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Sample records for model occupational stressors

  1. [Appraisal of occupational stressor in petrochemical industry workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiao-ping; Tian, Hong-er; Huang, Tong; Li, Zhi-yuan; Hu, Ke-ming; Ge, Xi-yong; Jin, Lei; Gao, Qi; Zhang, Jing-jing; Wang, Yu; Liu, Wen-he

    2009-12-01

    To discuss the origin of occupational stress among petrochemical industry workers and to access the main occupational stressors that impact job satisfaction and mental health of petrochemical industry workers. A survey on occupational stressor was carried out by Occupational Stress Indicator (OSI) in 532 petrochemical industry workers (345 chemical and 187 logistic workers). The environment in workplace of chemical group was worse than that of contrast. The chemical workers had less control over job and they experienced more hazards, monotonous as well as role stressors than the logistic group. The scores of job satisfaction and mental health of chemical group (36.867 +/- 0.656, 43.734 +/- 0.542, respectively) were higher than that of contrast (40.321 +/- 0.901, 46.714 +/- 0.745, respectively) (P occupational stressors exist in chemical workers which affect chemical workers' job satisfaction and mental health with different levels.

  2. Job-Occupation Misfit as an Occupational Stressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    Drawing from theory on met expectations, person-environment fit, and social information processing, misfit between the pressure and autonomy experienced by workers and that which would be expected given their occupational roles was examined as a predictor of job satisfaction, perceived support, and depression. Results from a nationally (U.S.)…

  3. [Effect of occupational stressors on coping resources of nurses in Nanchang].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yuanmei; Fan, Guangqin; Feng, Chang; Li, Wei; Wang, Zhiming; Wang, Mianzhen; Lan, Yajia

    2010-05-01

    To study the effects of occupational stressors on coping resources of nurses. Coping resources (recreation, self-care, social support, rational coping) and occupational stressors (role overload, role insufficiency, role ambiguity, role boundary, responsibility, physical environment) were measured on 387 nurses by personal resources questionnaire (PRQ) and Occupational Role Questionnaire (ORQ) respectively. The higher the level of occupational stressors was, the lower the coping resources of nurses were (P social support was the closest (P < 0.01). Except responsibility, all items in occupational stressors were correlated negatively with coping resources. The role insufficiency and role ambiguity in occupational stressors were in a closer correlation with coping resources (P < 0.01). Decresing the levels of occupational stressors for nurses in Nanchang, especially decreasing the levels of role insufficiency and role ambiguity, would enhance the coping resources of nurses, so as to enhance their capability to relieve strain.

  4. Occupational stressors and its organizational and individual correlates: A nationwide study of Norwegian ambulance personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekeberg Øivind

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High levels of stress among ambulance personnel have been attributed to the conditions of ambulance work. However, there is little research to support this notion, and it has been questioned whether ambulance work is inherently stressful. We compared the severity and frequency level of organizational and ambulance-specific stressors, and studied their relationship to organizational conditions and individual differences Methods A comprehensive nationwide questionnaire survey of ambulance personnel (n = 1180 in operational duty. The questionnaire included the Job Stress Survey, the Norwegian Ambulance Stress Survey, the Basic Character Inventory, General Self-Efficacy Scale, and questions addressing organizational conditions. Results Serious operational tasks and physical demands were identified as the two most severe stressors. Lack of support from co-workers was the most severe and frequent organizational stressor. Higher frequency of stressors was most strongly associated with size of service districts (beta ranging between .18 and .30, p p p p p Conclusion Ambulance-specific stressors were reported as both more severe and more frequently occurring stressors than were organizational stressors. Organizational working conditions were more strongly related to frequency of job stressors than were individual differences. In general, the relationship between occupational stressors and individual differences was weak.

  5. Occupational stressors and its organizational and individual correlates: a nationwide study of Norwegian ambulance personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterud, Tom; Hem, Erlend; Ekeberg, Oivind; Lau, Bjørn

    2008-12-02

    High levels of stress among ambulance personnel have been attributed to the conditions of ambulance work. However, there is little research to support this notion, and it has been questioned whether ambulance work is inherently stressful. We compared the severity and frequency level of organizational and ambulance-specific stressors, and studied their relationship to organizational conditions and individual differences A comprehensive nationwide questionnaire survey of ambulance personnel (n = 1180) in operational duty. The questionnaire included the Job Stress Survey, the Norwegian Ambulance Stress Survey, the Basic Character Inventory, General Self-Efficacy Scale, and questions addressing organizational conditions. Serious operational tasks and physical demands were identified as the two most severe stressors. Lack of support from co-workers was the most severe and frequent organizational stressor. Higher frequency of stressors was most strongly associated with size of service districts (beta ranging between .18 and .30, p exposure to critical event (beta ranging from .11 to .24, p organizational conditions. Ambulance-specific stressors were reported as both more severe and more frequently occurring stressors than were organizational stressors. Organizational working conditions were more strongly related to frequency of job stressors than were individual differences. In general, the relationship between occupational stressors and individual differences was weak.

  6. Evaluation of the relationship between musculoskeletal discomforts and occupational stressors among nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Azma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stress in nurses may increase the prevalence of musculoskeletal discomforts. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of musculoskeletal discomforts and job stress among nurses and to investigate the association between musculoskeletal discomforts and occupational stressors. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 144 nurses in one of the main referral hospitals of Tehran-Iran were randomly selected and studied. Data were collected by HSE job stress questionnaire and The Cornell Musculoskeletal Discomfort Questionnaire through interviews with nurses in their workplace. Results: Most reported musculoskeletal discomforts localized in the neck, back, knee and shoulder and the minimal discomforts were in wrist and elbow. On the other hand, stressors such as demand, changes in workplace, control and responsibilities had significant effect on increasing musculoskeletal discomforts of organs such as neck, shoulders and back (P < 0.001. Conclusion: There was a significant association between stressors such as demand, control, responsibilities and changes in workplace and reported musculoskeletal disorders, especially in neck, shoulders and back. It is suggested to use defined programs for management and control of stressors to control occupational stress in nurses. Moreover, prevention of musculoskeletal discomforts due to their high prevalence in the study population is important.

  7. REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH IN RICKSHAW DRIVERS: Occupational Exposure to Environmental Stressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam. Nabi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: In urban environment, exposure to the emission of motor vehicles is common. In urban peoples it is a very difficult task to distinguish among peoples with different grades of momentous period exposure to such pollutants. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of diesel exhaust, gasoline emission, Particulate Matter (PM noise and heat on the reproductive health of rickshaw drivers. Methods: Adult married male individuals were recruited randomly in the study from Btkhella, Malakand agency, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Two groups were made, control (n=45 and rickshaw drivers (n=50. A special questionnaire was designed about occupational activities, socio-demographic and clinical characteristics. From both groups 5 mL of the blood was collected and was analyze for serum total testosterone and cortisol using Biocheck (USA and Antibodies-online GmbH (Germany kits. Results: In control group the Mean±SEM of total serum testosterone was 657.6±16.84 ng/dl and cortisol was 443.8±14.67 mU/L. In rickshaw drivers the Mean±SEM of total serum testosterone was 577.1±11.42 ng/dl and cortisol was 595.1±8.879mU/L. In rickshaw drivers there was a significant reduction in total serum testosterone (P0.0002 but a significant increase in serum cortisol level (P < 0.0001 at 95% confidence interval. Conclusions: Reproductive health problems like decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, absent morning and nocturnal erection, ejaculatory problems, primary infertility and secondary infertility were prevalent in rickshaw drivers but, no such problems were found in control group. Chronic exposure to pollutants such as diesel exhaust, gasoline emission, Particulate Matter (PM noise and heat negatively regulate Hypothalmo-Pituitary Gonadal axis (HPG leading  to reproductive problems.

  8. Occupational stressors, burnout and coping strategies between hospital and community psychiatric nurses in a Dublin region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTiernan, K; McDonald, N

    2015-04-01

    Burnout negatively impacts the delivery of mental health services. Psychiatric nurses face stressors that are distinct from other nursing specialities. The research was conducted in Ireland and captured a relatively large sample of respondents. The results compared the stressors, coping strategies and burnout levels between hospital and community-based psychiatric nurses. Occupational stress can negatively impact on the well-being of psychiatric nurses, which in turn can lead to poor client care. There is a dearth of published research conducted in Ireland that examines stress within the discipline. A between-groups study, undertaken in February 2011, investigated stressors, burnout and coping strategies between hospital and community-based psychiatric nurses in a Dublin region. Sixty-nine participants (8 males and 61 females), aged between 18 to 60 years voluntarily completed the Mental Health Professional Stress Scale, the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the PsychNurse Methods of Coping Scale. The findings revealed that nurses were operating in a moderately stressful environment. Stressors focused on organizational issues as opposed to client issues. The main stressors identified were lack of resources, workload and organizational structures/processes. Both groups reported average levels of emotional exhaustion, low levels of depersonalization and average levels of personal accomplishment. A Mann-Whitney U-test and Independent Samples t-test found significant differences between hospital and community-based nurses regarding depersonalization and personal accomplishment, respectively. Hospital nurses reported higher depersonalization scores, and community nurses had a greater sense of personal accomplishment. The personal accomplishment scores of hospital nurses were below mental health professional norms. No significant differences emerged regarding coping strategies. Avoidant coping strategies were favoured by both groups. It is recommended that interventions

  9. The Heath Occupational Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, William E.

    1990-01-01

    Career development programs must identify occupational needs of adults. A model based on Maslow's hierarchy develops occupational questions related to individual motivations (physiology, safety, love, esteem, and self-actualization). Individual needs are then compared with characteristics and benefits of proposed jobs, companies, or careers. (SK)

  10. Associations of Occupational Stressors, Perceived Organizational Support, and Psychological Capital with Work Engagement among Chinese Female Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoxi; Zou, Futing; Hao, Junhui

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the associations of occupational stressors (extrinsic effort, reward, and overcommitment), perceived organizational support (POS), and psychological capital (PsyCap) and its components (self-efficacy, hope, resilience, and optimism) with work engagement and the mediating roles of PsyCap and its components among Chinese female nurses within the framework of the job demands-resources (JD-R) model. A cross-sectional sample (1,330) completed the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, Effort-Reward Imbalance Scale, Survey of POS, and PsyCap Questionnaire, and effective respondents were 1,016 (76.4%). Hierarchical regression analysis and Preacher and Hayes' asymptotic and resampling strategies were used. Extrinsic effort was negatively associated with vigor, dedication, and absorption, while POS, PsyCap, and hope were positively associated with them. Reward and overcommitment were positively associated with dedication and absorption. Optimism was positively associated with vigor and dedication. Optimism mediated the associations of extrinsic effort, reward, and POS with vigor and dedication. PsyCap and hope mediated the associations of POS with vigor, dedication, and absorption. There is a low level of work engagement among Chinese female nurses. Extrinsic effort could reduce work engagement, while reward, overcommitment, POS, PsyCap, hope, and optimism could enhance work engagement. Hospital managers should develop the PsyCap of female nurses through controlling occupational stressors and establishing supportive organizational climate to enhance their work engagement. PMID:28168198

  11. Associations of Occupational Stressors, Perceived Organizational Support, and Psychological Capital with Work Engagement among Chinese Female Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoxi; Liu, Li; Zou, Futing; Hao, Junhui; Wu, Hui

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the associations of occupational stressors (extrinsic effort, reward, and overcommitment), perceived organizational support (POS), and psychological capital (PsyCap) and its components (self-efficacy, hope, resilience, and optimism) with work engagement and the mediating roles of PsyCap and its components among Chinese female nurses within the framework of the job demands-resources (JD-R) model. A cross-sectional sample (1,330) completed the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, Effort-Reward Imbalance Scale, Survey of POS, and PsyCap Questionnaire, and effective respondents were 1,016 (76.4%). Hierarchical regression analysis and Preacher and Hayes' asymptotic and resampling strategies were used. Extrinsic effort was negatively associated with vigor, dedication, and absorption, while POS, PsyCap, and hope were positively associated with them. Reward and overcommitment were positively associated with dedication and absorption. Optimism was positively associated with vigor and dedication. Optimism mediated the associations of extrinsic effort, reward, and POS with vigor and dedication. PsyCap and hope mediated the associations of POS with vigor, dedication, and absorption. There is a low level of work engagement among Chinese female nurses. Extrinsic effort could reduce work engagement, while reward, overcommitment, POS, PsyCap, hope, and optimism could enhance work engagement. Hospital managers should develop the PsyCap of female nurses through controlling occupational stressors and establishing supportive organizational climate to enhance their work engagement.

  12. Associations of Occupational Stressors, Perceived Organizational Support, and Psychological Capital with Work Engagement among Chinese Female Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxi Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to explore the associations of occupational stressors (extrinsic effort, reward, and overcommitment, perceived organizational support (POS, and psychological capital (PsyCap and its components (self-efficacy, hope, resilience, and optimism with work engagement and the mediating roles of PsyCap and its components among Chinese female nurses within the framework of the job demands-resources (JD-R model. A cross-sectional sample (1,330 completed the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, Effort-Reward Imbalance Scale, Survey of POS, and PsyCap Questionnaire, and effective respondents were 1,016 (76.4%. Hierarchical regression analysis and Preacher and Hayes’ asymptotic and resampling strategies were used. Extrinsic effort was negatively associated with vigor, dedication, and absorption, while POS, PsyCap, and hope were positively associated with them. Reward and overcommitment were positively associated with dedication and absorption. Optimism was positively associated with vigor and dedication. Optimism mediated the associations of extrinsic effort, reward, and POS with vigor and dedication. PsyCap and hope mediated the associations of POS with vigor, dedication, and absorption. There is a low level of work engagement among Chinese female nurses. Extrinsic effort could reduce work engagement, while reward, overcommitment, POS, PsyCap, hope, and optimism could enhance work engagement. Hospital managers should develop the PsyCap of female nurses through controlling occupational stressors and establishing supportive organizational climate to enhance their work engagement.

  13. Predictors of occupational burnout among nurses: a dominance analysis of job stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ji-Wei; Bai, Hua-Yu; Li, Jia-Huan; Lin, Ping-Zhen; Zhang, Hui-Hui; Cao, Feng-Lin

    2017-02-08

    To quantitatively compare dimensions of job stressors' effects on nurses' burnout. Nurses, a key group of health service providers, often experience stressors at work. Extensive research has examined the relationship between job stressors and burnout; however, less has specifically compared the effects of job stressor domains on nurses' burnout. A quantitative cross-sectional survey examined three general hospitals in Jinan, China. Participants were 602 nurses. We compared five potential stressors' ability to predict nurses' burnout using dominance analysis and assuming that each stressor was intercorrelated. Strong positive correlations were found between all five job stressors and burnout. Interpersonal relationships and management issues most strongly predicted participants' burnout (11·3% of average variance). Job stressors, and particularly interpersonal relationships and management issues, significantly predict nurses' job burnout. Understanding the relative effect of job stressors may help identify fruitful areas for intervention and improve nurse recruitment and retention. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Estimation of an Occupational Choice Model when Occupations Are Misclassified

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This paper develops an empirical occupational choice model that corrects for misclassification in occupational choices and measurement error in occupation-specific work experience. The model is used to estimate the extent of measurement error in occupation data and quantify the bias that results from ignoring measurement error in occupation codes…

  15. Occupational stressors and its organizational and individual correlates: a nationwide study of Norwegian ambulance personnel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sterud, Tom; Hem, Erlend; Ekeberg, Oivind; Lau, Bjørn

    2008-01-01

    .... We compared the severity and frequency level of organizational and ambulance-specific stressors, and studied their relationship to organizational conditions and individual differences A comprehensive...

  16. How do employment types and job stressors relate to occupational injury? A cross-sectional investigation of employees in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, K; Nakata, A; Ikeda, T; Otsuka, Y; Kawahito, J

    2013-11-01

    This study investigated whether 1) the risk of occupational injury differs among permanent employees and specific types of temporary workers, 2) the risk of occupational injury differs across different employment types depending on the degree of job stressors. A cross-sectional study design based on self-report survey data. A total of 36,688 full-time workers (28,868 men and 7820 women; average age = 35.4) were surveyed by means of a self-administered questionnaire. Employment types consisted of permanent employment and two forms of temporary employment: direct-hire and temporary work agent (TWA). Job characteristics including job demands, job control, and social support at work were measured. Occupational injury was measured by asking whether the participant had an injury on the job in the past 12 months that required a medical treatment. To investigate the relationships between employment types, job stressors, and occupational injury, hierarchical moderated logistic regression tests were conducted. High job demands (OR = 1.44) and low job control (OR = 1.21) were significantly associated with an increased risk of occupational injury, while controlling for demographic, life style, health, and occupational factors. In addition, direct-hires (OR = 1.85) and temporary agent workers (OR = 3.26) had a higher risk of occupational injury compared with permanent employees. However, the relationship between employment types and the risk of occupational injury depended on the levels of job demands and job control. Specifically, the magnitude of the relationship between job demands and the risk of occupational injury was substantially greater for temporary work agents than for permanent employees when they reported low levels of job control. Such an interaction effect between job demands and job control on the risk of occupational injury was not observed between permanent employees and direct-hire temporary workers. The current study indicated that temporary workers might be

  17. Stressors rendering school coexistence difficult, personal variables and burnout: towards an explanatory model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Otero-López

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is analyze the inter-relationships between the main stressors posing difficulties for school coexistence (students’ disruptive behavior, the teachers’ perception of a lack of social support and conflict, different personal variables (Type A behavior pattern, optimism, hardiness and burnout. Furthermore, personal variables will be tested to see whether they mediate the influence of the different sources of stress analyzed in burnout. From the results obtained, using a sample of 1537 secondary education teachers, the covariation between the different sets of variables analyzed is not only confirmed but also significant support is given for the mediation hypothesis (stressors would have an indirect influence on burnout through personal variables. Another interesting finding is the need to include in the resulting model a direct effect between the students’ disruptive behavior and the teacher’s burnout experience. In short, the resulting path confirms the personal variables analyzed as a necessary filter in the analysis of the stressors-burnout link, while at the same time integrating the direct effect that students’ disruptive behavior has on teacher’s occupational malaise. .

  18. Stressor diversity: Introduction and empirical integration into the daily stress model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffer, Rachel E; Ram, Nilam; Conroy, David E; Pincus, Aaron L; Almeida, David M

    2016-06-01

    The present study examined whether and how stressor diversity, the extent to which stressor events are spread across multiple types of stressors, contributes to daily affective well-being through the adult life span. Stressor diversity was examined as a unique predictor of daily affect and as a moderator of stressor exposure and stressor reactivity effects. Analyses span 2 independent studies of daily stress: the National Study of Daily Experiences with N = 2,022 adults, aged 33 to 85 years, assessed over T = 8 days, and the Intraindividual Study of Affect, Health, and Interpersonal Behavior with N = 150 adults, aged 18 to 89 years, assessed over T = 63 days. Across both studies, older age was associated with less stressor diversity. Additionally, multivariate multilevel models indicated higher stressor diversity was linked with better affective well-being. Age, however, was not a consistent moderator of such associations. The combination of low stressor diversity and high stressor exposure is discussed as an operationalization of chronic stressors, and this combination was associated with particularly high negative affect and low positive affect. We believe further work will benefit from including both the frequency and diversity of stressor experiences in analyses in order to better characterize individuals' stressor experiences. (PsycINFO Database Record

  19. Investigating the Nature of Occupational Stressors:Informational and Controlling Stressors%信息性与控制性:工作压力源的性质研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑛华; 张剑; 张海利

    2012-01-01

    Occupational stressor is the external and environmental factor resulting in stress. It is an important research area in the stress management. There have been a lot of studies investigating the structure of occupational stressor. These results indicate that some possible factors that can intervene work stress. However, previous study focuses on the source of the stressor, and has not fully investigated the nature of the atressor. Therefore, the deeper relationship between the occupational stressors and the work stress haa not been fully explored. For example, previous study cannot explain why there is no steady correlation between the number of stressors and stressful feeling. Although some people ore experiencing only one Btressor, they would feel more stressful than others who are experiencing a lot of stressors. Such a situation is hard to be explained in practice.Cognitive evaluation theory, which is a sub-theory of Self-Determination Theory, points out thatsocial factors can be divided intothree kinds; informational (autonomy-support), controlling, and de-molivational factors according to their impact on the individual. Different kinds of social factors play different roles on individual motivations. Because of the difference of cognitive evaluations, a same stressor may have different influences on different individual motivations and may result in different stress intensity. This study adopts different individual cognitive evaluations, and divides the nature of the stressors into two kinds: informational and controlling. For instance, oral encouragement is able to improve self-value and confidence without compromising self-evaluation. Controlling stressors, such as threats, deadlines, instructions, pressured evaluation, and mandatory targets, can degrade self-value, self-evaluation, and confidence, thereby making people feel neglected and hurt.Based on random and convenient sampling methods, the study obtained 264 employees as valid subjects resided in

  20. Re-examining concepts of occupation and occupation-based models: occupational therapy and community development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclair, Leanne L

    2010-02-01

    A growing body of literature supports the role of occupational therapists in community development. Using a community development approach, occupational therapists respond to community-identified occupational needs. They work to build local resources and capacities and self-sustaining programs that foster change within the community and potentially beyond. The purpose of this paper is to highlight some key issues related to occupational therapy practice in community development. The definitions and classifications of occupation focus primarily on the individual and fail to elaborate on the shared occupations of a community. As well, occupation-based models of practice are not easily applied to occupational therapy practice in community development. In order for occupational therapy to articulate its role in community development, greater heed needs to be given to the definition and categorization of occupation, occupation-based models of practice, and their application to communities.

  1. Workplace stressors and lifestyle-related cancer risk factors among female physicians: assessment using the Occupational Stress Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkić, Karen; Nedic, Olesja

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between work stressors and lifestyle-related cancer risk factors (LRCRF): smoking, obesity, sedentariness and alcohol consumption, among 112 female physicians in Novi Sad, a region of high LRCRF prevalence. The participation rate was 92.6%. Participants completed the physician-specific version of the Occupational Stress Index (OSI). Self-reported data concerning LRCRF and working conditions were cross-validated with medical records, as well as with worksite measurements and expert observations. A total of 35 (31.3%) of the physicians were current smokers and 10 (8.9%) were heavy smokers (>20 cigarettes/day); 23 (20.5%) had a body mass index (BMI) of 28 or more, and 11 (9.8%) were obese (BMI> or =30). Only 27 (24.1%) regularly engaged in recreational physical activity (PA). Slightly over 5% consumed alcohol daily. Altogether 15 (13.4%) had a low lifestyle-related cancer risk profile (not a current smoker, BMIobesity and/or sedentariness) and problems hampering patient care (smoking). There is an urgent need to lower the LRCRF among female physicians in this high risk region. Our findings suggest that diminishing the work stressor burden should be considered when developing intervention strategies aimed at these risk factors.

  2. The System of Occupations: Modeling Occupations in Sociodemographic Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotolo, Thomas; McPherson, J. Miller

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of the age and education composition of occupations in Current Population Survey Annual Demographic Files, 1972-82, supports an ecological model in which occupations compete for members in a shifting niche space defined by members' sociodemographic characteristics. In contrast, the movement of professions in the education dimension…

  3. Occupant modeling in the aerospace environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yaklin, P.; Lim, T.; Marshall, R.

    1999-01-01

    Dynamic testing and occupant protection standards are a reality in the aerospace industry. Methods to model these situations are evolving. A method of modeling an occupant on a crew seat, in a drop test is presented. This method combines a rigid body occupant model with a finite element model of the

  4. A geospatial modelling approach to predict seagrass habitat recovery under multiple stressor regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restoration of estuarine seagrass habitats requires a clear understanding of the modes of action of multiple interacting stressors including nutrients, climate change, coastal land-use change, and habitat modification. We have developed and demonstrated a geospatial modeling a...

  5. Comparing and Using Occupation-Focused Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Su Ren; Fisher, Gail

    2015-01-01

    As health care moves toward understanding the importance of function, participation and occupation, occupational therapists would be well served to use occupation-focused theories to guide intervention. Most therapists understand that applying occupation-focused models supports best practice, but many do not routinely use these models. Barriers to application of theory include lack of understanding of the models and limited strategies to select and apply them for maximum client benefit. The aim of this article is to compare occupation-focused models and provide recommendations on how to choose and combine these models in practice; and to provide a systematic approach for integrating occupation-focused models with frames of reference to guide assessment and intervention.

  6. Quantitative Modeling of Microbial Population Responses to Chronic Irradiation Combined with Other Stressors

    OpenAIRE

    Igor Shuryak; Ekaterina Dadachova

    2016-01-01

    Microbial population responses to combined effects of chronic irradiation and other stressors (chemical contaminants, other sub-optimal conditions) are important for ecosystem functioning and bioremediation in radionuclide-contaminated areas. Quantitative mathematical modeling can improve our understanding of these phenomena. To identify general patterns of microbial responses to multiple stressors in radioactive environments, we analyzed three data sets on: (1) bacteria isolated from soil co...

  7. Developing a Model of Occupational Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egner, Joan Roos

    1974-01-01

    Rational and non-rational decision-making models of occupational choice are described. The Blau model provides an alternative to these. This model contains an occupational set of factors and a set related to the individual. Research supporting its conceptual utility and activities illustrating its pragmatic utility are discussed. (EAK)

  8. Multiseason occupancy models for correlated replicate surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, James; Nichols, James; Collazo, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    Occupancy surveys collecting data from adjacent (sometimes correlated) spatial replicates have become relatively popular for logistical reasons. Hines et al. (2010) presented one approach to modelling such data for single-season occupancy surveys. Here, we present a multiseason analogue of this model (with corresponding software) for inferences about occupancy dynamics. We include a new parameter to deal with the uncertainty associated with the first spatial replicate for both single-season and multiseason models. We use a case study, based on the brown-headed nuthatch, to assess the need for these models when analysing data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS), and we test various hypotheses about occupancy dynamics for this species in the south-eastern United States. The new model permits inference about local probabilities of extinction, colonization and occupancy for sampling conducted over multiple seasons. The model performs adequately, based on a small simulation study and on results of the case study analysis. The new model incorporating correlated replicates was strongly favoured by model selection for the BBS data for brown-headed nuthatch (Sitta pusilla). Latitude was found to be an important source of variation in local colonization and occupancy probabilities for brown-headed nuthatch, with both probabilities being higher near the centre of the species range, as opposed to more northern and southern areas. We recommend this new occupancy model for detection–nondetection studies that use potentially correlated replicates.

  9. Data linkage between the National Birth Defects Prevention Study and the Occupational Information Network (O*NET) to assess workplace physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and emotional stressors during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Laura J; Symanski, Elaine; Lupo, Philip J; Tinker, Sarah C; Razzaghi, Hilda; Pompeii, Lisa A; Hoyt, Adrienne T; Canfield, Mark A; Chan, Wenyaw

    2016-02-01

    Knowledge of the prevalence of work-related physical activities, sedentary behaviors, and emotional stressors among pregnant women is limited, and the extent to which these exposures vary by maternal characteristics remains unclear. Data on mothers of 6,817 infants without major birth defects, with estimated delivery during 1997 through 2009 who worked during pregnancy were obtained from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Information on multiple domains of occupational exposures was gathered by linking mother's primary job to the Occupational Information Network Version 9.0. The most frequent estimated physical activity associated with jobs during pregnancy was standing. Of 6,337 mothers, 31.0% reported jobs associated with standing for ≥75% of their time. There was significant variability in estimated occupational exposures by maternal age, race/ethnicity, and educational level. Our findings augment existing literature on occupational physical activities, sedentary behaviors, emotional stressors, and occupational health disparities during pregnancy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Tools for organisational risk evaluation for occupational health stressors (OREOHS) for the small-scale mining industry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Edwards, AL

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Some of the main reasons for occupational health and safety deficiencies in small-scale mining are unawareness of risks of chronic occupational diseases and inadequately implemented education and training. The key needs of the sector is to provide...

  11. Quantitative Modeling of Microbial Population Responses to Chronic Irradiation Combined with Other Stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuryak, Igor; Dadachova, Ekaterina

    2016-01-01

    Microbial population responses to combined effects of chronic irradiation and other stressors (chemical contaminants, other sub-optimal conditions) are important for ecosystem functioning and bioremediation in radionuclide-contaminated areas. Quantitative mathematical modeling can improve our understanding of these phenomena. To identify general patterns of microbial responses to multiple stressors in radioactive environments, we analyzed three data sets on: (1) bacteria isolated from soil contaminated by nuclear waste at the Hanford site (USA); (2) fungi isolated from the Chernobyl nuclear-power plant (Ukraine) buildings after the accident; (3) yeast subjected to continuous γ-irradiation in the laboratory, where radiation dose rate and cell removal rate were independently varied. We applied generalized linear mixed-effects models to describe the first two data sets, whereas the third data set was amenable to mechanistic modeling using differential equations. Machine learning and information-theoretic approaches were used to select the best-supported formalism(s) among biologically-plausible alternatives. Our analysis suggests the following: (1) Both radionuclides and co-occurring chemical contaminants (e.g. NO2) are important for explaining microbial responses to radioactive contamination. (2) Radionuclides may produce non-monotonic dose responses: stimulation of microbial growth at low concentrations vs. inhibition at higher ones. (3) The extinction-defining critical radiation dose rate is dramatically lowered by additional stressors. (4) Reproduction suppression by radiation can be more important for determining the critical dose rate, than radiation-induced cell mortality. In conclusion, the modeling approaches used here on three diverse data sets provide insight into explaining and predicting multi-stressor effects on microbial communities: (1) the most severe effects (e.g. extinction) on microbial populations may occur when unfavorable environmental

  12. Determining ecoregional numeric nutrient criteria by stressor-response models in Yungui ecoregion lakes, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Shouliang; Ma, Chunzi; Xi, Beidou; Tong, Zhonghua; He, Zhuoshi; Su, Jing; Wu, Fengchang

    2014-01-01

    The importance of developing numeric nutrient criteria has been recognized to protect the designated uses of water bodies from nutrient enrichment that is associated with broadly occurring levels of nitrogen/phosphorus pollution. The identification and estimation of stressor-response models in aquatic ecosystems has been shown to be useful in the determination of nutrient criteria. In this study, three methods based on stressor-response relationships were applied to determine nutrient criteria for Yungui ecoregion lakes with respect to total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN), and planktonic chlorophyll a (Chl a). Simple linear regression (SLR) models were established to provide an estimate of the relationship between a response variable and a stressor. Multiple linear regressions were used to simultaneously estimate the effect of TP and TN on Chl a. A morphoedaphic index (MEI) was applied to derive nutrient criteria using data from Yungui ecoregion lakes, which were considered as areas with less anthropogenic influences. Nutrient criteria, as determined by these three methods, showed broad agreement for all parameters. The ranges of numeric nutrient criteria for Yungui ecoregion lakes were determined as follows: TP 0.008-0.010 mg/L and TN 0.140-0.178 mg/L. The stressor-response analysis described will be of benefit to support countries in their numeric criteria development programs and to further the goal of reducing nitrogen/phosphorus pollution in China.

  13. The Person-Environment-Occupation Model: A Transactive Approach to Occupational Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Mary; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A Person-Environment-Occupation model of occupational performance enables occupational therapists to target interventions at different components and implement interventions at different levels and in context. A person's occupational preference is considered in multiple ways depending on environmental factors. (SK)

  14. A dual pathway model of daily stressor effects on rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affleck, G; Urrows, S; Tennen, H; Higgins, P; Pav, D; Aloisi, R

    1997-01-01

    This study evaluated the initial promise of a dual-pathway conceptual model linking daily event stressors to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) disease activity through changes in immune system activation and mood. Fifty individuals, who were studied on five occasions two weeks apart, reported daily event stressors on the Daily Life Experience Checklist, daily mood on an abbreviated version of the Profile of Mood States-B, and daily joint pain on the Rapid Assessment of Disease Activity in Rheumatology. Serial clinical examinations comprised ratings of joint tenderness and swelling, and blood drawn during exams was analyzed for sedimentation rate (an indicator of systemic inflammation) and soluble interleukin-2 receptors (a marker of immune system activation known to correlate with RA disease activity). Across-person analyses failed to establish links from daily event stressors to either disease activity or composites of joint pain and joint inflammation when associations were adjusted for the effect of neuroticism on self-report measures. Pooled within-person analyses, however, were generally consistent with the relations predicted by the dual-pathway model. Increases in daily event stressors during the week preceding each clinical exam were associated with increased joint pain (regardless of changes in mood). At the same time, increased daily stressors were indirectly associated with decreased joint inflammation through reduction in levels of soluble interleukin-2 receptors. The dual-pathway model, which may be limited to short-term psychological and psychoimmunologic processes, underscores the importance of distinguishing potentially opposing effects of stress on pain versus inflammation in individuals with rheumatoid arthritis.

  15. Racism as a Stressor for African Americans: A Biopsychosocial Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Rodney; Anderson, Norman B.; Clark, Vernessa R.; Williams, David R.

    1999-01-01

    Outlines a biopsychosocial model for perceived racism as a guide for future research, reviewing how racism has been conceptualized in scientific literature, examining research on the existence of intergroup and intragroup racism, presenting a contextual model for systematic studies of the biopsychosocial effects of perceived racism in African…

  16. Spatial occupancy models for large data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Devin S.; Conn, Paul B.; Hooten, Mevin B.; Ray, Justina C.; Pond, Bruce A.

    2013-01-01

    Since its development, occupancy modeling has become a popular and useful tool for ecologists wishing to learn about the dynamics of species occurrence over time and space. Such models require presence–absence data to be collected at spatially indexed survey units. However, only recently have researchers recognized the need to correct for spatially induced overdisperison by explicitly accounting for spatial autocorrelation in occupancy probability. Previous efforts to incorporate such autocorrelation have largely focused on logit-normal formulations for occupancy, with spatial autocorrelation induced by a random effect within a hierarchical modeling framework. Although useful, computational time generally limits such an approach to relatively small data sets, and there are often problems with algorithm instability, yielding unsatisfactory results. Further, recent research has revealed a hidden form of multicollinearity in such applications, which may lead to parameter bias if not explicitly addressed. Combining several techniques, we present a unifying hierarchical spatial occupancy model specification that is particularly effective over large spatial extents. This approach employs a probit mixture framework for occupancy and can easily accommodate a reduced-dimensional spatial process to resolve issues with multicollinearity and spatial confounding while improving algorithm convergence. Using open-source software, we demonstrate this new model specification using a case study involving occupancy of caribou (Rangifer tarandus) over a set of 1080 survey units spanning a large contiguous region (108 000 km2) in northern Ontario, Canada. Overall, the combination of a more efficient specification and open-source software allows for a facile and stable implementation of spatial occupancy models for large data sets.

  17. Modelling variability in hospital bed occupancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Gary W; Shafer, Andrea; Mackay, Mark

    2005-11-01

    A stochastic version of the Harrison-Millard multistage model of the flow of patients through a hospital division is developed in order to model correctly not only the average but also the variability in occupancy levels, since it is the variability that makes planning difficult and high percent occupancy levels increase the risk of frequent overflows. The model is fit to one year of data from the medical division of an acute care hospital in Adelaide, Australia. Admissions can be modeled as a Poisson process with rates varying by day of the week and by season. Methods are developed to use the entire annual occupancy profile to estimate transition rate parameters when admission rates are not constant and to estimate rate parameters that vary by day of the week and by season, which are necessary for the model variability to be as large as in the data. The final model matches well the mean, standard deviation and autocorrelation function of the occupancy data and also six months of data not used to estimate the parameters. Repeated simulations are used to construct percentiles of the daily occupancy distributions and thus identify ranges of normal fluctuations and those that are substantive deviations from the past, and also to investigate the trade-offs between frequency of overflows and the percent occupancy for both fixed and flexible bed allocations. Larger divisions can achieve more efficient occupancy levels than smaller ones with the same frequency of overflows. Seasonal variations are more significant than day-of-the-week variations and variable discharge rates are more significant than variable admission rates in contributing to overflows.

  18. Participation and occupation in occupational therapy models of practice: A discussion of possibilities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson-Lund, Maria; Nyman, Anneli

    2017-11-01

    Occupation has been the focus in occupational therapy practice to greater or lesser degrees from a historical viewpoint. This evokes a need to discuss whether concepts that are added to our field will enhance or blur our focus on occupation. To explore how the concept of participation in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) is related to the concept of occupation by reviewing and comparing its use in three models of practice within occupational therapy. The aim was also to generate discussion on possibilities and challenges concerning the relationship of participation and occupation. The models reviewed were The Model of Human Occupation (MOHO), the Canadian Model of Occupational Performance and Engagement (CMOP-E) and the Occupational Therapy Intervention Process Model (OTIPM). The concept of participation was related to occupation in different ways in these models. Based on the review some challenges and considerations for occupational therapy were generated. Relating the concept of participation from the ICF to the concept of occupation in models of practice can be challenging. At the same time, relating the concepts can be a resource to develop occupational therapy and the understanding of occupational issues in society.

  19. Advances and applications of occupancy models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Larissa; MacKenzie, Darry I.; Nichols, James D.

    2013-01-01

    Summary: The past decade has seen an explosion in the development and application of models aimed at estimating species occurrence and occupancy dynamics while accounting for possible non-detection or species misidentification. We discuss some recent occupancy estimation methods and the biological systems that motivated their development. Collectively, these models offer tremendous flexibility, but simultaneously place added demands on the investigator. Unlike many mark–recapture scenarios, investigators utilizing occupancy models have the ability, and responsibility, to define their sample units (i.e. sites), replicate sampling occasions, time period over which species occurrence is assumed to be static and even the criteria that constitute ‘detection’ of a target species. Subsequent biological inference and interpretation of model parameters depend on these definitions and the ability to meet model assumptions. We demonstrate the relevance of these definitions by highlighting applications from a single biological system (an amphibian–pathogen system) and discuss situations where the use of occupancy models has been criticized. Finally, we use these applications to suggest future research and model development.

  20. Translational relevance of rodent models of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function and stressors in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl M. McCormick

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Elevations in glucocorticoids that result from environmental stressors can have programming effects on brain structure and function when the exposure occurs during sensitive periods that involve heightened neural development. In recent years, adolescence has gained increasing attention as another sensitive period of development, a period in which pubertal transitions may increase the vulnerability to stressors. There are similarities in physical and behavioural development between humans and rats, and rats have been used effectively as an animal model of adolescence and the unique plasticity of this period of ontogeny. This review focuses on benefits and challenges of rats as a model for translational research on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA function and stressors in adolescence, highlighting important parallels and contrasts between adolescent rats and humans, and we review the main stress procedures that are used in investigating HPA stress responses and their consequences in adolescence in rats. We conclude that a greater focus on timing of puberty as a factor in research in adolescent rats may increase the translational relevance of the findings.

  1. Quantitative Modeling of Microbial Population Responses to Chronic Irradiation Combined with Other Stressors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Shuryak

    Full Text Available Microbial population responses to combined effects of chronic irradiation and other stressors (chemical contaminants, other sub-optimal conditions are important for ecosystem functioning and bioremediation in radionuclide-contaminated areas. Quantitative mathematical modeling can improve our understanding of these phenomena. To identify general patterns of microbial responses to multiple stressors in radioactive environments, we analyzed three data sets on: (1 bacteria isolated from soil contaminated by nuclear waste at the Hanford site (USA; (2 fungi isolated from the Chernobyl nuclear-power plant (Ukraine buildings after the accident; (3 yeast subjected to continuous γ-irradiation in the laboratory, where radiation dose rate and cell removal rate were independently varied. We applied generalized linear mixed-effects models to describe the first two data sets, whereas the third data set was amenable to mechanistic modeling using differential equations. Machine learning and information-theoretic approaches were used to select the best-supported formalism(s among biologically-plausible alternatives. Our analysis suggests the following: (1 Both radionuclides and co-occurring chemical contaminants (e.g. NO2 are important for explaining microbial responses to radioactive contamination. (2 Radionuclides may produce non-monotonic dose responses: stimulation of microbial growth at low concentrations vs. inhibition at higher ones. (3 The extinction-defining critical radiation dose rate is dramatically lowered by additional stressors. (4 Reproduction suppression by radiation can be more important for determining the critical dose rate, than radiation-induced cell mortality. In conclusion, the modeling approaches used here on three diverse data sets provide insight into explaining and predicting multi-stressor effects on microbial communities: (1 the most severe effects (e.g. extinction on microbial populations may occur when unfavorable environmental

  2. Modelling coral reef futures to inform management: can reducing local-scale stressors conserve reefs under climate change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, Georgina G; Melbourne-Thomas, Jessica; Geronimo, Rollan C; Aliño, Perry M; Johnson, Craig R

    2013-01-01

    Climate change has emerged as a principal threat to coral reefs, and is expected to exacerbate coral reef degradation caused by more localised stressors. Management of local stressors is widely advocated to bolster coral reef resilience, but the extent to which management of local stressors might affect future trajectories of reef state remains unclear. This is in part because of limited understanding of the cumulative impact of multiple stressors. Models are ideal tools to aid understanding of future reef state under alternative management and climatic scenarios, but to date few have been sufficiently developed to be useful as decision support tools for local management of coral reefs subject to multiple stressors. We used a simulation model of coral reefs to investigate the extent to which the management of local stressors (namely poor water quality and fishing) might influence future reef state under varying climatic scenarios relating to coral bleaching. We parameterised the model for Bolinao, the Philippines, and explored how simulation modelling can be used to provide decision support for local management. We found that management of water quality, and to a lesser extent fishing, can have a significant impact on future reef state, including coral recovery following bleaching-induced mortality. The stressors we examined interacted antagonistically to affect reef state, highlighting the importance of considering the combined impact of multiple stressors rather than considering them individually. Further, by providing explicit guidance for management of Bolinao's reef system, such as which course of management action will most likely to be effective over what time scales and at which sites, we demonstrated the utility of simulation models for supporting management. Aside from providing explicit guidance for management of Bolinao's reef system, our study offers insights which could inform reef management more broadly, as well as general understanding of reef

  3. Modelling coral reef futures to inform management: can reducing local-scale stressors conserve reefs under climate change?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina G Gurney

    Full Text Available Climate change has emerged as a principal threat to coral reefs, and is expected to exacerbate coral reef degradation caused by more localised stressors. Management of local stressors is widely advocated to bolster coral reef resilience, but the extent to which management of local stressors might affect future trajectories of reef state remains unclear. This is in part because of limited understanding of the cumulative impact of multiple stressors. Models are ideal tools to aid understanding of future reef state under alternative management and climatic scenarios, but to date few have been sufficiently developed to be useful as decision support tools for local management of coral reefs subject to multiple stressors. We used a simulation model of coral reefs to investigate the extent to which the management of local stressors (namely poor water quality and fishing might influence future reef state under varying climatic scenarios relating to coral bleaching. We parameterised the model for Bolinao, the Philippines, and explored how simulation modelling can be used to provide decision support for local management. We found that management of water quality, and to a lesser extent fishing, can have a significant impact on future reef state, including coral recovery following bleaching-induced mortality. The stressors we examined interacted antagonistically to affect reef state, highlighting the importance of considering the combined impact of multiple stressors rather than considering them individually. Further, by providing explicit guidance for management of Bolinao's reef system, such as which course of management action will most likely to be effective over what time scales and at which sites, we demonstrated the utility of simulation models for supporting management. Aside from providing explicit guidance for management of Bolinao's reef system, our study offers insights which could inform reef management more broadly, as well as general

  4. Multiple stressors of ocean ecosystems in the 21st century: projections with CMIP5 models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bopp

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Ocean ecosystems are increasingly stressed by human-induced changes of their physical, chemical and biological environment. Among these changes, warming, acidification, deoxygenation and changes in primary productivity by marine phytoplankton can be considered as four of the major stressors of open ocean ecosystems. Due to rising atmospheric CO2 in the coming decades, these changes will be amplified. Here, we use the most recent simulations performed in the framework of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 to assess how these stressors may evolve over the course of the 21st century. The 10 Earth System Models used here project similar trends in ocean warming, acidification, deoxygenation and reduced primary productivity for each of the IPCC's representative concentration parthways (RCP over the 21st century. For the "business-as-usual" scenario RCP8.5, the model-mean changes in 2090s (compared to 1990s for sea surface temperature, sea surface pH, global O2 content and integrated primary productivity amount to +2.73 °C, −0.33 pH unit, −3.45% and −8.6%, respectively. For the high mitigation scenario RCP2.6, corresponding changes are +0.71 °C, −0.07 pH unit, −1.81% and −2.0% respectively, illustrating the effectiveness of extreme mitigation strategies. Although these stressors operate globally, they display distinct regional patterns. Large decreases in O2 and in pH are simulated in global ocean intermediate and mode waters, whereas large reductions in primary production are simulated in the tropics and in the North Atlantic. Although temperature and pH projections are robust across models, the same does not hold for projections of sub-surface O2 concentrations in the tropics and global and regional changes in net primary productivity.

  5. Introducing the Leadership in Enabling Occupation (LEO) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Elizabeth A; Polatajko, Helene J; Craik, Janet M; von Zweck, Claudia M

    2011-10-01

    Occupational therapy is a broad profession yet access to services remains restricted and uneven across Canada. Access to the potential breadth of occupational therapy is severely restrained by complex supply, retention, and funding challenges. To improve access to occupational therapy, widespread leadership is needed by all practitioners. This brief report introduces the Leadership in Enabling Occupation (LEO) Model, which displays the inter-relationship of four elements of everyday leadership as described in "Positioning Occupational Therapy for Leadership," Section IV, of Enabling Occupation II: Advancing a Vision of Health, Well-being and Justice through Occupation (Townsend & Polatajko, 2007). All occupational therapists have the power to develop leadership capacity within and beyond designated leadership positions. LEO is a leadership tool to extend all occupational therapists' strategic use of scholarship, new accountability approaches, existing and new funding, and workforce planning to improve access to occupational therapy.

  6. Multiple stressors of ocean ecosystems in the 21st century: projections with CMIP5 models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bopp

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ocean ecosystems are increasingly stressed by human-induced changes of their physical, chemical and biological environment. Among these changes, warming, acidification, deoxygenation and changes in primary productivity by marine phytoplankton can be considered as four of the major stressors of open ocean ecosystems. Due to rising atmospheric CO2 in the coming decades, these changes will be amplified. Here, we use the most recent simulations performed in the framework of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 to assess how these stressors may evolve over the course of the 21st century. The 10 Earth system models used here project similar trends in ocean warming, acidification, deoxygenation and reduced primary productivity for each of the IPCC's representative concentration pathways (RCPs over the 21st century. For the "business-as-usual" scenario RCP8.5, the model-mean changes in the 2090s (compared to the 1990s for sea surface temperature, sea surface pH, global O2 content and integrated primary productivity amount to +2.73 (±0.72 °C, −0.33 (±0.003 pH unit, −3.45 (±0.44% and −8.6 (±7.9%, respectively. For the high mitigation scenario RCP2.6, corresponding changes are +0.71 (±0.45 °C, −0.07 (±0.001 pH unit, −1.81 (±0.31% and −2.0 (±4.1%, respectively, illustrating the effectiveness of extreme mitigation strategies. Although these stressors operate globally, they display distinct regional patterns and thus do not change coincidentally. Large decreases in O2 and in pH are simulated in global ocean intermediate and mode waters, whereas large reductions in primary production are simulated in the tropics and in the North Atlantic. Although temperature and pH projections are robust across models, the same does not hold for projections of subsurface O2 concentrations in the tropics and global and regional changes in net primary productivity. These high uncertainties in projections of primary productivity and subsurface

  7. Stressor-response modeling using the 2D water quality model and regression trees to predict chlorophyll-a in a reservoir system

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to control algal blooms, stressor-response relationships between water quality metrics, environmental variables, and algal growth should be understood and modeled. Machine-learning methods were suggested to express stressor-response relationships found by application of mechanistic water qu...

  8. Site occupancy models with heterogeneous detection probabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royle, J. Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Models for estimating the probability of occurrence of a species in the presence of imperfect detection are important in many ecological disciplines. In these ?site occupancy? models, the possibility of heterogeneity in detection probabilities among sites must be considered because variation in abundance (and other factors) among sampled sites induces variation in detection probability (p). In this article, I develop occurrence probability models that allow for heterogeneous detection probabilities by considering several common classes of mixture distributions for p. For any mixing distribution, the likelihood has the general form of a zero-inflated binomial mixture for which inference based upon integrated likelihood is straightforward. A recent paper by Link (2003, Biometrics 59, 1123?1130) demonstrates that in closed population models used for estimating population size, different classes of mixture distributions are indistinguishable from data, yet can produce very different inferences about population size. I demonstrate that this problem can also arise in models for estimating site occupancy in the presence of heterogeneous detection probabilities. The implications of this are discussed in the context of an application to avian survey data and the development of animal monitoring programs.

  9. Investigating the Relationships among Stressors, Stress Level, and Mental Symptoms for Infertile Patients: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Yi Wang

    Full Text Available Patients with infertility are a high risk group in depression and anxiety. However, an existing theoretically and empirically validated model of stressors, stress, and mental symptoms specific for infertile patients is still a void. This study aimed to determine the related factors and their relational structures that affect the level of depressive and anxiety symptoms among infertile patients.A cross-sectional sample of 400 infertility outpatients seeking reproduction treatments in three teaching hospitals across Taiwan participated in the structured questionnaire survey in 2011. The hypothesized model comprising 10 latent variables was tested by Structural Equation Modeling using AMOS 17.Goodness-of-fit indexes, including χ2/DF = 1.871, PGFI = 0.746, PNFI = 0.764, and others, confirmed the modified model fit the data well. Marital stressor, importance of children, guilt-and-blame, and social stressor showed a direct effect on perceived stress. Instead of being a factor of stress, social support was directly and positively related to self-esteem. Perceived stress and self-esteem were the two major mediators for the relationships between stressors and mental symptoms. Increase in social support and self-esteem led to decrease in mental symptoms among the infertile patients.The relational structures were identified and named as the Stressors Stress Symptoms Model, clinically applied to predict anxiety and depression from various stressors. Assessing sources and level of infertility-related stress and implementing culturally-sensitive counseling with an emphasis on positive personal value may assist in preventing the severity of depression and anxiety.

  10. Coping with Daily Stressors: Modeling Intraethnic Variation in Mexican American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Arianna A.; Roesch, Scott C.

    2008-01-01

    Using daily diary methodology, 67 Mexican American adolescents completed measures assessing daily stressors experienced, specific coping strategies employed with reference to these stressors, and indices of psychological health over 5 consecutive days. With respect to coping usage, adolescents reported they most often used planning and least often…

  11. Investigations of HPA Function and the Enduring Consequences of Stressors in Adolescence in Animal Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Cheryl M.; Mathews, Iva Z.; Thomas, Catherine; Waters, Patti

    2010-01-01

    Developmental differences in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responsiveness to stressors and ongoing development of glucocorticoid-sensitive brain regions in adolescence suggest that similar to the neonatal period of ontogeny, adolescence may also be a sensitive period for programming effects of stressors on the central nervous system.…

  12. 石油化工工人职业应激因素对工作满意感和心理健康的影响%Appraisal of occupational stressor in petrochemical industry workers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤晓萍; 王羽; 刘文贺; 田宏迩; 黄童; 李志媛; 胡柯铭; 葛锡泳; 金蕾; 高奇; 张静静

    2009-01-01

    Objective To discuss the origin of occupational stress among petrochemical industry workers and to access the main occupational stressors that impact job satisfaction and mental health of petrochemical industry workers. Methods A survey on occupational stressor was carried out by Occupational Stress Indicator(OSI) in 532 petrochemical industry workers(345 chemical and 187 logistic workers). Results The environment in workplace of chemical group was worse than that of contrast. The chemical workers had less control over job and they experienced more hazards, monotonous as well as role stressors than the logistic group. The scores of job satisfaction and mental health of chemical group (36.867±0.656, 43.734±0.542, respectively) were higher than that of contrast (40.321 ±0.901, 46.714±0.745, respectively) (P<0.05). Conclusion The occupational stressors exist in chemical workers which affect chemical workers 'job satisfaction and mental health with different levels.%目的 探讨石油化工企业工人职业应激的来源及影响其工作满意感和心理健康的主要职业应激因素.方法 采用职业紧张量表(OSI),对某市石油化工企业532名职工进行职业应激因素的调查,其中化工组345人,后勤部门职工187人作为对照组.结果 化工组工作场所中物理环境差,工作缺乏控制,工作危险性大,工作单调,角色冲突、角色模糊较对照组严重;化工组的工作满意感和心理健康得分(分别为36.867±0.656,43.734±0.542)低于对照组(40.321±0.901,46.714±0.745),差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 化工工人工作中存在职业应激因素,这些因素不同程度地影响着化工工人的工作满意感和心理健康.

  13. Role stressors and job attitudes: a mediated model of leader-member exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui-Ping; Tsingan, Li; Zhang, Long-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Workers with high levels of role stressors have been known to report low job satisfaction and high turnover intention. However, how the role stressors-job attitudes relationship is influenced by leader-member exchange has hardly been studied. This study examined the effect of leader-member exchange (leader support) on the relationship between chronic role stressors (i.e., role ambiguity and role conflict) and job attitudes (i.e., job satisfaction and turnover intention). Employees (N = 162) who enrolled in weekend psychology courses were investigated. The results showed that leader-member exchange mediated the effects of role stressors on job satisfaction and turnover intention. Implications of these results are discussed and directions for future research are suggested.

  14. Using Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Models to Incorporate Chemical and Non-Chemical Stressors into Cumulative Risk Assessment: A Case Study of Pesticide Exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan I. Levy

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cumulative risk assessment has been proposed as an approach to evaluate the health risks associated with simultaneous exposure to multiple chemical and non-chemical stressors. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD models can allow for the inclusion and evaluation of multiple stressors, including non-chemical stressors, but studies have not leveraged PBPK/PD models to jointly consider these disparate exposures in a cumulative risk context. In this study, we focused on exposures to organophosphate (OP pesticides for children in urban low-income environments, where these children would be simultaneously exposed to other pesticides (including pyrethroids and non-chemical stressors that may modify the effects of these exposures (including diet. We developed a methodological framework to evaluate chemical and non-chemical stressor impacts on OPs, utilizing an existing PBPK/PD model for chlorpyrifos. We evaluated population-specific stressors that would influence OP doses or acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibition, the relevant PD outcome. We incorporated the impact of simultaneous exposure to pyrethroids and dietary factors on OP dose through the compartments of metabolism and PD outcome within the PBPK model, and simulated combinations of stressors across multiple exposure ranges and potential body weights. Our analyses demonstrated that both chemical and non-chemical stressors can influence the health implications of OP exposures, with up to 5-fold variability in AChE inhibition across combinations of stressor values for a given OP dose. We demonstrate an approach for modeling OP risks in the presence of other population-specific environmental stressors, providing insight about co-exposures and variability factors that most impact OP health risks and contribute to children’s cumulative health risk from pesticides. More generally, this framework can be used to inform cumulative risk assessment for any compound impacted by

  15. The contribution of gender-role orientation, work factors and home stressors to psychological well-being and sickness absence in male- and female-dominated occupational groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Olga; Steptoe, Andrew

    2002-02-01

    The associations of work stress, types of work and gender-role orientation with psychological well-being and sickness absence were investigated in a questionnaire survey of 588 male and female nurses and 387 male and female accountants. We hypothesised that health might be impaired among women working in the male-dominated occupation (accountancy), and men in the female-dominated occupation (nursing), but that effects might be moderated by job strain (perceptions of high demand and low control), work and home hassles, and traditional male (instrumentality) and female (expressivity) psychological characteristics. Responses were analysed from 172 female and 61 male nurses, and from 53 female and 81 male commercial accountants. Female accountants were more likely than other groups to have high anxiety scores on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales, while male nurses had the highest rates of sickness absence. Male nurses and female accountants also reported more work-related hassles than did female nurses and male accountants. Men and women in the same occupation did not differ in job strain or job social support, but nurses reported greater job strain than accountants, due to higher ratings of demands and lower skill utilisation. After adjusting for age, sex, occupation, paid work hours and a measure of social desirability bias, risk of elevated anxiety was independently associated with higher job strain, lower job social support, more work hassles, more domestic responsibility, lower instrumentality and higher expressivity. The association between sex and anxiety was no longer significant after instrumentality had been entered into the regression model. Sickness absence of more than three days over the past 12 months was independently associated with higher job strain, more work hassles, lower instrumentality and higher expressivity. The results suggest that when men and women occupy jobs in which they are in the cultural and numerical minority, there may be

  16. Stressors, stress and stress consequences during long-duration manned space missions: a descriptive model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geuna, Stefano; Brunelli, Francesco; Perino, Maria A.

    Keeping crew members in good health is a major factor in the success or failure of long-duration manned space missions. Among the many possible agents that can affect the crew's general well-being, stress is certainly one of the most critical because of its implications on human health and performance, both physical and mental. Nevertheless, very few studies have been performed on this fundamental issue and none of them has addressed it in its entirity, considering its diverse physical and psychological aspects. In this work, a descriptive model is proposed to expound the mechanism and sequence of events which mediate stress. A critical analysis of the information provided by past manned spaceflights and by dedicated research performed in analogous environments is presented, and an extrapolation of the available data on human stress in such extreme conditions is proposed. Both internal and external stressors have been identified, at physical and psychosocial levels, thus providing the basis for their early detection and preventive reduction. The possible negative consequences of stress that may lead to disease in crewmembers are described. Finally, the most effective instruments which may be of help in reducing space-related human stress and treating its negative consequences are suggested.

  17. An Occupant Behavior Model for Building Energy Efficiency and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, L. L.; Chen, T.; Jia, Q. S.; Yuan, R. X.; Wang, H. T.; Ding, R.

    2010-05-01

    An occupant behavior model is suggested to improve building energy efficiency and safety. This paper provides a generic outline of the model, which includes occupancy behavior abstraction, model framework and primary structure, input and output, computer simulation results as well as summary and outlook. Using information technology, now it's possible to collect large amount of information of occupancy. Yet this can only provide partial and historical information, so it's important to develop a model to have full view of the researched building as well as prediction. We used the infrared monitoring system which is set at the front door of the Low Energy Demo Building (LEDB) at Tsinghua University in China, to provide the time variation of the total number of occupants in the LEDB building. This information is used as input data for the model. While the RFID system is set on the 1st floor, which provides the time variation of the occupants' localization in each region. The collected data are used to validate the model. The simulation results show that this presented model provides a feasible framework to simulate occupants' behavior and predict the time variation of the number of occupants in the building. Further development and application of the model is also discussed.

  18. Occupational Medicine Model and Asthma Military Recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Stuart M

    2015-11-01

    Medical evidence hints that asymptomatic recruits with a history of childhood asthma, quiescent since their 13th birthday, are still at risk for adverse changes in their clinical status following unfavorable environmental exposures during military deployment or combat. Asthmatic persons, claiming none or few symptoms, may still manifest airflow obstruction and display biomarkers of airway inflammation even when they are relatively asymptomatic and experience few if any respiratory complaints. The occupational medicine model offers a credible foundation for acknowledging the importance of personal susceptibility in the pathogenesis of military-associated asthma. It is appropriate to re-explore the current military standard for recruits with asymptomatic childhood asthma (≥12 months) not prescribed antiasthma medications. Raising the acceptance age for these recruits may be a consideration. Unfortunately, there is no effectual screening test that recognizes such susceptible soldiers at risk for future asthma attacks. Nevertheless, there is general support for evidence-based, scientifically valid medical screening that judges fitness for military service. Screening tests comprising asthma biomarkers and genetic indices may better verify vulnerable soldiers destined to suffer future asthma reactivation.

  19. A microcosmic discrete occupant evacuation model based on individual characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Lizhong; LI Jian; ZHAO Daoliang; FANG Weifeng; FAN Weicheng

    2004-01-01

    The research of occupant evacuation in an emergency is of great benefit to building design and evacuation guidance. In this paper a microcosmic discrete evacuation model based on Cellular Automata (CA) is presented, in which the occupants' individual characteristics are considered. Thus, our model has given a description of evacuation route choice with influencing factors, including: individual knowledge of the building,individual realization of the emergency development, and the attractive and repulsive force between occupants. This model differs somewhat from other models in the attention to the associative and separate effect of influencing factors, based on occupant's behaviors. In addition, the model could reveal the phenomenon of escape in fire, as those simulations involving a fire condition have shown.

  20. Dual Diathesis-Stressor Model of Emotional and Linguistic Contributions to Developmental Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walden, Tedra A.; Frankel, Carl B.; Buhr, Anthony P.; Johnson, Kia N.; Conture, Edward G.; Karrass, Jan M.

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed emotional and speech-language contributions to childhood stuttering. A dual diathesis-stressor framework guided this study, in which both linguistic requirements and skills, and emotion and its regulation, are hypothesized to contribute to stuttering. The language diathesis consists of expressive and receptive language skills.…

  1. Dual Diathesis-Stressor Model of Emotional and Linguistic Contributions to Developmental Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walden, Tedra A.; Frankel, Carl B.; Buhr, Anthony P.; Johnson, Kia N.; Conture, Edward G.; Karrass, Jan M.

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed emotional and speech-language contributions to childhood stuttering. A dual diathesis-stressor framework guided this study, in which both linguistic requirements and skills, and emotion and its regulation, are hypothesized to contribute to stuttering. The language diathesis consists of expressive and receptive language skills.…

  2. A model-based approach to determine the long-term effects of multiple interacting stressors on coral reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwood, Julie C; Hastings, Alan; Mumby, Peter J

    2011-10-01

    The interaction between multiple stressors on Caribbean coral reefs, namely, fishing effort and hurricane impacts, is a key element in the future sustainability of reefs. We develop an analytic model of coral-algal interactions and explicitly consider grazing by herbivorous reef fish. Further, we consider changes in structural complexity, or rugosity, in addition to the direct impacts of hurricanes, which are implemented as stochastic jump processes. The model simulations consider various levels of fishing effort corresponding to' several hurricane frequencies and impact levels dependent on geographic location. We focus on relatively short time scales so we do not explicitly include changes in ocean temperature, chemistry, or sea level rise. The general features of our approach would, however, apply to these other stressors and to the management of other systems in the face of multiple stressors. It is determined that the appropriate management policy, either local reef restoration or fisheries management, greatly depends on hurricane frequency and impact level. For sufficiently low hurricane impact and macroalgal growth rate, our results indicate that regions with lower-frequency hurricanes require stricter fishing regulations, whereas management in regions with higher-frequency hurricanes might be less concerned with enhancing grazing and instead consider whether local-scale restorative activities to increase vertical structure are cost-effective.

  3. Occupants' satisfaction toward building environmental quality: structural equation modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaruzzaman, Syahrul Nizam; Egbu, C O; Zawawi, Emma Marinie Ahmad; Karim, Saipol Bari Abd; Woon, Chen Jia

    2015-05-01

    It is accepted that occupants who are more satisfied with their workplace's building internal environment are more productive. The main objective of the study was to measure the occupants' level of satisfaction and the perceived importance of the design or refurbishment on office conditions. The study also attempted to determine the factors affecting the occupants' satisfaction with their building or office conditions. Post-occupancy evaluations were conducted using a structured questionnaire developed by the Built Environment Research Group at the University of Manchester, UK. Our questionnaires incorporate 22 factors relating to the internal environment and rate these in terms of "user satisfaction" and "degree of importance." The questions were modified to reflect the specific setting of the study and take into consideration the local conditions and climate in Malaysia. The overall mean satisfaction of the occupants toward their office environment was 5.35. The results were measured by a single item of overall liking of office conditions in general. Occupants were more satisfied with their state of health in the workplace, but they were extremely dissatisfied with the distance away from a window. The factor analysis divided the variables into three groups, namely intrusion, air quality, and office appearance. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was then used to determine which factor had the most significant influence on occupants' satisfaction: appearance. The findings from the study suggest that continuous improvement in aspects of the building's appearance needs to be supported with effective and comprehensive maintenance to sustain the occupants' satisfaction.

  4. The Bees among Us: Modelling Occupancy of Solitary Bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIvor, J Scott; Packer, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    Occupancy modelling has received increasing attention as a tool for differentiating between true absence and non-detection in biodiversity data. This is thought to be particularly useful when a species of interest is spread out over a large area and sampling is constrained. We used occupancy modelling to estimate the probability of three phylogenetically independent pairs of native-introduced species [Megachile campanulae (Robertson)-Megachile rotundata (Fab.), Megachile pugnata Say-Megachile centuncularis (L.), Osmia pumila Cresson-Osmia caerulescens (L.)] (Apoidea: Megachilidae) being present when repeated sampling did not always find them. Our study occurred along a gradient of urbanization and used nest boxes (bee hotels) set up over three consecutive years. Occupancy modelling discovered different patterns to those obtained by species detection and abundance-based data alone. For example, it predicted that the species that was ranked 4th in terms of detection actually had the greatest occupancy among all six species. The native M. pugnata had decreased occupancy with increasing building footprint and a similar but not significant pattern was found for the native O. pumila. Two introduced bees (M. rotundata and M. centuncularis), and one native (M. campanulae) had modelled occupancy values that increased with increasing urbanization. Occupancy probability differed among urban green space types for three of six bee species, with values for two native species (M. campanulae and O. pumila) being highest in home gardens and that for the exotic O. caerulescens being highest in community gardens. The combination of occupancy modelling with analysis of habitat variables as an augmentation to detection and abundance-based sampling is suggested to be the best way to ensure that urban habitat management results in the desired outcomes.

  5. Dynamic modeling of presence of occupants using inhomogeneous Markov chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Philip Hvidthøft Delff; Iversen, Anne; Madsen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    on inhomogeneous Markov chains with where the transition probabilities are estimated using generalized linear models with polynomials, B-splines, and a filter of passed observations as inputs. For treating the dispersion of the data series, a hierarchical model structure is used where one model is for low presence......Occupancy modeling is a necessary step towards reliable simulation of energy consumption in buildings. This paper outlines a method for fitting recordings of presence of occupants and simulation of single-person to multiple-persons office environments. The method includes modeling of dependence...

  6. Work Stressors, Social Support, and Burnout in Junior Doctors: Exploring Direct and Indirect Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sochos, Antigonos; Bowers, Alexis; Kinman, Gail

    2012-01-01

    The study tested a pathway model linking different occupational stressors, different sources of social support, and burnout. A sample of 184 junior medical doctors was used. Pathway analysis suggested that doctors who experienced increased time demands, organizational constraints, and a lack of personal confidence perceived their consultants as…

  7. Tigers on trails: occupancy modeling for cluster sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, J E; Nichols, J D; Royle, J A; MacKenzie, D I; Gopalaswamy, A M; Kumar, N Samba; Karanth, K U

    2010-07-01

    Occupancy modeling focuses on inference about the distribution of organisms over space, using temporal or spatial replication to allow inference about the detection process. Inference based on spatial replication strictly requires that replicates be selected randomly and with replacement, but the importance of these design requirements is not well understood. This paper focuses on an increasingly popular sampling design based on spatial replicates that are not selected randomly and that are expected to exhibit Markovian dependence. We develop two new occupancy models for data collected under this sort of design, one based on an underlying Markov model for spatial dependence and the other based on a trap response model with Markovian detections. We then simulated data under the model for Markovian spatial dependence and fit the data to standard occupancy models and to the two new models. Bias of occupancy estimates was substantial for the standard models, smaller for the new trap response model, and negligible for the new spatial process model. We also fit these models to data from a large-scale tiger occupancy survey recently conducted in Karnataka State, southwestern India. In addition to providing evidence of a positive relationship between tiger occupancy and habitat, model selection statistics and estimates strongly supported the use of the model with Markovian spatial dependence. This new model provides another tool for the decomposition of the detection process, which is sometimes needed for proper estimation and which may also permit interesting biological inferences. In addition to designs employing spatial replication, we note the likely existence of temporal Markovian dependence in many designs using temporal replication. The models developed here will be useful either directly, or with minor extensions, for these designs as well. We believe that these new models represent important additions to the suite of modeling tools now available for occupancy

  8. Modeling repeated measurement data for occupational exposure assessment and epidemiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peretz, Chava

    2004-01-01

    Repeated measurements designs, occur frequently in the assessment of exposure to toxic chemicals. This thesis deals with the possibilities of using mixed effects models for occupational exposure assessment and in the analysis of exposure response relationships. The model enables simultaneous estima

  9. Modelling diversity in building occupant behaviour: a novel statistical approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haldi, Frédéric; Calì, Davide; Andersen, Rune Korsholm

    2016-01-01

    We propose an advanced modelling framework to predict the scope and effects of behavioural diversity regarding building occupant actions on window openings, shading devices and lighting. We develop a statistical approach based on generalised linear mixed models to account for the longitudinal nat...

  10. Applying a realistic evaluation model to occupational safety interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Louise Møller

    2017-01-01

    of occupational safety interventions. Conclusion: The revised realistic evaluation model can help safety science forward in identifying key factors for the success of occupational safety interventions. However, future research should strengthen the link between the immediate intervention results and outcome.......Background: Recent literature characterizes occupational safety interventions as complex social activities, applied in complex and dynamic social systems. Hence, the actual outcomes of an intervention will vary, depending on the intervention, the implementation process, context, personal...... characteristics of key actors (defined mechanisms), and the interplay between them, and can be categorized as expected or unexpected. However, little is known about ’how’ to include context and mechanisms in evaluations of intervention effectiveness. A revised realistic evaluation model has been introduced...

  11. Profissionais de saúde mental: estresse e estressores ocupacionais stress e estressores ocupacionais em saúde mental Profesionales de la salud mental: estrés y estresores ocupacionalesestrés y estresores ocupacionales en salud mental Mental health professionals: stress and occupational stressors stress and occupational stressors of mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Flávia de Oliveira Santos

    2010-06-01

    ón en el trabajo fueron los factores más frecuentemente asociados a la percepción de estar bajo estrés. Se concluye que los profesionales vivencian estresores asociados a los cambios relativos al paradigma psicosocial de atención, apuntando a la necesidad de intervención dirigida al desarrollo de estrategias de enfrentamiento de las situaciones ocupacionales estresoras.Mental health professionals are particularly vulnerable to stress, considering the characteristics of the work they develop. The purpose of this study was to assess the manifestation of stress, self-perception of stress, and stressing work factors in substitutive mental health service professionals. Twenty-five workers, working for at least six months, took part in the study. The instruments employed were Lipp's Inventory of Stress Symptoms in Adults and a Complementary Script. Quantitative data were treated by descriptive statistics, and the remaining data were analyzed qualitatively. It was observed that 36.0% of the professional had stress manifestations, and 44.0% perceived they were under stress. Work conditions and relationships at work were the most frequent factors associated to the perception of being under stress. In conclusion, professionals experience stressors associated with the changes implied in the psychosocial paradigm of care. Thus, there is a need to make direct interventions toward the development of coping strategies in stressing occupational situations.

  12. An Integrated Modeling Framework Forecasting Ecosystem Exposure-- A Systems Approach to the Cumulative Impacts of Multiple Stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Freshwater habitats provide fishable, swimmable and drinkable resources and are a nexus of geophysical and biological processes. These processes in turn influence the persistence and sustainability of populations, communities and ecosystems. Climate change and landuse change encompass numerous stressors of potential exposure, including the introduction of toxic contaminants, invasive species, and disease in addition to physical drivers such as temperature and hydrologic regime. A systems approach that includes the scientific and technologic basis of assessing the health of ecosystems is needed to effectively protect human health and the environment. The Integrated Environmental Modeling Framework 'iemWatersheds' has been developed as a consistent and coherent means of forecasting the cumulative impact of co-occurring stressors. The Framework consists of three facilitating technologies: Data for Environmental Modeling (D4EM) that automates the collection and standardization of input data; the Framework for Risk Assessment of Multimedia Environmental Systems (FRAMES) that manages the flow of information between linked models; and the Supercomputer for Model Uncertainty and Sensitivity Evaluation (SuperMUSE) that provides post-processing and analysis of model outputs, including uncertainty and sensitivity analysis. Five models are linked within the Framework to provide multimedia simulation capabilities for hydrology and water quality processes: the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) predicts surface water and sediment runoff and associated contaminants; the Watershed Mercury Model (WMM) predicts mercury runoff and loading to streams; the Water quality Analysis and Simulation Program (WASP) predicts water quality within the stream channel; the Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model scores physicochemical habitat quality for individual fish species; and the Bioaccumulation and Aquatic System Simulator (BASS) predicts fish growth, population dynamics and bioaccumulation

  13. Managing diverse occupational therapy resources in a creative, corporate model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptiste, S

    1993-10-01

    Two occupational therapy departments were amalgamated into a corporate whole and charged with the development of a workable, corporate structure. The departmental model which was developed served to enhance the concepts of quality of working life, employee autonomy, management team and quality circle theory. This paper provides a background from business and organizational literature, and outlines the development of the departmental model, in concert with the adoption of the client-centred model of occupational performance as a department basis for practice. This development was taking place concurrently with larger, institutional changes into a decentralized clinical programme management model. Discussion highlights the level of staff satisfaction with the changes, areas of concern during the development of the system and plans for the future growth. During this period of massive and critical change in the delivery of health care services, there has been a trend in restructuring health care institutions towards decentralized models. This paper will describe the experience of one occupational therapy department in developing an innovative departmental structure involving participatory management amalgamation. It is believed that the experience of the past occupational therapy work units with one viable option for a renewed management model. Staff skill sets can be maximized and optimal potential realized while faced with inevitable resource shrinkage and service reorganization.

  14. A Bayesian state-space formulation of dynamic occupancy models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royle, J Andrew; Kéry, Marc

    2007-07-01

    Species occurrence and its dynamic components, extinction and colonization probabilities, are focal quantities in biogeography and metapopulation biology, and for species conservation assessments. It has been increasingly appreciated that these parameters must be estimated separately from detection probability to avoid the biases induced by non-detection error. Hence, there is now considerable theoretical and practical interest in dynamic occupancy models that contain explicit representations of metapopulation dynamics such as extinction, colonization, and turnover as well as growth rates. We describe a hierarchical parameterization of these models that is analogous to the state-space formulation of models in time series, where the model is represented by two components, one for the partially observable occupancy process and another for the observations conditional on that process. This parameterization naturally allows estimation of all parameters of the conventional approach to occupancy models, but in addition, yields great flexibility and extensibility, e.g., to modeling heterogeneity or latent structure in model parameters. We also highlight the important distinction between population and finite sample inference; the latter yields much more precise estimates for the particular sample at hand. Finite sample estimates can easily be obtained using the state-space representation of the model but are difficult to obtain under the conventional approach of likelihood-based estimation. We use R and WinBUGS to apply the model to two examples. In a standard analysis for the European Crossbill in a large Swiss monitoring program, we fit a model with year-specific parameters. Estimates of the dynamic parameters varied greatly among years, highlighting the irruptive population dynamics of that species. In the second example, we analyze route occupancy of Cerulean Warblers in the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) using a model allowing for site

  15. A Bayesian state-space formulation of dynamic occupancy models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royle, J. Andrew; Kery, M.

    2007-01-01

    Species occurrence and its dynamic components, extinction and colonization probabilities, are focal quantities in biogeography and metapopulation biology, and for species conservation assessments. It has been increasingly appreciated that these parameters must be estimated separately from detection probability to avoid the biases induced by nondetection error. Hence, there is now considerable theoretical and practical interest in dynamic occupancy models that contain explicit representations of metapopulation dynamics such as extinction, colonization, and turnover as well as growth rates. We describe a hierarchical parameterization of these models that is analogous to the state-space formulation of models in time series, where the model is represented by two components, one for the partially observable occupancy process and another for the observations conditional on that process. This parameterization naturally allows estimation of all parameters of the conventional approach to occupancy models, but in addition, yields great flexibility and extensibility, e.g., to modeling heterogeneity or latent structure in model parameters. We also highlight the important distinction between population and finite sample inference; the latter yields much more precise estimates for the particular sample at hand. Finite sample estimates can easily be obtained using the state-space representation of the model but are difficult to obtain under the conventional approach of likelihood-based estimation. We use R and Win BUGS to apply the model to two examples. In a standard analysis for the European Crossbill in a large Swiss monitoring program, we fit a model with year-specific parameters. Estimates of the dynamic parameters varied greatly among years, highlighting the irruptive population dynamics of that species. In the second example, we analyze route occupancy of Cerulean Warblers in the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) using a model allowing for site

  16. Occupant evacuation model based on cellular automata in fire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    By applying the rules set in traffic flow and pedestrian flow models, a basic cellular automata model is presented to simulate occupant evacuation in fire. Some extended models are introduced to study the special phenomena of evacuation from the fire room. The key of the models is the introduction of the danger grade which makes the route choice convenient and reasonable. Fire not only influences the emotional and behavioral characteristics of an individual but also affects his physical constitution, which reduces his maximal possible velocity. The models consider these influence factors by applying a set of simple but effective rules. It is needed to emphasize that all rules are established according to the essential phenomenon in fire evacuation, that is, all the occupants would try to move to the safest place as fast as possible. Some simulation examples are also presented to validate the applicability of the models.

  17. Management decision making for fisher populations informed by occupancy modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Angela K.; Linden, Daniel W.; Royle, J. Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Harvest data are often used by wildlife managers when setting harvest regulations for species because the data are regularly collected and do not require implementation of logistically and financially challenging studies to obtain the data. However, when harvest data are not available because an area had not previously supported a harvest season, alternative approaches are required to help inform management decision making. When distribution or density data are required across large areas, occupancy modeling is a useful approach, and under certain conditions, can be used as a surrogate for density. We collaborated with the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) to conduct a camera trapping study across a 70,096-km2 region of southern New York in areas that were currently open to fisher (Pekania [Martes] pennanti) harvest and those that had been closed to harvest for approximately 65 years. We used detection–nondetection data at 826 sites to model occupancy as a function of site-level landscape characteristics while accounting for sampling variation. Fisher occupancy was influenced positively by the proportion of conifer and mixed-wood forest within a 15-km2 grid cell and negatively associated with road density and the proportion of agriculture. Model-averaged predictions indicated high occupancy probabilities (>0.90) when road densities were low (0.50). Predicted occupancy ranged 0.41–0.67 in wildlife management units (WMUs) currently open to trapping, which could be used to guide a minimum occupancy threshold for opening new areas to trapping seasons. There were 5 WMUs that had been closed to trapping but had an average predicted occupancy of 0.52 (0.07 SE), and above the threshold of 0.41. These areas are currently under consideration by NYSDEC for opening a conservative harvest season. We demonstrate the use of occupancy modeling as an aid to management decision making when harvest-related data are unavailable and when budgetary

  18. Hidden Markov Models for indirect classification of occupant behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liisberg, Jon Anders Reichert; Møller, Jan Kloppenborg; Bloem, H.

    2016-01-01

    Even for similar residential buildings, a huge variability in the energy consumption can be observed. This variability is mainly due to the different behaviours of the occupants and this impacts the thermal (temperature setting, window opening, etc.) as well as the electrical (appliances, TV....... This paper focuses on the use of Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) to create methods for indirect observations and characterisation of occupant behaviour. By applying homogeneous HMMs on the electricity consumption of fourteen apartments, three states describing the data were found suitable. The most likely...

  19. Advanced REACH tool: A Bayesian model for occupational exposure assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McNally, K.; Warren, N.; Fransman, W.; Entink, R.K.; Schinkel, J.; Van Tongeren, M.; Cherrie, J.W.; Kromhout, H.; Schneider, T.; Tielemans, E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a Bayesian model for the assessment of inhalation exposures in an occupational setting; the methodology underpins a freely available web-based application for exposure assessment, the Advanced REACH Tool (ART). The ART is a higher tier exposure tool that combines disparate sourc

  20. Evaluation of occupant models for rear impact injury analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, W.P.; Griffioen, J.; Marshall, R.

    1999-01-01

    Occupant injury in automobile rear-end collisions is becoming one of the most costly and aggravating traffic safety problems. Designing seat and head restraints to help limit injury associated with rear-end impact can become more efficient by using new mathematical modeling techniques. Using the

  1. Does aging make employees more resilient to job stress? Age as a moderator in the job stressor-well-being relationship in three Finnish occupational samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauno, Saija; Ruokolainen, Mervi; Kinnunen, Ulla

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether an employee's age moderates the relationships between job stressors (i.e. job insecurity, workload, work-family conflict) and self-rated well-being (i.e. work-family enrichment, life satisfaction, job satisfaction, vigor at work). Analysis of covariance and moderated hierarchical regression analysis were used to examine the cross-sectional Finnish data collected among service sector employees (N = 1037), nurses (N = 1719), and academic employees (N = 945). In a situation of high job insecurity, the younger nurses reported higher work-family enrichment, job satisfaction, and vigor compared to their older colleagues. A similar result was also found among the service sector workers in relation to vigor at work. Thus, young age buffered against negative outcomes related to job insecurity. Moreover, older age buffered against the negative effect of high workload on job satisfaction among the service sector and against high work-family conflict on life satisfaction among the academic employees. More attention should be paid to the ability of younger employees to manage problems related to work-family imbalance and high workload, and to older employees' ability to cope with job insecurity. The findings of this study recommend different stress management interventions for older and younger employees.

  2. Teacher Efficacy in Student Engagement, Instructional Management, Student Stressors, and Burnout: A Theoretical Model Using In-Class Variables to Predict Teachers' Intent-to-Leave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nancy K.; Sass, Daniel A.; Schmitt, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    The models presented here posit a complex relationship between efficacy in student engagement and intent-to-leave that is mediated by in-class variables of instructional management, student behavior stressors, aspects of burnout, and job satisfaction. Using data collected from 631 teachers, analyses provided support for the two models that…

  3. Evidence-Based Approach to Treating Lateral Epicondylitis Using the Occupational Adaptation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    The occupational therapy Centennial Vision reinforces the importance of informing consumers about the benefit of occupational therapy and continuing to advocate for the unique client-centered role of occupational therapy. Occupational therapy practitioners working in hand therapy have traditionally found it difficult to combine the biomechanical foundations of hand therapy with the fundamental client-centered tenets of occupational therapy. Embracing our historical roots will become more important as health care evolves and third-party payers continue to scrutinize the need for the profession of occupational therapy. This article outlines a client-centered approach for hand therapists for the treatment of lateral epicondylitis using the Occupational Adaptation Model.

  4. Identification of psychobiological stressors among HIV-positive women. HIV Neurobehavioral Research Center (HNRC) Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, S J; Patterson, T L; Temoshok, L R; McCutchan, J A; Straits-Tröster, K A; Chandler, J L; Grant, I

    1993-01-01

    This research describes major stressors in the lives of women who have been infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Thirty-one HIV antibody positive (HIV+) women infected primarily through heterosexual contact participated in a two hour semi-structured interview detailing the circumstances, context, and consequences of all stressful life events and difficulties experienced within the preceding six months. Qualitative methods of data analyses were utilized (Miles & Huberman, 1984). HIV-related life events and difficulties were classified into primary and secondary stressors based on the stress process model (Pearlin et al., 1981). Problems arising directly from one's seropositivity were defined as primary stressors. Stressful life events and difficulties occurring in other role areas were defined as secondary stressors. Six categories of HIV-related stressors were identified and quantified. Primary stressors were health-related, and included both gynecological problems (e.g., amenorrhea) and general symptoms of HIV infection (e.g., fatigue). Secondary stressors related to child and family (e.g., future guardianship of children), marital/partner relations (e.g., disclosure of HIV+ status), occupation (e.g., arranging time-off for medical appointments), economic problems (e.g., insurance "hassles"), and social network events (e.g., death of friends from AIDS). This research indicates that HIV-positive women are exposed to multiple stressors; some may be viewed as unique to women, whereas others may be considered common to both sexes. Identification of stressors has implications for the design of medical and psychiatric interventions for women.

  5. Strengthening the Kawa model: Japanese perspectives on person, occupation, and environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Mineko

    2011-10-01

    The Kawa model emerged to meet a need for occupational therapy models and theories relevant to Japanese clients and since its inception has evolved considerably. To provide an overview of the Kawa model and to contribute to a critique of the model from Japanese perspectives on person, occupation, and environment. The paper notes that the Kawa model does not portray inner self nor does it integrate one's active belonging; the author identifies the challenges of addressing issues related to occupations, and introduces the concept of seken (day-to-day community). The model would be strengthened by presenting inner self and a discrete layer of seken in the environment to effectively articulate belonging. The ways of presenting occupation need to be improved to capture relationships between occupation and belonging, effects of occupations, and positive and negative meanings attributed to an occupation. Exploring relationships between self occupation, life flow, and harmony is warranted.

  6. 民警职业应激相关因素与血清甲状腺激素浓度的关系%Relationship between occupational stressors and serum levels of thyroid hormones in policemen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴辉; 谷桂珍; 周文慧; 吴艳延; 姜开友; 余善法

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨职业应激相关因素与血清中三碘甲状腺原氨酸(T3)、甲状腺素(T4)和促甲状腺激素(TSH)浓度的关系.方法 以方便抽样与整群抽样方法抽取某市公安局某派出所的225名在职民警为研究对象.使用问卷调查其人口统计学特征和职业应激相关因素.采用放射免疫法对血清中T3、T4和TSH的浓度进行检测.应用SPSS13.0软件对数据进行t检验或方差分析、偏相关分析和多因素非条件logistic回归等统计学分析.结果 回报与血清中T3浓度呈正相关(P<0.05),每日紧张感与血清中T4浓度呈正相关(P<0.05),心理需求、付出和每日紧张感与血清中TSH浓度呈负相关(均P<0.05),睡眠质量与血清中TSH浓度呈正相关(P<0.05);logistic回归分析显示,每日紧张感高评分组的血清中T3浓度升高的风险是低评分组的3.19倍,负性情绪高评分组的血清中T3浓度升高的风险是低评分组的1.32倍;负性情绪高评分组的血清中TSH浓度升高的风险是低评分组的0.43倍.结论 职业应激相关因素与血清中甲状腺激素水平之间存在相关性;职业应激可导致血清中T3浓度升高,TSH浓度降低,但未发现对血清中T4浓度有影响.%Objective To explore the relationship of occupational stressors with the serum levels of triiodothyronine (T3),thyroxine (T4),and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH).Methods Using convenience sampling and cluster sampling methods,225 policemen from a local police station in China were enrolled as subjects.Questionnaires were used to investigate demographic features and occupational stressors in those subjects.The serum levels of T3,T4,and TSH were measured by radioimmunoassay.The SPSS 13.0 software was used to perform t test or analysis of variance,partial correlation analysis,and multivariate non-conditional logistic regression analysis.Results Reward was positively correlated with the level of T3(P<0.05).Daily tension was positively

  7. Demand-control-person: integrating the demand-control and conservation of resources models to test an expanded stressor-strain model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubino, Cristina; Perry, Sara Jansen; Milam, Alex C; Spitzmueller, Christiane; Zapf, Dieter

    2012-10-01

    We propose an expanded stressor-strain model that explicitly incorporates person characteristics, the Demand-Control-Person model. This model integrates Karasek's traditional Demand-Control model with Hobfoll's (1989) Conservation of Resources theory. With participants from two organizations, we tested the moderating role of emotional stability in conjunction with two job demands (i.e., uncertainty and time pressure) and control (i.e., decision latitude) in predicting two forms of strain (i.e., job dissatisfaction and disengagement). Our findings support the expanded Demand-Control-Person model, such that a significant three-way interaction emerged for uncertainty and time pressure. As predicted, the traditional Demand-Control model only held among individuals high in emotional stability, such that low-emotional stability individuals did either not benefit as readily from decision latitude or were more susceptible to job demands when they had decision latitude. Thus, the Demand-Control-Person model may provide a more comprehensive model and consistent prediction of the effect of stressors on strain as determined by individual characteristics.

  8. Agreeableness, Extraversion, Stressor and Physiological Stress Response

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoyuan Chu; Zhentao Ma; Yuan Li; Jing Han

    2015-01-01

    Based on the theoretical analysis, with first-hand data collection and using multiple regression models, this study explored the relationship between agreeableness, extraversion, stressor and stress response and figured out interactive effect of agreeableness, extraversion, and stressor on stress response. We draw on the following conclusions: (1) the interaction term of stressor (work) and agreeableness can negatively predict physiological stress response; (2) the interaction term of stresso...

  9. Occupational gender segregation: index measurement and econometric modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, M

    1998-11-01

    Empirical studies of gender segregation by occupation must be founded on rigorous measurement procedures. There appears to be a consensus that any index used in the analysis of time-series or international cross-section employment data must be either margin-free or decomposable to yield a margin-free component. On the other hand, Charles and Grusky (1995) advocate the use of multiplicative log models from which a margin-free odds ratio can be derived. In this paper, I contrast the construction and interpretation of the index of dissimilarity and the Karmel-MacLachlan index with the multiplicative modeling of gender segregation and the associated log index.

  10. An integrated occupational hygiene consultation model for the catering industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Kuei; Lee, Lien-Hsiung

    2010-07-01

    Vegetable oil used in food processing, during high-temperature exposure, will generate particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are carcinogenic chemical compounds, with the potential to cause lung disease for restaurant kitchen staff. This study's design includes a three-stage consultation process with eight major consultation items, in order to build an integrated consultation model for occupational hygiene. This model combines inspection and consultation, targeting Chinese restaurants in the catering industry. Characteristics of the integrated consultation model include cooperation between different government departments and collaboration with nongovernmental, professional consulting organizations. An additional benefit of the model is the building of a good partnership relationship with the Catering Trade Association. The consultation model helps Chinese restaurants attain improvements in their work environments with minimal investment. Postconsultation, results show a 63.35% and 61.98% (P < 0.001) decrease in the mean time-weighted concentration of exposure to PM and PAHs, respectively. The overall regulation compliance rate of Chinese restaurants significantly increased from 34.3% to 89.6%. These results show that the integrated consultation model for occupational hygiene not only helps small and medium enterprises reduce exposure concentrations in the workplace but also has specific potential for successful implementation in Taiwan.

  11. A Variational Bayes Approach to the Analysis of Occupancy Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan E Clark

    Full Text Available Detection-nondetection data are often used to investigate species range dynamics using Bayesian occupancy models which rely on the use of Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC methods to sample from the posterior distribution of the parameters of the model. In this article we develop two Variational Bayes (VB approximations to the posterior distribution of the parameters of a single-season site occupancy model which uses logistic link functions to model the probability of species occurrence at sites and of species detection probabilities. This task is accomplished through the development of iterative algorithms that do not use MCMC methods. Simulations and small practical examples demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique. We specifically show that (under certain circumstances the variational distributions can provide accurate approximations to the true posterior distributions of the parameters of the model when the number of visits per site (K are as low as three and that the accuracy of the approximations improves as K increases. We also show that the methodology can be used to obtain the posterior distribution of the predictive distribution of the proportion of sites occupied (PAO.

  12. An analysis of characteristic occupational stressors for medical staff in general hospitals%三级综合医院医务人员职业压力源特征及分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王香平; 赵利杰; 邢华; 刘佑琴; 王卓; 钱慧欣; 王建敏; 花蕾; 白弘冬; 王晓燕; 王明晓; 贺蓓; 席修明; 信彬; 汤哲

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨北京市医务人员职业压力源水平、特征及其相关因素.方法 应用自行设计问卷对北京市5所三级综合医院2 460名医务人员进行调查.结果 三级综合医院医务人员的压力源排序前10位的是工作责任重、风险大,工作量大,工资待遇低,医疗管理体制问题,人员配备数量不足,各类检查考核频繁,医患关系紧张,物价上涨因素,经常加班超时工作,继续学习压力;认为职业压力中度及以上的占95.2%;不同年龄、性别、婚姻状态、职称、学历、工作年限及不同单位、科室、专业、职务等对职业压力的影响均有统计学意义.结论 应结合人口学特征与压力特点针对性地开展压力管理,采取有效措施缓解医务人员的工作压力,保持员工身心健康,提高工作效率与组织凝聚力.%Objective To explore the status, characteristics and factors in relation to occupational stress for medical staffs in tertiary general hospitals. Methods A total of 2460 medical staff were sampled in five tertiary general hospitals in Beijing, with their occupational stress levels evaluated with the Occupational Stress Inventory. Results The top ten stressors as found ranked as heavy duty, high risk exposure, high workload, low wages, setbacks in the health care management system, insufficient staffing, excessively frequent inspections and examinations, strained doctor-patient relationship, price inflation, frequent overtime, and pressure from continuous learning. Occupational stress is seen as moderate and above by 95.2% of the surveyed. Differences in age, gender, marital status, professional title, education, work experience, as well as those of different organizations, departments, professions, and duty were found to be statistically significant in regard of professional stress. Conclusions Stress management should be in place targeting demographic and stress characteristics. Effective measures are recommended to

  13. Occupational Well-Being of School Staff Members: A Structural Equation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saaranen, Terhi; Tossavainen, Kerttu; Turunen, Hannele; Kiviniemi, Vesa; Vertio, Harri

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a theoretical basis for the promotion of school staff's occupational well-being. The "Content Model for the Promotion of School Community Staff's Occupational Well-being" describes the four aspects of the promotion of occupational well-being ("working conditions", "worker and work", "working community" and "professional…

  14. Occupational therapy influence on a carer peer support model in a clinical mental health service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Cate; Sanders, Bronwyn; Allchin, Becca; Lentin, Primrose; Lang, Shannon

    2015-10-01

    Current policy frameworks call for the participation of consumers and carers in all levels of mental health service delivery in Australia. Such inclusion leads to better outcomes for all, however, it is recognised that carers have needs and occupations beyond their carer role. The aim of this article is to describe an innovative carer peer support program developed by a group of occupational therapists. The article describes the rationale, phases of development and the role that occupational therapists played in developing and sustaining the model. This is followed by an exploration of the occupational therapy attitudes, knowledge and skills that contributed to the conceptualisation and implementation of the model. Five occupational therapists engaged in a review process involving documentation, literature review, evaluation, reflection and discussion. Four of the occupational therapists had either coordinated or managed the service described. The fifth author facilitated the process. Review of the model indicates it equips carers to perform their caring occupation and helps carers recognise the need for occupations beyond caring, for their health and wellbeing. Employing carers as paid workers values their 'real life' experience in their caring occupation. Findings also illustrate that the attitudes, knowledge, skills and competency standards of occupational therapists are well suited in enabling this emerging area of service delivery. Although this model has been developed in a clinical mental health setting, the key principles could be applied with carers or consumers across a variety of settings in which occupational therapists are employed. © 2015 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  15. Chemical and natural stressors combined:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gergs, André; Zenker, Armin; Grimm, Volker

    2013-01-01

    In addition to natural stressors, populations are increasingly exposed to chemical pollutants released into the environment. We experimentally demonstrate the loss of resilience for Daphnia magna populations that are exposed to a combination of natural and chemical stressors even though effects...... on population size of a single stressor were cryptic, i.e. hard to detect statistically. Data on Daphnia population demography and along with model-based exploration of our predator-prey system revealed that direct trophic interactions changed the population size-structure and thereby increased population...... vulnerability to the toxicant which acts in a size selective manner. Moreover, population vulnerability to the toxicant increases with predator size and predation intensity whereas indirect trait-mediated interactions via predator kairomones may buffer chemical effects to a certain extent. Our study...

  16. The multiple stressor ecological risk assessment for the mercury-contaminated South River and upper Shenandoah River using the Bayesian network-relative risk model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Wayne G; Ayre, Kimberley K; Johns, Annie F; Summers, Heather M; Stinson, Jonah; Harris, Meagan J; Herring, Carlie E; Markiewicz, April J

    2017-01-01

    We have conducted a regional scale risk assessment using the Bayesian Network Relative Risk Model (BN-RRM) to calculate the ecological risks to the South River and upper Shenandoah River study area. Four biological endpoints (smallmouth bass, white sucker, Belted Kingfisher, and Carolina Wren) and 4 abiotic endpoints (Fishing River Use, Swimming River Use, Boating River Use, and Water Quality Standards) were included in this risk assessment, based on stakeholder input. Although mercury (Hg) contamination was the original impetus for the site being remediated, other chemical and physical stressors were evaluated. There were 3 primary conclusions from the BN-RRM results. First, risk varies according to location, type and quality of habitat, and exposure to stressors within the landscape. The patterns of risk can be evaluated with reasonable certitude. Second, overall risk to abiotic endpoints was greater than overall risk to biotic endpoints. By including both biotic and abiotic endpoints, we are able to compare risk to endpoints that represent a wide range of stakeholder values. Third, whereas Hg reduction is the regulatory priority for the South River, Hg is not the only stressor driving risk to the endpoints. Ecological and habitat stressors contribute risk to the endpoints and should be considered when managing this site. This research provides the foundation for evaluating the risks of multiple stressors of the South River to a variety of endpoints. From this foundation, tools for the evaluation of management options and an adaptive management tools have been forged. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:85-99. © 2016 SETAC.

  17. Cellular model for studying accommodation to environmental stressors: a protective response to subtoxic exposure to cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, B.; Lesowitz, G.S.; Bernstein, I.A.; Dinman, B.D.

    1978-01-01

    A model is described for testing the effect of exposure to subtoxic challenge upon cellular integrity. The model incorporates Physarum polycephalum as a biological assay system, the ability of the cell to traverse the cell cycle as an indicator of cell integrity, and the use of repeated challenge by cadmium ion as a mechanism for amplifying the response to subthreshold exposure. A sensitivity profile of Physarum, developed by periodic exposure to 5 x 10/sup -4/ M Cd/sup 2 +/ for 30 min throughout the cell cycle, contains two peaks of sensitivity resulting in mitotic delay, one in early S and the other in late G/sub 2/. Physarum accommodates to a subtoxic challenge of Cd/sup 2 +/ by developing a protective response: Exposure to 10/sup -4/ M Cd/sup 2 +/ for 30 min in early G/sub 2/ (0.45 cycle), which does not delay mitosis, protects Physarum against a mitotic delay of 105 min resulting from exposure to 4 x 10/sup -4/ M Cd/sup 2 +/ for 30 min in late G/sub 2/ (0.75 cycle). Protection persists for at least two cell cycles.

  18. Testing the Relationship between Three-Component Organizational/Occupational Commitment and Organizational/Occupational Turnover Intention Using a Non-Recursive Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Huo-Tsan; Chi, Nai-Wen; Miao, Min-Chih

    2007-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between three-component organizational/occupational commitment and organizational/occupational turnover intention, and the reciprocal relationship between organizational and occupational turnover intention with a non-recursive model in collectivist cultural settings. We selected 177 nursing staffs out of 30…

  19. Leadership and Occupational Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickle, Fred E.; Scott, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    In a leadership position, it is important to understand what stress is and how it affects others. In an occupational setting, stressors vary according to personality types, gender, and occupational rank. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the foundations of stress and to explore how personality characteristics influence stress.…

  20. The Kawa model: the power of culturally responsive occupational therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwama, Michael K; Thomson, Nicole A; Macdonald, Rona M

    2009-01-01

    The Kawa (Japanese for river) model, developed by Japanese and Canadian rehabilitation professionals, presents an important and novel alternative to contemporary 'Western' models of rehabilitation. Rather than focussing primarily on the individual client, the Kawa model focusses on 'contexts' that shape and influence the realities and challenges of peoples' dayto-day lives. The first substantial model of rehabilitation practice developed outside of the West illuminates the transactional quality of human-environment dynamics and the importance of inter-relations of self and others through the metaphor of a river's flow. The model's reflection of Eastern thought and views of nature presents a useful point of comparison to familiar rational and mechanical explanations of occupation and well-being. In this article, the rationale for an alternative model in rehabilitation is presented, followed by an explanation of the structure and concepts of the Kawa model. Implications for culturally responsive practice as well as the model's significance to the advancement of culturally safe rehabilitation worldwide are discussed.

  1. Interprofessional Education in Occupational Therapy: The Idaho State University Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Gee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Interprofessional education (IPE is becoming a common practice among most allied health professions as a part of entry level training. IPE is intended to promote greater professional collaboration in routine clinical practice. The prerequisites for this type of educational process include gaining an understanding of one’s own and other professions while developing mutual respect, trust, and communication skills. The Idaho State University (ISU Interdisciplinary Evaluation Team (IET course delivery model is one such vehicle which fosters IPE across numerous disciplines while providing significant clinical support to the local community. This study presents the ISU IET course process, which combines clinical care of community pediatric clients via student/clinician partnership, which reflect on the process of interprofessional care. Occupational therapy student perceptions of the IET course consistently trended in favorable directions. All participants desired more opportunities for IPE combined with direct client interaction as a part of their other course work. Occupational therapy educational programs are well suited and positioned to host and/or to establish key roles in IPE to support student clinical training and meet the health and needs of their local communities.

  2. Workplace model for physical therapists and occupational therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Joan I J; Warren, Sharon; Cummings, Greta; Smith, Donna L; Olson, Joanne K

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to test a model linking physical therapy (PT) and occupational therapy (OT) practitioners' perceptions of resonant leadership, structural empowerment and psychological empowerment to their experiences of spirit at work (SAW), job satisfaction and organizational commitment within the Canadian workplace. The authors tested the model using LISREL 8.80 and survey data from 101 OTs and 169 PTs, randomly selected by the Alberta professional licensing associations. Content analysis of responses to the open-ended comments section provided additional depth and insight. Analysis of results culminated in minor modifications to the original theoretical model, creating separate PT and OT models. Both models revealed a good fit with the observed data. Several SAW concepts accounted for moderate to large amounts of variance in both PT and OT models, indicating that SAW is a comprehensive workplace outcome. Theory was derived from business and nursing research literature due to limited rehabilitation research literature. Discussion of OT results must consider the small sample size. This study is initial exploratory research. Each discipline-specific model provides professionals, health care leaders and policy makers with a rich body of information upon which to base beneficial workplace decisions. SAW will guide leaders in the holistic development and enrichment of the work environment. This research contributes to the substantive knowledge of the OT and PT disciplines, particularly in the areas of leadership, workplace structural organization and indicators of healthy work environments such as SAW, empowerment, job satisfaction and organizational commitment.

  3. A cohort study of psychosocial work stressors on work ability among Brazilian hospital workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Maria Carmen; do Rosário Dias de Oliveira Latorre, Maria; Fischer, Frida Marina

    2015-07-01

    Hospital work is characterized by stressors that can influence work ability. The present study aims to assess the association between psychosocial work stressors and changes in work ability in a group of Brazilian hospital employees. From 1,022 workers included in a 3-year cohort started in 2009, 423 (41.4%) returned the applied questionnaires in 2012. Changes in work ability were considered as the dependent variable and the investigated psychosocial work stressors as independent variables. Logistic regression models adjusted for potential con-founders (demographic, occupational features, social support, overcommitment, and situations liable to cause pain/injury). High levels of exposure to psychosocial work stressors were significantly associated with decreased work ability: job strain (OR = 2.81), effort-reward imbalance (OR = 3.21). Strategies to reduce psychosocial work stressors should be considered to maintain hospital employees' work ability. Such strategies have implications for institutional and social policies and might be included in quality management programs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Stressors affect the response of male and female rats to clomipramine in a model of behavioral despair (forced swim test).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consoli, Daniele; Fedotova, Julia; Micale, Vincenzo; Sapronov, Nikolay S; Drago, Filippo

    2005-09-27

    Aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of physical stressors (electric foot-shocks) on effect of the antidepressant drug, clomipramine and plasma corticosterone levels in male and female rats tested in a model of behavioral despair (forced swim test,). Male and female rats of the Wistar strain were injected with clomipramine (50 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline. A group of animals also received electric shocks of different intensity and duration of 24, 5 and 1 h before being subjected to forced swim test. At the end of behavioral procedures, vaginal smears were assessed in all female animals and data on immobility time were plotted according to the ovarian cycle phase. After decapitation, corticosterone plasma levels were measured by radioimmunoassay in both male and female rats. Application of mild shocks (5 ms, 0.1 mA) significantly reduced immobility time in forced swim test of untreated male rats and augmented clomipramine effect on this parameter. Moderate shocks of higher intensity or duration (5 ms, 1.0 mA) also resulted in decreased immobility time of untreated male rats, but in reduced effect of clomipramine treatment. Furthermore, application of severe shocks (10 ms, 1.0 mA) increased the immobility time in untreated animals and totally abolished clomipramine effect in forced swim test. Untreated non-shocked female rats in proestrous and estrous phases exhibited a longer immobility time as compared to diestrous animals. Immobility time appeared to be generally higher when mild, moderate or severe shocks were applied prior to behavioral testing in proestrous and estrous animals, while the behavioral response of diestrous and metestrous animals did not differ from that of controls. Clomipramine effect on immobility time was generally reduced by application of shocks of every strengths. Stress-induced plasma corticosterone levels surge correlated with intensity and duration of shocks in both male and female rats, but clomipramine treatment generally

  5. Towards a new generation of breeding bird Atlases: annual Atlases based on site-occupancy models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Strien, A.; van Turnhout, C.; Soldaat, L.

    2010-01-01

    Site-occupancy models which take into account detection probability of species have promising applications for Atlas work. These models enable to estimate the ‘true’ state of occupancy in sites even if sites differ in observation effort. Data collected with different field methods and opportunistic

  6. Injury count model for quantification of risk of occupational injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanzode, Vivek V; Maiti, J; Ray, P K

    2011-06-01

    Reduction of risk of occupational injuries is one of the most challenging problems faced by industry. Assessing and comparing risks involved in different jobs is one of the important steps towards reducing injury risk. In this study, a comprehensive scheme is given for assessing and comparing injury risks with the development of injury count model, injury risk model and derived statistics. The hazards present in a work system and the nature of the job carried out by workers are perceived as important drivers of injury potential of a work system. A loglinear model is used to quantify injury counts and the event-tree approach with joint, marginal and conditional probabilities is used to quantify injury risk. A case study was carried out in an underground coal mine. Finally a number of indices are proposed for the case study mine to capture risk of injury in different jobs. The findings of this study will help in designing injury intervention strategies for the mine studied. The job-wise risk profiles will be used to prioritise the jobs for redesign. The absolute indices can be applied for benchmarking job-wise risks and the relative indices can be used for comparing job-wise risks across work systems.

  7. Modeling the Occupational/Career Decision-Making Processes of Intellectually Gifted Adolescents: A Competing Models Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jae Yup

    2014-01-01

    This study developed and empirically tested two related models of the occupational/career decision-making processes of gifted adolescents using a competing models strategy. The two models that guided the study, which acknowledged cultural orientations, social influences from the family, occupational/career values, and characteristics of…

  8. Stochastic Modeling of Overtime Occupancy and Its Application in Building Energy Simulation and Calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Kaiyu; Yan, Da; Hong, Tianzhen; Guo, Siyue

    2014-02-28

    Overtime is a common phenomenon around the world. Overtime drives both internal heat gains from occupants, lighting and plug-loads, and HVAC operation during overtime periods. Overtime leads to longer occupancy hours and extended operation of building services systems beyond normal working hours, thus overtime impacts total building energy use. Current literature lacks methods to model overtime occupancy because overtime is stochastic in nature and varies by individual occupants and by time. To address this gap in the literature, this study aims to develop a new stochastic model based on the statistical analysis of measured overtime occupancy data from an office building. A binomial distribution is used to represent the total number of occupants working overtime, while an exponential distribution is used to represent the duration of overtime periods. The overtime model is used to generate overtime occupancy schedules as an input to the energy model of a second office building. The measured and simulated cooling energy use during the overtime period is compared in order to validate the overtime model. A hybrid approach to energy model calibration is proposed and tested, which combines ASHRAE Guideline 14 for the calibration of the energy model during normal working hours, and a proposed KS test for the calibration of the energy model during overtime. The developed stochastic overtime model and the hybrid calibration approach can be used in building energy simulations to improve the accuracy of results, and better understand the characteristics of overtime in office buildings.

  9. Family stressors and child obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garasky, Steven a; Stewart, Susan D; Gundersen, Craig; Lohman, Brenda J; Eisenmann, Joey C

    2009-12-01

    Child obesity is a public health priority with numerous and complex causes. This study focuses on factors within the family, namely stressful experiences, which may be associated with child obesity. We examine data from the Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics for children in two age groups: 5-11 and 12-17 years old. Results from an ordered probit regression model of child weight categorizations (healthy weight, overweight, obese) indicate positive associations between a range of family stressors (lack of cognitive stimulation and emotional support in the household among younger children, and mental and physical health problems and financial strain in the household among older children) and child overweight and obesity. We discuss how public policies that reduce family stressors may, in turn, help reduce child obesity.

  10. An Application of the Occupation Competence Model to Organizing Factors Associated with Return to Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Lynn; Polatajko, Helene

    2002-01-01

    A 20-year review of literature on return to work outcomes for ill or injured persons found that research is largely atheoretical and the knowledge base fragmented. The Occupational Competence Model can fill this gap by reflecting the multidimensional nature of work disability (personal, environmental, and occupational dimensions) and factors…

  11. Semiclassical properties of eigenfunctions and occupation number distribution for a model of two interacting particles

    CERN Document Server

    Bénet, L; Seligman, T H; Suárez-Moreno, A

    1999-01-01

    Quantum-classical correspondence for the shape of eigenfunctions, local spectral density of states and occupation number distribution is studied in a chaotic model of two coupled quartic oscillators. In particular, it is shown that both classical quantities and quantum spectra determine global properties of occupation numbers and inverse participation ratio.

  12. Occupational Decision-Related Processes for Amotivated Adolescents: Confirmation of a Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jae Yup; McCormick, John

    2011-01-01

    This study developed and (statistically) confirmed a new model of the occupational decision-related processes of adolescents, in terms of the extent to which they may be amotivated about choosing a future occupation. A theoretical framework guided the study. A questionnaire that had previously been administered to an Australian adolescent sample…

  13. Effect of thermostat and window opening occupant behavior models on energy use in homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Oca, Simona; Fabi, Valentina; Corgnati, Stefano P.;

    2014-01-01

    , in everyday practice occupants interact with the building plant system and building envelope in order to achieve desired indoor environmental conditions. In this study, occupant behavior in residential building was modelled accordingly to a probabilistic approach. A new methodology was developed to combine...

  14. Occupational medicine - then and now: Where we could go from here

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belkić Karen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Occupational medicine has a long-standing history in the region of the former Yugoslavia with seminal contributions to the theory and practice of this discipline. This tradition should be expanded to incorporate psychosocial stressors. We review the sociological work stress models and empirical evidence gleaned thereby, and then the occupational stressor index, an additive burden model developed from a cognitive ergonomics perspective. In numerous studies, the occupational stressor index is significantly associated with risk behaviors: smoking, obesity and sedentariness and clinical outcomes: hypertension, ischemic heart disease, dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes. The occupational stressor index characterizes the work conditions of physicians including surgeons and anesthesiologists; professional drivers and other groups at elevated risk for stress-related disorders. Much of these empirical data are from this region. Work-stress related health disorders are a major public health problem, with enormous human and economic costs. A more proactive role for physicians is needed vis-à-vis our working environment and that of patients. We physicians face a heavy job stressor burden strongly implicated with adverse health outcomes. The challenge is to identify effective strategies to lower the risk of work-stressor related illness. The critical gap is the lack of evidence-based guidelines. Intervention studies are needed in which job stressors are ameliorated as a therapeutic/preventive modality; the logical starting point is within our own profession. We also suggest how the relevant clinical competence could be enhanced. Alongside clinical enhancement should be the full restoration of physician empowerment to implement work-related recommendations. A participatory action research perspective by physicians for physicians and for our patients is needed.

  15. Effects of obesity on occupant responses in frontal crashes: a simulation analysis using human body models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiangnan; Cao, Libo; Reed, Matthew P; Rupp, Jonathan D; Hu, Jingwen

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of obesity on occupant responses in frontal crashes using whole-body human finite element (FE) models representing occupants with different obesity levels. In this study, the geometry of THUMS 4 midsize male model was varied using mesh morphing techniques with target geometries defined by statistical models of external body contour and exterior ribcage geometry. Models with different body mass indices (BMIs) were calibrated against cadaver test data under high-speed abdomen loading and frontal crash conditions. A parametric analysis was performed to investigate the effects of BMI on occupant injuries in frontal crashes based on the Taguchi method while controlling for several vehicle design parameters. Simulations of obese occupants predicted significantly higher risks of injuries to the thorax and lower extremities in frontal crashes compared with non-obese occupants, which is consistent with previous field data analyses. These higher injury risks are mainly due to the increased body mass and relatively poor belt fit caused by soft tissues for obese occupants. This study demonstrated the feasibility of using a parametric human FE model to investigate the obesity effects on occupant responses in frontal crashes.

  16. Exploring sensitivity of a multistate occupancy model to inform management decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, A.W.; Bailey, L.L.; Nichols, J.D.

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic occupancy models are often used to investigate questions regarding the processes that influence patch occupancy and are prominent in the fields of population and community ecology and conservation biology. Recently, multistate occupancy models have been developed to investigate dynamic systems involving more than one occupied state, including reproductive states, relative abundance states and joint habitat-occupancy states. Here we investigate the sensitivities of the equilibrium-state distribution of multistate occupancy models to changes in transition rates. We develop equilibrium occupancy expressions and their associated sensitivity metrics for dynamic multistate occupancy models. To illustrate our approach, we use two examples that represent common multistate occupancy systems. The first example involves a three-state dynamic model involving occupied states with and without successful reproduction (California spotted owl Strix occidentalis occidentalis), and the second involves a novel way of using a multistate occupancy approach to accommodate second-order Markov processes (wood frog Lithobates sylvatica breeding and metamorphosis). In many ways, multistate sensitivity metrics behave in similar ways as standard occupancy sensitivities. When equilibrium occupancy rates are low, sensitivity to parameters related to colonisation is high, while sensitivity to persistence parameters is greater when equilibrium occupancy rates are high. Sensitivities can also provide guidance for managers when estimates of transition probabilities are not available. Synthesis and applications. Multistate models provide practitioners a flexible framework to define multiple, distinct occupied states and the ability to choose which state, or combination of states, is most relevant to questions and decisions about their own systems. In addition to standard multistate occupancy models, we provide an example of how a second-order Markov process can be modified to fit a multistate

  17. A Direct Measurement of the Mean Occupation Function of Quasars: Breaking Degeneracies between Halo Occupation Distribution Models

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Suchetana; Myers, Adam; Zheng, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Recent work on quasar clustering suggests a degeneracy in the halo occupation distribution constrained from two-point correlation functions. To break this degeneracy, we make the first empirical measurement of the mean occupation function (MOF) of quasars at z ~ 0.2 by matching quasar positions with groups and clusters identified in the MaxBCG sample. We fit two models to the MOF, a power law and a 4-parameter model. The number distribution of quasars in host halos is close to Poisson, and the slopes of the MOF obtained from our best-fit models (for the power law case) favor a MOF that monotonically increases with halo mass. The best-fit slopes are 0.53 +/- 0.04 and 1.03 +/- 1.12 for the power law model and the 4-parameter model, respectively. We measure the radial distribution of quasars within dark matter halos and find it to be adequately described by a power law with a slope -2.3 +/- 0.4. We measure the conditional luminosity function (CLF) of quasars and show that there is no evidence of luminosity evolu...

  18. Statistical Analysis and Modeling of Occupancy Patterns in Open-Plan Offices using Measured Lighting-Switch Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Wen-Kuei; Hong, Tianzhen

    2013-01-01

    Occupancy profile is one of the driving factors behind discrepancies between the measured and simulated energy consumption of buildings. The frequencies of occupants leaving their offices and the corresponding durations of absences have significant impact on energy use and the operational controls of buildings. This study used statistical methods to analyze the occupancy status, based on measured lighting-switch data in five-minute intervals, for a total of 200 open-plan (cubicle) offices. Five typical occupancy patterns were identified based on the average daily 24-hour profiles of the presence of occupants in their cubicles. These statistical patterns were represented by a one-square curve, a one-valley curve, a two-valley curve, a variable curve, and a flat curve. The key parameters that define the occupancy model are the average occupancy profile together with probability distributions of absence duration, and the number of times an occupant is absent from the cubicle. The statistical results also reveal that the number of absence occurrences decreases as total daily presence hours decrease, and the duration of absence from the cubicle decreases as the frequency of absence increases. The developed occupancy model captures the stochastic nature of occupants moving in and out of cubicles, and can be used to generate a more realistic occupancy schedule. This is crucial for improving the evaluation of the energy saving potential of occupancy based technologies and controls using building simulations. Finally, to demonstrate the use of the occupancy model, weekday occupant schedules were generated and discussed.

  19. [Demand-Control model and occupational stress among nursing professionals: integrative review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Denise Rodrigues Costa

    2013-01-01

    The Demand Control model aims to evaluate the occupational stress. This study aimed to know, through an integrative review of the literature, the scientific production about the Demand Control Model to investigation occupational stress among nursing professionals from 2000 to 2011.Of the 16 selected studies, five were published in 2009. Of these studies, 56.25% assessed the Demand and Control dimensions and their correlations with workers' health problems; 37.5% of these studies were related with mental health. The results showed a lack of national publications. We recommend that authors conduct experimental studies to reduce the occupational stress for better conditions of workers' mental health.

  20. Differential changes in body mass index after retirement by occupation: hierarchical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueorguieva, Ralitza; Sindelar, Jody L; Wu, Ran; Gallo, William T

    2011-02-01

    This paper examines whether retirement differentially affects body mass index (BMI) patterns by occupation; occupation embodies differences in on-the-job physical demands as well as socioeconomic characteristics that could lead to variation in post-retirement BMI. We use 12 years of national data from the US and hierarchical linear models to compare BMI trajectories among four broad occupational classes. We find that those in service and other blue-collar occupations have significant increases in the slopes of their BMI trajectories after retirement, whereas participants in white-collar occupations exhibit no change. This may be due to differences in the physical requirements across blue and white collar jobs or differences in health habits post-retirement. Retirement may provide an opportunity to help prevent obesity in older individuals, especially blue collar workers.

  1. The role of Dynamic Energy Budget theory in predictive modeling of stressor impacts on ecological systems. Comment on: ;Physics of metabolic organization; by Marko Jusup et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galic, Nika; Forbes, Valery E.

    2017-03-01

    Human activities have been modifying ecosystems for centuries, from pressures on wild populations we harvest to modifying habitats through urbanization and agricultural activities. Changes in global climate patterns are adding another layer of, often unpredictable, perturbations to ecosystems on which we rely for life support [1,2]. To ensure the sustainability of ecosystem services, especially at this point in time when the human population is estimated to grow by another 2 billion by 2050 [3], we need to predict possible consequences of our actions and suggest relevant solutions [4,5]. We face several challenges when estimating adverse impacts of our actions on ecosystems. We describe these in the context of ecological risk assessment of chemicals. Firstly, when attempting to assess risk from exposure to chemicals, we base our decisions on a very limited number of species that are easily cultured and kept in the lab. We assume that preventing risk to these species will also protect all of the untested species present in natural ecosystems [6]. Secondly, although we know that chemicals interact with other stressors in the field, the number of stressors that we can test is limited due to logistical and ethical reasons. Similarly, empirical approaches are limited in both spatial and temporal scale due to logistical, financial and ethical reasons [7,8]. To bypass these challenges, we can develop ecological models that integrate relevant life history and other information and make testable predictions across relevant spatial and temporal scales [8-10].

  2. The Fit of Holland's RIASEC Model to US Occupations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Chi-Ping; Armstrong, Patrick Ian; Rounds, James

    2007-01-01

    Holland's [Holland, J. L. (1959). A theory of occupational choice. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 6, 35-45; Holland, J. L. (1997). Making vocational choices: A theory of vocational personalities and work environments (3rd ed.). Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc.] RIASEC types were initially developed using a restricted range…

  3. The Fit of Holland's RIASEC Model to US Occupations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Chi-Ping; Armstrong, Patrick Ian; Rounds, James

    2007-01-01

    Holland's [Holland, J. L. (1959). A theory of occupational choice. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 6, 35-45; Holland, J. L. (1997). Making vocational choices: A theory of vocational personalities and work environments (3rd ed.). Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc.] RIASEC types were initially developed using a restricted range…

  4. Life Change Units (LCU) Rating as Stressors in Iranian Hospitals’ Nurses

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Dargahi; Golsa Shaham

    2012-01-01

    Healthcare workers suffer from work-related or occupational stress. This can lead to severe distress, burnout or physical illness, and finally to decrease quality of work life and services provision. Nurses must be aware of retential stressors, because they add to the cumulative effect of other stressful events. Holmes and Rahe both found a relationship between life change unit as stressors and health changes. This research reported here aims to measure the life change units as stressors amon...

  5. Ignoring imperfect detection in biological surveys is dangerous: a response to 'fitting and interpreting occupancy models'.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurutzeta Guillera-Arroita

    Full Text Available In a recent paper, Welsh, Lindenmayer and Donnelly (WLD question the usefulness of models that estimate species occupancy while accounting for detectability. WLD claim that these models are difficult to fit and argue that disregarding detectability can be better than trying to adjust for it. We think that this conclusion and subsequent recommendations are not well founded and may negatively impact the quality of statistical inference in ecology and related management decisions. Here we respond to WLD's claims, evaluating in detail their arguments, using simulations and/or theory to support our points. In particular, WLD argue that both disregarding and accounting for imperfect detection lead to the same estimator performance regardless of sample size when detectability is a function of abundance. We show that this, the key result of their paper, only holds for cases of extreme heterogeneity like the single scenario they considered. Our results illustrate the dangers of disregarding imperfect detection. When ignored, occupancy and detection are confounded: the same naïve occupancy estimates can be obtained for very different true levels of occupancy so the size of the bias is unknowable. Hierarchical occupancy models separate occupancy and detection, and imprecise estimates simply indicate that more data are required for robust inference about the system in question. As for any statistical method, when underlying assumptions of simple hierarchical models are violated, their reliability is reduced. Resorting in those instances where hierarchical occupancy models do no perform well to the naïve occupancy estimator does not provide a satisfactory solution. The aim should instead be to achieve better estimation, by minimizing the effect of these issues during design, data collection and analysis, ensuring that the right amount of data is collected and model assumptions are met, considering model extensions where appropriate.

  6. Theory use in practice: a national survey of therapists who use the Model of Human Occupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun Wook; Taylor, Renee; Kielhofner, Gary; Fisher, Gail

    2008-01-01

    This study describes how occupational therapists who reported using the Model of Human Occupation (MOHO) actually use the concepts and tools of this model in everyday practice as well as identifies supports and barriers to its use. A systematic random sample of 1,000 occupational therapists was surveyed as to what theories they used in their practice. Those using MOHO (430) were sent a detailed questionnaire; 259 therapists (60.2%) responded to the survey questionnaire. More than 80% of respondents indicated that they used MOHO in their practice at least some of the time. Therapists reported that MOHO supports holistic, occupation-focused, client-centered, and evidence-based practice. They reported finding MOHO concepts useful for treatment planning and intervention. Most saw the major barrier to using MOHO as their own lack of knowledge. Making resources more readily available and accessible to therapists might enhance the extent to which they use conceptual models such as MOHO.

  7. MODELING OF OCCUPANT DYNAMIC RESPONSE TO CAR-BARRIERS CRASH ON HIGHWAY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Hongwu; Yang Jikuang; Liu Zhengheng; Zhong Zhihua

    2004-01-01

    The dynamic response involved in car-roadside barrier impacts is studied.The risk of occupant injures in such accidents is investigated.An approach based on accident analysis and mathematical modeling is developed and described in three steps.Firstly a study of car-roadside barrier impact accidents is carried out with available data to define a system including car,road,roadside barrier,and occupant.Secondly a mathematical model to simulate car-to-barrier impact is developed by using multi-body program MADYMO.Finally,dynamic responses of the occupant during impact are simulated using a car compartment model with a HYBRID III occupant model and an input load pulse calculated in the second step.The dynamic responses of the car are analyzed by changing impact conditions such as impact angle and impact velocity.The injury risks of the occupants are discussed in terms of the occupant kinematics and calculated parameters:accelerations of the head,chest,and pelvis,as well as HIC value.Verification of model with experimental data is performed.Possible countermeasures for highway vehicle traffic safety and improvement of roadside barrier design are presented.Research prospects in this field are also proposed.

  8. Job Stressors, Personality and Burnout in Primary School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkinos, Constantinos M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Teaching is considered a highly stressful occupation. Burnout is a negative affective response occurring as a result of chronic work stress. While the early theories of burnout focused exclusively on work-related stressors, recent research adopts a more integrative approach where both environmental and individual factors are studied.…

  9. Life-Long Implications of Developmental Exposure to Environmental Stressors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Barouki, Robert; Bellinger, David C

    2015-01-01

    The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) paradigm is one of the most rapidly expanding areas of biomedical research. Environmental stressors that can impact on DOHaD encompass a variety of environmental and occupational hazards as well as deficiency and oversupply of nutrients and ...

  10. Eating your feelings? Testing a model of employees' work-related stressors, sleep quality, and unhealthy eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yihao; Song, Yifan; Koopmann, Jaclyn; Wang, Mo; Chang, Chu-Hsiang Daisy; Shi, Junqi

    2017-08-01

    Although organizational research on health-related behaviors has become increasingly popular, little attention has been paid to unhealthy eating. Drawing on the self-regulation perspective, we conducted 2 daily diary studies to examine the relationships between work-related stressors, sleep quality, negative mood, and eating behaviors. Study 1 sampled 125 participants from 5 Chinese information technology companies and showed that when participants experienced higher levels of job demands in the morning, they consumed more types of unhealthy food and fewer types of healthy food in the evening. In addition, sleep quality from the previous night buffered the effect of morning job demands on evening unhealthy food consumption. Study 2 used data from 110 customer service employees from a Chinese telecommunications company and further demonstrated a positive association between morning customer mistreatment and evening overeating behaviors, as well as the buffering effect of sleep quality. Results from Study 2 also supported afternoon negative mood as a mediator linking morning customer mistreatment to evening overeating behaviors. Finally, our findings revealed that the buffering effect of sleep quality was channeled through employees' vigor in the morning, which subsequently weakened the effect of customer mistreatment on negative mood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. [Application of three risk assessment models in occupational health risk assessment of dimethylformamide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Z J; Xu, B; Jiang, H; Zheng, M; Zhang, M; Zhao, W J; Cheng, J

    2016-08-20

    Objective: To investigate the application of United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) inhalation risk assessment model, Singapore semi-quantitative risk assessment model, and occupational hazards risk assessment index method in occupational health risk in enterprises using dimethylformamide (DMF) in a certain area in Jiangsu, China, and to put forward related risk control measures. Methods: The industries involving DMF exposure in Jiangsu province were chosen as the evaluation objects in 2013 and three risk assessment models were used in the evaluation. EPA inhalation risk assessment model: HQ=EC/RfC; Singapore semi-quantitative risk assessment model: Risk= (HR×ER) (1/2); Occupational hazards risk assessment index=2(Health effect level)×2(exposure ratio)×Operation condition level. Results: The results of hazard quotient (HQ>1) from EPA inhalation risk assessment model suggested that all the workshops (dry method, wet method and printing) and work positions (pasting, burdening, unreeling, rolling, assisting) were high risk. The results of Singapore semi-quantitative risk assessment model indicated that the workshop risk level of dry method, wet method and printing were 3.5 (high) , 3.5 (high) and 2.8 (general) , and position risk level of pasting, burdening, unreeling, rolling, assisting were 4 (high) , 4 (high) , 2.8 (general) , 2.8 (general) and 2.8 (general) . The results of occupational hazards risk assessment index method demonstrated that the position risk index of pasting, burdening, unreeling, rolling, assisting were 42 (high) , 33 (high) , 23 (middle) , 21 (middle) and 22 (middle) . The results of Singapore semi-quantitative risk assessment model and occupational hazards risk assessment index method were similar, while EPA inhalation risk assessment model indicated all the workshops and positions were high risk. Conclusion: The occupational hazards risk assessment index method fully considers health effects, exposure, and operating conditions

  12. Statement on the suitability of the BEEHAVE model for its potential use in a regulatory context and for the risk assessment of multiple stressors in honeybees at the landscape level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA PPR Panel (EFSA Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues); Topping, Christopher John

    2015-01-01

    The Panel has interpreted the Terms of Reference by carrying out a stepwise evaluation of the BEEHAVE simulation model with a view to assessing its suitability for use in a regulatory context and for risk assessment of multiple stressors at the landscape level. The EFSA opinion on good modelling...... usable in a regulatory context primarily because it needs a pesticide module. BEEHAVE has a Varroa/virus module, although this seems to underestimate the impact of Varroa/virus on colony survival, and additional stressors (chemical and biological) would need to be added to allow investigation...

  13. Model selection and assessment for multi­-species occupancy models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broms, Kristin M.; Hooten, Mevin B.; Fitzpatrick, Ryan M.

    2016-01-01

    While multi-species occupancy models (MSOMs) are emerging as a popular method for analyzing biodiversity data, formal checking and validation approaches for this class of models have lagged behind. Concurrent with the rise in application of MSOMs among ecologists, a quiet regime shift is occurring in Bayesian statistics where predictive model comparison approaches are experiencing a resurgence. Unlike single-species occupancy models that use integrated likelihoods, MSOMs are usually couched in a Bayesian framework and contain multiple levels. Standard model checking and selection methods are often unreliable in this setting and there is only limited guidance in the ecological literature for this class of models. We examined several different contemporary Bayesian hierarchical approaches for checking and validating MSOMs and applied these methods to a freshwater aquatic study system in Colorado, USA, to better understand the diversity and distributions of plains fishes. Our findings indicated distinct differences among model selection approaches, with cross-validation techniques performing the best in terms of prediction.

  14. Using multilevel spatial models to understand salamander site occupancy patterns after wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelgren, N.D.; Adams, M.J.; Bailey, L.L.; Bury, R.B.

    2011-01-01

    Studies of the distribution of elusive forest wildlife have suffered from the confounding of true presence with the uncertainty of detection. Occupancy modeling, which incorporates probabilities of species detection conditional on presence, is an emerging approach for reducing observation bias. However, the current likelihood modeling framework is restrictive for handling unexplained sources of variation in the response that may occur when there are dependence structures such as smaller sampling units that are nested within larger sampling units. We used multilevel Bayesian occupancy modeling to handle dependence structures and to partition sources of variation in occupancy of sites by terrestrial salamanders (family Plethodontidae) within and surrounding an earlier wildfire in western Oregon, USA. Comparison of model fit favored a spatial N-mixture model that accounted for variation in salamander abundance over models that were based on binary detection/non-detection data. Though catch per unit effort was higher in burned areas than unburned, there was strong support that this pattern was due to a higher probability of capture for individuals in burned plots. Within the burn, the odds of capturing an individual given it was present were 2.06 times the odds outside the burn, reflecting reduced complexity of ground cover in the burn. There was weak support that true occupancy was lower within the burned area. While the odds of occupancy in the burn were 0.49 times the odds outside the burn among the five species, the magnitude of variation attributed to the burn was small in comparison to variation attributed to other landscape variables and to unexplained, spatially autocorrelated random variation. While ordinary occupancy models may separate the biological pattern of interest from variation in detection probability when all sources of variation are known, the addition of random effects structures for unexplained sources of variation in occupancy and detection

  15. TREXMO: a translation tool to support the use of regulatory occupational exposure models

    OpenAIRE

    Savic, Nenad; Racordon, Dimitri; Buchs, Didier; Gasic, Bojan; Vernez, Dernez

    2016-01-01

    Occupational exposure models vary significantly in their complexity, purpose, and the level of expertise required from the user. Different parameters in the same model may lead to different exposure estimates for the same exposure situation. This paper presents a tool developed to deal with this concern-TREXMO or TRanslation of EXposure MOdels. TREXMO integrates six commonly used occupational exposure models, namely, ART v.1.5, STOFFENMANAGER(®) v.5.1, ECETOC TRA v.3, MEASE v.1.02.01, EMKG-EX...

  16. [The application of two occupation health risk assessment models in a wooden furniture manufacturing industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, A H; Leng, P B; Bian, G L; Li, X H; Mao, G C; Zhang, M B

    2016-10-20

    Objective: To explore the applicability of 2 different models of occupational health risk assessment in wooden furniture manufacturing industry. Methods: American EPA inhalation risk model and ICMM model of occupational health risk assessment were conducted to assess occupational health risk in a small wooden furniture enterprises, respectively. Results: There was poor protective measure and equipment of occupational disease in the plant. The concentration of wood dust in the air of two workshops was over occupational exposure limit (OEL) , and the CTWA was 8.9 mg/m(3) and 3.6 mg/m(3), respectively. According to EPA model, the workers who exposed to benzene in this plant had high risk (9.7×10(-6) ~34.3×10(-6)) of leukemia, and who exposed to formaldehyde had high risk (11.4 × 10(-6)) of squamous cell carcinoma. There were inconsistent evaluation results using the ICMM tools of standard-based matrix and calculated risk rating. There were very high risks to be attacked by rhinocarcinoma of the workers who exposed to wood dust for the tool of calculated risk rating, while high risk for the tool of standard-based matrix. For the workers who exposed to noise, risk of noise-induced deafness was unacceptable and medium risk using two tools, respectively. Conclusion: Both EPA model and ICMM model can appropriately predict and assessthe occupational health risk in wooden furniture manufactory, ICMM due to the relatively simple operation, easy evaluation parameters, assessment of occupational- disease-inductive factors comprehensively, and more suitable for wooden furniture production enterprise.

  17. Parents' explanatory models and hopes for outcomes of occupational therapy using a sensory integration approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Ellen S; Kramer, Jessica; Schub, Jamie A; May-Benson, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE. To describe parents' concerns and hopes for their children who would be receiving occupational therapy using a sensory integration approach. METHOD. Content analysis of 275 parental responses to three open-ended questions on developmental-sensory history intake forms. FINDINGS. Parents' descriptions of why they sought for their children were categorized into four overarching concerns about their children's challenges: self-regulation, interacting with peers, participating in skilled motor activities, and self-confidence. Parents often linked these concerns together, revealing explanatory models of how they make sense of potential relationships among their children's challenges and how these challenges affect occupational performance. Parents hoped occupational therapy would help their children develop self-understanding and frustration tolerance to self-regulate their behavior in socially acceptable ways. IMPLICATIONS. Assessment and intervention should explicitly focus on links among self-regulation, social participation, skills, and perceived competence to address parents' expectations. Copyright © 2014 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  18. The relationship between occupational culture dimensions and reward preferences: A structural equation modelling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Bussin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Reward has links to employee attraction and retention and as such has a role to play in managing talent. However, despite a range of research, there is still lack of clarity on employee preferences relating to reward.Research purpose: The purpose of the research was to recommend and appraise a theoretical model of the relationship between occupational culture dimensions and reward preferences of specific occupational groups in the South African context.Motivation for the study: The motivation for this study was to address the gap that exists with reward preferences and occupational culture with a view to identifying and gaining insight into individual preferences.Research design, approach and method: A structural equation modelling approach was adopted in exploring the proposed relationships. A South African Information, Communication, and Technology (ICT organisation served as the population, and a web-based survey assisted in gathering study data (n = 1362.Main findings: The findings provided support for the relationship between occupational culture dimensions and certain reward preferences. In particular, statistically significant results were obtained with the inclusion of the Environment, Team, and Time occupational culture dimensions as independent variables.Practical implications and value-add: The study provides workable input to organisations and reward professionals in the design of their reward strategies and programmes.Keywords: compensation; employee preferences; occupational culture; remuneration; reward preferences

  19. Modelling of occupational exposure to inhalable nickel compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendzia, Benjamin; Pesch, Beate; Koppisch, Dorothea; Van Gelder, Rainer; Pitzke, Katrin; Zschiesche, Wolfgang; Behrens, Thomas; Weiss, Tobias; Siemiatycki, Jack; Lavoué, Jerome; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Stamm, Roger; Brüning, Thomas

    2017-01-18

    The aim of this study was to estimate average occupational exposure to inhalable nickel (Ni) using the German exposure database MEGA. This database contains 8052 personal measurements of Ni collected between 1990 and 2009 in adjunct with information on the measurement and workplace conditions. The median of all Ni concentrations was 9 μg/m(3) and the 95th percentile was 460 μg/m(3). We predicted geometric means (GMs) for welders and other occupations centered to 1999. Exposure to Ni in welders is strongly influenced by the welding process applied and the Ni content of the used welding materials. Welding with consumable electrodes of high Ni content (>30%) was associated with 10-fold higher concentrations compared with those with a low content (welding materials with high Ni content, in metal sprayers, grinders and forging-press operators, and in the manufacture of batteries and accumulators. The exposure profiles are useful for exposure assessment in epidemiologic studies as well as in industrial hygiene. Therefore, we recommend to collect additional exposure-specific information in addition to the job title in community-based studies when estimating the health risks of Ni exposure.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 18 January 2017; doi:10.1038/jes.2016.80.

  20. Using occupancy models of forest breeding birds to prioritize conservation planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wan, A. A.; Sullivan, P.J.; Lembo, A.J.; Smith, C.R.; Maerz, J.C.; Lassoie, J.P.; Richmond, M.E.

    2009-01-01

    As urban development continues to encroach on the natural and rural landscape, land-use planners struggle to identify high priority conservation areas for protection. Although knowing where urban-sensitive species may be occurring on the landscape would facilitate conservation planning, research efforts are often not sufficiently designed to make quality predictions at unknown locations. Recent advances in occupancy modeling allow for more precise estimates of occupancy by accounting for differences in detectability. We applied these techniques to produce robust estimates of habitat occupancy for a subset of forest breeding birds, a group that has been shown to be sensitive to urbanization, in a rapidly urbanizing yet biological diverse region of New York State. We found that detection probability ranged widely across species, from 0.05 to 0.8. Our models suggest that detection probability declined with increasing forest fragmentation. We also found that the probability of occupancy of forest breeding birds is negatively influenced by increasing perimeter-area ratio of forest fragments and urbanization in the surrounding habitat matrix. We capitalized on our random sampling design to produce spatially explicit models that predict high priority conservation areas across the entire region, where interior-species were most likely to occur. Finally, we use our predictive maps to demonstrate how a strict sampling design coupled with occupancy modeling can be a valuable tool for prioritizing biodiversity conservation in land-use planning. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Daily Stressors in School-Age Children: A Multilevel Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Milagros; Alarcón, Rafael; Blanca, María J.; Fernández-Baena, F. Javier; Rosel, Jesús F.; Trianes, María Victoria

    2013-01-01

    This study uses hierarchical or multilevel modeling to identify variables that contribute to daily stressors in a population of schoolchildren. Four hierarchical levels with several predictive variables were considered: student (age, sex, social adaptation of the student, number of life events and chronic stressors experienced, and educational…

  2. Modeling Dental Health Care Workers' Risk of Occupational Infection from Bloodborne Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capilouto, Eli; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The brief paper offers a model which permits quantification of the dental health care workers' risk of occupationally acquiring infection from bloodborne pathogens such as human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B virus. The model incorporates five parameters such as the probability that any individual patient is infected and number of patients…

  3. Translational Modeling in Schizophrenia : Predicting Human Dopamine D2 Receptor Occupancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, Martin; Kozielska, Magdalena; Pilla Reddy, Venkatesh; Vermeulen, An; Barton, Hugh A; Grimwood, Sarah; de Greef, Rik; Groothuis, Geny M M; Danhof, Meindert; Proost, Johannes H

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the ability of a previously developed hybrid physiology-based pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PBPKPD) model in rats to predict the dopamine D2 receptor occupancy (D2RO) in human striatum following administration of antipsychotic drugs. METHODS: A hybrid PBPKPD model, previousl

  4. Multiple Stressors and the Functioning of Coral Reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harborne, Alastair R.; Rogers, Alice; Bozec, Yves-Marie; Mumby, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    Coral reefs provide critical services to coastal communities, and these services rely on ecosystem functions threatened by stressors. By summarizing the threats to the functioning of reefs from fishing, climate change, and decreasing water quality, we highlight that these stressors have multiple, conflicting effects on functionally similar groups of species and their interactions, and that the overall effects are often uncertain because of a lack of data or variability among taxa. The direct effects of stressors on links among functional groups, such as predator-prey interactions, are particularly uncertain. Using qualitative modeling, we demonstrate that this uncertainty of stressor impacts on functional groups (whether they are positive, negative, or neutral) can have significant effects on models of ecosystem stability, and reducing uncertainty is vital for understanding changes to reef functioning. This review also provides guidance for future models of reef functioning, which should include interactions among functional groups and the cumulative effect of stressors.

  5. Monitoring carnivore populations at the landscape scale: occupancy modelling of tigers from sign surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanth, Kota Ullas; Gopalaswamy, Arjun M.; Kumar, Narayanarao Samba; Vaidyanathan, Srinivas; Nichols, James D.; MacKenzie, Darryl I.

    2011-01-01

    1. Assessing spatial distributions of threatened large carnivores at landscape scales poses formidable challenges because of their rarity and elusiveness. As a consequence of logistical constraints, investigators typically rely on sign surveys. Most survey methods, however, do not explicitly address the central problem of imperfect detections of animal signs in the field, leading to underestimates of true habitat occupancy and distribution. 2. We assessed habitat occupancy for a tiger Panthera tigris metapopulation across a c. 38 000-km2 landscape in India, employing a spatially replicated survey to explicitly address imperfect detections. Ecological predictions about tiger presence were confronted with sign detection data generated from occupancy sampling of 205 sites, each of 188 km2. 3. A recent occupancy model that considers Markovian dependency among sign detections on spatial replicates performed better than the standard occupancy model (ΔAIC = 184·9). A formulation of this model that fitted the data best showed that density of ungulate prey and levels of human disturbance were key determinants of local tiger presence. Model averaging resulted in a replicate-level detection probability [inline image] = 0·17 (0·17) for signs and a tiger habitat occupancy estimate of [inline image] = 0·665 (0·0857) or 14 076 (1814) km2 of potential habitat of 21 167 km2. In contrast, a traditional presence-versus-absence approach underestimated occupancy by 47%. Maps of probabilities of local site occupancy clearly identified tiger source populations at higher densities and matched observed tiger density variations, suggesting their potential utility for population assessments at landscape scales. 4. Synthesis and applications. Landscape-scale sign surveys can efficiently assess large carnivore spatial distributions and elucidate the factors governing their local presence, provided ecological and observation processes are both explicitly modelled. Occupancy

  6. Occupational stress among dentists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Rod

    2011-01-01

    of this occupational stress. The literature on consequences includes effects on dentists' physical health, personal and occupational performance, including "burnout" phenomena, as well as topics of alcohol or substance abuse and reports of suicidal behaviour among dentists. One specific and less conventionally......Dentists report a high degree of occupational stress.(Cooper, Mallinger, and Kahn, 1978;Coster, Carstens, and Harris, 1987;DiMatteo, Shugars, and Hays, 1993;Hakeberg et al., 1992;Möller and Spangenberg, 1996;Moore, 2000;Myers and Myers, 2004;O'Shea, Corah, and Ayer, 1984) This chapter reviews...... the literature of studies that elaborate on the circumstances of occupational stress of dentists. These will include the frequency of occurrence of occupational stress among dentists in several countries, frequency and intensity of identified stressors specific to dentistry, as well as the consequences...

  7. Occupational stress among dentists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Rod

    2011-01-01

    of this occupational stress. The literature on consequences includes effects on dentists' physical health, personal and occupational performance, including "burnout" phenomena, as well as topics of alcohol or substance abuse and reports of suicidal behaviour among dentists. One specific and less conventionally......Dentists report a high degree of occupational stress.(Cooper, Mallinger, and Kahn, 1978;Coster, Carstens, and Harris, 1987;DiMatteo, Shugars, and Hays, 1993;Hakeberg et al., 1992;Möller and Spangenberg, 1996;Moore, 2000;Myers and Myers, 2004;O'Shea, Corah, and Ayer, 1984) This chapter reviews...... the literature of studies that elaborate on the circumstances of occupational stress of dentists. These will include the frequency of occurrence of occupational stress among dentists in several countries, frequency and intensity of identified stressors specific to dentistry, as well as the consequences...

  8. Callings and Work Engagement: Moderated Mediation Model of Work Meaningfulness, Occupational Identity, and Occupational Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschi, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Scholarly interest in callings is growing, but researchers' understanding of how and when callings relate to career outcomes is incomplete. The present study investigated the possibility that the relationship of calling to work engagement is mediated by work meaningfulness, occupational identity, and occupational self-efficacy--and that this…

  9. 4-DOF biodynamic lumped-parameter models for a seated occupant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wei; Xu, Shi-Xu; Qian, Li-Jun; Bai, Xian-Xu

    2016-04-01

    In order to study how vibrations from ground vehicles/aircraft will impact on the seated occupants, it is of significance to develop an effective biodynamic model for the seated occupants. In this paper, a wide variety of 4-degree-of-freedom (4- DOF) lumped-parameter models for a seated occupant is investigated. A linear 4-DOF model with 18 parameters is deduced and employed as an example. The parameters of the 4-DOF model are identified based on the Pareto optimization principle. The goodness of fit (ɛ) is established and employed to evaluate the effectiveness of the models. Then, all possible linear 4-DOF models are analyzed and discussed with the same parameters identification and effectiveness evaluation. The most-effective two models are obtained and compared with two other existing models. The research results show that: (i) The total types of linear 4-DOF models is limited and all the parameters of models are identifiable; (ii) The number of parameters of the 4-DOF models affects little on the goodness of fit (ɛ); and (iii) The presented models are more effective than the two existing models.

  10. Use of Occupancy Models to Evaluate Expert Knowledge-based Species-Habitat Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica N. Iglecia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Expert knowledge-based species-habitat relationships are used extensively to guide conservation planning, particularly when data are scarce. Purported relationships describe the initial state of knowledge, but are rarely tested. We assessed support in the data for suitability rankings of vegetation types based on expert knowledge for three terrestrial avian species in the South Atlantic Coastal Plain of the United States. Experts used published studies, natural history, survey data, and field experience to rank vegetation types as optimal, suitable, and marginal. We used single-season occupancy models, coupled with land cover and Breeding Bird Survey data, to examine the hypothesis that patterns of occupancy conformed to species-habitat suitability rankings purported by experts. Purported habitat suitability was validated for two of three species. As predicted for the Eastern Wood-Pewee (Contopus virens and Brown-headed Nuthatch (Sitta pusilla, occupancy was strongly influenced by vegetation types classified as "optimal habitat" by the species suitability rankings for nuthatches and wood-pewees. Contrary to predictions, Red-headed Woodpecker (Melanerpes erythrocephalus models that included vegetation types as covariates received similar support by the data as models without vegetation types. For all three species, occupancy was also related to sampling latitude. Our results suggest that covariates representing other habitat requirements might be necessary to model occurrence of generalist species like the woodpecker. The modeling approach described herein provides a means to test expert knowledge-based species-habitat relationships, and hence, help guide conservation planning.

  11. Can occupancy-abundance models be used to monitor wolf abundance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Cecilia Latham

    Full Text Available Estimating the abundance of wild carnivores is of foremost importance for conservation and management. However, given their elusive habits, direct observations of these animals are difficult to obtain, so abundance is more commonly estimated from sign surveys or radio-marked individuals. These methods can be costly and difficult, particularly in large areas with heavy forest cover. As an alternative, recent research has suggested that wolf abundance can be estimated from occupancy-abundance curves derived from "virtual" surveys of simulated wolf track networks. Although potentially more cost-effective, the utility of this approach hinges on its robustness to violations of its assumptions. We assessed the sensitivity of the occupancy-abundance approach to four assumptions: variation in wolf movement rates, changes in pack cohesion, presence of lone wolves, and size of survey units. Our simulations showed that occupancy rates and wolf pack abundances were biased high if track surveys were conducted when wolves made long compared to short movements, wolf packs were moving as multiple hunting units as opposed to a cohesive pack, and lone wolves were moving throughout the surveyed landscape. We also found that larger survey units (400 and 576 km2 were more robust to changes in these factors than smaller survey units (36 and 144 km2. However, occupancy rates derived from large survey units rapidly reached an asymptote at 100% occupancy, suggesting that these large units are inappropriate for areas with moderate to high wolf densities (>15 wolves/1,000 km2. Virtually-derived occupancy-abundance relationships can be a useful method for monitoring wolves and other elusive wildlife if applied within certain constraints, in particular biological knowledge of the surveyed species needs to be incorporated into the design of the occupancy surveys. Further, we suggest that the applicability of this method could be extended by directly incorporating some of its

  12. On 4-degree-of-freedom biodynamic models of seated occupants: Lumped-parameter modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xian-Xu; Xu, Shi-Xu; Cheng, Wei; Qian, Li-Jun

    2017-08-01

    It is useful to develop an effective biodynamic model of seated human occupants to help understand the human vibration exposure to transportation vehicle vibrations and to help design and improve the anti-vibration devices and/or test dummies. This study proposed and demonstrated a methodology for systematically identifying the best configuration or structure of a 4-degree-of-freedom (4DOF) human vibration model and for its parameter identification. First, an equivalent simplification expression for the models was made. Second, all of the possible 23 structural configurations of the models were identified. Third, each of them was calibrated using the frequency response functions recommended in a biodynamic standard. An improved version of non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) based on Pareto optimization principle was used to determine the model parameters. Finally, a model evaluation criterion proposed in this study was used to assess the models and to identify the best one, which was based on both the goodness of curve fits and comprehensive goodness of the fits. The identified top configurations were better than those reported in the literature. This methodology may also be extended and used to develop the models with other DOFs.

  13. A novel modeling tool with multi-stressor functionality for organic contaminant transport and fate in the Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Undeman, E., E-mail: emma.undeman@itm.su.se [Baltic Nest Institute, Baltic Sea Centre, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University, 11418 Stockholm (Sweden); Gustafsson, E., E-mail: erik.gustafsson@su.se [Baltic Nest Institute, Baltic Sea Centre, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Gustafsson, B.G., E-mail: bo.gustafsson@su.se [Baltic Nest Institute, Baltic Sea Centre, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-11-01

    The coupled physical–biogeochemical model BALTSEM, previously used to assess nutrient/carbon cycles and eutrophication in the Baltic Sea, has been expanded to include algorithms for calculations of organic contaminant environmental transport and fate. This novel model version (BALTSEM-POP) is evaluated for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in Baltic Sea surface water and sediment. Modeled dissolved concentrations are usually within a factor of 2–4 of observed concentrations, however with larger deviations for furans. Calculated concentrations in particulate organic matter are less accurate (within factors of 1–700), likely due to errors in estimated pelagic biomass, particulate matter–water partitioning, and large natural variability in field data. Concentrations in sediments are usually predicted within a factor of 6. The good performance of the model illustrates its usefulness for exploration of contaminant fate in response to variations in nutrient input and climatic conditions in the Baltic Sea marine environment. - Highlights: • A new model for organic chemical transport and fate in the Baltic Sea is presented. • Physical and biogeochemical processes are linked to organic contaminant transport. • The model is evaluated for PCBs, HCB and PCDD/Fs. • The model can predict dissolved concentrations within a factor of ca 2–4. • Predictions for concentrations in particulate matter and sediment are less accurate.

  14. Building resilience through exposure to stressors: The effects of challenges versus hindrances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Monique F; Searle, Ben J

    2016-10-01

    This paper explores the potential for certain types of stressors to build resilience in the occupational setting. Using the challenge-hindrance stressor framework (Cavanaugh, Boswell, Roehling, & Boudreau, 2000), we propose that challenge stressors have the potential to promote the capacity for resilience, whereas hindrance stressors experienced in the workplace erode resilient functioning. Employing a 2-wave longitudinal design we examined the effects of challenge and hindrance stressors on psychological resilience and strain 3 months later. Two-hundred and 8 working adults (48.1% female) participated in both surveys. Findings indicated that Time 1 challenge stressors had a significant effect on psychological resilience 3 months later (Time 2). In contrast, Time 1 hindrance stressors positively predicted Time 2 strain and negatively predicted psychological resilience. Moreover, resilience mediated the relationship between Time 1 stressors and Time 2 strain. These results demonstrate the potential positive and negative impacts of workplace stressor types on psychological resilience, and provide an exploration of a mechanism through which challenge and hindrance stressors influence well-being. This analysis also investigated the role of resilience in moderating the relationship between hindrances and strain. Some evidence emerged for the moderating role of resilience in the hindrance-strain relationship. The implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Modelling Occupational Stress and Employee Health and Wellbeing in a Chinese Higher Education Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Xiaoli; Teo, Stephen T. T.; Cooper, Cary L.; Bohle, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Extensive change is evident in higher education in the People's Republic of China but there have been few studies of the effect of work stress on wellbeing in the higher education sector. The main aim of this study is to test and refine the ASSET ("An Organizational Stress Screening Tool") model of occupational stress in a sample of 150…

  16. A Selected Study of Mentors and Role Models: Implications for Health Occupations Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, M.

    1985-01-01

    This article examines the influence of mentors and role models, beginning at the period of occupational choice and continuing through preparatory and practice entry phases. The author reports on an attrition study of 298 practical nursing students at an Indiana postsecondary institution that examined the influence of others in completing or not…

  17. Evaluation of an occupational health educational program based on alumni perceptions in Iran: Structural equation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehralizadeh, Semira; Dehdashti, Alireza; Kashani, Masoud Motalebi

    2017-07-26

    Evaluating educational program can improve the quality of education that learners receive. The present study evaluated undergraduate occupational health educational program at Medical sciences university of Semnan, Iran, focused on the associations between alumni perceptions of learning environment and outcomes in occupational health program. cross-sectional questionnaire survey was carried out among alumni of occupational health enrolled in an undergraduate program. We asked alumni to rate their perceptions of the items based on a Likert four-point scale. The associations between alumni perceptions of educational program and curriculum, faculty, institutional resources and learning outcomes were modeled and described using structural equation modeling procedures. Descriptive perception indicated low evaluations for administration systems, practical and research based courses and the number of faculty members. Results indicated a structural model of the evaluation variables of curriculum, faculty qualification, and institutional resources significantly predict undergraduate educational program outcomes. Curriculum had direct and indirect effects on learning outcomes mediated by faculty. study findings highlight the usefulness of structural equation modeling approach with which to examine linking between variables of learning process and learning outcomes. Surveys among alumni permit to provide data to reassess the learning environment in the light of professional competencies needed for occupational health graduates.

  18. TRIMELLITIC ANHYDRIDE-INDUCED EOSINOPHILIA IN A MURINE MODEL OF OCCUPATIONAL ASTHMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    TRIMELLITIC ANHYDRIDE-INDUCED EOSINOPHILIA IN A MURINE MODEL OF OCCUPATIONAL ASTHMA. J F Regal, ME Mohrman, E Boykin and D Sailstad. Dept. of Pharmacology, University of Minnesota, Duluth, MN, USA and NHEERL, ORD, US EPA, RTP, NC, USA.Trimellitic anhydride (TMA) is a small m...

  19. Accounting for false-positive acoustic detections of bats using occupancy models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Matthew J.; Rodhouse, Thomas J.; Ormsbee, Patricia C.; Szewczak, Joseph M.; Nichols, James D.

    2014-01-01

    1. Acoustic surveys have become a common survey method for bats and other vocal taxa. Previous work shows that bat echolocation may be misidentified, but common analytic methods, such as occupancy models, assume that misidentifications do not occur. Unless rare, such misidentifications could lead to incorrect inferences with significant management implications.

  20. Occupancy Chargeback: An Overview of Different Models and a Glimpse of 'One' Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Garry; Mozjerin, Con

    2001-01-01

    Presents an overview of factors motivating the occupancy chargeback movement on today's campuses. Examines the two basic models with particular reference to RMIT University (Australia), and discusses what associated support mechanisms may be required. Concluding comments address activity-based costing. (GR)

  1. The Cognitive Processes Associated with Occupational/Career Indecision: A Model for Gifted Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jae Yup

    2013-01-01

    This study developed and tested a new model of the cognitive processes associated with occupational/career indecision for gifted adolescents. A survey instrument with rigorous psychometric properties, developed from a number of existing instruments, was administered to a sample of 687 adolescents attending three academically selective high schools…

  2. The Cognitive Processes Associated with Occupational/Career Indecision: A Model for Gifted Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jae Yup

    2013-01-01

    This study developed and tested a new model of the cognitive processes associated with occupational/career indecision for gifted adolescents. A survey instrument with rigorous psychometric properties, developed from a number of existing instruments, was administered to a sample of 687 adolescents attending three academically selective high schools…

  3. An Integrated Ecological Modeling System for Assessing Impacts of Multiple Stressors on Stream and Riverine Ecosystem Services Within River Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    We demonstrate a novel, spatially explicit assessment of the current condition of aquatic ecosystem services, with limited sensitivity analysis for the atmospheric contaminant mercury. The Integrated Ecological Modeling System (IEMS) forecasts water quality and quantity, habitat ...

  4. Application of the stressor vulnerability model to understanding posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol-related problems in an undergraduate population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruska, Bryce; Delahanty, Douglas L

    2012-12-01

    Research examining the comorbidity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol-use disorder (AUD) suggests that individuals experiencing PTSD symptoms (PTSS) often drink alcohol as a means to self-medicate their trauma symptoms; however, little attention has been given to moderating variables that may make this association more likely. The stressor vulnerability model proposes that being male, relying on maladaptive forms of coping, and holding positive alcohol-outcome expectancies predispose individuals to engage in alcohol use when experiencing psychological distress. In the current study, sex, avoidance coping (AVC), tension-reduction expectancies (TRE), and emotional-relief drinking-refusal self-efficacy (ERDRSE) were examined as moderators of the relationship between PTSS and alcohol-related problems in a sample of 144 undergraduates. Results indicated that males reporting high levels of TRE exhibited a stronger positive relationship between PTSS and alcohol-related problems than was present for males reporting low levels of TRE and for females reporting either high or low levels of TRE. In addition, a significant positive relationship between PTSS and alcohol-related problems was observed for individuals reporting high levels of TRE and low levels of ERDRSE, but not for individuals reporting high levels of TRE and high levels of ERDRSE, low TRE-low ERDRSE, or low TRE-high ERDRSE. Assessment of these vulnerability factors in traumatized youth and young adults may serve as a useful means of identifying individuals at risk for the development of alcohol-related problems.

  5. Statistical Modeling of Occupational Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Using OSHA Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Derrick G; Lavoué, Jérôme; Spinelli, John J; Burstyn, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of pollutants with multiple variants classified as carcinogenic. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) provided access to two PAH exposure databanks of United States workplace compliance testing data collected between 1979 and 2010. Mixed-effects logistic models were used to predict the exceedance fraction (EF), i.e., the probability of exceeding OSHA's Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL = 0.2 mg/m3) for PAHs based on industry and occupation. Measurements of coal tar pitch volatiles were used as a surrogate for PAHs. Time, databank, occupation, and industry were included as fixed-effects while an identifier for the compliance inspection number was included as a random effect. Analyses involved 2,509 full-shift personal measurements. Results showed that the majority of industries had an estimated EF < 0.5, although several industries, including Standardized Industry Classification codes 1623 (Water, Sewer, Pipeline, and Communication and Powerline Construction), 1711 (Plumbing, Heating, and Air-Conditioning), 2824 (Manmade Organic Fibres), 3496 (Misc. Fabricated Wire products), and 5812 (Eating Places), and Major group's 13 (Oil and Gas Extraction) and 30 (Rubber and Miscellaneous Plastic Products), were estimated to have more than an 80% likelihood of exceeding the PEL. There was an inverse temporal trend of exceeding the PEL, with lower risk in most recent years, albeit not statistically significant. Similar results were shown when incorporating occupation, but varied depending on the occupation as the majority of industries predicted at the administrative level, e.g., managers, had an estimated EF < 0.5 while at the minimally skilled/laborer level there was a substantial increase in the estimated EF. These statistical models allow the prediction of PAH exposure risk through individual occupational histories and will be used to create a job-exposure matrix for use in a population-based case

  6. Time Series Model of Occupational Injuries Analysis in Ghanaian Mines-A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.J. Aidoo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study has modeled occupational injuries at Gold Fields Ghana Limited (GFGL, Tarkwa Mine using time series analysis. Data was collected from the Safety and Environment Department from January 2007 to December 2010. Testing for stationarity condition using line graph from Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 17.0 edition failed, hence the use of Box-Jenkins method of differencing which tested positive after the first difference. ARIMA (1,1,1 model was then applied in modeling the stationary data and model diagnostic was done to ensure its appropriateness. The model was further used to forecast the occurrence of injuries at GFGL for two year period spanning from January 2011 to December 2012. The results show that occupational injuries for GFGL are going to have a slight upward and downward movement from January 2011 to May 2011, after which there will be stability (almost zero from June 2011 to December 2012.

  7. KEY TECHNIQUES OF MULTI-BODY MODELING OF OCCUPANT RESTRAINT SYSTEM OF VEHICLE SIDE IMPACT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Junyuan; ZHANG Min; DING Rufang; QIU Shaobo; ZHANG Yu; LI Hongjian

    2006-01-01

    Based on multi-body dynamics, the simulation models of auto-side structures and occupant's dynamic responses are set up, using the occupant injury simulation software MADYMO3D. These models include auto-body structure, impact barrier, seat and dummy. Definitions of multi-body and joints and dynamics properties of joints based on FE combination models, of model setup are introduced. Kelvin element of MADYMO is introduced to show the force action between non-adjoining rigid bodies, too. Then all examples of the methods mentioned are given. By the comparison of simulation and real test, the contract curves between simulation and real test for main structures and biology mechanics properties of dummy are obtained. The result shows the accuracy and validity of the models.

  8. Relationship of occupational and non-occupational stress with smoking in automotive industry workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani, Somayeh; Yazdanparast, Taraneh; Seyedmehdi, Seyed Mohammad; Ghaffari, Mostafa; Attarchi, Mirsaeed; Bahadori, Baharak

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco use is the second cause of death and first cause of preventable mortality worldwide. Smoking in the workplace is particularly concerning. Smoking-free workplaces decrease the risk of exposure of non-smoking personnel to cigarette smoke. Recent studies have mostly focused on the effect of daily or non-occupational stressors (in comparison with occupational stress) on prevalence of smoking. Occupational stress is often evaluated in workplaces for smoking cessation or control programs, but the role of non-occupational stressors is often disregarded in this respect. This cross-sectional study was conducted in an automobile manufacturing company. The response of automotive industry workers to parts of the validated, reliable, Farsi version of Musculoskeletal Intervention Center (MUSIC)-Norrtalje questionnaire was evaluated. A total of 3,536 factory workers participated in this study. Data were analyzed using SPSS and P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. The correlation of smoking with demographic factors, occupational stressors and life events was evaluated. The results of logistic regression analysis showed that even after adjusting for the confounding factors, cigarette smoking was significantly correlated with age, sex, level of education, job control and life events (P<0.05). The results showed that of occupational and non-occupational stressors, only job control was correlated with cigarette smoking. Non-occupational stressors had greater effect on cigarette smoking. Consideration of both non-occupational and occupational stressors can enhance the success of smoking control programs. On the other hand, a combination of smoking control and stress (occupational and non-occupational) control programs can be more effective than smoking cessation interventions alone.

  9. A novel modeling tool with multi-stressor functionality for organic contaminant transport and fate in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undeman, E; Gustafsson, E; Gustafsson, B G

    2014-11-01

    The coupled physical-biogeochemical model BALTSEM, previously used to assess nutrient/carbon cycles and eutrophication in the Baltic Sea, has been expanded to include algorithms for calculations of organic contaminant environmental transport and fate. This novel model version (BALTSEM-POP) is evaluated for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in Baltic Sea surface water and sediment. Modeled dissolved concentrations are usually within a factor of 2-4 of observed concentrations, however with larger deviations for furans. Calculated concentrations in particulate organic matter are less accurate (within factors of 1-700), likely due to errors in estimated pelagic biomass, particulate matter-water partitioning, and large natural variability in field data. Concentrations in sediments are usually predicted within a factor of 6. The good performance of the model illustrates its usefulness for exploration of contaminant fate in response to variations in nutrient input and climatic conditions in the Baltic Sea marine environment.

  10. Uncertainties in neural network model based on carbon dioxide concentration for occupancy estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, Azimil Gani; Rahman, Haolia; Kim, Jung-Kyung; Han, Hwataik [Kookmin University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    Demand control ventilation is employed to save energy by adjusting airflow rate according to the ventilation load of a building. This paper investigates a method for occupancy estimation by using a dynamic neural network model based on carbon dioxide concentration in an occupied zone. The method can be applied to most commercial and residential buildings where human effluents to be ventilated. An indoor simulation program CONTAMW is used to generate indoor CO{sub 2} data corresponding to various occupancy schedules and airflow patterns to train neural network models. Coefficients of variation are obtained depending on the complexities of the physical parameters as well as the system parameters of neural networks, such as the numbers of hidden neurons and tapped delay lines. We intend to identify the uncertainties caused by the model parameters themselves, by excluding uncertainties in input data inherent in measurement. Our results show estimation accuracy is highly influenced by the frequency of occupancy variation but not significantly influenced by fluctuation in the airflow rate. Furthermore, we discuss the applicability and validity of the present method based on passive environmental conditions for estimating occupancy in a room from the viewpoint of demand control ventilation applications.

  11. Site-occupancy distribution modeling to correct population-trend estimates derived from opportunistic observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kery, M.; Royle, J. Andrew; Schmid, Hans; Schaub, M.; Volet, B.; Hafliger, G.; Zbinden, N.

    2010-01-01

    Species' assessments must frequently be derived from opportunistic observations made by volunteers (i.e., citizen scientists). Interpretation of the resulting data to estimate population trends is plagued with problems, including teasing apart genuine population trends from variations in observation effort. We devised a way to correct for annual variation in effort when estimating trends in occupancy (species distribution) from faunal or floral databases of opportunistic observations. First, for all surveyed sites, detection histories (i.e., strings of detection-nondetection records) are generated. Within-season replicate surveys provide information on the detectability of an occupied site. Detectability directly represents observation effort; hence, estimating detectablity means correcting for observation effort. Second, site-occupancy models are applied directly to the detection-history data set (i.e., without aggregation by site and year) to estimate detectability and species distribution (occupancy, i.e., the true proportion of sites where a species occurs). Site-occupancy models also provide unbiased estimators of components of distributional change (i.e., colonization and extinction rates). We illustrate our method with data from a large citizen-science project in Switzerland in which field ornithologists record opportunistic observations. We analyzed data collected on four species: the widespread Kingfisher (Alcedo atthis. ) and Sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus. ) and the scarce Rock Thrush (Monticola saxatilis. ) and Wallcreeper (Tichodroma muraria. ). Our method requires that all observed species are recorded. Detectability was biodiversity monitoring and modeling of species distributions. ?? 2010 Society for Conservation Biology.

  12. Predicting species distributions from checklist data using site-occupancy models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kery, M.; Gardner, B.; Monnerat, C.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: (1) To increase awareness of the challenges induced by imperfect detection, which is a fundamental issue in species distribution modelling; (2) to emphasize the value of replicate observations for species distribution modelling; and (3) to show how 'cheap' checklist data in faunal/floral databases may be used for the rigorous modelling of distributions by site-occupancy models. Location: Switzerland. Methods: We used checklist data collected by volunteers during 1999 and 2000 to analyse the distribution of the blue hawker, Aeshna cyanea (Odonata, Aeshnidae), a common dragonfly in Switzerland. We used data from repeated visits to 1-ha pixels to derive 'detection histories' and apply site-occupancy models to estimate the 'true' species distribution, i.e. corrected for imperfect detection. We modelled blue hawker distribution as a function of elevation and year and its detection probability of elevation, year and season. Results: The best model contained cubic polynomial elevation effects for distribution and quadratic effects of elevation and season for detectability. We compared the site-occupancy model with a conventional distribution model based on a generalized linear model, which assumes perfect detectability (p = 1). The conventional distribution map looked very different from the distribution map obtained using site-occupancy models that accounted for the imperfect detection. The conventional model underestimated the species distribution by 60%, and the slope parameters of the occurrence-elevation relationship were also underestimated when assuming p = 1. Elevation was not only an important predictor of blue hawker occurrence, but also of the detection probability, with a bell-shaped relationship. Furthermore, detectability increased over the season. The average detection probability was estimated at only 0.19 per survey. Main conclusions: Conventional species distribution models do not model species distributions per se but rather the apparent

  13. Toward a Better Understanding of the Effects of Hindrance and Challenge Stressors on Work Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Jennica R.; Beehr, Terry A.; Christiansen, Neil D.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the processes whereby hindrance and challenge stressors may affect work behavior. Three mechanisms were examined to explain the differential effects these stressors have demonstrated: job satisfaction, strains, and work self-efficacy. A model is proposed in which both types of stressors will result in increases in strains,…

  14. A goodness-of-fit test for occupancy models with correlated within-season revisits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Wilson; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Rodhouse, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Occupancy modeling is important for exploring species distribution patterns and for conservation monitoring. Within this framework, explicit attention is given to species detection probabilities estimated from replicate surveys to sample units. A central assumption is that replicate surveys are independent Bernoulli trials, but this assumption becomes untenable when ecologists serially deploy remote cameras and acoustic recording devices over days and weeks to survey rare and elusive animals. Proposed solutions involve modifying the detection-level component of the model (e.g., first-order Markov covariate). Evaluating whether a model sufficiently accounts for correlation is imperative, but clear guidance for practitioners is lacking. Currently, an omnibus goodnessof- fit test using a chi-square discrepancy measure on unique detection histories is available for occupancy models (MacKenzie and Bailey, Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics, 9, 2004, 300; hereafter, MacKenzie– Bailey test). We propose a join count summary measure adapted from spatial statistics to directly assess correlation after fitting a model. We motivate our work with a dataset of multinight bat call recordings from a pilot study for the North American Bat Monitoring Program. We found in simulations that our join count test was more reliable than the MacKenzie–Bailey test for detecting inadequacy of a model that assumed independence, particularly when serial correlation was low to moderate. A model that included a Markov-structured detection-level covariate produced unbiased occupancy estimates except in the presence of strong serial correlation and a revisit design consisting only of temporal replicates. When applied to two common bat species, our approach illustrates that sophisticated models do not guarantee adequate fit to real data, underscoring the importance of model assessment. Our join count test provides a widely applicable goodness-of-fit test and

  15. Occupational Therapy and Video Modeling for Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Emily Ann; Watry-Christian, Meghan; Simmons, Amanda; Van Eperen, Ashleigh

    2016-01-01

    This review explores the evidence in support of using video modeling for teaching children with autism. The process of implementing video modeling, the use of various perspectives, and a wide range of target skills are addressed. Additionally, several helpful clinician resources including handheld device applications, books, and websites are…

  16. Modeling the Spectra of Dense Hydrogen Plasmas: Beyond Occupation Probability

    CERN Document Server

    Gomez, T A; Nagayama, T; Kilcrease, D P; Winget, D E

    2016-01-01

    Accurately measuring the masses of white dwarf stars is crucial in many astrophysical contexts (e.g., asteroseismology and cosmochronology). These masses are most commonly determined by fitting a model atmosphere to an observed spectrum; this is known as the spectroscopic method. However, for cases in which more than one method may be employed, there are well known discrepancies between masses determined by the spectroscopic method and those determined by astrometric, dynamical, and/or gravitational-redshift methods. In an effort to resolve these discrepancies, we are developing a new model of hydrogen in a dense plasma that is a significant departure from previous models. Experiments at Sandia National Laboratories are currently underway to validate these new models, and we have begun modifications to incorporate these models into stellar-atmosphere codes.

  17. A Model for the Handover Traffic and Channel Occupancy Time in LEO Satellite Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangJingyu; YaoYongyang

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a method to determine the parameters of the traffic model for the LEO satellite networks-the handover traffic and the mean channel occupancy time.The main idea is that the handover traffic is mainly due to the movement of the satellites and the velocity of the mobile terminals and earth rotation is ignored.The performance level can be calculated accord-ing to different handover queuing model.

  18. Simultaneous modeling of habitat suitability, occupancy, and relative abundance: African elephants in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Julien; Chamaillé-Jammes, Simon; Nichols, James D; Fritz, Hervé; Hines, James E; Fonnesbeck, Christopher J; MacKenzie, Darryl I; Bailey, Larissa L

    2010-06-01

    The recent development of statistical models such as dynamic site occupancy models provides the opportunity to address fairly complex management and conservation problems with relatively simple models. However, surprisingly few empirical studies have simultaneously modeled habitat suitability and occupancy status of organisms over large landscapes for management purposes. Joint modeling of these components is particularly important in the context of management of wild populations, as it provides a more coherent framework to investigate the population dynamics of organisms in space and time for the application of management decision tools. We applied such an approach to the study of water hole use by African elephants in Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe. Here we show how such methodology may be implemented and derive estimates of annual transition probabilities among three dry-season states for water holes: (1) unsuitable state (dry water holes with no elephants); (2) suitable state (water hole with water) with low abundance of elephants; and (3) suitable state with high abundance of elephants. We found that annual rainfall and the number of neighboring water holes influenced the transition probabilities among these three states. Because of an increase in elephant densities in the park during the study period, we also found that transition probabilities from low abundance to high abundance states increased over time. The application of the joint habitat-occupancy models provides a coherent framework to examine how habitat suitability and factors that affect habitat suitability influence the distribution and abundance of organisms. We discuss how these simple models can further be used to apply structured decision-making tools in order to derive decisions that are optimal relative to specified management objectives. The modeling framework presented in this paper should be applicable to a wide range of existing data sets and should help to address important ecological

  19. Simultaneous modeling of habitat suitability, occupancy, and relative abundance: African elephants in Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Julien; Chamaille-Jammes, Simon; Nichols, James D.; Fritz, Herve; Hines, James E.; Fonnesbeck, Christopher J.; MacKenzie, Darryl I.; Bailey, Larissa L.

    2010-01-01

    The recent development of statistical models such as dynamic site occupancy models provides the opportunity to address fairly complex management and conservation problems with relatively simple models. However, surprisingly few empirical studies have simultaneously modeled habitat suitability and occupancy status of organisms over large landscapes for management purposes. Joint modeling of these components is particularly important in the context of management of wild populations, as it provides a more coherent framework to investigate the population dynamics of organisms in space and time for the application of management decision tools. We applied such an approach to the study of water hole use by African elephants in Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe. Here we show how such methodology may be implemented and derive estimates of annual transition probabilities among three dry-season states for water holes: (1) unsuitable state (dry water holes with no elephants); (2) suitable state (water hole with water) with low abundance of elephants; and (3) suitable state with high abundance of elephants. We found that annual rainfall and the number of neighboring water holes influenced the transition probabilities among these three states. Because of an increase in elephant densities in the park during the study period, we also found that transition probabilities from low abundance to high abundance states increased over time. The application of the joint habitat–occupancy models provides a coherent framework to examine how habitat suitability and factors that affect habitat suitability influence the distribution and abundance of organisms. We discuss how these simple models can further be used to apply structured decision-making tools in order to derive decisions that are optimal relative to specified management objectives. The modeling framework presented in this paper should be applicable to a wide range of existing data sets and should help to address important ecological

  20. Modeling the Interactive Effects of Multiple Environmental Stressors on Regional Forest Carbon Dynamics in the Northeastern U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollinger, S. V.

    2001-12-01

    Temperate forests are increasingly affected by a variety of environmental factors that stem from human industrial and agricultural activities. In the northeastern U.S., important environmental change agents include tropospheric ozone, atmospheric nitrogen deposition, elevated CO2, and historical human land use. Although each of these has received attention for its individual effects on forest carbon dynamics, integrated analyses that examine all factors simultaneously are rare. To examine the relative importance of all of these factors on current forest growth and carbon exchange in the northeastern U.S., we included them individually and in combination in a forest ecosystem model (PnET-CN) that was applied to sites where ambient ozone concentration data were available from air quality monitoring stations and where other inputs could be obtained from existing regional data sets. The model was parameterized to represent typical northern hardwood forest stands and run for each site from 1700 to 2000 under different scenarios of air pollution and land use history. Results suggest that historical increases in CO2 and N deposition have stimulated forest growth and carbon uptake, but to different degrees following agriculture and timber harvesting. These differences resulted from the effects of each land use scenario on predicted soil C and N pools and the resulting degree of growth limitations by carbon versus nitrogen. Including the effects of tropospheric ozone on canopy photosynthesis offset the predicted growth increases substantially; by an amount roughly equivalent to the fertilization effect of N deposition. This result is particularly relevant given that ozone pollution is widespread across much of the world and because broad-scale spatial patterns of ozone and nitrogen deposition are coupled through the dependence of ozone formation on nitrogen oxide emissions. This was demonstrated across our study region by a significant correlation between ozone exposure and

  1. Relaxing the closure assumption in single-season occupancy models: staggered arrival and departure times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, William L.; Hines, James E.; Nichols, James D.; Grant, Evan H. Campbell

    2013-01-01

    Occupancy statistical models that account for imperfect detection have proved very useful in several areas of ecology, including species distribution and spatial dynamics, disease ecology, and ecological responses to climate change. These models are based on the collection of multiple samples at each of a number of sites within a given season, during which it is assumed the species is either absent or present and available for detection while each sample is taken. However, for some species, individuals are only present or available for detection seasonally. We present a statistical model that relaxes the closure assumption within a season by permitting staggered entry and exit times for the species of interest at each site. Based on simulation, our open model eliminates bias in occupancy estimators and in some cases increases precision. The power to detect the violation of closure is high if detection probability is reasonably high. In addition to providing more robust estimation of occupancy, this model permits comparison of phenology across sites, species, or years, by modeling variation in arrival or departure probabilities. In a comparison of four species of amphibians in Maryland we found that two toad species arrived at breeding sites later in the season than a salamander and frog species, and departed from sites earlier.

  2. Modeling ventilation rates in bedrooms based on building characteristics and occupant behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Toftum, Jørn; Clausen, Geo

    2011-01-01

    characteristics and occupant behavior. These were tested in several linear regression models to identify the degree of effect each selected independent variable has on the total ACR. The measured ACRs are summarized by some of the most significant variables such as room volume (higher ACR in smaller rooms......), number of people sleeping in the bedroom (higher ACR with more people), average window and door opening habits (higher ACR with more opening), sharing the bedroom with other family members (higher ACR in shared rooms), location of the measured room (higher ACR above ground floor), year of construction...... (lowest ACR in buildings from early 1970s), observed condensation on the bedroom window (higher ACR at less condensation), etc. The best-fitting model explained 46% of the variability in the air change rates. Variables related to occupant behavior were stronger predictors of ventilation rate (model R2 ¼ 0...

  3. Abiotic stressors and stress responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sulmon, Cecile; Van Baaren, Joan; Cabello-Hurtado, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Organisms are regularly subjected to abiotic stressors related to increasing anthropogenic activities, including chemicals and climatic changes that induce major stresses. Based on various key taxa involved in ecosystem functioning (photosynthetic microorganisms, plants, invertebrates), ...

  4. Vocational intervention based on the Model of Human Occupation: a review of evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jenica; Kielhofner, Gary

    2010-09-01

    Work is a growing concern in disability and rehabilitation fields. Specific evidence related to occupational therapy in the area of vocational rehabilitation is somewhat limited. With increased demands for occupation-focused, evidence-based, and theory-informed practice, this review aims to use clinically relevant questions to organize and synthesize evidence regarding work-related interventions specifically related to an occupation-focused theory, the Model of Human Occupation. A total of 45 published works related to both the MOHO and vocational issues were identified and included in the review. The review demonstrates that there is a range of evidence that supports the use of the MOHO and its tools as a basis for work-based clinical interventions. Evidence supports the conclusion that MOHO-based work assessments have good psychometric properties and are useful in evaluating vocational potential and needs. MOHO-based work programs have been shown to have a positive impact in improving vocational outcomes to a range of clients.

  5. Measuring and modelling occupancy time in NHS continuing healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millard Peter H

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to increasing demand and financial constraints, NHS continuing healthcare systems seek to find better ways of forecasting demand and budgeting for care. This paper investigates two areas of concern, namely, how long existing patients stay in service and the number of patients that are likely to be still in care after a period of time. Methods An anonymised dataset containing information for all funded admissions to placement and home care in the NHS continuing healthcare system was provided by 26 (out of 31 London primary care trusts. The data related to 11289 patients staying in placement and home care between 1 April 2005 and 31 May 2008 were first analysed. Using a methodology based on length of stay (LoS modelling, we captured the distribution of LoS of patients to estimate the probability of a patient staying in care over a period of time. Using the estimated probabilities we forecasted the number of patients that are likely to be still in care after a period of time (e.g. monthly. Results We noticed that within the NHS continuing healthcare system there are three main categories of patients. Some patients are discharged after a short stay (few days, some others staying for few months and the third category of patients staying for a long period of time (years. Some variations in proportions of discharge and transition between types of care as well as between care groups (e.g. palliative, functional mental health were observed. A close agreement of the observed and the expected numbers of patients suggests a good prediction model. Conclusions The model was tested for care groups within the NHS continuing healthcare system in London to support Primary Care Trusts in budget planning and improve their responsiveness to meet the increasing demand under limited availability of resources. Its applicability can be extended to other types of care, such as hospital care and re-ablement. Further work will be geared towards

  6. Predicted and actual indoor environmental quality: Verification of occupants' behaviour models in residential buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Fabi, Valentina; Corgnati, Stefano P.

    2016-01-01

    performance using building energy performance simulations (BEPS). However, the validity of these models has only been sparsely tested. In this paper, stochastic models of occupants' behaviour from literature were tested against measurements in five apartments. In a monitoring campaign, measurements of indoor...... station close by. The stochastic models of window opening and heating set-point adjustments were implemented in the BEPS tool IDA ICE. Two apartments from the monitoring campaign were simulated using the implemented models and the measured weather data. The results were compared to measurements from...

  7. Verification of stochastic behavioural models of occupants' interactions with windows in residential buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabi, Valentina; Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Corgnati, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Realistic characterisation of occupants' window opening behaviour is crucial for reliable prediction of building performance by means of building energy performance simulations. Window opening behaviour has been investigated by several researchers, leading to a variety of logistic regression models....... Initially three models from literature were investigated by comparison of predicted probabilities and the actual measured state of the windows. Data from one of the papers was reanalysed to create new models, based on measurements from single dwellings. These models were used to predict window transition...

  8. [Predictive models for the assessment of occupational exposure to chemicals: a new challenge for employers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromiec, Jan Piotr; Kupczewska-Dobecka, Małgorzata; Jankowska, Agnieszka; Czerczak, Sławomir

    2013-01-01

    Employers are obliged to carry out and document the risk associated with the use of chemical substances. The best but the most expensive method is to measure workplace concentrations of chemicals. At present no "measureless" method for risk assessment is available in Poland, but predictive models for such assessments have been developed in some countries. The purpose of this work is to review and evaluate the applicability of selected predictive methods for assessing occupational inhalation exposure and related risk to check the compliance with Occupational Exposure Limits (OELs), as well as the compliance with REACH obligations. Based on the literature data HSE COSHH Essentials, EASE, ECETOC TRA, Stoffenmanager, and EMKG-Expo-Tool were evaluated. The data on validation of predictive models were also examined. It seems that predictive models may be used as a useful method for Tier 1 assessment of occupational exposure by inhalation. Since the levels of exposure are frequently overestimated, they should be considered as "rational worst cases" for selection of proper control measures. Bearing in mind that the number of available exposure scenarios and PROC categories is limited, further validation by field surveys is highly recommended. Predictive models may serve as a good tool for preliminary risk assessment and selection of the most appropriate risk control measures in Polish small and medium size enterprises (SMEs) providing that they are available in the Polish language. This also requires an extensive training of their future users.

  9. Predictive models for the assessment of occupational exposure to chemicals: A new challenge for employers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Piotr Gromiec

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Employers are obliged to carry out and document the risk associated with the use of chemical substances. The best but the most expensive method is to measure workplace concentrations of chemicals. At present no "measureless" method for risk assessment is available in Poland, but predictive models for such assessments have been developed in some countries. The purpose of this work is to review and evaluate the applicability of selected predictive methods for assessing occupational inhalation exposure and related risk to check the compliance with Occupational Exposure Limits (OELs, as well as the compliance with REACH obligations. Based on the literature data HSE COSHH Essentials, EASE, ECETOC TRA, Stoffenmanager, and EMKG-Expo-Tool were evaluated. The data on validation of predictive models were also examined. It seems that predictive models may be used as a useful method for Tier 1 assessment of occupational exposure by inhalation. Since the levels of exposure are frequently overestimated, they should be considered as "rational worst cases" for selection of proper control measures. Bearing in mind that the number of available exposure scenarios and PROC categories is limited, further validation by field surveys is highly recommended. Predictive models may serve as a good tool for preliminary risk assessment and selection of the most appropriate risk control measures in Polish small and medium size enterprises (SMEs providing that they are available in the Polish language. This also requires an extensive training of their future users. Med Pr 2013;64(5:699–716

  10. Dynamic occupancy models for analyzing species' range dynamics across large geographic scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bled, Florent; Nichols, James D; Altwegg, Res

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale biodiversity data are needed to predict species' responses to global change and to address basic questions in macroecology. While such data are increasingly becoming available, their analysis is challenging because of the typically large heterogeneity in spatial sampling intensity and the need to account for observation processes. Two further challenges are accounting for spatial effects that are not explained by covariates, and drawing inference on dynamics at these large spatial scales. We developed dynamic occupancy models to analyze large-scale atlas data. In addition to occupancy, these models estimate local colonization and persistence probabilities. We accounted for spatial autocorrelation using conditional autoregressive models and autologistic models. We fitted the models to detection/nondetection data collected on a quarter-degree grid across southern Africa during two atlas projects, using the hadeda ibis (Bostrychia hagedash) as an example. The model accurately reproduced the range expansion between the first (SABAP1: 1987–1992) and second (SABAP2: 2007–2012) Southern African Bird Atlas Project into the drier parts of interior South Africa. Grid cells occupied during SABAP1 generally remained occupied, but colonization of unoccupied grid cells was strongly dependent on the number of occupied grid cells in the neighborhood. The detection probability strongly varied across space due to variation in effort, observer identity, seasonality, and unexplained spatial effects. We present a flexible hierarchical approach for analyzing grid-based atlas data using dynamical occupancy models. Our model is similar to a species' distribution model obtained using generalized additive models but has a number of advantages. Our model accounts for the heterogeneous sampling process, spatial correlation, and perhaps most importantly, allows us to examine dynamic aspects of species ranges. PMID:24455124

  11. Additive effects prevail: The response of biota to multiple stressors in an intensively monitored watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieswein, Alexander; Hering, Daniel; Feld, Christian K

    2017-09-01

    Freshwater ecosystems are impacted by a range of stressors arising from diverse human-caused land and water uses. Identifying the relative importance of single stressors and understanding how multiple stressors interact and jointly affect biology is crucial for River Basin Management. This study addressed multiple human-induced stressors and their effects on the aquatic flora and fauna based on data from standard WFD monitoring schemes. For altogether 1095 sites within a mountainous catchment, we used 12 stressor variables covering three different stressor groups: riparian land use, physical habitat quality and nutrient enrichment. Twenty-one biological metrics calculated from taxa lists of three organism groups (fish, benthic invertebrates and aquatic macrophytes) served as response variables. Stressor and response variables were subjected to Boosted Regression Tree (BRT) analysis to identify stressor hierarchy and stressor interactions and subsequently to Generalised Linear Regression Modelling (GLM) to quantify the stressors standardised effect size. Our results show that riverine habitat degradation was the dominant stressor group for the river fauna, notably the bed physical habitat structure. Overall, the explained variation in benthic invertebrate metrics was higher than it was in fish and macrophyte metrics. In particular, general integrative (aggregate) metrics such as % Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera (EPT) taxa performed better than ecological traits (e.g. % feeding types). Overall, additive stressor effects dominated, while significant and meaningful stressor interactions were generally rare and weak. We concluded that given the type of stressor and ecological response variables addressed in this study, river basin managers do not need to bother much about complex stressor interactions, but can focus on the prevailing stressors according to the hierarchy identified. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A respiratory model for uranium aluminide based on occupational data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggett, R W; Eckerman, K F; Boice, J D

    2005-12-01

    As part of an epidemiological study, doses from intake of radionuclides were estimated for workers employed during a 52-year period at the Rocketdyne/Atomics International facility in California. The facility was involved in a variety of research programmes, including nuclear fuel fabrication, spent nuclear fuel decladding, and reactor operation and disassembly. Most of the documented intakes involved inhalation of enriched uranium (U), fission products, or plutonium (Pu). Highest doses were estimated for a group of workers exposed to airborne uranium aluminide (UAl(x)) during the fabrication of reactor fuel plates. Much of the exposure to UAl(x) occurred early in the fuel fabrication programme, before it was recognised that intake and lung retention were being underestimated from urinary data due to an unexpected delayed dissolution of the inhaled material. In workers who had been removed from exposure, the rate of urinary excretion of U increased for a few months, peaked, and then declined at a rate consistent with moderately soluble material. This pattern differs markedly from the monotonically decreasing absorption rates represented by the default absorption types in the Human Respiratory Tract Model (HRTM) of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). This paper summarises the findings on the behaviour of UAl(x) in these workers and describes material-specific parameter values of the HRTM based on this information.

  13. Predictive models for the assessment of occupational exposure to chemicals: A new challenge for employers

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Piotr Gromiec; Małgorzata Kupczewska-Dobecka; Agnieszka Jankowska; Sławomir Czerczak

    2013-01-01

    Employers are obliged to carry out and document the risk associated with the use of chemical substances. The best but the most expensive method is to measure workplace concentrations of chemicals. At present no "measureless" method for risk assessment is available in Poland, but predictive models for such assessments have been developed in some countries. The purpose of this work is to review and evaluate the applicability of selected predictive methods for assessing occupational inhalation e...

  14. TREXMO: A Translation Tool to Support the Use of Regulatory Occupational Exposure Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savic, Nenad; Racordon, Dimitri; Buchs, Didier; Gasic, Bojan; Vernez, David

    2016-10-01

    Occupational exposure models vary significantly in their complexity, purpose, and the level of expertise required from the user. Different parameters in the same model may lead to different exposure estimates for the same exposure situation. This paper presents a tool developed to deal with this concern-TREXMO or TRanslation of EXposure MOdels. TREXMO integrates six commonly used occupational exposure models, namely, ART v.1.5, STOFFENMANAGER(®) v.5.1, ECETOC TRA v.3, MEASE v.1.02.01, EMKG-EXPO-TOOL, and EASE v.2.0. By enabling a semi-automatic translation between the parameters of these six models, TREXMO facilitates their simultaneous use. For a given exposure situation, defined by a set of parameters in one of the models, TREXMO provides the user with the most appropriate parameters to use in the other exposure models. Results showed that, once an exposure situation and parameters were set in ART, TREXMO reduced the number of possible outcomes in the other models by 1-4 orders of magnitude. The tool should manage to reduce the uncertain entry or selection of parameters in the six models, improve between-user reliability, and reduce the time required for running several models for a given exposure situation. In addition to these advantages, registrants of chemicals and authorities should benefit from more reliable exposure estimates for the risk characterization of dangerous chemicals under Regulation, Evaluation, Authorisation and restriction of CHemicals (REACH).

  15. Occupancy modeling and estimation of the holiday darter species complex within the Etowah River system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Gregory B.; Freeman, Mary C.; Hagler, Megan M.; Freeman, Byron J.

    2012-01-01

    Documenting the status of rare fishes is a crucial step in effectively managing populations and implementing regulatory mechanisms of protection. In recent years, site occupancy has become an increasingly popular metric for assessing populations, but species distribution models that do not account for imperfect detection can underestimate the proportion of sites occupied and the strength of the relationship with a hypothesized covariate. However, valid detection requires temporal or spatial replication, which is often not feasible due to logistical or budget constraints. In this study, we used a method that allowed for spatial replication during a single visit to evaluate the current status of the holiday darter species complex, Etheostoma sp. cf. E. brevirostrum, within the Etowah River system. Moreover, the modeling approach used in this study facilitated comparisons of factors influencing stream occupancy as well as species detection within sites. The results suggest that there is less habitat available for the Etowah holiday darter form (Etheostoma sp. cf. E. brevirostrum B) than for the Amicalola holiday darter form (Etheostoma sp. cf. E. brevirostrum A). Additionally, occupancy models suggest that even small decreases in forest cover within these headwater systems adversely affect holiday darter populations.

  16. Using multi-species occupancy models in structured decision making on managed lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, John R.; Blank, Peter J.; Zipkin, Elise F.; Fallon, Jane E.; Fallon, Frederick W.

    2013-01-01

    Land managers must balance the needs of a variety of species when manipulating habitats. Structured decision making provides a systematic means of defining choices and choosing among alternative management options; implementation of a structured decision requires quantitative approaches to predicting consequences of management on the relevant species. Multi-species occupancy models provide a convenient framework for making structured decisions when the management objective is focused on a collection of species. These models use replicate survey data that are often collected on managed lands. Occupancy can be modeled for each species as a function of habitat and other environmental features, and Bayesian methods allow for estimation and prediction of collective responses of groups of species to alternative scenarios of habitat management. We provide an example of this approach using data from breeding bird surveys conducted in 2008 at the Patuxent Research Refuge in Laurel, Maryland, evaluating the effects of eliminating meadow and wetland habitats on scrub-successional and woodland-breeding bird species using summed total occupancy of species as an objective function. Removal of meadows and wetlands decreased value of an objective function based on scrub-successional species by 23.3% (95% CI: 20.3–26.5), but caused only a 2% (0.5, 3.5) increase in value of an objective function based on woodland species, documenting differential effects of elimination of meadows and wetlands on these groups of breeding birds. This approach provides a useful quantitative tool for managers interested in structured decision making.

  17. Evaluating Multi-Level Models to Test Occupancy State Responses of Plethodontid Salamanders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Kroll

    Full Text Available Plethodontid salamanders are diverse and widely distributed taxa and play critical roles in ecosystem processes. Due to salamander use of structurally complex habitats, and because only a portion of a population is available for sampling, evaluation of sampling designs and estimators is critical to provide strong inference about Plethodontid ecology and responses to conservation and management activities. We conducted a simulation study to evaluate the effectiveness of multi-scale and hierarchical single-scale occupancy models in the context of a Before-After Control-Impact (BACI experimental design with multiple levels of sampling. Also, we fit the hierarchical single-scale model to empirical data collected for Oregon slender and Ensatina salamanders across two years on 66 forest stands in the Cascade Range, Oregon, USA. All models were fit within a Bayesian framework. Estimator precision in both models improved with increasing numbers of primary and secondary sampling units, underscoring the potential gains accrued when adding secondary sampling units. Both models showed evidence of estimator bias at low detection probabilities and low sample sizes; this problem was particularly acute for the multi-scale model. Our results suggested that sufficient sample sizes at both the primary and secondary sampling levels could ameliorate this issue. Empirical data indicated Oregon slender salamander occupancy was associated strongly with the amount of coarse woody debris (posterior mean = 0.74; SD = 0.24; Ensatina occupancy was not associated with amount of coarse woody debris (posterior mean = -0.01; SD = 0.29. Our simulation results indicate that either model is suitable for use in an experimental study of Plethodontid salamanders provided that sample sizes are sufficiently large. However, hierarchical single-scale and multi-scale models describe different processes and estimate different parameters. As a result, we recommend careful consideration of

  18. Evaluating Multi-Level Models to Test Occupancy State Responses of Plethodontid Salamanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Andrew J; Garcia, Tiffany S; Jones, Jay E; Dugger, Katie; Murden, Blake; Johnson, Josh; Peterman, Summer; Peerman, Summer; Brintz, Ben; Rochelle, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Plethodontid salamanders are diverse and widely distributed taxa and play critical roles in ecosystem processes. Due to salamander use of structurally complex habitats, and because only a portion of a population is available for sampling, evaluation of sampling designs and estimators is critical to provide strong inference about Plethodontid ecology and responses to conservation and management activities. We conducted a simulation study to evaluate the effectiveness of multi-scale and hierarchical single-scale occupancy models in the context of a Before-After Control-Impact (BACI) experimental design with multiple levels of sampling. Also, we fit the hierarchical single-scale model to empirical data collected for Oregon slender and Ensatina salamanders across two years on 66 forest stands in the Cascade Range, Oregon, USA. All models were fit within a Bayesian framework. Estimator precision in both models improved with increasing numbers of primary and secondary sampling units, underscoring the potential gains accrued when adding secondary sampling units. Both models showed evidence of estimator bias at low detection probabilities and low sample sizes; this problem was particularly acute for the multi-scale model. Our results suggested that sufficient sample sizes at both the primary and secondary sampling levels could ameliorate this issue. Empirical data indicated Oregon slender salamander occupancy was associated strongly with the amount of coarse woody debris (posterior mean = 0.74; SD = 0.24); Ensatina occupancy was not associated with amount of coarse woody debris (posterior mean = -0.01; SD = 0.29). Our simulation results indicate that either model is suitable for use in an experimental study of Plethodontid salamanders provided that sample sizes are sufficiently large. However, hierarchical single-scale and multi-scale models describe different processes and estimate different parameters. As a result, we recommend careful consideration of study questions

  19. Employee personality as a moderator of the relationships between work stressors and counterproductive work behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, Nathan A; Eschleman, Kevin J

    2010-01-01

    The current study, which is framed within the context of the Transactional Theory of Stress and Coping, examined counterproductive work behaviors (CWBs) as a response to ineffective coping with work stressors. More specifically, we examined whether the relationship between work stressors and CWBs was moderated by employee personality. Analyses using data collected from 726 adults employed in a diverse set of occupations found that work stressors were more strongly related to CWBs among workers who were low in conscientiousness, or high in negative affectivity (NA) than among workers who were high in conscientiousness, or low in NA. We found less consistent support, however, for the moderating effects of agreeableness.

  20. The mediating and moderating role of personal strain and coping resource in the relationship between work stressor and quality of life among Chinese nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Si-Ying; Li, Huang-Yuan; Yang, Shu-Juan; Zhu, Wei; Wang, Xiao-Rong

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether personal strain and coping resources act as either mediator or moderator or both in the relationship between work stressor and quality of life among Chinese nurses. A total of 1,012 nurses were selected from eight hospitals located in two provinces in China. Quality of life was measured with the Chinese version of the Short Form-36 Health Survey; work stressor, personal strain, and coping resources were evaluated using the Occupation Stress Inventory-Revised Edition. The hierarchical multiple regression procedure and Baron and Kenny's model of mediation were applied to test for moderation and mediation, respectively. A structural equation model was fit to assess the interrelationships among these variables. Work stressor was closely associated with quality of life, which was mediated and moderated by personal strain and coping resources. Personal strain also acted both as moderator and mediator in the relationship between coping resources and quality of life. The relationships were verified in the structural equation model. The greatest absolute value of the standardized total effects was seen in personal strain (0.817), followed by work stressor (0.634) and coping resources (0.488). Personal strain and coping resources have both mediating and moderating effects on the relationship between work stress and quality of life in a sample of Chinese nurses. An effective intervention strategy is needed to reduce work stress and ensure better quality of life.

  1. Stressor controllability modulates fear extinction in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Catherine A; Gorun, Alyson; Reddan, Marianne C; Ramirez, Franchesca; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2014-09-01

    Traumatic events are proposed to play a role in the development of anxiety disorders, however not all individuals exposed to extreme stress experience a pathological increase in fear. Recent studies in animal models suggest that the degree to which one is able to control an aversive experience is a critical factor determining its behavioral consequences. In this study, we examined whether stressor controllability modulates subsequent conditioned fear expression in humans. Participants were randomly assigned to an escapable stressor condition, a yoked inescapable stressor condition, or a control condition involving no stress exposure. One week later, all participants underwent fear conditioning, fear extinction, and a test of extinction retrieval the following day. Participants exposed to inescapable stress showed impaired fear extinction learning and increased fear expression the following day. In contrast, escapable stress improved fear extinction and prevented the spontaneous recovery of fear. Consistent with the bidirectional controllability effects previously reported in animal models, these results suggest that one's degree of control over aversive experiences may be an important factor influencing the development of psychological resilience or vulnerability in humans.

  2. Examining the mediating effect of work-to-family conflict on the associations between job stressors and employee psychological distress: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshio, Takashi; Inoue, Akiomi; Tsutsumi, Akizumi

    2017-08-03

    The mediating effect of work-to-family conflict (WFC) on the associations between eight types of job stressors (measured based on the job demands-control, effort-reward imbalance and organisational justice models) and psychological distress in employees was examined. This study employed a prospective design. An occupational cohort study in Japan (Japanese Study of Health, Occupation, and Psychosocial Factors Related Equity; J-HOPE). 5859 men and 1560 women who were working for 11 firms and participated at three consecutive waves of J-HOPE, at 1-year intervals, from 2010 to 2013. Psychological distress, as measured by Kessler 6 scores. Mediation analysis using data on job stressors at baseline, WFC at 1-year follow-up and psychological distress at 2-year follow-up showed that WFC mediated 39.1% (95% CI 29.1% to 49.1%) and 44.5% (95% CI 31.4% to 51.7%) of the associations of psychological distress with job demands and effort, respectively, for men. The mediating effect of WFC was smaller for job stressors indicating reduced job resources, compared with job demands and effort. The mediating effect of WFC was somewhat larger for women than it was for men, with WFC mediating 47.5% (95% CI 22.5% to 72.6%) and 64.0% (95% CI 24.3% to 100.0%) of the associations of psychological distress with job demands and effort, respectively. WFC was a key mediator in the associations between most job stressors and employee psychological distress. Results suggest that policy measures and support from supervisors, to prevent job stressors from adding to WFC, are needed to reduce employee psychological distress. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. A novel approach to surveying sturgeon using side-scan sonar and occupancy modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, H. Jared; Hightower, Joseph E.

    2013-01-01

    Technological advances represent opportunities to enhance and supplement traditional fisheries sampling approaches. One example with growing importance for fisheries research is hydroacoustic technologies such as side-scan sonar. Advantages of side-scan sonar over traditional techniques include the ability to sample large areas efficiently and the potential to survey fish without physical handling-important for species of conservation concern, such as endangered sturgeons. Our objectives were to design an efficient survey methodology for sampling Atlantic Sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus by using side-scan sonar and to developmethods for analyzing these data. In North Carolina and South Carolina, we surveyed six rivers thought to contain varying abundances of sturgeon by using a combination of side-scan sonar, telemetry, and video cameras (i.e., to sample jumping sturgeon). Lower reaches of each river near the saltwater-freshwater interface were surveyed on three occasions (generally successive days), and we used occupancy modeling to analyze these data.We were able to detect sturgeon in five of six rivers by using these methods. Side-scan sonar was effective in detecting sturgeon, with estimated gear-specific detection probabilities ranging from 0.2 to 0.5 and river-specific occupancy estimates (per 2-km river segment) ranging from 0.0 to 0.8. Future extensions of this occupancy modeling framework will involve the use of side-scan sonar data to assess sturgeon habitat and abundance in different river systems.

  4. A study of critical reasoning in online learning: application of the Occupational Performance Process Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Anita Witt; Batorski, Rosemary E

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effect of an online guided independent study on critical reasoning skills. Twenty-one first-semester Master of Occupational Therapy students completed an online assignment designed to facilitate application of the Occupational Performance Process Model (Fearing & Clark) and kept reflective journals. Data from the journals were analyzed in relation to the three sets of questions, question type and results of the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal (WGCTA). This assignment appeared to be effective for enhancing awareness and use of critical reasoning skills. Differences in patterns of critical reasoning between students with high and low WGCTA scores and results of an inductive analysis of the journal entries are discussed. Future research investigating the types of feedback that effectively facilitate development of critical reasoning and whether students with high and low WGCTA scores might benefit from different types of instruction and/or feedback is recommended.

  5. Occupational therapy evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristina Tomra; Wæhrens, Eva Ejlersen

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Occupational Therapy Intervention Process Model (OTIPM) serves to guide occupational therapists in their professional reasoning. The OTIPM prescribes evaluation of task performance based on both self-report and observation. Although this approach seems ideal, many clinicians raise...

  6. [Occupational stress and health in a sample of chilean executives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guic, Eliana; Bilbao, M Angeles; Bertin, Camilo

    2002-10-01

    Most individual and organizational costs related to job stress are due to preventable health problems. To study the impact of occupational stress in Chile, an instrument that evaluates the different variables involved in the stress process is required. To study the effects of work stressors and psychological variables on health among Chileans managers. To study reliability and validity of the Spanish version of the Occupational Stress Indicator (OSI-2). A translated version of the OSI-2 was applied to a sample of 264 white-collar managers. A high frequency of symptoms was reported by our sample. Back pain was the most frequently reported symptom in managers with high levels of stress. Regression analysis showed that, together, work stressors and psychological characteristics significantly explained self-perceived mental (27.6%) and physical (22.9%) health variance. Responsibilities of the executive role were the stressors most highly associated with poor stress outcomes. The psychological variables most strongly correlated with mental and physical health were Problem-focused Coping and the subscale Impatience of Type A Behavior. The reliability and validity of the OSI-2, Spanish version, were reasonably high. The transactional model of work stress was confirmed in a sample of Chilean managers evaluated with the Spanish version of the OSI-2.

  7. The Challenge of Cultural Competency in the Multicultural 21st Century: A Conceptual Model to Guide Occupational Therapy Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesam Darawsheh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available bstract Background: Occupational therapists increasingly encounter clients from diverse cultural backgrounds and need to meet their professional obligation of delivering culturally competent practice. Yet the process of cultural competency is poorly understood in occupational therapy practice. There is a need for a clear understanding of the meaning and process of cultural competency as it is enacted in practice with a wide range of individuals from culturally diverse backgrounds. Aim: To investigate the process, stages, characteristics, and requirements of cultural competency as practiced by experienced occupational therapists. Method: Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 13 community occupational therapists experienced in delivering occupational therapy services in clients’ homes in a culturally diverse area in London, England. Findings: Interview data were analyzed and ordered into the format of a conceptual process model where cultural competency formed the core concept. The model of cultural competency that emerged from this study comprised six stages: cultural awareness, cultural preparedness, a cultural picture of the person, cultural responsiveness, cultural readiness, and cultural competence. Conclusion: Cultural competency is a complex process that needs to be based on underpinning occupational theory and actualized at the level of practice. Further research is needed to test out the model and illuminate the process of cultural competency in different areas of occupational therapy practice.

  8. Statistical shape analysis of the human spleen geometry for probabilistic occupant models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Keegan M; Lu, Yuan-Chiao; Untaroiu, Costin D

    2016-06-14

    Statistical shape models are an effective way to create computational models of human organs that can incorporate inter-subject geometrical variation. The main objective of this study was to create statistical mean and boundary models of the human spleen in an occupant posture. Principal component analysis was applied to fifteen human spleens in order to find the statistical modes of variation, mean shape, and boundary models. A landmark sliding approach was utilized to refine the landmarks to obtain a better shape correspondence and create a better representation of the underlying shape contour. The first mode of variation was found to be the overall volume, and it accounted for 69% of the total variation. The mean model and boundary models could be used to develop probabilistic finite element (FE) models which may identify the risk of spleen injury during vehicle collisions and consequently help to improve automobile safety systems.

  9. Integrating occupancy modeling and interview data for corridor identification: A case study for jaguars in Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, K.A.; Nijhawan, S.; Salom-Perez, R.; Potosme, S.H.; Hines, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    Corridors are critical elements in the long-term conservation of wide-ranging species like the jaguar (Panthera onca). Jaguar corridors across the range of the species were initially identified using a GIS-based least-cost corridor model. However, due to inherent errors in remotely sensed data and model uncertainties, these corridors warrant field verification before conservation efforts can begin. We developed a novel corridor assessment protocol based on interview data and site occupancy modeling. We divided our pilot study area, in southeastern Nicaragua, into 71, 6. ??. 6 km sampling units and conducted 160 structured interviews with local residents. Interviews were designed to collect data on jaguar and seven prey species so that detection/non-detection matrices could be constructed for each sampling unit. Jaguars were reportedly detected in 57% of the sampling units and had a detection probability of 28%. With the exception of white-lipped peccary, prey species were reportedly detected in 82-100% of the sampling units. Though the use of interview data may violate some assumptions of the occupancy modeling approach for determining 'proportion of area occupied', we countered these shortcomings through study design and interpreting the occupancy parameter, psi, as 'probability of habitat used'. Probability of habitat use was modeled for each target species using single state or multistate models. A combination of the estimated probabilities of habitat use for jaguar and prey was selected to identify the final jaguar corridor. This protocol provides an efficient field methodology for identifying corridors for easily-identifiable species, across large study areas comprised of unprotected, private lands. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  10. The WOMED model of benign thyroid disease: Acquired magnesium deficiency due to physical and psychological stressors relates to dysfunction of oxidative phosphorylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Moncayo

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: We interpret the elevated thyroid vascularization and low magnesium levels as signs of an inflammatory process related to the musculoskeletal changes. Improvement of thyroid function and morphology can be achieved after correcting the influence of stressors together with the supplementation regime. We hypothesize that the central biochemical event in thyroid disease is that of an acquired, altered mitochondrial function due to deficiency of magnesium, selenium, and coenzyme Q10.

  11. Human performance cognitive-behavioral modeling: a benefit for occupational safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Brian F.

    2002-01-01

    Human Performance Modeling (HPM) is a computer-aided job analysis software methodology used to generate predictions of complex human-automation integration and system flow patterns with the goal of improving operator and system safety. The use of HPM tools has recently been increasing due to reductions in computational cost, augmentations in the tools' fidelity, and usefulness in the generated output. An examination of an Air Man-machine Integration Design and Analysis System (Air MIDAS) model evaluating complex human-automation integration currently underway at NASA Ames Research Center will highlight the importance to occupational safety of considering both cognitive and physical aspects of performance when researching human error.

  12. An integrated data model to estimate spatiotemporal occupancy, abundance, and colonization dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Perry J; Hooten, Mevin B; Womble, Jamie N; Esslinger, George G; Bower, Michael R; Hefley, Trevor J

    2017-02-01

    Ecological invasions and colonizations occur dynamically through space and time. Estimating the distribution and abundance of colonizing species is critical for efficient management or conservation. We describe a statistical framework for simultaneously estimating spatiotemporal occupancy and abundance dynamics of a colonizing species. Our method accounts for several issues that are common when modeling spatiotemporal ecological data including multiple levels of detection probability, multiple data sources, and computational limitations that occur when making fine-scale inference over a large spatiotemporal domain. We apply the model to estimate the colonization dynamics of sea otters (Enhydra lutris) in Glacier Bay, in southeastern Alaska.

  13. Occupational therapy education: the relationship of purpose, objectives, and teaching models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardelli, C A; Gratz, R R

    1986-02-01

    A clearly stated purpose of basic professional education in occupational therapy provides a base for educational programs to develop learning objectives and identify effective teaching models and behaviors. The primary purpose of professional education should be the development of problem-solving skills, self-awareness, and creative productive thinking, with "hands-on" skills relegated to a secondary purpose. Specific learning objectives and the teaching models that have been developed to meet these objectives are presented. The authors further suggest that there must be a relationship between what occurs in the classroom (implementation of teaching models) and the purpose of professional education. A survey of current occupational therapy faculty members was conducted to identify a) their preparedness in the use of teaching models and b) other factors affecting their classroom behavior (years of experience, educational level, area of concentration). Survey results portray a relatively young faculty in both rank and experience. Other data indicate that although 85% of the respondents had taken at least one education course, only slightly more than half were familiar with teaching models. Most respondents felt that course work in educational methods and models aids in the development of more effective teaching strategies.

  14. A Model for Occupational Safety and Health Intervention Diffusion to Small Businesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Raymond C.; Cunningham, Thomas R.; Schulte, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Smaller businesses differ from their larger counterparts in having higher rates of occupational injuries and illnesses and fewer resources for preventing those losses. Intervention models developed outside the United States have addressed the resource deficiency issue by incorporating intermediary organizations such as trade associations. Methods This paper extends previous models by using exchange theory and by borrowing from the diffusion of innovations model. It emphasizes that occupational safety and health (OSH) organizations must understand as much about intermediary organizations as they do about small businesses. OSH organizations (“initiators”) must understand how to position interventions and information to intermediaries as added value to their relationships with small businesses. Examples from experiences in two midwestern states are used to illustrate relationships and types of analyses implied by the extended model. Results The study found that intermediary organizations were highly attuned to providing smaller businesses with what they want, including OSH services. The study also found that there are opinion leader organizations and individual champions within intermediaries who are key to decisions and actions about OSH programming. Conclusions The model places more responsibility on both initiators and intermediaries to develop and market interventions that will be valued in the competitive small business environment where the resources required to adopt each new business activity could always be used in other ways. The model is a candidate for empirical validation, and it offers some encouragement that the issue of sustainable OSH assistance to small businesses might be addressed. PMID:24115112

  15. Role models and occupational ambitions of in-school male adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhail Ahmad Azmi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A role model is perceived as worthy of imitation, their selection can indicate significant elements of psychosocial health and self-projection in adolescents. Patterns of behavior and lifestyle choices established during adolescence can have immediate and lasting effects on health. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study was undertaken in the schools of Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India. The sample frame was 2347, out of which a sample of 390 students was studied. Data collected were entered and analyzed by SPSS for Windows version 10%. Results: Majority (62.7% of adolescents revealed that their role models were Film Star (34.8% and their Teachers (27.9%, Parents (14.3%, Sportsman (12.0%. Politicians as the role models were opted by least proportion (1.2%. Desire of future occupation was Businessmen (27.9%, Doctor (18.6, and Engineer (14.4%. Conclusion: Nearly all adolescents had a role model. There is greater impact of cinema on the minds of adolescents, which resulted in choosing film actors as their role model. Aspiration of future occupation was not related to the characteristics of the role model.

  16. [Participatory ergonomics: a model for the prevention of occupational musculoskeletal disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Ana M; Gadea, Rafael; Sevilla, Maria José; Genís, Susana; Ronda, Elena

    2009-01-01

    Participatory ergonomics is an intervention strategy acting on physical load exposures occurring in occupational settings, scarcely known in Spain but with a number of experiences and evidences coming from other countries. There are several reasons justifying the interest of this approach. First, participatory ergonomics focuses on one of the categories of occupational exposures with the largest impact on workers' health in a majority of countries all over the world, in terms of incidence, prevalence and disability. Secondly, basic principle in participatory ergonomics is empowerment of workers for them to participate identifying risks and injuries caused by physical exposures at work as well as proposing and evaluating proper control measures for each situation. Thirdly, it allows dealing and solving a number of problems without the use of complex technical protocols. From a public health perspective, participatory ergonomics is a largely tried model of community empowerment for the control of (occupational) factors affecting health and wellbeing. In this paper we revise some basic principles of participatory ergonomics, we comment on the keys leading to success or failing of the interventions and we present some main results coming from participatory ergonomics experiences developed for a long time in countries such as Canada, United Kingdom, Netherlands or Finland.

  17. A participatory model for improving occupational health and safety: improving informal sector working conditions in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manothum, Aniruth; Rukijkanpanich, Jittra; Thawesaengskulthai, Damrong; Thampitakkul, Boonwa; Chaikittiporn, Chalermchai; Arphorn, Sara

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the implementation of an Occupational Health and Safety Management Model for informal sector workers in Thailand. The studied model was characterized by participatory approaches to preliminary assessment, observation of informal business practices, group discussion and participation, and the use of environmental measurements and samples. This model consisted of four processes: capacity building, risk analysis, problem solving, and monitoring and control. The participants consisted of four local labor groups from different regions, including wood carving, hand-weaving, artificial flower making, and batik processing workers. The results demonstrated that, as a result of applying the model, the working conditions of the informal sector workers had improved to meet necessary standards. This model encouraged the use of local networks, which led to cooperation within the groups to create appropriate technologies to solve their problems. The authors suggest that this model could effectively be applied elsewhere to improve informal sector working conditions on a broader scale.

  18. Network Performance Evaluation Model for assessing the impacts of high-occupancy vehicle facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janson, B.N.; Zozaya-Gorostiza, C.; Southworth, F.

    1986-09-01

    A model to assess the impacts of major high-occupancy vehicle (HOV) facilities on regional levels of energy consumption and vehicle air pollution emissions in urban aeas is developed and applied. This model can be used to forecast and compare the impacts of alternative HOV facility design and operation plans on traffic patterns, travel costs, model choice, travel demand, energy consumption and vehicle emissions. The model is designed to show differences in the overall impacts of alternative HOV facility types, locations and operation plans rather than to serve as a tool for detailed engineering design and traffic planning studies. The Network Performance Evaluation Model (NETPEM) combines several urban transportation planning models within a multi-modal network equilibrium framework including modules with which to define the type, location and use policy of the HOV facility to be tested, and to assess the impacts of this facility.

  19. Relationship between adverse early experiences, stressors, psychosocial resources and wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Elroy, Sharon; Hevey, David

    2014-01-01

    The study examined a diathesis stress model of the relationship between adverse child experiences (ACEs), stressors and psychosocial resources to explore their relationship with wellbeing. A cross sectional study was conducted across two mental health and addiction treatment centers. 176 individuals were interviewed using a demographics form, SCID-DSM-IV(First, Spitzer, Gibbon, &Williams, 2002), Child Trauma Questionnaire (Bernstein & Fink, 1998), NEO-Five Factor Inventory (Costa & McCrae, 1992), Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (Petrides, 2009), The Coping, Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) (Endler & Parker, 1990), Recent Life Events Questionnaire (Department of Health, 1985) and perceived social support from family, friends and religion. Multiple, regressions and correlations were used to analyze the data. All early experiences, except physical, abuse and death of a parent in childhood, were significantly correlated with increased number of, stressors and lower wellbeing scores. This is possibly because of sample specific issues. Number of stressors partially mediated the relationship between ACEs and wellbeing. Increased number of ACEs was related to higher neuroticism and emotion-focused coping and lower conscientiousness, agreeableness, trait emotional intelligence and task coping scores. These resources were significantly related to increased stressors and lower wellbeing. Distraction and emotion coping significantly moderated the relationship between number of stressors and wellbeing. These findings support the diathesis stress model and indicate that there are significant relationships between ACEs, psychosocial, resources, stressors and wellbeing. Recommendations to improve wellbeing are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Occupational injuries in automobile repair workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Heer; Das, Subir; Mehta, Shashank

    2011-01-01

    Mechanics are exposed to varied work stressors such as hot noisy environments, strenuous postures, improperly designed tools and machinery and poor psycho-social environments which may exert an influence on their health and safety. The study aimed to examine the occupational injury patterns and identify work stressors associated with injury amongst automobile mechanics. A descriptive ergonomic checklist and questionnaire on general health and psycho-social issues were administered to male workers (N=153). The relative risk factors and correlation statistics were used to identify the work stressors associated with occupational injury. 63% of the workers reported injuries. Cuts were the chief injuries being reported. Poor work environment, machinery and tool characteristics, suffering from poor health and psycho-social stressors were associated with injury occurrence amongst automobile repair workers.

  1. Development of a simplified finite element model of the 50th percentile male occupant lower extremity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Doron; Moreno, Daniel P; Stitzel, Joel D; Gayzik, F Scott

    2014-01-01

    A simplified lower extremity model was developed using the geometry from the Global Human Body Models Consortium (GHBMC) 50th percentile male occupant model v4.1.1 (M50) as a base. This simplified model contains 31.4x103 elements and has structures that represent bone (assumed rigid) and soft tissue. This element total is substantially reduced compared to 117.7x103 elements in the original M50 lower extremity. The purpose of this simplified computational model is to output rapid kinematic and kinetic data when detailed structural response or injury prediction data is not required. The development process included evaluating the effects of element size, material properties, and contact definitions on total run time and response. Two simulations were performed to analyze this model; a 4.9 m/s knee bolster impact and a 6.9 m/s lateral knee impact using LS-DYNA R6.1.1. The 40 ms knee bolster impact and lateral knee impact tests required 5 and 7 minutes to run, respectively on 4 cores. The original detailed M50 lower extremity model required 94 and 112 minutes to run the same boundary conditions, on the same hardware, representing a reduction in run time of on average 94%. A quantitative comparison was made by comparing the peak force of the impacts between the two models. This simplified leg model will become a component in a simplified full body model of the seated, 50th percentile male occupant. The significantly reduced run time will be valuable for parametric studies with a full body finite element model.

  2. Recommended survey designs for occupancy modelling using motion-activated cameras: insights from empirical wildlife data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Graeme; Lewis, Jesse S; Gerber, Brian D

    2014-01-01

    Motion-activated cameras are a versatile tool that wildlife biologists can use for sampling wild animal populations to estimate species occurrence. Occupancy modelling provides a flexible framework for the analysis of these data; explicitly recognizing that given a species occupies an area the probability of detecting it is often less than one. Despite the number of studies using camera data in an occupancy framework, there is only limited guidance from the scientific literature about survey design trade-offs when using motion-activated cameras. A fuller understanding of these trade-offs will allow researchers to maximise available resources and determine whether the objectives of a monitoring program or research study are achievable. We use an empirical dataset collected from 40 cameras deployed across 160 km(2) of the Western Slope of Colorado, USA to explore how survey effort (number of cameras deployed and the length of sampling period) affects the accuracy and precision (i.e., error) of the occupancy estimate for ten mammal and three virtual species. We do this using a simulation approach where species occupancy and detection parameters were informed by empirical data from motion-activated cameras. A total of 54 survey designs were considered by varying combinations of sites (10-120 cameras) and occasions (20-120 survey days). Our findings demonstrate that increasing total sampling effort generally decreases error associated with the occupancy estimate, but changing the number of sites or sampling duration can have very different results, depending on whether a species is spatially common or rare (occupancy = ψ) and easy or hard to detect when available (detection probability = p). For rare species with a low probability of detection (i.e., raccoon and spotted skunk) the required survey effort includes maximizing the number of sites and the number of survey days, often to a level that may be logistically unrealistic for many studies. For common species with

  3. The guiding nature of the kawa (river) model in Ireland: creating both opportunities and challenges for occupational therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmody, Sarah; Nolan, Riona; Ni Chonchuir, Niamhh; Curry, Maria; Halligan, Catherine; Robinson, Katie

    2007-01-01

    The kawa (kawa is Japanese for 'river') model of occupational therapy has recently emerged in response to the needs for culturally sensitive conceptual models of practice that adequately address clients' diverse cultures and belief systems (Iwama, 2006a). The present article reports two case studies in which the kawa model was used to guide occupational therapy intervention with two individuals with multiple sclerosis in Ireland, with the aim of exploring the effectiveness of the recently emerged kawa model. A qualitative grounded theory approach using case-study methodology was undertaken. Semi-structured interviews based on the kawa model were completed with two participants with multiple sclerosis before and after occupational therapy intervention. The authors also documented their experience of using the model in reflective diaries. Analysis revealed a core category of the guiding nature of the kawa model creating both opportunities and challenges. Opportunities afforded by the model included enablement of the occupational therapy process and facilitation of occupation-based practice. Challenges created by the use of the kawa model included participant uncertainty and the influence of therapist preconceptions. Limitations and recommendations for future research are discussed in terms of generalizability. Further research with greater numbers and more diversity of study participants is required to validate the tentative theory proposed.

  4. The effect of precrash velocity reduction on occupant response using a human body finite element model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guleyupoglu, B; Schap, J; Kusano, K D; Gayzik, F S

    2017-07-04

    The objective of this study is to use a validated finite element model of the human body and a certified model of an anthropomorphic test dummy (ATD) to evaluate the effect of simulated precrash braking on driver kinematics, restraint loads, body loads, and computed injury criteria in 4 commonly injured body regions. The Global Human Body Models Consortium (GHBMC) 50th percentile male occupant (M50-O) and the Humanetics Hybrid III 50th percentile models were gravity settled in the driver position of a generic interior equipped with an advanced 3-point belt and driver airbag. Fifteen simulations per model (30 total) were conducted, including 4 scenarios at 3 severity levels: median, severe, and the U.S. New Car Assessment Program (U.S.-NCAP) and 3 extra per model with high-intensity braking. The 4 scenarios were no precollision system (no PCS), forward collision warning (FCW), FCW with prebraking assist (FCW+PBA), and FCW and PBA with autonomous precrash braking (FCW + PBA + PB). The baseline ΔV was 17, 34, and 56.4 kph for median, severe, and U.S.-NCAP scenarios, respectively, and were based on crash reconstructions from NASS/CDS. Pulses were then developed based on the assumed precrash systems equipped. Restraint properties and the generic pulse used were based on literature. In median crash severity cases, little to no risk (<10% risk for Abbreviated injury Scale [AIS] 3+) was found for all injury measures for both models. In the severe set of cases, little to no risk for AIS 3+ injury was also found for all injury measures. In NCAP cases, highest risk was typically found with No PCS and lowest with FCW + PBA + PB. In the higher intensity braking cases (1.0-1.4 g), head injury criterion (HIC), brain injury criterion (BrIC), and chest deflection injury measures increased with increased braking intensity. All other measures for these cases tended to decrease. The ATD also predicted and trended similar to the human body models predictions for both the median

  5. 作业表现模式及启示%Occupational Performance Models and Their Enlighten-ment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何胜晓

    2014-01-01

    The occupational performance model is of great practi-cal significance to occupational therapy. It has the characteristics of times and regional cultures, so in China, we need to establish an occupational performance model in accordance with Chinese characteristics, in order to guide the implementation of occupa-tional therapy practice in China.%作业表现模式对作业治疗实践意义重大,它具有时代、地区文化特点,在我国,需要建立适合我国特色的作业表现模式,以指导我国作业治疗实践的开展。

  6. The Conceptual Roles of Negative and Positive Affectivity in the Stressor-Strain Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif W. Rydstedt

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the data/model fit for two competing theories of the conceptual roles that Negative Affectivity (NA and Positive Affectivity (PA play in the stressor-strain relationship. In the ‘trait model’, NA is understood to be a confounder that inflates the perceived work-related stressor-outcome relationship, while PA is unrelated to either stressors or strain. Alternatively, the ‘situational model’ assumes that NA and PA are directly affected by stressors and are thought to mediate the stressor-relationship. The sample consisted of 731 Swedish engine room officers. Role stress was used as a stressor indicator, perceived stress was the outcome measure, and the PANAS was used to assess levels of affectivity. The path analysis gave strong support for the work situational model (RMSEA = 0.034 while no support was found for the trait model. No moderating effects from affectivity were found.

  7. Evaluating the predictive abilities of community occupancy models using AUC while accounting for imperfect detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipkin, Elise F.; Grant, Evan H. Campbell; Fagan, William F.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to accurately predict patterns of species' occurrences is fundamental to the successful management of animal communities. To determine optimal management strategies, it is essential to understand species-habitat relationships and how species habitat use is related to natural or human-induced environmental changes. Using five years of monitoring data in the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park, Maryland, USA, we developed four multi-species hierarchical models for estimating amphibian wetland use that account for imperfect detection during sampling. The models were designed to determine which factors (wetland habitat characteristics, annual trend effects, spring/summer precipitation, and previous wetland occupancy) were most important for predicting future habitat use. We used the models to make predictions of species occurrences in sampled and unsampled wetlands and evaluated model projections using additional data. Using a Bayesian approach, we calculated a posterior distribution of receiver operating characteristic area under the curve (ROC AUC) values, which allowed us to explicitly quantify the uncertainty in the quality of our predictions and to account for false negatives in the evaluation dataset. We found that wetland hydroperiod (the length of time that a wetland holds water) as well as the occurrence state in the prior year were generally the most important factors in determining occupancy. The model with only habitat covariates predicted species occurrences well; however, knowledge of wetland use in the previous year significantly improved predictive ability at the community level and for two of 12 species/species complexes. Our results demonstrate the utility of multi-species models for understanding which factors affect species habitat use of an entire community (of species) and provide an improved methodology using AUC that is helpful for quantifying the uncertainty in model predictions while explicitly accounting for

  8. The importance of social context: neighborhood stressors, stress-buffering mechanisms, and alcohol, drug, and mental health disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockdale, Susan E; Wells, Kenneth B; Tang, Lingqi; Belin, Thomas R; Zhang, Lily; Sherbourne, Cathy D

    2007-11-01

    This study examines the relationship among neighborhood stressors, stress-buffering mechanisms, and likelihood of alcohol, drug, and mental health (ADM) disorders in adults from 60 US communities (n=12,716). Research shows that larger support structures may interact with individual support factors to affect mental health, but few studies have explored buffering effects of these neighborhood characteristics. We test a conceptual model that explores effects of neighborhood stressors and stress-buffering mechanisms on ADM disorders. Using Health Care for Communities with census and other data, we found a lower likelihood of disorders in neighborhoods with a greater presence of stress-buffering mechanisms. Higher neighborhood average household occupancy and churches per capita were associated with a lower likelihood of disorders. Cross-level interactions revealed that violence-exposed individuals in high crime neighborhoods are vulnerable to depressive/anxiety disorders. Likewise, individuals with low social support in neighborhoods with high social isolation (i.e., low-average household occupancy) had a higher likelihood of disorders. If replicated by future studies using longitudinal data, our results have implications for policies and programs targeting neighborhoods to reduce ADM disorders.

  9. Exploring the Stressors of New Librarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrivee, Anne

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the different stressors and anxieties facing new librarians. It also addresses the various ways that new librarians can cope with location, emotional, and work-related stressors. The article is broken into four different categories of stress; some stressors have been more explored than others. The research is based on an…

  10. Models of occupational medicine practice: an approach to understanding moral conflict in "dual obligation" doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamin, Jacques

    2013-08-01

    In the United Kingdom (UK), ethical guidance for doctors assumes a therapeutic setting and a normal doctor-patient relationship. However, doctors with dual obligations may not always operate on the basis of these assumptions in all aspects of their role. In this paper, the situation of UK occupational physicians is described, and a set of models to characterise their different practices is proposed. The interaction between doctor and worker in each of these models is compared with the normal doctor-patient relationship, focusing on the different levels of trust required, the possible power imbalance and the fiduciary obligations that apply. This approach highlights discrepancies between what the UK General Medical Council guidance requires and what is required of a doctor in certain roles or functions. It is suggested that using this modelling approach could also help in clarifying the sources of moral conflict for other doctors with "dual obligations" in their various roles.

  11. Occupancy modeling for improved accuracy and understanding of pathogen prevalence and dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E Colvin

    Full Text Available Most pathogen detection tests are imperfect, with a sensitivity < 100%, thereby resulting in the potential for a false negative, where a pathogen is present but not detected. False negatives in a sample inflate the number of non-detections, negatively biasing estimates of pathogen prevalence. Histological examination of tissues as a diagnostic test can be advantageous as multiple pathogens can be examined and providing important information on associated pathological changes to the host. However, it is usually less sensitive than molecular or microbiological tests for specific pathogens. Our study objectives were to 1 develop a hierarchical occupancy model to examine pathogen prevalence in spring Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and their distribution among host tissues 2 use the model to estimate pathogen-specific test sensitivities and infection rates, and 3 illustrate the effect of using replicate within host sampling on sample sizes required to detect a pathogen. We examined histological sections of replicate tissue samples from spring Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha collected after spawning for common pathogens seen in this population: Apophallus/echinostome metacercariae, Parvicapsula minibicornis, Nanophyetus salmincola/ metacercariae, and Renibacterium salmoninarum. A hierarchical occupancy model was developed to estimate pathogen and tissue-specific test sensitivities and unbiased estimation of host- and organ-level infection rates. Model estimated sensitivities and host- and organ-level infections rates varied among pathogens and model estimated infection rate was higher than prevalence unadjusted for test sensitivity, confirming that prevalence unadjusted for test sensitivity was negatively biased. The modeling approach provided an analytical approach for using hierarchically structured pathogen detection data from lower sensitivity diagnostic tests, such as histology, to obtain unbiased pathogen prevalence estimates with

  12. Occupancy modeling for improved accuracy and understanding of pathogen prevalence and dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Michael E.; Peterson, James T.; Kent, Michael L.; Schreck, Carl B.

    2015-01-01

    Most pathogen detection tests are imperfect, with a sensitivity negative, where a pathogen is present but not detected. False negatives in a sample inflate the number of non-detections, negatively biasing estimates of pathogen prevalence. Histological examination of tissues as a diagnostic test can be advantageous as multiple pathogens can be examined and providing important information on associated pathological changes to the host. However, it is usually less sensitive than molecular or microbiological tests for specific pathogens. Our study objectives were to 1) develop a hierarchical occupancy model to examine pathogen prevalence in spring Chinook salmonOncorhynchus tshawytscha and their distribution among host tissues 2) use the model to estimate pathogen-specific test sensitivities and infection rates, and 3) illustrate the effect of using replicate within host sampling on sample sizes required to detect a pathogen. We examined histological sections of replicate tissue samples from spring Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha collected after spawning for common pathogens seen in this population:Apophallus/echinostome metacercariae, Parvicapsula minibicornis, Nanophyetus salmincola/metacercariae, and Renibacterium salmoninarum. A hierarchical occupancy model was developed to estimate pathogen and tissue-specific test sensitivities and unbiased estimation of host- and organ-level infection rates. Model estimated sensitivities and host- and organ-level infections rates varied among pathogens and model estimated infection rate was higher than prevalence unadjusted for test sensitivity, confirming that prevalence unadjusted for test sensitivity was negatively biased. The modeling approach provided an analytical approach for using hierarchically structured pathogen detection data from lower sensitivity diagnostic tests, such as histology, to obtain unbiased pathogen prevalence estimates with associated uncertainties. Accounting for test sensitivity using within host

  13. Differential Reactivity and the Within-person Job Stressor-Satisfaction Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Cort W; Clark, Malissa A; Jundt, Dustin K; Baltes, Boris B

    2016-12-01

    An experience sampling methodology was used to study the direct and conditional within-person relationship between job stressors and job satisfaction. One hundred and one full-time administrative staff completed momentary measures of job stressors and job satisfaction three times a day on six different workdays over a 3-week period (N = 1818 observations). Multilevel random coefficients models were specified, and the results suggest that within-person stressors are negatively related to within-person job satisfaction. These results stand when controlling for the effects of time, demographics, work characteristics, baseline levels of job stressors and satisfaction, and between-person effects of job stressors. Furthermore, consistent with the differential reactivity model, the results suggest that the observed within-person stressors-satisfaction relationship is conditional upon locus of control and positive affect. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Application of Occupational Functioning Model in Occupational Therapy Teaching%作业功能模式在作业疗法教学中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴庆文; 刘广天; 崔颖; 董胜莲; 刘瑞华

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨作业功能模式在作业疗法教学中的应用。方法康复治疗学专业2009级学生按常规模式授课,2010级采用作业功能模式框架授课。所有学生填写课程满意度、教学效果调查问卷。结果94.1%的学生认为作业功能模式有利于培养临床思维,86.3%认为有利于提高综合素质;2010级学生在作业模式对临床的指导作用、独立思考能力、培养临床思维、提高评定个案的能力、制定康复治疗计划的系统性方面评价好于2009级(P<0.05)。结论作业功能模式有助于深化学生对作业疗法的理解,有助于临床思维能力的培养,促进学生综合素质的提高。%Objective To discuss the application of Occupational Functioning Model (OFM) in occupational therapy teaching. Methods The students in grade 2009 and 2010 for their course of Occupational Therapy Clinical Application were included. The former were taught in routine way, and the latter were taught with OFM. They were investigated with questionnaires of satisfaction of course and teaching. Re-sults There were 94.1%of the students felt beneficial in the clinical thinking, 86.3%in the comprehensive quality. There was more in the grade 2010 than 2009 of students reported to be benefited in such as guidance of the occupation mode for the clinical practice, independent thinking, clinical thinking, and the capability of evaluation and plan of systemic rehabilitation (P<0.05). Conclusion OFM may help stu-dents to understand occupational therapy deeply, develop the clinical thinking, and improve the comprehensive quality.

  15. Integrated presentation of ecological risk from multiple stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goussen, Benoit; Price, Oliver R; Rendal, Cecilie; Ashauer, Roman

    2016-10-26

    Current environmental risk assessments (ERA) do not account explicitly for ecological factors (e.g. species composition, temperature or food availability) and multiple stressors. Assessing mixtures of chemical and ecological stressors is needed as well as accounting for variability in environmental conditions and uncertainty of data and models. Here we propose a novel probabilistic ERA framework to overcome these limitations, which focusses on visualising assessment outcomes by construct-ing and interpreting prevalence plots as a quantitative prediction of risk. Key components include environmental scenarios that integrate exposure and ecology, and ecological modelling of relevant endpoints to assess the effect of a combination of stressors. Our illustrative results demonstrate the importance of regional differences in environmental conditions and the confounding interactions of stressors. Using this framework and prevalence plots provides a risk-based approach that combines risk assessment and risk management in a meaningful way and presents a truly mechanistic alternative to the threshold approach. Even whilst research continues to improve the underlying models and data, regulators and decision makers can already use the framework and prevalence plots. The integration of multiple stressors, environmental conditions and variability makes ERA more relevant and realistic.

  16. Integrated presentation of ecological risk from multiple stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goussen, Benoit; Price, Oliver R.; Rendal, Cecilie; Ashauer, Roman

    2016-10-01

    Current environmental risk assessments (ERA) do not account explicitly for ecological factors (e.g. species composition, temperature or food availability) and multiple stressors. Assessing mixtures of chemical and ecological stressors is needed as well as accounting for variability in environmental conditions and uncertainty of data and models. Here we propose a novel probabilistic ERA framework to overcome these limitations, which focusses on visualising assessment outcomes by construct-ing and interpreting prevalence plots as a quantitative prediction of risk. Key components include environmental scenarios that integrate exposure and ecology, and ecological modelling of relevant endpoints to assess the effect of a combination of stressors. Our illustrative results demonstrate the importance of regional differences in environmental conditions and the confounding interactions of stressors. Using this framework and prevalence plots provides a risk-based approach that combines risk assessment and risk management in a meaningful way and presents a truly mechanistic alternative to the threshold approach. Even whilst research continues to improve the underlying models and data, regulators and decision makers can already use the framework and prevalence plots. The integration of multiple stressors, environmental conditions and variability makes ERA more relevant and realistic.

  17. Occupancy models for monitoring marine fish: a bayesian hierarchical approach to model imperfect detection with a novel gear combination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis G Coggins

    Full Text Available Occupancy models using incidence data collected repeatedly at sites across the range of a population are increasingly employed to infer patterns and processes influencing population distribution and dynamics. While such work is common in terrestrial systems, fewer examples exist in marine applications. This disparity likely exists because the replicate samples required by these models to account for imperfect detection are often impractical to obtain when surveying aquatic organisms, particularly fishes. We employ simultaneous sampling using fish traps and novel underwater camera observations to generate the requisite replicate samples for occupancy models of red snapper, a reef fish species. Since the replicate samples are collected simultaneously by multiple sampling devices, many typical problems encountered when obtaining replicate observations are avoided. Our results suggest that augmenting traditional fish trap sampling with camera observations not only doubled the probability of detecting red snapper in reef habitats off the Southeast coast of the United States, but supplied the necessary observations to infer factors influencing population distribution and abundance while accounting for imperfect detection. We found that detection probabilities tended to be higher for camera traps than traditional fish traps. Furthermore, camera trap detections were influenced by the current direction and turbidity of the water, indicating that collecting data on these variables is important for future monitoring. These models indicate that the distribution and abundance of this species is more heavily influenced by latitude and depth than by micro-scale reef characteristics lending credence to previous characterizations of red snapper as a reef habitat generalist. This study demonstrates the utility of simultaneous sampling devices, including camera traps, in aquatic environments to inform occupancy models and account for imperfect detection when

  18. Workplace Stressors and Coping Strategies Among Public Hospital Nurses in Medan, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Fathi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nursing is considered as a stressful job when compared with other jobs. Prolonged stress without effective coping strategies affects not only nurses’ occupational life but also their nursing competencies. Medan is the biggest city in Sumatera Island of Indonesia. Two tertiary public hospital nurses in this city hold the responsibility in providing excellent care to their patients. Objective: To investigate the relationships between the nurse’s workplace stressors and the coping strategies used. Method: The descriptive correlational study was conducted to examine the relationships between workplace stressors and the coping strategies used in nurses of two public hospitals in Medan. The sample size of 126 nurses was drawn from selected in-patient units. Data were collected by using self-report questionnaires and focus group interview. The majority of subjects experienced low workplace stressors, where death/dying was the most commonly reported workplace stressor followed by workload. Religion was the most commonly used coping strategy. Result: Significant correlations were found between subscales of workplace stressors and coping strategies. Most of subjects used emotion-focused and dysfunctional coping strategies rather than problem-focused coping strategies. Conclusion: The nurse administrators in the hospitals need to advocate their in order to use problem-focused coping strategies more frequent than emotion-focused and dysfunctional coping strategies when dealing with workplace stressors. Keywords: workplace stressor, coping strategy, public hospital nurses

  19. Personality and stressor-related affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leger, Kate A; Charles, Susan T; Turiano, Nicholas A; Almeida, David M

    2016-12-01

    Greater increases in negative affect and greater decreases in positive affect on days stressors occur portend poorer mental and physical health years later. Although personality traits influence stressor-related affect, only neuroticism and extraversion among the Big Five personality traits have been examined in any detail. Moreover, personality traits may shape how people appraise daily stressors, yet few studies have examined how stressor-related appraisals may account for associations between personality and stressor-related affect. Two studies used participants (N = 2,022; age range: 30-84) from the National Study of Daily Experiences II to examine the associations between Big Five personality traits and stressor-related affect and how appraisals may account for these relationships. Results from Study 1 indicate that higher levels of extraversion, conscientiousness, and openness to experience and lower levels of neuroticism are related to less stressor-related negative affect. Only agreeableness was associated with stressor-related positive affect, such that higher levels were related to greater decreases in positive affect on days stressors occur. The second study found that stressor-related appraisals partially accounted for the significant associations between stressor-related negative affect and personality. Implications for these findings in relation to how personality may influence physical and emotional health are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Theoretical Models of the Halo Occupation Distribution: Separating Central and Satellite Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Z; Weinberg, D H; Benson, A J; Baugh, C M; Cole, S; Davé, R; Frenk, C S; Katz, N; Lacey, C G; Zheng, Zheng; Weinberg, David H; Benson, Andrew J; Baugh, Carlton M; Cole, Shaun; Dave, Romeel; Frenk, Carlos S; Katz, Neal; Lacey, Cedric G

    2004-01-01

    The halo occupation distribution (HOD) describes the relation between galaxies and dark matter at the level of individual dark matter halos. The properties of galaxies residing at the centers of halos differ from those of satellite galaxies because of differences in their formation histories. Using a smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulation and a semi-analytic (SA) galaxy formation model, we examine the separate contributions of central and satellite galaxies to the HOD, more specifically to the probability P(N|M) that a halo of virial mass M contains N galaxies of a particular class. In agreement with earlier results for dark matter subhalos, we find that the mean occupation function for galaxies above a baryonic mass threshold can be approximated by a step function for central galaxies plus a power law for satellites, and that the distribution of satellite numbers is close to Poisson at fixed halo mass. For galaxy samples defined by different baryonic mass thresholds, there is a nearly linear relat...

  1. Marginal structural modelling of associations of occupational injuries with voluntary and involuntary job loss among nursing home workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okechukwu, Cassandra Adiba; Bacic, Janine; Velasquez, Esther; Hammer, Leslie B

    2016-03-01

    Qualitative studies have highlighted the possibility of job loss following occupational injuries for some workers, but prospective investigations are scant. We used a sample of nursing home workers from the Work, Family and Health Network to prospectively investigate association between occupational injuries and job loss. We merged data on 1331 workers assessed 4 times over an 18-month period with administrative data that include job loss from employers and publicly available data on their workplaces. Workers self-reported occupational injuries in surveys. Multivariable logistic regression models estimated risk ratios for the impact of occupational injuries on overall job loss, whereas multinomial models were used to estimate OR of voluntary and involuntary job loss. Use of marginal structural models allowed for adjustments of multilevel lists of confounders that may be time varying and/or on the causal pathway. By 12 months, 30.3% of workers experienced occupational injury, whereas 24.2% experienced job loss by 18 months. Comparing workers who reported occupational injuries to those reporting no injuries, risk ratio of overall job loss within the subsequent 6 months was 1.31 (95% CI 0.93 to 1.86). Comparing the same groups, injured workers had higher odds of experiencing involuntary job loss (OR 2.19; 95% CI 1.27 to 3.77). Also, compared with uninjured workers, those injured more than once had higher odds of voluntary job loss (OR 1.95; 95% CI 1.03 to 3.67), while those injured once had higher odds of involuntary job loss (OR 2.19; 95% CI 1.18 to 4.05). Despite regulatory protections, occupational injuries were associated with increased risk of voluntary and involuntary job loss for nursing home workers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. Nurses′ workplace stressors and coping strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vickie A Lambert

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Prior research has suggested that nurses, regardless of workplace or culture, are confronted with a variety of stressors. As the worldwide nursing shortage increases, the aged population becomes larger, there is an increase in the incidence of chronic illnesses and technology continues to advance, nurses continually will be faced with numerous workplace stressors. Thus, nurses, especially palliative care nurses, need to learn how to identify their workplace stressors and to cope effectively with these stressors to attain and maintain both their physical and mental health. This article describes workplace stressors and coping strategies, compares and contrasts cross-cultural literature on nurses′ workplace stressors and coping strategies, and delineates a variety of stress management activities that could prove helpful for contending with stressors in the workplace.

  3. Adolescent Decision-Making Processes regarding University Entry: A Model Incorporating Cultural Orientation, Motivation and Occupational Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jae Yup

    2013-01-01

    This study tested a newly developed model of the cognitive decision-making processes of senior high school students related to university entry. The model incorporated variables derived from motivation theory (i.e. expectancy-value theory and the theory of reasoned action), literature on cultural orientation and occupational considerations. A…

  4. Adolescent Decision-Making Processes regarding University Entry: A Model Incorporating Cultural Orientation, Motivation and Occupational Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jae Yup

    2013-01-01

    This study tested a newly developed model of the cognitive decision-making processes of senior high school students related to university entry. The model incorporated variables derived from motivation theory (i.e. expectancy-value theory and the theory of reasoned action), literature on cultural orientation and occupational considerations. A…

  5. Job stress, fatigue, and job dissatisfaction in Dutch lorry drivers: towards an occupation specific model of job demands and control

    OpenAIRE

    de Croon, E.M.; Blonk, R. W. B.; de Zwart, B.C.H.; Frings-Dresen, M.H.W.; Broersen, J.P.J.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: Building on Karasek's model of job demands and control (JD-C model), this study examined the effects of job control, quantitative workload, and two occupation specific job demands (physical demands and supervisor demands) on fatigue and job dissatisfaction in Dutch lorry drivers.

  6. Calibration of Airframe and Occupant Models for Two Full-Scale Rotorcraft Crash Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annett, Martin S.; Horta, Lucas G.; Polanco, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Two full-scale crash tests of an MD-500 helicopter were conducted in 2009 and 2010 at NASA Langley's Landing and Impact Research Facility in support of NASA s Subsonic Rotary Wing Crashworthiness Project. The first crash test was conducted to evaluate the performance of an externally mounted composite deployable energy absorber under combined impact conditions. In the second crash test, the energy absorber was removed to establish baseline loads that are regarded as severe but survivable. Accelerations and kinematic data collected from the crash tests were compared to a system integrated finite element model of the test article. Results from 19 accelerometers placed throughout the airframe were compared to finite element model responses. The model developed for the purposes of predicting acceleration responses from the first crash test was inadequate when evaluating more severe conditions seen in the second crash test. A newly developed model calibration approach that includes uncertainty estimation, parameter sensitivity, impact shape orthogonality, and numerical optimization was used to calibrate model results for the second full-scale crash test. This combination of heuristic and quantitative methods was used to identify modeling deficiencies, evaluate parameter importance, and propose required model changes. It is shown that the multi-dimensional calibration techniques presented here are particularly effective in identifying model adequacy. Acceleration results for the calibrated model were compared to test results and the original model results. There was a noticeable improvement in the pilot and co-pilot region, a slight improvement in the occupant model response, and an over-stiffening effect in the passenger region. This approach should be adopted early on, in combination with the building-block approaches that are customarily used, for model development and test planning guidance. Complete crash simulations with validated finite element models can be used

  7. Reduced Protection for Belted Occupants in Rear Seats Relative to Front Seats of New Model Year Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahraei, Elham; Digges, Kennerly; Marzougui, Dhafer

    2010-01-01

    Effectiveness of the rear seat in protecting occupants of different age groups in frontal crashes for 2000–2009 model years (MY) of vehicles was estimated and compared to 1990–1999 model years of vehicles. The objective was to determine the effectiveness of the rear seat compared to the front seat for various age groups in newer model year vehicles. The double paired comparison method was used to estimate relative effectiveness. For belted adults of the 25–49 age group, the fatality reduction effectiveness of the rear seat compared to the right front seat was 25 % (CI 11% to 36%), in the 1990–1999 model year vehicles. The relative effectiveness was −31% (CI −63% to −5%) for the same population, in the 2000–2009 model year vehicles. For restrained children 0–8 years old, the relative effectiveness was 55% (CI 48% to 61%) when the vehicles were of the 1990–1999 period. The level of effectiveness for this age group was reduced to 25% (CI −4% to 46%) in the 2000–2009 MYs of vehicles. Results for other age groups of belted occupants have followed a similar trend. All belted adult occupants of 25+ years old were significantly less protected in rear seats as compared to right front seats in the 2000–2009 model years of vehicles. For unbelted occupants however, rear seats were still a safer position than front seats, even in the 2000–2009 model years of vehicles. PMID:21050599

  8. Analysis of third-party certification approaches using an occupational health and safety conformity-assessment model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redinger, C F; Levine, S P

    1998-11-01

    The occupational health and safety conformity-assessment model presented in this article was developed (1) to analyze 22 public and private programs to determine the extent to which these programs use third parties in conformity-assessment determinations, and (2) to establish a framework to guide future policy developments related to the use of third parties in occupational health and safety conformity-assessment activities. The units of analysis for this study included select Occupational Safety and Health Administration programs and standards, International Organization for Standardization-based standards and guidelines, and standards and guidelines developed by nongovernmental bodies. The model is based on a 15-cell matrix that categorizes first-, second-, and third-party activities in terms of assessment, accreditation, and accreditation-recognition activities. The third-party component of the model has three categories: industrial hygiene/safety testing and sampling; product, equipment, and laboratory certification; and, occupational health and safety management system registration/certification. Using the model, 16 of the 22 programs were found to have a third-party component in their conformity-assessment structure. The analysis revealed that (1) the model provides a useful means to describe and analyze various third-party approaches, (2) the model needs modification to capture aspects of traditional governmental conformity-assessment/enforcement activities, and (3) several existing third-party conformity-assessment systems offer robust models that can guide future third-party policy formulation and implementation activities.

  9. Mechanistic understanding of human-wildlife conflict through a novel application of dynamic occupancy models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Varun R; Medhi, Kamal; Nichols, James D; Oli, Madan K

    2015-08-01

    Crop and livestock depredation by wildlife is a primary driver of human-wildlife conflict, a problem that threatens the coexistence of people and wildlife globally. Understanding mechanisms that underlie depredation patterns holds the key to mitigating conflicts across time and space. However, most studies do not consider imperfect detection and reporting of conflicts, which may lead to incorrect inference regarding its spatiotemporal drivers. We applied dynamic occupancy models to elephant crop depredation data from India between 2005 and 2011 to estimate crop depredation occurrence and model its underlying dynamics as a function of spatiotemporal covariates while accounting for imperfect detection of conflicts. The probability of detecting conflicts was consistently <1.0 and was negatively influenced by distance to roads and elevation gradient, averaging 0.08-0.56 across primary periods (distinct agricultural seasons within each year). The probability of crop depredation occurrence ranged from 0.29 (SE 0.09) to 0.96 (SE 0.04). The probability that sites raided by elephants in primary period t would not be raided in primary period t + 1 varied with elevation gradient in different seasons and was influenced negatively by mean rainfall and village density and positively by distance to forests. Negative effects of rainfall variation and distance to forests best explained variation in the probability that sites not raided by elephants in primary period t would be raided in primary period t + 1. With our novel application of occupancy models, we teased apart the spatiotemporal drivers of conflicts from factors that influence how they are observed, thereby allowing more reliable inference on mechanisms underlying observed conflict patterns. We found that factors associated with increased crop accessibility and availability (e.g., distance to forests and rainfall patterns) were key drivers of elephant crop depredation dynamics. Such an understanding is essential for

  10. Occupational asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Names Asthma - occupational exposure; Irritant-induced reactive airways disease Images Spirometry Respiratory system References Lemiere C, Vandenplas O. Occupational allergy and asthma. In: Adkinson NF Jr., Bochner ...

  11. Teachers' modeling advantage and their modeling effects on college students' learning styles and occupational stereotypes: a case of collaborative teaching in technical courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Wen-Bin; Yang, Chao-Chin

    2006-01-01

    In this study, modeling advantage that depicts the likelihood of a teacher model being imitated by students over other competing models in a particular class was developed to differentiate the rival modeling of two kinds of teachers (the technical teachers vs. the lecturing teachers) between college students' learning styles and occupational stereotypes in the collaborative teaching of technical courses. Results of a one-semester longitudinal study indicated that the students perceived a greater modeling advantage of the technical teachers than that of the lecturing teachers. Both the students' learning styles and occupational stereotypes were in accordance with those teachers as their role models. In general, the impact of the teachers' learning styles and occupational stereotypes on students appeared to be mediated by the teachers' modeling advantage. Administrators and curriculum designers should pay attention to the fact that the technical teachers appeared to exhibit greater modeling effects than the lecturing teachers in collaborative teaching.

  12. Modeling the potential area of occupancy at fine resolution may reduce uncertainty in species range estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiménez-Alfaro, Borja; Draper, David; Nogues, David Bravo

    2012-01-01

    resolution. To illustrate the ability of fine-resolution species distribution models for obtaining new measures of species ranges and their impact in conservation planning, we estimate the potential AOO of an endangered species in alpine environments. We use field occurrences of relict Empetrum nigrum......Area of Occupancy (AOO), is a measure of species geographical ranges commonly used for species red listing. In most cases, AOO is estimated using reported localities of species distributions at coarse grain resolution, providing measures subjected to uncertainties of data quality and spatial...... Area (MPA). As defined here, the potential AOO provides spatially-explicit measures of species ranges which are permanent in the time and scarcely affected by sampling bias. The overestimation of these measures may be reduced using higher thresholds of habitat suitability, but standard rules as the MPA...

  13. Application of a model for delivering occupational safety and health to smaller businesses: Case studies from the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Thomas R; Sinclair, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Smaller firms are the majority in every industry in the US, and they endure a greater burden of occupational injuries, illnesses, and fatalities than larger firms. Smaller firms often lack the necessary resources for effective occupational safety and health activities, and many require external assistance with safety and health programming. Based on previous work by researchers in Europe and New Zealand, NIOSH researchers developed for occupational safety and health intervention in small businesses. This model was evaluated with several intermediary organizations. Four case studies which describe efforts to reach small businesses with occupational safety and health assistance include the following: trenching safety training for construction, basic compliance and hazard recognition for general industry, expanded safety and health training for restaurants, and fall prevention and respirator training for boat repair contractors. Successful efforts included participation by the initiator among the intermediaries' planning activities, alignment of small business needs with intermediary offerings, continued monitoring of intermediary activities by the initiator, and strong leadership for occupational safety and health among intermediaries. Common challenges were a lack of resources among intermediaries, lack of opportunities for in-person meetings between intermediaries and the initiator, and balancing the exchanges in the initiator-intermediary-small business relationships. The model offers some encouragement that initiator organizations can contribute to sustainable OSH assistance for small firms, but they must depend on intermediaries who have compatible interests in smaller businesses and they must work to understand the small business social system.

  14. Use of multispecies occupancy models to evaluate the response of bird communities to forest degradation associated with logging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Rubio, Eduardo; Kéry, Marc; Morreale, Stephen J; Sullivan, Patrick J; Gardner, Beth; Cooch, Evan G; Lassoie, James P

    2014-08-01

    Forest degradation is arguably the greatest threat to biodiversity, ecosystem services, and rural livelihoods. Therefore, increasing understanding of how organisms respond to degradation is essential for management and conservation planning. We were motivated by the need for rapid and practical analytical tools to assess the influence of management and degradation on biodiversity and system state in areas subject to rapid environmental change. We compared bird community composition and size in managed (ejido, i.e., communally owned lands) and unmanaged (national park) forests in the Sierra Tarahumara region, Mexico, using multispecies occupancy models and data from a 2-year breeding bird survey. Unmanaged sites had on average higher species occupancy and richness than managed sites. Most species were present in low numbers as indicated by lower values of detection and occupancy associated with logging-induced degradation. Less than 10% of species had occupancy probabilities >0.5, and degradation had no positive effects on occupancy. The estimated metacommunity size of 125 exceeded previous estimates for the region, and sites with mature trees and uneven-aged forest stand characteristics contained the highest species richness. Higher estimation uncertainty and decreases in richness and occupancy for all species, including habitat generalists, were associated with degraded young, even-aged stands. Our findings show that multispecies occupancy methods provide tractable measures of biodiversity and system state and valuable decision support for landholders and managers. These techniques can be used to rapidly address gaps in biodiversity information, threats to biodiversity, and vulnerabilities of species of interest on a landscape level, even in degraded or fast-changing environments. Moreover, such tools may be particularly relevant in the assessment of species richness and distribution in a wide array of habitats.

  15. Dimensions of Occupational Stress: Implications for Vocational Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopps, Zona Joyce

    Since vocational education normally deals with potential workers, it needs to include courses whose content focuses on developing effective coping strategies to deal with occupational stressors that affect job satisfaction. Occupational stress is defined as a dynamic reciprocal relationship between an individual and the work environment.…

  16. Longitudinal associations between stressors and work ability in hospital workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmen Martinez, Maria; da Silva Alexandre, Tiago; Dias de Oliveira Latorre, Maria do Rosario; Marina Fischer, Frida

    This study sought to assess associations between work stressors and work ability in a cohort (2009-2012) of 498 hospital workers. Time-dependent variables associated with the Work Ability Index (WAI) were evaluated using general linear mixed models. Analyses included effects of individual and work characteristics. Except for work demands, the work stressors (job control, social support, effort-reward imbalance, overcommitment and work-related activities that cause pain/injury) were associated with WAI (p < 0.050) at intercept and in the time interaction. Daytime work and morning shift work were associated with decreased WAI (p < 0.010). Work stressors negatively affected work ability over time independently of other variables.

  17. ICT and OTs: a model of information and communication technology acceptance and utilisation by occupational therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaper, Louise K; Pervan, Graham P

    2007-06-01

    There is evidence to suggest that health professionals are reluctant to accept and utilise information and communication technologies (ICT) and concern is growing within health informatics research that this is contributing to the lag in adoption and utilisation of ICT across the health sector. Technology acceptance research within the field of information systems has been limited in its application to health and there is a concurrent need to develop and gain empirical support for models of technology acceptance within health and to examine acceptance and utilisation issues amongst health professionals to improve the success of information system implementation in this arena. This paper outlines a project that examines ICT acceptance and utilisation by Australian occupational therapists. It describes the theoretical basis behind the development of a research model and the methodology being employed to empirically validate the model using substantial quantitative, qualitative and longitudinal data. Preliminary results from Phase II of the study are presented. The theoretical significance of this work is that it uses a thoroughly constructed research model, with potentially the largest sample size ever tested, to extend technology acceptance research into the health sector.

  18. Multiple stressors for oceanic primary production

    KAUST Repository

    Agusti, Susana

    2015-12-15

    Marine ecosystems are increasingly exposed to stress factors of anthropogenic origin that change their function, structure and services they deliver society. Climate change occurs simultaneously with other changes in the environment acting jointly in a context of global environmental change. For oceanic phytoplankton communities, the research conducted so far has identified stress factors associated with global change and their impact individually (warming, acidification, increased UVB radiation, pollutants). But when several stressors act simultaneously interactions and responses are not equal to the sum of individual impacts, but may have synergistic effects (the effects are multiplied) or antagonistic (cancel out the effects) that hinder predictions of the vulnerability of ecosystems to global change. Here we will examine the vulnerability of oceanic primary producers to the accumulation of different stressors associated with global change. The trend for autotrophic picoplankton to increase with temperature in the ocean has led to predictions that autotrophic picoplankton abundance will increase with warming. However, it is documented a trend towards a decline in productivity, due to declined autotroph biomass and production with warming and the associated stratification in the subtropical ocean. Models predicting an increase in abundance are in contradiction with the reported decrease in productivity in several oceanic areas, and associate oligotrophication. Here we perform a global study to analyze the relationships of autotrophic picoplankton with oceanic temperature, nutrients, underwater light and ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation, and productivity. We built a model to project the future changes of autotrophic picoplankton considering multiple environmental changes in future climate scenarios for the subtropical gyres. We considered increased water temperature, and associated changes in productivity and underwater light and UVB. The model show that warming and

  19. Mechanism-Based Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Modeling of the Dopamine D-2 Receptor Occupancy of Olanzapine in Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, Martin; Kozielska, Magdalena; Reddy, Venkatesh Pilla; Vermeulen, An; Li, Cheryl; Grimwood, Sarah; de Greef, Rik; Groothuis, Geny M. M.; Danhof, Meindert; Proost, Johannes H.

    2011-01-01

    A mechanism-based PK-PD model was developed to predict the time course of dopamine D-2 receptor occupancy (D2RO) in rat striatum following administration of olanzapine, an atypical antipsychotic drug. A population approach was utilized to quantify both the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of ol

  20. Model versus Military Pilot: A Mixed-Methods Study of Adolescents' Attitudes toward Women in Varied Occupations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Elizabeth A.; Sherman, Aurora M.

    2016-01-01

    Using an experimental methodology, the present study investigated adolescents' attitudes toward media images of women in non-appearance-focused (CEO and military pilot) and appearance-focused occupations (model and actor). One hundred adolescent girls and 76 adolescent boys provided ratings of likability, competence, and similarity to self after…

  1. A Study of Curriculums for Occupational Preparation and Education (Scope Program: Phase I). A Systems Model for Instructional Design and Management. Incidental Report #3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuckman, Bruce W.

    A systems model for the design and management of instruction in occupational fields is described. The model is broken down into these phases: (1) analysis, in which occupational tasks are specified via task analysis, tasks are restated as behavioral objectives and a sequence is specified for the objectives, (2) synthesis, in which instructional…

  2. Stressor-related drinking and future alcohol problems among university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Michael A; Almeida, David M; Maggs, Jennifer L

    2017-09-01

    Research using daily designs has shown that daily stressors (i.e., conflict, school/work demands) are associated with alcohol use, and that the strength of within-person links between stressors and alcohol use differs from person to person. However, to our knowledge no research has tested whether individual differences in stressor-related drinking-characterized by within-person associations between daily stressors and drinking-predict risk for future alcohol problems, a relationship suggested by theoretical models. The current study used an Internet-based daily diary design among 744 university students to (a) examine the day-level relationship between stressors and alcohol use during the first 3 years of college, and (b) test whether individual differences in the stressor-drinking relationship, captured by person-specific slopes generated from multilevel models, predicted alcohol problems as measured by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) in the fourth year of college. Results showed that students were more likely to drink on days with many versus fewer stressors, and on drinking days, students consumed more drinks with each additional stressor they experienced. Next, using individual multilevel modeling slopes as predictors, we found that students whose odds of drinking alcohol increased more sharply on high- versus low-stressor days (steeper slopes) had more severe AUDIT alcohol problems in the fourth year than students whose drinking odds increased less sharply (flatter slopes). Findings highlight the role of daily stressors in college student drinking and suggest stressor-related drinking as a risk factor for future alcohol problems. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Occupational stress of nurses in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rothmann

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the construct validity and reliability of the Nursing Stress Indicator (NSI and to identify differences between occupational stressors of professional and enrolled nurses. A cross-sectional survey design was used. A sample of professional nurses (/V = 980 and enrolled and auxiliary nurses (N = 800 in South Africa was used. The NSI was developed as measuring instrument and administrated together with a biographical questionnaire. Five reliable stress factors, namely Patient Care, Job Demands, Lack of Support, Staff Issues, and Overtime were extracted. The most severe stressors for nurses included health risks posed by contact with patients, lack of recognition and insufficient staff. Watching patients suffer, demands of patients and staff issues were also severe stressors for professional nurses. The severity of stressors was higher for professional nurses (compared with enrolled and auxiliary nurses. Organisations that employ nurses should implement programmes to monitor and manage stress, specifically regarding staff issues and job demands.

  4. Occupational stress of nurses in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothmann, S; van der Colff, J J; Rothmann, J C

    2006-05-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the construct validity and reliability of the Nursing Stress Indicator (NSI) and to identify differences between occupational stressors of professional and enrolled nurses. A cross-sectional survey design was used. A sample of professional nurses (N = 980) and enrolled and auxiliary nurses (N = 800) in South Africa was used. The NSI was developed as measuring instrument and administrated together with a biographical questionnaire. Five reliable stress factors, namely Patient Care, Job Demands, Lack of Support, Staff Issues, and Overtime were extracted. The most severe stressors for nurses included health risks posed by contact with patients, lack of recognition and insufficient staff. Watching patients suffer, demands of patients and staff issues were also severe stressors for professional nurses. The severity of stressors was higher for professional nurses (compared with enrolled and auxiliary nurses). Organisations that employ nurses should implement programmes to monitor and manage stress, specifically regarding staff issues and job demands.

  5. The influence of operational and organizational stressors on the well-being of municipal police officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setti, Ilaria; Argentero, P

    2013-01-01

    Helping professions are at a high risk of developing occupational stress that can cause negative effects at individual and organizational levels. This article attempts to examine the presence of operational and organizational stressors as potential predictors of burnout and psychosomatic symptoms among municipal police officers. A cross-sectional study of municipal police officers working in a town in Northern Italy was conducted. A self-report questionnaire was administered to all the officers serving the population of this town (N = 88). Regression analyses revealed that organizational stressors affected emotional exhaustion and cynicism, whereas operational stressors were associated with psychosomatic symptoms. These findings suggest that operational and organizational stressors can affect the level of psychosomatic well-being of municipal police officers, but at the same time reveal the existence of their specific effects on the outcome variables. In this perspective, individual psychological support and group interventions should be carried out not only to deal with traumatic events but also to manage chronic stressors. This is one of the first studies in Italy investigating municipal police officers' well-being as potentially related to specific job stressors. Nevertheless, our results are based on police officers employed by the municipality of a single town; it would be therefore useful to extend the research to larger samples.

  6. [A model of occupational, environmental and community medicine. History and evolution of the Hospital Unit of Occupational Medicine (UOOML) in Lombardia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirla, A M; Feltrin, G

    1998-01-01

    The authors describe the historical evolution of the prevention in Lombardia, and the role of the Hospital Units for Occupational Medicine, not only on the clinical oriented fields, but also on the areas of formation and training. Hospital Units for Occupational Medicine are today the best synthesis of "occupational-environmental-community health". There development is based on adequate standards of human and instrumental resources, as so as a real financial budget. At last, it's important that these Units are allocated in a so-called "bipolar department", open to the hospital and also open to the territorial structures for prevention and safety (department of occupational health).

  7. Occupational asthma caused by samba (Triplochiton scleroxylon wood dust in a professional maker of wooden models of airplanes: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrycja Krawczyk-Szulc

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Wood dust is a known occupational allergen that may induce, in exposed workers, respiratory diseases including asthma and allergic rhinitis. Samba (obeche, Triplochiton scleroxylon is a tropical tree, which grows in West Africa, therefore, Polish workers are rarely exposed to it. This paper describes a case of occupational asthma caused by samba wood dust. Material and Methods: The patient with suspicion of occupational asthma due to wood dust was examined at the Department of Occupational Diseases and Clinical Toxicology in the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine. Clinical evaluation included: analysis of occupational history, skin prick tests (SPT to common and occupational allergens, determination of serum specific IgE to occupational allergens, serial spirometry measurements, metacholine challenge test and specific inhalation challenge test with samba dust. Results: SPT and specific serum IgE assessment revealed sensitization to common and occupational allergens including samba. Spirometry measurements showed mild obstruction. Metacholine challenge test revealed a high level of bronchial hyperactivity. Specific inhalation challenge test was positive and cellular changes in nasal lavage and induced sputum confirmed allergic reaction to samba. Conclusions: IgE mediated allergy to samba wood dust was confirmed. This case report presents the first documented occupational asthma and rhinitis due to samba wood dust in wooden airplanes model maker in Poland.

  8. Effect of occupational mobility and health status on life satisfaction of Chinese residents of different occupations: logistic diagonal mobility models analysis of cross-sectional data on eight Chinese provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ying; Lu, Peiyi

    2014-02-08

    Life satisfaction research in China is in development, requiring new perspectives for enrichment. In China, occupational mobility is accompanied by changes in economic liberalization and the emergence of occupational stratification. On the whole, however, occupational mobility has rarely been used as an independent variable. Health status is always used as the observed or dependent variable in studies of the phenomenon and its influencing factors. A research gap still exists for enriching this field. The data used in this study were obtained from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS). The study included nine provinces in China. The survey was conducted from 1989 to 2009.Every survey involved approximately 4400 families or 19,000 individual samples and parts of community data. First, we built a 5 × 5 social mobility table and calculated life satisfaction of Chinese residents of different occupations in each table. Second, gender, age, marital status, education level, annual income and hukou, health status, occupational mobility were used as independent variables. Lastly, we used logistic diagonal mobility models to analyze the relationship between life satisfaction and the variables. Model 1 was the basic model, which consisted of the standard model and controlled variables and excluded drift variables. Model 2 was the total model, which consisted of all variables of interest in this study. Model 3 was the screening model, which excluded the insignificant drift effect index in Model 2. From the perspective of the analysis of controlled variables, health conditions, direction, and distance of occupational mobility significantly affected life satisfaction of Chinese residents of different occupations. (1) From the perspective of health status, respondents who have not been sick or injured had better life satisfaction than those who had been sick or injured. (2) From the perspective of occupational mobility direction, the coefficients of occupational

  9. Mathematical Modeling of the Impact of Hospital Occupancy: When Do Dwindling Hospital Beds Cause ED Gridlock?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori Whelan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The time emergency department (ED patients spend from presentation to admittance is known as their length of stay (LOS. This study aimed to quantify the inpatient occupancy rate (InptOcc/ED LOS relationship and develop a methodology for identifying resource-allocation triggers using InptOcc-LOS association-curve inflection points. Methods. This study was conducted over 200 consecutive days at a 700-bed hospital with an annual ED census of approximately 50,000 using multivariate spline (piecewise regression to model the InptOcc/LOS relationship while adjusting for confounding covariates. Nonlinear modeling was used to assess for InptOcc/LOS associations and determine the inflection point where InptOcc profoundly impacted LOS. Results. At lower InptOcc, there was no association. Once InptOcc reached ≥88%, there was a strong InptOcc/LOS association; each 1% InptOcc increase predicted a 16-minute (95% CI, 12–20 minutes LOS prolongation, while the confounder-adjusted analysis showed each 1% InptOcc increase >89% precipitating a 13-minute (95% CI, 10–16 minutes LOS prolongation. Conclusions. The study hospital’s InptOcc was a significant predictor of prolonged ED LOS beyond the identified inflection point. Spline regression analysis identified a clear inflection point in the InptOcc-LOS curve that potentially identified a point at which to optimize inpatient bed availability to prevent increased costs of prolonged LOS.

  10. Occupant Controlled Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Logadóttir, Ásta

    2011-01-01

    of adjustment. Firstly, there was preliminary laboratory study exploring the influence of daylight on occupant controlled dynamic lighting in a laboratory office environment. Secondly, there was non-daylit laboratory study on occupant preferences for illuminance, and thirdly a scale model study on occupant......The studies presented in this thesis explore opportunities and limitations of using the method of adjustment for occupant controlled lighting. The method of adjustment is studied with respect to occupant preferences and energy efficiency. The work presents three types of studies using the method...... preferences for correlated colour temperature (CCT). The results suggest that the method of adjustment, previously used in the lighting literature, is not adequate to generalize about occupant preferences for illuminance or CCT. Factors that influence occupants’ lighting preference when applying the method...

  11. Southern Nevada ecosystem stressors [Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton K. Pendleton; Jeanne C. Chambers; Mathew L. Brooks; Steven M. Ostoja

    2013-01-01

    Southern Nevada ecosystems and their associated resources are subject to a number of global and regional/local stressors that are affecting the sustainability of the region. Global stressors include elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations and associated changes in temperature and precipitation patterns and amounts, solar radiation, and nutrient cycles (Smith and...

  12. Social Stressors at Work, Sleep, and Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Diana; Gross, Sven; Elfering, Achim

    2016-03-01

    Many employees in service work are required to work on Saturdays, recovering during work-free Sundays and working again Mondays. We examined the effects of social stressors at work on recovery status at Sunday noon and Monday noon, and investigated if sleep quality mediates the negative effects of social stressors at work on recovery. From Saturday until Monday morning, 41 participants wore actigraphs to measure sleep duration and sleep fragmentation. Social stressors at work were assessed by self-reported questionnaires administered on Saturday. Recovery status was reported Sunday noon and Monday noon. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that social stressors at work were negatively related to recovery status on Sunday and on Monday. Supporting our assumptions, more social stressors at work predicted higher sleep fragmentation in the night to Monday. A mediation effect of sleep quality, however, was not found. Theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed.

  13. From eyeballing to statistical modelling : methods for assessment of occupational exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kromhout, H.

    1994-01-01

    In this thesis methods for assessment of occupational exposure are evaluated and developed. These methods range from subjective methods (qualitative and semiquantitative) to more objective quantitative methods based on actual measurement of personal exposure to chemical and physical

  14. Study of occupational stress among railway engine pilots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devesh Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traffic volume and speed is going to be increased in Indian Railways successively, leading to higher stress in staff connected with train operations. The jobs of railway engine pilots come under the category of high-strain jobs, necessitating a need to conduct multicentric study to unfold the factors associated with occupational stress and organizational strategies. Materials and Methods: Present study covered 185 railway engine pilots and office clerks working in various railway zones by incidental method. Occupational Stress Index (OSI test developed by Srivastva and Singh, questionnaire of specific stressors constructed by authors and laboratory test battery for psychological screening of high-speed train pilots were used as tools. Results: Means of OSI and all the 12 occupational stressors of railway engine pilots were found significantly higher to that of office clerks. Means of OSI and occupational stressors of goods train pilots were significantly higher in comparison to high-speed train pilots and passenger train pilots. Study revealed positive correlation of speed perception and complex reaction time tests and negative correlation of other constituent tests of laboratory test battery to OSI test. Highest subgroup of stressor observedwas role overload followed by role conflict. Conclusions: These findings provide a prima facie evidence of higher occupational stress among railway engine pilots because of identified specific stressors prevalent in their job and explore the possible intervention strategies for its reduction. Significant correlation is noticed between OSI and laboratory test results, indicating its relevant utility in preliminary psychological screening.

  15. Study of occupational stress among railway engine pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Devesh; Singh, Jai Vir; Kharwar, Poonam S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Traffic volume and speed is going to be increased in Indian Railways successively, leading to higher stress in staff connected with train operations. The jobs of railway engine pilots come under the category of high-strain jobs, necessitating a need to conduct multicentric study to unfold the factors associated with occupational stress and organizational strategies. Materials and Methods: Present study covered 185 railway engine pilots and office clerks working in various railway zones by incidental method. Occupational Stress Index (OSI) test developed by Srivastva and Singh, questionnaire of specific stressors constructed by authors and laboratory test battery for psychological screening of high-speed train pilots were used as tools. Results: Means of OSI and all the 12 occupational stressors of railway engine pilots were found significantly higher to that of office clerks. Means of OSI and occupational stressors of goods train pilots were significantly higher in comparison to high-speed train pilots and passenger train pilots. Study revealed positive correlation of speed perception and complex reaction time tests and negative correlation of other constituent tests of laboratory test battery to OSI test. Highest subgroup of stressor observedwas role overload followed by role conflict. Conclusions: These findings provide a prima facie evidence of higher occupational stress among railway engine pilots because of identified specific stressors prevalent in their job and explore the possible intervention strategies for its reduction. Significant correlation is noticed between OSI and laboratory test results, indicating its relevant utility in preliminary psychological screening. PMID:21808497

  16. Occupational health purchasing behaviour by SMEs--a new theoretical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, J; Woods, A; Dickson, K

    2013-10-01

    Factors influencing corporate decisions to purchase occupational health (OH) are unknown. To assist the marketing of OH services to small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) by characterizing purchasing behaviour. We developed a 2×2 model, based on published studies, to describe OH purchasing behaviour by SMEs. We tested the model by analysis of responses to a cross-sectional market research survey carried out in November 2007. The companies surveyed were SMEs employing 30-250 employees, within the localities of five UK National Health Service OH services: West London, Buckinghamshire, Cambridge, Portsmouth and York. We chose a sample representative of all SMEs for each location. The survey explored knowledge of OH and the perceived importance of a variety of services. We obtained responses from 387 companies (19%); 81% indicated that they knew about OH and 24% had purchased OH services. OH was rated 'very important' by 35%, and 65% rated it as 'quite' or 'very important'. Sickness absence and its business impact were monitored by 89%. Enterprises claiming OH understanding were significantly more likely to purchase OH services (odds ratio [OR] 3.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.6-8.0). Companies employing fewer than 90 employees were significantly less likely to purchase such services than larger ones (OR 0.17, 95% CI 0.09-0.3). OH knowledge and company size are key determinants of SME purchasing behaviour. Our findings support our proposed theoretical model. However, more research could explore claimed knowledge of OH with respect to the proposed purchaser types and business benefits.

  17. Occupational skin diseases: a successful model for multidisciplinary networking in preventive medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John, Swen Malte

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Occupational dermatoses (OD have topped the list of occupational diseases in Germany for years. Presently, approximately 16,000 new OD cases are officially reported to public statutory employers’ liability insurance bodies, each year. The disease burden is high not only for individuals but also for society as a whole. Estimated annual economic costs in Germany due to sick-leave and lack of productivity due to OD are more than 1.5 billion euros. Thus, in recent years, various pilot initiatives aiming to improve prevention of occupational skin diseases (of various degrees of severity have been developed and recently evaluated in Osnabrück. These activities have been funded by statutory employers’ liability insurance schemes. Concepts underpinning these initiatives include multidisciplinary skin protection teaching programs for various high-risk professions, which turned out to be pivotal for the success of these projects. A corollary of this work is a nationwide multi-step intervention approach currently implemented by the public statutory insurance system. This approach offers quick preventive help for all levels of severity of OD. These nation-wide activities are accompanied by a national Prevention Campaign: Skin 2007/2008 (Figure 1 (Fig. 1, which focuses mainly on primary prevention. Despite the high prevalence of OD and its poor prognosis, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying individual susceptibility to develop chronic irritant dermatitis. Skin irritation tests are thus far of only limited value. Presently, our institution, in collaboration with Amsterdam universities, focuses on immunogenetic risk factors potentially involved in individual susceptibility to OD in order to improve pre-employment counseling and predictive skin testing. For early secondary prevention, the so-called dermatologist’s procedure was recently up-dated in order to provide more rapid dermatological consultation. Additionally, combined

  18. Using occupancy models to investigate the prevalence of ectoparasitic vectors on hosts: an example with fleas on prairie dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eads, David A.; Biggins, Dean E.; Doherty, Paul F.; Gage, Kenneth L.; Huyvaert, Kathryn P.; Long, Dustin H.; Antolin, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Ectoparasites are often difficult to detect in the field. We developed a method that can be used with occupancy models to estimate the prevalence of ectoparasites on hosts, and to investigate factors that influence rates of ectoparasite occupancy while accounting for imperfect detection. We describe the approach using a study of fleas (Siphonaptera) on black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). During each primary occasion (monthly trapping events), we combed a prairie dog three consecutive times to detect fleas (15 s/combing). We used robust design occupancy modeling to evaluate hypotheses for factors that might correlate with the occurrence of fleas on prairie dogs, and factors that might influence the rate at which prairie dogs are colonized by fleas. Our combing method was highly effective; dislodged fleas fell into a tub of water and could not escape, and there was an estimated 99.3% probability of detecting a flea on an occupied host when using three combings. While overall detection was high, the probability of detection was always dogs, flea occupancy was heightened in old/natural colonies of prairie dogs, and on hosts that were in poor condition. Occupancy was initially low in plots with high densities of prairie dogs, but, as the study progressed, the rate of flea colonization increased in plots with high densities of prairie dogs in particular. Our methodology can be used to improve studies of ectoparasites, especially when the probability of detection is low. Moreover, the method can be modified to investigate the co-occurrence of ectoparasite species, and community level factors such as species richness and interspecific interactions.

  19. Occupational Licensing

    OpenAIRE

    Morris M. Kleiner

    2000-01-01

    The study of the regulation of occupations has a long and distinguished tradition in economics. In this paper, I present the central arguments and unresolved issues involving the costs and benefits of occupational licensing. The main benefits that are suggested for occupational licensing involve improving quality for those persons receiving the service. In contrast, the costs attributed to this labor market institution are that it restricts the supply of labor to the occupation and thereby dr...

  20. Restoring fish ecological quality in estuaries: Implication of interactive and cumulative effects among anthropogenic stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichert, Nils; Borja, Angel; Chust, Guillem; Uriarte, Ainhize; Lepage, Mario

    2016-01-15

    Estuaries are subjected to multiple anthropogenic stressors, which have additive, antagonistic or synergistic effects. Current challenges include the use of large databases of biological monitoring surveys (e.g. the European Water Framework Directive) to help environmental managers prioritizing restoration measures. This study investigated the impact of nine stressor categories on the fish ecological status derived from 90 estuaries of the North East Atlantic countries. We used a random forest model to: 1) detect the dominant stressors and their non-linear effects; 2) evaluate the ecological benefits expected from reducing pressure from stressors; and 3) investigate the interactions among stressors. Results showed that largest restoration benefits were expected when mitigating water pollution and oxygen depletion. Non-additive effects represented half of pairwise interactions among stressors, and antagonisms were the most common. Dredged sediments, flow changes and oxygen depletion were predominantly implicated in non-additive interactions, whereas the remainder stressors often showed additive impacts. The prevalence of interactive impacts reflects a complex scenario for estuaries management; hence, we proposed a step-by-step restoration scheme focusing on the mitigation of stressors providing the maximum of restoration benefits under a multi-stress context.

  1. Occupational mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This paper aims to present the methods and main results from the Danish occupational mortality studies, and to set the Danish studies into the international context of occupational mortality studies. RESEARCH TOPICS: The first Danish occupational mortality study from 1970...

  2. Occupational coping self-efficacy explains distress and well-being in nurses beyond psychosocial job characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato ePisanti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The main purpose of the present study was to extend the Job Demand Control Support (JDCS model analyzing the direct and interactive role of occupational coping self-efficacy (OCSE beliefs. Background: OCSE concern an individual's beliefs about one's ability to cope with occupational stressors. The interplay between occupational stressors, job resources and self-efficacy beliefs is poorly investigated. The present research attempts to address this gap.Design: Cross-sectional survey.Method: Questionnaire data from 1479 nurses (65% response were analyzed. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to test the direct and moderating role of OCSE in conjunction with job demands (i.e., time pressure, and two job resources: job control (i.e., decision latitude and skill discretion and social support (i.e., supervisor support and coworker support in predicting psychological distress and well-being.Results: Our findings indicated that high demands, low job control and low social support additively predicted the distress/well-being outcomes (job satisfaction, emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, psychological distress, and somatic complaints. Beyond the main effects, no significant interactive effects of demands, control, and support were found. Occupational coping self-efficacy (OCSE accounted for an additional 1% to 4% of the variance in the outcomes, after controlling for the JDCS variables. In addition, the results indicate that occupational coping self-efficacy buffers the association between low job control and the distress dimensions emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and psychological distress. Low control was detrimental only for nurses with low occupational coping self-efficacy.Conclusion: Our results suggest expanding the JDCS model incorporating individual characteristics such as occupational coping self-efficacy beliefs, for predicting psychological distress and well-being. Limitations of the study and practical implications

  3. Can "good" stressors spark "bad" behaviors? The mediating role of emotions in links of challenge and hindrance stressors with citizenship and counterproductive behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, Jessica B; Judge, Timothy A

    2009-11-01

    The authors combined affective events theory (H. M. Weiss & Cropanzano, 1996) and the transactional stress model (R. S. Lazarus & Folkman, 1984) to build and test a model specifying the dynamic, emotion-based relationships among challenge and hindrance stressors and citizenship and counterproductive behaviors. The study employed an experience sampling methodology. Results showed that challenge stressors had offsetting indirect links with citizenship behaviors through attentiveness and anxiety and a positive indirect effect on counterproductive behaviors through anxiety. Hindrance stressors had a negative indirect effect on citizenship behaviors through anxiety and a positive indirect effect on counterproductive behaviors through anxiety and anger. Finally, multilevel moderating effects showed that the relationship between hindrance stressors and anger varied according to employees' levels of neuroticism.

  4. Controlling intake of uranium in the workplace: Applications of biokinetic modeling and occupational monitoring data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL; Eckerman, Keith F [ORNL; McGinn, Wilson [ORNL; Meck, Dr. Robert A. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    2012-01-01

    This report provides methods for interpreting and applying occupational uranium monitoring data. The methods are based on current international radiation protection guidance, current information on the chemical toxicity of uranium, and best available biokinetic models for uranium. Emphasis is on air monitoring data and three types of bioassay data: the concentration of uranium in urine; the concentration of uranium in feces; and the externally measured content of uranium in the chest. Primary Reference guidance levels for prevention of chemical effects and limitation of radiation effects are selected based on a review of current scientific data and regulatory principles for setting standards. Generic investigation levels and immediate action levels are then defined in terms of these primary guidance levels. The generic investigation and immediate actions levels are stated in terms of radiation dose and concentration of uranium in the kidneys. These are not directly measurable quantities, but models can be used to relate the generic levels to the concentration of uranium in air, urine, or feces, or the total uranium activity in the chest. Default investigation and immediate action levels for uranium in air, urine, feces, and chest are recommended for situations in which there is little information on the form of uranium taken into the body. Methods are prescribed also for deriving case-specific investigation and immediate action levels for uranium in air, urine, feces, and chest when there is sufficient information on the form of uranium to narrow the range of predictions of accumulation of uranium in the main target organs for uranium: kidneys for chemical effects and lungs for radiological effects. In addition, methods for using the information herein for alternative guidance levels, different from the ones selected for this report, are described.

  5. Using ergonomics digital human modeling in evaluation of workplaces design and prevention of occupational hazards onboard fishing vessel

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Bing; Álvarez Casado, Enrique; Tello Sandoval, Sonia; Rodríguez Mondelo, Pedro Manuel

    2010-01-01

    This paper seeks to present methods for improving the occupational health and safety of Spanish fishermen, and for redesigning the workplace onboard small fishing vessels. To achieve its objective, the research project was designed in four steps: First, the equipment and procedures for catching, handling, and storing fish was studied. Second, the work postures of all the fishermen were simulated and assessed by using an ergonomic digital human modeling system (ManneQuin Pro). Third, the wo...

  6. Predictive habitat models derived from nest-box occupancy for the endangered Carolina northern flying squirrel in the southern Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, W. Mark; Evans, A.M.; Odom, Richard H.; Rodrigue, Jane L.; Kelly, C.A.; Abaid, Nicole; Diggins, Corinne A.; Newcomb, Doug

    2016-01-01

    In the southern Appalachians, artificial nest-boxes are used to survey for the endangered Carolina northern flying squirrel (CNFS; Glaucomys sabrinus coloratus), a disjunct subspecies associated with high elevation (>1385 m) forests. Using environmental parameters diagnostic of squirrel habitat, we created 35 a priori occupancy models in the program PRESENCE for boxes surveyed in western North Carolina, 1996-2011. Our best approximating model showed CNFS denning associated with sheltered landforms and montane conifers, primarily red spruce Picea rubens. As sheltering decreased, decreasing distance to conifers was important. Area with a high probability (>0.5) of occupancy was distributed over 18662 ha of habitat, mostly across 10 mountain ranges. Because nest-box surveys underrepresented areas >1750 m and CNFS forage in conifers, we combined areas of high occupancy with conifer GIS coverages to create an additional distribution model of likely habitat. Regionally, above 1385 m, we determined that 31795 ha could be occupied by CNFS. Known occupied patches ranged from

  7. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling of dopamine D2 receptor occupancy in humans using Bayesian modeling tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, Martin; Mafirakureva, Nyashadzaishe; Kozielska, Magdalena; Pilla Reddy, Venkatesh; Vermeulen, An; Liu, Jing; de Greef, Rik; Groothuis, Genoveva; Danhof, Meindert; Proost, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Blockade of dopamine-2 receptors is the key pharmacological component to the antipsychotic efficacy of both the typical and atypical antipsychotics (1). A pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) modeling approach was used to describe the relationship between the plasma concentration of a

  8. Matching occupation and self: does matching theory adequately model children's thinking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Mark; McMahon, Mary

    2004-10-01

    The present exploratory-descriptive cross-national study focused on the career development of 11- to 14-yr.-old children, in particular whether they can match their personal characteristics with their occupational aspirations. Further, the study explored whether their matching may be explained in terms of a fit between person and environment using Holland's theory as an example. Participants included 511 South African and 372 Australian children. Findings relate to two items of the Revised Career Awareness Survey that require children to relate personal-social knowledge to their favorite occupation. Data were analyzed in three stages using descriptive statistics, i.e., mean scores, frequencies, and percentage agreement. The study indicated that children perceived their personal characteristics to be related to their occupational aspirations. However, how this matching takes place is not adequately accounted for in terms of a career theory such as that of Holland.

  9. A multistudy examination of organizational stressors, emotional labor, burnout, and turnover in sport organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larner, R J; Wagstaff, C R D; Thelwell, R C; Corbett, J

    2017-03-08

    While a growing body of research has examined the types of organizational stressors encountered by individuals and their allied responses, little is known about how such individuals manage their emotional responses to these stressors or the consequences of such behaviors. This article presents novel findings from two studies examining the moderating role that emotional labor plays in the relationship between the frequency of organizational stressor experience, burnout, turnover intentions, and actual turnover in sport. In study 1, participants (n=487) completed measures of organizational stressors (OSI-SP), emotional labor (ELS), burnout (ABQ), and turnover intentions. In study 2, a 6-month longitudinal design was used to examine measures of organizational stressors (OSI-SP), emotional labor (ELS), turnover intentions, and actual turnover. Study 1 showed that surface acting moderated the relationship between the frequency of organizational stressors and burnout in sport. Further, surface acting acted as an important mechanism through which burnout mediated the relationship between the frequency of organizational stressors and turnover intentions. Study 2 showed that surface acting moderated the relationship between the organizational stressor frequency and turnover intentions-but not actual turnover-over time. These results highlight the importance of surface acting in understanding how individuals respond to organizational stressors encountered in sport, expanding our understanding of the positive and negative responses component of the meta-model of stress, emotions, and performance. These findings also highlight potentially deleterious emotion-management behaviors that practitioners might consider when aiming to support individuals encountering organizational stressors in sport. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. High level of work stressors increase the risk of mental-emotional disturbances among airline pilots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indah S. Widyahening

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Civilian airline pilots have one of the most stressful occupations. The aim of this study was to identify the effect of work stressors and other factors on mental-emotional disturbances among airline pilots. A cross-sectional study was done by interviewing selected pilots of an airline using appropriate questionnaires, during their routine medical examination from May to July 1999 in Jakarta. Five aspects of work stressor were assessed: working conditions, physical conditions of working environment, career development, organization and interpersonal relationship. Mental-emotional disturbances were determined by using the Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL 90 questionnaire. Data analysis was carried out using relative risk by Cox regression with constant time. From 128 subjects interviewed, 109 could be analyzed. Most of the subjects were married (73.4% and college graduates (91.7%. The number of captains and first officers were almost equal. The prevalence of mental-emotional disturbances was 39.4%. Mental-emotional disturbances were significantly related to work stressors and moderately related to household tension (P = 0.184. Compared to pilots with low levels of work stressors, those with high or very high levels of work stressors had a risk of 4.6 times of mental-emotional disturbances [adjusted relative risk (RRa = 4.64; 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.01 – 19.65]. Adequate guides to cope work stressors and household tension which related to mental-emotional disturbance is recommended. (Med J Indones 2007; 16:117-21Keywords: mental-emotional disturbance, work stressors, household tension, airline pilots

  11. A hybrid genetic algorithm-queuing multi-compartment model for optimizing inpatient bed occupancy and associated costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belciug, Smaranda; Gorunescu, Florin

    2016-03-01

    Explore how efficient intelligent decision support systems, both easily understandable and straightforwardly implemented, can help modern hospital managers to optimize both bed occupancy and utilization costs. This paper proposes a hybrid genetic algorithm-queuing multi-compartment model for the patient flow in hospitals. A finite capacity queuing model with phase-type service distribution is combined with a compartmental model, and an associated cost model is set up. An evolutionary-based approach is used for enhancing the ability to optimize both bed management and associated costs. In addition, a "What-if analysis" shows how changing the model parameters could improve performance while controlling costs. The study uses bed-occupancy data collected at the Department of Geriatric Medicine - St. George's Hospital, London, period 1969-1984, and January 2000. The hybrid model revealed that a bed-occupancy exceeding 91%, implying a patient rejection rate around 1.1%, can be carried out with 159 beds plus 8 unstaffed beds. The same holding and penalty costs, but significantly different bed allocations (156 vs. 184 staffed beds, and 8 vs. 9 unstaffed beds, respectively) will result in significantly different costs (£755 vs. £1172). Moreover, once the arrival rate exceeds 7 patient/day, the costs associated to the finite capacity system become significantly smaller than those associated to an Erlang B queuing model (£134 vs. £947). Encoding the whole information provided by both the queuing system and the cost model through chromosomes, the genetic algorithm represents an efficient tool in optimizing the bed allocation and associated costs. The methodology can be extended to different medical departments with minor modifications in structure and parameterization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. HIV as an index stressor for PTSD: challenges and pitfalls in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    conditioning 'stimulus-response' model, with the diagnostic manual assuming that a ... about children and family affected by HIV related mortality/morbidity), not .... stressor Criterion-A1 and PTSD: A matter of opinion? J Anxiety. Disord 2009 ...

  13. Occupational Consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramugondo, Elelwani L

    2015-10-02

    Occupational consciousness refers to ongoing awareness of the dynamics of hegemony and recognition that dominant practices are sustained through what people do every day, with implications for personal and collective health. The emergence of the construct in post-apartheid South Africa signifies the country's ongoing struggle with negotiating long-standing dynamics of power that were laid down during colonialism, and maintained under black majority rule. Consciousness, a key component of the new terminology, is framed from post-colonial perspectives - notably work by Biko and Fanon - and grounded in the philosophy of liberation, in order to draw attention to continuing unequal intersubjective relations that play out through human occupation. The paper also draws important links between occupational consciousness and other related constructs, namely occupational possibilities, occupational choice, occupational apartheid, and collective occupation. The use of the term 'consciousness' in sociology, with related or different meanings, is also explored. Occupational consciousness is then advanced as a critical notion that frames everyday doing as a potentially liberating response to oppressive social structures. This paper advances theorizing as a scholarly practice in occupational science, and could potentially expand inter or transdisciplinary work for critical conceptualizations of human occupation.

  14. Accounting for the uncertainty related to building occupants with regards to visual comfort: A literature survey on drivers and models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabi, Valentina; Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Corgnati, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    energy use during the design stage. Since the reaction to thermal, acoustic, or visual stimuli is not the same for every human being, monitoring the behaviour inside buildings is an essential step to assert differences in energy consumption related to different interactions. Reliable information...... conditions influence occupants' manual controlling of the system in offices and by consequence the energy consumption. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible drivers for light-switching to model occupant behaviour in office buildings. The probability of switching lighting systems on or off...... who take daylight level into account and switch on lights only if necessary and people who totally disregard the natural lighting. This underlines the importance of how individuality is at the base of the definition of the different types of users....

  15. Community occupancy before-after-control-impact (CO-BACI) analysis of Hurricane Gudrun on Swedish forest birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, James C; Stjernman, Martin; Lindström, Åke; Smith, Henrik G

    2015-04-01

    Resilience of ecological communities to perturbation is important in the face of increased global change from anthropogenic stressors. Monitoring is required to detect the impact of, and recovery from, perturbations, and before-after-control-impact (BACI) analysis provides a powerful framework in this regard. However, species in a community are not observed with perfect detection, and occupancy analysis is required to correct for imperfect detectability of species. We present a Bayesian community occupancy before-after-control-impact (CO-BACI) framework to monitor ecological community response to perturbation when constituent species are imperfectly detected. We test the power of the model to detect changes in community composition following an acute perturbation with simulation. We then apply the model to a study of the impact of a large hurricane on the forest bird community of Sweden, using data from the national bird survey scheme. Although simulation shows the model can detect changes in community occupancy following an acute perturbation, application to a Swedish forest bird community following a major hurricane detected no change in community occupancy despite widespread forest loss. Birds with landscape occupancy less than 50% required correcting for detectability. We conclude that CO-BACI analysis is a useful tool that can incorporate rare species in analyses and detect occupancy changes in ecological communities following perturbation, but, because it does not include abundance, some impacts may be overlooked.

  16. Inference for occupancy and occupancy dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Allan F.; Bailey, Larissa L.; O'Connell, Allan F.; Nichols, James D.; Karanth, K. Ullas

    2011-01-01

    This chapter deals with the estimation of occupancy as a state variable to assess the status of, and track changes in, species distributions when sampling with camera traps. Much of the recent interest in occupancy estimation and modeling originated from the models developed by MacKenzie et al. (2002, 2003), although similar methods were developed independently (Azuma et al. 1990; Bayley and Petersen 2001; Nichols and Karanth, 2002; Tyre et al. 2003), all of which deal with species occurrence information and imperfect detection. Less than a decade after these publications, the modeling and estimation of species occurrence and occupancy dynamics have increased significantly. Special features of scientific journals have explored innovative uses of detection–nondetection data with occupancy models (Vojta 2005), and an entire volume has synthesized the use and application of occupancy estimation methods (MacKenzie et al. 2006). Reviews of the topical concepts, philosophical considerations, and various sampling designs that can be used for occupancy estimation are now readily available for a range of audiences (MacKenzie and Royle 2005; MacKenzie et al. 2006; Bailey et al. 2007; Royle and Dorazio 2008; Conroy and Carroll 2009; Kendall and White 2009; Hines et al. 2010; Link and Barker 2010). As a result, it would be pointless here to recast all that these publications have so eloquently articulated, but that said, a review of any scientific topic requires sufficient context and relevant background information, especially when relatively new methodologies and techniques such as occupancy estimation and camera traps are involved. This is especially critical in a digital age where new information is published at warp speed, making it increasingly difficult to stay abreast of theoretical advances and research developments.

  17. Evaluating Amphibian Declines with Site Revisits and Occupancy Models: Status of Montane Anurans in the Pacific Northwest USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brome McCreary

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Amphibian declines have been reported in mountainous areas around the western USA. Few data quantify the extent of population losses in the Pacific Northwest, a region in which amphibian declines have received much attention. From 2001–2004, we resurveyed historical breeding sites of two species of conservation concern, the Western Toad (Bufo [=Anaxyrus] boreas and Cascades Frog (Rana cascadae. We detected B. boreas breeding at 75.9% and R. cascadae breeding at 66.6% of historical sites. When we analyzed the data using occupancy models that accounted for detection probability, we estimated the current use of historically occupied sites in our study area was 84.9% (SE = 4.9 for B. boreas and 72.4% (SE = 6.6 for R. cascadae. Our ability to detect B. boreas at sites where they were present was lower in the first year of surveys (a low snowpack year and higher at sites with introduced fish. Our ability to detect R. cascadae was lower at sites with fish. The probability that B. boreas still uses a historical site for breeding was related to the easting of the site (+ and the age of record (-. None of the variables we analyzed was strongly related to R. cascadae occupancy. Both species had increased odds of occupancy with higher latitude, but model support for this variable was modest. Our analysis suggests that while local losses are possible, these two amphibians have not experienced recent, broad population losses in the Oregon Cascades. Historical site revisitation studies such as ours cannot distinguish between population losses and site switching, and do not account for colonization of new habitats, so our analysis may overestimate declines in occupancy within our study area.

  18. Enhanced FAA-hybrid III numerical dummy model in Madymo for aircraft occupant safety assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boucher, H.; Waagmeester, C.D.

    2003-01-01

    To improve survivability and to minimize the risk of injury to occupants in helicopter crash events, a complete Cabin Safety System concept including safety features and an enhanced FAA-Hybrid III dummy were developed within the HeliSafe project. A numerical tool was also created and validated to al

  19. Invited OSU class lecture: An integrated eco-hydrologic modeling framework for assessing the effects of interacting stressors on multiple ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recently established the Ecosystem Services Research Program to help formulate methods and models for conducting comprehensive risk assessments that quantify how multiple ecosystem services interact and respond in concert to environmental ...

  20. Invited OSU class lecture: An integrated eco-hydrologic modeling framework for assessing the effects of interacting stressors on multiple ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recently established the Ecosystem Services Research Program to help formulate methods and models for conducting comprehensive risk assessments that quantify how multiple ecosystem services interact and respond in concert to environmental ...

  1. Using occupancy modeling and logistic regression to assess the distribution of shrimp species in lowland streams, Costa Rica: Does regional groundwater create favorable habitat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Marcia; Freeman, Mary C.; Purucker, S. Thomas; Pringle, Catherine M.

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater shrimps are an important biotic component of tropical ecosystems. However, they can have a low probability of detection when abundances are low. We sampled 3 of the most common freshwater shrimp species, Macrobrachium olfersii, Macrobrachium carcinus, and Macrobrachium heterochirus, and used occupancy modeling and logistic regression models to improve our limited knowledge of distribution of these cryptic species by investigating both local- and landscape-scale effects at La Selva Biological Station in Costa Rica. Local-scale factors included substrate type and stream size, and landscape-scale factors included presence or absence of regional groundwater inputs. Capture rates for 2 of the sampled species (M. olfersii and M. carcinus) were sufficient to compare the fit of occupancy models. Occupancy models did not converge for M. heterochirus, but M. heterochirus had high enough occupancy rates that logistic regression could be used to model the relationship between occupancy rates and predictors. The best-supported models for M. olfersii and M. carcinus included conductivity, discharge, and substrate parameters. Stream size was positively correlated with occupancy rates of all 3 species. High stream conductivity, which reflects the quantity of regional groundwater input into the stream, was positively correlated with M. olfersii occupancy rates. Boulder substrates increased occupancy rate of M. carcinus and decreased the detection probability of M. olfersii. Our models suggest that shrimp distribution is driven by factors that function at local (substrate and discharge) and landscape (conductivity) scales.

  2. Acute Stressor Effects on Goal-Directed Action in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Stephanie; Hauber, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Here we examined effects of acute stressors that involve either systemic coadministration of corticosterone/yohimbine (3 mg/kg each) to increase glucocorticoid/noradrenaline activity (denoted as "pharmacological" stressor) or one or several distinct restraint stressors (denoted as "single" vs. "multiple" stressor) on…

  3. Acute Stressor Effects on Goal-Directed Action in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Stephanie; Hauber, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Here we examined effects of acute stressors that involve either systemic coadministration of corticosterone/yohimbine (3 mg/kg each) to increase glucocorticoid/noradrenaline activity (denoted as "pharmacological" stressor) or one or several distinct restraint stressors (denoted as "single" vs. "multiple" stressor) on…

  4. Development of a numerical model for calculating exposure to toxic and nontoxic stressors in the water column and sediment from drilling discharges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rye, H.; Reed, M.; Frost, T.K.; Smit, M.G.D.; Durgut, S.

    2008-01-01

    Drilling discharges are complex mixtures of chemical components and particles which might lead to toxic and nontoxic stress in the environment. In order to be able to evaluate the potential environmental consequences of such discharges in the water column and in sediments, a numerical model was deve

  5. Human Stressors Are Driving Coastal Benthic Long-Lived Sessile Fan Mussel Pinna nobilis Population Structure More than Environmental Stressors.

    OpenAIRE

    Salud Deudero; Maite Vázquez-Luis; Elvira Álvarez

    2015-01-01

    Coastal degradation and habitat disruption are severely compromising sessile marine species. The fan shell Pinna nobilis is an endemic, vulnerable species and the largest bivalve in the Mediterranean basin. In spite of species legal protection, fan shell populations are declining. Models analyzed the contributions of environmental (mean depth, wave height, maximum wave height, period of waves with high energy and mean direction of wave source) versus human-derived stressors (anchoring, protec...

  6. Addressing Occupational Fatigue in Nurses: A Risk Management Model for Nurse Executives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steege, Linsey M; Pinekenstein, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    Addressing occupational fatigue in nursing work systems and mitigating associated risks to nurses require strategic management and high-level decision making as well as daily management through operational and tactical actions. Nurse executives are well positioned to lead implementation of a proposed multilevel fatigue risk management system that includes monitoring and decision-support tools to support a culture of safety and nurse well-being.

  7. Common Mental Disorders among Occupational Groups: Contributions of the Latent Class Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kionna Oliveira Bernardes Santos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20 is widely used for evaluating common mental disorders. However, few studies have evaluated the SRQ-20 measurements performance in occupational groups. This study aimed to describe manifestation patterns of common mental disorders symptoms among workers populations, by using latent class analysis. Methods. Data derived from 9,959 Brazilian workers, obtained from four cross-sectional studies that used similar methodology, among groups of informal workers, teachers, healthcare workers, and urban workers. Common mental disorders were measured by using SRQ-20. Latent class analysis was performed on each database separately. Results. Three classes of symptoms were confirmed in the occupational categories investigated. In all studies, class I met better criteria for suspicion of common mental disorders. Class II discriminated workers with intermediate probability of answers to the items belonging to anxiety, sadness, and energy decrease that configure common mental disorders. Class III was composed of subgroups of workers with low probability to respond positively to questions for screening common mental disorders. Conclusions. Three patterns of symptoms of common mental disorders were identified in the occupational groups investigated, ranging from distinctive features to low probabilities of occurrence. The SRQ-20 measurements showed stability in capturing nonpsychotic symptoms.

  8. Identifying Stressors and Reactions to Stressors in Gifted and Non-Gifted Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Marzieh

    2005-01-01

    Using the Student Life Stress Inventory and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, stressors and reactions to stressors were identified in gifted high school students and compared with non-gifted students. Altogether, 340 boys and girls (156 gifted and 184 non-gifted students) from four high schools in Shiraz (two high schools for gifted and two…

  9. Early post-stressor intervention with minocycline, a second-generation tetracycline, attenuates post-traumatic stress response in an animal model of PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levkovitz, Yechiel; Fenchel, Daphna; Kaplan, Zeev; Zohar, Joseph; Cohen, Hagit

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the effects of minocycline, a tetracycline with anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and neuroprotective capacities, in an animal model of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Rats were exposed to psychogenic stress and treated 1h later with minocycline or saline. Behavioral measures included the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and acoustic startle response (ASR) 7 days post stress-exposure. One day after behavioral testing, animals were exposed to a trauma cue and freezing response was assessed. Local levels of cytokines interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the hippocampus, frontal cortex (FC) and hypothalamus were then examined. Minocycline attenuated anxious-like behaviors in stress-exposed rats. In addition, decreased levels of cytokines were measured in exposed rats treated with minocycline compared to their counterparts treated with saline. This study suggests a potential use of minocycline in preventing physiological and behavioral alternations resulting from acute exposure to psychological stress. As this is the first study to report beneficial outcomes for minocycline treatment in an animal model of PTSD, further investigations of the use of minocycline in stress-related conditions with emphasis on PTSD is needed.

  10. Occupational Task Analyses for the Development of Business Education Model Curricula with Emphasis on Banking and Financial Occupations. State Technical Committee Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaware State Board for Vocational Education, Milford.

    This guide, prepared for the Delaware State Board of Education and the State Department of Public Instruction, is intended to assist individuals developing curricula to prepare students for entry-level positions in various banking and financial occupations. It is divided into three sections, each of which consists of a cross-referenced listing of…

  11. Heterogeneous occupancy and density estimates of the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in waters of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chestnut, Tara E.; Anderson, Chauncey; Popa, Radu; Blaustein, Andrew R.; Voytek, Mary; Olson, Deanna H.; Kirshtein, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Biodiversity losses are occurring worldwide due to a combination of stressors. For example, by one estimate, 40% of amphibian species are vulnerable to extinction, and disease is one threat to amphibian populations. The emerging infectious disease chytridiomycosis, caused by the aquatic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), is a contributor to amphibian declines worldwide. Bd research has focused on the dynamics of the pathogen in its amphibian hosts, with little emphasis on investigating the dynamics of free-living Bd. Therefore, we investigated patterns of Bd occupancy and density in amphibian habitats using occupancy models, powerful tools for estimating site occupancy and detection probability. Occupancy models have been used to investigate diseases where the focus was on pathogen occurrence in the host. We applied occupancy models to investigate free-living Bd in North American surface waters to determine Bd seasonality, relationships between Bd site occupancy and habitat attributes, and probability of detection from water samples as a function of the number of samples, sample volume, and water quality. We also report on the temporal patterns of Bd density from a 4-year case study of a Bd-positive wetland. We provide evidence that Bd occurs in the environment year-round. Bd exhibited temporal and spatial heterogeneity in density, but did not exhibit seasonality in occupancy. Bd was detected in all months, typically at less than 100 zoospores L−1. The highest density observed was ∼3 million zoospores L−1. We detected Bd in 47% of sites sampled, but estimated that Bd occupied 61% of sites, highlighting the importance of accounting for imperfect detection. When Bd was present, there was a 95% chance of detecting it with four samples of 600 ml of water or five samples of 60 mL. Our findings provide important baseline information to advance the study of Bd disease ecology, and advance our understanding of amphibian exposure to free-living Bd in aquatic

  12. Heterogeneous occupancy and density estimates of the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in waters of North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara Chestnut

    Full Text Available Biodiversity losses are occurring worldwide due to a combination of stressors. For example, by one estimate, 40% of amphibian species are vulnerable to extinction, and disease is one threat to amphibian populations. The emerging infectious disease chytridiomycosis, caused by the aquatic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd, is a contributor to amphibian declines worldwide. Bd research has focused on the dynamics of the pathogen in its amphibian hosts, with little emphasis on investigating the dynamics of free-living Bd. Therefore, we investigated patterns of Bd occupancy and density in amphibian habitats using occupancy models, powerful tools for estimating site occupancy and detection probability. Occupancy models have been used to investigate diseases where the focus was on pathogen occurrence in the host. We applied occupancy models to investigate free-living Bd in North American surface waters to determine Bd seasonality, relationships between Bd site occupancy and habitat attributes, and probability of detection from water samples as a function of the number of samples, sample volume, and water quality. We also report on the temporal patterns of Bd density from a 4-year case study of a Bd-positive wetland. We provide evidence that Bd occurs in the environment year-round. Bd exhibited temporal and spatial heterogeneity in density, but did not exhibit seasonality in occupancy. Bd was detected in all months, typically at less than 100 zoospores L(-1. The highest density observed was ∼3 million zoospores L(-1. We detected Bd in 47% of sites sampled, but estimated that Bd occupied 61% of sites, highlighting the importance of accounting for imperfect detection. When Bd was present, there was a 95% chance of detecting it with four samples of 600 ml of water or five samples of 60 mL. Our findings provide important baseline information to advance the study of Bd disease ecology, and advance our understanding of amphibian exposure to free

  13. Cumulative risk: toxicity and interactions of physical and chemical stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rider, Cynthia V; Boekelheide, Kim; Catlin, Natasha; Gordon, Christopher J; Morata, Thais; Selgrade, Maryjane K; Sexton, Kenneth; Simmons, Jane Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Recent efforts to update cumulative risk assessment procedures to incorporate nonchemical stressors ranging from physical to psychosocial reflect increased interest in consideration of the totality of variables affecting human health and the growing desire to develop community-based risk assessment methods. A key roadblock is the uncertainty as to how nonchemical stressors behave in relationship to chemical stressors. Physical stressors offer a reasonable starting place for measuring the effects of nonchemical stressors and their modulation of chemical effects (and vice versa), as they clearly differ from chemical stressors; and "doses" of many physical stressors are more easily quantifiable than those of psychosocial stressors. There is a commonly held belief that virtually nothing is known about the impact of nonchemical stressors on chemically mediated toxicity or the joint impact of coexposure to chemical and nonchemical stressors. Although this is generally true, there are several instances where a substantial body of evidence exists. A workshop titled "Cumulative Risk: Toxicity and Interactions of Physical and Chemical Stressors" held at the 2013 Society of Toxicology Annual Meeting provided a forum for discussion of research addressing the toxicity of physical stressors and what is known about their interactions with chemical stressors, both in terms of exposure and effects. Physical stressors including sunlight, heat, radiation, infectious disease, and noise were discussed in reference to identifying pathways of interaction with chemical stressors, data gaps, and suggestions for future incorporation into cumulative risk assessments.

  14. Entrepreneurial stressors as predictors of entrepreneurial burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xueyan; Cang, Shuangxin; Hisrich, Robert D

    2015-02-01

    Research on the effects of entrepreneurial stressors is limited, especially regarding its relation to the burnout that frequently occurs in the process of starting and growing a venture. The effect of the role of entrepreneurial stressors (workload, competitive comparison, demands-of-knowledge, managing responsibility, and resource requirements) on burnout (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment) was examined in a Chinese sample of entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurial stressors emerged as a significant predictor of burnout in the process of entrepreneurship in a sample of 289 entrepreneurs (63.8% men; M age = 26.2 yr.; 39.6% of their parents have been self-employed). The findings clarify the functional relationship between entrepreneurial stressors and burnout. Entrepreneurial stressors played multiple roles. Managing responsibility was an active contributor to the sense of achievement and to emotional exhaustion. Workload was an active contributor to emotional exhaustion. Demands-of-knowledge negatively affected three of the dimensions of burnout. Theoretical and practical implications for management of the effect of these relationships are discussed.

  15. Integrated species distribution models: combining presence-background data and site-occupancy data with imperfect detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshkina, Vira; Wang, Yang; Gordon, Ascelin; Dorazio, Robert; White, Matthew; Stone, Lewi

    2017-01-01

    Two main sources of data for species distribution models (SDMs) are site-occupancy (SO) data from planned surveys, and presence-background (PB) data from opportunistic surveys and other sources. SO surveys give high quality data about presences and absences of the species in a particular area. However, due to their high cost, they often cover a smaller area relative to PB data, and are usually not representative of the geographic range of a species. In contrast, PB data is plentiful, covers a larger area, but is less reliable due to the lack of information on species absences, and is usually characterised by biased sampling. Here we present a new approach for species distribution modelling that integrates these two data types.We have used an inhomogeneous Poisson point process as the basis for constructing an integrated SDM that fits both PB and SO data simultaneously. It is the first implementation of an Integrated SO–PB Model which uses repeated survey occupancy data and also incorporates detection probability.The Integrated Model's performance was evaluated, using simulated data and compared to approaches using PB or SO data alone. It was found to be superior, improving the predictions of species spatial distributions, even when SO data is sparse and collected in a limited area. The Integrated Model was also found effective when environmental covariates were significantly correlated. Our method was demonstrated with real SO and PB data for the Yellow-bellied glider (Petaurus australis) in south-eastern Australia, with the predictive performance of the Integrated Model again found to be superior.PB models are known to produce biased estimates of species occupancy or abundance. The small sample size of SO datasets often results in poor out-of-sample predictions. Integrated models combine data from these two sources, providing superior predictions of species abundance compared to using either data source alone. Unlike conventional SDMs which have restrictive

  16. Towards Comprehensive Job Stress Models of Reservists

    OpenAIRE

    Lang, Jessica

    2006-01-01

    Integrating findings from the general stress literature into occupational stress research the present dissertation aimed at developing comprehensive job stress models that include additionally valuable antecedents and moderators on the link between workplace stress and psychological health problems. Therefore, this work made use of McEwen’s (1998) Allostatic Load Model to analyze the influence of chronic as well as acute stressors on the employees’ (i.e., Reservists) long-term psychological h...

  17. Development and validation of a prediction model for long-term sickness absence based on occupational health survey variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roelen, Corné; Thorsen, Sannie; Heymans, Martijn

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to develop and validate a prediction model for identifying employees at increased risk of long-term sickness absence (LTSA), by using variables commonly measured in occupational health surveys. Materials and methods: Based on the literature, 15 predictor...... and then validated in a sample of 2524 DANES participants, not included in the development sample. Identification of employees at increased LTSA risk was investigated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis; the area-under-the-ROC-curve (AUC) reflected discrimination between employees with and without...... LTSA during follow-up. Results: The 15-predictor model was reduced to a 9-predictor model including age, gender, education, self-rated health, mental health, prior LTSA, work ability, emotional job demands, and recognition by the management. Discrimination by the 9-predictor model was significant (AUC...

  18. Evidence for multiple stressor interactions and effects on coral reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Stephen S; Graham, Nicholas A J; Connolly, Sean R

    2014-03-01

    Concern is growing about the potential effects of interacting multiple stressors, especially as the global climate changes. We provide a comprehensive review of multiple stressor interactions in coral reef ecosystems, which are widely considered to be one of the most sensitive ecosystems to global change. First, we synthesized coral reef studies that examined interactions of two or more stressors, highlighting stressor interactions (where one stressor directly influences another) and potentially synergistic effects on response variables (where two stressors interact to produce an effect that is greater than purely additive). For stressor-stressor interactions, we found 176 studies that examined at least 2 of the 13 stressors of interest. Applying network analysis to analyze relationships between stressors, we found that pathogens were exacerbated by more costressors than any other stressor, with ca. 78% of studies reporting an enhancing effect by another stressor. Sedimentation, storms, and water temperature directly affected the largest number of other stressors. Pathogens, nutrients, and crown-of-thorns starfish were the most-influenced stressors. We found 187 studies that examined the effects of two or more stressors on a third dependent variable. The interaction of irradiance and temperature on corals has been the subject of more research (62 studies, 33% of the total) than any other combination of stressors, with many studies reporting a synergistic effect on coral symbiont photosynthetic performance (n = 19). Second, we performed a quantitative meta-analysis of existing literature on this most-studied interaction (irradiance and temperature). We found that the mean effect size of combined treatments was statistically indistinguishable from a purely additive interaction, although it should be noted that the sample size was relatively small (n = 26). Overall, although in aggregate a large body of literature examines stressor effects on coral reefs and coral

  19. Proof of concept of the WOMED model of benign thyroid disease: Restitution of thyroid morphology after correction of physical and psychological stressors and magnesium supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncayo, Roy; Moncayo, Helga

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of a combined supplementation with magnesium, selenium and coenzyme Q10 on the morphology of the thyroid in patients with benign diseases. The clinical examination and treatment approach aims additionally at treating musculoskeletal and psychological stress. Methods A group of 8 patients (5 with hyperthyroidism, 3 with hypothyroidism) who initially attended a public institution received additional treatment at our private institution. The basic pharmacological treatment, i.e. substitution or thyreostatic, was kept unchanged. The inclusion of patients required good quality ultrasound images to be available. Results Initially the changes of the musculoskeletal system were corrected. Following this, stress components were also treated. After a period of 2–4 years of supplementation we observed a normalization of thyroid morphology as evidenced on ultrasound while at the same time there was a reduction of perfusion intensity. Thyroid antibody titers decreased in the majority of cases. Failure of the treatment was seen in 2 cases of chronic thyroiditis that was present for more than 10 years. The ultrasound images of these patients suggest a possible fibrosis. Conclusions In spite of the limitation due to the small number of cases, our observational study has delivered proof of concept for our examination and treatment model for benign thyroid disease. General significance Our results challenge validity of the prevailing dogma of a destructive unstoppable “autoimmune” destructive process of the gland. At the same time it shows new therapeutic options for patients with thyroid disease. PMID:26672672

  20. Impact of mitochondrial electric field on modal occupancy in the Fröhlich model of cellular electromagnetism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šrobár, Fedor

    2013-09-01

    Fröhlich model describes emission of electromagnetic field in the interior of biological cells by oscillating polar units, now mostly identified with microtubule filaments. Central element of this theory is the system of rate equations for the quantum occupancy numbers n i of collective oscillation modes. These equations describe both linear and nonlinear properties of the system; presence of the latter can lead to condensation of the incoming energy into the lowest frequency mode - a phenomenon deemed to be of major importance for cell's biochemistry, because the excited mode can engage in chemical reactions while the major part of the system remains near the equilibrium, not exposed to energetic stress. This paper explores, using a simple model, the influence of strong static electric field created by mitochondria flanking the microtubules on nonlinear interactions and, in turn, on occupancy numbers. The computed results show that simultaneous presence of both sufficient metabolic pumping and adequately elevated static electric field is necessary for the full unfolding of the hallmark properties of the Fröhlich model. It is suggested that cancer-related mitochondrial dysfunction leading to metabolic transformation has additional adverse effect mediated by diminution of static fields which in turn reduces the nonlinear processes in the Fröhlich systems, essential for energy condensation in the fundamental mode.

  1. Development and validation of a prediction model for long-term sickness absence based on occupational health survey variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelen, Corné; Thorsen, Sannie; Heymans, Martijn; Twisk, Jos; Bültmann, Ute; Bjørner, Jakob

    2016-11-10

    The purpose of this study is to develop and validate a prediction model for identifying employees at increased risk of long-term sickness absence (LTSA), by using variables commonly measured in occupational health surveys. Based on the literature, 15 predictor variables were retrieved from the DAnish National working Environment Survey (DANES) and included in a model predicting incident LTSA (≥4 consecutive weeks) during 1-year follow-up in a sample of 4000 DANES participants. The 15-predictor model was reduced by backward stepwise statistical techniques and then validated in a sample of 2524 DANES participants, not included in the development sample. Identification of employees at increased LTSA risk was investigated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis; the area-under-the-ROC-curve (AUC) reflected discrimination between employees with and without LTSA during follow-up. The 15-predictor model was reduced to a 9-predictor model including age, gender, education, self-rated health, mental health, prior LTSA, work ability, emotional job demands, and recognition by the management. Discrimination by the 9-predictor model was significant (AUC = 0.68; 95% CI 0.61-0.76), but not practically useful. A prediction model based on occupational health survey variables identified employees with an increased LTSA risk, but should be further developed into a practically useful tool to predict the risk of LTSA in the general working population. Implications for rehabilitation Long-term sickness absence risk predictions would enable healthcare providers to refer high-risk employees to rehabilitation programs aimed at preventing or reducing work disability. A prediction model based on health survey variables discriminates between employees at high and low risk of long-term sickness absence, but discrimination was not practically useful. Health survey variables provide insufficient information to determine long-term sickness absence risk profiles. There is a need for

  2. Stressors and resources of caregivers of patients with incurable progressive illness in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streid, Jocelyn; Harding, Richard; Agupio, Godfrey; Dinat, Natalya; Downing, Julia; Gwyther, Liz; Ikin, Barbara; Mashao, Thandi; Mmoledi, Keletso; Moll, Anthony P; Sebuyira, Lydia Mpanga; Higginson, Irene J; Selman, Lucy

    2014-03-01

    Family caregivers are central to palliative care in sub-Saharan Africa. Yet although supporting caregivers requires a comprehensive understanding of caregiver burden, there has been little research into this topic in Africa. Using the Stress Process Model to investigate the burden experienced by caregivers in South Africa and Uganda, we interviewed 37 caregivers and analyzed the data thematically. Caregivers' primary stressors related to day-to-day patient care and emotional support; secondary stressors included financial hardship, family responsibilities, and social isolation. Caregivers' social, relational, spiritual, and psychological resources mediated the effects of these stressors. Strengthening one resource strengthened others, but the failure of one resource hindered other resources, exacerbating burden. In providing caregiver support, policymakers and service providers should focus on enhancing caregivers' resources as well as alleviating their stressors.

  3. Embracing Creativity in Occupational Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Royeen, MOT, OTR/L

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Jen Gash, an occupational therapist and creativity coach living in the UK, provided the cover art for the winter 2015 issue of The Open Journal of Occupational Therapy. The picture is titled “Over the Exe.” Jen uses her inspiration of the Kawa River model in this painting. The painting is of her husband and daughter standing where the river meets the sea. This is a metaphoric representation of rejoining the greater collective. In addition, Jen has a passion for occupational therapists to encompass creativity. A core aspect of occupational therapy is the multi-dimensional concept of occupations; it allows for occupational therapists to incorporate creativity into daily practice. Jen’s goal is for occupational therapy to embrace its creative theoretical roots.

  4. Analysis of structural relationship among the occupational dysfunction on the psychological problem in healthcare workers: a study using structural equation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teraoka, Mutsumi; Kyougoku, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the hypothetical model based on structural relationship with the occupational dysfunction on psychological problems (stress response, burnout syndrome, and depression) in healthcare workers. Method. Three cross sectional studies were conducted to assess the following relations: (1) occupational dysfunction on stress response (n = 468), (2) occupational dysfunction on burnout syndrome (n = 1,142), and (3) occupational dysfunction on depression (n = 687). Personal characteristics were collected through a questionnaire (such as age, gender, and job category, opportunities for refreshment, time spent on leisure activities, and work relationships) as well as the Classification and Assessment of Occupational Dysfunction (CAOD). Furthermore, study 1 included the Stress Response Scale-18 (SRS-18), study 2 used the Japanese Burnout Scale (JBS), and study 3 employed the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), exploratory factor analysis (EFA), and path analysis of structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis were used in all of the studies. EFA and CFA were used to measure structural validity of four assessments; CAOD, SRS-18, JBS, and CES-D. For examination of a potential covariate, we assessed the correlation of the total and factor score of CAOD and personal factors in all studies. Moreover, direct and indirect effects of occupational dysfunction on stress response (Study 1), burnout syndrome (Study 2), and depression (Study 3) were also analyzed. Results. In study 1, CAOD had 16 items and 4 factors. In Study 2 and 3, CAOD had 16 items and 5 factors. SRS-18 had 18 items and 3 factors, JBS had 17 items and 3 factors, and CES-D had 20 items and 4 factors. All studies found that there were significant correlations between the CAOD total score and the personal factor that included opportunities for refreshment, time spent on leisure

  5. Analysis of structural relationship among the occupational dysfunction on the psychological problem in healthcare workers: a study using structural equation modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutsumi Teraoka

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the hypothetical model based on structural relationship with the occupational dysfunction on psychological problems (stress response, burnout syndrome, and depression in healthcare workers.Method. Three cross sectional studies were conducted to assess the following relations: (1 occupational dysfunction on stress response (n = 468, (2 occupational dysfunction on burnout syndrome (n = 1,142, and (3 occupational dysfunction on depression (n = 687. Personal characteristics were collected through a questionnaire (such as age, gender, and job category, opportunities for refreshment, time spent on leisure activities, and work relationships as well as the Classification and Assessment of Occupational Dysfunction (CAOD. Furthermore, study 1 included the Stress Response Scale-18 (SRS-18, study 2 used the Japanese Burnout Scale (JBS, and study 3 employed the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D. The Kolmogorov–Smirnov test, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA, exploratory factor analysis (EFA, and path analysis of structural equation modeling (SEM analysis were used in all of the studies. EFA and CFA were used to measure structural validity of four assessments; CAOD, SRS-18, JBS, and CES-D. For examination of a potential covariate, we assessed the correlation of the total and factor score of CAOD and personal factors in all studies. Moreover, direct and indirect effects of occupational dysfunction on stress response (Study 1, burnout syndrome (Study 2, and depression (Study 3 were also analyzed.Results. In study 1, CAOD had 16 items and 4 factors. In Study 2 and 3, CAOD had 16 items and 5 factors. SRS-18 had 18 items and 3 factors, JBS had 17 items and 3 factors, and CES-D had 20 items and 4 factors. All studies found that there were significant correlations between the CAOD total score and the personal factor that included opportunities for refreshment, time spent on leisure

  6. ICT & OTs: a model of information and communications technology acceptance and utilisation by occupational therapists (part 2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaper, Louise; Pervan, Graham

    2007-01-01

    The research reported in this paper describes the development, empirical validation and analysis of a model of technology acceptance by Australian occupational therapists. The study described involved the collection of quantitative data through a national survey. The theoretical significance of this work is that it uses a thoroughly constructed research model, with one of the largest sample sizes ever tested (n=1605), to extend technology acceptance research into the health sector. Results provide strong support for the model. This work reveals the complexity of the constructs and relationships that influence technology acceptance and highlights the need to include sociotechnical and system issues in studies of technology acceptance in healthcare to improve information system implementation success in this arena. The results of this study have practical and theoretical implications for health informaticians and researchers in the field of health informatics and information systems, tertiary educators, Commonwealth and State Governments and the allied health professions.

  7. Occupants' window opening behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabi, Valentina; Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Corgnati, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Energy consumption in buildings is influenced by several factors related to the building properties and the building controls, some of them highly connected to the behaviour of their occupants.In this paper, a definition of items referring to occupant behaviour related to the building control...... systems is proposed, based on studies presented in literature and a general process leading to the effects on energy consumptions is identified.Existing studies on the topic of window opening behaviour are highlighted and a theoretical framework to deal with occupants' interactions with building controls......, aimed at improving or maintaining the preferred indoor environmental conditions, is elaborated. This approach is used to look into the drivers for the actions taken by the occupants (windows opening and closing) and to investigate the existing models in literature of these actions for both residential...

  8. Recovery experiences during vacation and their association with job stressors and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Pereira

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Vacations offer opportunities for recovery from work-related stress. However, little is known about the impact of job stressors on recovery experiences during vacation, such as psychological detachment and relaxation. This study investigated detachment and relaxation to mediate the influence of job stressors prior to vacation on recovery during vacation. A total of 136 employees from various occupations completed a questionnaire on their ability to relax and mentally detach from work during a recent vacation. Participants rated perceived time pressure and social exclusion at work prior to their vacation as well as any psychosomatic health complaints or sleep problems during vacation. The results of bootstrap mediation analysis confirmed the mediating role of recovery experiences. The association between job stressors and sleep problems was fully mediated by detachment and relaxation, whereas the association between social exclusion and psychosomatic complaints was fully mediated by relaxation. Furthermore, relaxation partially mediated the association between time pressure and psychosomatic complaints. Not only should the ability of employees to relax and mentally detach be fostered, but job stressors should be reduced in order to allow employees to reach optimal recovery during vacation.

  9. Physical and Organizational Job Stressors in Pregnancy and Associations With Primary Cesarean Deliveries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guendelman, Sylvia; Gemmill, Alison; Hosang, Nap; MacDonald, Leslie A

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between exposure to physical and organizational job stressors during pregnancy and cesarean delivery. We sampled 580 employed women in California who participated in a nested population-based case-control study of birth outcomes. Adjusted multivariate regression analyses estimated associations between heavy lifting, frequent bending, high noise, extreme temperature, prolonged standing and organizational stressors (shift work, inflexible schedules, effort-reward ratio), and primary cesarean (vs vaginal) delivery, controlling for covariates. Women occupationally exposed had higher odds of cesarean. Those exposed to daily manual lifting more than 15 pounds [adjusted odds ratio = 2.54; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.21 to 5.32] and at least four physical job stressors (adjusted odds ratio = 3.49; 95% CI 1.21 to 10.09) had significantly elevated odds of cesarean delivery. Exposed morbid women experienced greater risk; risk was lower among those with schedule flexibility. Associations were found between modifiable exposure to physical job stressors during pregnancy and cesarean delivery.

  10. Occupational Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occupational health problems occur at work or because of the kind of work you do. These problems can include ... by exposure to radiation Exposure to germs in health care settings Good job safety and prevention practices ...

  11. Occupational health

    CERN Document Server

    Fingret, Dr Ann

    2013-01-01

    Offers a comprehensive view of health and safety issues at work. An invaluable resource for managers, personnel professionals and occupational health practitioners. Recommended by the Institute of Personnel Management.

  12. Developing a Semi-Quantitative Occupational Risk Prediction Model for Chemical Exposures and Its Application to a National Chemical Exposure Databank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu-Ying Chen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a semi-quantitative occupational chemical exposure risk prediction model, based on the calculation of exposure hazard indexes, was proposed, corrected, and applied to a national chemical exposure databank. The model comprises one factor used to describe toxicity (i.e., the toxicity index, and two factors used to reflect the exposure potential (i.e., the exposure index and protection deficiency index of workers exposed to chemicals. An expert system was used to correct the above proposed model. By applying the corrected model to data obtained from a national occupational chemical hazard survey program, chemical exposure risks of various manufacturing industries were determined and a national control strategy for the abatement of occupational chemical exposures was proposed. The results of the present study would provide useful information for governmental agencies to allocate their limited resources effectively for reducing chemical exposures of workers.

  13. Accounting for the Uncertainty Related to Building Occupants with Regards to Visual Comfort: A Literature Survey on Drivers and Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Fabi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The interactions between building occupants and control systems have a high influence on energy consumption and on indoor environmental quality. In the perspective of a future of “nearly-zero” energy buildings, it is crucial to analyse the energy-related interactions deeply to predict realistic energy use during the design stage. Since the reaction to thermal, acoustic, or visual stimuli is not the same for every human being, monitoring the behaviour inside buildings is an essential step to assert differences in energy consumption related to different interactions. Reliable information concerning occupants’ behaviours in a building could contribute to a better evaluation of building energy performances and design robustness, as well as supporting the development of occupants’ education to energy awareness. The present literature survey enlarges our understanding of which environmental conditions influence occupants’ manual controlling of the system in offices and by consequence the energy consumption. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible drivers for light-switching to model occupant behaviour in office buildings. The probability of switching lighting systems on or off was related to the occupancy and differentiated for arrival, intermediate, and departure periods. The switching probability has been reported to be higher during the entering or the leaving time in relation to contextual variables. In the analysis of switch-on actions, users were often clustered between those who take daylight level into account and switch on lights only if necessary and people who totally disregard the natural lighting. This underlines the importance of how individuality is at the base of the definition of the different types of users.

  14. Sensitivity of river fishes to climate change: The role of hydrological stressors on habitat range shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segurado, Pedro; Branco, Paulo; Jauch, Eduardo; Neves, Ramiro; Ferreira, M Teresa

    2016-08-15

    Climate change will predictably change hydrological patterns and processes at the catchment scale, with impacts on habitat conditions for fish. The main goal of this study is to assess how shifts in fish habitat favourability under climate change scenarios are affected by hydrological stressors. The interplay between climate and hydrological stressors has important implications in river management under climate change because management actions to control hydrological parameters are more feasible than controlling climate. This study was carried out in the Tamega catchment of the Douro basin. A set of hydrological stressor variables were generated through a process-based modelling based on current climate data (2008-2014) and also considering a high-end future climate change scenario. The resulting parameters, along with climatic and site-descriptor variables were used as explanatory variables in empirical habitat models for nine fish species using boosted regression trees. Models were calibrated for the whole Douro basin using 254 fish sampling sites and predictions under future climate change scenarios were made for the Tamega catchment. Results show that models using climatic variables but not hydrological stressors produce more stringent predictions of future favourability, predicting more distribution contractions or stronger range shifts. The use of hydrological stressors strongly influences projections of habitat favourability shifts; the integration of these stressors in the models thinned shifts in range due to climate change. Hydrological stressors were retained in the models for most species and had a high importance, demonstrating that it is important to integrate hydrology in studies of impacts of climate change on freshwater fishes. This is a relevant result because it means that management actions to control hydrological parameters in rivers will have an impact on the effects of climate change and may potentially be helpful to mitigate its negative

  15. Analysis of structural relationship among the occupational dysfunction on the psychological problem in healthcare workers: a study using structural equation modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyougoku, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the hypothetical model based on structural relationship with the occupational dysfunction on psychological problems (stress response, burnout syndrome, and depression) in healthcare workers. Method. Three cross sectional studies were conducted to assess the following relations: (1) occupational dysfunction on stress response (n = 468), (2) occupational dysfunction on burnout syndrome (n = 1,142), and (3) occupational dysfunction on depression (n = 687). Personal characteristics were collected through a questionnaire (such as age, gender, and job category, opportunities for refreshment, time spent on leisure activities, and work relationships) as well as the Classification and Assessment of Occupational Dysfunction (CAOD). Furthermore, study 1 included the Stress Response Scale-18 (SRS-18), study 2 used the Japanese Burnout Scale (JBS), and study 3 employed the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). The Kolmogorov–Smirnov test, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), exploratory factor analysis (EFA), and path analysis of structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis were used in all of the studies. EFA and CFA were used to measure structural validity of four assessments; CAOD, SRS-18, JBS, and CES-D. For examination of a potential covariate, we assessed the correlation of the total and factor score of CAOD and personal factors in all studies. Moreover, direct and indirect effects of occupational dysfunction on stress response (Study 1), burnout syndrome (Study 2), and depression (Study 3) were also analyzed. Results. In study 1, CAOD had 16 items and 4 factors. In Study 2 and 3, CAOD had 16 items and 5 factors. SRS-18 had 18 items and 3 factors, JBS had 17 items and 3 factors, and CES-D had 20 items and 4 factors. All studies found that there were significant correlations between the CAOD total score and the personal factor that included opportunities for refreshment, time spent on leisure

  16. The Spatial Clustering of ROSAT All-Sky Survey AGNs II. Halo Occupation Distribution Modeling of the Cross Correlation Function

    CERN Document Server

    Miyaji, Takamitsu; Coil, Alison L; Aceves, Hector

    2010-01-01

    This is the second paper of a series that reports on our investigation of the clustering properties of AGNs in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey (RASS) through cross-correlation functions (CCFs) with Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) galaxies. In this paper, we apply the Halo Occupation Distribution (HOD) model to the CCFs between the RASS Broad-line AGNs with SDSS Luminous Red Galaxies (LRGs) in the redshift range 0.16modeling approach, we use the known HOD of LRGs and constrain the HOD of the AGNs by a model fit to the CCF. For the first time, we are able to go beyond quoting merely a `typical' AGN host halo mass, M_h, and model the full distribution function of AGN host dark matter halos. In addition, we are able to determine the large-scale bias and the mean M_h more accurately. We explore the behavior of three simple HOD models. Our first model (Model A) is a truncated power-law HOD model in which all AGNs are satellites. With this model, we find an upper lim...

  17. Research on Occupational Category Choices in China:Based on Model of Multi-class Occupational Choices%中国职业类别选择研究--基于多类别职业选择模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻开志; 李俊峰; 邹红

    2014-01-01

    Occupational category choice is an important factor of individual career development .This paper uses CHNS data from year 1989 to 2011 ,and bases on multi-class career choice model to analyze the factors of occupational categories choice ,as well as the separately marginal contribution of these factors on occupational category choice .The results show that China's occupational sex segregation still persist ,male has obvious advantages in the management occupation ;workers with medium and high educational level also have obvious advantages engaging in professional and technical occupational categories ;occupational choice is not only associated with individual characteristics ,but also with family conditions of parents or other family members'political capital , if the first generation are the cadres , who wound have the comparative advantage on career choices of the second generation .%职业类别选择是个体职业生涯发展的重要影响因素。利用1989-2011年的CHNS数据,采用多类别职业选择模型,分析了职业类别选择的影响因素,以及各影响因素在职业类别选择时的具体边际贡献。研究结果表明,中国职业性别隔离依然存在,在管理类人员中男性具有明显的性别优势;劳动者具有中、高教育学历对从事专业技术人员有明显优势;职业类别的选择不仅与个体特征相关,还与家庭政治资本条件有关,父辈或其它家庭成员的干部身份对子辈的职业选择具有明显的相对优势。

  18. Coping with Relationship Stressors: A Decade Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiffge-Krenke, Inge

    2011-01-01

    This review identifies key issues in research on adolescent coping with stress with parents, friends, and romantic partners during the past decade. An analysis of 78 studies revealed findings on relationship stressors and the potential links between the use of different coping styles for different relationship types. Research has confirmed…

  19. Daily Stressors in Primary Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Baena, F. Javier; Trianes, María V.; Escobar, Milagros; Blanca, María J.; Muñoz, Ángela M.

    2015-01-01

    Daily stress can have a bearing on children's emotional and academic development. This study aimed to assess daily stressors and to determine their prevalence among primary education students, taking into account their gender, academic year, social adaptation, and the school location. A sample of 7,354 Spanish schoolchildren aged between 6 and 13…

  20. Daily Stressors in Primary Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Baena, F. Javier; Trianes, María V.; Escobar, Milagros; Blanca, María J.; Muñoz, Ángela M.

    2015-01-01

    Daily stress can have a bearing on children's emotional and academic development. This study aimed to assess daily stressors and to determine their prevalence among primary education students, taking into account their gender, academic year, social adaptation, and the school location. A sample of 7,354 Spanish schoolchildren aged between 6…

  1. Childhood Stress : Stressors, Coping, and Factors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Burnout is a matter of imbalance in life very often (Nijboer, 2006). In order to know more about imbalance and exhaustion in children, stress and coping in children will be investigated in this literature study. The goal is to identify common childhood stressors, the ways children cope with stress,

  2. Habituation to a stressor predicts adolescents' adiposity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background and Objectives: Stress is associated with gains in adiposity. One factor that determines how much stress is experienced is how quickly an adolescent reduces responding (habituates) across repeated stressors. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of body mass index pe...

  3. Occupational Outlook Handbook: Healthcare Occupations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov Disability.gov Freedom of Information Act | Privacy & Security Statement | Disclaimers | Customer Survey | Important Web Site Notices U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics | Office of Occupational Statistics and Employment Projections, PSB ...

  4. Occupational stress and coping strategies among emergency department nurses of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Dong-Mei; Sun, Ning; Hong, Su; Fan, Yu-ying; Kong, Fan-ying; Li, Qiu-jie

    2015-08-01

    Emergency department(ED) nurses work in a rapidly changing environment with patients that have wide variety of conditions. Occupational stress in emergency department nurses is a common problem. The purpose of this study was to describe the relationship between coping strategies and occupational stress among ED nurses in China. A correlational, cross-sectional design was adopted. Two questionnaires were given to a random sample of 127 ED nurses registered at the Heilongjiang Nurses' Association. Data were collected from the nurses that worked in the ED of five general hospitals in Harbin China. Occupational stress and coping strategies were measured by two questionnaires. A multiple regression model was applied to analyze the relationship between stress and coping strategies. The stressors of ED nurses mainly come from the ED specialty of nursing (2.97±0.55), workload and time distribution (2.97±0.58). The mean score of positive coping strategies was 2.19±0.35, higher than the norm (1.78±0.52). The mean score of negative coping strategies was 1.20±0.61, lower than the norm (1.59±0.66), both had significant statistical difference (Pprofessional were the influence factors about occupational stress to positive coping styles. Too much documents work, and medical insurance for ED nurses were the influential factors on occupational stress to negative coping styles. This study identified several factors associated with occupational stress in ED nurses. These results could be used to guide nurse managers of ED nurses to reduce work stress. The managers could pay more attention to the ED nurse's coping strategies which can further influence their health state and quality of nursing care. Reducing occupational stress and enhancing coping strategies are vital not only for encouraging nurses but also for the future of nursing development.

  5. A Berry-Esseen bound for the uniform multinomial occupancy model

    CERN Document Server

    Bartroff, Jay

    2012-01-01

    The inductive size bias coupling technique and Stein's method yield a Berry-Esseen theorem for the number of urns having occupancy $d \\ge 2$ when $n$ balls are uniformly distributed over $m$ urns. In particular, there exists a constant $C$ depending only on $d$ such that $$ \\sup_{z \\in \\mathbb{R}}|P(W_{n,m} \\le z) -P(Z \\le z)| \\le C \\frac{\\sigma_{n,m}}{1+(\\frac{n}{m})^3} \\quad {for all $n \\ge d$ and $m \\ge 2$,} $$ where $W_{n,m}$ and $\\sigma_{n,m}^2$ are the standardized count and variance, respectively, of the number of urns with $d$ balls, and $Z$ is a standard normal random variable. Asymptotically, the bound is optimal up to constants if $n$ and $m$ tend to infinity together in a way such that $n/m$ stays bounded.

  6. Hypertension and appraisal of physical and psychological stressors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyklicek, I.; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.; van Heck, G.L.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: In the operant conditioning of hypertension hypothesis, it is assumed that the frequently found diminished sensitivity to painful stimuli in hypertensives can be generalized to sensitivity to other stressors, including psychological stressors. The validity of this assumption is examined

  7. Life Change Units (LCU) rating as stressors in Iranian hospitals' nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargahi, Hossein; Shaham, Golsa

    2012-01-01

    Healthcare workers suffer from work-related or occupational stress. This can lead to severe distress, burnout or physical illness, and finally to decrease quality of work life and services provision. Nurses must be aware of retential stressors, because they add to the cumulative effect of other stressful events. Holmes and Rahe both found a relationship between life change unit as stressors and health changes. This research reported here aims to measure the life change units as stressors among Iranian Hospitals Nurses by LCU rating. A cross - sectional, descriptive and analytical study was conducted among 389 nurses working in 15 teaching hospitals in Tehran, Iran. The respondents were asked to select each of 54 events that cause stress ranked in order of their life change units developed by Holmes and Rahe as stress scale. Before beginning the main study, the reliability and coincidental validity was performed. All data were analyzed using SPSS for windows version 18, t-test, Anova statistical methods. Approximately, half of the nurses associated major mortgage, foreclosure of mortgage or loan. More than 50% of the Iranian nurses had 150-300 and more than 300 LCU rating which had the chance to expose to extremely serious risk to health.Iranian hospitals nurses suffer from stress that caused by Life Change Units organizational factors such as change in the financial state, change in the work environment and major mortgage. We recommend to Iranian nursing policy-makers to choose strategies to help nurses' cope effectively with workplace stressors. Nursing managers and / or nursing management should develop strategies to address and improve the quality of working conditions for nurses in the hospitals. Providing educational and career prospects can contribute to decrease nurses' occupational stress level, the maintaining their work ability.

  8. Life Change Units (LCU Rating as Stressors in Iranian Hospitals’ Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Dargahi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare workers suffer from work-related or occupational stress. This can lead to severe distress, burnout or physical illness, and finally to decrease quality of work life and services provision. Nurses must be aware of retential stressors, because they add to the cumulative effect of other stressful events. Holmes and Rahe both found a relationship between life change unit as stressors and health changes. This research reported here aims to measure the life change units as stressors among Iranian Hospitals Nurses by LCU rating. A cross - sectional, descriptive and analytical study was conducted among 389 nurses working in 15 teaching hospitals in Tehran, Iran. The respondents were asked to select each of 54 events that cause stress ranked in order of their life change units developed by Holmes and Rahe as stress scale. Before beginning the main study, the reliability and coincidental validity was performed. All data were analyzed using SPSS for windows version 18, t-test, Anova statistical methods. Approximately, half of the nurses associated major mortgage, foreclosure of mortgage or loan. More than 50% of the Iranian nurses had 150-300 and more than 300 LCU rating which had the chance to expose to extremely serious risk to health.Iranian hospitals nurses suffer from stress that caused by Life Change Units organizational factors such as change in the financial state, change in the work environment and major mortgage. We recommend to Iranian nursing policy-makers to choose strategies to help nurses cope effectively with workplace stressors. Nursing managers and / or nursing management should develop strategies to address and improve the quality of working conditions for nurses in the hospitals. Providing educational and career prospects can contribute to decrease nurses occupational stress level, the maintaining their work ability.

  9. The Contribution of Pre-impact Posture on Restrained Occupant Finite Element Model Response in Frontal Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulard, David; Subit, Damien; Nie, Bingbing; Donlon, John-Paul; Kent, Richard W

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to discuss the influence of the pre-impact posture to the response of a finite element human body model (HBM) in frontal impacts. This study uses previously published cadaveric tests (PMHS), which measured six realistic pre-impact postures. Seven postured models were created from the THUMS occupant model (v4.0): one matching the standard UMTRI driving posture as it was the target posture in the experiments, and six matching the measured pre-impact postures. The same measurements as those obtained during the cadaveric tests were calculated from the simulations, and biofidelity metrics based on signals correlation (CORA) were established to compare the response of the seven models to the experiments. The HBM responses showed good agreement with the PMHS responses for the reaction forces (CORA = 0.80 ± 0.05) and the kinematics of the lower part of the torso but only fair correlation was found with the head, the upper spine, rib strains (CORA= 0.50 ± 0.05) and chest deflections (CORA = 0.67 ± 0.08). All models sustained rib fractures, sternal fracture and clavicle fracture. The average number of rib fractures for all the models was 5.3 ± 1.0, lower than in the experiments (10.8 ± 9.0). Variation in pre-impact posture greatly altered the time histories of the reaction forces, deflections and the rib strains, mainly in terms of time delay, but no definite improvement in HBM response or injury prediction was observed. By modifying only the posture of the HBM, the variability in the impact response was found to be equivalent to that observed in the experiments. The postured HBM sustained from 4 to 8 rib fractures, confirming that the pre-impact posture influenced the injury outcome predicted by the simulation. This study tries to answer an important question: what is the effect of occupant posture on kinematics and kinetics. Significant differences in kinematics observed between HBM and PMHS suggesting more coupling between the pelvis

  10. Job Stressors, Organizational Innovation Climate, and Employees' Innovative Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Feifei; Zhang, Jinghuan

    2015-01-01

    This study attempted to examine the influence of job stressors and organizational innovation climate on employees' innovative behavior. Data were obtained from 282 employees in 4 cities of China. Results indicated that the nature of stressors matters in predicting employees' idea generation. Specifically, stressors that employees tend to appraise…

  11. Job Stressors, Organizational Innovation Climate, and Employees' Innovative Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Feifei; Zhang, Jinghuan

    2015-01-01

    This study attempted to examine the influence of job stressors and organizational innovation climate on employees' innovative behavior. Data were obtained from 282 employees in 4 cities of China. Results indicated that the nature of stressors matters in predicting employees' idea generation. Specifically, stressors that employees tend to appraise…

  12. Synergy or antagonism—interactions between stressors on coral reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, R. P.

    2010-03-01

    Throughout the coral reef scientific literature, there are many examples where the words ‘synergy’ and ‘synergism’ are being misused, particularly in the area of study involving interactions between physical stressors. This Perspective discusses the concept of synergy and more generally, interactions; summarises the tools available for detecting and interpreting interactions, including the use of ANOVA, generalized linear models, classification and regression trees and isobolographic analysis; and critically examines specific areas of the scientific literature where synergy has been reported. The aim is to promote further discussion of this topic, avoid future misuse of the term, and assist future experimental design and research into this subject.

  13. Occupation-centred, occupation-based, occupation-focused: same, same or different? Previously published in Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy 2013; 20: 162-173.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Anne G

    2014-01-01

    Since the beginning of the occupational therapy profession, engagement in occupation has been valued as the primary therapeutic agent as well as the goal of intervention. While there are few today who would not support this idea, occupational therapists continue to struggle with implementing their beliefs through "what we do" and "how we do it". Contributing to this problem is their failure to use terminology in a manner that clearly defines what and how occupational therapists do what they do in occupational therapy research, education, and practice. The author will, therefore, first discuss some key occupational therapy terms and propose that they represent an occupation-related taxonomy that can be used to more clearly define and describe for occupational therapists and others what they do and how they do what they do as occupational therapists. Then, with a goal of fostering critical self-reflection among occupational scientists and occupational therapy researchers, educators, and practitioners, the author will go through the stages of the occupational therapy process outlined in the Occupational Therapy Intervention Process Model (OTIPM) and demonstrate how a more precise use of this occupation-related taxonomy can facilitate maximizing the power of occupation in practice.

  14. Towards inclusive occupational therapy: Introducing the CORE approach for inclusive and occupation-focused practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Robert B

    2017-06-29

    Occupation is a human right and a social determinant of health. It is also taken for granted. Having access to, and participating in, occupation, is intricately linked to positive health and wellbeing. Despite theory and evidence to support the link between occupation, health and wellbeing, occupational therapists can struggle with applying an occupation focus in practice and knowing how to use occupational frameworks to enable occupation. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the Capabilities, Opportunities, Resources and Environments (CORE) approach for inclusive and occupation-focused practice. It provides occupational therapists with a means of operationalising occupational enablement and facilitating social inclusion. The CORE approach is introduced by linking its main ideas to Economist and Nobel Prize Laureate Amartya Sen's capabilities approach, as well as findings from the author's doctoral research into entrenched disadvantage and social inclusion. Practical questions guided by the CORE approach's acronym are given to explore how the approach can be utilised alongside other occupational models and frameworks to encourage strategies for effective enablement through occupation for social inclusion. As experts in enabling occupation, occupational therapists can use the CORE approach to design occupation-focused interventions and promote inclusive occupational therapy. © 2017 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  15. A comparison of two semi-mechanistic models for prolactin release and prediction of receptor occupancy following administration of dopamine D2 receptor antagonists in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taneja, Amit; Vermeulen, An; Huntjens, Dymphy R H; Danhof, Meindert; De Lange, Elizabeth C M; Proost, Johannes H

    2016-10-15

    We compared the model performance of two semi-mechanistic pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic models, the precursor pool model and the agonist-antagonist interaction model, to describe prolactin response following the administration of the dopamine D2 receptor antagonists risperidone, paliperidone or remoxipride in rats. The time course of pituitary dopamine D2 receptor occupancy was also predicted. Male Wistar rats received a single dose (risperidone, paliperidone, remoxipride) or two consecutive doses (remoxipride). Population modeling was applied to fit the pool and interaction models to the prolactin data. The pool model was modified to predict the time course of pituitary D2 receptor occupancy. Unbound plasma concentrations of the D2 receptor antagonists were considered the drivers of the prolactin response. Both models were used to predict prolactin release following multiple doses of paliperidone. Both models described the data well and model performance was comparable. Estimated unbound EC50 for risperidone and paliperidone was 35.1nM (relative standard error 51%) and for remoxipride it was 94.8nM (31%). KI values for these compounds were 11.1nM (21%) and 113nM (27%), respectively. Estimated pituitary D2 receptor occupancies for risperidone and remoxipride were comparable to literature findings. The interaction model better predicted prolactin profiles following multiple paliperidone doses, while the pool model predicted tolerance better. The performance of both models in describing the prolactin profiles was comparable. The pool model could additionally describe the time course of pituitary D2 receptor occupancy. Prolactin response following multiple paliperidone doses was better predicted by the interaction model.

  16. Stressors and coping strategies of homeless men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, R B

    1996-08-01

    1 Major stressors commonly encountered by homeless men are violence to self, theft of belongings, inability to meet basic needs, inconsistent enforcement of rules by shelter staff, and other people's dehumanization or humiliation caused by behavior toward the men. 2 Cognitive, sociocultural, and spiritual coping strategies were frequently used and found to be effective in coping with stressors by homeless men who were either in crisis or alcohol/drug dependent. 3 Severely and persistently mentally ill men had lower mean scores for both use and effectiveness of coping strategies in physical, cognitive, psychological, sociocultural, and spiritual strategies. 4 The longer the duration of homelessness, the lower the mean scores for frequency and effectiveness of use of coping strategies in any of the dimensions.

  17. Occupational Therapists

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... how to get dressed Demonstrate exercises—for example, stretching the joints for arthritis relief—that can help ... as follows: Hospitals; state, local, and private 27% Offices of physical, occupational and speech therapists, and audiologists ...

  18. [Stressors as the cause of gerontopsychiatric diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oesterreich, K

    1984-01-01

    It is permitted to apply concepts of stress theory to clinical geropsychiatry. Biographical factors, health, illness, organic and psychosocial factors of immediate and indirect kind are very important on development and course of geropsychiatric disease. Special significance has the influence of aging. Quantity and quality of stressors must be judged as non-specificial causal factors. Treatment depends on ascertained factors. The interpretation is explained on examples of depression, dementia, and institutionalism syndrome.

  19. About Occupational Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if}} {{{tweet}}} About Occupational Therapy What Is Occupational Therapy? Occupational therapy practitioners ask, "What matters to you?" not, " ... about our science-driven and evidence-based profession. Occupational Therapy: Improving Function While Controlling Costs 4 4 The ...

  20. Common Occupational Disability Tests and Case Law References: An Ontario MVA perspective on interpretation and best practice methodology supporting a holistic model, Part I of III (Pre-104 IRB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, J Douglas; Gouws, Jacques J; Bachmann, Corina Anghel

    2016-05-01

    This three-part paper presents practical holistic models of determining impairment and occupational disability with respect to common "own occupation" and "any occupation" definitions. The models consider physical, emotional and cognitive impairments in unison, and draw upon case law support for empirically based functional assessment of secondary cognitive symptoms arising from psychological conditions, including chronic pain disorders. Case law is presented, primarily in the context of Ontario motor vehicle accident legislation, to demonstrate how triers of fact have addressed occupational disability in the context of chronic pain; and interpreted the "own occupation" and "any occupation" definitions. In interpreting the definitions of "own occupation" and "any occupation", courts have considered various concepts, such as: work as an integrated whole, competitive productivity, demonstrated job performance vs. employment, work adaptation relative to impairment stability, suitable work, retraining considerations, self-employment, and remuneration/socio-economic status. The first segment of the paper reviews the above concepts largely in the context of pre-104 Income Replacement Benefit (IRB) entitlement, while the second segment focuses on post-104 IRB entitlement. In the final segment, the paper presents a critical evaluation of computerized transferable skills analysis (TSAs) in the occupational disability context. By contrast, support is offered for the notion that (neuro) psychovocational assessments and situational work assessments should play a key role in "own occupation" disability determination, even where specific vocational rehabilitation/retraining recommendations are not requested by the referral source (e.g., insurer disability examination).

  1. Modelling gait processes as a combination of sensory-motor and cognitive controls in an attempt to describe accidents on the level in occupational situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicre, Alexandrine; Leclercq, Sylvie; Gaudez, Clarisse; Gauthier, Gabriel M; Vercher, Jean-Louis; Bourdin, Christophe

    2008-01-01

    In occupational situations, accidents referred to as accidents on the level (AoLs) occur most of the time when locomotion control fails. This control is determined by the interactions between the operator and the environment, the task and the used tools. Hence, AoLs prevention requires developing ways to optimise these interactions. More fundamentally, AoLs prevention requires understanding locomotion control in situations where this control is at sake, that is in situations involving one or more AoLs factors. The purpose of this article is to propose a comprehensive model for the control of locomotion in occupational environments. This model featuring the operator, the task and the working space should be an appropriate tool to understand AoLs in the scope of their prevention. Firstly, we describe what occupational AoLs are. In a second part, we present a review of the theoretical and experimental knowledge related to the locomotion system through the various means developed by the Central Nervous System to cope with perturbations of the environment and/or particular constraints from the task. Finally, we propose a simplified systemic model presenting the various levels of control (sensory-motor to cognitive levels) describing locomotion in occupational situations, and we suggest experiments likely to produce the appropriate data to construct the final comprehensive model.

  2. The Anderson impurity model out-of-equilibrium: Assessing the accuracy of simulation techniques with an exact current-occupation relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwalla, Bijay Kumar; Segal, Dvira

    2017-08-01

    We study the interacting, symmetrically coupled single impurity Anderson model. By employing the nonequilibrium Green's function formalism, we reach an exact relationship between the steady-state charge current flowing through the impurity (dot) and its occupation. We argue that the steady-state current-occupation relation can be used to assess the consistency of simulation techniques and identify spurious transport phenomena. We test this relation in two different model variants: First, we study the Anderson-Holstein model in the strong electron-vibration coupling limit using the polaronic quantum master equation method. We find that the current-occupation relation is violated numerically in standard calculations, with simulations bringing up incorrect transport effects. Using a numerical procedure, we resolve the problem efficiently. Second, we simulate the Anderson model with electron-electron interaction on the dot using a deterministic numerically exact time-evolution scheme. Here, we observe that the current-occupation relation is satisfied in the steady-state limit—even before results converge to the exact limit.

  3. Cost Effectiveness of the Instrumentalism in Occupational Therapy (IOT) Conceptual Model as a Guide for Intervention with Adolescents with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders (EBD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikiugu, Moses N.; Anderson, Lynne

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to demonstrate the cost-effectiveness of using the Instrumentalism in Occupational Therapy (IOT) conceptual practice model as a guide for intervention to assist teenagers with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) transition successfully into adulthood. The cost effectiveness analysis was based on a project…

  4. A model of Occupational Safety and Health Management System (OSHMS) for promoting and controlling health and safety in textile industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manimaran, S; Rajalakshmi, R; Bhagyalakshmi, K

    2015-01-01

    The development of Occupational Safety and Health Management System in textile industry will rejuvenate the workers and energize the economy as a whole. In India, especially in Tamil Nadu, approximately 1371 textile business is running with the help of 38,461 workers under Ginning, Spinning, Weaving, Garment and Dyeing sectors. Textile industry of contributes to the growth of Indian economy but it fails to foster education and health as key components of human development and help new democracies. The present work attempts to measure and develop OSHMS which reduce the hazards and risk involved in textile industry. Among all other industries textile industry is affected by enormous hazards and risk because of negligence by management and Government. It is evident that managements are not abiding by law when an accident has occurred. Managements are easily deceiving workers and least bothered about the Quality of Work Life (QWL). A detailed analysis of factors promoting safety and health to the workers has been done by performing confirmatory factor analysis, evaluating Risk Priority Number and the framework of OHMS has been conceptualized using Structural Equation Model. The data have been collected using questionnaire and interview method. The study finds occupation health for worker in Textile industry is affected not only by safety measure but also by technology and management. The work shows that difficulty in identifying the cause and effect of hazards, the influence of management in controlling and promoting OSHMS under various dimensions. One startling fact is existence of very low and insignificance correlation between health factors and outcome.

  5. Valid auto-models for spatially autocorrelated occupancy and abundance data

    OpenAIRE

    Bardos, David C.; Guillera-Arroita, Gurutzeta; Wintle, Brendan A.

    2015-01-01

    Auto-logistic and related auto-models, implemented approximately as autocovariate regression, provide simple and direct modelling of spatial dependence. The autologistic model has been widely applied in ecology since Augustin, Mugglestone and Buckland (J. Appl. Ecol., 1996, 33, 339) analysed red deer census data using a hybrid estimation approach, combining maximum pseudo-likelihood estimation with Gibbs sampling of missing data. However Dormann (Ecol. Model., 2007, 207, 234) questioned the v...

  6. Assessing Risks to Wildlife Populations from Multiple Stressors: Overview of the Problem and Research Needs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne R. Munns, Jr.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Wildlife populations are experiencing increasing pressure from human-induced changes in the landscape. Stressors including agricultural and urban land use, introduced invasive and exotic species, nutrient enrichment, direct human disturbance, and toxic chemicals directly or indirectly influence the quality and quantity of habitat used by terrestrial and aquatic wildlife. Governmental agencies such as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency are required to assess risks to wildlife populations, in its broadest definition, that result from exposure to these stressors, yet considerable uncertainty exists with respect to how such assessments should be conducted. This uncertainty is compounded by questions concerning the interactive effects of co-occurring stressors, appropriate spatial scales of analysis, extrapolation of response data among species and from organisms to populations, and imperfect knowledge and use of limited data sets. Further, different risk problems require varying degrees of sophistication, methodological refinement, and data quality. These issues suggest a number of research needs to improve methods for wildlife risk assessments, including continued development of population dynamics models to evaluate the effects of multiple stressors at varying spatial scales, methods for extrapolating across endpoints and species with reasonable confidence, stressor-response relations and methods for combining them in predictive and diagnostic assessments, and accessible data sets describing the ecology of terrestrial and aquatic species. Case study application of models and methods for assessing wildlife risk will help to demonstrate their strengths and limitations for solving particular risk problems.

  7. Parenting stress and external stressors as predictors of maternal ratings of child adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostberg, Monica; Hagekull, Berit

    2013-06-01

    This study sought to disentangle the effects of different kinds of stress on maternal ratings of child externalizing and internalizing problems, social inhibition, and social competence, with a primary focus on parenting stress. The relations were explored in a sample consisting of mothers of 436 children (Mage  = 7 years) in Sweden. Half the sample had had early clinical contacts during infancy due to child regulation problems, and the rest were mothers without known such early contacts. Demographic factors, family stressors, and parenting stress were examined in stress - adjustment models. Family stressors were clinical contact during infancy, current child and parent health problems, recent negative life events, and insufficient social support. Parenting stress as a mediator of the effect of other stressors on rated child adjustment was tested as was social support as a moderator of the effect of parenting stress on adjustment. The results showed that a higher parenting stress level was associated with maternal ratings of more externalizing and internalizing behaviors, more social inhibition, and lower social competence. Other family stressors and background variables were also found to be of importance, mainly for externalizing and internalizing problems and to some extent for social competence. Social inhibition had a unique relation to parenting stress only. Parenting stress mediated effects of other stressors in twelve models, whereas social support had no moderating effect on the link between parenting stress and child adjustment. Thus, parenting stress seems to be an important overarching construct. Clinical implications are proposed.

  8. Multiple stressor effects in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii – Toward understanding mechanisms of interaction between effects of ultraviolet radiation and chemical pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korkaric, Muris [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Department of Environmental Toxicology, 8600, Duebendorf (Switzerland); ETH Zürich, Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics, 8092 Zürich (Switzerland); Behra, Renata; Fischer, Beat B. [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Department of Environmental Toxicology, 8600, Duebendorf (Switzerland); Junghans, Marion [Swiss Center for Applied Ecotoxicology Eawag-EPFL, 8600, Duebendorf (Switzerland); Eggen, Rik I.L., E-mail: rik.eggen@eawag.ch [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Department of Environmental Toxicology, 8600, Duebendorf (Switzerland); ETH Zürich, Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics, 8092 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Systematic study of multiple stressor effects of UVR and chemicals in C. reinhardtii. • UVR and chemicals did not act independently on algal photosynthesis and reproduction. • Multiple stressor effects of UVR and chemicals depended on chemical MOA. • Synergistic effect interactions not limited to oxidative stress inducing chemicals. • Multiple MOAs of UVR may limit applicability of current prediction models. - Abstract: The effects of chemical pollutants and environmental stressors, such as ultraviolet radiation (UVR), can interact when organisms are simultaneously exposed, resulting in higher (synergistic) or lower (antagonistic) multiple stressor effects than expected based on the effects of single stressors. Current understanding of interactive effects is limited due to a lack of mechanism-based multiple stressor studies. It has been hypothesized that effect interactions may generally occur if chemical and non-chemical stressors cause similar physiological effects in the organism. To test this hypothesis, we exposed the model green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to combinations of UVR and single chemicals displaying modes of action (MOA) similar or dissimilar to the impact of UVR on photosynthesis. Stressor interactions were analyzed based on the independent action model. Effect interactions were found to depend on the MOA of the chemicals, and also on their concentrations, the exposure time and the measured endpoint. Indeed, only chemicals assumed to cause effects on photosynthesis similar to UVR showed interactions with UVR on photosynthetic yield: synergistic in case of Cd(II) and paraquat and antagonistic in case of diuron. No interaction on photosynthesis was observed for S-metolachlor, which acts dissimilarly to UVR. However, combined effects of S-metolachlor and UVR on algal reproduction were synergistic, highlighting the importance of considering additional MOA of UVR. Possible mechanisms of stressor effect interactions are

  9. Habitat Modeling of Alien Plant Species at Varying Levels of Occupancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A. Brown

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Distribution models of invasive plants are very useful tools for conservation management. There are challenges in modeling expanding populations, especially in a dynamic environment, and when data are limited. In this paper, predictive habitat models were assessed for three invasive plant species, at differing levels of occurrence, using two different habitat modeling techniques: logistic regression and maximum entropy. The influence of disturbance, spatial and temporal heterogeneity, and other landscape characteristics is assessed by creating regional level models based on occurrence records from the USDA Forest Service’s Forest Inventory and Analysis database. Logistic regression and maximum entropy models were assessed independently. Ensemble models were developed to combine the predictions of the two analysis approaches to obtain a more robust prediction estimate. All species had strong models with Area Under the receiver operator Curve (AUC of >0.75. The species with the highest occurrence, Ligustrum spp., had the greatest agreement between the models (93%. Lolium arundinaceum had the most disagreement between models at 33% and the lowest AUC values. Overall, the strength of integrative modeling in assessing and understanding habitat modeling was demonstrated.

  10. Managing the effects of multiple stressors on aquatic ecosystems under water scarcity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barceló Cullerés, Damià; Ludwig, Ralf

    2015-04-01

    Water and water-related services are major components of the human wellbeing, and as such are major factors of socio-economic development in Europe; yet freshwater systems are under threat by a variety of stressors (organic and inorganic pollution, geomorphological alterations, land cover change, water abstraction, invasive species and pathogens. Some stressors, such as water scarcity, can be a stressor on its own because of its structural character, and drive the effects of other stressors. The relevance of water scarcity as a stressor is more important in semi-arid regions, such as the Mediterranean basin, which are characterized by highly variable river flows and the occurrence of low flows. This has resulted in increases in frequency and magnitude of extreme flow events. Furthermore, in other European regions such as eastern Germany, western Poland and England, water demand exceeds water availability and water scarcity has become an important management issue. Water scarcity is most commonly associated with inappropriate water management, with resulting river flow reductions. It has become one of the most important drivers of change in freshwater ecosystems. Conjoint occurrence of a myriad of stressors (chemical, geomorphological, biological) under water scarcity will produce novel and unfamiliar synergies and most likely very pronounced effects. Within this context, GLOBAQUA has assembled a multidisciplinary team of leading scientists in the fields of hydrology, chemistry, ecology, ecotoxicology, economy, sociology, engineering and modeling in order to study the interaction of multiple stressors within the frame of strong pressure on water resources. The aim is to achieve a better understanding how current management practices and policies could be improved by identifying the main drawbacks and alternatives.

  11. Environmental stressors, low well-being, smoking, and alcohol use among South African adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, David W; Rubenstone, Elizabeth; Zhang, Chenshu; Morojele, Neo K; Brook, Judith S

    2011-05-01

    This is the first study to examine the pathways from environmental stressors to substance use among a sample of South African adolescents (N = 2195). The study objective was to assess how environmental stressors might affect cigarette smoking and alcohol use among South African adolescents, and to focus on one mechanism, low well-being, which might mediate this association. Participants consisted of 2195 Black, mixed ancestry ("Colored"), Indian, and White youth, aged 12-17 years old (mean age = 14.6; SD = 1.8), recruited via a multi-stage stratified sampling procedure in Durban, Cape Town, and Johannesburg, South Africa. Data were collected via individual in-person structured interviews, administered by trained interviewers in the participant's preferred language. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the interrelationships of environmental stressors (violent victimisation, legal and illegal drug availability) and low well-being (depressive symptoms, low self-esteem, health problems) with respect to adolescent cigarette smoking and alcohol use. The results supported our hypotheses: Environmental stressors were related to low well-being which, in turn, was linked to both adolescent smoking and alcohol use. There were also direct pathways from environmental stressors to both adolescent smoking and alcohol use. Smoking and alcohol use were significantly correlated. The findings suggest that environmental stressors may be associated with diminished psychological and physical well-being, as well as smoking and alcohol use, among South African adolescents. Longitudinal research is warranted to further understand the interrelationship of environmental stressors, low well-being, and adolescent substance use, so that these issues may be addressed by South African programmes and policies.

  12. Organizational stressors associated with job stress and burnout in correctional officers: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finney Caitlin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In adult correctional facilities, correctional officers (COs are responsible for the safety and security of the facility in addition to aiding in offender rehabilitation and preventing recidivism. COs experience higher rates of job stress and burnout that stem from organizational stressors, leading to negative outcomes for not only the CO but the organization as well. Effective interventions could aim at targeting organizational stressors in order to reduce these negative outcomes as well as COs’ job stress and burnout. This paper fills a gap in the organizational stress literature among COs by systematically reviewing the relationship between organizational stressors and CO stress and burnout in adult correctional facilities. In doing so, the present review identifies areas that organizational interventions can target in order to reduce CO job stress and burnout. Methods A systematic search of the literature was conducted using Medline, PsycINFO, Criminal Justice Abstracts, and Sociological Abstracts. All retrieved articles were independently screened based on criteria developed a priori. All included articles underwent quality assessment. Organizational stressors were categorized according to Cooper and Marshall’s (1976 model of job stress. Results The systematic review yielded 8 studies that met all inclusion and quality assessment criteria. The five categories of organizational stressors among correctional officers are: stressors intrinsic to the job, role in the organization, rewards at work, supervisory relationships at work and the organizational structure and climate. The organizational structure and climate was demonstrated to have the most consistent relationship with CO job stress and burnout. Conclusions The results of this review indicate that the organizational structure and climate of correctional institutions has the most consistent relationship with COs’ job stress and burnout. Limitations of the

  13. Using the Job Burden-Capital Model of Occupational Stress to Predict Depression and Well-Being among Electronic Manufacturing Service Employees in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Li, Shuang; Li, Tao; Yu, Shanfa; Dai, Junming; Liu, Xiaoman; Zhu, Xiaojun; Ji, Yuqing; Wang, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to identify the association between occupational stress and depression-well-being by proposing a comprehensive and flexible job burden-capital model with its corresponding hypotheses. Methods: For this research, 1618 valid samples were gathered from the electronic manufacturing service industry in Hunan Province, China; self-rated questionnaires were administered to participants for data collection after obtaining their written consent. The proposed model was fitted and tested through structural equation model analysis. Results: Single-factor correlation analysis results indicated that coefficients between all items and dimensions had statistical significance. The final model demonstrated satisfactory global goodness of fit (CMIN/DF = 5.37, AGFI = 0.915, NNFI = 0.945, IFI = 0.952, RMSEA = 0.052). Both the measurement and structural models showed acceptable path loadings. Job burden and capital were directly associated with depression and well-being or indirectly related to them through personality. Multi-group structural equation model analyses indicated general applicability of the proposed model to basic features of such a population. Gender, marriage and education led to differences in the relation between occupational stress and health outcomes. Conclusions: The job burden-capital model of occupational stress-depression and well-being was found to be more systematic and comprehensive than previous models. PMID:27529267

  14. Using the Job Burden-Capital Model of Occupational Stress to Predict Depression and Well-Being among Electronic Manufacturing Service Employees in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to identify the association between occupational stress and depression-well-being by proposing a comprehensive and flexible job burden-capital model with its corresponding hypotheses. Methods: For this research, 1618 valid samples were gathered from the electronic manufacturing service industry in Hunan Province, China; self-rated questionnaires were administered to participants for data collection after obtaining their written consent. The proposed model was fitted and tested through structural equation model analysis. Results: Single-factor correlation analysis results indicated that coefficients between all items and dimensions had statistical significance. The final model demonstrated satisfactory global goodness of fit (CMIN/DF = 5.37, AGFI = 0.915, NNFI = 0.945, IFI = 0.952, RMSEA = 0.052. Both the measurement and structural models showed acceptable path loadings. Job burden and capital were directly associated with depression and well-being or indirectly related to them through personality. Multi-group structural equation model analyses indicated general applicability of the proposed model to basic features of such a population. Gender, marriage and education led to differences in the relation between occupational stress and health outcomes. Conclusions: The job burden-capital model of occupational stress-depression and well-being was found to be more systematic and comprehensive than previous models.

  15. Modeling dengue vector dynamics under imperfect detection: three years of site-occupancy by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in urban Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Torres, Samael D; Ferraz, Gonçalo; Luz, Sergio L B; Zamora-Perea, Elvira; Abad-Franch, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus are the vectors of dengue, the most important arboviral disease of humans. To date, Aedes ecology studies have assumed that the vectors are truly absent from sites where they are not detected; since no perfect detection method exists, this assumption is questionable. Imperfect detection may bias estimates of key vector surveillance/control parameters, including site-occupancy (infestation) rates and control intervention effects. We used a modeling approach that explicitly accounts for imperfect detection and a 38-month, 55-site detection/non-detection dataset to quantify the effects of municipality/state control interventions on Aedes site-occupancy dynamics, considering meteorological and dwelling-level covariates. Ae. aegypti site-occupancy estimates (mean 0.91; range 0.79-0.97) were much higher than reported by routine surveillance based on 'rapid larval surveys' (0.03; 0.02-0.11) and moderately higher than directly ascertained with oviposition traps (0.68; 0.50-0.91). Regular control campaigns based on breeding-site elimination had no measurable effects on the probabilities of dwelling infestation by dengue vectors. Site-occupancy fluctuated seasonally, mainly due to the negative effects of high maximum (Ae. aegypti) and minimum (Ae. albopictus) summer temperatures (June-September). Rainfall and dwelling-level covariates were poor predictors of occupancy. The marked contrast between our estimates of adult vector presence and the results from 'rapid larval surveys' suggests, together with the lack of effect of local control campaigns on infestation, that many Aedes breeding sites were overlooked by vector control agents in our study setting. Better sampling strategies are urgently needed, particularly for the reliable assessment of infestation rates in the context of control program management. The approach we present here, combining oviposition traps and site-occupancy models, could greatly contribute to that crucial aim.

  16. Modeling dengue vector dynamics under imperfect detection: three years of site-occupancy by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in urban Amazonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samael D Padilla-Torres

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus are the vectors of dengue, the most important arboviral disease of humans. To date, Aedes ecology studies have assumed that the vectors are truly absent from sites where they are not detected; since no perfect detection method exists, this assumption is questionable. Imperfect detection may bias estimates of key vector surveillance/control parameters, including site-occupancy (infestation rates and control intervention effects. We used a modeling approach that explicitly accounts for imperfect detection and a 38-month, 55-site detection/non-detection dataset to quantify the effects of municipality/state control interventions on Aedes site-occupancy dynamics, considering meteorological and dwelling-level covariates. Ae. aegypti site-occupancy estimates (mean 0.91; range 0.79-0.97 were much higher than reported by routine surveillance based on 'rapid larval surveys' (0.03; 0.02-0.11 and moderately higher than directly ascertained with oviposition traps (0.68; 0.50-0.91. Regular control campaigns based on breeding-site elimination had no measurable effects on the probabilities of dwelling infestation by dengue vectors. Site-occupancy fluctuated seasonally, mainly due to the negative effects of high maximum (Ae. aegypti and minimum (Ae. albopictus summer temperatures (June-September. Rainfall and dwelling-level covariates were poor predictors of occupancy. The marked contrast between our estimates of adult vector presence and the results from 'rapid larval surveys' suggests, together with the lack of effect of local control campaigns on infestation, that many Aedes breeding sites were overlooked by vector control agents in our study setting. Better sampling strategies are urgently needed, particularly for the reliable assessment of infestation rates in the context of control program management. The approach we present here, combining oviposition traps and site-occupancy models, could greatly contribute to that

  17. Selective neuronal vulnerability in neurodegenerative diseases: from stressor thresholds to degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Smita; Caroni, Pico

    2011-07-14

    Neurodegenerative diseases selectively target subpopulations of neurons, leading to the progressive failure of defined brain systems, but the basis of such selective neuronal vulnerability has remained elusive. Here, we discuss how a stressor-threshold model of how particular neurons and circuits are selectively vulnerable to disease may underly the etiology of familial and sporadic forms of diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's, and ALS. According to this model, the intrinsic vulnerabilities of neuronal subpopulations to stressors and specific disease-related misfolding proteins determine neuronal morbidity. Neurodegenerative diseases then involve specific combinations of genetic predispositions and environmental stressors, triggering increasing age-related stress and proteostasis dysfunction in affected vulnerable neurons. Damage to vasculature, immune system, and local glial cells mediates environmental stress, which could drive disease at all stages.

  18. The relationships of working conditions, recent stressors and childhood trauma with salivary cortisol levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holleman, Michiel; Vreeburg, Sophie A.; Dekker, Jack J. M.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: An etiological model has been suggested where stress leads to high cortisol levels and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation, resulting in somatic diseases and psychopathology. To evaluate this model we examined the association of different stressors (working conditions

  19. Transactional Relationships among Cognitive Vulnerabilities, Stressors, and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvete, Esther; Orue, Izaskun; Hankin, Benjamin L.

    2013-01-01

    The transactional cognitive vulnerability to stress model Hankin & Abramson ('Psychological Bulletin," 127:773-796, 2001) extends the traditional diathesis-stress model by proposing that the relationships among cognitions, depressive symptoms, and stressors are dynamic and bidirectional. In this study three different pathways among these variables…

  20. Occupations of SSI recipients who work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmeter, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    This article uses the 2007 American Community Survey to estimate the occupational distribution of Supplemental Security Income (SSI) disability recipients aged 18-61 who work, and it compares their occupational distribution with that of working nonrecipients with and without disabilities. Based on models of occupational choice for working SSI recipients and nonrecipients, predicted occupational distributions are also estimated to understand what occupations are available to SSI recipients. Unlike the nonrecipient populations that are largely composed of sales- and office-based occupations (25 percent), the most common occupations of SSI recipients who work are in services (34 percent) and production, transportation, and material moving (30 percent), although sales- and office-based occupations are also common for SSI recipients (22 percent). The occupational distribution of working SSI recipients is also more concentrated than that of nonrecipient populations. Dissimilarity indices are used to compare the predicted and actual occupational distributions of the SSI recipient population and nonrecipient populations. More than one-half of the difference between the occupations of working SSI recipients and nonrecipients can be explained by demographic characteristics, human capital, and disability type. Additionally, nonemployed SSI recipients have similar predicted occupational distributions as currently employed SSI recipients. Given the estimated occupational distributions and the average earnings of individuals in the most common occupations of SSI recipients, the results suggest that more targeted vocational training may provide expanded opportunities for employment.

  1. Occupational Trends and Program Priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Rosenthal

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Institutions of higher education that respond to the economic base in their region will remain competitive and be better positioned to obtain public funds and donor support. In addition to mandated program viability standards based on measures such as graduation rate, individual institutions and state coordinating boards can use ten-year occupational trend data to assess future program viability. We used an occupational demand model to determine whether academic programs can meet projected statewide needs for high demand and high growth occupations. For example, computer engineering, the highest growth rate occupation in Alabama, is projected to have 365 annual average job openings, with 93.6% total growth over ten years. But only 46 computer engineering majors graduate annually from all Alabama institutions of higher education. We recommend using an occupational demand model as a planning tool, decision-making tool, and catalyst for collaborative initiatives.

  2. Estimating the effect of multiple environmental stressors on coral bleaching and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welle, Paul D; Small, Mitchell J; Doney, Scott C; Azevedo, Inês L

    2017-01-01

    Coral cover has been declining in recent decades due to increased temperatures and environmental stressors. However, the extent to which different stressors contribute both individually and in concert to bleaching and mortality is still very uncertain. We develop and use a novel regression approach, using non-linear parametric models that control for unobserved time invariant effects to estimate the effects on coral bleaching and mortality due to temperature, solar radiation, depth, hurricanes and anthropogenic stressors using historical data from a large bleaching event in 2005 across the Caribbean. Two separate models are created, one to predict coral bleaching, and the other to predict near-term mortality. A large ensemble of supporting data is assembled to control for omitted variable bias and improve fit, and a significant improvement in fit is observed from univariate linear regression based on temperature alone. The results suggest that climate stressors (temperature and radiation) far outweighed direct anthropogenic stressors (using distance from shore and nearby human population density as a proxy for such stressors) in driving coral health outcomes during the 2005 event. Indeed, temperature was found to play a role ~4 times greater in both the bleaching and mortality response than population density across their observed ranges. The empirical models tested in this study have large advantages over ordinary-least squares-they offer unbiased estimates for censored data, correct for spatial correlation, and are capable of handling more complex relationships between dependent and independent variables. The models offer a framework for preparing for future warming events and climate change; guiding monitoring and attribution of other bleaching and mortality events regionally and around the globe; and informing adaptive management and conservation efforts.

  3. The linkage between patterns of daily occupations and occupational balance: Applications within occupational science and occupational therapy practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Mona; Orban, Kristina; Argentzell, Elisabeth; Bejerholm, Ulrika; Tjörnstrand, Carina; Erlandsson, Lena-Karin; Håkansson, Carita

    2017-01-01

    Patterns of daily occupations (PDO) and occupational balance (OB) are recurring phenomena in the literature. Both are related with health and well-being, which makes them central in occupational therapy practice and occupational science. The aim was to review how PDO and OB are described in the literature, to propose a view of how the two constructs may be linked, and elaborate on how such a view may benefit occupational science and occupational therapy. The literature was analysed by latent and manifest content analysis and comparative analysis. The findings were summarized in a model, framing PDO as the more objective and OB as the more subjective result from an interaction between personal preferences and environmental influences. The proposed model does not assume a cause-effect relationship between the targeted constructs, rather a mutual influence and a joint reaction to influencing factors. Indicators of PDO and OB were identified, as well as tools for assessing PDO and OB. The authors propose that discerning PDO and OB as separate but interacting phenomena may be useful in developing a theoretical discourse in occupational science and enhancing occupational therapy practice. Although the scope of this study was limited, the proposed view may hopefully inspire further scrutiny of constructs.

  4. Demonstration of a modelling-based multi-criteria decision analysis procedure for prioritisation of occupational risks from manufactured nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristozov, Danail; Zabeo, Alex; Alstrup Jensen, Keld; Gottardo, Stefania; Isigonis, Panagiotis; Maccalman, Laura; Critto, Andrea; Marcomini, Antonio

    2016-11-01

    Several tools to facilitate the risk assessment and management of manufactured nanomaterials (MN) have been developed. Most of them require input data on physicochemical properties, toxicity and scenario-specific exposure information. However, such data are yet not readily available, and tools that can handle data gaps in a structured way to ensure transparent risk analysis for industrial and regulatory decision making are needed. This paper proposes such a quantitative risk prioritisation tool, based on a multi-criteria decision analysis algorithm, which combines advanced exposure and dose-response modelling to calculate margins of exposure (MoE) for a number of MN in order to rank their occupational risks. We demonstrated the tool in a number of workplace exposure scenarios (ES) involving the production and handling of nanoscale titanium dioxide, zinc oxide (ZnO), silver and multi-walled carbon nanotubes. The results of this application demonstrated that bag/bin filling, manual un/loading and dumping of large amounts of dry powders led to high emissions, which resulted in high risk associated with these ES. The ZnO MN revealed considerable hazard potential in vivo, which significantly influenced the risk prioritisation results. In order to study how variations in the input data affect our results, we performed probabilistic Monte Carlo sensitivity/uncertainty analysis, which demonstrated that the performance of the proposed model is stable against changes in the exposure and hazard input variables.

  5. Test anxiety and cardiovascular responses to daily academic stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Kristen M; Lehman, Barbara J

    2012-02-01

    Routine academic events may cause stress and produce temporary elevations in blood pressure. Students who experience test anxiety may be especially prone to cardiovascular activation in response to academic stress. This study drew on self-reported stress and ambulatory blood pressure measurements provided by 99 undergraduate participants (30% men, mean age=21 years) who participated over 4 days. Posture, activity level, recent consumption and the previous same-day reading were considered as covariates in a series of hierarchical linear models. Results indicate elevations in systolic blood pressure at times of acute academic stressors; neither diastolic blood pressure nor heart rate was linked with academic stress. In addition, those participants higher in test anxiety exhibited especially pronounced elevations in systolic blood pressure during times of acute academic stress. This research suggests that everyday academic stressors are linked with temporary increases in blood pressure and that test anxiety may contribute to these elevations. Test anxiety has implications for future academic and job success, and cardiovascular responses to everyday stress may contribute to health problems later in life.

  6. Patch-occupancy models indicate human activity as major determinant of forest elephant Loxodonta cyclotis seasonal distribution in an industrial corridor in Gabon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buij, R.; McShea, W.J.; Campbell, P.; Lee, M.E.; Dallmeier, F.; Guimondou, S.; Mackaga, L.; Guisseougou, N.; Mboumba, S.; Hines, J.E.; Nichols, J.D.; Alonso, A.

    2007-01-01

    The importance of human activity and ecological features in influencing African forest elephant ranging behaviour was investigated in the Rabi-Ndogo corridor of the Gamba Complex of Protected Areas in southwest Gabon. Locations in a wide geographical area with a range of environmental variables were selected for patch-occupancy surveys using elephant dung to assess seasonal presence and absence of elephants. Patch-occupancy procedures allowed for covariate modelling evaluating hypotheses for both occupancy in relation to human activity and ecological features, and detection probability in relation to vegetation density. The best fitting models for old and fresh dung data sets indicate that (1) detection probability for elephant dung is negatively related to the relative density of the vegetation, and (2) human activity, such as presence and infrastructure, are more closely associated with elephant distribution patterns than are ecological features, such as the presence of wetlands and preferred fresh fruit. Our findings emphasize the sensitivity of elephants to human disturbance, in this case infrastructure development associated with gas and oil production. Patch-occupancy methodology offers a viable alternative to current transect protocols for monitoring programs with multiple covariates.

  7. Occupation: nurse; occupational hazard: radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickson, K.

    1984-03-01

    The work of the occupational health nurses at the Pickering Generating Station is described. A staff of two nurses teach first aid and safety, practice an emergency plan, and monitor personnel for minimum health standards for radiation workers. Special attention is paid to problems which might be aggravated by radiation, such as skin complaints, respiratory diseases, emotional stability, or phobias regarding heights, plastic suits, or radiation itself. Procedures used in treating contaminated personnel are outlined.

  8. ECONOMIC STRESSORS AND ALCOHOL-RELATED OUTCOMES: EXPLORING AGE COHORT DIFFERENCES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robyn Lewis; Richman, Judith A.; Rospenda, Kathleen M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study examined processes linking age cohort, economic stressors, coping strategies and two drinking-related outcomes (i.e., past-month drinking and problematic drinking). Methods Structural equation models were conducted utilizing data from a national survey. Results Findings revealed the associations between economic stressors and both past-month drinking and problematic drinking were significantly greater for members of the millennial cohort compared to baby boomers. These effects are partly explained by the lesser tendency of members of the millennial cohort to use collective, politically-focused coping strategies. Discussion These findings clarify the circumstances in which age matters most for the associations among economy-related stressors, coping strategies and drinking-related outcomes. They highlight how difficult economic circumstances influence the availability of coping strategies and, in turn, alcohol consumption – and differently for younger and older age cohorts. PMID:26291290

  9. Knowledge-Based Energy Damage Model for Evaluating Industrialised Building Systems (IBS Occupational Health and Safety (OHS Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abas Nor Haslinda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia’s construction industry has been long considered hazardous, owing to its poor health and safety record. It is proposed that one of the ways to improve safety and health in the construction industry is through the implementation of ‘off-site’ systems, commonly termed ‘industrialised building systems (IBS’ in Malaysia. This is deemed safer based on the risk concept of reduced exposure, brought about by the reduction in onsite workers; however, no method yet exists for determining the relative safety of various construction methods, including IBS. This study presents a comparative evaluation of the occupational health and safety (OHS risk presented by different construction approaches, namely IBS and traditional methods. The evaluation involved developing a model based on the concept of ‘argumentation theory’, which helps construction designers integrate the management of OHS risk into the design process. In addition, an ‘energy damage model’ was used as an underpinning framework. Development of the model was achieved through three phases, namely Phase I – knowledge acquisitaion, Phase II – argument trees mapping, and Phase III – validation of the model. The research revealed that different approaches/methods of construction projects carried a different level of energy damage, depending on how the activities were carried out. A study of the way in which the risks change from one construction process to another shows that there is a difference in the profile of OHS risk between IBS construction and traditional methods.Therefore, whether the option is an IBS or traditional approach, the fundamental idea of the model is to motivate construction designers or decision-makers to address safety in the design process and encourage them to examine carefully the probable OHS risk variables surrounding an action, thus preventing accidents in construction.

  10. Belonging, occupation, and human well-being: an exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammell, Karen R Whalley

    2014-02-01

    Researchers identify the importance of belonging to human well-being and provide evidence-based support for occupation as a medium for expressing and achieving a sense of belonging and connectedness. The purpose of this article is to highlight the imperative for occupational therapy theory and practice to address occupations concerned with belonging needs. Dominant occupational therapy models emphasise doing self-care, productive, and leisure occupations, thereby ignoring occupations undertaken to contribute to the well-being of others, occupations that foster connections to nature and ancestors, collaborative occupations, and those valued for their social context and potential to strengthen social roles. Belonging, connectedness, and interdependence are positively correlated with human well-being, are prioritized by the majority of the world's people, and inform the meanings attributed to and derived from the occupations of culturally diverse people. If occupational therapy is to address meaningful occupations, attention should be paid to occupations concerned with belonging, connecting, and contributing to others.

  11. Modeling the potential area of occupancy at fine resolution may reduce uncertainty in species range estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiménez-Alfaro, Borja; Draper, David; Nogues, David Bravo

    2012-01-01

    and maximum entropy modeling to assess whether different sampling (expert versus systematic surveys) may affect AOO estimates based on habitat suitability maps, and the differences between such measurements and traditional coarse-grid methods. Fine-scale models performed robustly and were not influenced...... by survey protocols, providing similar habitat suitability outputs with high spatial agreement. Model-based estimates of potential AOO were significantly smaller than AOO measures obtained from coarse-scale grids, even if the first were obtained from conservative thresholds based on the Minimal Predicted...... Area (MPA). As defined here, the potential AOO provides spatially-explicit measures of species ranges which are permanent in the time and scarcely affected by sampling bias. The overestimation of these measures may be reduced using higher thresholds of habitat suitability, but standard rules as the MPA...

  12. Using occupancy and population models to assess habitat conservation opportunities for an isolated carnivore population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne Spencer; Heather Rustigian-Romsos; James Strittholt; Robert Scheller; William Zielinski; Richard Truex

    2011-01-01

    An isolated population of the fisher (Martes pennanti) in the southern Sierra Nevada, California, is threatened by small size and habitat alteration from wildfires, fuels management, and other factors. We assessed the population’s status and conservation options for its habitat using a spatially explicit population model coupled with a...

  13. Spatial occupancy models for predicting metapopulation dynamics and viability following reintroduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Richard B.; Muths, Erin L.; Sigafus, Brent H.; Schwalbe, Cecil R.; Jarchow, Christopher J; Hossack, Blake R.

    2015-01-01

    The reintroduction of a species into its historic range is a critical component of conservation programmes designed to restore extirpated metapopulations. However, many reintroduction efforts fail, and the lack of rigorous monitoring programmes and statistical models have prevented a general understanding of the factors affecting metapopulation viability following reintroduction.

  14. The Importance of Social Context: Neighborhood Stressors, Stress-Buffering Mechanisms, and Alcohol, Drug, and Mental Health Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Stockdale, Susan E.; Wells, Kenneth B.; Tang, Lingqi; Belin, Thomas R.; Zhang, Lily; SHERBOURNE, CATHY D.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the relationship among neighborhood stressors, stress-buffering mechanisms, and likelihood of alcohol, drug, and mental health (ADM) disorders in adults from 60 US communities (n=12,716). Research shows that larger support structures may interact with individual support factors to affect mental health, but few studies have explored buffering effects of these neighborhood characteristics. We test a conceptual model that explores effects of neighborhood stressors and stress-...

  15. Topics in Microeconometrics: Estimation of a Dynamic Model of Occupational Transitions, Wage and Non-Wage Benefits Cross Validation Bandwidth Selection for Derivatives of Various Dimensional Densities Testing the Additive Separability of the Teacher Value Added Effect Semiparametrically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Matthew David

    2012-01-01

    I study three separate questions in this dissertation. In Chapter 1, I develop and estimate a structural dynamic model of occupation and job choice to test hypotheses of the importance of wages and non-wages and learning in occupational transitions, and find that wages are approximately 3 times as important as non-wage benefits in decisions and…

  16. Topics in Microeconometrics: Estimation of a Dynamic Model of Occupational Transitions, Wage and Non-Wage Benefits Cross Validation Bandwidth Selection for Derivatives of Various Dimensional Densities Testing the Additive Separability of the Teacher Value Added Effect Semiparametrically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Matthew David

    2012-01-01

    I study three separate questions in this dissertation. In Chapter 1, I develop and estimate a structural dynamic model of occupation and job choice to test hypotheses of the importance of wages and non-wages and learning in occupational transitions, and find that wages are approximately 3 times as important as non-wage benefits in decisions and…

  17. Occupational physiology

    CERN Document Server

    Toomingas, Allan; Tornqvist, Ewa Wigaeus

    2011-01-01

    In a clear and accessible presentation, Occupational Physiology focuses on important issues in the modern working world. Exploring major public health problems-such as musculoskeletal disorders and stress-this book explains connections between work, well-being, and health based on up-to-date research in the field. It provides useful methods for risk assessment and guidelines on arranging a good working life from the perspective of the working individual, the company, and society as a whole.The book focuses on common, stressful situations in different professions. Reviewing bodily demands and r

  18. Demographic differences in sport performers’ experiences of organizational stressors

    OpenAIRE

    Arnold, Rachel; Fletcher, David; Daniels, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Organizational stressors are particularly prevalent across sport performers’ experiences and can influence their performance, health, and well-being. Research has been conducted to identify which organizational stressors are encountered by sport performers but little is known about how these experiences vary from athlete to athlete. The purpose of this study was to examine if the frequency, intensity, and duration of the organizational stressors that sport performers encounter vary as a funct...

  19. Applying mathematical modeling to create job rotation schedules for minimizing occupational noise exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharmmaphornphilas, Wipawee; Green, Benjamin; Carnahan, Brian J; Norman, Bryan A

    2003-01-01

    This research developed worker schedules by using administrative controls and a computer programming model to reduce the likelihood of worker hearing loss. By rotating the workers through different jobs during the day it was possible to reduce their exposure to hazardous noise levels. Computer simulations were made based on data collected in a real setting. Worker schedules currently used at the site are compared with proposed worker schedules from the computer simulations. For the worker assignment plans found by the computer model, the authors calculate a significant decrease in time-weighted average (TWA) sound level exposure. The maximum daily dose that any worker is exposed to is reduced by 58.8%, and the maximum TWA value for the workers is reduced by 3.8 dB from the current schedule.

  20. Development of a NASA Integrated Technical Workforce Career Development Model Entitled Requisite Occupation Competencies and Knowledge -- the ROCK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menrad, Robert J.; Larson, Wiley J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper shares the findings of NASA's Integrated Learning and Development Program (ILDP) in its effort to reinvigorate the HANDS-ON practice of space systems engineering and project/program management through focused coursework, training opportunities, on-the job learning and special assignments. Prior to March 2005, NASA responsibility for technical workforce development (the program/project manager, systems engineering, discipline engineering, discipline engineering and associated communities) was executed by two parallel organizations. In March 2005 these organizations merged. The resulting program-ILDP-was chartered to implement an integrated competency-based development model capable of enhancing NASA's technical workforce performance as they face the complex challenges of Earth science, space science, aeronautics and human spaceflight missions. Results developed in collaboration with NASA Field Centers are reported on. This work led to definition of the agency's first integrated technical workforce development model known as the Requisite Occupation Competence and Knowledge (the ROCK). Critical processes and products are presented including: 'validation' techniques to guide model development, the Design-A-CUrriculuM (DACUM) process, and creation of the agency's first systems engineering body-of-knowledge. Findings were validated via nine focus groups from industry and government, validated with over 17 space-related organizations, at an estimated cost exceeding $300,000 (US). Masters-level programs and training programs have evolved to address the needs of these practitioner communities based upon these results. The ROCK reintroduced rigor and depth to the practitioner's development in these critical disciplines enabling their ability to take mission concepts from imagination to reality.

  1. Vitiligo disease triggers: psychological stressors preceding the onset of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverberg, Jonathan I; Silverberg, Nanette B

    2015-05-01

    Vitiligo is the loss of skin pigmentation caused by autoimmune destruction of melanocytes. Little is known about the impact of psychological stressors preceding vitiligo onset on symptoms associated with vitiligo and the extent of disease. We performed a questionnaire-based study of 1541 adults with vitiligo to evaluate the impact of psychological stressors in this patient population. Psychological stressors should be considered as potential disease triggers in vitiligo patients, and screening of vitiligo patients for psychological stressors and associated symptoms should be included in routine assessment.

  2. Appraisal of transplant-related stressors, coping strategies, and psychosocial adjustment following kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisanti, Renato; Lombardo, Caterina; Luszczynska, Aleksandra; Poli, Luca; Bennardi, Linda; Giordanengo, Luca; Berloco, Pasquale Bartolomeo; Violani, Cristiano

    2016-11-09

    This study examined the relations between appraisal of transplant-related stressors, coping, and adjustment dimensions following kidney transplantation (KT). Two models were tested: (1) the main effects model proposing that stress appraisal and coping strategies are directly associated with adjustment dimensions; and (2) the moderating model of stress proposing that each coping strategy interacts with stress appraisal. Importantly, there is a lack of research examining the two models simultaneously among recipients of solid organ transplantation. A total of 174 KT recipients completed the questionnaires. Predictors of post-transplant adjustment included appraisal of transplant-related stressors and coping strategies (task-, emotion-, and avoidance-focused). Adjustment dimensions were psychological distress, worries about the transplant, feelings of guilt, fear of disclosure of transplant, adherence, and responsibility for the functioning of the new organ. The main and moderating effects were tested with regression analyses. Appraisal of transplant-related stressors and emotion-oriented coping were related to all adjustment dimensions, except of adherence and responsibility. Task-oriented coping was positively related to responsibility. Avoidance-oriented coping was negatively correlated with adherence. Only 1 out of 18 hypothesized interactive terms was significant, yielding a synergistic interaction between appraisal of transplant-related stressors and emotion-oriented coping on the sense of guilt. The findings have the potential to inform interventions promoting psychosocial adjustment among KT recipients.

  3. Forecasting the relative influence of environmental and anthropogenic stressors on polar bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd C. Atwood; Bruce G. Marcot; David C. Douglas; Steven C. Amstrup; Karyn D. Rode; George M. Durner; Jeffrey F. Bromaghin

    2016-01-01

    Effective conservation planning requires understanding and ranking threats to wildlife populations. We developed a Bayesian network model to evaluate the relative influence of environmental and anthropogenic stressors, and their mitigation, on the persistence of polar bears (Ursus maritimus). Overall sea ice conditions, affected by rising global...

  4. A risk prediction model of the incidence of occupational low back pain among mining workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fikry Effendi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low Back Pain (LBP is the most frequently reported musculoskeletal disorder in workers. This study was aimed to develop risk prediction model of low back pain that can be used to prevent the recurring low back pain attack.Methods: The study was case-control design based on the industrial community by using ergonomical approach. Total samples were 91 workers for cases and 91 workers for controls. Workers suffering for low back pain in the last 6 months served as cases, and those from the same age group and receiving the same amount of exposure without any symptoms of low back pain served as controls. Risk factors include socio-demographic factors, socio-ocupational factors, physical working environmental factors, non-physical environmental factors, and biomechanics factors. Receiver Operating Characreistics (ROC was used to describe relationship between true positive value (in vertical axis and false positive value (in horizontal axis in order to discover a risk predictive value of LBP.Results: The determinant risk factors for low back pain (LBP were bending work postures, waist rotation movement, manual lifting, unnatural work postures, those who had worked for more than 18 years, and irregular sport activities. By using ROC with 91.20% senstivity and 87.90% spesifi city, the calculated prediction value was 0.35. This is the cut-off point to discriminate workers with and without LBP. The risk predictors value of work-induced LBP calculated by linear equation of logistic regression varied between 0-11.25.Conclusion: The prediction model of work-induced LBP can be used for early detection of LBP to reduce the risk and prevent the recurrence of LBP. (Med J Indones. 2011; 20:212-6Keywords: Ergonomy, low back pain, prediction model, work-induced LBP

  5. Quantifying spatially derived carrying capacity occupation: Framework for characterisation modelling and application to terrestrial acidification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Anders; Margni, M.; Bulle, C.

    *year. This metric resembles that of the ecological footprint method and may be compared to the availability of land or water. The framework was applied to the terrestrial acidification impact category. The geochemical steady-state model PROFILE was used to quantify carrying capacities as deposition levels......The popularity of the ecological footprint method and the planetary boundaries concept shows an increasing interest among decision makers in comparing environmental impacts to carrying capacities of natural systems. Recently carrying capacity-based normalisation references were developed for impact...

  6. Differential challenge stressor-hindrance stressor relationships with job attitudes, turnover intentions, turnover, and withdrawal behavior: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podsakoff, Nathan P; LePine, Jeffery A; LePine, Marcie A

    2007-03-01

    In this article, a 2-dimensional work stressor framework is used to explain inconsistencies in past research with respect to stressor relationships with retention-related criteria. Results of meta-analyses of 183 independent samples indicated that whereas hindrance stressors had dysfunctional relationships with these criteria (negative relationships with job satisfaction and organizational commitment and positive relationships with turnover intentions, turnover, and withdrawal behavior), relationships with challenge stressors were generally the opposite (positive relationships with job satisfaction and organizational commitment and negative relationships with turnover intentions and turnover). Results also suggested that the differential relationships between challenge stressors and hindrance stressors and the more distal criteria (withdrawal behavior and turnover) were due, in part, to the mediating effects of job attitudes. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Analyzing and Identifying Teens Stressful Periods and Stressor Events from a Microblog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Xue, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Liang; Jia, Jia; Feng, Ling

    2016-06-30

    Increased health problems among adolescents caused by psychological stress have aroused worldwide attention. Long-standing stress without targeted assistance and guidance negatively impacts the healthy growth of adolescents, threatening the future development of our society. So far, research focused on detecting adolescent psychological stress revealed from each individual post on microblogs. However, beyond stressful moments, identifying teens stressful periods and stressor events that trigger each stressful period is more desirable to understand the stress from appearance to essence. In this paper, we define the problem of identifying teens stressful periods and stressor events from the open social media microblog. Starting from a case study of adolescents' posting behaviors during stressful school events, we build a poisson-based probability model for the correlation between stressor events and stressful posting behaviors through a series of posts on Tencent Weibo (referred to as the microblog throughout the paper). With the model, we discover teen's maximal stressful periods and further extract details of possible stressor events that cause the stressful periods. We generalize and present the extracted stressor events in a hierarchy based on common stress dimensions and event types. Taking 122 scheduled stressful study-related events in a high school as the ground truth, we test the approach on 124 students' posts from January 1, 2012 to February 1, 2015, and obtain some promising experimental results: (stressful periods: recall 0.761, precision 0.737, and F1-measure 0.734) and (top-3 stressor events: recall 0.763, precision 0.756, and F1-measure 0.759). The most prominent stressor events extracted are in the self-cognition domain, followed by the school life domain. This conforms to the adolescent psychological investigation result that problems in school life usually accompanied with teens inner cognition problems. Compared with the state-of-art top-1

  8. The success of the Washington Department of Labor and Industries Managed Care Pilot Project: the occupational medicine-based delivery model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, P J; Feldstein, A

    1997-11-01

    The Washington State Managed Care Pilot Project (MCP) tested the effects of experience-rated capitation on medical and disability costs, quality of care, worker satisfaction with medical care, and employer satisfaction in MCP-covered workers, compared with matched fee-for-service controls. In the MCP, medical costs were reduced by approximately 27%, functional outcomes remained the same, workers were less satisfied with their treatment and access to care initially, and employers were-much more satisfied with the quality and speed of the information received from the providers. The authors believe that it was the occupational medicine-based delivery model, working in conjunction with the method of reimbursement and the cultural context of managed care, that was the most significant innovation leading to the MCP successes. This article describes the occupational medicine-based delivery model implemented for the MCP.

  9. Sexual Minority Stressors, Internalizing Symptoms, and Unhealthy Eating Behaviors in Sexual Minority Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz-Wise, Sabra L; Scherer, Emily A; Calzo, Jerel P; Sarda, Vishnudas; Jackson, Benita; Haines, Jess; Austin, S Bryn

    2015-12-01

    Sexual minorities are more likely than heterosexuals to engage in unhealthy eating behaviors. The purpose of this study is to examine sexual minority stressors and internalizing symptoms as predictors of unhealthy eating behaviors among sexual minority youths. We used longitudinal data from 1461 sexual minority youths in the Growing Up Today Study, across ages 14-28 years. We hypothesized that sexual minority stressors would predict unhealthy eating behaviors, in part due to internalizing symptoms. Linear regression models fit via generalized estimating equations were stratified by gender and sexual orientation. Significant positive and inverse associations between stressors and eating behaviors were detected among females and males, with more significant associations among females. Associations were attenuated by up to 71 % for females and 12 % for males when internalizing symptoms were added to the models. Sexual minority stressors predicted unhealthy eating behaviors overall and more so for some sexual orientation and gender groups; associations were partially explained by internalizing symptoms. The conceptual model appears to best describe the experiences of bisexual females. Findings have clinical implications for adolescent health.

  10. Soil occupation and atmospheric variations over Sobradinho Lake area. Part two: a regional modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, M. F.; da Silva Dias, M. A. F.; da Silva Aragão, M. R.

    2006-11-01

    The impact of the changes on soil cover and land use brought about by the construction of the Sobradinho Dam in the semi-arid region of the São Francisco River Hydrographic Basin is analyzed by means of a numerical model RAMS. Disregarding the influence of a large scale flow, a set of factors were responsible for the creation of a rather complex circulation system that includes mountain-valley winds, lake breeze (LB) and non-conventional circulation all induced by the surface non-homogeneous aspect. Results have demonstrated that the implementation of works of such magnitude brings about environmental changes in an area that stretches far beyond the surroundings of the reservoir. The soil cover alterations due to the ever increasing development of the area with the presence of irrigated crops in a sparsely vegetated region ( caatinga) does affect land surface characteristics, occasioning for that matter the splitting of the available energy into latent and sensible heat fluxes. LB behavior varies in accordance with atmospheric conditions and also in view of the type of vegetation found in the lake surrounding areas. Hydro availability in root zones, even under adverse atmospheric conditions (high temperature and low air humidity) brings up the high rates of evaporation and plant transpiration that contribute towards the increase of humidity and the fall of temperature in lower atmospheric layers.

  11. Embracing Creativity in Occupational Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Lydia Royeen, MOT, OTR/L

    2015-01-01

    Jen Gash, an occupational therapist and creativity coach living in the UK, provided the cover art for the winter 2015 issue of The Open Journal of Occupational Therapy. The picture is titled “Over the Exe.” Jen uses her inspiration of the Kawa River model in this painting. The painting is of her husband and daughter standing where the river meets the sea. This is a metaphoric representation of rejoining the greater collective. In addition, Jen has a passion for occupational therapists to enco...

  12. Occupational Injuries in Germany: Population-Wide National Survey Data Emphasize the Importance of Work-Related Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Rommel

    Full Text Available Unintentional injuries cause much of the global mortality burden, with the workplace being a common accident setting. Even in high-income economies, occupational injury figures remain remarkably high. Because risk factors for occupational injuries are prone to confounding, the present research takes a comprehensive approach. To better understand the occurrence of occupational injuries, sociodemographic factors and work- and health-related factors are tested simultaneously. Thus, the present analysis aims to develop a comprehensive epidemiological model that facilitates the explanation of varying injury rates in the workplace. The representative phone survey German Health Update 2010 provides information on medically treated occupational injuries sustained in the year prior to the interview. Data were collected on sociodemographics, occupation, working conditions, health-related behaviors, and chronic diseases. For the economically active population (18-70 years, n = 14,041, the 12-month prevalence of occupational injuries was calculated with a 95% confidence interval (CI. Blockwise multiple logistic regression was applied to successively include different groups of variables. Overall, 2.8% (95% CI 2.4-3.2 of the gainfully employed population report at least one occupational injury (women: 0.9%; 95% CI 0.7-1.2; men: 4.3%; 95% CI 3.7-5.0. In the fully adjusted model, male gender (OR 3.16 and age 18-29 (OR 1.54, as well as agricultural (OR 5.40, technical (OR 3.41, skilled service (OR 4.24 or manual (OR 5.12, and unskilled service (OR 3.13 or manual (OR 4.97 occupations are associated with higher chances of occupational injuries. The same holds for frequent stressors such as heavy carrying (OR 1.78, working in awkward postures (OR 1.46, environmental stress (OR 1.48, and working under pressure (OR 1.41. Among health-related variables, physical inactivity (OR 1.47 and obesity (OR 1.73 present a significantly higher chance of occupational injuries

  13. Occupational Injuries in Germany: Population-Wide National Survey Data Emphasize the Importance of Work-Related Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rommel, Alexander; Varnaccia, Gianni; Lahmann, Nils; Kottner, Jan; Kroll, Lars Eric

    2016-01-01

    Unintentional injuries cause much of the global mortality burden, with the workplace being a common accident setting. Even in high-income economies, occupational injury figures remain remarkably high. Because risk factors for occupational injuries are prone to confounding, the present research takes a comprehensive approach. To better understand the occurrence of occupational injuries, sociodemographic factors and work- and health-related factors are tested simultaneously. Thus, the present analysis aims to develop a comprehensive epidemiological model that facilitates the explanation of varying injury rates in the workplace. The representative phone survey German Health Update 2010 provides information on medically treated occupational injuries sustained in the year prior to the interview. Data were collected on sociodemographics, occupation, working conditions, health-related behaviors, and chronic diseases. For the economically active population (18-70 years, n = 14,041), the 12-month prevalence of occupational injuries was calculated with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Blockwise multiple logistic regression was applied to successively include different groups of variables. Overall, 2.8% (95% CI 2.4-3.2) of the gainfully employed population report at least one occupational injury (women: 0.9%; 95% CI 0.7-1.2; men: 4.3%; 95% CI 3.7-5.0). In the fully adjusted model, male gender (OR 3.16) and age 18-29 (OR 1.54), as well as agricultural (OR 5.40), technical (OR 3.41), skilled service (OR 4.24) or manual (OR 5.12), and unskilled service (OR 3.13) or manual (OR 4.97) occupations are associated with higher chances of occupational injuries. The same holds for frequent stressors such as heavy carrying (OR 1.78), working in awkward postures (OR 1.46), environmental stress (OR 1.48), and working under pressure (OR 1.41). Among health-related variables, physical inactivity (OR 1.47) and obesity (OR 1.73) present a significantly higher chance of occupational injuries

  14. Occupational Therapy (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Occupational Therapy KidsHealth > For Parents > Occupational Therapy Print A A ... for some kids. continue Kids Who Might Need Occupational Therapy According to the AOTA, kids with these medical ...

  15. Family stressors as predictors of codependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, J A; Warner, R M

    2000-02-01

    Codependency has been defined as an extreme focus on relationships, caused by a stressful family background (J. L. Fischer, L. Spann, & D. W. Crawford, 1991). In this study the authors assessed the relationship of the Spann-Fischer Codependency Scale (J. L. Fischer et al., 1991) and the Potter-Efron Codependency Assessment (L. A. Potter-Efron & P. S. Potter-Efron, 1989) with self-reported chronic family stress and family background. Students (N = 257) completed 2 existing self-report codependency measures and provided family background information. Results indicated that women had higher codependency scores than men on the Spann-Fischer scale. Students with a history of chronic family stress (with an alcoholic, mentally ill, or physically ill parent) had significantly higher codependency scores on both scales. The findings suggest that other types of family stressors, not solely alcoholism, may be predictors of codependency.

  16. Local stressors reduce coral resilience to bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carilli, Jessica E; Norris, Richard D; Black, Bryan A; Walsh, Sheila M; McField, Melanie

    2009-07-22

    Coral bleaching, during which corals lose their symbiotic dinoflagellates, typically corresponds with periods of intense heat stress, and appears to be increasing in frequency and geographic extent as the climate warms. A fundamental question in coral reef ecology is whether chronic local stress reduces coral resistance and resilience from episodic stress such as bleaching, or alternatively promotes acclimatization, potentially increasing resistance and resilience. Here we show that following a major bleaching event, Montastraea faveolata coral growth rates at sites with higher local anthropogenic stressors remained suppressed for at least 8 years, while coral growth rates at sites with lower stress recovered in 2-3 years. Instead of promoting acclimatization, our data indicate that background stress reduces coral fitness and resilience to episodic events. We also suggest that reducing chronic stress through local coral reef management efforts may increase coral resilience to global climate change.

  17. Stressors, social support, and tests of the buffering hypothesis: effects on psychological responses of injured athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Ian; Evans, Lynne; Rees, Tim; Hardy, Lew

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this article was to examine the main and stress-buffering effect relationships between social support and psychological responses to injury. The article presents two studies, both of which matched social support types with injury stressors. Study 1 used measures of stressors, perception of social support availability, and psychological responses of injured athletes. Study 2 utilized measures of stressors, received social support, and psychological responses of injured athletes. During physiotherapy clinic visits, injured athletes (Study 1, N = 319; Study 2, N = 302) completed measures of stressors, social support, and psychological responses to injury. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and moderated hierarchical regression were used to analyse the data. In both studies, CFA suggested adequate model fit for measures of social support and psychological responses to injury. Moderated hierarchical regression analyses in Study 1 revealed significant (p psychological responses; that is, the relationships between social support, stressors, and psychological responses to sport injury may differ with regard to received or perceived available support. The findings have important implications for the design of social support interventions with injured athletes aimed at alleviating the detrimental effects of injury stressors. What is already known on this subject? The health, social, and sport-injury related research suggests that social support has the potential to moderate (i.e., buffer) those psychological responses to stress that are detrimental to health and well-being. Despite what is a growing body of empirical research that has explored the role of social support in a sport injury context, there has been a paucity of research that has examined how social support functions in relation to injury-related stressors and psychological responses, particularly with regard to the effect of perceived and received support. In addition, there has been limited

  18. Chronic psychosocial stressors in adulthood: Studies in mice, rats and tree shrews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Pryce

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Human psychological stress is the major environmental risk factor for major depression and certain of the anxiety disorders. Psychological stressors often occur in the context of the adult social environment, and they or the memory formed of them impact on the individual across an extended period, thereby constituting chronic psychosocial stress (CPS. Psychosocial stressors often involve loss to the individual, such as the ending of a social relationship or the onset of interpersonal conflict leading to loss of social control and predictability. Given the difficulty in studying the etio-pathophysiological processes mediating between CPS and brain and behavior pathologies in human, considerable effort has been undertaken to study manipulations of the social environment that constitute adulthood chronic psychosocial stressors in other mammals. The majority of such research has been conducted in rodents; the focus for a considerable time period was on rats and more recently both rats and mice have been investigated, the latter species in particular providing the opportunity for essential gene x chronic psychosocial stressor interaction studies. Key studies in the tree shrew demonstrate that this approach should not be limited to rodents, however. The animal adult CPS paradigms are based on resident-intruder confrontations. These are typified by the intruder-subject's brief proximate interactions with and attacks by, and otherwise continuous distal exposure to, the resident stressor. In contrast to humans where cognitive capacities are such that the stressor pertains in its physical absence, the periods of continuous distal exposure are apparently essential in these species. Whilst the focus of this review is on the stressor rather than the stress response, we also describe some of the depression- and anxiety disorder-relevant effects on behavior, physiology and brain structure-function of chronic psychosocial stressors, as well as evidence for the

  19. Chronic psychosocial stressors in adulthood: Studies in mice, rats and tree shrews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryce, Christopher R; Fuchs, Eberhard

    2017-02-01

    Human psychological stress is the major environmental risk factor for major depression and certain of the anxiety disorders. Psychological stressors often occur in the context of the adult social environment, and they or the memory formed of them impact on the individual across an extended period, thereby constituting chronic psychosocial stress (CPS). Psychosocial stressors often involve loss to the individual, such as the ending of a social relationship or the onset of interpersonal conflict leading to loss of social control and predictability. Given the difficulty in studying the etio-pathophysiological processes mediating between CPS and brain and behavior pathologies in human, considerable effort has been undertaken to study manipulations of the social environment that constitute adulthood chronic psychosocial stressors in other mammals. The majority of such research has been conducted in rodents; the focus for a considerable time period was on rats and more recently both rats and mice have been investigated, the latter species in particular providing the opportunity for essential gene x chronic psychosocial stressor interaction studies. Key studies in the tree shrew demonstrate that this approach should not be limited to rodents, however. The animal adult CPS paradigms are based on resident-intruder confrontations. These are typified by the intruder-subject's brief proximate interactions with and attacks by, and otherwise continuous distal exposure to, the resident stressor. In contrast to humans where cognitive capacities are such that the stressor pertains in its physical absence, the periods of continuous distal exposure are apparently essential in these species. Whilst the focus of this review is on the stressor rather than the stress response, we also describe some of the depression- and anxiety disorder-relevant effects on behavior, physiology and brain structure-function of chronic psychosocial stressors, as well as evidence for the predictive validity

  20. Image processing occupancy sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackney, Larry J.

    2016-09-27

    A system and method of detecting occupants in a building automation system environment using image based occupancy detection and position determinations. In one example, the system includes an image processing occupancy sensor that detects the number and position of occupants within a space that has controllable building elements such as lighting and ventilation diffusers. Based on the position and location of the occupants, the system can finely control the elements to optimize conditions for the occupants, optimize energy usage, among other advantages.

  1. Occupational stress, relaxation therapies, exercise and biofeedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Franklin

    2001-01-01

    Occupational stress is a widespread occurrence in the United States. It is a contributing factor to absenteeism, disease, injury and lowered productivity. In general stress management programs in the work place that include relaxation therapies, exercise, and biofeedback have been shown to reduce the physiological symptoms such as hypertension, and increase job satisfaction and job performance. Strategies to implement a successful stress management program include incorporating the coping activities into one's daily schedule, monitoring one's symptoms and stressors, and being realistic in setting up a schedule that is relevant and attainable. A short form of meditation, daily exercise program and the use of heart rate or thermal biofeedback can be helpful to a worker experiencing occupational stress.

  2. Developing a multi-stressor gradient for coral reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coral reefs are often found near coastal waters where multiple anthropogenic stressors co-occur at areas of human disturbance. Developing coral reef biocriteria under the U.S. Clean Water Act requires relationships between anthropogenic stressors and coral reef condition to be es...

  3. Developing a multi-stressor gradient for coral reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coral reefs are often found near coastal waters where multiple anthropogenic stressors co-occur at areas of human disturbance. Developing coral reef biocriteria under the U.S. Clean Water Act requires relationships between anthropogenic stressors and coral reef condition to be es...

  4. Which Stressors Increase the Odds of College Binge Drinking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Daphne E.

    2017-01-01

    College binge drinking has been linked to student stress. Which among a variety of stressors are more likely to result in problem drinking? In this paper, the relative influence of three types of stressors on college binge drinking is considered, including the academic, interpersonal, and developmental (e.g., making decisions about the future,…

  5. Interpersonal Stressors Predict Ghrelin and Leptin Levels in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaremka, Lisa M.; Belury, Martha A.; Andridge, Rebecca R.; Malarkey, William B.; Glaser, Ronald; Christian, Lisa; Emery, Charles F.; Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Stressful events enhance risk for weight gain and adiposity. Ghrelin and leptin, two hormones that are implicated in appetite regulation, may link stressful events to weight gain; a number of rodent studies suggest that stressors increase ghrelin production. The present study investigated the links among daily stressors, ghrelin and leptin, and dietary intake in humans. Method Women (N = 50) completed three study appointments that were scheduled at least 2 weeks apart. At each visit, women arrived fasting and ate a standardized breakfast and lunch. Blood samples were collected 45 minutes after each meal. Women completed a self-report version of the Daily Inventory of Stressful Events (DISE) at each appointment. Two composites were created from the DISE data, reflecting the number of stressors that did and did not involve interpersonal tension. Results Women who experienced more stressors involving interpersonal tension had higher ghrelin and lower leptin levels than those who experienced fewer interpersonal stressors. Furthermore, women who experienced more interpersonal stressors had a diet that was higher in calories, fat, carbohydrates, protein, sugar, sodium, and fiber, and marginally higher in cholesterol, vegetables (but not fruits), vitamin A, and vitamin C. Stressors that did not involve interpersonal tension were unrelated to ghrelin and leptin levels or any of the dietary components examined. Conclusions These data suggest that ghrelin and leptin may link daily interpersonal stressors to weight gain and obesity. PMID:25032903

  6. The effects of two chronic intermittent stressors on brain monoamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campmany, L; Pol, O; Armario, A

    1996-03-01

    The effects of chronic exposure (27 days) to two different stressors on brain monoaminergic activity was studied in adult male rats. The stressors used were restraint in tubes (RES) and immobilization in wooden boards (IMO). Both chronically stressed and stress naive (control) rats were subjected to 0, 15, and 60 min of the same stressor to which they were chronically exposed. Previous chronic exposure to either RES or IMO significantly reduced ACTH response to the same stressor. Monoaminergic response to these stressors was studied by measuring the levels of noradrenaline (NA), serotonin (5-HT) and their metabolites: 3-methoxy,4-hydroxyphenyletileneglycol sulfate (MHPG-SO4) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), respectively. The regions studied were: pons plus medulla, midbrain, hypothalamus, hippocampus, and frontal cortex. Previous chronic exposure to the stressors induced only few changes in the resting levels of the monoamines and their metabolites. In addition, monoaminergic response to the same stressor to which they were chronically exposed was always similar in control and chronically stressed rats. These data indicate that brain NA and 5-HT metabolism is less sensitive than ACTH to the process of habituation to a repeated stressor, at least in the gross areas of the brain analyzed in the present study.

  7. Understanding marital stressors. The importance of coping style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilfeld, F W

    1980-06-01

    Previous survey work with 1591 married Chicago adults has demonstrated a close connection between symptoms of depression and current marital stressors (nonfulfillment of basic role expectations, lack of reciprocity between partners, and nonacceptance by spouse). The pertinent question now becomes which factors predispose toward marital stressors. We address this issue here by examining a broad array of variables to see which are most predictive of marital stressors by employing multiple regression analysis on data from the survey sample. A descending order of explanatory power of marital stressors occurs for the following categories of variables: respondent's style of coping with marital problems, behavior patterns within the marriage, personality factors of the respondent, other current social stressors, demographic variables, and marital circumstances. One coping style in particular, that of optimistic action, is more predictive of low marital stressors than any other single variable studied. The findings contradict several common beliefs about marital stressors: the presence of background differences between the spouses, a lack of consensus between the partners, and the presence of other social stressors (job, parenting, finances) are relatively poor predictors of marital discord.

  8. College student stressors: a review of the qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Carrie S; Baranik, Lisa E; Daniel, Francis

    2013-10-01

    A total of 40 qualitative studies were reviewed and coded according to the college student stressors they represented. These studies utilized a variety of qualitative methods to examine stressors representing the following themes: relationships, lack of resources, academics, the environment, expectations, diversity, transitions and other stressors. Relationship stressors were the most commonly reported theme and covered areas including stress associated with family, romantic, peer and faculty relationships. Three of the themes (relationships, diversity and other) are novel categories of stressors compared with quantitative reviews on the topic, highlighting the importance of gathering both quantitative and qualitative pieces of information. This review contributes to the stress literature by synthesizing and identifying trends in the qualitative student stress research.

  9. Descriptive study of claims for occupational mental disorders or suicide

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jihoon; Kim, Inah; Roh, Sooyong

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aimed to identify the characteristics of claimed mental disorders. Because the workers believed the cause of the mental disorders was work-related stress or a specific event, we could identify the major work-related stressor for claimed cases. Methods We included claimed cases of occupational mental disorder or suicide reported during 2010–2014 to the Korea Workers Compensation and Welfare Service (KCOMWEL), established by Industrial Accidents Insurance (IACI) Act. We co...

  10. The Effects of Occupational Stress, Work-Centrality, Self-Efficacy, and Job Satisfaction on Intent to Quit Among Long-Term Care Workers in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeongkyu; Yoon, Seokwon; Moon, Sung Seek; Lee, Kyoung Hag; Park, Jueun

    2017-01-01

    A large and growing population of elderly Koreans with chronic conditions necessitates an increase in long-term care. This study is aimed at investigating the effects of occupational stress, work-centrality, self-efficacy, and job satisfaction on intent to leave among long-term care workers in Korea. We tested the hypothesized structural equation model predicting the intention to quit among long-term care workers in Korea. Survey data were collected from 532 long-term care workers in Seoul, Korea. Results showed that occupational stress was positively associated with intention to leave the job. The study also identified several possible mediators (self-efficacy, work-centrality, job satisfaction) in the relationship between stress and intent to quit. Evidence-based stress management interventions are suggested to help the workers better cope with stressors. Mentoring programs should also be considered for new workers.

  11. Time-dependent multiconfiguration self-consistent-field method based on occupation restricted multiple active space model for multielectron dynamics in intense laser fields

    CERN Document Server

    Sato, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    The time-dependent multiconfiguration self-consistent-field method based on the occupation-restricted multiple active space model is proposed (TD-ORMAS) for multielectron dynamics in intense laser fields. Extending the previously proposed time-dependent complete-active-space self-consistent-field method [TD-CASSCF; Phys. Rev. A, {\\bf 88}, 023402 (2013)], which divides the occupied orbitals into core and active orbitals, the TD-ORMAS method {\\it further} subdivides the active orbitals into an arbitrary number of subgroups, and poses the {\\it occupation restriction} by giving the minimum and maximum number of electrons distributed in each subgroup. This enables highly flexible construction of the configuration interaction (CI) space, allowing a large-active-space simulation of dynamics, e.g., the core excitation or ionization. The equations of motion both for CI coefficients and spatial orbitals are derived based on the time-dependent variational principle, and an efficient algorithm is proposed to solve for th...

  12. Repressors report fewer intrusions following a laboratory stressor : The role of reduced stressor-relevant concept activation and inhibitory functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overwijk, Sippie; Wessel, Ineke; de Jong, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated whether a repressive coping style is associated with fewer intrusions following an experimentally controlled stressor. Furthermore, we examined whether lower activation of stressor-relevant concepts in long-term memory and better inhibitory functioning may contribute to this

  13. Education and Occupational Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnes, Geraint; Freguglia, Ricardo; Spricigo, Gisele

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the dynamic relationship between policies related to educational provision and both educational participation and occupational outcomes in Brazil, using PNAD and RAIS-Migra data. Design/methodology/approach: Outcomes are examined using: static...... multinomial logit analysis, and structural dynamic discrete choice modelling. The latter approach, coupled with the quality of the RAIS-Migra data source, allows the authors to evaluate the education policy impacts over time. Findings: The main results show that the education level raises the propensity...... that the individual will be in formal sector work or still in education, and reduces the probability of the other outcomes. Transition into non-manual formal sector work following education may, however, occur via a spell of manual work. Originality/value: This is the first study of occupational destination...

  14. Occupational Stress And Job Satisfaction In White- And Blue-Collar Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Rudy Nydegger

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between job satisfaction and stress has been examined in numerous settings. In the present study, a two-part occupational stress survey was given to140 subjects in white- and blue-collar occupations. Twelve possible stressor variables divided into three levels of stress: independent; group; and organizational were analyzed. A factorial ANOVA analysis was conducted, and revealed that there was a significant main effect result for types of stress experienced by the workers in t...

  15. Randomised controlled trial of a psychiatric consultation model for treatment of common mental disorder in the occupational health setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M.; Meeuwissen, Jolanda A. C.; de Jong, Fransina J.; Hoedeman, Rob; Elfeddali, Iman; van der Feltz-Cornelis, CM

    2007-01-01

    Background: Common mental disorders are the most prevalent of all mental disorders, with the highest burden in terms of work absenteeism and utilization of health care services. Evidence-based treatments are available, but recognition and treatment could be improved, especially in the occupational

  16. Using a Response to Intervention (RtI) Framework with 1st Grade Students: A Model for Occupational Therapy Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    The most recent reauthorization of the Individual's with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA, 2004) allows for the expansion of occupational therapy's role in school-based practice to include students who have not been identified for special education through early intervening services such as response to intervention (RtI).…

  17. Using a Response to Intervention (RtI) Framework with 1st Grade Students: A Model for Occupational Therapy Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    The most recent reauthorization of the Individual's with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA, 2004) allows for the expansion of occupational therapy's role in school-based practice to include students who have not been identified for special education through early intervening services such as response to intervention (RtI).…

  18. [Occupational stress and myocardial infarction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consoli, Silla M

    2015-01-01

    Besides the best-known role of depressed mood, occupational stress deserves to be taken as a coronary risk factor. There are two basic models to define occupational stress: Karasek's model (high job psychological demands associated with low decision latitude, or even low social support at work) and Siegrist's model (imbalance between efforts and rewards received). The combination of the two models better reflects the coronary risk than each model alone. Occupational stress appears both as a risk factor and a prognostic factor after the occurrence of myocardial infarction. The relevance of the models is best in men or in younger age subjects. In women, role conflicts (occupational/domestic), the existence of excessive "intrinsic" efforts (job over investment) and association with marital stress provide more specific information. Burnout, particularly among health professionals, and bullying at work are also linked to cardiovascular risk. Occupational stress is a collective indicator of health at work, valuable to the employer. At an individual level, it can lead to therapeutic preventive approaches. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. The importance of education-occupation matching in migration decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Michael A; Rubb, Stephen

    2005-02-01

    In this article, we present and test a model that incorporates education-occupation matching into the migration decision. The literature on education-occupation matching shows that earnings are affected by how individuals' education matches that required by their occupation. Accordingly, individuals with more schooling than required by their occupation have an additional incentive to migrate: the increase in earnings that occurs with a more beneficial education-occupation match. Using data from Mexico, we found statistical support for the importance of education-occupation matching in migration decisions. Education-occupation matching provides a plausible explanation for the mixed findings in the literature on the relationship between educational attainment and migration.

  20. Guide for Occupational Exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employment and Training Administration (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Intended for use with or without counseling help, this occupational exploration guide is organized around 12 interest areas, 66 work groups, and 348 subgroups of occupational titles. The interest areas (an expansion of John Holland's six occupational categories) represent the broad interest requirements of occupations as well as the vocational…

  1. Effects of stressor controllability on diurnal physiological rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Robert S; Christianson, John P; Maslanik, Thomas M; Maier, Steve F; Greenwood, Benjamin N; Fleshner, Monika

    2013-03-15

    Disruptions in circadian and diurnal rhythms are associated with stress-related psychiatric disorders and stressor exposure can disrupt these rhythms. The controllability of the stressor can modulate various behavioral and neurochemical responses to stress. Uncontrollable, but not controllable, stress produces behaviors in rats that resemble symptoms of anxiety and depression. Whether acute stress-induced disruptions in physiological rhythms are sensitive to controllability of the stressor, however, remains unknown. To examine the role of controllability in diurnal rhythm disruption, adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with Data Sciences International (DSI) biotelemetry devices. Real-time measurements were obtained before, during and after exposure to a controllable or yoked uncontrollable stressor. Controllable and uncontrollable stress equally disrupted diurnal rhythms of locomotor activity and body temperature but not heart rate. The diurnal heart rate the day following stressor exposure was flattened to a greater extent and was significantly higher in rats with control over stress suggesting a relationship between stressor controllability and the heart rate response. Our results are consistent with the conclusion that acute stress-induced disruptions in diurnal physiological rhythms likely contribute little to the behavioral and affective consequences of stress that are sensitive to stressor controllability.

  2. Organisational stressors, coping, and outcomes in competitive sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Rachel; Fletcher, David; Daniels, Kevin

    2017-04-01

    Organisational stressors are associated with positive and negative outcomes in extant literature; however, little is known about which demands predict which outcomes. Extant theory and literature also suggests that coping style may influence an individual's resilience or vulnerability to stressors and, subsequently, their psychological responses and outcomes. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to examine the main effects of organisational stressors and coping styles on various outcomes (e.g., positive and negative affect, performance satisfaction). Sport performers (n = 414) completed measures of organisational stressors, coping styles, positive and negative affect, and performance satisfaction. Multiple regression analyses revealed positive relationships of both goals and development stressors (duration and intensity) and team and culture stressors (frequency and intensity) on negative affect. Furthermore, problem-focused coping was positively related to positive affect, and emotion-focused coping was positively related to negative affect. This study furthers theoretical knowledge regarding the associations that both organisational stressors (and their dimensions) and coping styles can have with various outcomes, and practical understanding regarding the optimal design of stress management interventions.

  3. A Study of The Relationship Between The Components of The Five-Factor Model of Personality and The Occurrence of Occupational Accidents in Industry Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsanollah Habibi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Accidents are among the most important problems of both the developed and the developing countries. Individual factors and personality traits are the primary causes of human errors and contribute to accidents. The present study aims to investigate the relationship between the components of the five-factor model of personality and the occurrence of occupational accidents in industrial workers. The independent T-test indicated that there is a meaningful relationship between the personality traits and accident proneness. In the two groups of industry workers injured in occupational accidents and industry workers without any occupational accidents, there is a significant relationship between personality traits, neuroticism (p=0.001, openness to experience (p=0.001, extraversion (p=0.024 and conscientiousness (p=0.021. Nonetheless, concerning the personality trait of agreeableness (p = 0.09, the group of workers with accidents did not differ significantly from the workers without any accidents. The results showed that there is a direct and significant relationship between accident proneness and the personality traits of neuroticism and openness to experience. Furthermore, there is a meaningful but inverse correlation between accident proneness and the personality traits of extraversion and conscientiousness, while there was no relationship between accident proneness and the personality trait of agreeableness.

  4. Complex relationships between occupation, environment, DNA adducts, genetic polymorphisms and bladder cancer in a case-control study using a structural equation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porru, Stefano; Pavanello, Sofia; Carta, Angela; Arici, Cecilia; Simeone, Claudio; Izzotti, Alberto; Mastrangelo, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    DNA adducts are considered an integrate measure of carcinogen exposure and the initial step of carcinogenesis. Their levels in more accessible peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) mirror that in the bladder tissue. In this study we explore whether the formation of PBL DNA adducts may be associated with bladder cancer (BC) risk, and how this relationship is modulated by genetic polymorphisms, environmental and occupational risk factors for BC. These complex interrelationships, including direct and indirect effects of each variable, were appraised using the structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis. Within the framework of a hospital-based case/control study, study population included 199 BC cases and 213 non-cancer controls, all Caucasian males. Data were collected on lifetime smoking, coffee drinking, dietary habits and lifetime occupation, with particular reference to exposure to aromatic amines (AAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). No indirect paths were found, disproving hypothesis on association between PBL DNA adducts and BC risk. DNA adducts were instead positively associated with occupational cumulative exposure to AAs (p = 0.028), whereas XRCC1 Arg 399 (poccupational cumulative exposure to AAs with DNA adducts and BC risk, strengthening the central role of AAs in bladder carcinogenesis. However the lack of an association between PBL DNA adducts and BC risk advises that these snapshot measurements are not representative of relevant exposures. This would envisage new scenarios for biomarker discovery and new challenges such as repeated measurements at different critical life stages.

  5. Complex relationships between occupation, environment, DNA adducts, genetic polymorphisms and bladder cancer in a case-control study using a structural equation modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Porru

    Full Text Available DNA adducts are considered an integrate measure of carcinogen exposure and the initial step of carcinogenesis. Their levels in more accessible peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs mirror that in the bladder tissue. In this study we explore whether the formation of PBL DNA adducts may be associated with bladder cancer (BC risk, and how this relationship is modulated by genetic polymorphisms, environmental and occupational risk factors for BC. These complex interrelationships, including direct and indirect effects of each variable, were appraised using the structural equation modeling (SEM analysis. Within the framework of a hospital-based case/control study, study population included 199 BC cases and 213 non-cancer controls, all Caucasian males. Data were collected on lifetime smoking, coffee drinking, dietary habits and lifetime occupation, with particular reference to exposure to aromatic amines (AAs and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. No indirect paths were found, disproving hypothesis on association between PBL DNA adducts and BC risk. DNA adducts were instead positively associated with occupational cumulative exposure to AAs (p = 0.028, whereas XRCC1 Arg 399 (p<0.006 was related with a decreased adduct levels, but with no impact on BC risk. Previous findings on increased BC risk by packyears (p<0.001, coffee (p<0.001, cumulative AAs exposure (p = 0.041 and MnSOD (p = 0.009 and a decreased risk by MPO (p<0.008 were also confirmed by SEM analysis. Our results for the first time make evident an association between occupational cumulative exposure to AAs with DNA adducts and BC risk, strengthening the central role of AAs in bladder carcinogenesis. However the lack of an association between PBL DNA adducts and BC risk advises that these snapshot measurements are not representative of relevant exposures. This would envisage new scenarios for biomarker discovery and new challenges such as repeated measurements at different

  6. Bacterial Stressors in Minimally Processed Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Spano

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Stress responses are of particular importance to microorganisms, because their habitats are subjected to continual changes in temperature, osmotic pressure, and nutrients availability. Stressors (and stress factors, may be of chemical, physical, or biological nature. While stress to microorganisms is frequently caused by the surrounding environment, the growth of microbial cells on its own may also result in induction of some kinds of stress such as starvation and acidity. During production of fresh-cut produce, cumulative mild processing steps are employed, to control the growth of microorganisms. Pathogens on plant surfaces are already stressed and stress may be increased during the multiple mild processing steps, potentially leading to very hardy bacteria geared towards enhanced survival. Cross-protection can occur because the overlapping stress responses enable bacteria exposed to one stress to become resistant to another stress. A number of stresses have been shown to induce cross protection, including heat, cold, acid and osmotic stress. Among other factors, adaptation to heat stress appears to provide bacterial cells with more pronounced cross protection against several other stresses. Understanding how pathogens sense and respond to mild stresses is essential in order to design safe and effective minimal processing regimes.

  7. Teaching Clinical Social Work under Occupation: Listening to the Voices of Palestinian Social Work Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaliari, Efrosini; Berzoff, Joan; Byers, David S.; Fareed, Anan; Berzoff-Cohen, Jake; Hreish, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    The authors were invited to teach clinical social work in the Palestinian West Bank. In order to teach, we designed a study exploring how 65 Palestinian social work students described the psychological and social effects of working under occupation. Students described social stressors of poverty, unemployment, lack of infrastructure, violence,…

  8. Compensation for Occupational Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Inah; Kim, Eun-A; Kim, Jae Young

    2014-01-01

    The legal scope and criteria for occupational cancer in Korea was out of date. The aim of this study was to review the current criteria for occupational cancer and amend the existent criteria on the basis of recent scientific evidence. The scientific evidence and the legal list of occupational cancer were analyzed to identify the causes of occupational cancer on a global scale. The relationship between compensated occupational cancer cases and carcinogen exposure in Korea was examined. The fa...

  9. Benefits and stressors – Perceived effects of ICT use on employee health and work stress: An exploratory study from Austria and Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Katharina Ninaus; Sandra Diehl; Ralf Terlutter; Kara Chan; Anqi Huang

    2015-01-01

    Stress has become a mass phenomenon in the modern workplace. The use of information and communication technologies is beginning to receive greater attention in the context of occupational stress. An exploratory qualitative study was conducted to examine both stressors and benefits resulting from technologies among practitioners in the advertising, public relations, and journalism industry in Hong Kong and Austria. Results suggest that technologies allow instant availability, which facilitates...

  10. Benefits and stressors – Perceived effects of ICT use on employee health and work stress: An exploratory study from Austria and Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Katharina Ninaus; Sandra Diehl; Ralf Terlutter; Kara Chan; Anqi Huang

    2015-01-01

    Stress has become a mass phenomenon in the modern workplace. The use of information and communication technologies is beginning to receive greater attention in the context of occupational stress. An exploratory qualitative study was conducted to examine both stressors and benefits resulting from technologies among practitioners in the advertising, public relations, and journalism industry in Hong Kong and Austria. Results suggest that technologies allow instant availability, which facilitates...

  11. Evaluation of stressors and coping strategies for stress in Indian anaesthesiologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R V Shidhaye

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have been done to assess job satisfaction and quantify effects of stressors on anaesthesiologists in different regions and countries.Studies related to stress in Indian anaesthesiologists are very limited, which prompted us to design this study not only to identify the stressors but also to find out how anaesthesiologists react to stress and devise means to minimize it to increase their job satisfaction levels. A set of questions was handed over personally to 200 anaesthesiologists at the national- and state-level anaesthesiology conferences and continuing medical educations with a request to return them duly filled in, with an assurance that confidentiality and anonymity would bemaintained.Main outcome measures were demographics, factors causing stress, how the responding anaesthesiologists and their colleagues react to it and methods they adopt to reduce stress at their workplace. Response rate was 96%. The total number of respondents was 192 (54% males and 46% females; juniors, 76%; and seniors, 24%. Identified stressors were as follows: time constraints (34%, medicolegal concerns (24%, interference with home life (22%, clinical problems (20% and communication problems (9%. Different strategies for coping with stress were identified. This survey is just a beginning. Indian Society of Anaesthesiologists is requested to look into the matter and take it further on a larger scale by multicentric studies to lay down standards related to number of working hours, number of night-call duties per week, proper assistance, medicolegal protection, etc., which would not only reduce occupational stress but also improve efficiency and job satisfaction among anaesthesiologists.

  12. Problem formulation for risk assessment of combined exposures to chemicals and other stressors in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Keith R; Wilks, Martin F; Bachman, Ammie; Boobis, Alan; Moretto, Angelo; Pastoor, Timothy P; Phillips, Richard; Embry, Michelle R

    2016-11-01

    When the human health risk assessment/risk management paradigm was developed, it did not explicitly include a "problem formulation" phase. The concept of problem formulation was first introduced in the context of ecological risk assessment (ERA) for the pragmatic reason to constrain and focus ERAs on the key questions. However, this need also exists for human health risk assessment, particularly for cumulative risk assessment (CRA), because of its complexity. CRA encompasses the combined threats to health from exposure via all relevant routes to multiple stressors, including biological, chemical, physical and psychosocial stressors. As part of the HESI Risk Assessment in the 21st Century (RISK21) Project, a framework for CRA was developed in which problem formulation plays a critical role. The focus of this effort is primarily on a chemical CRA (i.e., two or more chemicals) with subsequent consideration of non-chemical stressors, defined as "modulating factors" (ModFs). Problem formulation is a systematic approach that identifies all factors critical to a specific risk assessment and considers the purpose of the assessment, scope and depth of the necessary analysis, analytical approach, available resources and outcomes, and overall risk management goal. There are numerous considerations that are specific to multiple stressors, and proper problem formulation can help to focus a CRA to the key factors in order to optimize resources. As part of the problem formulation, conceptual models for exposures and responses can be developed that address these factors, such as temporal relationships between stressors and consideration of the appropriate ModFs.

  13. Discrimination, other psychosocial stressors, and self-reported sleep duration and difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slopen, Natalie; Williams, David R

    2014-01-01

    To advance understanding of the relationship between discrimination and sleep duration and difficulties, with consideration of multiple dimensions of discrimination, and attention to concurrent stressors; and to examine the contribution of discrimination and other stressors to racial/ ethnic differences in these outcomes. Cross-sectional probability sample. Chicago, IL. There were 2,983 black, Hispanic, and white adults. Outcomes included self-reported sleep duration and difficulties. Discrimination, including racial and nonracial everyday and major experiences of discrimination, workplace harassment and incivilities, and other stressors were assessed via questionnaire. In models adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, greater exposure to racial (β = -0.14)) and nonracial (β = -0.08) everyday discrimination, major experiences of discrimination attributed to race/ethnicity (β = -0.17), and workplace harassment and incivilities (β = -0.14) were associated with shorter sleep (P discrimination attributed to race/ethnicity and sleep duration (β = -0.09, P Racial (β = 0.04) and non-racial (β = 0.05) everyday discrimination and racial (β = 0.04) and nonracial (β = 0.04) major experiences of discrimination, and workplace harassment and incivilities (β = 0.04) were also associated with more (log) sleep difficulties, and associations between racial and nonracial everyday discrimination and sleep difficulties remained after adjustment for other stressors (P Racial/ethnic differences in sleep duration and difficulties were not significant after adjustment for discrimination (P > 0.05). Discrimination was associated with shorter sleep and more sleep difficulties, independent of socioeconomic status and other stressors, and may account for some of the racial/ethnic differences in sleep.

  14. Risk Level Based Management System: a control banding model for occupational health and safety risk management in a highly regulated environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zalk, D; Kamerzell, R; Paik, S; Kapp, J; Harrington, D; Swuste, P

    2009-05-27

    The Risk Level Based Management System (RLBMS) is an occupational risk management (ORM) model that focuses occupational safety, hygeiene, and health (OSHH) resources on the highest risk procedures at work. This article demonstrates the model's simplicity through an implementation within a heavily regulated research institution. The model utilizes control banding strategies with a stratification of four risk levels (RLs) for many commonly performed maintenance and support activities, characterizing risk consistently for comparable tasks. RLBMS creates an auditable tracking of activities, maximizes OSHH professional field time, and standardizes documentation and control commensurate to a given task's RL. Validation of RLs and their exposure control effectiveness is collected in a traditional quantitative collection regime for regulatory auditing. However, qualitative risk assessment methods are also used within this validation process. Participatory approaches are used throughout the RLBMS process. Workers are involved in all phases of building, maintaining, and improving this model. This work participation also improves the implementation of established controls.

  15. Occupational stress and burnout among Hong Kong dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, H B; Wong, M C

    2017-08-25

    Professional burnout has been described as a gradual erosion of a person and may be one of the possible consequences of chronic occupational stress. Although occupational stress has been surveyed among dentists in Hong Kong, no study has been published about burnout in the profession. This study aimed to evaluate burnout among Hong Kong dentists and its association with occupational stress. We surveyed a random sample of 1086 registered dentists in Hong Kong, which formed 50% of the local profession. They were mailed an anonymous questionnaire about burnout and occupational stress in 2015. The questionnaire assessed occupational stress, coping strategies, effects of stress, level of burnout, and socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents. Occupational stress assessment concerned 33 stressors in five groups: patient-related, time-related, income-related, job-related, and staff-/technically related. Level of burnout was assessed by the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (22 items) with three scores: emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation, and personal accomplishment. Completed questionnaires were received from 301 dentists (response rate, 28.3%), of whom 25.4% had a high level of emotional exhaustion, 17.2% had a high level of depersonalisation, and 39.0% had a low level of personal accomplishment. Only 7.0% of respondents, however, had a high level of overall burnout (high emotional exhaustion, high depersonalisation, and low personal accomplishment). A high level of overall burnout was significantly associated with a higher mean score for job-related stressors and lack of postgraduate qualifications (Pburnout. There was a positive association between occupational stress and level of burnout.

  16. Performers' responses to stressors encountered in sport organisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, David; Hanton, Sheldon; Wagstaff, Christopher R D

    2012-01-01

    We investigated athletes' responses to organisational stressors. Ten sport performers (five males and five females) were interviewed with regard to the organisational-related demands they had encountered and their responses to these stressors. The main emotional responses that were revealed were anger, anxiety, disappointment, distress, happiness, hope, relief, reproach and resentment. The main attitudinal responses were beliefs, motivation and satisfaction. The main behavioural responses were categorised as verbal and physical. The data indicate that performers generally respond to organisational stressors with a wide range of emotions, attitudes and behaviours. The findings are discussed in relation to the extant literature and in terms of their implications for applied practice and future research. Consultants should employ reactive strategies alongside proactive approaches to ensure that performers are psychologically prepared to manage and cope with any demands that are not eliminated. Future research should focus on performers' cognitive appraisals of the organisational stressors they encounter.

  17. Occupational and environmental lung disease: occupational asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenton, S C

    2010-01-01

    Occupational exposures cause 10-15% of new-onset asthma in adults, and that represents a considerable health and economic burden. Exposure to many causative agents is now well controlled but workplace practices are constantly evolving and new hazards being introduced. Overall, there is no good evidence that the incidence of occupational asthma is decreasing. Evidence-based guidelines such as those published by the British Occupational Health research Foundation and Standards of Care documents should help raise awareness of the problem and improve management. Key targets include the control of occupational exposures, a high index of suspicion in any adult with new onset asthma, and early detailed investigation.

  18. Prenatal stressors in rodents: Effects on behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Weinstock

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The current review focuses on studies in rodents published since 2008 and explores possible reasons for any differences they report in the effects of gestational stress on various types of behavior in the offspring. An abundance of experimental data shows that different maternal stressors in rodents can replicate some of the abnormalities in offspring behavior observed in humans. These include, anxiety, in juvenile and adult rats and mice, assessed in the elevated plus maze and open field tests and depression, detected in the forced swim and sucrose-preference tests. Deficits were reported in social interaction that is suggestive of pathology associated with schizophrenia, and in spatial learning and memory in adult rats in the Morris water maze test, but in most studies only males were tested. There were too few studies on the novel object recognition test at different inter-trial intervals to enable a conclusion about the effect of prenatal stress and whether any deficits are more prevalent in males. Among hippocampal glutamate receptors, NR2B was the only subtype consistently reduced in association with learning deficits. However, like in humans with schizophrenia and depression, prenatal stress lowered hippocampal levels of BDNF, which were closely correlated with decreases in hippocampal long-term potentiation. In mice, down-regulation of BDNF appeared to occur through the action of gene-methylating enzymes that are already increased above controls in prenatally-stressed neonates. In conclusion, the data obtained so far from experiments in rodents lend support to a physiological basis for the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia and depression.

  19. Simulation of annual electric lighting demand using various occupancy profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Anne; Andersen, Philip Hvidthøft Delff; Svendsen, Svend

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes an investigation of the effect on electric lighting demand of applying occupancy models of various resolution to climate-based daylight modelling. The lighting demand was evaluated for a building zone with the occupant always present, with occupancy corresponding to absence...... factors, based on an estimated annual mean occupancy, based on estimated 1-hour mean occupancy, and based on 2-min occupancy intervals. The results showed little difference in the annual electric lighting demand when the same occupancy profile was used every day, as opposed to when profiles were used...... where occupancy varied every day. Furthermore, the results showed that annual electric lighting demand was evaluated slightly conservatively when a mean absence factor was applied as opposed to using dynamic occupancy profiles....

  20. Parentally Bereaved Children’s Grief: Self-system Beliefs as Mediators of the Relations between Grief and Stressors and Caregiver-child Relationship Quality

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    We investigated whether three self-system beliefs -- fear of abandonment, coping efficacy, and self-esteem -- mediated the relations between stressors and caregiver-child relationship quality and parentally bereaved youths’ general grief and intrusive grief thoughts. Cross-sectional (n=340 youth) and longitudinal (n=100 youth) models were tested. In the cross-sectional model, fear of abandonment mediated the effects of stressors and relationship quality on both measures of grief and coping ef...

  1. Clinical Laboratory Stressors Used to Study Alcohol–Stress Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Suzanne; Bacon, Amy K.; Sinha, Rajita; Uhart, Magdalena; Adinoff, Bryon

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the biologic systems that underlie the relationship between stress and alcohol consumption may lead to better prevention efforts and more effective treatments for alcoholism. Clinical laboratory studies offer a unique opportunity to examine these relationships by using a controlled environment to study how an acute stressor affects alcohol drinking and alcohol craving, how individuals in recovery or those at risk for alcoholism may respond differently to stressors relative to co...

  2. Tools and perspectives for assessing chemical mixtures and multiple stressors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkke, Hans; Ragas, Ad M. J.; Holmstrup, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The present paper summarizes the most important insights and findings of the EU NoMiracle project with a focus on (1) risk assessment of chemical mixtures, (2) combinations of chemical and natural stressors, and (3) the receptor-oriented approach in cumulative risk assessment. The project aimed a...... is suggested. The results are discussed in the light of recent developments in risk assessment of mixtures and multiple stressors....

  3. The organisational stressors encountered by athletes with a disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Rachel; Wagstaff, Christopher R D; Steadman, Lauren; Pratt, Yasmin

    2017-06-01

    Organisational stressors have been found to be prevalent and problematic for sport performers, with research identifying demographic differences in the stressors encountered. Nevertheless, extant sport psychology research on the topic of stress has generally focused on able-bodied athletes; whilst that which has been conducted on performers with a disability has typically recruited relatively small samples to explore a narrow selection of organisational stressors, or examined other components of the stress process. The purpose of the present study was to explore the various organisational stressors that athletes with a disability encounter. The sample comprised 18 elite athletes with a disability (10 male, 8 female) who had a classified disability and experience of competing at a major championships in their sport (e.g., Paralympic Games, World Championships). Participants took part in a semi-structured interview which was analysed by drawing from grounded theory procedures. A total of 316 organisational stressors were identified, which were abstracted into 31 concepts and four, previously conceptualised, exploratory schemes: leadership and personnel issues, cultural and team issues, logistical and environmental issues, and performance and personal issues. This study not only provides the first illustration of the prevalence of organisational stressors for athletes with a disability, but also significantly points to salient similarities and distinct differences between the stress experiences of performers with and without a disability.

  4. A longitudinal application of three health behaviour models in the context of skin protection behaviour in individuals with occupational skin disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matterne, Uwe; Diepgen, Thomas L; Weisshaar, Elke

    2011-09-01

    Occupational skin disease (OSD) is common, associated with poor prognosis and poses a significant burden to the individual and society. We applied the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), the prototype-willingness model (PWM) and the health action process approach (HAPA) to the prediction and explanation of occupationally relevant skin protection behaviour in individuals with OSD. We used a longitudinal design. In this study, 150 individuals participating in a 3-week inpatient tertiary prevention programme completed measures assessing the constructs of the TPB, PWM and HAPA at admission (T 0), discharge (T 1) and once the individual had returned to work and worked for 4 consecutive weeks (T 2) (n = 117). Intention was measured at T 0 and skin protection behaviour at T 2. Path analysis was used to assess the longitudinal associations of the models' constructs with intention and skin protection behaviour. TPB as well as PWM variables accounted for 30% of variance in behaviour, HAPA variables for 33%. While not all predictions were confirmed by the data, all three models are able to inform us about the formation of skin protection intention and behaviour in individuals with OSD. The findings are discussed in light of future interventions and research.

  5. The effects of exposure to multiple occupational health stressors on distortion product otoacoustic emissions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Edwards, A

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available -induced hearing loss (NIHL). Furthermore, exposure to heat is believed to influence the biochemical properties of cochlear outer hair cells (OHCs) and heat stress structurally modifies the OHCs, making them stiffer through an increase in F-actin5. This experiment...

  6. Stress and the neuroendocrine system: the role of exercise as a stressor and modifier of stress

    OpenAIRE

    Hackney, Anthony C

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the physiological impact of one form of stress – physical exercise – on the neuroendocrine system will be discussed. The specific intent of the review is to present an overview of stress endocrinology, the conceptual models associated with this area of study, and a discourse on the dual role of exercise as both a stressor and a modifier of stress within the neuroendocrine system. These points are addressed with respect to the current research literature dealing with exercise ...

  7. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Occupational Therapy Cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    This document, which is intended to serve as a guide for work force preparation program providers, details the Illinois occupational skill standards for programs preparing students for employment in jobs in occupational therapy. Agency partners involved in this project include: the Illinois State board of Education, Illinois Community College…

  8. A General Theoretical Integrative Model of Individual Differences in Interests, Abilities, Personality Traits, and Academic and Occupational Achievement: A Commentary on Four Recent Articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Frank L

    2014-03-01

    This commentary integrates the contents of four recent articles on individual differences (Nye, Su, Rounds, & Drasgow, 2012; Schmidt, 2011; Valla & Ceci, 2011; von Stumm, Hell, & Chamorro-Premuzic, 2011) in a causal theoretical model. In this model, introversion and fluid intelligence cause interest in general learning (intellectual curiosity), which in turn is a major cause of crystallized intelligence. Certain specific interests and fluid intelligence also contribute to crystallized intelligence. Prenatal testosterone hormone conditioning is postulated to cause sex differences in certain specific interests but not in others. Crystallized intelligence, specific interests, and the personality trait of conscientiousness cause adult academic and occupational performance, whereas crystallized intelligence is the main cause of good mental functioning at older ages. Research is presented supporting each link in the model.

  9. American Occupational Therapy Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Manage Your Practice Evidence-Based Practice & Research Ethics Occupational Therapy Assistants Advocacy & Policy New Evaluation Codes Learn how ... Reimbursement Education & Careers OT is a Top Job Occupational therapy consistently ranks high as one of the top ...

  10. Abusive supervision and workload demands from supervisors: exploring two types of supervisor-related stressors and their association with strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tsung-Yu; Hu, Changya; Yang, Chun-Chi

    2013-08-01

    Our study aimed to identify two types of stressors from supervisors: abusive supervision (AS) and workload demands from supervisors (WDS). AS reflects the relationship dimension of supervisor-related stressors, and WDS reflects the task dimension of supervisor-related stressors. In Study 1, we attempted to distinguish between AS and WDS. The results of confirmatory factor analysis showed that AS and WDS are two distinct dimensions of supervisor-related stressors. In Study 2, we utilized job demands-resources model and investigated whether AS and WDS can uniquely predict subordinates' emotional exhaustion (EE). We also explored whether perceived job characteristics (PJCs) have differential moderating effects on the relationships between the two dimensions of supervisor-related stressors (AS and WDS) and EE. Consistent with our predictions, the results showed that both AS and WDS have incremental predictive effects on EE after controlling for the effect of the other. The results also revealed that PJCs weaken the WDS-EE relationship, not the AS-EE relationship. We discussed the theoretical and practical implications at the end.

  11. Affect in response to stressors and coping strategies: an ecological momentary assessment study of borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhury, Sadia R; Galfalvy, Hanga; Biggs, Emily; Choo, Tse-Hwei; Mann, J John; Stanley, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Affect instability is a core symptom of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Ecological momentary assessment allows for an understanding of real-time changes in affect in response to various daily stressors. The purpose of this study was to explore changes in affect in response to specific stressors and coping strategies in subjects with BPD utilizing ecological momentary assessment (EMA) methodology. Subjects (n = 50) with BPD were asked to complete real-time assessments about stressors experienced, affect felt, and coping strategies employed six times per day for a 1-week period. Mixed effect regression models were used to measure the effect of stressors and coping strategies on affect change. While most stressors led to experiencing more negative affect, only being in a disagreement was independently associated with increased negative affect. Among coping strategies, only doing something good for oneself independently reduced negative affect, controlling for all other coping strategies used. These findings provide valuable insights into affective instability in BPD and can help inform treatment with individuals with the disorder.

  12. Measuring occupational stress: development of the pressure management indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S; Cooper, C L

    1998-10-01

    The study of occupational stress is hindered by the lack of compact and comprehensive standardized measurement tools. The Pressure Management Indicator (PMI) is a 120-item self-report questionnaire developed from the Occupational Stress Indicator (OSI). The PMI is more reliable, more comprehensive, and shorter than the OSI. It provides an integrated measure of the major dimensions of occupational stress. The outcome scales measure job satisfaction, organizational satisfaction, organizational security, organizational commitment, anxiety--depression, resilience, worry, physical symptoms, and exhaustion. The stressor scales cover pressure from workload, relationships, career development, managerial responsibility, personal responsibility, home demands, and daily hassles. The moderator variables measure drive, impatience, control, decision latitude, and the coping strategies of problem focus, life work balance, and social support.

  13. What does "occupation" represent as an indicator of socioeconomic status?: exploring occupational prestige and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujishiro, Kaori; Xu, Jun; Gong, Fang

    2010-12-01

    The association between socioeconomic status (SES) and health has been widely documented. However, the role of occupation in this association is not clear because occupation is less often used than income and education as an indicator of SES, especially in the United States. This may be caused by the ambiguity in what occupation represents: both health-enhancing resources (e.g., self-affirmation) and health-damaging hazards (e.g., job stress). SES has two aspects: resources and status. While income and education represent resources and imply status, occupational prestige is an explicit indicator of the social status afforded by one's occupation. Using data from the US General Social Survey in 2002 and 2006 (n = 3151), we examine whether occupational prestige has a significant association with self-rated health independent from other SES indicators (income, education), occupational categories (e.g., managerial, professional, technical, service), and previously established work-related health determinants (job strain, work place social support, job satisfaction). After all covariates were included in the multiple logistic regression model, higher occupational prestige was associated with lower odds of reporting poor/fair self-rated health. We discuss potential mechanisms through which occupational prestige may impact health. Our findings not only suggest multiple ways that occupation is associated with health, but also highlight the utility of occupational prestige as an SES indicator that explicitly represents social standing. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Occupational medicine and toxicology

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Abstract This editorial is to announce the Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, a new Open Access, peer-reviewed, online journal published by BioMed Central. Occupational medicine and toxicology belong to the most wide ranging disciplines of all medical specialties. The field is devoted to the diagnosis, prevention, management and scientific analysis of diseases from the fields of occupational and environmental medicine and toxicology. It also covers the promotion of occupational ...

  15. Principal Approaches to Understanding Occupation and Occupational Science Found in the Chilean Journal of Occupational Therapy (2001–2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Silvia; Tapia, María Jesús; Rueda, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Background The progression of occupational science in Chile is documented in the main scientific publication of the field, the Chilean Journal of Occupational Therapy (RChTO). Objective Identify approaches to understanding and applying occupation and occupational science as elucidated in the RChTO. Methodology A systematic qualitative review of the journal (2001–2012) identified articles elucidating an approach to understanding and application operationally defined as references to specific authors, theories, models/paradigms, definitions, and other fields that support approaches to O/OS. Results The study identified two main approaches. The first considers occupation/occupational science from a practical perspective or as a means to explain human behavior; the second considers occupation/occupational science as an object of study. Each approach is further divided into categories. Conclusion This study provides a novel perspective on regional use of occupational science concepts. These findings contribute to our understanding of this science in context and to recognition of the cultural relevance of these scientific concepts.

  16. Stressors, Resources, and Stress Responses in Pregnant African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giurgescu, Carmen; Kavanaugh, Karen; Norr, Kathleen F.; Dancy, Barbara L.; Twigg, Naomi; McFarlin, Barbara L.; Engeland, Christopher G.; Hennessy, Mary Dawn; White-Traut, Rosemary C.

    2013-01-01

    This research aimed to develop an initial understanding of the stressors, stress responses, and personal resources that impact African American women during pregnancy, potentially leading to preterm birth. Guided by the ecological model, a prospective, mixed-methods, complementarity design was used with 11 pregnant women and 8 of their significant others. Our integrated analysis of quantitative and qualitative data revealed 2 types of stress responses: high stress responses (7 women) and low stress responses (4 women). Patterns of stress responses were seen in psychological stress and cervical remodeling (attenuation or cervical length). All women in the high stress responses group had high depression and/or low psychological well-being and abnormal cervical remodeling at one or both data collection times. All but 1 woman had at least 3 sources of stress (racial, neighborhood, financial, or network). In contrast, 3 of the 4 women in the low stress responses group had only 2 sources of stress (racial, neighborhood, financial, or network) and 1 had none; these women also reported higher perceived support. The findings demonstrate the importance of periodically assessing stress in African American women during pregnancy, particularly related to their support network as well as the positive supports they receive. PMID:23360946

  17. Relationships among supervisor feedback environment, work-related stressors, and employee deviance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jei-Chen; Tseng, Mei-Man; Lee, Yin-Ling

    2011-03-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that the employee deviance imposes enormous costs on organizational performance and productivity. Similar research supports the positive effect of favorable supervisor feedback on employee job performance. In light of such, it is important to understand the interaction between supervisor feedback environment and employee deviant behavior to streamline organization operations. The purposes of this study were to explore how the supervisor feedback environment influences employee deviance and to examine the mediating role played by work-related stressors. Data were collected from 276 subordinate-supervisor dyads at a regional hospital in Yilan. Structural equation modeling analyses were conducted to test hypotheses. Structural equation modeling analysis results show that supervisor feedback environment negatively related to interpersonal and organizational deviance. Moreover, work-related stressors were found to partially mediate the relationship between supervisor feedback environment and employee deviance. Study findings suggest that when employees (nurses in this case) perceive an appropriate supervisor-provided feedback environment, their deviance is suppressed because of the related reduction in work-related stressors. Thus, to decrease deviant behavior, organizations may foster supervisor integration of disseminated knowledge such as (a) how to improve employees' actual performance, (b) how to effectively clarify expected performance, and (c) how to improve continuous performance feedback. If supervisors absorb this integrated feedback knowledge, they should be in a better position to enhance their own daily interactions with nurses and reduce nurses' work-related stress and, consequently, decrease deviant behavior.

  18. Forecasting the relative influence of environmental and anthropogenic stressors on polar bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Todd C.; Marcot, Bruce G; Douglas, David C.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Rode, Karyn D.; Durner, George M.; Bromaghin, Jeffrey F.

    2016-01-01

    Effective conservation planning requires understanding and ranking threats to wildlife populations. We developed a Bayesian network model to evaluate the relative influence of environmental and anthropogenic stressors, and their mitigation, on the persistence of polar bears (Ursus maritimus). Overall sea ice conditions, affected by rising global temperatures, were the most influential determinant of population outcomes. Accordingly, unabated rise in atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations was the dominant influence leading to worsened population outcomes, with polar bears in three of four ecoregions reaching a dominant probability of decreased or greatly decreased by the latter part of this century. Stabilization of atmospheric GHG concentrations by mid-century delayed the greatly reduced state by ≈25 yr in two ecoregions. Prompt and aggressive mitigation of emissions reduced the probability of any regional population becoming greatly reduced by up to 25%. Marine prey availability, linked closely to sea ice trend, had slightly less influence on outcome state than sea ice availability itself. Reduced mortality from hunting and defense of life and property interactions resulted in modest declines in the probability of a decreased or greatly decreased population outcome. Minimizing other stressors such as trans-Arctic shipping, oil and gas exploration, and contaminants had a negligible effect on polar bear outcomes, although the model was not well-informed with respect to the potential influence of these stressors. Adverse consequences of loss of sea ice habitat became more pronounced as the summer ice-free period lengthened beyond four months, which could occur in most of the Arctic basin after mid-century if GHG emissions are not promptly reduced. Long-term conservation of polar bears would be best supported by holding global mean temperature to ≤ 2°C above preindustrial levels. Until further sea ice loss is stopped, management of other stressors may

  19. Occupational cancer in Britain. Preventing occupational cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiqun; Osman, John

    2012-06-19

    Although only a relatively small proportion of cancer is attributable to occupational exposure to carcinogenic agents, the estimated number of deaths due to occupational cancer is high when compared to other deaths due to work-related ill health and injury. However, risk from occupational exposure to carcinogens can be minimised through proportionate but effective risk management. The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) is the regulator of workplace health and safety in Great Britain. As part of its aim to reduce ill health arising from failures to control properly exposure to hazards at work, HSE commissioned the research presented elsewhere in this supplement to enable it to identify priorities for preventing occupational cancer. The research has shown that occupational cancer remains a key health issue and that low-level exposure of a large number of workers to carcinogens is important. The finding that a small number of carcinogens have been responsible for the majority of the burden of occupational cancer provides key evidence in the development of priorities for significant reduction of occupational cancer. Although the research presented in this supplement reflects the consequences of past exposures to carcinogens, occupational cancer remains a problem. The potential for exposure to the agents considered in this research is still present in the workplace and the findings are relevant to prevention of future disease. In this article, the principle approaches for risk reduction are described. It provides supporting information on some of the initiatives already being undertaken, or those being put in place, to reduce occupational cancer in Great Britain. The need also for systematic collection of exposure information and the importance of raising awareness and changing behaviours are discussed.

  20. Demographic differences in sport performers' experiences of organizational stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, R; Fletcher, D; Daniels, K

    2016-03-01

    Organizational stressors are particularly prevalent across sport performers' experiences and can influence their performance, health, and well-being. Research has been conducted to identify which organizational stressors are encountered by sport performers, but little is known about how these experiences vary from athlete to athlete. The purpose of this study was to examine if the frequency, intensity, and duration of the organizational stressors that sport performers encounter vary as a function of gender, sport type, and performance level. Participants (n = 1277) completed the Organizational Stressor Indicator for Sport Performers (OSI-SP; Arnold et al., 2013), and the resultant data were analyzed using multivariate analyses of covariance. The findings show that demographic differences are apparent in the dimensions of the goals and development, logistics and operations, team and culture, coaching, and selection organizational stressors that sport performers encounter. More specifically, significant differences were found between males and females, between team and individual-based performers, and between performers competing at national or international, regional or university, and county or club levels. These findings have important implications for theory and research on organizational stress, and for the development of stress management interventions with sport performers.

  1. Predicting the persistence of coastal wetlands to global change stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guntenspergen, G.; McKee, K.; Cahoon, D.; Grace, J.; Megonigal, P.

    2006-01-01

    Despite progress toward understanding the response of coastal wetlands to increases in relative sea-level rise and an improved understanding of the effect of elevated CO2 on plant species allocation patterns, we are limited in our ability to predict the response of coastal wetlands to the effects associated with global change. Static simulations of the response of coastal wetlands to sea-level rise using LIDAR and GIS lack the biological and physical feedback mechanisms present in such systems. Evidence from current research suggests that biotic processes are likely to have a major influence on marsh vulnerability to future accelerated rates of sea-level rise and the influence of biotic processes likely varies depending on hydrogeomorphic setting and external stressors. We have initiated a new research approach using a series of controlled mesocosm and field experiments, landscape scale studies, a comparative network of brackish coastal wetland monitoring sites and a suite of predictive models that address critical questions regarding the vulnerability of coastal brackish wetland systems to global change. Specifically, this research project evaluates the interaction of sea level rise and elevated CO2 concentrations with flooding, nutrient enrichment and disturbance effects. The study is organized in a hierarchical structure that links mesocosm, field, landscape and biogeographic levels so as to provide important new information that recognizes that coastal wetland systems respond to multiple interacting drivers and feedback effects controlling wetland surface elevation, habitat stability and ecosystem function. We also present a new statistical modelling technique (Structural Equation Modelling) that synthesizes and integrates our environmental and biotic measures in a predictive framework that forecasts ecosystem change and informs managers to consider adaptive shifts in strategies for the sustainable management of coastal wetlands.

  2. Occupational stress perception and its potential impact on work ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Mei; Nasterlack, Michael; Pluto, Rolf-Peter; Lang, Stefan; Oberlinner, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    To examine perceived stress across employees with different occupational status, to investigate the impact of stress on work ability and to derive conclusions regarding health promotion activities. A comprehensive survey combining questionnaire and medical examination was offered in one division in BASF Ludwigshafen. Among 867 voluntary participants, 653 returned complete questionnaires. The questions were directed at perception of safety at the workplace, self-rated health status, frequency of stress symptoms, unrealistic job demands, time pressure and maladjustment of work life balance. The outcome of interest was self-estimated health measured by the Work Ability Index (WAI). Occupational stressors were perceived differently across occupational status groups. Frontline operators had more health concerns due to workplace conditions, while professional and managerial staff reported higher frequencies of perceived tension, time pressure, and maladjustment of work life balance. After adjustment for occupational status, demographic and lifestyle factors, perceived stress was associated with a modest to strong decline in WAI scores. While perceived occupational stress had an apparent impact on WAI, and WAI has been demonstrated to be predictive of early retirement, more intensive and employee group-specific stress management interventions are being implemented beyond traditional strategies of routine occupational medical surveillance.

  3. Occupational Stress and Turnover Intention: Implications for Nursing Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammad Mosadeghrad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe main purpose of this study was to explore the status of occupational stress among hospital nurses in Isfahan, Iran. It also aimed to examine the relationship between nurses’ occupational stress and their intention to leave the hospital. MethodsThe study employed a cross-sectional research design. A validated questionnaire was used to collect data from 296 nurses. Respondents were asked to rate the intensity of 30 common occupational stressors using a five-point scale. ResultsA third of hospital nurses rated their occupational stress high. The major sources of stress were inadequate pay, inequality at work, too much work, staff shortage, lack of promotion, job insecurity and lack of management support. More than 35% of nurses stated that they are considering leaving the hospital, if they could find another job opportunity. Occupational stress was positively associated with nurses’ turnover intentions. ConclusionHospital managers should develop and apply appropriate policies and strategies to reduce occupational stress and consequently nurses’ turnover intention.

  4. Manifestation of Workplace Stressors among Banking Personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Amudha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Stress is the physiological or psychological imbalance among the individuals when they find a disparity between a situational demand and their ability. Traditionally, management has taken the problem of stress as the workers’ personal problem and the management also blamed the workers that they are not fitting themselves into the working environment. But, now-a-days, the management analyses the job requirements and the social relationships as the prime indicators of stress. With the advent of the technological inventions, the nature of job is deskilled and the worker is totally disconnected from the end product. This paved way for the high degree of boredom and decreased scope for improvisation. The objective of this study is to analyze the impact of socio-economic factors influencing the level of stress among the employees in State Bank of India, Tiruchirapalli. Random sampling method is used to collect the primary data from 150 employees of branches of State Bank of India in Tiruchirapalli district by administering a questionnaire. SPSS package is used to analyses the data collected with the help of ANOVA single factor and Weighted ANOVA. The results show that age and educational qualification, gender marital status and annual income do not influence the level of occupational stress. The increased level of stress for experienced respondents is due to the job hierarchy and extended responsibilities in the job. They stressed because of their expectation in the career elevation and incapacity to cope up with the innovation in the technologies. The respondents feel that they can manage in acquiring skill and knowledge to cope up with the job requirements and expectations.

  5. Hydrogen peroxide as pre-treatment stressor in experimental immer-sion challenge of rainbow trout fry with Flavobacterium psychrophilum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Maya Maria Mihályi; Madsen, Lone; Dalsgaard, Inger

    2012-01-01

    . Non-medical therapeutic substances are routinely used against pathogens in aquacultures, including copper sulphate, chloramine-T, sodium carbonates, sodium chloride, formalin and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). One of the more successful immersion models used formalin as a stressor, but a less harmful...

  6. Depression in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Role of ASD Vulnerabilities and Family-Environmental Stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Stephanie; Lunsky, Yona; Weiss, Jonathan A.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at an increased risk of mental health problems, with depression being one of the most common presenting issues. The current study used a diathesis-stress model to investigate stressors (parent distress and negative life events [NLE]) and vulnerabilities (youth age and intellectual functioning) as…

  7. Depression in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Role of ASD Vulnerabilities and Family-Environmental Stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Stephanie; Lunsky, Yona; Weiss, Jonathan A.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at an increased risk of mental health problems, with depression being one of the most common presenting issues. The current study used a diathesis-stress model to investigate stressors (parent distress and negative life events [NLE]) and vulnerabilities (youth age and intellectual functioning) as…

  8. Self-Efficacy, School Resources, Job Stressors and Burnout among Spanish Primary and Secondary School Teachers: A Structural Equation Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betoret, Fernando Domenech

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between school resources, teacher self-efficacy, potential multi-level stressors and teacher burnout using structural equation modelling. The causal structure for primary and secondary school teachers was also examined. The sample was composed of 724 primary and secondary Spanish school teachers. The changes…

  9. Site-specific muscle hyper-reactivity in musicians with occupational upper limb pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulton, B; Spence, S H

    1992-07-01

    Fourteen musicians who reported a history of pain in the upper limb associated with the playing of their instruments were compared with a sample of pain-free musicians, matched for age, sex and musical instrument. Four tasks were presented in random order and included neutral, general stressor, personal stressor and pain stressor tasks. Ratings of stressfulness and recordings of skin conductance level confirmed the effectiveness of the experimental manipulations for both subject groups. No differences were found between groups or tasks for frontalis surface electromyograph (EMG) activity. Evidence was found, however, of EMG elevation in flexor and trapezius muscles on the pain side for the pain subjects, in response to the task involving recall of a pain experience. This elevation was not found for the pain-free controls or for other stressor tasks, although some elevation in response to the pain stressor task was found for pain subjects in the trapezius muscles of the non-pain side. The duration of return to baseline of EMG following the pain stressor task was found to be extended in pain subjects for the trapezius, but not for the flexor muscles of the pain side. The findings suggest that site-specific muscle hyper-reactivity may play a role in the development and maintenance of occupational upper limb pain in musicians.

  10. Study of occupation health risk assessment on Chinese coal mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Guo-qing; YAN Xiang-nong

    2007-01-01

    Factors of occupation health hazard were identified and analyzed, and indexes system of occupation health risk assessment were established by applying fuzzy theory and system safety technique, the weights of index system were obtained by AHP, finally a reasonable mathematics model of occupation health risk assessment was accomplished by an example.

  11. Occupational Therapy and Special Education: Team Approach to Prevocational Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rourk, Jane Davis; Mitchell, Marlys M.

    Since passage of P.L. 94-142, the number of occupational therapists being employed in public schools is increasing significantly; the implications of this trend for special education are considered. Legislation regarding occupational therapy is reviewed, particularly regarding the use of occupational therapy in the school system. Several models of…

  12. Specific responses of monoamine neurotransmitters to various acute stressors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rongrong He; Guanyu Lin; Yifang Li; Keiich Abe; Xinsheng Yao; Hiroshi Kurihara

    2011-01-01

    This study determined the composition of histamine, serotonin and dopamine using high performance liquid chromatography and electrochemical detection, and compared the changes in monoamine levels in plasma, the cortex and midbrain of mice exposed to acute stressors, such as blood-drawing stimulation or restraint. Results demonstrated that plasma histamine levels were markedly increased when mice were exposed to blood-drawing stimulation and restraint stress. However, serotonin levels decreased in plasma of mice treated with restraint stress, and dopamine levels in plasma had no significant response to the two acute stressors. The three monoamines (histamine, serotonin and dopamine) increased at different degrees in restraint mice, but not in brain regions of blood-drawing stressed mice. Results indicated that histaminergic, serotonergic or dopaminergic systems have their own specific response to different acute stressors.

  13. Clinical laboratory stressors used to study alcohol-stress relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Suzanne; Bacon, Amy K; Sinha, Rajita; Uhart, Magdalena; Adinoff, Bryon

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the biologic systems that underlie the relationship between stress and alcohol consumption may lead to better prevention efforts and more effective treatments for alcoholism. Clinical laboratory studies offer a unique opportunity to examine these relationships by using a controlled environment to study how an acute stressor affects alcohol drinking and alcohol craving, how individuals in recovery or those at risk for alcoholism may respond differently to stressors relative to control subjects, and how alcohol differentially affects stress reactivity in these groups. This article reviews some of the most common physical, psychological, and pharmacological stressors used in stress-induction studies designed to reveal details about the relationship between stress reactivity and alcohol use and abuse.

  14. Individual and Neighborhood Stressors, Sleep Problems, and Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression Among Latino Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubens, Sonia L; Gudiño, Omar G; Fite, Paula J; Grande, Jessica M

    2016-12-15

    Limited research has examined the relation between exposure to stressors and internalizing symptoms among Latino adolescents, including factors that account for this relation. This study examined whether sleep played a role in the relation between exposure to neighborhood- (i.e., neighborhood disadvantage) and individual-level (i.e., negative life events) stressors and symptoms of anxiety and depression among a sample of 144 low-income, Latino adolescents (54% males, mean age = 16.25, SD = 1.46) attending a charter high school in a large, Midwestern city. The bias corrected bootstrap method was used to evaluate indirect effects. Significant findings indicated an indirect effect via sleep problems in the link between negative life events and anxiety. Alternative models were also explored. Results suggest that sleep problems are important to consider for interventions among Latino youth, particularly those exposed to neighborhood and individual stressors, as this may also have implications for reducing internalizing symptoms among this population. (PsycINFO Database Record

  15. Economic Stressors and Psychological Distress: Exploring Age Cohort Variation in the Wake of the Great Recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robyn Lewis; Richman, Judith A; Rospenda, Kathleen M

    2017-08-01

    This study examined processes linking age cohort, economic stressors, coping strategies and two indicators of psychological distress (i.e. depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms). Structural equation models were conducted utilizing data from a national survey that was undertaken in order to understand life change consequences of the period of economic downturn from 2007 to 2009 known as the Great Recession. Findings revealed that the associations between economic stressors and symptoms of both depression and anxiety were significantly greater for members of the millennial cohort compared with baby boomers. These effects are partly explained by the greater tendency of members of the baby boomer cohort to use active coping strategies. These findings clarify the circumstances in which age matters most for the associations among economy-related stressors, coping strategies and psychological well-being. They highlight how difficult economic circumstances influence the availability of coping strategies and, in turn, psychological well-being-and differently for younger and older age cohorts. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. The effect of multiple stressors on salt marsh end-of-season biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, J.M.; Sasser, C.E.; Cade, B.S.

    2006-01-01

    It is becoming more apparent that commonly used statistical methods (e.g., analysis of variance and regression) are not the best methods for estimating limiting relationships or stressor effects. A major challenge of estimating the effects associated with a measured subset of limiting factors is to account for the effects of unmeasured factors in an ecologically realistic matter. We used quantile regression to elucidate multiple stressor effects on end-of-season biomass data from two salt marsh sites in coastal Louisiana collected for 18 yr. Stressor effects evaluated based on available data were flooding, salinity, air temperature, cloud cover, precipitation deficit, grazing by muskrat, and surface water nitrogen and phosphorus. Precipitation deficit combined with surface water nitrogen provided the best two-parameter model to explain variation in the peak biomass with different slopes and intercepts for the two study sites. Precipitation deficit, cloud cover, and temperature were significantly correlated with each other. Surface water nitrogen was significantly correlated with surface water phosphorus and muskrat density. The site with the larger duration of flooding showed reduced peak biomass, when cloud cover and surface water nitrogen were optimal. Variation in the relatively low salinity occurring in our study area did not explain any of the variation in Spartina alterniflora biomass. ?? 2006 Estuarine Research Federation.

  17. Work stressors, Chinese coping strategies, and job performance in Greater China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Luo; Kao, Shu-Fang; Siu, Oi-Ling; Lu, Chang-Qin

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this research was to jointly test effects of work stressors and coping strategies on job performance among employees in the Greater China region. A self-administered survey was conducted to collect data from three major cities in the region, namely Beijing, Hong Kong, and Taipei (N = 380). Four important work stressors were assessed: heavy workload, organizational constraints, lack of work autonomy, and interpersonal conflict. We used a four-factor model of Chinese coping strategies composed of hobbies/relaxation, active action, seeking social support, and passive adaptation. Job performance was indicated by both task performance (quantity of work, quality of work, job knowledge) and contextual performance (attendance, getting along with others). We found that: (1) work stressors were related to job performance. Specifically, workload had a positive relation with quantity of work, whereas organizational constraints had negative relations with quantity of work and attendance. In addition, interpersonal conflict had a negative relation with getting along with others. (2) Chinese positive coping strategies were positively related to job performance. Specifically, seeking social support had positive relations with quantity of work and getting along with others, whereas active action had positive relations with attendance and job knowledge. (3) Chinese passive adaptation coping behaviors were negatively related to job performance. Specifically, passive adaptation had negative relations with quantity of work, quality of work, and getting along with others. The present study thus found joint effects of work stressors and coping behaviors among Chinese employees in the Greater China region, encompassing three sub-societies of mainland China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan. Differential effects of Chinese positive and passive coping strategies were also noted. Most importantly, all these effects were demonstrated on multiple indicators of job performance, a rarely studied

  18. Senior management leadership, social support, job design and stressor-to-strain relationships in hospital practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttigieg, Sandra C; West, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of the quality of senior management leadership on social support and job design, whose main effects on strains, and moderating effects on work stressors-to-strains relationships were assessed. A survey involving distribution of questionnaires was carried out on a random sample of health care employees in acute hospital practice in the UK. The sample comprised 65,142 respondents. The work stressors tested were quantitative overload and hostile environment, whereas strains were measured through job satisfaction and turnover intentions. Structural equation modelling and moderated regression analyses were used in the analysis. Quality of senior management leadership explained 75 per cent and 94 per cent of the variance of social support and job design respectively, whereas work stressors explained 51 per cent of the variance of strains. Social support and job design predicted job satisfaction and turnover intentions, as well as moderated significantly the relationships between quantitative workload/hostility and job satisfaction/turnover intentions. The findings are useful to management and to health employees working in acute/specialist hospitals. Further research could be done in other counties to take into account cultural differences and variations in health systems. The limitations included self-reported data and percept-percept bias due to same source data collection. The quality of senior management leaders in hospitals has an impact on the social environment, the support given to health employees, their job design, as well as work stressors and strains perceived. The study argues in favour of effective senior management leadership of hospitals, as well as ensuring adequate support structures and job design. The findings may be useful to health policy makers and human resources managers.

  19. BURNOUT SYNDROME IN NURSING STUDENTS BASED ON EFFECT OF STRESSOR, RELATIONAL MEANING AND COPING STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Mazarina Devi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Professional education program is a program in which nursing students are transformed to become professional nurses. At this level, nursing students will encounter various stressors. The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between stressors, relational meaning and coping strategy on burnout syndrome in nursing students who are undergoing professional education. Method: This was a correlational study using cross-sectional approach. Population comprised regular student of nursing profession program at the Faculty of Nursing, Airlangga University. Sample size was determined by simple random sampling and 61 persons were included in the inclusion criteria. Data then analyzed using multiple linear regression test with signi fi cance level ofα < 0.05. Results: This study found that total burnout syndrome was signi fi cantly related to relational meaning (p = 0.005, β = 0.460. Emotional exhaustion was signi fi cantly related to relational meaning (p= 0.001, β = 0.532 and emotion focused coping (p = 0.035, β =0.298. Relational meaning was also signifi cantly related to depersonalization (p = 0.002, β = 0.050. Subsequently, the decline in self-achievement was signi fi cantly related to personal stressors, i.e the number of room mates (p = 0.016, β = 0.344, total learning time/day (p = 0.036, β=0.366 and environmental stressors (workload (p = 0.039, β = -0.349. Discussion: It is suggested for students to prepare for professional education, and the Faculty of Nursing, Airlangga University, should strengthen the function of academic counselors in terms of preceptorship role model in order to avoid the risk of burnout syndrome when the nursing students undergoing professional education.

  20. Effect of alcohol consumption and psychosocial stressors on preterm and small-for-gestational-age births in HIV-infected women in South Africa: a cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sania, Ayesha; Brittain, Kirsty; Phillips, Tamsin K; Zerbe, Allison; Ronan, Agnes; Myer, Landon; Abrams, Elaine J

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Psychosocial stressors such as depression and stress, intimate partner violence (IPV) and alcohol use have been linked to preterm and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) births in general populations. The prevalence of psychosocial stressors and alcohol abuse is high in many HIV-infected (HIV+) populations. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of psychosocial stressors and alcohol abuse on birth outcomes in HIV-infected women. Methods Antenatal depression and non-specific psychological distress, periconception IPV and alcohol consumption were measured during the second trimester among HIV+ women initiating antiretroviral treatment with efavirenz + emtricitibine + tenofovir in Cape Town, South Africa. Log binomial regression models were used to estimate the risk ratios (RR) and 95% CIs of the effects of psychosocial stressors and periconception alcohol consumption on birth outcomes: SGA (birth weight child health programmes to improve the long-term health of HIV-exposed children. Trial registration number NCT01933477; Pre-results. PMID:28320796