C.G.P.H.; Boom, R.M.


    Electrospraying of water-in-oil emulsions was investigated to produce thin edible barriers. A reproducible model surface was used, namely cellulose membranes of which permeability is well-established. PGPR-based emulsions were stable during electrospraying and produced a fine stable jet spray; emuls

  6. Engineering of acidic O/W emulsions with pectin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alba, Katerina; Sagis, L.M.C.; Kontogiorgos, Vassilis


    Pectins with distinct molecular design were isolated by aqueous extraction at pH 2.0 or 6.0 and were examined in terms of their formation and stabilisation capacity of model n-alkane–in–water emulsions at acidic pH (pH 2.0). The properties and stability of the resulting emulsions were examined by me

  7. Preparation of Pickering emulsions through interfacial adsorption by soft cyclodextrin nanogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shintaro Kawano


    Full Text Available Background: Emulsions stabilized by colloidal particles are known as Pickering emulsions. To date, soft microgel particles as well as inorganic and organic particles have been utilized as Pickering emulsifiers. Although cyclodextrin (CD works as an attractive emulsion stabilizer through the formation of a CD–oil complex at the oil–water interface, a high concentration of CD is normally required. Our research focuses on an effective Pickering emulsifier based on a soft colloidal CD polymer (CD nanogel with a unique surface-active property.Results: CD nanogels were prepared by crosslinking heptakis(2,6-di-O-methyl-β-cyclodextrin with phenyl diisocyanate and subsequent immersion of the resulting polymer in water. A dynamic light scattering study shows that primary CD nanogels with 30–50 nm diameter assemble into larger CD nanogels with 120 nm diameter by an increase in the concentration of CD nanogel from 0.01 to 0.1 wt %. The CD nanogel has a surface-active property at the air–water interface, which reduces the surface tension of water. The CD nanogel works as an effective Pickering emulsion stabilizer even at a low concentration (0.1 wt %, forming stable oil-in-water emulsions through interfacial adsorption by the CD nanogels.Conclusion: Soft CD nanogel particles adsorb at the oil–water interface with an effective coverage by forming a strong interconnected network and form a stable Pickering emulsion. The adsorption property of CD nanogels on the droplet surface has great potential to become new microcapsule building blocks with porous surfaces. These microcapsules may act as stimuli-responsive nanocarriers and nanocontainers.

  8. Thermal Degradation and Isomerization of β-Carotene in Oil-in-Water Nanoemulsions Supplemented with Natural Antioxidants. (United States)

    Yi, Jiang; Fan, Yuting; Yokoyama, Wallace; Zhang, Yuzhu; Zhao, Liqing


    The goal of this study was to see the impact on the retention and isomerization of encapsulated β-carotene (BC) in nanoemulsions fortified with natural antioxidants (α-tocopherol (AT) and l-ascorbic acid (AA)). The physical stability of nanoemulsion, oxidative stability, and isomerization of all-trans-β-carotene (BC) in oil-in-water (O/W) nanoemulsions were determined in the presence or absence of natural antioxidants at 25 and 50 °C at certain intervals of time by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Sodium caseinate was used as the emulsifier, and corn oil (CO) was more protective than medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) and used for isomerization studies. Mean diameters of control (without antioxidants) and AA- and AT-fortified particles were similar. Mean particle diameter of nanoemulsions increased from 10 to 25 nm at 25 °C and from 40 to 50 nm at 50 °C during 30 days of storage. The isomerization from all-trans-BC to cis-BC isomers was inhibited by antioxidants. The isomerization rates were in the following order: 13-cis-BC > 15-cis-BC > 9-cis-BC. AT had better antioxidant activities than AA in inhibiting BC degradation in O/W nanoemulsions. The results indicated that BC encapsulated in nanoemulsions supplemented with antioxidants could significantly improve BC's chemical stability.

  9. In vitro release studies of piroxicam from oil-in-water creams and hydroalcoholic gel topical formulations. (United States)

    Rafiee-Tehrani, M; Mehramizi, A


    The importance of piroxicam, a therapeutic anti-inflammatory drug, is well known. Because of gastrointestinal disorders, dermatological dosage forms are recommended most. In our first studies, oil-in-water (O/W) creams of piroxicam (1% concentration) were prepared using glyceryl monostearate (GMS), stearic acid, and triethanolamine as additive ingredients. In our second studies, hydroalcoholic transparent gel formulations of this drug in a 0.5% concentration were prepared using hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) as the gelling agent. The release of piroxicam from all formulations via dialysis through a cellulose membrane into phosphate buffer pH 6.8 at 37 degrees C was studied. The effects of additives such as propylene glycol and 2-propanol on the drug release were also investigated. The release profiles from the standpoint of diffusion-controlled processes, as well as zero-order and first-order kinetics, were evaluated, and relevant parameters, such as diffusion coefficient, permeability coefficient, and partition coefficient, were calculated. The release obeys both the diffusion mechanism and first-order kinetics. The drug release from gel formulations containing 10%, 20%, and 30% propylene glycol was decreased due to the enhancement of viscosity. However, the limpidity of these formulations was improved. Moreover, the release of drug from gel formulations containing 15% and 20% of 2-propanol was increased. These results show that a hydroalcoholic gel formulation with HPC is a more suitable preparation of piroxicam when compared with an O/W cream formulation.

  10. Investigation of acetylated kapok fibers on the sorption of oil in water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jintao Wang; Yian Zheng; Aiqin Wang


    Kapok fibers have been acetylated for oil spill cleanup in the aqueous environment.The structures of raw and acetylated kapok fiber were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).Without severe damage to the lumen structures,the kapok fibers were successfully acetylated and the resulting fibers exhibited a better oil sorption capacity than raw fibers for diesel and soybean oil.Compared with high viscosity soybean oil,low viscosity diesel shows a better affinity to the surface of acetylated fibers.Sorption kinetics is fitted well by the pseudo second-order model,and the equilibrium data can be described by the Freundlich isotherm model.The results implied that acetylated kapok fiber can be used as the substitute for non-biodegradable oil sorption materials.

  11. Minor components in food oils: a critical review of their roles on lipid oxidation chemistry in bulk oils and emulsions. (United States)

    Chen, Bingcan; McClements, David Julian; Decker, Eric Andrew


    Food oils are primarily composed of triacylglycerols (TAG), but they may also contain a variety of other minor constituents that influence their physical and chemical properties, including diacylglycerols (DAG), monoacylglycerols (MAG), free fatty acids (FFA), phospholipids (PLs), water, and minerals. This article reviews recent research on the impact of these minor components on lipid oxidation in bulk oils and oil-in-water emulsions. In particular, it highlights the origin of these minor components, the influence of oil refining on the type and concentration of minor components present, and potential physicochemical mechanisms by which these minor components impact lipid oxidation in bulk oils and emulsions. This knowledge is crucial for designing food, pharmaceutical, personal care, and other products with improved stability to lipid oxidation.

  12. Emulsions for interfacial filtration.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grillet, Anne Mary; Bourdon, Christopher Jay; Souza, Caroline Ann; Welk, Margaret Ellen; Hartenberger, Joel David; Brooks, Carlton, F.


    We have investigated a novel emulsion interfacial filter that is applicable for a wide range of materials, from nano-particles to cells and bacteria. This technology uses the interface between the two immiscible phases as the active surface area for adsorption of targeted materials. We showed that emulsion interfaces can effectively collect and trap materials from aqueous solution. We tested two aqueous systems, a bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution and coal bed methane produced water (CBMPW). Using a pendant drop technique to monitor the interfacial tension, we demonstrated that materials in both samples were adsorbed to the liquid-liquid interface, and did not readily desorb. A prototype system was built to test the emulsion interfacial filter concept. For the BSA system, a protein assay showed a progressive decrease in the residual BSA concentration as the sample was processed. Based on the initial prototype operation, we propose an improved system design.

  13. Shear flow behaviour and emulsion-stabilizing effect of natural polysaccharide-protein gum in aqueous system and oil/water (O/W) emulsion. (United States)

    Amid, Bahareh Tabatabaee; Mirhosseini, Hamed


    The main objective of the current work was to characterize the shear rheological flow behaviour and emulsifying properties of the natural biopolymer from durian seed. The present study revealed that the extraction condition significantly affected the physical and functional characteristics of the natural biopolymer from durian seed. The dynamic oscillatory test indicated that the biopolymer from durian seed showed more gel (or solid) like behaviour than the viscous (or liquid) like behaviour (G'>G″) at a relatively high concentration (20%) in the fixed frequency (0.1 Hz). This might be explained by the fact that the gum coils disentangle at low frequencies during the long period of oscillation, thus resulting in more gel like behaviour than the viscous like behaviour. The average droplet size of oil in water (O/W) emulsions stabilized by durian seed gum significantly varied from 0.42 to 7.48 μm. The results indicated that O/W emulsions showed significant different stability after 4 months storage. This might be interpreted by the considerable effect of the extraction condition on the chemical and molecular structure of the biopolymer, thus affecting its emulsifying capacity. The biopolymer extracted by using low water to seed (W/S) ratio at the low temperature under the alkaline condition showed a relatively high emulsifying activity in O/W emulsion.

  14. Tuneable Rheological Properties of Fluorinated Pickering Emulsions (United States)

    Chacon Orellana, Laura Andreina; Riechers, Birte; Caen, Ouriel; Baret, Jean-Christophe

    Pickering emulsions are an appealing approach to stabilize liquid-liquid dispersions without surfactants. Recently, amphiphilic silica nanoparticles have been proposed as an alternative to surfactants for droplet microfluidics applications, where aqueous drops are stabilized in fluorinated oils. This system, proved to be effective in preventing the leakage of resorufin, a model dye that was known to leak in surfactant-stabilized drops. The overall capabilities of droplet-based microfluidics technology is highly dependent on the dynamic properties of droplets, interfaces and emulsions. Therefore, fluorinated pickering emulsions dynamic properties need to be characterized, understood and controlled to be used as a substitute of already broadly studied emulsions for droplet microfluidics applications. In this study, fluorinated pickering emulsions have been found to behave as a Herschel Bulkley fluid, representing a challenge for common microfluidic operations as re-injection and sorting of droplets. We found that this behavior is controlled by the interaction between the interfacial properties of the particle-laden interface and the bulk properties of the two phases

  15. Superheated emulsions: neutronics and thermodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    d`Errico, F. [Pisa Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Costruzioni Meccaniche e Nucleari]|[Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). School of Medicine; Curzio, G. [Pisa Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Costruzioni Meccaniche e Nucleari; Nath, R. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). School of Medicine; Apfel, R.E. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Dietz, E.; Guldbakke, S.; Siebert, B.R.L. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany); Egger, E. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Gualdrini, G.F. [ENEA, Bologna (Italy)


    The results of some recent theoretical and experimental investigations on the physics of superheated emulsions are presented. Computational fluid thermodynamics allowed for a detailed description of the temporal and spatial history of the energy deposition process by a charged particle in a superheated liquid. Despite the assumptions it is based upon, this model gives information in agreement with experimental data on bubble nucleation. The experimental findings concern the role of interfacial reactions between drops and emulsifier, the existence of inhibition temperatures for the detector`s response, and the progressive sensitisation to protons. (author).

  16. Development of High Sensitivity Nuclear Emulsion and Fine Grained Emulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawahara, H.; Asada, T. [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Naka, T. [Institute of Advanced Research, Nagoya University (Japan); Naganawa, N.; Kuwabara, K.; Nakamura, M. [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)


    Nuclear emulsion is a particle detector having high spacial resolution and angular resolution. It became useful for large statistics experiment thanks to the development of automatic scanning system. In 2010, a facility for emulsion production was introduced and R and D of nuclear emulsion began at Nagoya university. In this paper, we present results of development of the high sensitivity emulsion and fine grained emulsion for dark matter search experiment. Improvement of sensitivity is achieved by raising density of silver halide crystals and doping well-adjusted amount of chemicals. Production of fine grained emulsion was difficult because of unexpected crystal condensation. By mixing polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to gelatin as a binder, we succeeded in making a stable fine grained emulsion.

  17. Study of Target Dependence of Clan Model Parameter in 84^Kr_36 - Emulsion Interactions at 1 GeV per nucleon

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, M K; Singh, V; Pathak, R


    The article focuses on study of clan model parameters and their target dependence in light of void probability scaling for heavy (Ag and Br) and light (C, N and O) groups of targets present in nuclear emulsion detector using 84 Kr 36 at around 1 A GeV. The variation of scaled rapidity gap (rap gap) probability with single moment combination has been studied. We found that experimental points are lying approximately on the negative binomial distribution (NBD) curve, indicating a scaling behavior. The average clan multiplicities for interactions, increases with the pseudo-rapidity interval was also observed. The values of average multiplicity for AgBr targets are larger than those for CNO target and also average number of particles per clan increases with increase in pseudo-rapidity interval. We further observed that for a particular target, average number of particles per clan increases with an increase in the size of projectile nucleus.

  18. Results of emulsion chamber experiments with very high-energy cosmic rays which are difficult to explain in the framework of the Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    Slavatinsky, S A


    Recent results of emulsion chamber experiments on the observation of unusual events and new phenomena in cosmic ray particle interactions in the energy range beyond 10 PeV are presented in this review. Particular attention is given to the following items: (1) Centauro- type events with violation of charge (isotropic) symmetry in hadron production; (2) fan-shaped events which argue in favor of a new mechanism of coplanar emission of secondaries; (3) events with halos produced by collimated bundles of high energy gammas and hadrons; (4) penetrating hadrons with abnormal absorption in lead. The present paper contains main characteristics of the events and phenomena under review as well as discussion of their possible interpretation. It is conceivable that the observed events are manifestation of New Physics beyond the Standard Model. Further progress in studying the new phenomena in cosmic ray experiments for the next few years, in view of LHC startup, is considered. (13 refs).

  19. Results of emulsion chamber experiments with very high-energy cosmic rays which are difficult to explain in the framework of the standard model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slavatinsky, S.A


    Recent results of emulsion chamber experiments on the observation of unusual events and new phenomena in cosmic ray particle interactions in the energy range beyond 10 PeV are presented in this review. Particular attention is given to the following items: - 1. Centauro-type events with violation of charge (isotopic) symmetry in hadron production; - 2. fan-shaped events which argue in favour of a new mechanism of coplanar emission of secondaries; - 3. events with halos produced by collimated bundles of high energy gammas and hadrons; - 4. penetrating hadrons with abnormal absorption in lead. The present paper contains main characteristics of the events and phenomena under review as well as discussion of their possible interpretation. It is conceivable that the observed events are the manifestation of New Physics beyond the Standard Model. Further progress in studying the new phenomena in cosmic ray experiments for the next few years, in view of LHC startup, is considered.

  20. Effects of a topical aqueous oxygen emulsion on collagen deposition and angiogenesis in a porcine deep partial-thickness wound model. (United States)

    Li, Jie; Ollague Sierra, Jose; Zhu, Linjian; Tang, Ling; Rahill, Kirah; El-Sabawi, Bassim; Liu-Mares, Wen; Mertz, Patricia M; Davis, Stephen C


    A porcine deep partial-thickness wound model was used to evaluate the effects of a newly developed topical aqueous oxygen emulsion (TOE) on wound repair. The wounds were treated with TOE, which contains super-saturated oxygen or vehicle control. Semiquantitative immunofluorescent staining was performed to examine protein production for type I and type III collagen and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Immunofluorescent staining revealed higher protein levels of type I and type III collagen and VEGF in the TOE treatment group. Histological analysis also revealed improved angiogenesis and granulation tissue formation with topical TOE treatment and was consistent with the protein expression. In addition, the histology examination demonstrated faster epithelialization in wounds treated with TOE. The study suggests that sustained high levels of oxygen released by TOE may promote the process of wound repair through increasing collagen deposition and angiogenesis as well as stimulating epithelialization.

  1. Fuzzy Clustering-Based Modeling of Surface Interactions and Emulsions of Selected Whey Protein Concentrate Combined to i-Carrageenan and Gum Arabic Solutions (United States)

    Gums and proteins are valuable ingredients with a wide spectrum of applications. Surface properties (surface tension, interfacial tension, emulsion activity index “EAI” and emulsion stability index “ESI”) of 4% whey protein concentrate (WPC) in a combination with '- carrageenan (0.05%, 0.1%, and 0.5...

  2. Emulsion chamber experiments; critical comments and future prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamada, M. [School of Science and Engineering, Kinki University, Higashi-Osaka, Osaka 577-8502 (Japan)


    Emulsion chamber data give valuable information about particle production in the forward region of very high-energy nuclear interactions. Many characteristics of high-energy atmospheric families, observed by emulsion chambers, have not been fully described by simulations employing existing nuclear interaction models. Some of the events and the phenomena observed in emulsion chamber experiments have been considered to be unusual and new, never seen in lower energy accelerator experiments. We re-examine emulsion chamber data critically in order to get unbiased views of these unusual events and phenomena. It is shown that some of the previous interpretations need to be changed. We take up for the discussions scaling violation in C-jets, Centauro events, alignment of showers in high-energy families, hadrons of anomalous absorption in thick lead chambers. We will also discuss the results on the hybrid experiments of emulsion chamber and EAS-array.

  3. Effects of Three Types of Oil Dispersants on Biodegradation of Dispersed Crude Oil in Water Surrounding Two Persian Gulf Provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Zolfaghari-Baghbaderani


    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the most effective and biodegradable dispersant of spilled oil in water surrounding two Persian Gulf provinces. Methods. This study compared the effects of three dispersants, Pars 1, Pars 2, and Gamlen OD4000 on removal of oil in two Persian Gulf provinces' water. Overall, 16 stations were selected. Using the Well method, the growth rate of isolated bacteria and fungi was identified. To specify the growth rate of microorganisms and their usage of oil in the presence of the above-mentioned dispersants, as exclusive sources of carbon, the bacteria were grown in culture medium for 28 days at 120 rpm, 30∘C, and their optical density was measured by spectrophotometry. Then, we tested biological oxygen demand (BOD and chemical oxygen demand (COD in microorganisms. Results. The highest growth rate was documented for the growth of microorganisms on either Pars 1 or Pars 2 dispersants or their mixtures with oil. However, the culture having microorganisms grown on Pars 1 had higher BOD and COD than the other two dispersants (9200 and 16800 versus 500 and 960, P<0.05. Mixture of oil and Pars 2 as well as oil and Pars 1 dispersants showed the highest BODs and CODs, respectively. In the Bahregan province, microorganisms grown on Pars 2 had maximum amount of BOD and COD in comparison with Pars 1 and Gamlen dispersants (7100 and 15200 versus 6000 and 10560, P<0.05. Conclusion. Pars 1 and Pars 2 were the most effective dispersants with highest degradability comparing Gamlen. In each region, the most suitable compound for removing oil spill from offshores with least secondary contamination should be investigated.

  4. Synthesis of Mixed Cu/Ce Oxide Nanoparticles by the Oil-in-Water Microemulsion Reaction Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Pemartin-Biernath


    Full Text Available Cerium oxide and mixed Cu/Ce oxide nanoparticles were prepared by the oil-in-water (O/W microemulsion reaction method in mild conditions. The Cu/Ce molar ratio was varied between 0/100 and 50/50. According to X-ray diffraction (XRD, below 30/70 Cu/Ce molar ratio, the materials presented a single phase consistent with cubic fluorite CeO2. However, above Cu/Ce molar ratio 30/70, an excess monoclinic CuO phase in coexistence with the predominant Cu/Ce mixed oxide was detected by XRD and High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM. Raman spectroscopy showed that oxygen vacancies increased significantly as the Cu content was increased. Band gap (Eg was investigated as a function of the Cu/Ce molar ratio, resulting in values from 2.91 eV for CeO2 to 2.32 eV for the mixed oxide with 30/70 Cu/Ce molar ratio. These results indicate that below 30/70 Cu/Ce molar ratio, Cu2+ is at least partially incorporated into the ceria lattice and very well dispersed in general. In addition, the photodegradation of Indigo Carmine dye under visible light irradiation was explored for selected samples; it was shown that these materials can remove such contaminants, either by adsorption and/or photodegradation. The results obtained will encourage investigation into the optical and photocatalytic properties of these mixed oxides, for widening their potential applications.

  5. Formulation of Oil-in-Water Cream from Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L. Pericarp Extract Preserved by Gamma Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Isabella


    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to formulate mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L. pericarp extract into oil-in-water (O/W cream which stable and durable. In order to improve the shelf life durability of the formula, the irradiation of formula using gamma rays from cobalt-60 was done. The concentrations of extract were varied to 1, 2 and 3% and were irradiated by gamma rays with doses of 5, 7.5 and 10 kGy. Physicochemical and microbiological properties of these formulas were carried out for 90 days stored at 30 ± 2°C and 40 ± 2°C. It was found that both of physicochemical and microbiological properties of the formulas were changed by extract concentrations and after irradiation. The irradiated formulas with dose up to 7.5 kGy, which were stored at 30 ± 2°C and 40 ± 2°C, presented acceptable physicochemical and microbiological stability for at least 90 days. Analysis by TLC (Thin Layer Chromatography-densitometry to study decomposition of G. mangostana pericarp extract cream formulas was carried out 24 h after preparation and 90 day after storage. The result of TLC-densitometry analysis showed that G. mangostana pericarp extract in the cream formulas did not develope significant decomposition after 90 days of storage. Decontamination dose for all formulas was found to be about 7.5 kGy. At this condition, the bacteria and mold-yeast have been killed, without reducing the antioxidant activity

  6. 玻璃微球敏化的乳化炸药数学模型%A mathematical model for the detonation reaction of emulsion explosives with microballoons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘蓉; 程扬帆; 周宗福; 沈兆武


    通过建立玻璃微球型乳化炸药爆轰反应数学模型,从微观力学角度分析研究了玻璃微球敏化的乳化炸药爆轰机理,理论计算了其爆轰反应区长度、爆轰反应时间以及爆压、爆热、爆速等爆炸特性参数,计算结果与实验结果能够较好地吻合.研究结果表明乳化炸药爆轰反应区宽度和爆轰反应时间随着装药密度的增加而增加,其中爆轰反应区宽度的增加是导致乳化炸药爆速不随装药密度线性增加的主要原因.%According to the detonation characteristics of emulsion explosives sensitized by microballoons, a mathematical model for detonation reaction of this kind of explosive is established. Through a micromechanical analysis, the mechanism of detonation of emulsion explosives with microballoons was studied, and the detonation parameters such as reaction-zone width, reaction time, detonation pressure, explosion heat and detonation velocity were calculated. And the calculation data are in good agreement with that of the experiment. The results show that the reaction-zone width and reaction time of detonation rise as the charge density increases, and that the growth of reaction-zone width is the main reason that the detonation velocity does not demonstrate a linear increase with the increasing charge density.

  7. Emulsion flocculation induced by saliva and mucin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vingerhoeds, M.H.; Blijdenstein, T.B.J.; Zoet, F.D.; Aken, van G.A.


    Upon consumption of emulsions, mixing with saliva occurs. This article shows that whole saliva and a model mucin (pig gastric mucin, PGM) are able to induce extensive droplet flocculation. Saliva samples collected from several subjects at different times of the day always showed flocculation. Howeve

  8. Structuring food emulsions in the gastrointestinal tract to modify lipid digestion. (United States)

    Singh, Harjinder; Ye, Aiqian; Horne, David


    The importance of nutrient lipids in the human diet has led to major advances in understanding the mechanisms of lipid digestion and absorption. With these advances has come new recognition that the matrix in which lipids are presented (i.e. food structure) in the diet could influence the rate of lipid digestion and hence the bioavailability of fatty acids. As a consequence, there is growing interest in understanding how food material properties can be manipulated under physiological conditions to control the uptake of lipids and lipid-soluble components. The lipids in many, if not most, processed foods are normally present as emulsions, which can be end products in themselves or part of a more complex food system. In this review, we discuss the formation and properties of oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions, especially how these emulsions are modified as they traverse through the gastrointestinal tract. Among other factors, the changes in the nature of the droplet adsorbed layer and the droplet size play a major role in controlling the action of lipases and lipid digestion. Greater knowledge and understanding of how the digestive system treats, transports and utilizes lipids will allow the microstructural design of foods to achieve a specific, controlled physiological response.

  9. Broadened immunity and protective responses with emulsion-adjuvanted H5 COBRA-VLP vaccines. (United States)

    Allen, James D; Owino, Simon O; Carter, Donald M; Crevar, Corey J; Reese, Valerie A; Fox, Christopher B; Coler, Rhea N; Reed, Steven G; Baldwin, Susan L; Ross, Ted M


    A number of challenges for developing a protective pre-pandemic influenza A vaccine exists including predicting the target influenza strain and designing the vaccine for an immunologically naïve population. Manufacturing and supply of the vaccine would also require implementing ways to increase coverage for the largest number of people through dose-sparing methods, while not compromising the potency of the vaccine. Previously, our group described a novel hemagglutinin (HA) for H5N1 influenza derived from a methodology termed computationally optimized broadly reactive antigen (COBRA). This report describes a strategy combining a COBRA-based HA vaccine with an oil-in-water emulsion, resulting in a dose-sparing, immunologically broadened, and protective response against multiple H5N1 isolates. Here, we show that an emulsion-based adjuvant enhances the magnitude and breadth of antibody responses with both a wild-type H5HA (H5N1 WT) and the H5N1 COBRA HA VLP vaccines. The H5N1 COBRA HA VLP, combined with an emulsion adjuvant, elicited HAI specific antibodies against a larger panel of H5N1 viruses that resulted in protection against challenge as efficiently as the homologous, matched vaccine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Inorganic/organic hybrid microcapsules: melamine formaldehyde-coated Laponite-based Pickering emulsions. (United States)

    Williams, Mark; Olland, Birte; Armes, Steven P; Verstraete, Pierre; Smets, Johan


    A facile synthesis route to novel inorganic/organic hybrid microcapsules is reported. Laponite nanoparticles are surface-modified via electrostatic adsorption of Magnafloc, an amine-based polyelectrolyte allowing the formation of stable oil-in-water Pickering emulsions. Hybrid microcapsules can be subsequently prepared by coating these Pickering emulsion precursors with dense melamine formaldehyde (MF) shells. Employing a water-soluble polymeric stabiliser, poly(acrylamide-co-sodium acrylate) leads to stable hybrid microcapsules that survive an alcohol challenge and the ultrahigh vacuum conditions required for SEM studies. Unfortunately, the presence of this copolymer also leads to secondary nucleation of excess MF latex particles in the aqueous continuous phase. However, since the Magnafloc is utilised at submonolayer coverage when coating the Laponite particles, the nascent cationic MF nanoparticles can deposit onto anionic surface sites on the Laponite, which removes the requirement for the poly(acrylamide-co-sodium acrylate) component. Following this electrostatic adsorption, the secondary amine groups on the Magnafloc chains can react with the MF, leading to highly robust cross-linked MF shells. The absence of the copolymer leads to minimal secondary nucleation of MF latex particles, ensuring more efficient deposition at the surface of the emulsion droplets. However, the MF shells appear to become more brittle, as SEM studies reveal cracking on addition of ethanol.

  11. Effect of synthetic surfactants, salinity and alkalinity on the properties of asphalt emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prat, F.


    Full Text Available This paper studies the effect of salinity, alkalinity and amount of ionic and non-ionic synthetic surfactants in the aqueous emulsifier used to prepare oil-in-water or asphaltic emulsions on the performance of such substances as waterproofing on buildings. The emulsion systems studied here were prepared with Venezuelan extra heavy oil. The findings showed that the four variables modified viscosity, surface tension and mean particle size, physical properties that are instrumental to asphalt emulsion stability.Este trabajo estudia la influencia de las variables salinidad, alcalinidad y cantidad de surfactantes sintéticos, tanto iónicos como no iónicos, existentes en el emulsivo acuoso empleado para formular emulsiones asfálticas, con vistas a la aplicación de las mismas como recubrimientos impermeabilizantes en edificaciones. Para la preparación de los sistemas emulsionados objeto de estudio, se utilizó como producto bituminoso un crudo extrapesado procedente de Venezuela. En tal sentido, los resultados obtenidos muestran cómo las cuatro variables de formulación anteriormente mencionadas modifican una serie de propiedades físicas (viscosidad, tensión superficial y diámetro promedio de partícula muy determinantes para la estabilidad de las referidas emulsiones asfálticas.

  12. α-Tocopherol/chitosan-based nanoparticles: characterization and preliminary investigations for emulsion systems application (United States)

    Aresta, Antonella; Calvano, Cosima Damiana; Trapani, Adriana; Zambonin, Carlo Giorgio; De Giglio, Elvira


    The processes of lipids oxidation represent a great concern for the consumer health because they are one of the major causes of quality deterioration in fat-containing products. One of the most effective methods of delaying lipid oxidation consists in incorporating antioxidants. The present investigation describes the formulation of chitosan and novel glycol chitosan nanoparticles (NPs) loaded with α-Tocopherol (αToc-NPs). The obtained NPs were characterized by various techniques, such as particle size (showing mean diameters in the range 335-503 nm) and zeta potential measurements, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The NPs were, then, added in the preparation of oil-in-water simple emulsion both to make the lipophilic αToc available in an aqueous medium and to prevent emulsion oxidation. For this purpose, a new highly sensitive, simple and solvent-free method based on a solid phase microextraction (SPME) coupled to gas chromatography mass spectrometry was developed for the determination of αToc in aqueous medium. All the parameters influencing SPME, including fiber coating, time and temperature extraction, pH, ionic strength and desorption conditions, have been carefully screened. The method was successfully applied to the determination of vitamin in the αToc-NPs and its release from NPs-enriched simple emulsion formulations. SPME provided high recovery yields and the limits of detection and of quantification in emulsion were 0.1 and 0.5 μg/mg, respectively. The precision of the method has been also estimated. The delay of the lipid oxidation by the proposed formulations has been evaluated exploiting the Kreis test on αToc-NPs-enriched emulsions.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa KARAKAYA


    Full Text Available Different levels of K2 HPO4 (0.00 %, 0.25 % and 0.50 % and NaCl (2.5 % and 3.0 % were added into goat meat, at the two different temperatures (11o C and 18o C in order to investigate the emulsion properties in the model emulsion system. Emulsion capacity (EK, emulsion viscocity (EV, emulsion stability ratio (ES, the ratio of separated water (ESO and oil (EYO ratio from the emulsion, and the emulsion pH were determined. K2 HPO4 and NaCl levels and the oil temperatures have significant effect (p

  14. Evaluating the hydrophilic-lipophilic nature of asphaltenic oils and naphthenic amphiphiles using microemulsion models. (United States)

    Kiran, Sumit K; Acosta, Edgar J; Moran, Kevin


    Asphaltenes and naphthenic acid derivatives, which are polar and surface-active species, are known to interfere with the recovery of heavy crude oil by promoting the formation of stable emulsions. In this study, previously established microemulsion phase behavior models were applied to quantify the hydrophilic-lipophilic nature of asphaltenic oils (bitumen, deasphalted bitumen, asphalt, naphthalene) and surface-active species found in heavy oils (naphthenic compounds and asphaltenes). For the test oils, the equivalent alkane carbon number (EACN) was determined by evaluating the "salinity shifts" of microemulsions formulated with a reference surfactant (sodium dihexyl sulfosuccinate--SDHS) and a reference oil (toluene) as a function of test oil volume fraction. Similarly, the characteristic curvature (C(C)) of surface-active species was determined by evaluating the salinity shifts as a function of the molar fraction of the surface-active species in mixture with SDHS. As a part of the oil phase, asphaltenes and asphaltene-like species are highly hydrophilic, which lead to low EACN values despite their large molecular weight. As a surface-active material, asphaltenes are hydrophobic species that lead to the formation of water-in-oil emulsions. Naphthenates, particularly sodium naphthenates, are highly hydrophilic compounds that lead to the formation of oil-in-water emulsions. These hydrophilic-lipophilic characterization parameters, and the methods used to determine them, can be used in the future to understand the phase behavior of complex oil-water systems.

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI: a technique to study flow an microstructure of concentrated emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. d'Avila


    Full Text Available Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI have recently been recognized as important techniques for R&D of products and processes, as is attested by several successful applications in different areas of chemical engineering in recent years. In this article we present new experimental methods based on MRI to study flow and microstructure of concentrated emulsions. The objective is to present the unique features of this noninvasive technique to accurately measure different properties of flowing particulate opaque systems. Experimental results of velocity profiles, spatial distribution of droplet sizes and spatial homogeneity of an oil-in-water dispersion in a horizontal, concentric cylinder geometry using different pulse sequences are presented. The application of these techniques allowed probing important information on flow and microstructure of multiphase systems of interest in chemical engineering and food science.

  16. Mathematical Modeling of the Oxidation of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Emulsions with Stirring and Lilmted Oxygen Compensation%搅拌式有限氧补偿条件下乳状液中多不饱和脂肪酸氧化模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕兵; 陈洁; 夏文水


    The oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in emulsion with stirring and limited oxygen compensation was studied. A mathematical model of diffusion-oxidation was developed considering the mass transfer resistance of a gas-liquid boundary, the resistance of the boundary layer from the emulsifier membrane, and the autocatalytic-type autoxidation reaction of PUFA. The dynamic mass transfer coefficient of the emulsifier membrane, k0, was introduced. The model was verified by comparing the predictions of the model with the experi-mental data. The results indicated that the model was in good agreement with the oxygen diffusion and linoleic acid oxidation in the emulsion, and showed good applicability in the prediction of the effect of the emulsifier type on the oxidation of PUFA in the emulsion. It indicated that the oxidation of PUFA in emulsions, with stirring and limited oxygen compensation from the atmosphere, was controlled mostly by mass transfer resistance from the emulsifier membrane.

  17. Droplet migration in emulsion systems measured using MR methods. (United States)

    Hollingsworth, K G; Johns, M L


    The migration of emulsion droplets under shear flow remains a largely unexplored area of study, despite the existence of an extensive literature on the analogous problem of solid particle migration. A novel methodology is presented to track the shear-induced migration of emulsion droplets based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The work is in three parts: first, single droplets of one Newtonian fluid are suspended in a second Newtonian fluid (water in silicone oil (PDMS)) and are tracked as they migrate within a Couette cell; second, the migration of emulsion droplets in Poiseuille flow is considered; third, water-in-silicone oil emulsions are sheared in a Couette cell. The effect of (a) rotational speed of the Couette, (b) the continuous phase viscosity, and (c) the droplet phase concentration are considered. The equilibrium extent of migration and rate of migration increase with rotational speed for two different emulsion systems and increased continuous phase viscosity, leads to a greater equilibrium extent of migration. The relationship between the droplet phase concentration and migration is however complex. These results for semi-concentrated emulsion systems and wide-gap Couette cells are not well described by existing models of emulsion droplet migration.

  18. Stability of drug-carrier emulsions containing phosphatidylcholine mixtures. (United States)

    Trotta, Michele; Pattarino, Franco; Ignoni, Terenzio


    Lipid emulsion particles containing 10% of medium chain triglycerides were prepared using 2% w/w of a mixture 1:1 w/w of purified soya phosphatidylcholine and 2-hexanoyl phosphatidylcholine as emulsifier mixture, for use as drug carriers. The mean droplet sizes of emulsions, prepared using an Ultra Turrax or a high-pressure homogenizer, were about 288 and 158 nm, respectively, compared with 380 and 268 nm for emulsions containing lecithin, or 325 and 240 nm for those containing 6-phosphatidylcholine. The stability of the emulsions, determined by monitoring the decrease of a lipophilic marker at a specified level within the emulsion, and observing coalescence over time, was also greatly increased using the emulsifier mixture. The emulsion stability did not notably change in the presence of a model destabilizing drug, indomethacin. The use of a second hydrophilic surfactant to adjust the packing properties of the lecithin at the oil-water interface provided an increase in the stability of lipid emulsions, and this may be of importance in the formulation of drug delivery systems.

  19. Blood clearance and tissue uptake of intravenous lipid emulsions containing long-chain and medium-chain triglycerides and fish oil in a mouse model. (United States)

    Treskova, E; Carpentier, Y A; Ramakrishnan, R; Al-Haideri, M; Seo, T; Deckelbaum, R J


    Increasing interest in using different triglycerides (TGs) for specific clinical applications raised the question as to how the emulsion TG composition would affect blood clearance and emulsion delivery to hepatic and extrahepatic tissues. Emulsions used were long-chain soy oil TG (long-chain triglyceride [LCT]), LCT/ medium-chain triglyceride (MCT; 1:1, wt/wt), LCT/MCT/C/omega-3 (5:4:1, wt/wt) and pure fish oil (omega-3 TG) labeled with non-degradable 3H-cholesteryl oleoyl ether (3H-CE) as a particle marker. Mice (C57BL/6J) were injected with four different commercial emulsions at a nonsaturating dose of 0.4 mg TG/20 to 25 g per mouse to obtain 1st order kinetics. Blood was sampled at 0.5, 2, 5, 10, 15, and 25 minutes, and the fractional catabolic rate was determined by fitting a straight line to the logarithm of the blood 3H-CE radioactivity. Retention of 3H-CE for each tissue at 25 minutes reflected organ uptake of the emulsion. Blood clearance of pure omega-3 TG (10.40% +/- 0.54% pools/h; mean +/- SE) was significantly slower than that of LCT, LCT/MCT, and LCT/MCT/omega-3 emulsion (18.9 +/- 0.6 pools/h, 17.0 +/- 0.96 pools/h, 16.5 +/- 1.08 pools/h, respectively) (p < .01). Based on 3H-CE uptake, LCT, LCT/MCT, and omega-3 TG emulsions showed similar delivery to liver (39% +/- 3.9%, 46% +/- 3.6%, 34% +/- 3.2%). Liver uptake of LCT/MCT/omega-3, (23% +/- 2.2%) was less than LCT/MCT (46% +/-3.6%, p < .0001) and LCT (39% +/- 3.9%, p = .002). Results indicate slow blood clearance of pure omega-3 TG emulsion from the blood compared with emulsion in which omega-3 TG was mixed with LCT and MCT. Earlier data showed that omega-3 TG are poorly hydrolyzed in extracellular media and therefore are delivered to tissues as part of the core of emulsion remnants. Thus, our data suggest that the incorporation of omega-3 TG with LCT/MCT will result in greater delivery of omega-3 fatty acids to extrahepatic tissue, which could be important in modulating immune and other responses.

  20. An Unsteady Heterogeneous Mass Transfer Model for Gas Absorption Enhanced by Dispersed Third Phase Droplets%第三分散相液滴增强气体吸收的一维非稳态非均相传质模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈树华; 马友光; 卢素敏; 朱春英


    A model for one-dimensional unsteady heterogeneous mass transfer was developed based on Danck-werts' surface renewal theory in order to describe the mass transfer enhancement of absorption process for a slightly soluble gas in a gas-liquid-liquid system. The model accounts for the mass transfer resistance within the dispersed phase and the effect of emulsion viscosity on mass transfer. An analytical solution for enhancement factor was ob-tained by Laplace domain transformation. The absorption rates of carbon dioxide in the dodecane-in-water and cas-tor oil-in-water systems were measured in a thermostatic reactor, and the enhancement factors were calculated at different volume fractions of dispersed phase and stirrer speeds. The model predictions agree well with the experi-mental data.

  1. Process and formulation variables of pregabalin microspheres prepared by w/o/o double emulsion solvent diffusion method and their clinical application by animal modeling studies. (United States)

    Aydogan, Ebru; Comoglu, Tansel; Pehlivanoglu, Bilge; Dogan, Murat; Comoglu, Selcuk; Dogan, Aysegul; Basci, Nursabah


    Pregabalin is an anticonvulsant drug used for neuropathic pain and as an adjunct therapy for partial seizures with or without secondary generalization in adults. In conventional therapy recommended dose for pregabalin is 75 mg twice daily or 50 mg three times a day, with maximum dosage of 600 mg/d. To achieve maximum therapeutic effect with a low risk of adverse effects and to reduce often drug dosing, modified release preparations; such as microspheres might be helpful. However, most of the microencapsulation techniques have been used for lipophilic drugs, since hydrophilic drugs like pregabalin, showed low-loading efficiency and rapid dissolution of compounds into the aqueous continous phase. The purpose of this study was to improve loading efficiency of a water-soluble drug and modulate release profiles, and to test the efficiency of the prepared microspheres with the help of animal modeling studies. Pregabalin is a water soluble drug, and it was encapsulated within anionic acrylic resin (Eudragit S 100) microspheres by water in oil in oil (w/o/o) double emulsion solvent diffusion method. Dichloromethane and corn oil were chosen primary and secondary oil phases, respectively. The presence of internal water phase was necessary to form stable emulsion droplets and it accelerated the hardening of microspheres. Tween 80 and Span 80 were used as surfactants to stabilize the water and corn oil phases, respectively. The optimum concentration of Tween 80 was 0.25% (v/v) and Span 80 was 0.02% (v/v). The volume of the continous phase was affected the size of the microspheres. As the volume of the continous phase increased, the size of microspheres decreased. All microsphere formulations were evaluated with the help of in vitro characterization parameters. Microsphere formulations (P1-P5) exhibited entrapment efficiency ranged between 57.00 ± 0.72 and 69.70 ± 0.49%; yield ranged between 80.95 ± 1.21 and 93.05 ± 1.42%; and mean particle size were

  2. Target dependence of clan model parameter in 84Kr36–Emulsion interactions at 1 GeV per nucleon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M K Singh; A K Soma; V Singh; R Pathak


    This article focusses on the study of clan model parameters and their target dependence in light of void probability scaling for heavy (Ag and Br) and light (C, N and O) groups of target present in nuclear emulsion detector using 84Kr36 at ∼1 A GeV. The variation of scaled rapidity–gap (rap–gap) probability with single moment combination has been studied. We found that experimental points lie approximately on the negative binomial distribution (NBD) curve, indicating a scaling behaviour. The increase in average clan multiplicities ($\\bar{N}$) for interactions with the pseudorapidity interval ( ) was also observed. The values of $\\bar{N}$ for AgBr targets are larger than those for C/N/O target and also average number of particles per clan ($\\bar{n}_c$) increases with increase in pseudorapidity interval. We further observed that for a particular target, the average number of particles per clan ($\\bar{n}_c$) increases with an increase in the size of projectile nucleus.

  3. Emulsion oil droplet size significantly affects satiety: A pre-ingestive approach. (United States)

    Lett, Aaron M; Norton, Jennifer E; Yeomans, Martin R


    Previous research has demonstrated that the manipulation of oil droplet size within oil-in-water emulsions significantly affects sensory characteristics, hedonics and expectations of food intake, independently of energy content. Smaller oil droplets enhanced perceived creaminess, increased Liking and generated greater expectations of satiation and satiety, indicating that creaminess is a satiety-relevant sensory cue within these systems. This paper extends these findings by investigating the effect of oil droplet size (d4,3: 2 and 50 μm) on food intake and appetite. Male participants (n = 34 aged 18-37; BMI of 22.7 ± 1.6 kg/m(2); DEBQ restricted eating score of 1.8 ± 0.1.) completed two test days, where they visited the laboratory to consume a fixed-portion breakfast, returning 3 h later for a "drink", which was the emulsion preload containing either 2 or 50 μm oil droplets. This was followed 20 min later with an ad libitum pasta lunch. Participants consumed significantly less at the ad libitum lunch after the preload containing 2 μm oil droplets than after the 50 μm preload, with an average reduction of 12% (62.4 kcal). Despite the significant differences in intake, no significant differences in sensory characteristics were noted. The findings show that the impact that an emulsion has on satiety can be enhanced without producing significantly perceivable differences in sensory properties. Therefore, by introducing a processing step which results in a smaller droplets, emulsion based liquid food products can be produced that enhance satiety, allowing covert functional redesign. Future work should consider the mechanism responsible for this effect.

  4. Determination of chloride in brazilian crude oils by ion chromatography after extraction induced by emulsion breaking. (United States)

    Robaina, Nicolle F; Feiteira, Fernanda N; Cassella, Alessandra R; Cassella, Ricardo J


    The present paper reports on the development of a novel extraction induced by emulsion breaking (EIEB) method for the determination of chloride in crude oils. The proposed method was based on the formation and breaking of oil-in-water emulsions with the samples and the consequential transference of the highly water-soluble chloride to the aqueous phase during emulsion breaking, which was achieved by centrifugation. The determination of chloride in the extracts was performed by ion chromatography (IC) with conductivity detection. Several parameters (oil phase:aqueous phase ratio, crude oil:mineral oil ratio, shaking time and type and concentration of surfactant) that could affect the performance of the method were evaluated. Total extraction of chloride from samples could be achieved when 1.0g of oil phase (0.5g of sample+0.5g of mineral oil) was emulsified in 5mL of a 2.5% (m/v) solution of Triton X-114. The obtained emulsion was shaken for 60min and broken by centrifugation for 5min at 5000rpm. The separated aqueous phase was collected, filtered and diluted before analysis by IC. Under these conditions, the limit of detection was 0.5μgg(-1) NaCl and the limit of quantification was 1.6μgg(-1) NaCl. We applied the method to the determination of chloride in six Brazilian crude oils and the results did not differ statistically from those obtained by the ASTM D6470 method when the paired Student-t-test, at 95% confidence level, was applied.

  5. Oxidative enzymatic gelation of sugar beet pectin for emulsion stabilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abang Zaidel, Dayang Norulfairuz; Meyer, Anne S.


    Pectin from sugar beet is derived from the sugar beet pulp residue which results when sugar beets are processed for sucrose extraction. The sugar beet pectin has poor gelationability by the classic divalentcation molecular mechanism because of a relatively high acetylation degree and short...... polygalacturonate backbone chain length. However, due to the feruloyl-substitutions on the side chains, the sugar beet pectic polysaccharides can be cross-linked via enzyme catalyzed oxidation. The enzyme kinetics and functionality of such oxidativelycross-linked sugar beet pectin, in relation to stabilizing...... emulsions has recently been investigated in model food emulsions. This paper reviews the pectin chemistry, enzymatic oxidative gelation mechanisms, interaction mechanisms of the sugar beet pectin with the emulsion droplets and explores how the gelation affects the rheology and stability of emulsion systems...

  6. A triplet-triplet annihilation based up-conversion process investigated in homogeneous solutions and oil-in-water microemulsions of a surfactant. (United States)

    Penconi, Marta; Gentili, Pier Luigi; Massaro, Giuseppina; Elisei, Fausto; Ortica, Fausto


    The triplet-triplet annihilation based up-conversion process, involving a platinum octaethyl-porphyrin (PtOEP) as a sensitizer and tetraphenyl-pyrene (TPPy) as an emitter, has been investigated in homogeneous solutions of toluene, bromobenzene and anisole, and oil-in-water microemulsions of the TX-100 surfactant, where toluene constitutes the non-polar phase. In homogeneous solutions, the highest up-conversion quantum yield (of the order of 20%) has been achieved in toluene, being the solvent that has the lowest viscosity among those explored. The up-conversion emission from the PtOEP-TPPy pair has been then investigated in a toluene based oil-in-water microemulsion at three different concentrations of the solutes, showing quantum yields up to the order of 1%, under the same irradiation conditions, but different deoxygenating procedures. The results herein reported might represent a good starting point for a future investigation in microheterogeneous systems. An optimization of the microemulsion composition, in terms of surfactant, co-surfactant and toluene concentrations, could allow us to increase the sensitizer and emitter concentrations and set up the best operative conditions to obtain even higher up-conversion efficiencies.

  7. Critical Processes Involved in Formulation of Water-in-Oil Fuel Emulsions, Combustion Efficiency of the Emulsified Fuels and Their Possible Environmental Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Dibofori-Orji


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to highlight some problems encountered during the formulation of water-inoil (w/o emulsions of diesel fuel. The combustion efficiency of the resultant emulsions and some pollutant gas emissions were determined. The paper also discussed possible environmental impacts of these emissions. Internal Combustion Engines (ICE find application in many modes of transportation including marine, land and air transportation. Economic and environmental considerations have led to the quest for improved combustion efficiency of the various fossil fuels used for these modes of transportation. The possibility of combustion of emulsified fuels has been the centre of some research efforts in the search for improved combustion efficiency. Diesel is mixed with water to form fuel-oil emulsions for combustion in some internal combustion engines. Depending on certain factors, two possible types of fuel-oil emulsions can be obtained: Oil in water and water in oil emulsions. Combustibility of the resulting emulsions was investigated. In this study, neat diesel was emulsified using polyethylene glycol as the emulsifying agent to produce water in oil emulsions. The water in oil emulsion was found to be combustible within certain limits of percentage content of water and air/fuel ratios. Problems encountered in the attempts to burn the emulsions include the nature and type of emulsifying agent, the method and means of mixing, as well as stability of the emulsions. This study shows that the emulsion containing 5% water had the highest combustion efficiency. Combustion of fuels, whether neat or emulsified, has some environmental impacts. Different noxious substances as exhaust products of combustion when emitted into the atmosphere could be injurious to human health, plants and animals within or close to the operating environments. In this study, the exhaust gases were analysed and their possible environmental impacts were discussed. The emulsion

  8. Development of soy lecithin based novel self-assembled emulsion hydrogels. (United States)

    Singh, Vinay K; Pandey, Preeti M; Agarwal, Tarun; Kumar, Dilip; Banerjee, Indranil; Anis, Arfat; Pal, Kunal


    The current study reports the development and characterization of soy lecithin based novel self-assembled emulsion hydrogels. Sesame oil was used as the representative oil phase. Emulsion gels were formed when the concentration of soy lecithin was >40% w/w. Metronidazole was used as the model drug for the drug release and the antimicrobial tests. Microscopic study showed the apolar dispersed phase in an aqueous continuum phase, suggesting the formation of emulsion hydrogels. FTIR study indicated the formation of intermolecular hydrogen bonding, whereas, the XRD study indicated predominantly amorphous nature of the emulsion gels. Composition dependent mechanical and drug release properties of the emulsion gels were observed. In-depth analyses of the mechanical studies were done using Ostwald-de Waele power-law, Kohlrausch and Weichert models, whereas, the drug release profiles were modeled using Korsmeyer-Peppas and Peppas-Sahlin models. The mechanical analyses indicated viscoelastic nature of the emulsion gels. The release of the drug from the emulsion gels was diffusion mediated. The drug loaded emulsion gels showed good antimicrobial activity. The biocompatibility test using HaCaT cells (human keratinocytes) suggested biocompatibility of the emulsion gels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evidence for Marginal Stability in Emulsions (United States)

    Lin, Jie; Jorjadze, Ivane; Pontani, Lea-Laetitia; Wyart, Matthieu; Brujic, Jasna


    We report the first measurements of the effect of pressure on vibrational modes in emulsions, which serve as a model for soft frictionless spheres at zero temperature. As a function of the applied pressure, we find that the density of states D (ω ) exhibits a low-frequency cutoff ω*, which scales linearly with the number of extra contacts per particle δ z . Moreover, for ω Soft Matter 10, 5628 (2014); S. Franz, G. Parisi, P. Urbani, and F. Zamponi, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112, 14539 (2015)]. Finally, the degree of localization of the softest low frequency modes increases with compression, as shown by the participation ratio as well as their spatial configurations. Overall, our observations show that emulsions are marginally stable and display non-plane-wave modes up to vanishing frequencies.

  10. A comparative study on the capacity of a range of food-grade particles to form stable O/W and W/O Pickering emulsions. (United States)

    Duffus, Laudina J; Norton, Jennifer E; Smith, Paul; Norton, Ian T; Spyropoulos, Fotios


    Whilst literature describing edible Pickering emulsions is becoming increasingly available, current understanding of these systems still suffers from a lack of consistency in terms of the (processing and formulation) conditions within which these structures have been studied. The current study aims to provide a comparative analysis of the behaviour of different edible Pickering candidates and their ability to stabilise emulsion droplets, under well-controlled and uniform experimental conditions, in order to clearly identify the particle properties necessary for successful Pickering functionality. More specifically, an extensive investigation into the suitability of various food-grade material to act as Pickering particles and provide stable oil-in-water (O/W) and water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions was carried out. Polysaccharide and flavonoid particles were characterised in terms of their size, ζ-potential, interfacial activity and wettability, under equivalent conditions. Particles were subsequently used to stabilise 20% w/w O/W and W/O emulsions, in the absence of added surfactant or other known emulsifying agents, through different processing routes. All formed Pickering emulsions were shown to resist significant droplet size variation and remain stable at particle concentrations between 2 and 3% w/w. The main particle prerequisites for successful Pickering stabilisation were: particle size (200nm - 1μm); an affinity for the emulsion continuous phase and a sufficient particle charge to extend stability. Depending upon the employed emulsification process, the resulting emulsion formation and stability behaviour can be reasonably predicted a priori from the evaluation of specific particle characteristics.

  11. Rheological properties of inverse emulsions stabilized by ethanolamides of tall oil fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanovsky V. A.


    Full Text Available The paper presents the comparative analysis of inverse emulsion rheological behavior stabilized by monoethanolamide and diethanolamide of tall oil fatty acids, which are promising reagents for petroleum engineering. Flow curves of emulsions and volume ratio of dispersed phase have been obtained. The analysis of the dependence of Herschel–Bulkley model parameters on concentration of emulsifiers has been carried out. It is proved that emulsifiers affect weakly on the rheological parameters in high water phase content emulsions, while in cut-back emulsions their impact is registered to be stronger. It has been found that rheological parameters of the emulsions stabilized by monoethanolamide throughout the range of concentration are considerably higher than the samples on the base of diethanolamide. The experimental data proved the key impact of viscosity of dispersion medium on rheological behavior of cut-back emulsions.

  12. Production of Concentrated Pickering Emulsions with Narrow Size Distributions Using Stirred Cell Membrane Emulsification. (United States)

    Manga, Mohamed S; York, David W


    Stirred cell membrane emulsification (SCME) has been employed to prepare concentrated Pickering oil in water emulsions solely stabilized by fumed silica nanoparticles. The optimal conditions under which highly stable and low-polydispersity concentrated emulsions using the SCME approach are highlighted. Optimization of the oil flux rates and the paddle stirrer speeds are critical to achieving control over the droplet size and size distribution. Investigating the influence of oil volume fraction highlights the criticality of the initial particle loading in the continuous phase on the final droplet size and polydispersity. At a particle loading of 4 wt %, both the droplet size and polydispersity increase with increasing of the oil volume fraction above 50%. As more interfacial area is produced, the number of particles available in the continuous phase diminishes, and coincidently a reduction in the kinetics of particle adsorption to the interface resulting in larger polydisperse droplets occurs. Increasing the particle loading to 10 wt % leads to significant improvements in both size and polydispersity with oil volume fractions as high as 70% produced with coefficient of variation values as low as ∼30% compared to ∼75% using conventional homogenization techniques.

  13. Switchable Pickering Emulsions Stabilized by Awakened TiO2 Nanoparticle Emulsifiers Using UV/Dark Actuation. (United States)

    Zhang, Qing; Bai, Rui-Xue; Guo, Ting; Meng, Tao


    In this work, switchable Pickering emulsions that utilize UV/dark manipulation employ a type of smart TiO2 nanoparticle as emulsifiers. The emulsifiers can be awakened when needed via UV-induced degradation of grafted silanes on TiO2 nanoparticles. By tuning the surface wettability of TiO2 nanoparticles in situ via UV/dark actuation, emulsions stabilized by the nanoparticles can be reversibly switched between the water-in-oil (W/O) type and oil-in-water (O/W) type for several cycles. Due to the convertible wettability, the smart nanoparticle emulsifiers can be settled in either the oil phase or the water phase as desired during phase separation, making it convenient for recycling. The present work provides a facile and noninvasive method to freely manipulate the formation, breakage, and switching of the emulsion; this method has promising potential as a powerful technique for use in energy-efficient and environmentally friendly industries.

  14. Biomimetic aqueous-core lipid nanoballoons integrating a multiple emulsion formulation: a suitable housing system for viable lytic bacteriophages. (United States)

    Balcão, Victor M; Glasser, Cássia A; Chaud, Marco V; del Fiol, Fernando S; Tubino, Matthieu; Vila, Marta M D C


    The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains and the weak penetration of antibiotics into bacterial biofilms put an emphasis in the need for safe and effective alternatives for antimicrobial treatments. The application of strictly lytic bacteriophages (or phages) has been proposed as an alternative (or complement) to conventional antibiotics, allowing release of the natural predators of bacteria directly to the site of infection. In the present research effort, production of bacteriophage derivatives (starting from lytic phage particle isolates), encompassing full stabilization of their three-dimensional structure, has been attempted via housing said bacteriophage particles within lipid nanovesicles integrating a multiple water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) emulsion. As a proof-of-concept for the aforementioned strategy, bacteriophage particles with broad lytic spectrum were entrapped within the aqueous core of lipid nanoballoons integrating a W/O/W multiple emulsion. Long-term storage of the multiple emulsions produced did not lead to leaching of phage particles, thus proving the effectiveness of the encapsulation procedure.

  15. Asphaltene and solids-stabilized water-in-oil emulsions (United States)

    Sztukowski, Danuta M.

    Water-in-crude oil emulsions are a problem in crude oil production, transportation, and processing. Many of these emulsions are stabilized by asphaltenes and native oilfield solids adsorbed at the oil-water interface. Design of effective emulsion treatments is hampered because there is a lack of understanding of the role asphaltenes and solids play in stabilizing these emulsions. In this work, the structural, compositional and rheological properties of water/hydrocarbon interfaces were determined for model emulsions consisting of water, toluene, heptane, asphaltenes and native oilfield solids. The characteristics of the interface were related to the properties of asphaltenes and native solids. Emulsion stability was correlated to interfacial rheology. A combination of vapour pressure osmometry, interfacial tension and emulsion gravimetric studies indicated that asphaltenes initially adsorb at the interface as a monolayer of self-associated molecular aggregates. It was demonstrated why it is necessary to account for asphaltene self-association when interpreting interfacial measurements. The interfacial area of Athabasca asphaltenes was found to be approximately 1.5 nm2 and did not vary with concentration or asphaltene self-association. Hence, more self-associated asphaltenes simply formed a thicker monolayer. The interfacial monolayer observed in this work varied from 2 to 9 nm in thickness. The asphaltene monolayer was shown to adsorb reversibly only at short interface aging times. The film gradually reorganizes at the interface to form a rigid, irreversibly adsorbed network. The elastic and viscous moduli can be modeled using the Lucassen-van den Tempel (LVDT) model when the aging time is less than 10 minutes. An increase in film rigidity can be detected with an increase in the total elastic modulus. Increased film rigidity was shown to reduce the rate of coalescence in an emulsion and increase overall emulsion stability (reduce free water resolution). The rate of

  16. Emulsion stability: determination from turbidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, S.R.; Fogler, H.S.


    The relationship between particle size and concentration and turbidity has been developed for a polydispersed system. The stability of acoustically prepared emulsions of C36H74 in water were determined from turbidimetry and found to be in agreement with the stability determined by the freezing method. The turbidimetry method can be used for determining the stability of various emulsions easily and inexpensively. 11 references.

  17. Experimental study of viscosity properties of emulsion system with SiO2 nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZEIGMAN Yury Veniaminovich,


    Full Text Available When oil production is increasing due to intensive oilfield development methods supporting seam pressure by water injection oil producers face the problem of displacement agent break in more permeable intervals of petroleum reservoir. That leads to dramatic increase of product inundation for well stock and decrease of economic efficiency for well performance. Nowadays the petroleum engineers have proposed more than 100 technologies designed to restrict water inflows and flooding agent to bottom-hole zone of the production wells. The water inflows restriction technologies are distinguished by the type of applied chemical compositions and the way how the chemical compositions are delivered to bottom-hole zone. The analysis of the currently applied chemical compositions has allowed authors to reveal the common feature. The common feature is that the currently applied chemical compositions are non-selective and they produce isolating or blocking effect onto water-saturated and oil-saturated zones of the petroleum reservoir. The application of the nonselective high-stability chemical compositions leads to uncontrolled colmatation of all treated intervals and makes it difficult to involve them into filtration process in future. This work presents the technology for the selective reservoir stimulation based on emulsion systems with SiO2 nanoparticles content and gelling acid composition. The technology was developed for complex impact on formation system, that achieved by blocking water-saturated intervals of reservoir and stimulation of less permeable oil-saturated intervals of reservoir. The paper shows the results of complex laboratory experiments to study viscosity parameters of emulsion systems with SiO2 nanoparticles content. The results of the experiments revealed the ability of the SiO2 nanoparticles to rise dynamic viscosity of the different type of emulsion systems: oil in water and water in oil. Test for thermostability of the modified


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Kaszycki


    Full Text Available Oil-containing wastewaters are regarded as main industrial pollutants of soil and water environments. They can occur as free-floating oil, unstable or stable oil-in-water (O/W emulsions, and in the case of extreme organic load, as water-in-oil (W/O emulsions. In this study two types of oily effluents, a typical O/W emulsion marked as E1 and a W/O emulsion E2, both discharged by local metal processing plants were examined to test their toxicity to microbial communities and the ability to serve as nutrient sources for bacterial growth. The organic contaminant load of the samples was evaluated on the basis of chemical oxygen demand (COD parameter values and was equal to 48 200 mg O2·dm-3 and >300 000 mg O2·dm-3 for E1 and E2, respectively.Both emulsions proved to be non toxic to bacterial communities and were shown to contain biodiverse autochthonous microflora consisting of several bacterial strains adapted to the presence of xenobiotics (the total of 1.36 · 106 CFU·cm-3 and 1.72 · 105 CFU·cm-3 was determined for E1 and E2, respectively. These indigenous bacteria as well as exogenously inoculated specialized allochthonous microorganisms were biostimulated so as to proliferate within the wastewater environment whose organic content served as the only source of carbon. The most favorable cultivation conditions were determined as fully aerobic growth at the temperature of 25 ºC. In 9 to 18 day-tests, autochthonous as well as bioaugmented allochthonous bacterial population dynamics were monitored. For both emulsions tested there was a dramatic increase (up to three orders of magnitude in bacterial frequency, as compared to the respective initial values. The resultant high biomass densities suggest that the effluents are susceptible to bioremediation. A preliminary xenobiotic biodegradation test confirmed that mixed auto- and allochthonous bacterial consortia obtained upon inoculation of the samples with microbiocenoses preselected for efficient

  19. Synthesis of some glucose-fatty acid esters by lipase from Candida antarctica and their emulsion functions. (United States)

    Ren, Kangzi; Lamsal, Buddhi P


    The synthesis of glucose esters with palmitic acid, lauric acid and hexanoic acid using lipase enzyme was studied and their emulsion functionality in oil-in-water system were compared. Reactions at 3:1M ratio of fatty acids-to-glucose had the highest conversion percentages (over 90% for each of the fatty acid). Initial conversion rate increased as substrate solubility increased. Ester bond formation was confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance technique that the chemical shifts of glucose H-6 and α-carbon protons of fatty acids in the ester molecules shifted to the higher fields. Contact angle of water on esters' pelleted surface increased as the hydrophobicity increased. Glucose esters' and commercial sucrose esters' functionality as emulsifiers were compared. Glucose esters delayed, but did not prevent coalescence, because the oil droplets diameter doubled during 7days. Sucrose esters prevented coalescence during 7days since the droplets diameter did not have significant change.

  20. Put the breaks on wastewater emulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alther, G. [Biomin, Inc., Ferndale, MI (United States)


    Emulsions in wastewater pose a vexing problem for facilities attempting to recycle water and stay in compliance with permissible discharge limits. But the challenges are no less formidable for routine maintenance. The removal of emulsions, a major constituent of which are fats, oils and greases (FOGs), is necessary to prevent them from depositing on pipes and fouling filtration media. Some of the havoc caused by emulsions can be avoided if emulsions are broken and removed from wastewater streams. Successful emulsion breaking requires a basic understanding of emulsions, their chemical composition, and the technologies required to remove them from water. The paper discusses emulsion basics and emulsion breaking, including counteracting emulsions, testing procedures, physical separation methods, removal strategies, bentonite-based powders, and post-polishing.

  1. Measurement of oil volume fraction and velocity distributions in vertical oil-in-water flows using ERT and a local probe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hua; WANG Mi; WU Ying-xiang; MA Yi-xin; WILLIAMS Richard


    This paper presents the use of a high performance dual-plane electrical resistance tomography (ERT) system and a local dual-sensor conductance probe to measure the vertical upward oil-in-water pipe flows in which the mean oil volume fraction is up to 23.1%.A sensitivity coefficient back-projection (SBP) algorithm was adopted to reconstruct the flow distributions and a cross correlation method was applied to obtain the oil velocity distributions. The oil volume fraction and velocity distributions obtained from both measurement techniques were compared and good agreement was found, which indicates that the ERT technique can be used to measure the low fraction oil-water flows. Finally, the factors affecting measurement precision were discussed.

  2. Stimuli-triggered Formation of Polymersomes from W/O/W Multiple Double Emulsion Droplets Containing Poly(styrene)-block-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-spironaphthoxazine methacryloyl). (United States)

    Kim, Mi Ri; Cheong, In Woo


    We report stimuli-triggered fabrication of polymersomes from water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) multiple double emulsion droplets and the dual-stimuli (temperature and UV) responsive behavior of corresponding polymersomes. The polymersome comprises Tween20, cholesterol, and poly(styrene)-block-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-spironaphthoxazine methacryloyl), i.e., PS-b-P(NIPAAm-co-SPO), synthesized by stepwise reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. Amphiphilic PS-b-P(NIPAAm-co-SPO) copolymer forms micelles in water above the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 0.7 g/L at 23 °C. The micelles show a temperature-driven aggregation among the micelles above 30.6 °C, confirmed by a decrease in UV-vis transmittance. The micelles also show a color change without colloidal instability under 365 nm UV at room temperature. PS-b-P(NIPAAm-co-SPO) plays not only a role of the polymeric surfactant in the preparation of W/O/W multiple double emulsions but also an important role in the stimuli-triggered transformation from multi- to single-core double emulsion droplets under heat and UV light irradiation. It was found that the morphological transformation of W/O/W multiple double emulsions by UV irradiation was much faster than temperature change. Dual-responsive polymersomes were simply prepared after solvent removal and they exhibit stable and reversible size and color variations under temperature and UV-visible changes, respectively.

  3. Determination of Cu, Mn, Ni and Sn in gasoline by electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and emulsion sample introduction (United States)

    Saint'Pierre, Tatiana D.; Dias, Lúcia Felicidade; Pozebon, Dirce; Aucélio, Ricardo Q.; Curtius, Adilson J.; Welz, Bernhard


    Trace metals in fuels, except in the case of additives, are usually undesirable and normally they occur in very low concentrations in gasoline, requiring sensitive techniques for their determination. Coupling of electrothermal vaporization with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry minimizes the problems related to the introduction of organic solvents into the plasma. Furthermore, sample preparation as oil-in-water emulsions reduces problems related to gasoline analysis. In this work, a method for determination of Cu, Mn, Ni and Sn in gasoline is proposed. Samples were prepared by forming a 10-fold diluted emulsion with a surfactant (Triton X-100), after treatment with concentrated HNO 3. The sample emulsion was pre-concentrated in the graphite tube by repeated pipetting and drying. External calibration was used with aqueous standards in a purified gasoline emulsion. Six samples from different gas stations were analyzed, and the analyte concentrations were found to be in the μg l -1 range or below. The limits of detection were 0.22, 0.02, 0.38 and 0.03 μg l -1 for Cu, Mn, Ni and Sn, respectively. The accuracy of the method was estimated using a recovery test.

  4. Enhancing oral bioavailability using preparations of apigenin-loaded W/O/W emulsions: In vitro and in vivo evaluations. (United States)

    Kim, Bum-Keun; Cho, Ah-Ra; Park, Dong-June


    We analyzed the physical properties and digestibility of apigenin-loaded emulsions as they passed through a simulated digestion model. As the emulsion passed through the simulated stages of digestion, the particle size and zeta potential of all the samples changed, except for the soybean oil-Tween 80 emulsion, in which zeta potential remained constant, through all stages, indicating that soybean oil-Tween 80 emulsions may have an effect on stability during all stages of digestion. Fluorescence microscopy was used to observe the morphology of the emulsions at each step. The in vivo pharmacokinetics revealed that apigenin-loaded soybean oil-Tween 80 emulsions had a higher oral bioavailability than did the orally administrated apigenin suspensions. These results suggest that W/O/W multiple emulsions formulated with soybean oil and tween 80 have great potential as targeted delivery systems for apigenin, and may enhance in vitro and in vivo bioavailability when they pass through the digestive tract.

  5. An emulsion restores the skin barrier by decreasing the skin pH and inflammation in a canine experimental model. (United States)

    Pin, D; Bekrich, M; Fantini, O; Noel, G; Vidémont, E


    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Douxo(®) Calm Mousse (Sogeval, Laval, France) on restoration of the skin barrier in a canine model of barrier disruption. Tape strips were performed, daily for 6 days, on the lateral thorax of five healthy beagle dogs. Douxo(®) Calm Mousse was applied daily for 5 days to one side of the thorax and the opposite side was left untreated. The effects of treatment were evaluated by measurement of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and pH and by histological assessment of disrupted skin at various times during barrier repair. Although no effect on TEWL was observed, Douxo(®) Calm Mousse maintained an acidic pH after three applications and reduced skin inflammation, which was most pronounced after five applications. The results of the study suggest that Douxo(®) Calm Mousse exerts a beneficial effect on barrier restoration and on markers of inflammation.

  6. Applied radiation physics: The use of x-rays for the structural characterization of aqueous emulsions and the development of new insect sterilization protocols (United States)

    Brar, Ramaninder K.

    X-rays have great potential of applications in a wide variety of fields. This dissertation presents the use of x-rays for the structural characterization of aqueous emulsions and for insect sterilization. The stabilization of hydrophobic colloids, such as oil droplets, in water has attracted scientist for a variety of scientific, pharmaceutical and industrial applications. Several studies have been done to understand the stability of oil-in-water emulsions. The work of Pashley and his coworkers has demonstrated that the removal of dissolved gasses from water enhances the dispersion of hydrophobic oil in water and these surfactant-free emulsions do not lose their stability when the previously removed gasses are reintroduced. However, very little is known about the structure and stability of these emulsions over time or even to what extent they form. The formation of a stable emulsion in the complete absence of a surfactant could provide an alternative approach to a physiologically safe drug carrier. In this dissertation we demonstrate the formation of stabilized surfactant-free degassed emulsions of hydrocarbons - hexane, heptane and octane and silicone oil in ultra-pure water. The enhancement of dispersion of oil droplets by degassing was large for highly hydrophobic silicone oil. Turbidity measurements and small angle x-ray scattering results show that the uniformly dispersed oil droplets weakly aggregate over a period of several hours. Gentle perturbation re-generates the dispersion to nearly initial conditions. The control of insect species for the protection of crops, livestock, and prevention of disease, such as dengue fever and malaria, is a high priority in today's global economy. Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), a method of insect extermination without the use of pesticides, has proven very effective in eradicating certain dipteran insect populations. However, when standard sterilization methods developed for dipterans are applied to mosquito populations

  7. Development of Nutraceutical Emulsions as Risperidone Delivery Systems: Characterization and Toxicological Studies. (United States)

    Igartúa, Daniela Edith; Calienni, María Natalia; Feas, Daniela Agustina; Chiaramoni, Nadia Silvia; Valle Alonso, Silvia Del; Prieto, María Jimena


    Emulsions are gaining increasing interest to be applied as drug delivery systems. The main goal of this work was the formulation of an oil/water nutraceutical emulsion (NE) for oral administration, enriched in omega 3 (ω3) and omega 6 (ω6), and able to encapsulate risperidone (RISP), an antipsychotic drug widely used in the treatment of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). RISP has low solubility in aqueous medium and poor bioavailability because of its metabolism and high protein binding. Coadministration of ω3, ω3, and vitamin E complexed with RISP might increase its bioavailability and induce a synergistic effect on the treatment of ASD. Here, we developed an easy and quick method to obtain NEs and then optimized them. The best formulation was chosen after characterization by particle size, defects of the oil-in-water interface, zeta potential (ZP), and in vitro drug release. The formulation selected was stable over time, with a particle size of around 3 μm, a ZP lower than -20 mV and controlled drug release. To better understand the biochemical properties of the formulation obtained, we studied in vitro toxicity in the Caco-2 cell line. After 4 h of treatment, an increase in cellular metabolism was observed for all RISP concentrations, but emulsions did not change their metabolic rate, except at the highest concentration without drug (25 μg/mL), which showed a significant reduction in metabolism respect to the control. Additionally, locomotor activity and heart rate in zebrafish were measured as parameters of in vivo toxicity. Only the highest concentration (0.625 μg/mL) showed a cardiotoxic effect, which corresponds to the decrease in spontaneous movement observed previously. As all the materials contained in the formulations were US FDA approved, the NE selected would be good candidate for clinical trials.

  8. Facile fabrication of biocompatible PLGA drug-carrying microspheres by O/W pickering emulsions. (United States)

    Wei, Zengjiang; Wang, Chaoyang; Liu, Hao; Zou, Shengwen; Tong, Zhen


    This study is focused on the preparation of Ibuprofen (IBU) loaded micrometer-sized poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres and process variables on the size, drug loading and release during preparation of formulation. Silicon dioxide (SiO(2)) nanoparticle-coated PLGA microspheres were fabricated via a combined system of "Pickering-type" emulsion route and solvent volatilization method in the absence of any molecular surfactants. Stable oil-in-water emulsions were prepared using SiO(2) nanoparticles as a particulate emulsifier and a dichloromethane (CH(2)Cl(2)) solution of PLGA as an oil phase. The SiO(2) nanoparticle-coated PLGA microspheres were fabricated by the evaporation of CH(2)Cl(2) in situ, and then bare-PLGA microspheres were prepared by removal of the SiO(2) nanoparticles using HF aqueous solution. The two types of microspheres were characterized in terms of size, component and morphology using scanning electronic microscope (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared, optical microscope, and so on. Moreover, IBU was encapsulated into the hybrid beads by dispersing them in the CH(2)Cl(2) solution of PLGA in the fabrication process. The sustained release could be obtained due to the barrier of the polymeric matrix (PLGA). More over, the release curves were nicely fitted by the Weibull equation and the release followed Fickian diffusion. The combined system of Pickering emulsion and solvent volatilization opens up a new route to fabricate a variety of microspheres. The resulting microspheres may find applications as delivery vehicles for biomolecules, drugs, cosmetics and living cells. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Nanoscale trifunctional bovine hemoglobin for fabricating molecularly imprinted polydopamine via Pickering emulsions-hydrogels polymerization. (United States)

    Sun, Yanhua; Zhong, Shian


    In this work, a novel strategy was developed for the selective recognition of protein based on oil-in-water Pickering emulsions-hydrogels polymerization and interfacial imprinting method. For the first time, nanoscale trifunctional bovine hemoglobin (BHb) played three roles simultaneously during the process, including emulsifier, template protein and sacrificial material for further exposing recognition sites. Prior to acting as stabilizers, bovine hemoglobin colloidal particles (BCPs) were firstly prepared by acidification and heat denaturation. Then the BCPs acted as "surfactant" to stabilize the Pickering emulsions composed of functional monomers in the water phase. After dopamine polymerized, the template proteins were removed, forming the BHb imprinted cavities on the surface of the polymeric materials. During this process, the interfacial BCPs also fell off, leaving more imprinted cavities exposed. FT-IR spectroscopy confirmed that BCPs were completely removed from the synthesized imprinted materials. The interconnected macropores structures of the materials encouraged nearly all of the rebinding sites located on its surface. Thus the prepared Hydro-MIPs exhibited rapid and selective recognition toward BHb. Owing to the hierarchical porous structure, the BHb imprinted polymers based on Pickering emulsions-hydrogels (Hydro-MIPs) possessed enhanced rebinding kinetics, and the maximum rebinding capacity is 449mgg(-1), 3.97 times higher than that of the non-imprinted polymers (Hydro-NIPs). Besides these, the regeneration ability test suggested that the Hydro-MIPs could be used repeatedly without distinct loss in adsorption capacity. Overall, the combination of high selectivity, good mass transfer efficiency, easy preparation and trifunctional BHb provide a new insight into bioseparation and proteomics research in biological area. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. A Novel Cassia fistula (L.-Based Emulsion Elicits Skin Anti-Aging Benefits in Humans

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    Barkat Ali Khan


    Full Text Available Cassia fistula, a flowering plant in the family of Caesalpinaceae (Fabaceae, is used in traditional medicine for several indications. Nevertheless, too little is known about its effects on skin conditions and skin aging. Therefore, in this pioneering study, the extracts of oil-in-water macro-emulsions containing 5% C. fistula (L. crude pods (i.e., phyto-active formulation were optimally developed and compared to the placebo (i.e., emulsions without the crude extract for assessment of their effects on human skin aging. Healthy adult male volunteers (n = 13 with a mean age of 31 ± 5.5 years (range: 24–47 years were enrolled after informed written consent. For 12 consecutive weeks, the subjects were directed to use a patch containing the active emulsion on one of their forearms as well as a patch containing the placebo on their other forearm. Biometrological measurements of skin hydration (SH and transepidermal water loss (TEWL were performed on both sides of their respective cheeks at time 0 (baseline values, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12th weeks. Surface evaluation of living skin (SELS was taken at time 0 (baseline values or after 1, 2 and 3 months. Topical application of C. fistula extracts showed a significant (p < 0.05 increase in stratum corneum hydration level, a significant enhancement in its water-holding function as well as in its barrier function. Further, significant (p < 0.005 ameliorations of skin aspects were observed (i.e., less roughness, less dryness, less wrinkles. Taken together, our results strongly suggest therapeutic and esthetic potential of C. fistula pod’s extracts to prevent or delay human skin aging.

  11. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid-enriched lipid emulsion improves Paneth cell function via the IL-22/Stat3 pathway in a mouse model of total parenteral nutrition. (United States)

    Wang, Jiwei; Tian, Feng; Zheng, Huijun; Tian, Hao; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Li; Gao, Xuejin; Wang, Xinying


    Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a life-saving therapy for patients with gastrointestinal dysfunction or failure. Long-term TPN impairs gut barrier function and contributes to infections and poor clinical outcomes. However, the underlying mechanisms of TPN-related gut barrier damage have not been fully elucidated, and effective measures are still rare. Here, we compared the effects of a predominantly n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids emulsion (PUFAs; Intralipid) and a lipid emulsion containing n-3 PUFAs (Intralipid plus Omegaven) on antimicrobial peptides produced by Paneth cells. Our results show for the first time that n-3 PUFAs markedly ameliorated intestine atrophy, and increased protein levels of lysozyme, RegIIIγ, and α-cryptdin 5, and their mRNA expression, compared to the n-6 PUFAs emulsion. Importantly, our study reveals that downregulation of IL-22 and phosphorylated Stat3 (p-Stat3) is associated with Paneth cell dysfunction, which may mediate TPN-related gut barrier damage. Lastly, n-3 PUFAs upregulated levels of IL-22 and increased the p-Stat3/Stat3 ratio in ileal tissue, suggesting that n-3 PUFAs improve Paneth cell function through activation of the IL-22/Stat3 pathway. Therefore, our study provides a cogent explanation for the beneficial effects of n-3 PUFAs, and indicates the IL-22/Stat3 pathway as a promising target in the treatment of TPN-related gut barrier damage. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Evaporation of an emulsion trapped in a yield stress fluid (United States)

    Guéna, G.; Corde, J.; Fouilloux, S.; D'Espinose, J.-B.; Lequeux, F.; Talini, L.


    The present work deals with emulsions of volatile alkanes in an aqueous clay suspension, Laponite, which forms a yield stress fluid. For a large enough yield stress (i.e. Laponite concentration), the oil droplets are prevented from creaming and the emulsions are thus mechanically stabilized. We have studied the evaporation kinetics of the oil phase of those emulsions in contact with the atmosphere. We show that the evaporation process is characterized by the formation of a sharp front separating the emulsion from a droplet-free Laponite phase, and that the displacement of the front vs. time follows a diffusion law. Experimental data are confronted to a diffusion-controlled model, in the case where the limiting step is the diffusion of the dissolved oil through the aqueous phase. The nature of the alkane, as well as its volume fraction in the emulsion, has been varied. Quantitative agreement with the model is achieved without any adjustable parameter and we describe the mechanism leading to the formation of a front.

  13. Engineering of acidic O/W emulsions with pectin. (United States)

    Alba, K; Sagis, L M C; Kontogiorgos, V


    Pectins with distinct molecular design were isolated by aqueous extraction at pH 2.0 or 6.0 and were examined in terms of their formation and stabilisation capacity of model n-alkane-in-water emulsions at acidic pH (pH 2.0). The properties and stability of the resulting emulsions were examined by means of droplet size distribution analysis, Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner modelling, bulk rheology, interfacial composition analysis, large-amplitude oscillatory surface dilatational rheology, electrokinetic analysis and fluorescence microscopy. Both pectin preparations were able to emulsify alkanes in water but exhibited distinct ageing characteristics. Emulsions prepared using pectin isolated at pH 6.0 were remarkably stable with respect to droplet growth after thirty days of ageing, while those prepared with pectin isolated at pH 2.0 destabilised rapidly. Examination of chemical composition of interfacial layers indicated multi-layered adsorption of pectins at the oil-water interface. The higher long-term stability of emulsions prepared with pectin isolated at high pH is attributed to mechanically stronger interfaces, the highly branched nature and the low hydrodynamic volume of the chains that result in effective steric stabilisation whereas acetyl and methyl contents do not contribute to the long-term stability. The present work shows that it is possible by tailoring the fine structure of pectin to engineer emulsions that operate in acidic environments.

  14. Microfluidic Production of Multiple Emulsions

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    Goran T. Vladisavljević


    Full Text Available Microfluidic devices are promising tools for the production of monodispersed tuneable complex emulsions. This review highlights the advantages of microfluidics for the fabrication of emulsions and presents an overview of the microfluidic emulsification methods including two-step and single-step methods for the fabrication of high-order multiple emulsions (double, triple, quadruple and quintuple and emulsions with multiple and/or multi-distinct inner cores. The microfluidic methods for the formation of multiple emulsion drops with ultra-thin middle phase, multi-compartment jets, and Janus and ternary drops composed of two or three distinct surface regions are also presented. Different configurations of microfluidic drop makers are covered, such as co-flow, T-junctions and flow focusing (both planar and three-dimensional (3D. Furthermore, surface modifications of microfluidic channels and different modes of droplet generation are summarized. Non-confined microfluidic geometries used for buoyancy-driven drop generation and membrane integrated microfluidics are also discussed. The review includes parallelization and drop splitting strategies for scaling up microfluidic emulsification. The productivity of a single drop maker is typically <1 mL/h; thus, more than 1000 drop makers are needed to achieve commercially relevant droplet throughputs of >1 L/h, which requires combining drop makers into twodimensional (2D and 3D assemblies fed from a single set of inlet ports through a network of distribution and collection channels.

  15. Modelagem da polimerização simultânea de estireno em suspensão e emulsão Modeling styrene simultaneous suspension and emulsion polymerization systems

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    Marcelo K. Lenzi


    polymerizations, while emulsion polymerization constituents are added during the batch. The influence of the moment when emulsion feed is started on the course of the polymerization and the effects on the polymer properties are analyzed. A mathematical model is developed to describe the behavior of the system. Simulation data obtained with the proposed model are in good agreement with experimental conversion, average molecular weight and molecular weight distribution data. It was observed that the polymer particle morphology and the average molecular weight change very significantly with the emulsion feed time and that such changes can lead to bimodal molecular weight distributions. Core-shell polymer particles were obtained, with the core being formed by polymer particles from the suspension polymerization process and the shell formed by polymer particles from the emulsion one.

  16. Some peculiarities of bitumen emulsion modification

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    A. Batyrbayev


    Full Text Available Polymer modification of bitumen emulsions obtained from bitumen of domestic production with the use of several commercial emulsifiers was studied. The influence of the polymer modifier concentration on bitumen emulsion physical-mechanical properties was considered. Possibility of obtaining of modified bitumen emulsion with high impact resistance was shown.

  17. Emulsion properties of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez-Perez, S.; Koningsveld, van G.A.; Vereijken, J.M.; Merck, K.B.; Gruppen, H.; Voragen, A.G.J.


    Emulsions were made with sunflower protein isolate (SI), helianthinin, and sunflower albumins (SFAs). Emulsion formation and stabilization were studied as a function of pH and ionic strength and after heat treatment of the proteins. The emulsions were characterized with respect to average droplet si

  18. Microfluidic methods to study emulsion formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muijlwijk, Kelly


    Emulsions are dispersions of one liquid in another that are commonly used in various products, and methods such as high-pressure homogenisers and colloid mills are used to form emulsions. The size and size distribution of emulsion droplets are important for the final product properties and thus need

  19. Comparison of microencapsulation properties of spruce galactoglucomannans and arabic gum using a model hydrophobic core compound. (United States)

    Laine, Pia; Lampi, Anna-Maija; Peura, Marko; Kansikas, Jarno; Mikkonen, Kirsi; Willför, Stefan; Tenkanen, Maija; Jouppila, Kirsi


    In the present study, microencapsulation and the physical properties of spruce ( Picea abies ) Omicron-acetyl-galactoglucomannans (GGM) were investigated and compared to those of arabic gum (AG). Microcapsules were obtained by freeze-drying oil-in-water emulsions containing 10 wt % capsule materials (AG, GGM, or a 1:1 mixture of GGM-AG) and 2 wt % alpha-tocopherol (a model hydrophobic core compound that oxidizes easily). Microcapsules were stored at relative humidity (RH) of 0, 33, and 66% at 25 degrees C for different time periods, and their alpha-tocopherol content was determined by HPLC. X-ray microtomography analyses showed that the freeze-dried emulsions of GGM had the highest and those of AG the lowest degree of porosity. According to X-ray diffraction patterns, both freeze-dried AG and GGM showed an amorphous nature. The storage test showed that anhydrous AG microcapsules had higher alpha-tocopherol content than GGM-containing capsules, whereas under 33 and 66% RH conditions GGM was superior in relation to the retention of alpha-tocopherol. The good protection ability of GGM was related to its ability to form thicker walls to microcapsules and better physical stability compared to AG. The glass transition temperature of AG was close to the storage temperature (25 degrees C) at RH of 66%, which explains the remarkable losses of alpha-tocopherol in the microcapsules under those conditions.

  20. Separation Properties of Wastewater Containing O/W Emulsion Using Ceramic Microfiltration/Ultrafiltration (MF/UF Membranes

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    Kanji Matsumoto


    Full Text Available Washing systems using water soluble detergent are used in electrical and mechanical industries and the wastewater containing O/W emulsion are discharged from these systems. Membrane filtration has large potential for the efficient separation of O/W emulsion for reuses of treated water and detergent. The separation properties of O/W emulsions by cross-flow microfiltration and ultrafiltration were studied with ceramic MF and UF membranes. The effects of pore size; applied pressure; cross-flow velocity; and detergent concentration on rejection of O/W emulsion and flux were systematically studied. At the condition achieving complete separation of O/W emulsion the pressure-independent flux was observed and this flux behavior was explained by gel-polarization model. The O/W emulsion tended to permeate through the membrane at the conditions of larger pore size; higher emulsion concentration; and higher pressure. The O/W emulsion could permeate the membrane pore structure by destruction or deformation. These results imply the stability of O/W emulsion in the gel-layer formed on membrane surface play an important role in the separation properties. The O/W emulsion was concentrated by batch cross-flow concentration filtration and the flux decline during the concentration filtration was explained by the gel- polarization model.