WorldWideScience

Sample records for model occupational stressors

  1. Occupational stressors in nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Nikpeyma

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and aimsNursing provides a wide range of potential workplace stressors as it is  a profession that requires a high level of skill, teamworking in a variety of situations and provision  of 24-hour delivery of care .Occupational stress is a major factor of Staff sickness an  absenteeism.This study investigates the main occupational stressors in nursing profession in the  hope of identification and reducing it.MethodsIn this study a questionnaire consisting of three parts:demoghraphic data,the nurses  background and questions about occupational stress from Revised index fulfilled by 140 nurses.ResultsLack of reward for work well done(48/6%, Heavy workload(46/4% ,lack of Participation in decisions (39/3% , poor Control of work place(38/4%and lack of job  development (36/4% have been the main sources of Occupational stress for nurses.chronic  diseases, Night Shift working and working hours were positively associated with occupstional  stress.Conclusion Analysis indicated that effects of work factors on occupational stress are more than demoghraphic data. The findings of this study can assist health service organisations to provide an attractive working climate in order to decrease side effects and consequences of occupational stress. Furthermore, understanding this situation can help to develop coping strategies in order to reduce work-related stress.

  2. [Appraisal of occupational stressor in petrochemical industry workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiao-ping; Tian, Hong-er; Huang, Tong; Li, Zhi-yuan; Hu, Ke-ming; Ge, Xi-yong; Jin, Lei; Gao, Qi; Zhang, Jing-jing; Wang, Yu; Liu, Wen-he

    2009-12-01

    To discuss the origin of occupational stress among petrochemical industry workers and to access the main occupational stressors that impact job satisfaction and mental health of petrochemical industry workers. A survey on occupational stressor was carried out by Occupational Stress Indicator (OSI) in 532 petrochemical industry workers (345 chemical and 187 logistic workers). The environment in workplace of chemical group was worse than that of contrast. The chemical workers had less control over job and they experienced more hazards, monotonous as well as role stressors than the logistic group. The scores of job satisfaction and mental health of chemical group (36.867 +/- 0.656, 43.734 +/- 0.542, respectively) were higher than that of contrast (40.321 +/- 0.901, 46.714 +/- 0.745, respectively) (P job satisfaction and mental health with different levels.

  3. Occupational Stressors and Job Satisfaction of Pennsylvania School District Superintendents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Kevin T.

    2017-01-01

    Today's superintendents face increasingly non-routine and complex problems that are educational, managerial, and political in nature. This study investigated occupational stressors and job satisfaction of school superintendents in Pennsylvania. This was accomplished through self-report of superintendents and through the perspective of school board…

  4. Military Occupational Stressors in Garrison, Training, and Deployed Environments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adler, Amy

    2004-01-01

    As part of the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR) program to model soldier stress, health, and performance, stressors are analyzed across a variety of environments in terms of their impact on military personnel...

  5. Role of maternal occupational physical activity and psychosocial stressors on adverse birth outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Laura J; Symanski, Elaine; Lupo, Philip J; Tinker, Sarah C; Razzaghi, Hilda; Chan, Wenyaw; Hoyt, Adrienne T; Canfield, Mark A

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We examined the association of an array of estimated maternal occupational physical activities and psychosocial stressors during pregnancy with odds for preterm birth (PTB) and small-for-gestational age (SGA). Methods Data for infants born without major birth defects delivered from 1997 to 2009 whose mothers reported working at least 1 month during pregnancy were obtained from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. We linked occupational codes to the US Department of Labor’s Occupational Information Network, which provides estimates of exposure for multiple domains of physical activity and psychosocial stressors by occupational categories. We conducted factor analysis using principal components extraction with 17 occupational activities and calculated factor scores. ORs for PTB and SGA across quartiles of factor scores in each trimester were computed using logistic regression. Results Factor analysis grouped occupational domains into 4 groups based on factor loadings. These groups were ‘occupational physical activity’, ‘interpersonal stressor’, ‘automated work’ and ‘job responsibility’. High levels of ‘occupational physical activity’ were significantly associated with SGA (adjusted OR (AOR) for highest quartile compared with lowest quartile of factor score: 1.36; 95% CIs 1.02 to 1.82; p for trend=0.001) and were also positively associated with PTB (AOR: 1.24; 95% CI 0.93 to 1.64; p for trend=0.01). No clear results were observed across domains of psychosocial stressors. Conclusions Our findings expand understanding of associations between occupational physical activity and psychosocial stressors and PTB and SGA and suggest that additional research is needed to further examine these relationships. PMID:27919059

  6. Going beyond the injury: regulatory conditions contributing to Latina/o immigrants’ occupational psychosocial stressors

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    Airin Denise Martinez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Utilizing a psychosocial stress approach, we report psychosocial stressors that Latina/o immigrant day laborers in Baltimore report as workplace hazards and the contextual factors that shape these stressors. METHODS: Through a community-academic partnership, we conducted focus groups (n=18 and key informant interviews (n=9 using instruments developed between academics and the community partner to inquire Latina/o immigrants’ jobs, hazard awareness, occupational illnesses and injuries, and reporting behaviors. We conducted a transcript-based thematic analysis.RESULTS: The psychosocial stressors that Latina/o day laborers report as dangers at work are anxiety beating the deadline and fear from wage theft, sudden termination and immigration enforcement.DISCUSSION: More attention needs to be given to Latina/o immigrant day laborers’ occupational psychosocial risks. Policies should be made to lower barriers for Latina/o immigrants to report grievances to state agencies.

  7. REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH IN RICKSHAW DRIVERS: Occupational Exposure to Environmental Stressor

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    Ghulam. Nabi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: In urban environment, exposure to the emission of motor vehicles is common. In urban peoples it is a very difficult task to distinguish among peoples with different grades of momentous period exposure to such pollutants. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of diesel exhaust, gasoline emission, Particulate Matter (PM noise and heat on the reproductive health of rickshaw drivers. Methods: Adult married male individuals were recruited randomly in the study from Btkhella, Malakand agency, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Two groups were made, control (n=45 and rickshaw drivers (n=50. A special questionnaire was designed about occupational activities, socio-demographic and clinical characteristics. From both groups 5 mL of the blood was collected and was analyze for serum total testosterone and cortisol using Biocheck (USA and Antibodies-online GmbH (Germany kits. Results: In control group the Mean±SEM of total serum testosterone was 657.6±16.84 ng/dl and cortisol was 443.8±14.67 mU/L. In rickshaw drivers the Mean±SEM of total serum testosterone was 577.1±11.42 ng/dl and cortisol was 595.1±8.879mU/L. In rickshaw drivers there was a significant reduction in total serum testosterone (P0.0002 but a significant increase in serum cortisol level (P < 0.0001 at 95% confidence interval. Conclusions: Reproductive health problems like decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, absent morning and nocturnal erection, ejaculatory problems, primary infertility and secondary infertility were prevalent in rickshaw drivers but, no such problems were found in control group. Chronic exposure to pollutants such as diesel exhaust, gasoline emission, Particulate Matter (PM noise and heat negatively regulate Hypothalmo-Pituitary Gonadal axis (HPG leading  to reproductive problems.

  8. The Heath Occupational Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, William E.

    1990-01-01

    Career development programs must identify occupational needs of adults. A model based on Maslow's hierarchy develops occupational questions related to individual motivations (physiology, safety, love, esteem, and self-actualization). Individual needs are then compared with characteristics and benefits of proposed jobs, companies, or careers. (SK)

  9. Occupational stressors, burnout and coping strategies between hospital and community psychiatric nurses in a Dublin region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTiernan, K; McDonald, N

    2015-04-01

    Burnout negatively impacts the delivery of mental health services. Psychiatric nurses face stressors that are distinct from other nursing specialities. The research was conducted in Ireland and captured a relatively large sample of respondents. The results compared the stressors, coping strategies and burnout levels between hospital and community-based psychiatric nurses. Occupational stress can negatively impact on the well-being of psychiatric nurses, which in turn can lead to poor client care. There is a dearth of published research conducted in Ireland that examines stress within the discipline. A between-groups study, undertaken in February 2011, investigated stressors, burnout and coping strategies between hospital and community-based psychiatric nurses in a Dublin region. Sixty-nine participants (8 males and 61 females), aged between 18 to 60 years voluntarily completed the Mental Health Professional Stress Scale, the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the PsychNurse Methods of Coping Scale. The findings revealed that nurses were operating in a moderately stressful environment. Stressors focused on organizational issues as opposed to client issues. The main stressors identified were lack of resources, workload and organizational structures/processes. Both groups reported average levels of emotional exhaustion, low levels of depersonalization and average levels of personal accomplishment. A Mann-Whitney U-test and Independent Samples t-test found significant differences between hospital and community-based nurses regarding depersonalization and personal accomplishment, respectively. Hospital nurses reported higher depersonalization scores, and community nurses had a greater sense of personal accomplishment. The personal accomplishment scores of hospital nurses were below mental health professional norms. No significant differences emerged regarding coping strategies. Avoidant coping strategies were favoured by both groups. It is recommended that interventions

  10. Associations of Occupational Stressors, Perceived Organizational Support, and Psychological Capital with Work Engagement among Chinese Female Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoxi; Liu, Li; Zou, Futing; Hao, Junhui; Wu, Hui

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the associations of occupational stressors (extrinsic effort, reward, and overcommitment), perceived organizational support (POS), and psychological capital (PsyCap) and its components (self-efficacy, hope, resilience, and optimism) with work engagement and the mediating roles of PsyCap and its components among Chinese female nurses within the framework of the job demands-resources (JD-R) model. A cross-sectional sample (1,330) completed the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, Effort-Reward Imbalance Scale, Survey of POS, and PsyCap Questionnaire, and effective respondents were 1,016 (76.4%). Hierarchical regression analysis and Preacher and Hayes' asymptotic and resampling strategies were used. Extrinsic effort was negatively associated with vigor, dedication, and absorption, while POS, PsyCap, and hope were positively associated with them. Reward and overcommitment were positively associated with dedication and absorption. Optimism was positively associated with vigor and dedication. Optimism mediated the associations of extrinsic effort, reward, and POS with vigor and dedication. PsyCap and hope mediated the associations of POS with vigor, dedication, and absorption. There is a low level of work engagement among Chinese female nurses. Extrinsic effort could reduce work engagement, while reward, overcommitment, POS, PsyCap, hope, and optimism could enhance work engagement. Hospital managers should develop the PsyCap of female nurses through controlling occupational stressors and establishing supportive organizational climate to enhance their work engagement.

  11. The psychological costs of owning and managing an SME: Linking job stressors, occupational loneliness, entrepreneurial orientation, and burnout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Fernet

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of occupational stress in small-to-medium enterprise (SMEs owner-managers by delving further into individual and contextual factors that make them vulnerable to burnout. From a relational perspective, the authors propose that job stressors related to SME management can predict burnout through the feeling of occupational loneliness, and that this indirect relationship is moderated by the entrepreneurial orientation of the owner-manager. The proposed moderated mediation model was supported by multiwave data collected from 377 owner-managers in France as well as its invariance across business size. The results showed that the conditional indirect effect of loneliness was stronger and significant when entrepreneurial orientation is low, but weaker and not significant when entrepreneurial orientation is high. This finding provides a starting point for further investigations of burnout in SME owner-managers, and more specifically, the complex pathways by which job stressors are related to burnout.

  12. Associations of Occupational Stressors, Perceived Organizational Support, and Psychological Capital with Work Engagement among Chinese Female Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxi Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to explore the associations of occupational stressors (extrinsic effort, reward, and overcommitment, perceived organizational support (POS, and psychological capital (PsyCap and its components (self-efficacy, hope, resilience, and optimism with work engagement and the mediating roles of PsyCap and its components among Chinese female nurses within the framework of the job demands-resources (JD-R model. A cross-sectional sample (1,330 completed the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, Effort-Reward Imbalance Scale, Survey of POS, and PsyCap Questionnaire, and effective respondents were 1,016 (76.4%. Hierarchical regression analysis and Preacher and Hayes’ asymptotic and resampling strategies were used. Extrinsic effort was negatively associated with vigor, dedication, and absorption, while POS, PsyCap, and hope were positively associated with them. Reward and overcommitment were positively associated with dedication and absorption. Optimism was positively associated with vigor and dedication. Optimism mediated the associations of extrinsic effort, reward, and POS with vigor and dedication. PsyCap and hope mediated the associations of POS with vigor, dedication, and absorption. There is a low level of work engagement among Chinese female nurses. Extrinsic effort could reduce work engagement, while reward, overcommitment, POS, PsyCap, hope, and optimism could enhance work engagement. Hospital managers should develop the PsyCap of female nurses through controlling occupational stressors and establishing supportive organizational climate to enhance their work engagement.

  13. Association of Emotional Labor and Occupational Stressors with Depressive Symptoms among Women Sales Workers at a Clothing Shopping Mall in the Republic of Korea: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yuh-Jin; Jung, Woo-Chul

    2017-01-01

    In the distribution service industry, sales people often experience multiple occupational stressors such as excessive emotional labor, workplace mistreatment, and job insecurity. The present study aimed to explore the associations of these stressors with depressive symptoms among women sales workers at a clothing shopping mall in Korea. A cross sectional study was conducted on 583 women who consist of clothing sales workers and manual workers using a structured questionnaire to assess demographic factors, occupational stressors, and depressive symptoms. Multiple regression analyses were performed to explore the association of these stressors with depressive symptoms. Scores for job stress subscales such as job demand, job control, and job insecurity were higher among sales workers than among manual workers (p < 0.01). The multiple regression analysis revealed the association between occupation and depressive symptoms after controlling for age, educational level, cohabiting status, and occupational stressors (sβ = 0.08, p = 0.04). A significant interaction effect between occupation and social support was also observed in this model (sβ = −0.09, p = 0.02). The multiple regression analysis stratified by occupation showed that job demand, job insecurity, and workplace mistreatment were significantly associated with depressive symptoms in both occupations (p < 0.05), although the strength of statistical associations were slightly different. We found negative associations of social support (sβ = −0.22, p < 0.01) and emotional effort (sβ = −0.17, p < 0.01) with depressive symptoms in another multiple regression model for sales workers. Emotional dissonance (sβ = 0.23, p < 0.01) showed positive association with depressive symptoms in this model. The result of this study indicated that reducing occupational stressors would be effective for women sales workers to prevent depressive symptoms. In particular, promoting social support could be the most effective way

  14. Predictors of occupational burnout among nurses: a dominance analysis of job stressors.

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    Sun, Ji-Wei; Bai, Hua-Yu; Li, Jia-Huan; Lin, Ping-Zhen; Zhang, Hui-Hui; Cao, Feng-Lin

    2017-12-01

    To quantitatively compare dimensions of job stressors' effects on nurses' burnout. Nurses, a key group of health service providers, often experience stressors at work. Extensive research has examined the relationship between job stressors and burnout; however, less has specifically compared the effects of job stressor domains on nurses' burnout. A quantitative cross-sectional survey examined three general hospitals in Jinan, China. Participants were 602 nurses. We compared five potential stressors' ability to predict nurses' burnout using dominance analysis and assuming that each stressor was intercorrelated. Strong positive correlations were found between all five job stressors and burnout. Interpersonal relationships and management issues most strongly predicted participants' burnout (11·3% of average variance). Job stressors, and particularly interpersonal relationships and management issues, significantly predict nurses' job burnout. Understanding the relative effect of job stressors may help identify fruitful areas for intervention and improve nurse recruitment and retention. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. An applied model for the evaluation of multiple physiological stressors.

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    Constable, S H; Sherry, C J; Walters, T J

    1991-01-01

    In everyday life, a human is likely to be exposed to the combined effects of a number of different stressors simultaneously. Consequently, if an applied model is to ultimately provide the best 'fit' between the modeling and modeled phenomena, it must be able to accommodate the evaluation of multiple stressors. Therefore, a multidimensional, primate model is described that can fully accommodate a large number of conceivably stressful, real life scenarios that may be encountered by civilian or military workers. A number of physiological measurements were made in female rhesus monkeys in order to validate the model against previous reports. These evaluations were further expanded to include the experimental perturbation of physical work (exercise). Physiological profiles during activity were extended with the incorporation of radio telemetry. In conclusion, this model allows maximal extrapolation of the potential deleterious or ergogenic effects on systemic physiological function under conditions of realistic operational demands and environments.

  16. Stressor Diversity: Introduction and Empirical Integration into the Daily Stress Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffer, Rachel E.; Ram, Nilam; Conroy, David E.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Almeida, David M.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined if and how stressor diversity, the extent to which one’s stressor events are spread across multiple types of stressors, contributes to daily affective well-being through the adult life span. Stressor diversity was examined as a unique predictor of daily affect and as a moderator of stressor exposure and stressor reactivity effects. Analyses span two independent studies of daily stress: the National Study of Daily Experiences with N=2,022 adults, aged 33–85, assessed over T=8 days, and the Intraindividual Study of Affect, Health, and Interpersonal Behavior with N=150 adults, aged 18–89, assessed over T=63 days. Across both studies, older age was associated with less stressor diversity. Additionally, multivariate multilevel models indicated higher stressor diversity was linked with better affective well-being. Age, however, was not a consistent moderator of such associations. The combination of low stressor diversity and high stressor exposure is discussed as an operationalization of chronic stressors, and this combination was associated with particularly high negative affect and low positive affect. We believe further work will benefit from including both the frequency and diversity of stressor experiences in analyses in order to better characterize individuals’ stressor experiences. PMID:27294713

  17. Occupancy models to study wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Larissa; Adams, Michael John

    2005-01-01

    Many wildlife studies seek to understand changes or differences in the proportion of sites occupied by a species of interest. These studies are hampered by imperfect detection of these species, which can result in some sites appearing to be unoccupied that are actually occupied. Occupancy models solve this problem and produce unbiased estimates of occupancy and related parameters. Required data (detection/non-detection information) are relatively simple and inexpensive to collect. Software is available free of charge to aid investigators in occupancy estimation.

  18. A non-linear relationship between the cumulative exposure to occupational stressors and nurses' burnout and the potentially emotion regulation factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ji-Wei; Lin, Ping-Zhen; Zhang, Hui-Hui; Li, Jia-Huan; Cao, Feng-Lin

    2017-10-08

    Stressful situations can increase the likelihood of nurses experiencing negative emotions, especially burnout. To explore the association of cumulative exposure to occupational stressors and emotion regulation strategies with nurses' burnout. Participants were 602 nurses from three general hospitals in Jinan, China. Social demographic characteristics, occupational stress, burnout, and emotion regulation strategies (cognitive reappraisal, expressive suppression, and rumination), were assessed. Nearly 70% of nurses reported that they were burnt out. Those with a moderate level and high level of stressors were 3.203 times and 26.444 times more likely to have burnout, respectively (x 2 trend = 62.732). Logistic regression revealed that nurses had higher cognitive reappraisal score (odds ratios (OR) = 0.941), scored lower for burnout. Those who had higher expressive suppression score (OR = 1.054), higher rumination score (OR = 1.037), and a higher level of stressors (OR = 2.779-18.259) scored higher for burnout. The results of sensitivity analysis were similar. A non-linear relationship exists between the cumulative exposure to occupational stressors and nurses' burnout. Those who less frequently use cognitive reappraisal, more frequently use rumination and expressive suppression, and have a high level of stressors may be more likely to experience burnout.

  19. Physical environment, occupational conflict, and ambiguity of roles: Job stressors among nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ayoubian

    2015-11-01

    Conclusion: Given the significant relationship between physical environment, occupational conflict, and ambiguity of roles on one hand and the nurse’s stress, on the other hand, improvement of the environmental problem and assigning tasks that are more specific can be greatly helpful in improvement of the work condition.

  20. Occupant modeling in the aerospace environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yaklin, P.; Lim, T.; Marshall, R.

    1999-01-01

    Dynamic testing and occupant protection standards are a reality in the aerospace industry. Methods to model these situations are evolving. A method of modeling an occupant on a crew seat, in a drop test is presented. This method combines a rigid body occupant model with a finite element model of the

  1. The impact of perceived intensity and frequency of police work occupational stressors on the cortisol awakening response (CAR): Findings from the BCOPS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violanti, John M; Fekedulegn, Desta; Andrew, Michael E; Hartley, Tara A; Charles, Luenda E; Miller, Diane B; Burchfiel, Cecil M

    2017-01-01

    Police officers encounter unpredictable, evolving, and escalating stressful demands in their work. Utilizing the Spielberger Police Stress Survey (60-item instrument for assessing specific conditions or events considered to be stressors in police work), the present study examined the association of the top five highly rated and bottom five least rated work stressors among police officers with their awakening cortisol pattern. Participants were police officers enrolled in the Buffalo Cardio-Metabolic Occupational Police Stress (BCOPS) study (n=338). For each group, the total stress index (product of rating and frequency of the stressor) was calculated. Participants collected saliva by means of Salivettes at four time points: on awakening, 15, 30 and 45min after waking to examine the cortisol awakening response (CAR). Saliva samples were analyzed for free cortisol concentrations. A slope reflecting the awakening pattern of cortisol over time was estimated by fitting a linear regression model relating cortisol in log-scale to time of collection. The slope served as the outcome variable. Analysis of covariance, regression, and repeated measures models were used to determine if there was an association of the stress index with the waking cortisol pattern. There was a significant negative linear association between total stress index of the five highest stressful events and slope of the awakening cortisol regression line (trend p-value=0.0024). As the stress index increased, the pattern of the awakening cortisol regression line tended to flatten. Officers with a zero stress index showed a steep and steady increase in cortisol from baseline (which is often observed) while officers with a moderate or high stress index showed a dampened or flatter response over time. Conversely, the total stress index of the five least rated events was not significantly associated with the awakening cortisol pattern. The study suggests that police events or conditions considered highly

  2. Cumulative Risk and Impact Modeling on Environmental Chemical and Social Stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hongtai; Wang, Aolin; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Lam, Juleen; Sirota, Marina; Padula, Amy; Woodruff, Tracey J

    2018-02-13

    The goal of this review is to identify cumulative modeling methods used to evaluate combined effects of exposures to environmental chemicals and social stressors. The specific review question is: What are the existing quantitative methods used to examine the cumulative impacts of exposures to environmental chemical and social stressors on health? There has been an increase in literature that evaluates combined effects of exposures to environmental chemicals and social stressors on health using regression models; very few studies applied other data mining and machine learning techniques to this problem. The majority of studies we identified used regression models to evaluate combined effects of multiple environmental and social stressors. With proper study design and appropriate modeling assumptions, additional data mining methods may be useful to examine combined effects of environmental and social stressors.

  3. Benthic macroinvertebrates and multiple stressors : quantification of the effects of multiple stressors in field, laboratory and model settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, E.T.H.M.

    2001-01-01

    Organisms are always exposed to several simultaneously operating stressors in nature. It appears that the combined effects of multiple stressors cannot be understood as a simple product of their individual effects. To understand how multiple stressors affect the composition and functioning

  4. Evaluating the Association of Workplace Psychosocial Stressors with Occupational Injury, Illness, and Assault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lezah P.; Rospenda, Kathleen M.; Sokas, Rosemary K.; Conroy, Lorraine; Freels, Sally; Swanson, Naomi G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This research project characterizes occupational injuries, illnesses, and assaults (OIIAs) as a negative outcome associated with worker exposure to generalized workplace abuse/harassment, sexual harassment, and job threat and pressure. Methods Data were collected in a nationwide random-digit-dial telephone survey conducted during 2003–2004. There were 2,151 study interviews conducted in English and Spanish. Analyses included cross tabulation with Pearson’s Chi-Square, and logistic regression analyses. Results Three hundred fifty-one (351) study participants reported having an OIIA during the 12 months preceding the study. Occurrences of generalized workplace harassment (O.R.= 1.53; CI = 1.33 – 1.75, p≤ 0.05), sexual harassment (O.R.= 1. 18; CI = 1.04 –1.34, p≤ 0.05), and job pressure and threat (O.R.=1.26; CI = 1.10–1.45, p≤ 0.05), were significantly associated with reporting an OIIA. Conclusions The psychosocial environment is significantly associated with an increased risk of OIIA. Further research is needed to understand causal pathways and to explore potential interventions. PMID:21154106

  5. Occupant Protection Data Mining and Modeling Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Current National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) occupant protection standards and requirements are based on extrapolations of biodynamic models, which...

  6. Tools for organisational risk evaluation for occupational health stressors (OREOHS) for the small-scale mining industry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Edwards, AL

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Some of the main reasons for occupational health and safety deficiencies in small-scale mining are unawareness of risks of chronic occupational diseases and inadequately implemented education and training. The key needs of the sector is to provide...

  7. Data linkage between the National Birth Defects Prevention Study and the Occupational Information Network (O*NET) to assess workplace physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and emotional stressors during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Laura J; Symanski, Elaine; Lupo, Philip J; Tinker, Sarah C; Razzaghi, Hilda; Pompeii, Lisa A; Hoyt, Adrienne T; Canfield, Mark A; Chan, Wenyaw

    2016-02-01

    Knowledge of the prevalence of work-related physical activities, sedentary behaviors, and emotional stressors among pregnant women is limited, and the extent to which these exposures vary by maternal characteristics remains unclear. Data on mothers of 6,817 infants without major birth defects, with estimated delivery during 1997 through 2009 who worked during pregnancy were obtained from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Information on multiple domains of occupational exposures was gathered by linking mother's primary job to the Occupational Information Network Version 9.0. The most frequent estimated physical activity associated with jobs during pregnancy was standing. Of 6,337 mothers, 31.0% reported jobs associated with standing for ≥75% of their time. There was significant variability in estimated occupational exposures by maternal age, race/ethnicity, and educational level. Our findings augment existing literature on occupational physical activities, sedentary behaviors, emotional stressors, and occupational health disparities during pregnancy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Participation and occupation in occupational therapy models of practice: A discussion of possibilities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson-Lund, Maria; Nyman, Anneli

    2017-11-01

    Occupation has been the focus in occupational therapy practice to greater or lesser degrees from a historical viewpoint. This evokes a need to discuss whether concepts that are added to our field will enhance or blur our focus on occupation. To explore how the concept of participation in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) is related to the concept of occupation by reviewing and comparing its use in three models of practice within occupational therapy. The aim was also to generate discussion on possibilities and challenges concerning the relationship of participation and occupation. The models reviewed were The Model of Human Occupation (MOHO), the Canadian Model of Occupational Performance and Engagement (CMOP-E) and the Occupational Therapy Intervention Process Model (OTIPM). The concept of participation was related to occupation in different ways in these models. Based on the review some challenges and considerations for occupational therapy were generated. Relating the concept of participation from the ICF to the concept of occupation in models of practice can be challenging. At the same time, relating the concepts can be a resource to develop occupational therapy and the understanding of occupational issues in society.

  9. Advances and applications of occupancy models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Larissa; MacKenzie, Darry I.; Nichols, James D.

    2013-01-01

    Summary: The past decade has seen an explosion in the development and application of models aimed at estimating species occurrence and occupancy dynamics while accounting for possible non-detection or species misidentification. We discuss some recent occupancy estimation methods and the biological systems that motivated their development. Collectively, these models offer tremendous flexibility, but simultaneously place added demands on the investigator. Unlike many mark–recapture scenarios, investigators utilizing occupancy models have the ability, and responsibility, to define their sample units (i.e. sites), replicate sampling occasions, time period over which species occurrence is assumed to be static and even the criteria that constitute ‘detection’ of a target species. Subsequent biological inference and interpretation of model parameters depend on these definitions and the ability to meet model assumptions. We demonstrate the relevance of these definitions by highlighting applications from a single biological system (an amphibian–pathogen system) and discuss situations where the use of occupancy models has been criticized. Finally, we use these applications to suggest future research and model development.

  10. Translational relevance of rodent models of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function and stressors in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl M. McCormick

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Elevations in glucocorticoids that result from environmental stressors can have programming effects on brain structure and function when the exposure occurs during sensitive periods that involve heightened neural development. In recent years, adolescence has gained increasing attention as another sensitive period of development, a period in which pubertal transitions may increase the vulnerability to stressors. There are similarities in physical and behavioural development between humans and rats, and rats have been used effectively as an animal model of adolescence and the unique plasticity of this period of ontogeny. This review focuses on benefits and challenges of rats as a model for translational research on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA function and stressors in adolescence, highlighting important parallels and contrasts between adolescent rats and humans, and we review the main stress procedures that are used in investigating HPA stress responses and their consequences in adolescence in rats. We conclude that a greater focus on timing of puberty as a factor in research in adolescent rats may increase the translational relevance of the findings.

  11. Quantitative Modeling of Microbial Population Responses to Chronic Irradiation Combined with Other Stressors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Shuryak

    Full Text Available Microbial population responses to combined effects of chronic irradiation and other stressors (chemical contaminants, other sub-optimal conditions are important for ecosystem functioning and bioremediation in radionuclide-contaminated areas. Quantitative mathematical modeling can improve our understanding of these phenomena. To identify general patterns of microbial responses to multiple stressors in radioactive environments, we analyzed three data sets on: (1 bacteria isolated from soil contaminated by nuclear waste at the Hanford site (USA; (2 fungi isolated from the Chernobyl nuclear-power plant (Ukraine buildings after the accident; (3 yeast subjected to continuous γ-irradiation in the laboratory, where radiation dose rate and cell removal rate were independently varied. We applied generalized linear mixed-effects models to describe the first two data sets, whereas the third data set was amenable to mechanistic modeling using differential equations. Machine learning and information-theoretic approaches were used to select the best-supported formalism(s among biologically-plausible alternatives. Our analysis suggests the following: (1 Both radionuclides and co-occurring chemical contaminants (e.g. NO2 are important for explaining microbial responses to radioactive contamination. (2 Radionuclides may produce non-monotonic dose responses: stimulation of microbial growth at low concentrations vs. inhibition at higher ones. (3 The extinction-defining critical radiation dose rate is dramatically lowered by additional stressors. (4 Reproduction suppression by radiation can be more important for determining the critical dose rate, than radiation-induced cell mortality. In conclusion, the modeling approaches used here on three diverse data sets provide insight into explaining and predicting multi-stressor effects on microbial communities: (1 the most severe effects (e.g. extinction on microbial populations may occur when unfavorable environmental

  12. Modelling coral reef futures to inform management: can reducing local-scale stressors conserve reefs under climate change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, Georgina G; Melbourne-Thomas, Jessica; Geronimo, Rollan C; Aliño, Perry M; Johnson, Craig R

    2013-01-01

    Climate change has emerged as a principal threat to coral reefs, and is expected to exacerbate coral reef degradation caused by more localised stressors. Management of local stressors is widely advocated to bolster coral reef resilience, but the extent to which management of local stressors might affect future trajectories of reef state remains unclear. This is in part because of limited understanding of the cumulative impact of multiple stressors. Models are ideal tools to aid understanding of future reef state under alternative management and climatic scenarios, but to date few have been sufficiently developed to be useful as decision support tools for local management of coral reefs subject to multiple stressors. We used a simulation model of coral reefs to investigate the extent to which the management of local stressors (namely poor water quality and fishing) might influence future reef state under varying climatic scenarios relating to coral bleaching. We parameterised the model for Bolinao, the Philippines, and explored how simulation modelling can be used to provide decision support for local management. We found that management of water quality, and to a lesser extent fishing, can have a significant impact on future reef state, including coral recovery following bleaching-induced mortality. The stressors we examined interacted antagonistically to affect reef state, highlighting the importance of considering the combined impact of multiple stressors rather than considering them individually. Further, by providing explicit guidance for management of Bolinao's reef system, such as which course of management action will most likely to be effective over what time scales and at which sites, we demonstrated the utility of simulation models for supporting management. Aside from providing explicit guidance for management of Bolinao's reef system, our study offers insights which could inform reef management more broadly, as well as general understanding of reef

  13. Correspondence model of occupational accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Conte

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a new generalized model for the diagnosis and prediction of accidents among the Spanish workforce. Based on observational data of the accident rate in all Spanish companies over eleven years (7,519,732 accidents, we classified them in a new risk-injury contingency table (19×19. Through correspondence analysis, we obtained a structure composed of three axes whose combination identifies three separate risk and injury groups, which we used as a general Spanish pattern. The most likely or frequent relationships between the risk and injuries identified in the pattern facilitated the decision-making process in companies at an early stage of risk assessment. Each risk-injury group has its own characteristics, which are understandable within the phenomenological framework of the accident. The main advantages of this model are its potential application to any other country and the feasibility of contrasting different country results. One limiting factor, however, is the need to set a common classification framework for risks and injuries to enhance comparison, a framework that does not exist today. The model aims to manage work-related accidents automatically at any level.Apresentamos aqui um modelo generalizado para o diagnóstico e predição de acidentes na classe de trabalhadores da Espanha. Baseados em dados sobre a frequência de acidentes em todas as companhias da Espanha em 11 anos (7.519.732 acidentes, nós os classificamos em uma nova tabela de contingência risco-injúria (19×19. Através de uma análise por correspondência obtivemos uma estrutura composta por 3 eixos cuja combinação identifica 3 grupos separados de risco e injúria, que nós usamos como um perfil geral na Espanha. As mais prováveis ou frequentes relações entre risco e injúrias identificadas nesse perfil facilitaram o processo de decisão nas companhias em um estágio inicial de apreciação do risco. Cada grupo de risco-injúria tem suas próprias caracter

  14. Modelling stressors on the eelgrass recovery process in two Danish estuaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuusemäe, Kadri; Rasmussen, Erik Kock; Canal-Vergés, Paula

    2016-01-01

    succeeded. The mechanisms hindering/delaying eelgrass recovery were recently identified: 1) lack of sediment anchoring capacity, 2) resuspension created by drifting ephemeral macroalgae, 3) seedling uprooting created by current and wave forces, 4) ballistic stress from attached macroalgae and 5) burial...... of seeds and seedlings by lugworms. These processes were quantified and introduced to an ecological MIKE 3D model. The developed model was calibrated and validated on two Danish estuaries, Odense Fjord and Roskilde Fjord. Analyses of the simulations were performed on area distribution maps...... the ability of eelgrass to cope with above mentioned stressors. The spatial resolution of the model setup made it possible to generate maps where eelgrass is exposed to lowest stress, revealing areas for potential eelgrass recovery. The developed eelgrass model is now used as a national tool to predict areas...

  15. Multiple stressors of ocean ecosystems in the 21st century: projections with CMIP5 models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bopp

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ocean ecosystems are increasingly stressed by human-induced changes of their physical, chemical and biological environment. Among these changes, warming, acidification, deoxygenation and changes in primary productivity by marine phytoplankton can be considered as four of the major stressors of open ocean ecosystems. Due to rising atmospheric CO2 in the coming decades, these changes will be amplified. Here, we use the most recent simulations performed in the framework of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 to assess how these stressors may evolve over the course of the 21st century. The 10 Earth system models used here project similar trends in ocean warming, acidification, deoxygenation and reduced primary productivity for each of the IPCC's representative concentration pathways (RCPs over the 21st century. For the "business-as-usual" scenario RCP8.5, the model-mean changes in the 2090s (compared to the 1990s for sea surface temperature, sea surface pH, global O2 content and integrated primary productivity amount to +2.73 (±0.72 °C, −0.33 (±0.003 pH unit, −3.45 (±0.44% and −8.6 (±7.9%, respectively. For the high mitigation scenario RCP2.6, corresponding changes are +0.71 (±0.45 °C, −0.07 (±0.001 pH unit, −1.81 (±0.31% and −2.0 (±4.1%, respectively, illustrating the effectiveness of extreme mitigation strategies. Although these stressors operate globally, they display distinct regional patterns and thus do not change coincidentally. Large decreases in O2 and in pH are simulated in global ocean intermediate and mode waters, whereas large reductions in primary production are simulated in the tropics and in the North Atlantic. Although temperature and pH projections are robust across models, the same does not hold for projections of subsurface O2 concentrations in the tropics and global and regional changes in net primary productivity. These high uncertainties in projections of primary productivity and subsurface

  16. Investigating the Relationships among Stressors, Stress Level, and Mental Symptoms for Infertile Patients: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Yi Wang

    Full Text Available Patients with infertility are a high risk group in depression and anxiety. However, an existing theoretically and empirically validated model of stressors, stress, and mental symptoms specific for infertile patients is still a void. This study aimed to determine the related factors and their relational structures that affect the level of depressive and anxiety symptoms among infertile patients.A cross-sectional sample of 400 infertility outpatients seeking reproduction treatments in three teaching hospitals across Taiwan participated in the structured questionnaire survey in 2011. The hypothesized model comprising 10 latent variables was tested by Structural Equation Modeling using AMOS 17.Goodness-of-fit indexes, including χ2/DF = 1.871, PGFI = 0.746, PNFI = 0.764, and others, confirmed the modified model fit the data well. Marital stressor, importance of children, guilt-and-blame, and social stressor showed a direct effect on perceived stress. Instead of being a factor of stress, social support was directly and positively related to self-esteem. Perceived stress and self-esteem were the two major mediators for the relationships between stressors and mental symptoms. Increase in social support and self-esteem led to decrease in mental symptoms among the infertile patients.The relational structures were identified and named as the Stressors Stress Symptoms Model, clinically applied to predict anxiety and depression from various stressors. Assessing sources and level of infertility-related stress and implementing culturally-sensitive counseling with an emphasis on positive personal value may assist in preventing the severity of depression and anxiety.

  17. A Graphical Representation of Multiple Stressor Effects on River Eutrophication as Simulated by a Physics-Based River Quality Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitt, O.; Hutchins, M.

    2016-12-01

    UK river waters face considerable future pressures, primarily from population growth and climate change. In understanding controls on river water quality, experimental studies have successfully identified response to single or paired stressors under controlled conditions. Generalised Linear Model (GLM) approaches are commonly used to quantify stressor-response relationships. To explore a wider variety of stressors physics-based models are used. Our objective is to evaluate how five different types of stressor influence the severity of river eutrophication and its impact on Dissolved Oxygen (DO) an integrated measure of river ecological health. This is done by applying a physics-based river quality model for 4 years at daily time step to a 92 km stretch in the 3445 km2 Thames (UK) catchment. To understand the impact of model structural uncertainty we present results from two alternative formulations of the biological response. Sensitivity analysis carried out using the QUESTOR model (QUality Evaluation and Simulation TOol for River systems) considered gradients of various stressors: river flow, water temperature, urbanisation (abstractions and sewage/industrial effluents), phosphate concentrations in effluents and tributaries and riparian tree shading (modifying the light input). Scalar modifiers applied to the 2009-12 time-series inputs define the gradients. The model has been run for each combination of the values of these 5 variables. Results are analysed using graphical methods in order to identify variation in the type of relationship between different pairs of stressors on the system response. The method allows for all outputs from each combination of stressors to be displayed in one graphic and so showing the results of hundreds of model runs simultaneously. This approach can be carried out for all stressor pairs, and many locations/determinands. Supporting statistical analysis (GLM) reinforces the findings from the graphical analysis. Analysis suggests that

  18. Investigations of HPA Function and the Enduring Consequences of Stressors in Adolescence in Animal Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Cheryl M.; Mathews, Iva Z.; Thomas, Catherine; Waters, Patti

    2010-01-01

    Developmental differences in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responsiveness to stressors and ongoing development of glucocorticoid-sensitive brain regions in adolescence suggest that similar to the neonatal period of ontogeny, adolescence may also be a sensitive period for programming effects of stressors on the central nervous system.…

  19. Stressor-response modeling using the 2D water quality model and regression trees to predict chlorophyll-a in a reservoir system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yongeun; Pachepsky, Yakov A.; Cho, Kyung Hwa; Jeon, Dong Jin; Kim, Joon Ha

    2015-10-01

    To control algal blooms, the stressor-response relationships between water quality metrics, environmental variables, and algal growth need to be better understood and modeled. Machine-learning methods have been suggested as means to express the stressor-response relationships that are found when applying mechanistic water quality models. The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of regression trees in the development of a stressor-response model for chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentrations, using the results from site-specific mechanistic water quality modeling. The 2-dimensional hydrodynamic and water quality model (CE-QUAL-W2) model was applied to simulate water quality using four-year observational data and additional scenarios of air temperature increases for the Yeongsan Reservoir in South Korea. Regression tree modeling was applied to the results of these simulations. Given the well-expressed seasonality in the simulated Chl-a dynamics, separate regression trees were developed for months from May to September. The regression trees provided a reasonably accurate representation of the stressor-response dependence generated by the CE-QUAL-W2 model. Different stressors were then selected as split variables for different months, and, in most cases, splits by the same stressor variable yielded the same correlation sign between the variable and the Chl-a concentration. Compared to physical variables, nutrient content appeared to better predict Chl-a responses. The highest Chl-a temperature sensitivities were found for May and June. Regression tree splits based on ammonium concentration resulted in a consistent trend of greater sensitivity in the groups of samples with higher ammonium concentrations. Regression tree models provided a transparent visual representation of the stressor-response relationships for Chl-a and its sensitivity. Overall, the representation of relationships using classification and regression tools can be considered a useful

  20. Empirically-based modeling and mapping to consider the co-occurrence of ecological receptors and stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Part of the ecological risk assessment process involves examining the potential for environmental stressors and ecological receptors to co-occur across a landscape. In this study, we introduce a Bayesian joint modeling framework for use in evaluating and mapping the co-occurrence...

  1. Study on a model for future occupational health: proposal for an occupational health service model in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, Toshiaki

    2006-10-01

    The Study Model for Future Occupational Health (funded by a research grant from the Ministry of Health, Welfare and Labor) is a joint research project involving various organizations and agencies undertaken from 2002 to 2004. Society has undergone a dramatic transformation due to technological developments and internationalization. At the same time a low birth rate and an aging population have resulted in an increase in both the percentage of workers experiencing strong anxiety and stress in relation to their jobs and the working environment and the number of suicides. As a natural consequence, occupational health services are now expected to provide EAP, consulting and other functions that were formerly considered outside the realm of occupational health. In consideration of this background, the present study propose the following issues to provide a model for future occupational health services that meet the conditions presently confronted by each worker. 1. How to provide occupational health services and occupational physicians' services: 1) a basic time of 20 minutes of occupational health services per year should be allotted to each worker and to all workers; 2) the obligatory regulations should be revised to expand the obligation from businesses each with 50 or more employees under the present laws to businesses each with 30 or more employees. 2. Providers of occupational health services and occupational physicians' services: (1) reinforcement of outside occupational health agencies; (2) fostering occupational health consultant firms; (3) development of an institute of occupational safety and health; (4) support of activities by authorized occupational physicians in the field; (5) expanding of joint selection of occupational physicians including subsidy increase and the extension of a period of subsidy to five hears; (6) licensing of new entry into occupational health undertaking. 3. Introduction of new report system: (1) establishment of the obligation to

  2. Role stressors and job attitudes: a mediated model of leader-member exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui-Ping; Tsingan, Li; Zhang, Long-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Workers with high levels of role stressors have been known to report low job satisfaction and high turnover intention. However, how the role stressors-job attitudes relationship is influenced by leader-member exchange has hardly been studied. This study examined the effect of leader-member exchange (leader support) on the relationship between chronic role stressors (i.e., role ambiguity and role conflict) and job attitudes (i.e., job satisfaction and turnover intention). Employees (N = 162) who enrolled in weekend psychology courses were investigated. The results showed that leader-member exchange mediated the effects of role stressors on job satisfaction and turnover intention. Implications of these results are discussed and directions for future research are suggested.

  3. Using Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Models to Incorporate Chemical and Non-Chemical Stressors into Cumulative Risk Assessment: A Case Study of Pesticide Exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan I. Levy

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cumulative risk assessment has been proposed as an approach to evaluate the health risks associated with simultaneous exposure to multiple chemical and non-chemical stressors. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD models can allow for the inclusion and evaluation of multiple stressors, including non-chemical stressors, but studies have not leveraged PBPK/PD models to jointly consider these disparate exposures in a cumulative risk context. In this study, we focused on exposures to organophosphate (OP pesticides for children in urban low-income environments, where these children would be simultaneously exposed to other pesticides (including pyrethroids and non-chemical stressors that may modify the effects of these exposures (including diet. We developed a methodological framework to evaluate chemical and non-chemical stressor impacts on OPs, utilizing an existing PBPK/PD model for chlorpyrifos. We evaluated population-specific stressors that would influence OP doses or acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibition, the relevant PD outcome. We incorporated the impact of simultaneous exposure to pyrethroids and dietary factors on OP dose through the compartments of metabolism and PD outcome within the PBPK model, and simulated combinations of stressors across multiple exposure ranges and potential body weights. Our analyses demonstrated that both chemical and non-chemical stressors can influence the health implications of OP exposures, with up to 5-fold variability in AChE inhibition across combinations of stressor values for a given OP dose. We demonstrate an approach for modeling OP risks in the presence of other population-specific environmental stressors, providing insight about co-exposures and variability factors that most impact OP health risks and contribute to children’s cumulative health risk from pesticides. More generally, this framework can be used to inform cumulative risk assessment for any compound impacted by

  4. The contribution of gender-role orientation, work factors and home stressors to psychological well-being and sickness absence in male- and female-dominated occupational groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Olga; Steptoe, Andrew

    2002-02-01

    The associations of work stress, types of work and gender-role orientation with psychological well-being and sickness absence were investigated in a questionnaire survey of 588 male and female nurses and 387 male and female accountants. We hypothesised that health might be impaired among women working in the male-dominated occupation (accountancy), and men in the female-dominated occupation (nursing), but that effects might be moderated by job strain (perceptions of high demand and low control), work and home hassles, and traditional male (instrumentality) and female (expressivity) psychological characteristics. Responses were analysed from 172 female and 61 male nurses, and from 53 female and 81 male commercial accountants. Female accountants were more likely than other groups to have high anxiety scores on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales, while male nurses had the highest rates of sickness absence. Male nurses and female accountants also reported more work-related hassles than did female nurses and male accountants. Men and women in the same occupation did not differ in job strain or job social support, but nurses reported greater job strain than accountants, due to higher ratings of demands and lower skill utilisation. After adjusting for age, sex, occupation, paid work hours and a measure of social desirability bias, risk of elevated anxiety was independently associated with higher job strain, lower job social support, more work hassles, more domestic responsibility, lower instrumentality and higher expressivity. The association between sex and anxiety was no longer significant after instrumentality had been entered into the regression model. Sickness absence of more than three days over the past 12 months was independently associated with higher job strain, more work hassles, lower instrumentality and higher expressivity. The results suggest that when men and women occupy jobs in which they are in the cultural and numerical minority, there may be

  5. Studying historical occupational careers with multilevel growth models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiebke Schulz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article we propose to study occupational careers with historical data by using multilevel growth models. Historical career data are often characterized by a lack of information on the timing of occupational changes and by different numbers of observations of occupations per individual. Growth models can handle these specificities, whereas standard methods, such as event history analyses can't. We illustrate the use of growth models by studying career success of men and women, using data from the Historical Sample of the Netherlands. The results show that the method is applicable to male careers, but causes trouble when analyzing female careers.

  6. Dual Diathesis-Stressor Model of Emotional and Linguistic Contributions to Developmental Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walden, Tedra A.; Frankel, Carl B.; Buhr, Anthony P.; Johnson, Kia N.; Conture, Edward G.; Karrass, Jan M.

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed emotional and speech-language contributions to childhood stuttering. A dual diathesis-stressor framework guided this study, in which both linguistic requirements and skills, and emotion and its regulation, are hypothesized to contribute to stuttering. The language diathesis consists of expressive and receptive language skills.…

  7. A Four-Factor Social Support Model to Mediate Stressors Experienced by Children Raised by Grandparents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Oliver W.; Benson, Nicholas F.

    2010-01-01

    Increasing numbers of children are being raised by grandparents (CRBG). Grandparents provide a familial connection to these children, yet they tend to experience stressors that limit their effective functioning as surrogate parents. The children also experience stress that attenuates psychosocial well-being. In this article, the phenomenon of CRBG…

  8. Occupants' satisfaction toward building environmental quality: structural equation modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaruzzaman, Syahrul Nizam; Egbu, C O; Zawawi, Emma Marinie Ahmad; Karim, Saipol Bari Abd; Woon, Chen Jia

    2015-05-01

    It is accepted that occupants who are more satisfied with their workplace's building internal environment are more productive. The main objective of the study was to measure the occupants' level of satisfaction and the perceived importance of the design or refurbishment on office conditions. The study also attempted to determine the factors affecting the occupants' satisfaction with their building or office conditions. Post-occupancy evaluations were conducted using a structured questionnaire developed by the Built Environment Research Group at the University of Manchester, UK. Our questionnaires incorporate 22 factors relating to the internal environment and rate these in terms of "user satisfaction" and "degree of importance." The questions were modified to reflect the specific setting of the study and take into consideration the local conditions and climate in Malaysia. The overall mean satisfaction of the occupants toward their office environment was 5.35. The results were measured by a single item of overall liking of office conditions in general. Occupants were more satisfied with their state of health in the workplace, but they were extremely dissatisfied with the distance away from a window. The factor analysis divided the variables into three groups, namely intrusion, air quality, and office appearance. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was then used to determine which factor had the most significant influence on occupants' satisfaction: appearance. The findings from the study suggest that continuous improvement in aspects of the building's appearance needs to be supported with effective and comprehensive maintenance to sustain the occupants' satisfaction.

  9. Dynamic modeling of presence of occupants using inhomogeneous Markov chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Philip Hvidthøft Delff; Iversen, Anne; Madsen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    on inhomogeneous Markov chains with where the transition probabilities are estimated using generalized linear models with polynomials, B-splines, and a filter of passed observations as inputs. For treating the dispersion of the data series, a hierarchical model structure is used where one model is for low presence......Occupancy modeling is a necessary step towards reliable simulation of energy consumption in buildings. This paper outlines a method for fitting recordings of presence of occupants and simulation of single-person to multiple-persons office environments. The method includes modeling of dependence...

  10. Predicting carnivore occurrence with noninvasive surveys and occupancy modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Robert A.; Donovan, Therese M.; MacKay, Paula; Zielinski, William J.; Buzas, Jeffrey S.

    2011-01-01

    Terrestrial carnivores typically have large home ranges and exist at low population densities, thus presenting challenges to wildlife researchers. We employed multiple, noninvasive survey methods—scat detection dogs, remote cameras, and hair snares—to collect detection–nondetection data for elusive American black bears (Ursus americanus), fishers (Martes pennanti), and bobcats (Lynx rufus) throughout the rugged Vermont landscape. We analyzed these data using occupancy modeling that explicitly incorporated detectability as well as habitat and landscape variables. For black bears, percentage of forested land within 5 km of survey sites was an important positive predictor of occupancy, and percentage of human developed land within 5 km was a negative predictor. Although the relationship was less clear for bobcats, occupancy appeared positively related to the percentage of both mixed forest and forested wetland habitat within 1 km of survey sites. The relationship between specific covariates and fisher occupancy was unclear, with no specific habitat or landscape variables directly related to occupancy. For all species, we used model averaging to predict occurrence across the study area. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses of our black bear and fisher models suggested that occupancy modeling efforts with data from noninvasive surveys could be useful for carnivore conservation and management, as they provide insights into habitat use at the regional and landscape scale without requiring capture or direct observation of study species.

  11. Tigers on trails: occupancy modeling for cluster sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, J E; Nichols, J D; Royle, J A; MacKenzie, D I; Gopalaswamy, A M; Kumar, N Samba; Karanth, K U

    2010-07-01

    Occupancy modeling focuses on inference about the distribution of organisms over space, using temporal or spatial replication to allow inference about the detection process. Inference based on spatial replication strictly requires that replicates be selected randomly and with replacement, but the importance of these design requirements is not well understood. This paper focuses on an increasingly popular sampling design based on spatial replicates that are not selected randomly and that are expected to exhibit Markovian dependence. We develop two new occupancy models for data collected under this sort of design, one based on an underlying Markov model for spatial dependence and the other based on a trap response model with Markovian detections. We then simulated data under the model for Markovian spatial dependence and fit the data to standard occupancy models and to the two new models. Bias of occupancy estimates was substantial for the standard models, smaller for the new trap response model, and negligible for the new spatial process model. We also fit these models to data from a large-scale tiger occupancy survey recently conducted in Karnataka State, southwestern India. In addition to providing evidence of a positive relationship between tiger occupancy and habitat, model selection statistics and estimates strongly supported the use of the model with Markovian spatial dependence. This new model provides another tool for the decomposition of the detection process, which is sometimes needed for proper estimation and which may also permit interesting biological inferences. In addition to designs employing spatial replication, we note the likely existence of temporal Markovian dependence in many designs using temporal replication. The models developed here will be useful either directly, or with minor extensions, for these designs as well. We believe that these new models represent important additions to the suite of modeling tools now available for occupancy

  12. [Application of occupational hazard risk index model in occupational health risk assessment in a decorative coating manufacturing enterprises].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, P L; Zhao, C X; Dong, Q Y; Hao, S B; Xu, P; Zhang, J; Li, J G

    2018-01-20

    Objective: To evaluate the occupational health risk of decorative coating manufacturing enterprises and to explore the applicability of occupational hazard risk index model in the health risk assessment, so as to provide basis for the health management of enterprises. Methods: A decorative coating manufacturing enterprise in Hebei Province was chosen as research object, following the types of occupational hazards and contact patterns, the occupational hazard risk index model was used to evaluate occupational health risk factors of occupational hazards in the key positions of the decorative coating manufacturing enterprise, and measured with workplace test results and occupational health examination. Results: The positions of oily painters, water-borne painters, filling workers and packers who contacted noise were moderate harm. And positions of color workers who contacted chromic acid salts, oily painters who contacted butyl acetate were mild harm. Other positions were harmless. The abnormal rate of contacting noise in physical examination results was 6.25%, and the abnormality was not checked by other risk factors. Conclusion: The occupational hazard risk index model can be used in the occupational health risk assessment of decorative coating manufacturing enterprises, and noise was the key harzard among occupational harzards in this enterprise.

  13. A Linear Mixed-Effects Model of Wireless Spectrum Occupancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pagadarai Srikanth

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We provide regression analysis-based statistical models to explain the usage of wireless spectrum across four mid-size US cities in four frequency bands. Specifically, the variations in spectrum occupancy across space, time, and frequency are investigated and compared between different sites within the city as well as with other cities. By applying the mixed-effects models, several conclusions are drawn that give the occupancy percentage and the ON time duration of the licensed signal transmission as a function of several predictor variables.

  14. Modeling Single Occupant Vehicle Behavior in High-Occupancy Toll (HOT) Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-14

    High-occupancy toll (HOT) lanes are in operation, under construction, and planned for in several major metropolitan areas. The premise behind HOT lanes is to allow single occupant vehicles (SOVs) to access high occupancy vehicle (HOV) lanes (and theo...

  15. Profissionais de saúde mental: estresse e estressores ocupacionais stress e estressores ocupacionais em saúde mental Profesionales de la salud mental: estrés y estresores ocupacionalesestrés y estresores ocupacionales en salud mental Mental health professionals: stress and occupational stressors stress and occupational stressors of mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Flávia de Oliveira Santos

    2010-06-01

    ón en el trabajo fueron los factores más frecuentemente asociados a la percepción de estar bajo estrés. Se concluye que los profesionales vivencian estresores asociados a los cambios relativos al paradigma psicosocial de atención, apuntando a la necesidad de intervención dirigida al desarrollo de estrategias de enfrentamiento de las situaciones ocupacionales estresoras.Mental health professionals are particularly vulnerable to stress, considering the characteristics of the work they develop. The purpose of this study was to assess the manifestation of stress, self-perception of stress, and stressing work factors in substitutive mental health service professionals. Twenty-five workers, working for at least six months, took part in the study. The instruments employed were Lipp's Inventory of Stress Symptoms in Adults and a Complementary Script. Quantitative data were treated by descriptive statistics, and the remaining data were analyzed qualitatively. It was observed that 36.0% of the professional had stress manifestations, and 44.0% perceived they were under stress. Work conditions and relationships at work were the most frequent factors associated to the perception of being under stress. In conclusion, professionals experience stressors associated with the changes implied in the psychosocial paradigm of care. Thus, there is a need to make direct interventions toward the development of coping strategies in stressing occupational situations.

  16. At the heart of the Nordic occupational welfare model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Bent

    2018-01-01

    , especially in relation to pensions, sickness benefit, and parental leave. The interaction between an in principle universal tax-financed welfare state and the use of occupational welfare, often supported using fiscal welfare, implies a deviation from the Nordic model, as universality is no longer guaranteed...

  17. Management decision making for fisher populations informed by occupancy modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Angela K.; Linden, Daniel W.; Royle, J. Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Harvest data are often used by wildlife managers when setting harvest regulations for species because the data are regularly collected and do not require implementation of logistically and financially challenging studies to obtain the data. However, when harvest data are not available because an area had not previously supported a harvest season, alternative approaches are required to help inform management decision making. When distribution or density data are required across large areas, occupancy modeling is a useful approach, and under certain conditions, can be used as a surrogate for density. We collaborated with the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) to conduct a camera trapping study across a 70,096-km2 region of southern New York in areas that were currently open to fisher (Pekania [Martes] pennanti) harvest and those that had been closed to harvest for approximately 65 years. We used detection–nondetection data at 826 sites to model occupancy as a function of site-level landscape characteristics while accounting for sampling variation. Fisher occupancy was influenced positively by the proportion of conifer and mixed-wood forest within a 15-km2 grid cell and negatively associated with road density and the proportion of agriculture. Model-averaged predictions indicated high occupancy probabilities (>0.90) when road densities were low (0.50). Predicted occupancy ranged 0.41–0.67 in wildlife management units (WMUs) currently open to trapping, which could be used to guide a minimum occupancy threshold for opening new areas to trapping seasons. There were 5 WMUs that had been closed to trapping but had an average predicted occupancy of 0.52 (0.07 SE), and above the threshold of 0.41. These areas are currently under consideration by NYSDEC for opening a conservative harvest season. We demonstrate the use of occupancy modeling as an aid to management decision making when harvest-related data are unavailable and when budgetary

  18. Does aging make employees more resilient to job stress? Age as a moderator in the job stressor-well-being relationship in three Finnish occupational samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauno, Saija; Ruokolainen, Mervi; Kinnunen, Ulla

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether an employee's age moderates the relationships between job stressors (i.e. job insecurity, workload, work-family conflict) and self-rated well-being (i.e. work-family enrichment, life satisfaction, job satisfaction, vigor at work). Analysis of covariance and moderated hierarchical regression analysis were used to examine the cross-sectional Finnish data collected among service sector employees (N = 1037), nurses (N = 1719), and academic employees (N = 945). In a situation of high job insecurity, the younger nurses reported higher work-family enrichment, job satisfaction, and vigor compared to their older colleagues. A similar result was also found among the service sector workers in relation to vigor at work. Thus, young age buffered against negative outcomes related to job insecurity. Moreover, older age buffered against the negative effect of high workload on job satisfaction among the service sector and against high work-family conflict on life satisfaction among the academic employees. More attention should be paid to the ability of younger employees to manage problems related to work-family imbalance and high workload, and to older employees' ability to cope with job insecurity. The findings of this study recommend different stress management interventions for older and younger employees.

  19. Teacher Efficacy in Student Engagement, Instructional Management, Student Stressors, and Burnout: A Theoretical Model Using In-Class Variables to Predict Teachers' Intent-to-Leave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nancy K.; Sass, Daniel A.; Schmitt, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    The models presented here posit a complex relationship between efficacy in student engagement and intent-to-leave that is mediated by in-class variables of instructional management, student behavior stressors, aspects of burnout, and job satisfaction. Using data collected from 631 teachers, analyses provided support for the two models that…

  20. An Examination of the Tripartite Model of Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms in African American Youth: Stressors and Coping Strategies as Common and Specific Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; Elmore, Corinn A.; Campbell, Cynthya L.; Wethington, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the tripartite model of depression and anxiety in a community-based sample of 278 African American adolescents (M age = 12.89) from low-income communities and to identify stressors and coping strategies that were associated with the specific features of each disorder. Participants reported on…

  1. Halo Occupation Distribution Modeling of Clustering of Luminous Red Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Zheng; Zehavi, Idit; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Weinberg, David H.; Jing, Y. P.

    2008-01-01

    We perform Halo Occupation Distribution (HOD) modeling to interpret small-scale and intermediate-scale clustering of 35,000 luminous early-type galaxies and their cross-correlation with a reference imaging sample of normal L* galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The modeling results show that most of these luminous red galaxies (LRGs) are central galaxies residing in massive halos of typical mass M ~ a few times 10^13 to 10^14 Msun/h, while a few percent of them have to be satellites wit...

  2. An integrated occupational hygiene consultation model for the catering industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Kuei; Lee, Lien-Hsiung

    2010-07-01

    Vegetable oil used in food processing, during high-temperature exposure, will generate particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are carcinogenic chemical compounds, with the potential to cause lung disease for restaurant kitchen staff. This study's design includes a three-stage consultation process with eight major consultation items, in order to build an integrated consultation model for occupational hygiene. This model combines inspection and consultation, targeting Chinese restaurants in the catering industry. Characteristics of the integrated consultation model include cooperation between different government departments and collaboration with nongovernmental, professional consulting organizations. An additional benefit of the model is the building of a good partnership relationship with the Catering Trade Association. The consultation model helps Chinese restaurants attain improvements in their work environments with minimal investment. Postconsultation, results show a 63.35% and 61.98% (P < 0.001) decrease in the mean time-weighted concentration of exposure to PM and PAHs, respectively. The overall regulation compliance rate of Chinese restaurants significantly increased from 34.3% to 89.6%. These results show that the integrated consultation model for occupational hygiene not only helps small and medium enterprises reduce exposure concentrations in the workplace but also has specific potential for successful implementation in Taiwan.

  3. Linking livestock snow disaster mortality and environmental stressors in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau: Quantification based on generalized additive models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yijia; Ye, Tao; Liu, Weihang; Gao, Yu

    2018-06-01

    Livestock snow disaster occurs widely in Central-to-Eastern Asian temperate and alpine grasslands. The effects of snow disaster on livestock involve a complex interaction between precipitation, vegetation, livestock, and herder communities. Quantifying the relationship among livestock mortality, snow hazard intensity, and seasonal environmental stressors is of great importance for snow disaster early warning, risk assessments, and adaptation strategies. Using a wide-spatial extent, long-time series, and event-based livestock snow disaster dataset, this study quantified those relationships and established a quantitative model of livestock mortality for prediction purpose for the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau region. Estimations using generalized additive models (GAMs) were shown to accurately predict livestock mortality and mortality rate due to snow disaster, with adjusted-R 2 up to 0.794 and 0.666, respectively. These results showed that a longer snow disaster duration, lower temperatures during the disaster, and a drier summer with less vegetation all contribute significantly and non-linearly to higher mortality (rate), after controlling for elevation and socioeconomic conditions. These results can be readily applied to risk assessment and risk-based adaptation actions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Fish biological effect monitoring of chemical stressors using a generalized linear model in South Sea, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jee-Hyun; Choi, Seung Bae; Hong, Sang Hee; Chae, Young Sun; Kim, Ha Na; Yim, Un Hyuk; Ha, Sung Yong; Han, Gi Myung; Kim, Dae Jung; Shim, Won Joon

    2014-01-15

    To evaluate the health status at six different study areas, we used the generalized linear model approach with selected biochemical markers in resident fish from uncontaminated and contaminated sites. We also confirmed the independence between the biochemical indices and the morphometric indices including the hepato-somatic index (HSI), gonado-somatic index (GSI), and condition factor (CF) in fish from the sampling areas. The effect of area on the presence of biotransformation markers (ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity; EROD) was significantly high in Masan Bay. The area with the greatest effect on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was Jindong Bay, while there was no significant effect of GSI, HSI, CF, and sex in the EROD model and HSI, CF and sex in the AChE model. These results clarify that fish from Masan, Gwangyang and Jindong Bay were affected by pollutant stress, and the analysis of sensitive biochemical responses allowed for an improved interpretation of the results. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Modeling on-site wastewater treatment system performance fragility to hydroclimate stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Laura E; Silverstein, JoAnn; Rajagopalan, Balaji

    2016-12-01

    Increasing variability of climate-related factors, especially precipitation and temperature, poses special risks to on-site wastewater treatment systems (OWTS), which depend on subsurface saturation conditions for treatment and dispersion of wastewater. We assess OWTS fragility - the degree to which a system loses functionality - as a step to characterizing the resilience of residential wastewater treatment systems. We used the frequency and indexed severity of OWTS failures and resulting repairs to quantify fragility as a function of hydroclimate variables, including precipitation, temperature and stream flow. The frequency of each category of repair (minor, moderate and major) for 225 OWTS obtained from Boulder County public health records was modeled as a function of climate factors using a generalized linear model with a Poisson distribution link function. The results show that prolonged precipitation patterns, with monthly rainfall >10.16 cm, influence OWTS fragility, and complete loss of OWTS functionality, requiring replacement, is impacted by high temperatures, frequency of wetter-than-normal months, and the magnitude of peak stream flow in the watershed. Weather-related covariates explained 70% of the variability in OWTS major repair data between 1979 and 2006. These results indicate that fragility arising from climate factors, and associated costs to owners, environmental and health impacts, should be considered in planning, design and operation of OWTS.

  6. Applying a realistic evaluation model to occupational safety interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Louise Møller

    2018-01-01

    Background: Recent literature characterizes occupational safety interventions as complex social activities, applied in complex and dynamic social systems. Hence, the actual outcomes of an intervention will vary, depending on the intervention, the implementation process, context, personal characte......Background: Recent literature characterizes occupational safety interventions as complex social activities, applied in complex and dynamic social systems. Hence, the actual outcomes of an intervention will vary, depending on the intervention, the implementation process, context, personal...... characteristics of key actors (defined mechanisms), and the interplay between them, and can be categorized as expected or unexpected. However, little is known about ’how’ to include context and mechanisms in evaluations of intervention effectiveness. A revised realistic evaluation model has been introduced...... and qualitative methods. This revised model has, however, not been applied in a real life context. Method: The model is applied in a controlled, four-component, integrated behaviour-based and safety culture-based safety intervention study (2008-2010) in a medium-sized wood manufacturing company. The interventions...

  7. Occupational therapy influence on a carer peer support model in a clinical mental health service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Cate; Sanders, Bronwyn; Allchin, Becca; Lentin, Primrose; Lang, Shannon

    2015-10-01

    Current policy frameworks call for the participation of consumers and carers in all levels of mental health service delivery in Australia. Such inclusion leads to better outcomes for all, however, it is recognised that carers have needs and occupations beyond their carer role. The aim of this article is to describe an innovative carer peer support program developed by a group of occupational therapists. The article describes the rationale, phases of development and the role that occupational therapists played in developing and sustaining the model. This is followed by an exploration of the occupational therapy attitudes, knowledge and skills that contributed to the conceptualisation and implementation of the model. Five occupational therapists engaged in a review process involving documentation, literature review, evaluation, reflection and discussion. Four of the occupational therapists had either coordinated or managed the service described. The fifth author facilitated the process. Review of the model indicates it equips carers to perform their caring occupation and helps carers recognise the need for occupations beyond caring, for their health and wellbeing. Employing carers as paid workers values their 'real life' experience in their caring occupation. Findings also illustrate that the attitudes, knowledge, skills and competency standards of occupational therapists are well suited in enabling this emerging area of service delivery. Although this model has been developed in a clinical mental health setting, the key principles could be applied with carers or consumers across a variety of settings in which occupational therapists are employed. © 2015 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  8. A conceptual model for the analysis of multi-stressors in linked groundwater-surface water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaandorp, Vince P; Molina-Navarro, Eugenio; Andersen, Hans E; Bloomfield, John P; Kuijper, Martina J M; de Louw, Perry G B

    2018-02-02

    Groundwater and surface water are often closely coupled and are both under the influence of multiple stressors. Stressed groundwater systems may lead to a poor ecological status of surface waters but to date no conceptual framework to analyse linked multi-stressed groundwater - surface water systems has been developed. In this paper, a framework is proposed showing the effect of groundwater on surface waters in multiple stressed systems. This framework will be illustrated by applying it to four European catchments, the Odense, Denmark, the Regge and Dinkel, Netherlands, and the Thames, UK, and by assessing its utility in analysing the propagation or buffering of multi-stressors through groundwater to surface waters in these catchments. It is shown that groundwater affects surface water flow, nutrients and temperature, and can both propagate stressors towards surface waters and buffer the effect of stressors in space and time. The effect of groundwater on drivers and states depends on catchment characteristics, stressor combinations, scale and management practises. The proposed framework shows how groundwater in lowland catchments acts as a bridge between stressors and their effects within surface waters. It shows water managers how their management areas might be influenced by groundwater, and helps them to include this important, but often overlooked part of the water cycle in their basin management plans. The analysis of the study catchments also revealed a lack of data on the temperature of both groundwater and surface water, while it is an important parameter considering future climate warming. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Measuring School-Related Stressors in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Paul C.; Fanshawe, John P.

    1997-01-01

    Some 1,620 Australian high school students responded to 68 items that measure adolescent stressors. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to develop and test a model leading to the High School Stressors Scale. This scale, which has sound construct and predictive validity and adequate reliability, can be a useful instrument for studying…

  10. A new contribution to the classification of stressors affecting nursing professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Cremades Puerto

    Full Text Available Objective: to identify and classify the most important occupational stressors affecting nursing professionals in the medical units within a hospital. Method: quantitative-qualitative, descriptive and prospective study performed with Delphi technique in the medical units of a general university hospital, with a sample of 30 nursing professionals. Results: the stressors were work overload, frequent interruptions in the accomplishment of their tasks, night working, simultaneity of performing different tasks, not having enough time to give emotional support to the patient or lack of time for some patients who need it, among others. Conclusion: the most consensual stressors were ranked as work overload, frequent interruptions in the accomplishment of their tasks, night working and, finally, simultaneity of performing different tasks. These results can be used as a tool in the clinical management of hospital units, aiming to improve the quality of life of nursing professionals, organizational models and, in addition, continuous improvement in clinical treatment.

  11. Ecological Models to Predict and Test the Effects of Chemical Stressors: Integration across 2 EPA STAR cooperative agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accessible tools to quantify adverse outcomes pathways (AOPs) that can predict the ecological effects of chemicals and other stressors are a major goal of Chemical Safety and Sustainability research within US EPA’s Office of Research and Development. To address this goal, w...

  12. Interprofessional Education in Occupational Therapy: The Idaho State University Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Gee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Interprofessional education (IPE is becoming a common practice among most allied health professions as a part of entry level training. IPE is intended to promote greater professional collaboration in routine clinical practice. The prerequisites for this type of educational process include gaining an understanding of one’s own and other professions while developing mutual respect, trust, and communication skills. The Idaho State University (ISU Interdisciplinary Evaluation Team (IET course delivery model is one such vehicle which fosters IPE across numerous disciplines while providing significant clinical support to the local community. This study presents the ISU IET course process, which combines clinical care of community pediatric clients via student/clinician partnership, which reflect on the process of interprofessional care. Occupational therapy student perceptions of the IET course consistently trended in favorable directions. All participants desired more opportunities for IPE combined with direct client interaction as a part of their other course work. Occupational therapy educational programs are well suited and positioned to host and/or to establish key roles in IPE to support student clinical training and meet the health and needs of their local communities.

  13. Eco-SpaCE: An object-oriented, spatially explicit model to assess the risk of multiple environmental stressors on terrestrial vertebrate populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loos, Mark; Ragas, Ad M.J.; Plasmeijer, Rinus; Schipper, Aafke M.; Hendriks, A. Jan

    2010-01-01

    Wildlife organisms are exposed to a combination of chemical, biological and physical stressors. Information about the relative impact of each stressor can support management decisions, e.g., by the allocation of resources to counteract those stressors that cause most harm. The present paper introduces Eco-SpaCE; a novel receptor-oriented cumulative exposure model for wildlife species that includes relevant ecological processes such as spatial habitat variation, food web relations, predation, and life history. A case study is presented in which the predicted mortality due to cadmium contamination is compared with the predicted mortality due to flooding, starvation, and predation for three small mammal species (Wood mouse, Common vole, and European mole) and a predator (Little owl) living in a lowland floodplain along the river Rhine in The Netherlands. Results indicated that cadmium is the principal stressor for European mole and Little owl populations. Wood mouse and Common vole population densities were mainly influenced by flooding and food availability. Their estimated population sizes were consistent with numbers reported in literature. Predictions for cadmium accumulation and flooding stress were in agreement with field data. The large uncertainty around cadmium toxicity for wildlife leads to the conclusion that more species-specific ecotoxicological data is required for more realistic risk assessments. The predictions for starvation were subject to the limited quantitative information on biomass obtainable as food for vertebrates. It is concluded that the modelling approach employed in Eco-SpaCE, combining ecology with ecotoxicology, provides a viable option to explore the relative contribution of contamination to the overall stress in an ecosystem. This can help environmental managers to prioritize management options, and to reduce local risks.

  14. Eco-SpaCE: an object-oriented, spatially explicit model to assess the risk of multiple environmental stressors on terrestrial vertebrate populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, Mark; Ragas, Ad M J; Plasmeijer, Rinus; Schipper, Aafke M; Hendriks, A Jan

    2010-08-15

    Wildlife organisms are exposed to a combination of chemical, biological and physical stressors. Information about the relative impact of each stressor can support management decisions, e.g., by the allocation of resources to counteract those stressors that cause most harm. The present paper introduces Eco-SpaCE; a novel receptor-oriented cumulative exposure model for wildlife species that includes relevant ecological processes such as spatial habitat variation, food web relations, predation, and life history. A case study is presented in which the predicted mortality due to cadmium contamination is compared with the predicted mortality due to flooding, starvation, and predation for three small mammal species (Wood mouse, Common vole, and European mole) and a predator (Little owl) living in a lowland floodplain along the river Rhine in The Netherlands. Results indicated that cadmium is the principal stressor for European mole and Little owl populations. Wood mouse and Common vole population densities were mainly influenced by flooding and food availability. Their estimated population sizes were consistent with numbers reported in literature. Predictions for cadmium accumulation and flooding stress were in agreement with field data. The large uncertainty around cadmium toxicity for wildlife leads to the conclusion that more species-specific ecotoxicological data is required for more realistic risk assessments. The predictions for starvation were subject to the limited quantitative information on biomass obtainable as food for vertebrates. It is concluded that the modelling approach employed in Eco-SpaCE, combining ecology with ecotoxicology, provides a viable option to explore the relative contribution of contamination to the overall stress in an ecosystem. This can help environmental managers to prioritize management options, and to reduce local risks. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. An occupational medical program for a 'model' uranium mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, H.T.

    1979-01-01

    The basic purpose of occupational health programs in uranium milling are to insure that no employee receives an exposure to carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, highly toxic, pneumoconiosis-producing, or dangerous physical agents that could result in chronic or acute injury and to assure that significant concentrations or levels of the above are not present in either the plant or general environment. This paper defines a model mill as consisting of crushing, sizing, acid leach, separation, solvent extraction, drying and packaging operations and describes the employee health hazards associated with each. It also describes a type program consisting of a balanced combination of exposure monitoring and survey, air samples, personnel dosimetry, bioassay, training, medical surveillance, and emergency planning based on the employee exposure situation. Experience with such a program is also discussed, and some techniques of practically meeting the regulatory requirements and protecting the worker are outlined. (Auth.)

  16. Leadership and Occupational Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickle, Fred E.; Scott, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    In a leadership position, it is important to understand what stress is and how it affects others. In an occupational setting, stressors vary according to personality types, gender, and occupational rank. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the foundations of stress and to explore how personality characteristics influence stress.…

  17. Telehealth: A Rapidly Developing Service Delivery Model For Occupational Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Cason, Jana

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, the practice of occupational therapy has been increasingly influenced by technological advances in the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) and associated changes in health care policy. Emergent from this evolution is the application of telehealth to deliver occupational therapy services to clients who are in a different physical location than the provider. This article furnishes an overview of the evidence for telehealth use in occupational therapy, d...

  18. Super heroes and lucky duckies: Racialized stressors among teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Lauren; Wilson, Bianca D M

    2017-04-01

    This article explores the complex relationships between race and occupational stressors among an ethnically diverse sample of high school teachers and their implications for women's mental health. Interviews with Black, White, and Mexican American teachers suggest that workplaces are organized by subtle forms of gender and racial discrimination as well as White racial privilege; this context shapes women's experiences of occupational stressors. The data indicate that teachers experience racially specific stressors at work and make racially specific appraisals about common stressors among all teachers. Black and Mexican American women report chronic strains, such as differential workloads, perceptions of incompetence, and lack of support from administrators, whereas White teachers report, yet minimize, sexual harassment from male colleagues. Student misbehavior, a stressor shared by all teachers, is experienced and understood as a personal failing by White teachers and as a manifestation of systemic racism by teachers of color. The interviews offer important insights into the ways professional workplaces remain an arena marked by racial inequality and White privilege and that racialized stressors are differentially distributed among women. Findings support claims from intersectionality in that race, racism, and racial privilege operate in multiplicative ways that create different constellations of occupational stressors among women, which in turn have implications for wellbeing. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Modeling U.S. Air Force Occupational Health Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    Transient cerebral ischemia 435 7.5% Acute, but ill-defined, cerebrovascular disease 436 7.5% Other and ill-defined cerebrovascular disease 437 7.5% Late...24 Accident Investigation, Reporting, and Record Keeping...occupational illness costs for hospitalization of occupational illnesses. According to DoD Instruction 6055.07, Accident Investigation, Reporting, and

  20. Dynamic N -occupancy models: estimating demographic rates and local abundance from detection-nondetection data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sam Rossman; Charles B. Yackulic; Sarah P. Saunders; Janice Reid; Ray Davis; Elise F. Zipkin

    2016-01-01

    Occupancy modeling is a widely used analytical technique for assessing species distributions and range dynamics. However, occupancy analyses frequently ignore variation in abundance of occupied sites, even though site abundances affect many of the parameters being estimated (e.g., extinction, colonization, detection probability). We introduce a new model (“dynamic

  1. The development of the Model of Occupational Self Efficacy: an occupational therapy practice model to facilitate returning to work after a brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeker, Mogammad Shaheed

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the methodology used in order to develop the Model of Occupational Self Efficacy: An occupational therapy practice model to facilitate returning to work after a brain injury. Nine males and one female participated in the study. Face to face, semi structured individual interviews were conducted and data were analyzed using a qualitative approach to explicate patterns and themes. The study was conducted in two phases, namely, Phase one described the lived experience of individuals with brain injury who had returned to work and Phase two described the development of the model by means of theory generation methodology. Four themes emerged that reflected the lived experiences for people returning to work after a brain injury. (1) A sense of loss of former self; (2) Uncertainty about the future; (3) The road to acceptance and believing in yourself; and (4) Participation in occupation enables growth. The above themes contributed to the central concept called Occupational Self Efficacy that resulted in the development of the occupational therapy practice model. The findings of the study suggest that theory generation methodology is adequate for the conceptual development of an occupational therapy practice model.

  2. Telehealth: a rapidly developing service delivery model for occupational therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cason, Jana

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, the practice of occupational therapy has been increasingly influenced by technological advances in the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) and associated changes in health care policy. Emergent from this evolution is the application of telehealth to deliver occupational therapy services to a client who is in a different physical location than the provider. This article furnishes an overview of the evidence for telehealth use in occupational therapy, discusses key policy considerations, and provides resources to guide practitioners in the ethical use of telehealth.

  3. Telehealth: A Rapidly Developing Service Delivery Model for Occupational Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Cason

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, the practice of occupational therapy has been increasingly influenced by technological advances in the use of information and communication technologies (ICT and associated changes in health care policy. Emergent from this evolution is the application of telehealth to deliver occupational therapy services to clients who are in a different physical location than the provider. This article furnishes an overview of the evidence for telehealth use in occupational therapy, discusses key policy considerations, and provides resources to guide practitioners in the ethical use of telehealth.

  4. Stochastic Modeling of Overtime Occupancy and Its Application in Building Energy Simulation and Calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Kaiyu; Yan, Da; Hong, Tianzhen; Guo, Siyue

    2014-02-28

    Overtime is a common phenomenon around the world. Overtime drives both internal heat gains from occupants, lighting and plug-loads, and HVAC operation during overtime periods. Overtime leads to longer occupancy hours and extended operation of building services systems beyond normal working hours, thus overtime impacts total building energy use. Current literature lacks methods to model overtime occupancy because overtime is stochastic in nature and varies by individual occupants and by time. To address this gap in the literature, this study aims to develop a new stochastic model based on the statistical analysis of measured overtime occupancy data from an office building. A binomial distribution is used to represent the total number of occupants working overtime, while an exponential distribution is used to represent the duration of overtime periods. The overtime model is used to generate overtime occupancy schedules as an input to the energy model of a second office building. The measured and simulated cooling energy use during the overtime period is compared in order to validate the overtime model. A hybrid approach to energy model calibration is proposed and tested, which combines ASHRAE Guideline 14 for the calibration of the energy model during normal working hours, and a proposed KS test for the calibration of the energy model during overtime. The developed stochastic overtime model and the hybrid calibration approach can be used in building energy simulations to improve the accuracy of results, and better understand the characteristics of overtime in office buildings.

  5. 76 FR 31453 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Single-Occupant Side-Facing Seats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... apply to that model as well. Conclusion This action affects only certain novel or unusual design... single-occupant side-facing seats: A. The Injury Criteria 1. Existing Criteria: All injury protection criteria of Sec. 25.562(c)(1) through (c)(6) apply to the occupant of a side-facing seat. Head injury...

  6. Translational PKPD modeling in schizophrenia: linking receptor occupancy of antipsychotics to efficacy and safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pilla Reddy, Venkatesh; Kozielska, Magdalena; Johnson, Martin; Vermeulen, An; Liu, Jing; de Greef, Rik; Groothuis, Genoveva; Danhof, Meindert; Proost, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To link the brain dopamine D2 receptor occupancy (D2RO) of antipsychotic drugs with clinical endpoints of efficacy and safety to assess the therapeutic window of D2RO. Methods: Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) models were developed to predict the D2 receptor occupancy of

  7. Developing probabilistic models to predict amphibian site occupancy in a patchy landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. A. Knapp; K.R. Matthews; H. K. Preisler; R. Jellison

    2003-01-01

    Abstract. Human-caused fragmentation of habitats is threatening an increasing number of animal and plant species, making an understanding of the factors influencing patch occupancy ever more important. The overall goal of the current study was to develop probabilistic models of patch occupancy for the mountain yellow-legged frog (Rana muscosa). This once-common species...

  8. A dyadic multiple mediation model of patient and spouse stressors predicting patient dietary and exercise adherence via depression symptoms and diabetes self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jared R; Novak, Joshua R; Johnson, Matthew D; Deitz, Sharon L; Walker, Ann; Wilcox, Allison; Lewis, Virginia L; Robbins, David C

    2016-12-01

    Using dyadic data from 117 married couples in which one partner was diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes, the purpose of this study was to determine whether a number of specific patient and spouse stressors (chronic life stress, diabetes-specific stress, and physical health stress in the form of the number of comorbidities) were associated with Type 2 diabetes patients' dietary and exercise adherence through two potentially modifiable patient and spouse factors-depression symptoms and diabetes self-efficacy. We found that patient and spouse stressors, particularly patient and spouse diabetes stress and the number of patient comorbidities, were related to patient dietary and exercise adherence through patient depression symptoms and both patient and spouse diabetes self-efficacy. These conclusions were strengthened by incorporating a number of relevant control variables in our models and by testing four alternative models which supported our proposed model. These results are important because they provide further evidence of the significant role spouses' play in managing diabetes and they provide diabetes educators and clinicians with specific targets for intervention programming.

  9. Use of electronic music as an occupational therapy modality in spinal cord injury rehabilitation: an occupational performance model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, B; Nantais, T

    1996-05-01

    This article describes an electronic music program that allows clients with spinal cord injury (SCI) to form musical bands and play songs while performing therapeutic exercise in an occupational therapy program. Clients create the music by activating upper extremity exercise devices that are connected to a synthesizer through a computer. The bands choose the songs they would like to play and meet twice a week for 1 hr to practice. The 8-week program often concludes with a public performance. The music program is intended to motivate client participation in physical rehabilitation while promoting self-esteem, emotional expression, and peer support. It is based on the model of occupational performance and the theory of purposeful activity. To date, 33 persons have taken part. Client, therapist, and public response has been positive because this program highlights the abilities of persons with SCI, thereby encouraging their reintegration into the community.

  10. Occupational hazard evaluation model underground coal mine based on unascertained measurement theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Quanlong; Jiang, Zhongan; Sun, Yaru; Peng, Ya

    2017-05-01

    In order to study how to comprehensively evaluate the influence of several occupational hazard on miners’ physical and mental health, based on unascertained measurement theory, occupational hazard evaluation indicator system was established to make quantitative and qualitative analysis. Determining every indicator weight by information entropy and estimating the occupational hazard level by credible degree recognition criteria, the evaluation model was programmed by Visual Basic, applying the evaluation model to occupational hazard comprehensive evaluation of six posts under a coal mine, and the occupational hazard degree was graded, the evaluation results are consistent with actual situation. The results show that dust and noise is most obvious among the coal mine occupational hazard factors. Excavation face support workers are most affected, secondly, heading machine drivers, coal cutter drivers, coalface move support workers, the occupational hazard degree of these four types workers is II mild level. The occupational hazard degree of ventilation workers and safety inspection workers is I level. The evaluation model could evaluate underground coal mine objectively and accurately, and can be employed to the actual engineering.

  11. Stressors Among CSPC Scholars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Jose Ariel R. Ibarrientos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Scholarships are offered by the college in order to help students to address their financial difficulties. They are subject to a rigid screening and the pressured imposed upon them may bring out a stressful experience that can affect their daily activities. The perceived social psychological academic economic and bureaucratic stressors were identified using the descriptive inferential method among the 203 scholars for school year 2013- 2014.Findings revealed that scholars are highly stressed with peoples high expectations on them as scholars and with various assignment imposed to them as scholars. Moreover scholars are stressed of fear of losing their scholarship. T-test shows that there is no significant difference on the stressors experienced by both the academic and non-academic scholars and so as to their coping mechanism. The proposed Stress Coping Mechanism Guide will help them to manage their stressors.

  12. Effects of obesity on occupant responses in frontal crashes: a simulation analysis using human body models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiangnan; Cao, Libo; Reed, Matthew P; Rupp, Jonathan D; Hu, Jingwen

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of obesity on occupant responses in frontal crashes using whole-body human finite element (FE) models representing occupants with different obesity levels. In this study, the geometry of THUMS 4 midsize male model was varied using mesh morphing techniques with target geometries defined by statistical models of external body contour and exterior ribcage geometry. Models with different body mass indices (BMIs) were calibrated against cadaver test data under high-speed abdomen loading and frontal crash conditions. A parametric analysis was performed to investigate the effects of BMI on occupant injuries in frontal crashes based on the Taguchi method while controlling for several vehicle design parameters. Simulations of obese occupants predicted significantly higher risks of injuries to the thorax and lower extremities in frontal crashes compared with non-obese occupants, which is consistent with previous field data analyses. These higher injury risks are mainly due to the increased body mass and relatively poor belt fit caused by soft tissues for obese occupants. This study demonstrated the feasibility of using a parametric human FE model to investigate the obesity effects on occupant responses in frontal crashes.

  13. Exploring sensitivity of a multistate occupancy model to inform management decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, A.W.; Bailey, L.L.; Nichols, J.D.

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic occupancy models are often used to investigate questions regarding the processes that influence patch occupancy and are prominent in the fields of population and community ecology and conservation biology. Recently, multistate occupancy models have been developed to investigate dynamic systems involving more than one occupied state, including reproductive states, relative abundance states and joint habitat-occupancy states. Here we investigate the sensitivities of the equilibrium-state distribution of multistate occupancy models to changes in transition rates. We develop equilibrium occupancy expressions and their associated sensitivity metrics for dynamic multistate occupancy models. To illustrate our approach, we use two examples that represent common multistate occupancy systems. The first example involves a three-state dynamic model involving occupied states with and without successful reproduction (California spotted owl Strix occidentalis occidentalis), and the second involves a novel way of using a multistate occupancy approach to accommodate second-order Markov processes (wood frog Lithobates sylvatica breeding and metamorphosis). In many ways, multistate sensitivity metrics behave in similar ways as standard occupancy sensitivities. When equilibrium occupancy rates are low, sensitivity to parameters related to colonisation is high, while sensitivity to persistence parameters is greater when equilibrium occupancy rates are high. Sensitivities can also provide guidance for managers when estimates of transition probabilities are not available. Synthesis and applications. Multistate models provide practitioners a flexible framework to define multiple, distinct occupied states and the ability to choose which state, or combination of states, is most relevant to questions and decisions about their own systems. In addition to standard multistate occupancy models, we provide an example of how a second-order Markov process can be modified to fit a multistate

  14. Predicted and actual indoor environmental quality: Verification of occupants' behaviour models in residential buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Fabi, Valentina; Corgnati, Stefano P.

    2016-01-01

    Occupants' interactions with the building envelope and building systems can have a large impact on the indoor environment and energy consumption in a building. As a consequence, any realistic forecast of building performance must include realistic models of the occupants' interactions...... with the building controls (windows, thermostats, solar shading etc.). During the last decade, studies about stochastic models of occupants' behaviour in relation to control of the indoor environment have been published. Often the overall aim of these models is to enable more reliable predictions of building...... performance using building energy performance simulations (BEPS). However, the validity of these models has only been sparsely tested. In this paper, stochastic models of occupants' behaviour from literature were tested against measurements in five apartments. In a monitoring campaign, measurements of indoor...

  15. Design and optimization for the occupant restraint system of vehicle based on a single freedom model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junyuan; Ma, Yue; Chen, Chao; Zhang, Yan

    2013-05-01

    Throughout the vehicle crash event, the interactions between vehicle, occupant, restraint system (VOR) are complicated and highly non-linear. CAE and physical tests are the most widely used in vehicle passive safety development, but they can only be done with the detailed 3D model or physical samples. Often some design errors and imperfections are difficult to correct at that time, and a large amount of time will be needed. A restraint system concept design approach which based on single-degree-of-freedom occupant-vehicle model (SDOF) is proposed in this paper. The interactions between the restraint system parameters and the occupant responses in a crash are studied from the view of mechanics and energy. The discrete input and the iterative algorithm method are applied to the SDOF model to get the occupant responses quickly for arbitrary excitations (impact pulse) by MATLAB. By studying the relationships between the ridedown efficiency, the restraint stiffness, and the occupant response, the design principle of the restraint stiffness aiming to reduce occupant injury level during conceptual design is represented. Higher ridedown efficiency means more occupant energy absorbed by the vehicle, but the research result shows that higher ridedown efficiency does not mean lower occupant injury level. A proper restraint system design principle depends on two aspects. On one hand, the restraint system should lead to as high ridedown efficiency as possible, and at the same time, the restraint system should maximize use of the survival space to reduce the occupant deceleration level. As an example, an optimization of a passenger vehicle restraint system is designed by the concept design method above, and the final results are validated by MADYMO, which is the most widely used software in restraint system design, and the sled test. Consequently, a guideline and method for the occupant restraint system concept design is established in this paper.

  16. The role of Dynamic Energy Budget theory in predictive modeling of stressor impacts on ecological systems. Comment on: ;Physics of metabolic organization; by Marko Jusup et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galic, Nika; Forbes, Valery E.

    2017-03-01

    Human activities have been modifying ecosystems for centuries, from pressures on wild populations we harvest to modifying habitats through urbanization and agricultural activities. Changes in global climate patterns are adding another layer of, often unpredictable, perturbations to ecosystems on which we rely for life support [1,2]. To ensure the sustainability of ecosystem services, especially at this point in time when the human population is estimated to grow by another 2 billion by 2050 [3], we need to predict possible consequences of our actions and suggest relevant solutions [4,5]. We face several challenges when estimating adverse impacts of our actions on ecosystems. We describe these in the context of ecological risk assessment of chemicals. Firstly, when attempting to assess risk from exposure to chemicals, we base our decisions on a very limited number of species that are easily cultured and kept in the lab. We assume that preventing risk to these species will also protect all of the untested species present in natural ecosystems [6]. Secondly, although we know that chemicals interact with other stressors in the field, the number of stressors that we can test is limited due to logistical and ethical reasons. Similarly, empirical approaches are limited in both spatial and temporal scale due to logistical, financial and ethical reasons [7,8]. To bypass these challenges, we can develop ecological models that integrate relevant life history and other information and make testable predictions across relevant spatial and temporal scales [8-10].

  17. Hidden Markov Models for indirect classification of occupant behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liisberg, Jon Anders Reichert; Møller, Jan Kloppenborg; Bloem, H.

    2016-01-01

    , computer, etc.) consumption. It is very seldom to find direct observations of occupant presence and behaviour in residential buildings. However, given the increasing use of smart metering, the opportunity and potential for indirect observation and classification of occupants’ behaviour is possible...

  18. Statistical Analysis and Modeling of Occupancy Patterns in Open-Plan Offices using Measured Lighting-Switch Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Wen-Kuei; Hong, Tianzhen

    2013-01-01

    Occupancy profile is one of the driving factors behind discrepancies between the measured and simulated energy consumption of buildings. The frequencies of occupants leaving their offices and the corresponding durations of absences have significant impact on energy use and the operational controls of buildings. This study used statistical methods to analyze the occupancy status, based on measured lighting-switch data in five-minute intervals, for a total of 200 open-plan (cubicle) offices. Five typical occupancy patterns were identified based on the average daily 24-hour profiles of the presence of occupants in their cubicles. These statistical patterns were represented by a one-square curve, a one-valley curve, a two-valley curve, a variable curve, and a flat curve. The key parameters that define the occupancy model are the average occupancy profile together with probability distributions of absence duration, and the number of times an occupant is absent from the cubicle. The statistical results also reveal that the number of absence occurrences decreases as total daily presence hours decrease, and the duration of absence from the cubicle decreases as the frequency of absence increases. The developed occupancy model captures the stochastic nature of occupants moving in and out of cubicles, and can be used to generate a more realistic occupancy schedule. This is crucial for improving the evaluation of the energy saving potential of occupancy based technologies and controls using building simulations. Finally, to demonstrate the use of the occupancy model, weekday occupant schedules were generated and discussed.

  19. Confirmatory factor analysis of Post-Occupancy Evaluation Model (POEM) for sustainable neighborhood development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, R.; Thadaniti, S.; Abdullah, J.; Ahmad, N.; Ishak, N. M.

    2018-02-01

    The sustainable urban development growth in the ASEAN region has accelerated tremendously. More demand on the sustainable development has led to bigger market driven certified green neighborhood and buildings. However, there is a lack of post-occupancy evaluation study conducted in assessing the end-users perspective on the certified sustainable neighborhood development. This paper aims to investigate the end-users point of view on sustainable dimension pillar (SDP) adaptation based on environment dimension, social dimension and economic dimension using Post-Occupancy Evaluation Model (POEM) framework. The research methodology employed stakeholders-Inclusion Approach survey questionnaires in order to obtained the sustainable dimensional adaptation score. The results show that there is sustainable dimension gap in POEM evaluation, hence, suggested the pre- occupancy criteria did not fulfill the SDP adaptation and pre-occupancy criteria and variables if differ from post-occupancy criteria and variables.

  20. Ignoring imperfect detection in biological surveys is dangerous: a response to 'fitting and interpreting occupancy models'.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurutzeta Guillera-Arroita

    Full Text Available In a recent paper, Welsh, Lindenmayer and Donnelly (WLD question the usefulness of models that estimate species occupancy while accounting for detectability. WLD claim that these models are difficult to fit and argue that disregarding detectability can be better than trying to adjust for it. We think that this conclusion and subsequent recommendations are not well founded and may negatively impact the quality of statistical inference in ecology and related management decisions. Here we respond to WLD's claims, evaluating in detail their arguments, using simulations and/or theory to support our points. In particular, WLD argue that both disregarding and accounting for imperfect detection lead to the same estimator performance regardless of sample size when detectability is a function of abundance. We show that this, the key result of their paper, only holds for cases of extreme heterogeneity like the single scenario they considered. Our results illustrate the dangers of disregarding imperfect detection. When ignored, occupancy and detection are confounded: the same naïve occupancy estimates can be obtained for very different true levels of occupancy so the size of the bias is unknowable. Hierarchical occupancy models separate occupancy and detection, and imprecise estimates simply indicate that more data are required for robust inference about the system in question. As for any statistical method, when underlying assumptions of simple hierarchical models are violated, their reliability is reduced. Resorting in those instances where hierarchical occupancy models do no perform well to the naïve occupancy estimator does not provide a satisfactory solution. The aim should instead be to achieve better estimation, by minimizing the effect of these issues during design, data collection and analysis, ensuring that the right amount of data is collected and model assumptions are met, considering model extensions where appropriate.

  1. Improving the accuracy of energy baseline models for commercial buildings with occupancy data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Xin; Hong, Tianzhen; Shen, Geoffrey Qiping

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We evaluated several baseline models predicting energy use in buildings. • Including occupancy data improved accuracy of baseline model prediction. • Occupancy is highly correlated with energy use in buildings. • This simple approach can be used in decision makings of energy retrofit projects. - Abstract: More than 80% of energy is consumed during operation phase of a building’s life cycle, so energy efficiency retrofit for existing buildings is considered a promising way to reduce energy use in buildings. The investment strategies of retrofit depend on the ability to quantify energy savings by “measurement and verification” (M&V), which compares actual energy consumption to how much energy would have been used without retrofit (called the “baseline” of energy use). Although numerous models exist for predicting baseline of energy use, a critical limitation is that occupancy has not been included as a variable. However, occupancy rate is essential for energy consumption and was emphasized by previous studies. This study develops a new baseline model which is built upon the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) model but includes the use of building occupancy data. The study also proposes metrics to quantify the accuracy of prediction and the impacts of variables. However, the results show that including occupancy data does not significantly improve the accuracy of the baseline model, especially for HVAC load. The reasons are discussed further. In addition, sensitivity analysis is conducted to show the influence of parameters in baseline models. The results from this study can help us understand the influence of occupancy on energy use, improve energy baseline prediction by including the occupancy factor, reduce risks of M&V and facilitate investment strategies of energy efficiency retrofit.

  2. Eating your feelings? Testing a model of employees' work-related stressors, sleep quality, and unhealthy eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yihao; Song, Yifan; Koopmann, Jaclyn; Wang, Mo; Chang, Chu-Hsiang Daisy; Shi, Junqi

    2017-08-01

    Although organizational research on health-related behaviors has become increasingly popular, little attention has been paid to unhealthy eating. Drawing on the self-regulation perspective, we conducted 2 daily diary studies to examine the relationships between work-related stressors, sleep quality, negative mood, and eating behaviors. Study 1 sampled 125 participants from 5 Chinese information technology companies and showed that when participants experienced higher levels of job demands in the morning, they consumed more types of unhealthy food and fewer types of healthy food in the evening. In addition, sleep quality from the previous night buffered the effect of morning job demands on evening unhealthy food consumption. Study 2 used data from 110 customer service employees from a Chinese telecommunications company and further demonstrated a positive association between morning customer mistreatment and evening overeating behaviors, as well as the buffering effect of sleep quality. Results from Study 2 also supported afternoon negative mood as a mediator linking morning customer mistreatment to evening overeating behaviors. Finally, our findings revealed that the buffering effect of sleep quality was channeled through employees' vigor in the morning, which subsequently weakened the effect of customer mistreatment on negative mood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Occupational medicine--then and now: where we could go from here.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkić, Karen; Nedić, Olesja

    2014-01-01

    Occupational medicine has a long-standing history in the region of the former Yugoslavia with seminal contributions to the theory and practice of this discipline. This tradition should be expanded to incorporate psychosocial stressors. We review the sociological work stress models and empirical evidence gleaned thereby, and then the occupational stressor index, an additive burden model developed from a cognitive ergonomics perspective. In numerous studies, the occupational stressor index is significantly associated with risk behaviors: smoking, obesity and sedentariness and clinical outcomes: hypertension, ischemic heart disease, dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes. The occupational stressor index characterizes the work conditions of physicians including surgeons and anesthesiologists; professional drivers and other groups at elevated risk for stress-related disorders. Much of these empirical data are from this region. Work-stress related health disorders are a major public health problem, with enormous human and economic costs. A more proactive role for physicians is needed vis-à-vis our working environment and that of patients. We physicians face a heavy job stressor burden strongly implicated with adverse health outcomes. The challenge is to identify effective strategies to lower the risk of work-stressor related illness. The critical gap is the lack of evidence-based guidelines. Intervention studies are needed in which job stressors are ameliorated as a therapeutic/preventive modality; the logical starting point is within our own profession. We also suggest how the relevant clinical competence could be enhanced. Alongside clinical enhancement should be the full restoration of physician empowerment to implement work-related recommendations. A participatory action research perspective by physicians for physicians and for our patients is needed.

  4. Using a spatially structured life cycle model to assess the influence of multiple stressors on an exploited coastal-nursery-dependent population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archambault, B.; Rivot, E.; Savina, M.; Le Pape, O.

    2018-02-01

    Exploited coastal-nursery-dependent fish species are subject to various stressors occurring at specific stages of the life cycle: climate-driven variability in hydrography determines the success of the first eggs/larvae stages; coastal nursery habitat suitability controls juvenile growth and survival; and fisheries target mostly adults. A life cycle approach was used to quantify the relative influence of these stressors on the Eastern English Channel (EEC) population of the common sole (Solea solea), a coastal-nursery-dependent flatfish population which sustains important fisheries. The common sole has a complex life cycle: after eggs hatch, larvae spend several weeks drifting in open water. Survivors go on to metamorphose into benthic fish. Juveniles spend the first two years of their life in coastal and estuarine nurseries. Close to maturation, they migrate to deeper areas, where different subpopulations supplied by different nurseries reproduce and are exploited by fisheries. A spatially structured age-and stage-based hierarchical Bayesian model integrating various aspects of ecological knowledge, data sources and expert knowledge was built to quantitatively describe this complex life cycle. The model included the low connectivity among three subpopulations in the EEC, the influence of hydrographic variability, the availability of suitable juvenile habitat and fisheries. Scenarios were designed to quantify the effects of interacting stressors on population renewal. Results emphasized the importance of coastal nursery habitat availability and quality for the population renewal. Realistic restoration scenarios of the highly degraded Seine estuary produced a two-third increase in catch potential for the adjacent subpopulation. Fisheries, however, remained the main source of population depletion. Setting fishing mortality to the maximum sustainable yield led to substantial increases in biomass (+100%) and catch (+33%) at the EEC scale. The approach also showed how

  5. Statement on the suitability of the BEEHAVE model for its potential use in a regulatory context and for the risk assessment of multiple stressors in honeybees at the landscape level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA PPR Panel (EFSA Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues); Topping, Christopher John

    2015-01-01

    The Panel has interpreted the Terms of Reference by carrying out a stepwise evaluation of the BEEHAVE simulation model with a view to assessing its suitability for use in a regulatory context and for risk assessment of multiple stressors at the landscape level. The EFSA opinion on good modelling...... usable in a regulatory context primarily because it needs a pesticide module. BEEHAVE has a Varroa/virus module, although this seems to underestimate the impact of Varroa/virus on colony survival, and additional stressors (chemical and biological) would need to be added to allow investigation...

  6. Stressors and reactions to stressors among university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaideh, Shaher H

    2011-01-01

    University students are prone to stressors due to the transitional nature of university life. High levels of stress are believed to affect students' health as well as their academic performance. The aims of this study were to identify stressors and reactions to stressors among university students, and to examine the correlations between student stressors and study variables. A correlational descriptive design was used. Student-life Stress Inventory (SSI) was used to measure the stressors and reactions to stressors. Stratified random sampling was employed to recruit participants. The final sample consisted of 877 participants (students). s indicated that the highest group of stressors experienced by students were 'self-imposed' stressors followed by 'pressures'. Cognitive responses were found to be the highest responses to stressors experienced by students. Negative correlations were found with student's perception of health, and father's and mother's level of education. This study revealed that stressors among university students come from 'self-imposed' stressors and 'pressures'. Stress management, assertiveness skills, time management and counselling sessions will be effective in reducing stress experienced by students.

  7. Journalists' Occupational Stress: A Comparative Study between Reporting Critical Events and Domestic News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Susana; Marques-Pinto, Alexandra

    2017-07-27

    Nowadays, journalism is considered a stressful occupation, not only due to the stress perceived in journalists' daily work but also due to the critical, potentially traumatic events they report. However, research on journalists' occupational stress in both these professional settings is still scarce. This study aims to characterize and compare occupational stress variables perceived by journalists in their daily work and in critical scenarios. Taking the Holistic Model of Occupational Stress by Nelson and Simmons (2003) as a framework, 25 Portuguese journalists, all with experience in reporting critical events, were interviewed on their perceptions of some core variables of the model: occupational stressors, distress and eustress emotional reactions, and the consequences of these experiences on their well-being. Differences among these core variables, according to the number of deployments to a critical event, were statistically analysed in order to ascertain whether repeated exposure to trauma influenced journalists' occupational stress perceptions. The data content analysis showed that occupational stressors and emotional reactions differed across settings, while the consequences associated with journalists' experiences were perceived as being mainly negative in both occupational contexts. Significant differences were identified in some of these variables according to the number of deployments to a critical event (p < .05). These findings may contribute to a reflection on the role of media organizations in preparing and supporting journalists in their work performance, and on the promotion of occupational health within the scope of journalists' daily work and critical events. The article closes with considerations for future studies.

  8. Occupant feedback based model predictive control for thermal comfort and energy optimization: A chamber experimental evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xiao; Wang, Qian; Srebric, Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • This study evaluates an occupant-feedback driven Model Predictive Controller (MPC). • The MPC adjusts indoor temperature based on a dynamic thermal sensation (DTS) model. • A chamber model for predicting chamber air temperature is developed and validated. • Experiments show that MPC using DTS performs better than using Predicted Mean Vote. - Abstract: In current centralized building climate control, occupants do not have much opportunity to intervene the automated control system. This study explores the benefit of using thermal comfort feedback from occupants in the model predictive control (MPC) design based on a novel dynamic thermal sensation (DTS) model. This DTS model based MPC was evaluated in chamber experiments. A hierarchical structure for thermal control was adopted in the chamber experiments. At the high level, an MPC controller calculates the optimal supply air temperature of the chamber heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system, using the feedback of occupants’ votes on thermal sensation. At the low level, the actual supply air temperature is controlled by the chiller/heater using a PI control to achieve the optimal set point. This DTS-based MPC was also compared to an MPC designed based on the Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) model for thermal sensation. The experiment results demonstrated that the DTS-based MPC using occupant feedback allows significant energy saving while maintaining occupant thermal comfort compared to the PMV-based MPC.

  9. Using multilevel spatial models to understand salamander site occupancy patterns after wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelgren, Nathan; Adams, Michael J.; Bailey, Larissa L.; Bury, R. Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Studies of the distribution of elusive forest wildlife have suffered from the confounding of true presence with the uncertainty of detection. Occupancy modeling, which incorporates probabilities of species detection conditional on presence, is an emerging approach for reducing observation bias. However, the current likelihood modeling framework is restrictive for handling unexplained sources of variation in the response that may occur when there are dependence structures such as smaller sampling units that are nested within larger sampling units. We used multilevel Bayesian occupancy modeling to handle dependence structures and to partition sources of variation in occupancy of sites by terrestrial salamanders (family Plethodontidae) within and surrounding an earlier wildfire in western Oregon, USA. Comparison of model fit favored a spatial N-mixture model that accounted for variation in salamander abundance over models that were based on binary detection/non-detection data. Though catch per unit effort was higher in burned areas than unburned, there was strong support that this pattern was due to a higher probability of capture for individuals in burned plots. Within the burn, the odds of capturing an individual given it was present were 2.06 times the odds outside the burn, reflecting reduced complexity of ground cover in the burn. There was weak support that true occupancy was lower within the burned area. While the odds of occupancy in the burn were 0.49 times the odds outside the burn among the five species, the magnitude of variation attributed to the burn was small in comparison to variation attributed to other landscape variables and to unexplained, spatially autocorrelated random variation. While ordinary occupancy models may separate the biological pattern of interest from variation in detection probability when all sources of variation are known, the addition of random effects structures for unexplained sources of variation in occupancy and detection

  10. Modelling of occupational exposure to inhalable nickel compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendzia, Benjamin; Pesch, Beate; Koppisch, Dorothea; Van Gelder, Rainer; Pitzke, Katrin; Zschiesche, Wolfgang; Behrens, Thomas; Weiss, Tobias; Siemiatycki, Jack; Lavoué, Jerome; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Stamm, Roger; Brüning, Thomas

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate average occupational exposure to inhalable nickel (Ni) using the German exposure database MEGA. This database contains 8052 personal measurements of Ni collected between 1990 and 2009 in adjunct with information on the measurement and workplace conditions. The median of all Ni concentrations was 9 μg/m 3 and the 95th percentile was 460 μg/m 3 . We predicted geometric means (GMs) for welders and other occupations centered to 1999. Exposure to Ni in welders is strongly influenced by the welding process applied and the Ni content of the used welding materials. Welding with consumable electrodes of high Ni content (>30%) was associated with 10-fold higher concentrations compared with those with a low content (exposure levels (GMs ≥20 μg/m 3 ) were observed in gas metal and shielded metal arc welders using welding materials with high Ni content, in metal sprayers, grinders and forging-press operators, and in the manufacture of batteries and accumulators. The exposure profiles are useful for exposure assessment in epidemiologic studies as well as in industrial hygiene. Therefore, we recommend to collect additional exposure-specific information in addition to the job title in community-based studies when estimating the health risks of Ni exposure.

  11. Occupations at Risk and Organizational Well-Being: An Empirical Test of a Job Insecurity Integrated Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Chirumbolo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the more visible effects of the societal changes is the increased feelings of uncertainty in the workforce. In fact, job insecurity represents a crucial occupational risk factor and a major job stressor that has negative consequences on both organizational well-being and individual health. Many studies have focused on the consequences about the fear and the perception of losing the job as a whole (called quantitative job insecurity, while more recently research has begun to examine more extensively the worries and the perceptions of losing valued job features (called qualitative job insecurity. The vast majority of the studies, however, have investigated the effects of quantitative and qualitative job insecurity separately. In this paper, we proposed the Job Insecurity Integrated Model aimed to examine the effects of quantitative job insecurity and qualitative job insecurity on their short-term and long-term outcomes. This model was empirically tested in two independent studies, hypothesizing that qualitative job insecurity mediated the effects of quantitative job insecurity on different outcomes, such as work engagement and organizational identification (Study 1, and job satisfaction, commitment, psychological stress and turnover intention (Study 2. Study 1 was conducted on 329 employees in private firms, while Study 2 on 278 employees in both public sector and private firms. Results robustly showed that qualitative job insecurity totally mediated the effects of quantitative on all the considered outcomes. By showing that the effects of quantitative job insecurity on its outcomes passed through qualitative job insecurity, the Job Insecurity Integrated Model contributes to clarifying previous findings in job insecurity research and puts forward a framework that could profitably produce new investigations with important theoretical and practical implications.

  12. Occupations at Risk and Organizational Well-Being: An Empirical Test of a Job Insecurity Integrated Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirumbolo, Antonio; Urbini, Flavio; Callea, Antonino; Lo Presti, Alessandro; Talamo, Alessandra

    2017-01-01

    One of the more visible effects of the societal changes is the increased feelings of uncertainty in the workforce. In fact, job insecurity represents a crucial occupational risk factor and a major job stressor that has negative consequences on both organizational well-being and individual health. Many studies have focused on the consequences about the fear and the perception of losing the job as a whole (called quantitative job insecurity), while more recently research has begun to examine more extensively the worries and the perceptions of losing valued job features (called qualitative job insecurity). The vast majority of the studies, however, have investigated the effects of quantitative and qualitative job insecurity separately. In this paper, we proposed the Job Insecurity Integrated Model aimed to examine the effects of quantitative job insecurity and qualitative job insecurity on their short-term and long-term outcomes. This model was empirically tested in two independent studies, hypothesizing that qualitative job insecurity mediated the effects of quantitative job insecurity on different outcomes, such as work engagement and organizational identification (Study 1), and job satisfaction, commitment, psychological stress and turnover intention (Study 2). Study 1 was conducted on 329 employees in private firms, while Study 2 on 278 employees in both public sector and private firms. Results robustly showed that qualitative job insecurity totally mediated the effects of quantitative on all the considered outcomes. By showing that the effects of quantitative job insecurity on its outcomes passed through qualitative job insecurity, the Job Insecurity Integrated Model contributes to clarifying previous findings in job insecurity research and puts forward a framework that could profitably produce new investigations with important theoretical and practical implications.

  13. Occupations at Risk and Organizational Well-Being: An Empirical Test of a Job Insecurity Integrated Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirumbolo, Antonio; Urbini, Flavio; Callea, Antonino; Lo Presti, Alessandro; Talamo, Alessandra

    2017-01-01

    One of the more visible effects of the societal changes is the increased feelings of uncertainty in the workforce. In fact, job insecurity represents a crucial occupational risk factor and a major job stressor that has negative consequences on both organizational well-being and individual health. Many studies have focused on the consequences about the fear and the perception of losing the job as a whole (called quantitative job insecurity), while more recently research has begun to examine more extensively the worries and the perceptions of losing valued job features (called qualitative job insecurity). The vast majority of the studies, however, have investigated the effects of quantitative and qualitative job insecurity separately. In this paper, we proposed the Job Insecurity Integrated Model aimed to examine the effects of quantitative job insecurity and qualitative job insecurity on their short-term and long-term outcomes. This model was empirically tested in two independent studies, hypothesizing that qualitative job insecurity mediated the effects of quantitative job insecurity on different outcomes, such as work engagement and organizational identification (Study 1), and job satisfaction, commitment, psychological stress and turnover intention (Study 2). Study 1 was conducted on 329 employees in private firms, while Study 2 on 278 employees in both public sector and private firms. Results robustly showed that qualitative job insecurity totally mediated the effects of quantitative on all the considered outcomes. By showing that the effects of quantitative job insecurity on its outcomes passed through qualitative job insecurity, the Job Insecurity Integrated Model contributes to clarifying previous findings in job insecurity research and puts forward a framework that could profitably produce new investigations with important theoretical and practical implications. PMID:29250013

  14. The relationship between occupational culture dimensions and reward preferences: A structural equation modelling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Bussin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Reward has links to employee attraction and retention and as such has a role to play in managing talent. However, despite a range of research, there is still lack of clarity on employee preferences relating to reward.Research purpose: The purpose of the research was to recommend and appraise a theoretical model of the relationship between occupational culture dimensions and reward preferences of specific occupational groups in the South African context.Motivation for the study: The motivation for this study was to address the gap that exists with reward preferences and occupational culture with a view to identifying and gaining insight into individual preferences.Research design, approach and method: A structural equation modelling approach was adopted in exploring the proposed relationships. A South African Information, Communication, and Technology (ICT organisation served as the population, and a web-based survey assisted in gathering study data (n = 1362.Main findings: The findings provided support for the relationship between occupational culture dimensions and certain reward preferences. In particular, statistically significant results were obtained with the inclusion of the Environment, Team, and Time occupational culture dimensions as independent variables.Practical implications and value-add: The study provides workable input to organisations and reward professionals in the design of their reward strategies and programmes.Keywords: compensation; employee preferences; occupational culture; remuneration; reward preferences

  15. A conceptual model for the development of professional behaviours in occupational therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasar, J; Muscari, M E

    2000-02-01

    The ever-changing, dynamic practice environment coupled with increased consumer needs and awareness create an atmosphere that requires optimal professionalism from occupational therapists. Professionalism requires specific knowledge, attitudes, and values--all manifested by professional behaviours. The authors assume that professional behaviours mature through a natural developmental process; a process that requires careful nurturing on the part of educators and clinical supervisors. Based on this assumption, the authors propose this conceptual model based on Erikson's life cycle stages. The model implies that occupational therapy professional behaviours develop sequentially through stages that begin during the educational process of occupational therapists, and progress throughout their career. The purpose of this model is to provide a framework for educators and supervisors to nurture professional behaviours in students and novice clinicians, and to continue their own professional growth.

  16. Implications of the model of human occupation for intervention with native canadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieringa, N; McColl, M

    1987-01-01

    The following paper provides a theoretical framework for occuaptional therapy with Native Canadians. Traditional models of care have not been entirely satisfactory with this population, as they have failed to come to terms with cultural issues and to recognize cultural stereotyping. NAtive culture is first explored, both from a traditional and a transitional standpoint, with a focus on issues which are of particular interest to occupational therapy, such as role performance, role learning, work patterns, and interpersonal patterns. The Model of Human Occupation is then applied to dysfunction in this population, with particular emphasis on psychosocial dysfunction. Several basic principles in occupational therapy are examined with relation to Native culture. Finally, the various subsystems of the model, and their interpretation for this population are discussed.

  17. An Integrated Ecological Modeling System for Assessing Impacts of Multiple Stressors on Stream and Riverine Ecosystem Services within River Basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, John M; Barber, M Craig; Wolfe, Kurt; Galvin, Mike; Cyterski, Mike; Parmar, Rajbir

    2017-06-24

    We demonstrate a novel, spatially explicit assessment of the current condition of aquatic ecosystem services, with limited sensitivity analysis for the atmospheric contaminant mercury. The Integrated Ecological Modeling System (IEMS) forecasts water quality and quantity, habitat suitability for aquatic biota, fish biomasses, population densities, productivities, and contamination by methylmercury across headwater watersheds. We applied this IEMS to the Coal River Basin (CRB), West Virginia (USA), an 8-digit hydrologic unit watershed, by simulating a network of 97 stream segments using the SWAT watershed model, a watershed mercury loading model, the WASP water quality model, the PiSCES fish community estimation model, a fish habitat suitability model, the BASS fish community and bioaccumulation model, and an ecoservices post-processer. Model application was facilitated by automated data retrieval and model setup and updated model wrappers and interfaces for data transfers between these models from a prior study. This companion study evaluates baseline predictions of ecoservices provided for 1990 - 2010 for the population of streams in the CRB and serves as a foundation for future model development.

  18. Modeling Occupancy of Hosts by Mistletoe Seeds after Accounting for Imperfect Detectability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadini, Rodrigo F.; Cintra, Renato

    2015-01-01

    The detection of an organism in a given site is widely used as a state variable in many metapopulation and epidemiological studies. However, failure to detect the species does not necessarily mean that it is absent. Assessing detectability is important for occupancy (presence—absence) surveys; and identifying the factors reducing detectability may help improve survey precision and efficiency. A method was used to estimate the occupancy status of host trees colonized by mistletoe seeds of Psittacanthus plagiophyllus as a function of host covariates: host size and presence of mistletoe infections on the same or on the nearest neighboring host (the cashew tree Anacardium occidentale). The technique also evaluated the effect of taking detectability into account for estimating host occupancy by mistletoe seeds. Individual host trees were surveyed for presence of mistletoe seeds with the aid of two or three observers to estimate detectability and occupancy. Detectability was, on average, 17% higher in focal-host trees with infected neighbors, while decreased about 23 to 50% from smallest to largest hosts. The presence of mistletoe plants in the sample tree had negligible effect on detectability. Failure to detect hosts as occupied decreased occupancy by 2.5% on average, with maximum of 10% for large and isolated hosts. The method presented in this study has potential for use with metapopulation studies of mistletoes, especially those focusing on the seed stage, but also as improvement of accuracy in occupancy models estimates often used for metapopulation dynamics of tree-dwelling plants in general. PMID:25973754

  19. Monitoring carnivore populations at the landscape scale: occupancy modelling of tigers from sign surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanth, Kota Ullas; Gopalaswamy, Arjun M.; Kumar, Narayanarao Samba; Vaidyanathan, Srinivas; Nichols, James D.; MacKenzie, Darryl I.

    2011-01-01

    1. Assessing spatial distributions of threatened large carnivores at landscape scales poses formidable challenges because of their rarity and elusiveness. As a consequence of logistical constraints, investigators typically rely on sign surveys. Most survey methods, however, do not explicitly address the central problem of imperfect detections of animal signs in the field, leading to underestimates of true habitat occupancy and distribution. 2. We assessed habitat occupancy for a tiger Panthera tigris metapopulation across a c. 38 000-km2 landscape in India, employing a spatially replicated survey to explicitly address imperfect detections. Ecological predictions about tiger presence were confronted with sign detection data generated from occupancy sampling of 205 sites, each of 188 km2. 3. A recent occupancy model that considers Markovian dependency among sign detections on spatial replicates performed better than the standard occupancy model (ΔAIC = 184·9). A formulation of this model that fitted the data best showed that density of ungulate prey and levels of human disturbance were key determinants of local tiger presence. Model averaging resulted in a replicate-level detection probability [inline image] = 0·17 (0·17) for signs and a tiger habitat occupancy estimate of [inline image] = 0·665 (0·0857) or 14 076 (1814) km2 of potential habitat of 21 167 km2. In contrast, a traditional presence-versus-absence approach underestimated occupancy by 47%. Maps of probabilities of local site occupancy clearly identified tiger source populations at higher densities and matched observed tiger density variations, suggesting their potential utility for population assessments at landscape scales. 4. Synthesis and applications. Landscape-scale sign surveys can efficiently assess large carnivore spatial distributions and elucidate the factors governing their local presence, provided ecological and observation processes are both explicitly modelled. Occupancy

  20. Using occupancy models to understand the distribution of an amphibian pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Michael J.; Chelgren, Nathan; Reinitz, David M.; Cole, Rebecca A.; Rachowicz, L.J.; Galvan, Stephanie; Mccreary, Brome; Pearl, Christopher A.; Bailey, Larissa L.; Bettaso, Jamie B.; Bull, Evelyn L.; Leu, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a fungal pathogen that is receiving attention around the world for its role in amphibian declines. Study of its occurrence patterns is hampered by false negatives: the failure to detect the pathogen when it is present. Occupancy models are a useful but currently underutilized tool for analyzing detection data when the probability of detecting a species is <1. We use occupancy models to evaluate hypotheses concerning the occurrence and prevalence of B. dendrobatidis and discuss how this application differs from a conventional occupancy approach. We found that the probability of detecting the pathogen, conditional on presence of the pathogen in the anuran population, was related to amphibian development stage, day of the year, elevation, and human activities. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis was found throughout our study area but was only estimated to occur in 53.4% of 78 populations of native amphibians and 66.4% of 40 populations of nonnative Rana catesbeiana tested. We found little evidence to support any spatial hypotheses concerning the probability that the pathogen occurs in a population, but did find evidence of some taxonomic variation. We discuss the interpretation of occupancy model parameters, when, unlike a conventional occupancy application, the number of potential samples or observations is finite.

  1. On 4-degree-of-freedom biodynamic models of seated occupants: Lumped-parameter modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xian-Xu; Xu, Shi-Xu; Cheng, Wei; Qian, Li-Jun

    2017-08-01

    It is useful to develop an effective biodynamic model of seated human occupants to help understand the human vibration exposure to transportation vehicle vibrations and to help design and improve the anti-vibration devices and/or test dummies. This study proposed and demonstrated a methodology for systematically identifying the best configuration or structure of a 4-degree-of-freedom (4DOF) human vibration model and for its parameter identification. First, an equivalent simplification expression for the models was made. Second, all of the possible 23 structural configurations of the models were identified. Third, each of them was calibrated using the frequency response functions recommended in a biodynamic standard. An improved version of non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) based on Pareto optimization principle was used to determine the model parameters. Finally, a model evaluation criterion proposed in this study was used to assess the models and to identify the best one, which was based on both the goodness of curve fits and comprehensive goodness of the fits. The identified top configurations were better than those reported in the literature. This methodology may also be extended and used to develop the models with other DOFs.

  2. Callings and Work Engagement: Moderated Mediation Model of Work Meaningfulness, Occupational Identity, and Occupational Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschi, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Scholarly interest in callings is growing, but researchers' understanding of how and when callings relate to career outcomes is incomplete. The present study investigated the possibility that the relationship of calling to work engagement is mediated by work meaningfulness, occupational identity, and occupational self-efficacy--and that this…

  3. Development of a multi-body nonlinear model for a seat-occupant system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Yousof

    A car seat is an important component of today's cars, which directly affects ride comfort experienced by occupants. Currently, the process of ride comfort evaluation is subjective. Alternatively, the ride comfort can be evaluated by a series of objective metrics in the dynamic response of the occupant. From previous studies it is well known that the dynamic behavior of a seat-occupant system is greatly affected by soft nonlinear viscoelastic materials used in the seat cushion. Therefore, in this research, especial attention was given to efficiently modeling the behavior of seat cushion. In the first part of this research, a phenomenological nonlinear viscoelastic foam model was proposed and its ability to capture uniaxial behavior of foam was investigated. The model is based on the assumption that the total stress can be decomposed into the sum of a nonlinear elastic component, modeled by a higher order polynomial of strain, and a nonlinear hereditary type viscoelastic component. System identification procedures were developed to estimate the model parameters using uniaxial cyclic compression data from experiments conducted at different rates on two types of low density polyurethane foams and three types of high density CONFOR foams. The performance of the proposed model was compared to that of other traditional continuum models. For each foam type, it was observed that lower order models are sufficient to describe the uniaxial behavior of the foam compressed at different rates. Although, the estimated model parameters were functions of the input strain rate. Alternatively, higher order comprehensive models, with strain independent parameters, were estimated as well. The estimated comprehensive model predicts foam responses under different compression rates. Also, a methodology was proposed to predict the stress-response of a layered foam system using the estimated models of each foam in the layers. Next, the estimated foam model was incorporated into a single

  4. A novel modeling tool with multi-stressor functionality for organic contaminant transport and fate in the Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Undeman, E., E-mail: emma.undeman@itm.su.se [Baltic Nest Institute, Baltic Sea Centre, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University, 11418 Stockholm (Sweden); Gustafsson, E., E-mail: erik.gustafsson@su.se [Baltic Nest Institute, Baltic Sea Centre, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Gustafsson, B.G., E-mail: bo.gustafsson@su.se [Baltic Nest Institute, Baltic Sea Centre, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-11-01

    The coupled physical–biogeochemical model BALTSEM, previously used to assess nutrient/carbon cycles and eutrophication in the Baltic Sea, has been expanded to include algorithms for calculations of organic contaminant environmental transport and fate. This novel model version (BALTSEM-POP) is evaluated for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in Baltic Sea surface water and sediment. Modeled dissolved concentrations are usually within a factor of 2–4 of observed concentrations, however with larger deviations for furans. Calculated concentrations in particulate organic matter are less accurate (within factors of 1–700), likely due to errors in estimated pelagic biomass, particulate matter–water partitioning, and large natural variability in field data. Concentrations in sediments are usually predicted within a factor of 6. The good performance of the model illustrates its usefulness for exploration of contaminant fate in response to variations in nutrient input and climatic conditions in the Baltic Sea marine environment. - Highlights: • A new model for organic chemical transport and fate in the Baltic Sea is presented. • Physical and biogeochemical processes are linked to organic contaminant transport. • The model is evaluated for PCBs, HCB and PCDD/Fs. • The model can predict dissolved concentrations within a factor of ca 2–4. • Predictions for concentrations in particulate matter and sediment are less accurate.

  5. A novel modeling tool with multi-stressor functionality for organic contaminant transport and fate in the Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Undeman, E.; Gustafsson, E.; Gustafsson, B.G.

    2014-01-01

    The coupled physical–biogeochemical model BALTSEM, previously used to assess nutrient/carbon cycles and eutrophication in the Baltic Sea, has been expanded to include algorithms for calculations of organic contaminant environmental transport and fate. This novel model version (BALTSEM-POP) is evaluated for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in Baltic Sea surface water and sediment. Modeled dissolved concentrations are usually within a factor of 2–4 of observed concentrations, however with larger deviations for furans. Calculated concentrations in particulate organic matter are less accurate (within factors of 1–700), likely due to errors in estimated pelagic biomass, particulate matter–water partitioning, and large natural variability in field data. Concentrations in sediments are usually predicted within a factor of 6. The good performance of the model illustrates its usefulness for exploration of contaminant fate in response to variations in nutrient input and climatic conditions in the Baltic Sea marine environment. - Highlights: • A new model for organic chemical transport and fate in the Baltic Sea is presented. • Physical and biogeochemical processes are linked to organic contaminant transport. • The model is evaluated for PCBs, HCB and PCDD/Fs. • The model can predict dissolved concentrations within a factor of ca 2–4. • Predictions for concentrations in particulate matter and sediment are less accurate

  6. INCORPORATING NONCHEMICAL STRESSORS INTO CUMMULATIVE RISK ASSESSMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The risk assessment paradigm has begun to shift from assessing single chemicals using "reasonable worst case" assumptions for individuals to considering multiple chemicals and community-based models. Inherent in community-based risk assessment is examination of all stressors a...

  7. Occupancy modeling of autonomously recorded vocalizations to predict distribution of rallids in tidal wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiffler, Lydia L.; Anderson, James T.; Katzner, Todd

    2018-01-01

    Conservation and management for a species requires reliable information on its status, distribution, and habitat use. We identified occupancy and distributions of king (Rallus elegans) and clapper (R. crepitans) rail populations in marsh complexes along the Pamunkey and Mattaponi Rivers in Virginia, USA by modeling data on vocalizations recorded from autonomous recording units (ARUs). Occupancy probability for both species combined was 0.64 (95% CI: 0.53, 0.75) in marshes along the Pamunkey and 0.59 (0.45, 0.72) in marshes along the Mattaponi. Occupancy probability along the Pamunkey was strongly influenced by salinity, increasing logistically by a factor of 1.62 (0.6, 2.65) per parts per thousand of salinity. In contrast, there was not a strong salinity gradient on the Mattaponi and therefore vegetative community structure determined occupancy probability on that river. Estimated detection probability across both marshes was 0.63 (0.62, 0.65), but detection rates decreased as the season progressed. Monitoring wildlife within wetlands presents unique challenges for conservation managers. Our findings provide insight not only into how rails responded to environmental variation but also into the general utility of ARUs for occupancy modeling of the distribution and habitat associations of rails within tidal marsh systems.

  8. An Integrated Ecological Modeling System for Assessing Impacts of Multiple Stressors on Stream and Riverine Ecosystem Services Within River Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    We demonstrate a novel, spatially explicit assessment of the current condition of aquatic ecosystem services, with limited sensitivity analysis for the atmospheric contaminant mercury. The Integrated Ecological Modeling System (IEMS) forecasts water quality and quantity, habitat ...

  9. Use of Occupancy Models to Evaluate Expert Knowledge-based Species-Habitat Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica N. Iglecia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Expert knowledge-based species-habitat relationships are used extensively to guide conservation planning, particularly when data are scarce. Purported relationships describe the initial state of knowledge, but are rarely tested. We assessed support in the data for suitability rankings of vegetation types based on expert knowledge for three terrestrial avian species in the South Atlantic Coastal Plain of the United States. Experts used published studies, natural history, survey data, and field experience to rank vegetation types as optimal, suitable, and marginal. We used single-season occupancy models, coupled with land cover and Breeding Bird Survey data, to examine the hypothesis that patterns of occupancy conformed to species-habitat suitability rankings purported by experts. Purported habitat suitability was validated for two of three species. As predicted for the Eastern Wood-Pewee (Contopus virens and Brown-headed Nuthatch (Sitta pusilla, occupancy was strongly influenced by vegetation types classified as "optimal habitat" by the species suitability rankings for nuthatches and wood-pewees. Contrary to predictions, Red-headed Woodpecker (Melanerpes erythrocephalus models that included vegetation types as covariates received similar support by the data as models without vegetation types. For all three species, occupancy was also related to sampling latitude. Our results suggest that covariates representing other habitat requirements might be necessary to model occurrence of generalist species like the woodpecker. The modeling approach described herein provides a means to test expert knowledge-based species-habitat relationships, and hence, help guide conservation planning.

  10. Climate change and other stressors change modeled population size and hybridization potential for San Joaquin kit fox

    Science.gov (United States)

    The San Joaquin kit fox was once widely distributed across the southern San Joaquin Valley, but agriculture and development have replaced much of the endangered subspecies’ habitat. We modeled impacts of climate change, land-use change, and rodenticide exposure on kit fox p...

  11. The Cognitive Processes Associated with Occupational/Career Indecision: A Model for Gifted Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jae Yup

    2013-01-01

    This study developed and tested a new model of the cognitive processes associated with occupational/career indecision for gifted adolescents. A survey instrument with rigorous psychometric properties, developed from a number of existing instruments, was administered to a sample of 687 adolescents attending three academically selective high schools…

  12. Modeling anuran detection and site occupancy on North American Amphibian Monitoring Program (NAAMP) routes in Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, L.A.; Royle, J. Andrew; Nanjappa, P.; Jung, R.E.

    2005-01-01

    One of the most fundamental problems in monitoring animal populations is that of imperfect detection. Although imperfect detection can be modeled, studies examining patterns in occurrence often ignore detection and thus fail to properly partition variation in detection from that of occurrence. In this study, we used anuran calling survey data collected on North American Amphibian Monitoring Program routes in eastern Maryland to investigate factors that influence detection probability and site occupancy for 10 anuran species. In 2002, 17 calling survey routes in eastern Maryland were surveyed to collect environmental and species data nine or more times. To analyze these data, we developed models incorporating detection probability and site occupancy. The results suggest that, for more than half of the 10 species, detection probabilities vary most with season (i.e., day-of-year), air temperature, time, and moon illumination, whereas site occupancy may vary by the amount of palustrine forested wetland habitat. Our results suggest anuran calling surveys should document air temperature, time of night, moon illumination, observer skill, and habitat change over time, as these factors can be important to model-adjusted estimates of site occupancy. Our study represents the first formal modeling effort aimed at developing an analytic assessment framework for NAAMP calling survey data.

  13. Extending the Challenge-Hindrance Model of Occupational Stress: The Role of Appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Jennica R.; Beehr, Terry A.; Love, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Interest regarding the challenge-hindrance occupational stress model has increased in recent years, however its theoretical foundation has not been tested. Drawing from the transactional theory of stress, this study tests the assumptions made in past research (1) that workload and responsibility are appraised as challenges and role ambiguity and…

  14. Modelling Occupational Stress and Employee Health and Wellbeing in a Chinese Higher Education Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Xiaoli; Teo, Stephen T. T.; Cooper, Cary L.; Bohle, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Extensive change is evident in higher education in the People's Republic of China but there have been few studies of the effect of work stress on wellbeing in the higher education sector. The main aim of this study is to test and refine the ASSET ("An Organizational Stress Screening Tool") model of occupational stress in a sample of 150…

  15. Accounting for false-positive acoustic detections of bats using occupancy models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Matthew J.; Rodhouse, Thomas J.; Ormsbee, Patricia C.; Szewczak, Joseph M.; Nichols, James D.

    2014-01-01

    1. Acoustic surveys have become a common survey method for bats and other vocal taxa. Previous work shows that bat echolocation may be misidentified, but common analytic methods, such as occupancy models, assume that misidentifications do not occur. Unless rare, such misidentifications could lead to incorrect inferences with significant management implications.

  16. Study regarding seat’s rigidity during rear end collisions using a MADYMO occupant model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionut Radu, Alexandru; Cofaru, Corneliu; Tolea, Bogan; Popescu, Mihaela

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the effects of different front occupant backseat’s rigidities in the case of a rear end collision using a multibody virtual model of an occupant. Simulation will be conducted in PC Crash, the most common accident reconstruction software using a MADYMO multibody occupant to simulate kinematics and dynamic of the passenger. Different backseat torques will be used to see how this will influence the acceleration in the head and torso of the occupant. Also, a real crash test is made to analyze the kinematics of the occupant. We believe that the softer seat’s rigidity will reduce not only the head’s acceleration but also reduces the effect of „whiplash” upon the neck due to the fact that the backseat will rotate backwards increasing its displacement and absorb some of the energy generated by the collision. Although a softer seat could reduce the head’s acceleration, a broken seat will increase it due to the fact that the impact of the backseat with the vehicle’s rear seats will generate a second collision. So, in order to achieve a lower acceleration, a controlled torque is recommended and a controlled angular displacement of the backseat is to be used.

  17. Stochastic ecological network occupancy (SENO) models: a new tool for modeling ecological networks across spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Dunne, Jennifer A.

    2010-01-01

    Stochastic ecological network occupancy (SENO) models predict the probability that species will occur in a sample of an ecological network. In this review, we introduce SENO models as a means to fill a gap in the theoretical toolkit of ecologists. As input, SENO models use a topological interaction network and rates of colonization and extinction (including consumer effects) for each species. A SENO model then simulates the ecological network over time, resulting in a series of sub-networks that can be used to identify commonly encountered community modules. The proportion of time a species is present in a patch gives its expected probability of occurrence, whose sum across species gives expected species richness. To illustrate their utility, we provide simple examples of how SENO models can be used to investigate how topological complexity, species interactions, species traits, and spatial scale affect communities in space and time. They can categorize species as biodiversity facilitators, contributors, or inhibitors, making this approach promising for ecosystem-based management of invasive, threatened, or exploited species.

  18. Occupational stress among dentists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Rod

    2011-01-01

    Dentists report a high degree of occupational stress.(Cooper, Mallinger, and Kahn, 1978;Coster, Carstens, and Harris, 1987;DiMatteo, Shugars, and Hays, 1993;Hakeberg et al., 1992;Möller and Spangenberg, 1996;Moore, 2000;Myers and Myers, 2004;O'Shea, Corah, and Ayer, 1984) This chapter reviews...... the literature of studies that elaborate on the circumstances of occupational stress of dentists. These will include the frequency of occurrence of occupational stress among dentists in several countries, frequency and intensity of identified stressors specific to dentistry, as well as the consequences...... of this occupational stress. The literature on consequences includes effects on dentists' physical health, personal and occupational performance, including "burnout" phenomena, as well as topics of alcohol or substance abuse and reports of suicidal behaviour among dentists. One specific and less conventionally...

  19. Callings and work engagement: moderated mediation model of work meaningfulness, occupational identity, and occupational self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschi, Andreas

    2012-07-01

    Scholarly interest in callings is growing, but researchers' understanding of how and when callings relate to career outcomes is incomplete. The present study investigated the possibility that the relationship of calling to work engagement is mediated by work meaningfulness, occupational identity, and occupational self-efficacy--and that this mediation depends on the degree of perceived person-job fit. I examined a highly educated sample of German employees (N = 529) in diverse occupations and found support for 2 of the 3 hypothesized mediators-work meaningfulness and occupational identity--after controlling for the relation of core self-evaluations to work engagement. Contrary to expectations, the mediated relations of callings to work engagement were not conditional upon the degree of person--job fit. The findings are considered in terms of the pathways through which callings may relate to work engagement and other career development outcomes.

  20. Statistical Modeling of Occupational Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Using OSHA Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Derrick G; Lavoué, Jérôme; Spinelli, John J; Burstyn, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of pollutants with multiple variants classified as carcinogenic. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) provided access to two PAH exposure databanks of United States workplace compliance testing data collected between 1979 and 2010. Mixed-effects logistic models were used to predict the exceedance fraction (EF), i.e., the probability of exceeding OSHA's Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL = 0.2 mg/m3) for PAHs based on industry and occupation. Measurements of coal tar pitch volatiles were used as a surrogate for PAHs. Time, databank, occupation, and industry were included as fixed-effects while an identifier for the compliance inspection number was included as a random effect. Analyses involved 2,509 full-shift personal measurements. Results showed that the majority of industries had an estimated EF < 0.5, although several industries, including Standardized Industry Classification codes 1623 (Water, Sewer, Pipeline, and Communication and Powerline Construction), 1711 (Plumbing, Heating, and Air-Conditioning), 2824 (Manmade Organic Fibres), 3496 (Misc. Fabricated Wire products), and 5812 (Eating Places), and Major group's 13 (Oil and Gas Extraction) and 30 (Rubber and Miscellaneous Plastic Products), were estimated to have more than an 80% likelihood of exceeding the PEL. There was an inverse temporal trend of exceeding the PEL, with lower risk in most recent years, albeit not statistically significant. Similar results were shown when incorporating occupation, but varied depending on the occupation as the majority of industries predicted at the administrative level, e.g., managers, had an estimated EF < 0.5 while at the minimally skilled/laborer level there was a substantial increase in the estimated EF. These statistical models allow the prediction of PAH exposure risk through individual occupational histories and will be used to create a job-exposure matrix for use in a population-based case

  1. A goodness-of-fit test for occupancy models with correlated within-season revisits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Wilson; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Rodhouse, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Occupancy modeling is important for exploring species distribution patterns and for conservation monitoring. Within this framework, explicit attention is given to species detection probabilities estimated from replicate surveys to sample units. A central assumption is that replicate surveys are independent Bernoulli trials, but this assumption becomes untenable when ecologists serially deploy remote cameras and acoustic recording devices over days and weeks to survey rare and elusive animals. Proposed solutions involve modifying the detection-level component of the model (e.g., first-order Markov covariate). Evaluating whether a model sufficiently accounts for correlation is imperative, but clear guidance for practitioners is lacking. Currently, an omnibus goodnessof- fit test using a chi-square discrepancy measure on unique detection histories is available for occupancy models (MacKenzie and Bailey, Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics, 9, 2004, 300; hereafter, MacKenzie– Bailey test). We propose a join count summary measure adapted from spatial statistics to directly assess correlation after fitting a model. We motivate our work with a dataset of multinight bat call recordings from a pilot study for the North American Bat Monitoring Program. We found in simulations that our join count test was more reliable than the MacKenzie–Bailey test for detecting inadequacy of a model that assumed independence, particularly when serial correlation was low to moderate. A model that included a Markov-structured detection-level covariate produced unbiased occupancy estimates except in the presence of strong serial correlation and a revisit design consisting only of temporal replicates. When applied to two common bat species, our approach illustrates that sophisticated models do not guarantee adequate fit to real data, underscoring the importance of model assessment. Our join count test provides a widely applicable goodness-of-fit test and

  2. An ecological process model of female sex offending: the role of victimization, psychological distress, and life stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCou, Christopher R; Cole, Trevor T; Rowland, Sarah E; Kaplan, Stephanie P; Lynch, Shannon M

    2015-06-01

    Female sex offenders may be implicated in up to one fifth of all sex crimes committed in the United States. Despite previous research findings that suggest unique patterns of offending among female sex offenders, limited empirical research has investigated the motivations and processes involved. The present study qualitatively examined female sex offenders' offense-related experiences and characterized the internal and external factors that contributed to offending. Semi-structured interviews with 24 female sex offenders were analyzed by a team of coders with limited exposure to the existing literature using grounded theory analysis. A conceptual framework emerged representing distinctive processes for solo- and co-offending, contextualized within ecological layers of social and environmental influence. This model extends previous work by offering an example of nested vulnerabilities proximal to female sexual offending. Implications for future research, prevention, and treatment are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Efficient occupancy model-fitting for extensive citizen-science data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Byron J. T.; Freeman, Stephen N.; Ridout, Martin S.; Brereton, Tom M.; Fox, Richard; Powney, Gary D.; Roy, David B.

    2017-01-01

    Appropriate large-scale citizen-science data present important new opportunities for biodiversity modelling, due in part to the wide spatial coverage of information. Recently proposed occupancy modelling approaches naturally incorporate random effects in order to account for annual variation in the composition of sites surveyed. In turn this leads to Bayesian analysis and model fitting, which are typically extremely time consuming. Motivated by presence-only records of occurrence from the UK Butterflies for the New Millennium data base, we present an alternative approach, in which site variation is described in a standard way through logistic regression on relevant environmental covariates. This allows efficient occupancy model-fitting using classical inference, which is easily achieved using standard computers. This is especially important when models need to be fitted each year, typically for many different species, as with British butterflies for example. Using both real and simulated data we demonstrate that the two approaches, with and without random effects, can result in similar conclusions regarding trends. There are many advantages to classical model-fitting, including the ability to compare a range of alternative models, identify appropriate covariates and assess model fit, using standard tools of maximum likelihood. In addition, modelling in terms of covariates provides opportunities for understanding the ecological processes that are in operation. We show that there is even greater potential; the classical approach allows us to construct regional indices simply, which indicate how changes in occupancy typically vary over a species’ range. In addition we are also able to construct dynamic occupancy maps, which provide a novel, modern tool for examining temporal changes in species distribution. These new developments may be applied to a wide range of taxa, and are valuable at a time of climate change. They also have the potential to motivate citizen

  4. Multi-scale occupancy estimation and modelling using multiple detection methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, James D.; Bailey, Larissa L.; O'Connell, Allan F.; Talancy, Neil W.; Grant, Evan H. Campbell; Gilbert, Andrew T.; Annand, Elizabeth M.; Husband, Thomas P.; Hines, James E.

    2008-01-01

    Occupancy estimation and modelling based on detection–nondetection data provide an effective way of exploring change in a species’ distribution across time and space in cases where the species is not always detected with certainty. Today, many monitoring programmes target multiple species, or life stages within a species, requiring the use of multiple detection methods. When multiple methods or devices are used at the same sample sites, animals can be detected by more than one method.We develop occupancy models for multiple detection methods that permit simultaneous use of data from all methods for inference about method-specific detection probabilities. Moreover, the approach permits estimation of occupancy at two spatial scales: the larger scale corresponds to species’ use of a sample unit, whereas the smaller scale corresponds to presence of the species at the local sample station or site.We apply the models to data collected on two different vertebrate species: striped skunks Mephitis mephitis and red salamanders Pseudotriton ruber. For striped skunks, large-scale occupancy estimates were consistent between two sampling seasons. Small-scale occupancy probabilities were slightly lower in the late winter/spring when skunks tend to conserve energy, and movements are limited to males in search of females for breeding. There was strong evidence of method-specific detection probabilities for skunks. As anticipated, large- and small-scale occupancy areas completely overlapped for red salamanders. The analyses provided weak evidence of method-specific detection probabilities for this species.Synthesis and applications. Increasingly, many studies are utilizing multiple detection methods at sampling locations. The modelling approach presented here makes efficient use of detections from multiple methods to estimate occupancy probabilities at two spatial scales and to compare detection probabilities associated with different detection methods. The models can be

  5. Meta-modeling of occupancy variables and analysis of their impact on energy outcomes of office buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qinpeng; Augenbroe, Godfried; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Gu, Li

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A meta-analysis framework for a stochastic characterization of occupancy variables. • Sensitivity ranking of occupancy variability against all other sources of uncertainty. • Sensitivity of occupant presence for building energy consumption is low. • Accurate mean knowledge is sufficient for predicting building energy consumption. • Prediction of peak demand behavior requires stochastic occupancy modeling. - Abstract: Occupants interact with buildings in various ways via their presence (passive effects) and control actions (active effects). Therefore, understanding the influence of occupants is essential if we are to evaluate the performance of a building. In this paper, we model the mean profiles and variability of occupancy variables (presence and actions) separately. We will use a multi-variate Gaussian distribution to generate mean profiles of occupancy variables, while the variability will be represented by a multi-dimensional time series model, within a framework for a meta-analysis that synthesizes occupancy data gathered from a pool of buildings. We then discuss variants of occupancy models with respect to various outcomes of interest such as HVAC energy consumption and peak demand behavior via a sensitivity analysis. Results show that our approach is able to generate stochastic occupancy profiles, requiring minimum additional input from the energy modeler other than standard diversity profiles. Along with the meta-analysis, we enable the generalization of previous research results and statistical inferences to choose occupancy variables for future buildings. The sensitivity analysis shows that for aggregated building energy consumption, occupant presence has a smaller impact compared to lighting and appliance usage. Specifically, being accumulatively 55% wrong with regard to presence, only translates to 2% error in aggregated cooling energy in July and 3.6% error in heating energy in January. Such a finding redirects focus to the

  6. Simultaneous modeling of habitat suitability, occupancy, and relative abundance: African elephants in Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Julien; Chamaille-Jammes, Simon; Nichols, James D.; Fritz, Herve; Hines, James E.; Fonnesbeck, Christopher J.; MacKenzie, Darryl I.; Bailey, Larissa L.

    2010-01-01

    The recent development of statistical models such as dynamic site occupancy models provides the opportunity to address fairly complex management and conservation problems with relatively simple models. However, surprisingly few empirical studies have simultaneously modeled habitat suitability and occupancy status of organisms over large landscapes for management purposes. Joint modeling of these components is particularly important in the context of management of wild populations, as it provides a more coherent framework to investigate the population dynamics of organisms in space and time for the application of management decision tools. We applied such an approach to the study of water hole use by African elephants in Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe. Here we show how such methodology may be implemented and derive estimates of annual transition probabilities among three dry-season states for water holes: (1) unsuitable state (dry water holes with no elephants); (2) suitable state (water hole with water) with low abundance of elephants; and (3) suitable state with high abundance of elephants. We found that annual rainfall and the number of neighboring water holes influenced the transition probabilities among these three states. Because of an increase in elephant densities in the park during the study period, we also found that transition probabilities from low abundance to high abundance states increased over time. The application of the joint habitat–occupancy models provides a coherent framework to examine how habitat suitability and factors that affect habitat suitability influence the distribution and abundance of organisms. We discuss how these simple models can further be used to apply structured decision-making tools in order to derive decisions that are optimal relative to specified management objectives. The modeling framework presented in this paper should be applicable to a wide range of existing data sets and should help to address important ecological

  7. Simultaneous modeling of habitat suitability, occupancy, and relative abundance: African elephants in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Julien; Chamaillé-Jammes, Simon; Nichols, James D; Fritz, Hervé; Hines, James E; Fonnesbeck, Christopher J; MacKenzie, Darryl I; Bailey, Larissa L

    2010-06-01

    The recent development of statistical models such as dynamic site occupancy models provides the opportunity to address fairly complex management and conservation problems with relatively simple models. However, surprisingly few empirical studies have simultaneously modeled habitat suitability and occupancy status of organisms over large landscapes for management purposes. Joint modeling of these components is particularly important in the context of management of wild populations, as it provides a more coherent framework to investigate the population dynamics of organisms in space and time for the application of management decision tools. We applied such an approach to the study of water hole use by African elephants in Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe. Here we show how such methodology may be implemented and derive estimates of annual transition probabilities among three dry-season states for water holes: (1) unsuitable state (dry water holes with no elephants); (2) suitable state (water hole with water) with low abundance of elephants; and (3) suitable state with high abundance of elephants. We found that annual rainfall and the number of neighboring water holes influenced the transition probabilities among these three states. Because of an increase in elephant densities in the park during the study period, we also found that transition probabilities from low abundance to high abundance states increased over time. The application of the joint habitat-occupancy models provides a coherent framework to examine how habitat suitability and factors that affect habitat suitability influence the distribution and abundance of organisms. We discuss how these simple models can further be used to apply structured decision-making tools in order to derive decisions that are optimal relative to specified management objectives. The modeling framework presented in this paper should be applicable to a wide range of existing data sets and should help to address important ecological

  8. The Ambivalence of Challenge Stressors: Time Pressure Associated with Both Negative and Positive Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmer, Pascale S.; Semmer, Norbert K.; Kalin, Wolfgang; Jacobshagen, Nicola; Meier, Laurenz L.

    2012-01-01

    According to the challenge-hindrance model, challenge stressors contain both stressful and challenging aspects, hindrance stressors only stressful aspects. Typically, negative outcomes of challenge stressors refer to well-being (strain), positive outcomes to so-called work outcomes (e.g., productivity, intention to quit). As both effects occur…

  9. Toward a Better Understanding of the Effects of Hindrance and Challenge Stressors on Work Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Jennica R.; Beehr, Terry A.; Christiansen, Neil D.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the processes whereby hindrance and challenge stressors may affect work behavior. Three mechanisms were examined to explain the differential effects these stressors have demonstrated: job satisfaction, strains, and work self-efficacy. A model is proposed in which both types of stressors will result in increases in strains,…

  10. Modeling ventilation rates in bedrooms based on building characteristics and occupant behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Toftum, Jørn; Clausen, Geo

    2011-01-01

    Air change rate (ACR) data obtained from the bedrooms of 500 Danish children and presented in an earlier paper were analyzed in more detail. Questionnaires distributed to the families, home inspections and interviews with the parents provided information about a broad range of residential...... characteristics and occupant behavior. These were tested in several linear regression models to identify the degree of effect each selected independent variable has on the total ACR. The measured ACRs are summarized by some of the most significant variables such as room volume (higher ACR in smaller rooms...... (lowest ACR in buildings from early 1970s), observed condensation on the bedroom window (higher ACR at less condensation), etc. The best-fitting model explained 46% of the variability in the air change rates. Variables related to occupant behavior were stronger predictors of ventilation rate (model R2 ¼ 0...

  11. Measuring and modelling occupancy time in NHS continuing healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millard Peter H

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to increasing demand and financial constraints, NHS continuing healthcare systems seek to find better ways of forecasting demand and budgeting for care. This paper investigates two areas of concern, namely, how long existing patients stay in service and the number of patients that are likely to be still in care after a period of time. Methods An anonymised dataset containing information for all funded admissions to placement and home care in the NHS continuing healthcare system was provided by 26 (out of 31 London primary care trusts. The data related to 11289 patients staying in placement and home care between 1 April 2005 and 31 May 2008 were first analysed. Using a methodology based on length of stay (LoS modelling, we captured the distribution of LoS of patients to estimate the probability of a patient staying in care over a period of time. Using the estimated probabilities we forecasted the number of patients that are likely to be still in care after a period of time (e.g. monthly. Results We noticed that within the NHS continuing healthcare system there are three main categories of patients. Some patients are discharged after a short stay (few days, some others staying for few months and the third category of patients staying for a long period of time (years. Some variations in proportions of discharge and transition between types of care as well as between care groups (e.g. palliative, functional mental health were observed. A close agreement of the observed and the expected numbers of patients suggests a good prediction model. Conclusions The model was tested for care groups within the NHS continuing healthcare system in London to support Primary Care Trusts in budget planning and improve their responsiveness to meet the increasing demand under limited availability of resources. Its applicability can be extended to other types of care, such as hospital care and re-ablement. Further work will be geared towards

  12. Modelling and forecasting occupational accidents of different severity levels in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmen Carnero, Maria; Jose Pedregal, Diego

    2010-01-01

    The control of accidents at the work place is a critical issue all over the world. The consequences of occupational accidents in terms of costs for the company in which the accidents take place is only one minor matter, being the social impact and the loss of human life the most controversial effects of this important problem. The methods used to forecast future evolution of accidents are often limited to trend estimations and projections, being the scientific literature on this topic rather scarce. This paper aims at showing and predicting the evolution of Spanish occupational accidents of different levels of severity, allowing the evaluation of the influence that preventive actions carried out by public administrations or private companies may have over the number of occupational accidents. Though some contributions may be found on this topic for Spain, this paper is the first contribution that forecast occupational accidents for different levels of severity using Multivariate Unobserved Components models developed in a State Space framework extended to deal with the irregular sampling interval of the data. Data from 1998 to 2009 have been used to test the efficacy of the forecasting system.

  13. Concept Analysis of Occupational Therapy Handling in the Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Hybrid Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Dalvand

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to analyze the concept of occupational therapy handling in the children with cerebral palsy from the perspective of occupational therapy instructors and clinicians in Iran. Materials & Methods: In this qualitative study, using hybrid model to clarify the concept of handling through three phases. For the theoretical phase, attributes of handling were recognized through a review of the literature (until February 2014, and six in-depth semi - structured interviews, two observations and one panel of experts were conducted for the fieldwork to develop attributes from the data and to verify those identified from the literature review. In the third phase attributes and final analysis of handling were extracted from the first and second phase. Results: The results were classified in five main categories that were identified as: (1 care of child, (2 management of treatment, (3 manual techniques, (4 education of activities of daily living (ADL, and (5 lifting and carrying. Core attributes of handling include "control, safety, transfer and positioning". Conclusion: It seems that the results of this study may help in clarifying the concept of handling in children with CP. In addition, by identifying the process, barriers and facilitative factors, and the concept of handling, occupational therapy instructors and therapists will be able to design and run their educational activities based on scientific findings which can provide them with the necessary conditions for education, learning and proper execution of handling in occupational therapy.

  14. Modeling Net Land Occupation of Hydropower Reservoirs in Norway for Use in Life Cycle Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorber, Martin; May, Roel; Verones, Francesca

    2018-02-20

    Increasing hydropower electricity production constitutes a unique opportunity to mitigate climate change impacts. However, hydropower electricity production also impacts aquatic and terrestrial biodiversity through freshwater habitat alteration, water quality degradation, and land use and land use change (LULUC). Today, no operational model exists that covers any of these cause-effect pathways within life cycle assessment (LCA). This paper contributes to the assessment of LULUC impacts of hydropower electricity production in Norway in LCA. We quantified the inundated land area associated with 107 hydropower reservoirs with remote sensing data and related it to yearly electricity production. Therewith, we calculated an average net land occupation of 0.027 m 2 ·yr/kWh of Norwegian storage hydropower plants for the life cycle inventory. Further, we calculated an adjusted average land occupation of 0.007 m 2 ·yr/kWh, accounting for an underestimation of water area in the performed maximum likelihood classification. The calculated land occupation values are the basis to support the development of methods for assessing the land occupation impacts of hydropower on biodiversity in LCA at a damage level.

  15. Predictive models for the assessment of occupational exposure to chemicals: A new challenge for employers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Piotr Gromiec

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Employers are obliged to carry out and document the risk associated with the use of chemical substances. The best but the most expensive method is to measure workplace concentrations of chemicals. At present no "measureless" method for risk assessment is available in Poland, but predictive models for such assessments have been developed in some countries. The purpose of this work is to review and evaluate the applicability of selected predictive methods for assessing occupational inhalation exposure and related risk to check the compliance with Occupational Exposure Limits (OELs, as well as the compliance with REACH obligations. Based on the literature data HSE COSHH Essentials, EASE, ECETOC TRA, Stoffenmanager, and EMKG-Expo-Tool were evaluated. The data on validation of predictive models were also examined. It seems that predictive models may be used as a useful method for Tier 1 assessment of occupational exposure by inhalation. Since the levels of exposure are frequently overestimated, they should be considered as "rational worst cases" for selection of proper control measures. Bearing in mind that the number of available exposure scenarios and PROC categories is limited, further validation by field surveys is highly recommended. Predictive models may serve as a good tool for preliminary risk assessment and selection of the most appropriate risk control measures in Polish small and medium size enterprises (SMEs providing that they are available in the Polish language. This also requires an extensive training of their future users. Med Pr 2013;64(5:699–716

  16. Relationship of occupational and non-occupational stress with smoking in automotive industry workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani, Somayeh; Yazdanparast, Taraneh; Seyedmehdi, Seyed Mohammad; Ghaffari, Mostafa; Attarchi, Mirsaeed; Bahadori, Baharak

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco use is the second cause of death and first cause of preventable mortality worldwide. Smoking in the workplace is particularly concerning. Smoking-free workplaces decrease the risk of exposure of non-smoking personnel to cigarette smoke. Recent studies have mostly focused on the effect of daily or non-occupational stressors (in comparison with occupational stress) on prevalence of smoking. Occupational stress is often evaluated in workplaces for smoking cessation or control programs, but the role of non-occupational stressors is often disregarded in this respect. This cross-sectional study was conducted in an automobile manufacturing company. The response of automotive industry workers to parts of the validated, reliable, Farsi version of Musculoskeletal Intervention Center (MUSIC)-Norrtalje questionnaire was evaluated. A total of 3,536 factory workers participated in this study. Data were analyzed using SPSS and P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. The correlation of smoking with demographic factors, occupational stressors and life events was evaluated. The results of logistic regression analysis showed that even after adjusting for the confounding factors, cigarette smoking was significantly correlated with age, sex, level of education, job control and life events (P<0.05). The results showed that of occupational and non-occupational stressors, only job control was correlated with cigarette smoking. Non-occupational stressors had greater effect on cigarette smoking. Consideration of both non-occupational and occupational stressors can enhance the success of smoking control programs. On the other hand, a combination of smoking control and stress (occupational and non-occupational) control programs can be more effective than smoking cessation interventions alone.

  17. Evaluating Performance of Safety Management and Occupational Health Using Total Quality Safety Management Model (TQSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Mohammadfam

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: All organizations, whether public or private, necessitate performance evaluation systems in regard with growth, stability, and development in the competitive fields. One of the existing models for performance evaluation of occupational health and safety management is Total Quality Safety Management model (TQSM. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate performance of safety management and occupational health utilizing TQSM model. Methods: In this descriptive-analytic study, the population consisted of 16 individuals, including managers, supervisors, and members of technical protection and work health committee. Then the participants were asked to respond to TQSM questionnaire before and after the implementation of Occupational Health & Safety Advisory Services 18001 (OHSAS18001. Ultimately, the level of each program as well as the TQSM status were determined before and after the implementation of OHSAS18001. Results: The study results showed that the scores obtained by the company before OHSAS 18001’s implementation, was 43.7 out of 312. After implementing OHSAS 18001 in the company and receiving the related certificate, the total score of safety program that company could obtain was 127.12 out of 312 demonstrating a rise of 83.42 scores (26.8%. The paired t-test revealed that mean difference of TQSM scores before and after OHSAS 18001 implementation was proved to be significant (p> 0.05. Conclusion: The study findings demonstrated that TQSM can be regarded as an appropriate model in order to monitor the performance of safety management system and occupational health, since it possesses the ability to quantitatively evaluate the system performance.

  18. Impact of Noncaregiving-Related Stressors on Informal Caregiver Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austrom, Mary Guerriero; Lu, Yvonne Yueh-Feng; Perkins, Anthony J; Boustani, Malaz; Callahan, Christopher M; Hendrie, Hugh C

    2014-08-01

    Caregivers of persons with dementia are stressed. Stressors not related to care recipients' needs impact caregiver outcomes, yet are seldom reported. The purpose of this study was to report the most stressful events experienced by spouse caregivers of older adults with Alzheimer s disease during a 6-month period. 31 caregivers completed the Most Stressful Event form, Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the Revised Memory Behavioral Problem Checklist (R-MBPC). Fisher's exact test and two-sample t-test were used to compare Most Stressful Events between caregivers. ANOVA model tested whether the PHQ-9 and R-MBPC subscales differed by stressor. Caregivers reported no stressors 21.5% of the time, 1-2 stressors 25% of the time, and 3 stressors 53% of the time with 318 stressors reported in total. Care recipient needs (30.2%), caregiver needs (26.7%), and decision-making (16.7%) were the most frequently reported stressors. Using a mixed effects model, there were associations between the Most Stressful Events and depression (p = 0.016), mobility (p = 0.024) and caregiver issues (p = 0.009) subscales of R-MBPC. Results can be used to develop targeted intervention and support strategies for spouse caregivers experiencing non-caregiving related stressorsas well as the traditional challenges with caregiving related issues. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Evaluating multi-level models to test occupancy state responses of Plethodontid salamanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Andrew J.; Garcia, Tiffany S.; Jones, Jay E.; Dugger, Catherine; Murden, Blake; Johnson, Josh; Peerman, Summer; Brintz, Ben; Rochelle, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Plethodontid salamanders are diverse and widely distributed taxa and play critical roles in ecosystem processes. Due to salamander use of structurally complex habitats, and because only a portion of a population is available for sampling, evaluation of sampling designs and estimators is critical to provide strong inference about Plethodontid ecology and responses to conservation and management activities. We conducted a simulation study to evaluate the effectiveness of multi-scale and hierarchical single-scale occupancy models in the context of a Before-After Control-Impact (BACI) experimental design with multiple levels of sampling. Also, we fit the hierarchical single-scale model to empirical data collected for Oregon slender and Ensatina salamanders across two years on 66 forest stands in the Cascade Range, Oregon, USA. All models were fit within a Bayesian framework. Estimator precision in both models improved with increasing numbers of primary and secondary sampling units, underscoring the potential gains accrued when adding secondary sampling units. Both models showed evidence of estimator bias at low detection probabilities and low sample sizes; this problem was particularly acute for the multi-scale model. Our results suggested that sufficient sample sizes at both the primary and secondary sampling levels could ameliorate this issue. Empirical data indicated Oregon slender salamander occupancy was associated strongly with the amount of coarse woody debris (posterior mean = 0.74; SD = 0.24); Ensatina occupancy was not associated with amount of coarse woody debris (posterior mean = -0.01; SD = 0.29). Our simulation results indicate that either model is suitable for use in an experimental study of Plethodontid salamanders provided that sample sizes are sufficiently large. However, hierarchical single-scale and multi-scale models describe different processes and estimate different parameters. As a result, we recommend careful consideration of study questions

  20. Using multi-species occupancy models in structured decision making on managed lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, John R.; Blank, Peter J.; Zipkin, Elise F.; Fallon, Jane E.; Fallon, Frederick W.

    2013-01-01

    Land managers must balance the needs of a variety of species when manipulating habitats. Structured decision making provides a systematic means of defining choices and choosing among alternative management options; implementation of a structured decision requires quantitative approaches to predicting consequences of management on the relevant species. Multi-species occupancy models provide a convenient framework for making structured decisions when the management objective is focused on a collection of species. These models use replicate survey data that are often collected on managed lands. Occupancy can be modeled for each species as a function of habitat and other environmental features, and Bayesian methods allow for estimation and prediction of collective responses of groups of species to alternative scenarios of habitat management. We provide an example of this approach using data from breeding bird surveys conducted in 2008 at the Patuxent Research Refuge in Laurel, Maryland, evaluating the effects of eliminating meadow and wetland habitats on scrub-successional and woodland-breeding bird species using summed total occupancy of species as an objective function. Removal of meadows and wetlands decreased value of an objective function based on scrub-successional species by 23.3% (95% CI: 20.3–26.5), but caused only a 2% (0.5, 3.5) increase in value of an objective function based on woodland species, documenting differential effects of elimination of meadows and wetlands on these groups of breeding birds. This approach provides a useful quantitative tool for managers interested in structured decision making.

  1. Evaluation of Mid-Size Male Hybrid III Models for use in Spaceflight Occupant Protection Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, J.; Somers, J.; Wells, J.; Newby, N.; Currie-Gregg, N.; Lawrence, C.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: In an effort to improve occupant safety during dynamic phases of spaceflight, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has worked to develop occupant protection standards for future crewed spacecraft. One key aspect of these standards is the identification of injury mechanisms through anthropometric test devices (ATDs). Within this analysis, both physical and computational ATD evaluations are required to reasonably encompass the vast range of loading conditions any spaceflight crew may encounter. In this study the accuracy of publically available mid-size male HIII ATD finite element (FE) models are evaluated within applicable loading conditions against extensive sled testing performed on their physical counterparts. Methods: A series of sled tests were performed at the Wright Patterson Air force Base (WPAFB) employing variations of magnitude, duration, and impact direction to encompass the dynamic loading range for expected spaceflight. FE simulations were developed to the specifications of the test setup and driven using measured acceleration profiles. Both fast and detailed FE models of the mid-size male HIII were ran to quantify differences in their accuracy and thus assess the applicability of each within this field. Results: Preliminary results identify the dependence of model accuracy on loading direction, magnitude, and rate. Additionally the accuracy of individual response metrics are shown to vary across each model within evaluated test conditions. Causes for model inaccuracy are identified based on the observed relationships. Discussion: Computational modeling provides an essential component to ATD injury metric evaluation used to ensure the safety of future spaceflight occupants. The assessment of current ATD models lays the groundwork for how these models can be used appropriately in the future. Identification of limitations and possible paths for improvement aid in the development of these effective analysis tools.

  2. Implementing the 2:1 student placement model in occupational therapy: Strategies for practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, David; Whiteside, Mary

    2016-04-01

    Health industry changes, including a growing demand for health professionals, have led to a greater need for clinical placements for occupational therapy and other health discipline students. As we develop programmes to accommodate larger numbers of student placements, there is a need to ensure that we understand the challenges and opportunities new models of supervision present and how any difficulties might be overcome. A large occupational therapy department in metropolitan Melbourne introduced a new 2:1 (two students to one supervisor) supervision model, moving away from the traditional 1:1 (one student to one supervisor) supervision model. This exploratory study examines supervisor experience in a trial of the new model. The study adopted a social constructivist theoretical perspective and an exploratory qualitative design. Data were collected in two focus groups involving eight supervisors; one focus group was held prior to implementation of the 2:1 supervision model, and one post. A thematic analysis approach was used to identify, analyse and report patterns within the data. The 2:1 placement model presented challenges particularly in relation to ensuring a quality placement and managing two students while acknowledging there were also opportunities for peer learning. Supervisors developed a number of strategies to minimise difficulties and maximise benefits, including taking an evidence-based approach, being prepared, mobilising organisational support and being positive but also pragmatic. The 2:1 student placement model is likely to be a model of choice in the future. There are challenges and opportunities associated with its use. This study identifies these as well as strategies for maximising opportunities and mitigating challenges. © 2016 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  3. The occupant response to autonomous braking: a modeling approach that accounts for active musculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Östh, Jonas; Brolin, Karin; Carlsson, Stina; Wismans, Jac; Davidsson, Johan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to model occupant kinematics in an autonomous braking event by using a finite element (FE) human body model (HBM) with active muscles as a step toward HBMs that can be used for injury prediction in integrated precrash and crash simulations. Trunk and neck musculature was added to an existing FE HBM. Active muscle responses were achieved using a simplified implementation of 3 feedback controllers for head angle, neck angle, and angle of the lumbar spine. The HBM was compared with volunteer responses in sled tests with 10 ms(-2) deceleration over 0.2 s and in 1.4-s autonomous braking interventions with a peak deceleration of 6.7 ms(-2). The HBM captures the characteristics of the kinematics of volunteers in sled tests. Peak forward displacements have the same timing as for the volunteers, and lumbar muscle activation timing matches data from one of the volunteers. The responses of volunteers in autonomous braking interventions are mainly small head rotations and translational motions. This is captured by the HBM controller objective, which is to maintain the initial angular positions. The HBM response with active muscles is within ±1 standard deviation of the average volunteer response with respect to head displacements and angular rotation. With the implementation of feedback control of active musculature in an FE HBM it is possible to model the occupant response to autonomous braking interventions. The lumbar controller is important for the simulations of lap belt-restrained occupants; it is less important for the kinematics of occupants with a modern 3-point seat belt. Increasing head and neck controller gains provides a better correlation for head rotation, whereas it reduces the vertical head displacement and introduces oscillations.

  4. Occupational Clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottawattamie County School System, Council Bluffs, IA.

    The 15 occupational clusters (transportation, fine arts and humanities, communications and media, personal service occupations, construction, hospitality and recreation, health occupations, marine science occupations, consumer and homemaking-related occupations, agribusiness and natural resources, environment, public service, business and office…

  5. A novel approach to surveying sturgeon using side-scan sonar and occupancy modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, H. Jared; Hightower, Joseph E.

    2013-01-01

    Technological advances represent opportunities to enhance and supplement traditional fisheries sampling approaches. One example with growing importance for fisheries research is hydroacoustic technologies such as side-scan sonar. Advantages of side-scan sonar over traditional techniques include the ability to sample large areas efficiently and the potential to survey fish without physical handling-important for species of conservation concern, such as endangered sturgeons. Our objectives were to design an efficient survey methodology for sampling Atlantic Sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus by using side-scan sonar and to developmethods for analyzing these data. In North Carolina and South Carolina, we surveyed six rivers thought to contain varying abundances of sturgeon by using a combination of side-scan sonar, telemetry, and video cameras (i.e., to sample jumping sturgeon). Lower reaches of each river near the saltwater-freshwater interface were surveyed on three occasions (generally successive days), and we used occupancy modeling to analyze these data.We were able to detect sturgeon in five of six rivers by using these methods. Side-scan sonar was effective in detecting sturgeon, with estimated gear-specific detection probabilities ranging from 0.2 to 0.5 and river-specific occupancy estimates (per 2-km river segment) ranging from 0.0 to 0.8. Future extensions of this occupancy modeling framework will involve the use of side-scan sonar data to assess sturgeon habitat and abundance in different river systems.

  6. Model for Estimating Noise-Induced Hearing Loss Associated With Occupational Noise Exposure in a Specified US Navy Population

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tufts, Jennifer; Weathersby, Paul K; Marshall, Lynne; Sachs, Felix

    2007-01-01

    This report details the initial steps in the development of a method for modeling the noise-induced hearing loss accrued by a population of Sailors exposed to high-level steady-state occupational noise...

  7. When Doctors Struggle: Current Stressors and Evaluation Recommendations for Physicians Contemplating Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Elizabeth; Gendel, Michael H; Early, Sarah R; Gundersen, Doris C

    2017-10-09

    The objective of this study was to document current risk factors associated with physicians' suicide ideation among a group of doctors enrolled in a Physician Health Program. A retrospective cohort study was drawn from administrative data. The study compared intake information between doctors who reported recent thoughts of suicide (n = 70) and those who did not (n = 1,572) using adjusted regression analysis. Current stressors included personal, financial, health, and occupational problems; ideation was more likely with multiple stressors. Physicians endorsing suicidal ideation lacked personal supports and scored differently on Short Form-36 measures. Evaluators treating physicians should assess enduring risks and current stressors, particularly multiple stressors, to help detect suicidal patients. Current stressors should not be viewed as transitory and it is critical to bring in collateral information.

  8. An integrated data model to estimate spatiotemporal occupancy, abundance, and colonization dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Perry J.; Hooten, Mevin B.; Womble, Jamie N.; Esslinger, George G.; Bower, Michael R.; Hefley, Trevor J.

    2017-01-01

    Ecological invasions and colonizations occur dynamically through space and time. Estimating the distribution and abundance of colonizing species is critical for efficient management or conservation. We describe a statistical framework for simultaneously estimating spatiotemporal occupancy and abundance dynamics of a colonizing species. Our method accounts for several issues that are common when modeling spatiotemporal ecological data including multiple levels of detection probability, multiple data sources, and computational limitations that occur when making fine-scale inference over a large spatiotemporal domain. We apply the model to estimate the colonization dynamics of sea otters (Enhydra lutris) in Glacier Bay, in southeastern Alaska.

  9. Role models and occupational ambitions of in-school male adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhail Ahmad Azmi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A role model is perceived as worthy of imitation, their selection can indicate significant elements of psychosocial health and self-projection in adolescents. Patterns of behavior and lifestyle choices established during adolescence can have immediate and lasting effects on health. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study was undertaken in the schools of Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India. The sample frame was 2347, out of which a sample of 390 students was studied. Data collected were entered and analyzed by SPSS for Windows version 10%. Results: Majority (62.7% of adolescents revealed that their role models were Film Star (34.8% and their Teachers (27.9%, Parents (14.3%, Sportsman (12.0%. Politicians as the role models were opted by least proportion (1.2%. Desire of future occupation was Businessmen (27.9%, Doctor (18.6, and Engineer (14.4%. Conclusion: Nearly all adolescents had a role model. There is greater impact of cinema on the minds of adolescents, which resulted in choosing film actors as their role model. Aspiration of future occupation was not related to the characteristics of the role model.

  10. Generalizable occupant-driven optimization model for domestic hot water production in NZEB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazmi, H.; D’Oca, S.; Delmastro, C.; Lodeweyckx, S.; Corgnati, S.P.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Smart meter data for domestic hot water consumption is collected for 46 NZEB. • Reinforcement learning optimizes energy consumed while constrained on user comfort. • Online optimization models learn occupant behaviour and system thermodynamics. • Offline generalizable models calibrate dynamically the storage vessel operation. • Real world application of the active controls resulted in energy savings of 27%. - Abstract: The primary objective of this paper is to demonstrate improved energy efficiency for domestic hot water (DHW) production in residential buildings. This is done by deriving data-driven optimal heating schedules (used interchangeably with policies) automatically. The optimization leverages actively learnt occupant behaviour and models for thermodynamics of the storage vessel to operate the heating mechanism – an air-source heat pump (ASHP) in this case – at the highest possible efficiency. The proposed algorithm, while tested on an ASHP, is essentially decoupled from the heating mechanism making it sufficiently robust to generalize to other types of heating mechanisms as well. Simulation results for this optimization based on data from 46 Net-Zero Energy Buildings (NZEB) in the Netherlands are presented. These show a reduction of energy consumption for DHW by 20% using a computationally inexpensive heuristic approach, and 27% when using a more intensive hybrid ant colony optimization based method. The energy savings are strongly dependent on occupant comfort level. This is demonstrated in real-world settings for a low-consumption house where active control was performed using heuristics for 3.5 months and resulted in energy savings of 27% (61 kW h). It is straightforward to extend the same models to perform automatic demand side management (ADSM) by treating the DHW vessel as a flexibility bearing device.

  11. Occupancy Estimation and Modeling : Inferring Patterns and Dynamics of Species Occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, D.I.; Nichols, J.D.; Royle, J. Andrew; Pollock, K.H.; Bailey, L.L.; Hines, J.E.

    2006-01-01

    This is the first book to examine the latest methods in analyzing presence/absence data surveys. Using four classes of models (single-species, single-season; single-species, multiple season; multiple-species, single-season; and multiple-species, multiple-season), the authors discuss the practical sampling situation, present a likelihood-based model enabling direct estimation of the occupancy-related parameters while allowing for imperfect detectability, and make recommendations for designing studies using these models. It provides authoritative insights into the latest in estimation modeling; discusses multiple models which lay the groundwork for future study designs; addresses critical issues of imperfect detectibility and its effects on estimation; and explores the role of probability in estimating in detail.

  12. Measuring compliance of conducting an occupational health risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Occupational health nurses (OHNs) are qualified registered nurses with a postgraduate qualification in occupational health nursing. An important activity of OHNs is to identify and assess health risks in the workplace. Health risk assessments (HRAs) are conducted by OHNs to determine all the occupational health stressors, ...

  13. Chemical and natural stressors combined:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gergs, André; Zenker, Armin; Grimm, Volker

    2013-01-01

    In addition to natural stressors, populations are increasingly exposed to chemical pollutants released into the environment. We experimentally demonstrate the loss of resilience for Daphnia magna populations that are exposed to a combination of natural and chemical stressors even though effects...... vulnerability to the toxicant which acts in a size selective manner. Moreover, population vulnerability to the toxicant increases with predator size and predation intensity whereas indirect trait-mediated interactions via predator kairomones may buffer chemical effects to a certain extent. Our study...... demonstrates that population size can be a poor endpoint for risk assessments of chemicals and that ignoring disturbance interactions can lead to severe underestimation of extinction risk...

  14. Recommended survey designs for occupancy modelling using motion-activated cameras: insights from empirical wildlife data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme Shannon

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Motion-activated cameras are a versatile tool that wildlife biologists can use for sampling wild animal populations to estimate species occurrence. Occupancy modelling provides a flexible framework for the analysis of these data; explicitly recognizing that given a species occupies an area the probability of detecting it is often less than one. Despite the number of studies using camera data in an occupancy framework, there is only limited guidance from the scientific literature about survey design trade-offs when using motion-activated cameras. A fuller understanding of these trade-offs will allow researchers to maximise available resources and determine whether the objectives of a monitoring program or research study are achievable. We use an empirical dataset collected from 40 cameras deployed across 160 km2 of the Western Slope of Colorado, USA to explore how survey effort (number of cameras deployed and the length of sampling period affects the accuracy and precision (i.e., error of the occupancy estimate for ten mammal and three virtual species. We do this using a simulation approach where species occupancy and detection parameters were informed by empirical data from motion-activated cameras. A total of 54 survey designs were considered by varying combinations of sites (10–120 cameras and occasions (20–120 survey days. Our findings demonstrate that increasing total sampling effort generally decreases error associated with the occupancy estimate, but changing the number of sites or sampling duration can have very different results, depending on whether a species is spatially common or rare (occupancy = ψ and easy or hard to detect when available (detection probability = p. For rare species with a low probability of detection (i.e., raccoon and spotted skunk the required survey effort includes maximizing the number of sites and the number of survey days, often to a level that may be logistically unrealistic for many studies. For common

  15. The effect of precrash velocity reduction on occupant response using a human body finite element model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guleyupoglu, B; Schap, J; Kusano, K D; Gayzik, F S

    2017-07-04

    The objective of this study is to use a validated finite element model of the human body and a certified model of an anthropomorphic test dummy (ATD) to evaluate the effect of simulated precrash braking on driver kinematics, restraint loads, body loads, and computed injury criteria in 4 commonly injured body regions. The Global Human Body Models Consortium (GHBMC) 50th percentile male occupant (M50-O) and the Humanetics Hybrid III 50th percentile models were gravity settled in the driver position of a generic interior equipped with an advanced 3-point belt and driver airbag. Fifteen simulations per model (30 total) were conducted, including 4 scenarios at 3 severity levels: median, severe, and the U.S. New Car Assessment Program (U.S.-NCAP) and 3 extra per model with high-intensity braking. The 4 scenarios were no precollision system (no PCS), forward collision warning (FCW), FCW with prebraking assist (FCW+PBA), and FCW and PBA with autonomous precrash braking (FCW + PBA + PB). The baseline ΔV was 17, 34, and 56.4 kph for median, severe, and U.S.-NCAP scenarios, respectively, and were based on crash reconstructions from NASS/CDS. Pulses were then developed based on the assumed precrash systems equipped. Restraint properties and the generic pulse used were based on literature. In median crash severity cases, little to no risk (human body models predictions for both the median, severe, and NCAP cases. Forward excursion for both models decreased across median, severe, and NCAP cases and diverged from each other in cases above 1.0 g of braking intensity. The addition of precrash systems simulated through reduced precrash speeds caused reductions in some injury criteria, whereas others (chest deflection, HIC, and BrIC) increased due to a modified occupant position. The human model and ATD models trended similarly in nearly all cases with greater risk indicated in the human model. These results suggest the need for integrated safety systems that have restraints that

  16. Modeled occupational exposures to gas-phase medical laser-generated air contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippert, Julia F; Lacey, Steven E; Jones, Rachael M

    2014-01-01

    Exposure monitoring data indicate the potential for substantive exposure to laser-generated air contaminants (LGAC); however the diversity of medical lasers and their applications limit generalization from direct workplace monitoring. Emission rates of seven previously reported gas-phase constituents of medical laser-generated air contaminants (LGAC) were determined experimentally and used in a semi-empirical two-zone model to estimate a range of plausible occupational exposures to health care staff. Single-source emission rates were generated in an emission chamber as a one-compartment mass balance model at steady-state. Clinical facility parameters such as room size and ventilation rate were based on standard ventilation and environmental conditions required for a laser surgical facility in compliance with regulatory agencies. All input variables in the model including point source emission rates were varied over an appropriate distribution in a Monte Carlo simulation to generate a range of time-weighted average (TWA) concentrations in the near and far field zones of the room in a conservative approach inclusive of all contributing factors to inform future predictive models. The concentrations were assessed for risk and the highest values were shown to be at least three orders of magnitude lower than the relevant occupational exposure limits (OELs). Estimated values do not appear to present a significant exposure hazard within the conditions of our emission rate estimates.

  17. Occupational Hazards of Fyling Pigs: A Swine model of Hypobaric Induced Neuronal Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-22

    59 MDW/SGVU SUBJECT: Profess ional Presentation Approval 18 APR 20 17 1. Your paper, entitled Occupational Hazards of Flving Pigs : A Swine Model of...RANK1’GRAOE, ’TITlE OF RE \\llEW’ER 45. REVIEWER 31GNAT’IJRE so_ o,o.TE FR-C"\\/.OUS EDlnCNB ARE Ol>SCLETE OCCU PATIONAL HAZARDS OF FLYING PIGS : A SWINE...necessitates intubation or anesthetization of exposure subjects, miniature pigs (Sus scrofa domestica) were repetiti vely exposed to non-hypoxic

  18. A novel complex air supply model for indoor air quality control via the occupant micro-environment demand ventilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jie; Zhou, Bo; Jin, Maozhu; Wang, Jun; Xiong, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Protection of indoor air quality and human health can be achieved via ventilation, which has becomes one of the most important tasks for sustainable buildings. This approach also requires highly efficient and energy saving methods for modern building ventilations consisting of a set of parameters of the complex indoor system. Therefore, the advancement in understanding the characteristics of various ventilation methods is highly necessary. This study presents one novel air supply model for the complex occupant micro-environment demand control ventilations, to analyze the efficiency of various ventilation types. This model is established primarily according to the momentum and mass conservations, and goal of occupant micro-environment demand, which is a complex system with the characteristics of diversity and dynamic variation. As for different occupant densities, characteristics of outdoor air supply for controlling gaseous pollutant and three basic features of outdoor airflow supply reaching occupant micro-environment were obtained. This research shows that for various types of occupant density and storey height, the rising and descending rates of the demand outdoor airflow in mixing ventilation are higher than those under displacement ventilation conditions. In addition, since the structure is better designed and sewage flow is more efficient, the mixing ventilation also requires a much higher peak demand outdoor airflow than its counterpart. The increase of storey height will lead to a decline of pollutants in the breathing zone and the demand outdoor airflow. Fluctuations of air flow diffusion caused by the change of occupant density in architectural space, will lead to variations of outdoor airflow reaching occupant micro-environment. Accordingly, it would lead to the different peak values of demand outdoor airflow, and the difference becomes even significant if the occupant density increases. The variations of the air supply and fraction of air reaching the

  19. Analysis and modeling of active occupancy of the residential sector in Spain: An indicator of residential electricity consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López-Rodríguez, M.A.; Santiago, I.; Trillo-Montero, D.; Torriti, J.; Moreno-Munoz, A.

    2013-01-01

    The growing energy consumption in the residential sector represents about 30% of global demand. This calls for Demand Side Management solutions propelling change in behaviors of end consumers, with the aim to reduce overall consumption as well as shift it to periods in which demand is lower and where the cost of generating energy is lower. Demand Side Management solutions require detailed knowledge about the patterns of energy consumption. The profile of electricity demand in the residential sector is highly correlated with the time of active occupancy of the dwellings; therefore in this study the occupancy patterns in Spanish properties was determined using the 2009–2010 Time Use Survey (TUS), conducted by the National Statistical Institute of Spain. The survey identifies three peaks in active occupancy, which coincide with morning, noon and evening. This information has been used to input into a stochastic model which generates active occupancy profiles of dwellings, with the aim to simulate domestic electricity consumption. TUS data were also used to identify which appliance-related activities could be considered for Demand Side Management solutions during the three peaks of occupancy. -- Highlights: •Active occupancy profiles of Spanish dwellings has been obtained and modeled from Time Use Survey data. •Occupancy profiles resulting from the model can be used to model domestic energy consumption. •The presence of three peaks of active occupation was verified, which coincide with morning, noon and evening. •Manual and incentive-based DSM programmes are considered the most suitable for Spanish dwellings. •TV electricity consumption becomes important at aggregate level

  20. Job stress, fatigue, and job dissatisfaction in Dutch lorry drivers: towards an occupation specific model of job demands and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Croon, E M; Blonk, R W B; de Zwart, B C H; Frings-Dresen, M H W; Broersen, J P J

    2002-06-01

    Building on Karasek's model of job demands and control (JD-C model), this study examined the effects of job control, quantitative workload, and two occupation specific job demands (physical demands and supervisor demands) on fatigue and job dissatisfaction in Dutch lorry drivers. From 1181 lorry drivers (adjusted response 63%) self reported information was gathered by questionnaire on the independent variables (job control, quantitative workload, physical demands, and supervisor demands) and the dependent variables (fatigue and job dissatisfaction). Stepwise multiple regression analyses were performed to examine the main effects of job demands and job control and the interaction effect between job control and job demands on fatigue and job dissatisfaction. The inclusion of physical and supervisor demands in the JD-C model explained a significant amount of variance in fatigue (3%) and job dissatisfaction (7%) over and above job control and quantitative workload. Moreover, in accordance with Karasek's interaction hypothesis, job control buffered the positive relation between quantitative workload and job dissatisfaction. Despite methodological limitations, the results suggest that the inclusion of (occupation) specific job control and job demand measures is a fruitful elaboration of the JD-C model. The occupation specific JD-C model gives occupational stress researchers better insight into the relation between the psychosocial work environment and wellbeing. Moreover, the occupation specific JD-C model may give practitioners more concrete and useful information about risk factors in the psychosocial work environment. Therefore, this model may provide points of departure for effective stress reducing interventions at work.

  1. Occupancy modeling for improved accuracy and understanding of pathogen prevalence and dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E Colvin

    Full Text Available Most pathogen detection tests are imperfect, with a sensitivity < 100%, thereby resulting in the potential for a false negative, where a pathogen is present but not detected. False negatives in a sample inflate the number of non-detections, negatively biasing estimates of pathogen prevalence. Histological examination of tissues as a diagnostic test can be advantageous as multiple pathogens can be examined and providing important information on associated pathological changes to the host. However, it is usually less sensitive than molecular or microbiological tests for specific pathogens. Our study objectives were to 1 develop a hierarchical occupancy model to examine pathogen prevalence in spring Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and their distribution among host tissues 2 use the model to estimate pathogen-specific test sensitivities and infection rates, and 3 illustrate the effect of using replicate within host sampling on sample sizes required to detect a pathogen. We examined histological sections of replicate tissue samples from spring Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha collected after spawning for common pathogens seen in this population: Apophallus/echinostome metacercariae, Parvicapsula minibicornis, Nanophyetus salmincola/ metacercariae, and Renibacterium salmoninarum. A hierarchical occupancy model was developed to estimate pathogen and tissue-specific test sensitivities and unbiased estimation of host- and organ-level infection rates. Model estimated sensitivities and host- and organ-level infections rates varied among pathogens and model estimated infection rate was higher than prevalence unadjusted for test sensitivity, confirming that prevalence unadjusted for test sensitivity was negatively biased. The modeling approach provided an analytical approach for using hierarchically structured pathogen detection data from lower sensitivity diagnostic tests, such as histology, to obtain unbiased pathogen prevalence estimates with

  2. Landscape capability models as a tool to predict fine-scale forest bird occupancy and abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loman, Zachary G.; DeLuca, William; Harrison, Daniel J.; Loftin, Cynthia S.; Rolek, Brian W.; Wood, Petra

    2018-01-01

    ContextSpecies-specific models of landscape capability (LC) can inform landscape conservation design. Landscape capability is “the ability of the landscape to provide the environment […] and the local resources […] needed for survival and reproduction […] in sufficient quantity, quality and accessibility to meet the life history requirements of individuals and local populations.” Landscape capability incorporates species’ life histories, ecologies, and distributions to model habitat for current and future landscapes and climates as a proactive strategy for conservation planning.ObjectivesWe tested the ability of a set of LC models to explain variation in point occupancy and abundance for seven bird species representative of spruce-fir, mixed conifer-hardwood, and riparian and wooded wetland macrohabitats.MethodsWe compiled point count data sets used for biological inventory, species monitoring, and field studies across the northeastern United States to create an independent validation data set. Our validation explicitly accounted for underestimation in validation data using joint distance and time removal sampling.ResultsBlackpoll warbler (Setophaga striata), wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina), and Louisiana (Parkesia motacilla) and northern waterthrush (P. noveboracensis) models were validated as predicting variation in abundance, although this varied from not biologically meaningful (1%) to strongly meaningful (59%). We verified all seven species models [including ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapilla), blackburnian (Setophaga fusca) and cerulean warbler (Setophaga cerulea)], as all were positively related to occupancy data.ConclusionsLC models represent a useful tool for conservation planning owing to their predictive ability over a regional extent. As improved remote-sensed data become available, LC layers are updated, which will improve predictions.

  3. Enhancing Interdisciplinary Team Effectiveness: A Pre-Service Training Model for Physical and Occupational Therapy Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lander, Jennifer L.

    The practicum provided interdisciplinary team educational experiences for students of physical and occupational therapy. Activities included administering a questionnaire to physical therapy students to determine student understanding of pediatric physical and occupational therapy role delineation. Questionnaires were also administered to…

  4. Novel application of explicit dynamics occupancy models to ongoing aquatic invasions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, Adam J.

    2018-01-01

    Identification of suitable habitats, where invasive species can establish, is an important step towards controlling their spread. Accurate identification is difficult for new or slow invaders because unoccupied habitats may be suitable, given enough time for dispersal, while occupied habitats may prove to be unsuitable for establishment.To identify the suitable habitat of a recent invader, I used an explicit dynamics occupancy modelling framework to evaluate habitat covariates related to successful and failed establishments of American bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus) within the Yellowstone River floodplain of Montana, USA from 2012-2016.During this five-year period, bullfrogs failed to establish at most sites they colonized. Bullfrog establishment was most likely to occur and least likely to fail at sites closest to human-modified ponds and lakes and those with emergent vegetation. These habitat covariates were generally associated with the presence of permanent water.Suitable habitat for bullfrog establishment is abundant in the Yellowstone River floodplain, though many sites with suitable habitat remain uncolonized. Thus, the maximum distribution of bullfrogs is much greater than their current distribution.Synthesis and applications. Focused control efforts on habitats with or proximate to permanent waters are most likely to reduce the potential for invasive bullfrog establishment and spread in the Yellowstone River. The novel application of explicit dynamics occupancy models is a useful and widely applicable tool for guiding management efforts towards those habitats where new or slow invaders are most likely to establish and persist.

  5. Occupancy models for monitoring marine fish: a bayesian hierarchical approach to model imperfect detection with a novel gear combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggins, Lewis G; Bacheler, Nathan M; Gwinn, Daniel C

    2014-01-01

    Occupancy models using incidence data collected repeatedly at sites across the range of a population are increasingly employed to infer patterns and processes influencing population distribution and dynamics. While such work is common in terrestrial systems, fewer examples exist in marine applications. This disparity likely exists because the replicate samples required by these models to account for imperfect detection are often impractical to obtain when surveying aquatic organisms, particularly fishes. We employ simultaneous sampling using fish traps and novel underwater camera observations to generate the requisite replicate samples for occupancy models of red snapper, a reef fish species. Since the replicate samples are collected simultaneously by multiple sampling devices, many typical problems encountered when obtaining replicate observations are avoided. Our results suggest that augmenting traditional fish trap sampling with camera observations not only doubled the probability of detecting red snapper in reef habitats off the Southeast coast of the United States, but supplied the necessary observations to infer factors influencing population distribution and abundance while accounting for imperfect detection. We found that detection probabilities tended to be higher for camera traps than traditional fish traps. Furthermore, camera trap detections were influenced by the current direction and turbidity of the water, indicating that collecting data on these variables is important for future monitoring. These models indicate that the distribution and abundance of this species is more heavily influenced by latitude and depth than by micro-scale reef characteristics lending credence to previous characterizations of red snapper as a reef habitat generalist. This study demonstrates the utility of simultaneous sampling devices, including camera traps, in aquatic environments to inform occupancy models and account for imperfect detection when describing factors

  6. Occupancy models for monitoring marine fish: a bayesian hierarchical approach to model imperfect detection with a novel gear combination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis G Coggins

    Full Text Available Occupancy models using incidence data collected repeatedly at sites across the range of a population are increasingly employed to infer patterns and processes influencing population distribution and dynamics. While such work is common in terrestrial systems, fewer examples exist in marine applications. This disparity likely exists because the replicate samples required by these models to account for imperfect detection are often impractical to obtain when surveying aquatic organisms, particularly fishes. We employ simultaneous sampling using fish traps and novel underwater camera observations to generate the requisite replicate samples for occupancy models of red snapper, a reef fish species. Since the replicate samples are collected simultaneously by multiple sampling devices, many typical problems encountered when obtaining replicate observations are avoided. Our results suggest that augmenting traditional fish trap sampling with camera observations not only doubled the probability of detecting red snapper in reef habitats off the Southeast coast of the United States, but supplied the necessary observations to infer factors influencing population distribution and abundance while accounting for imperfect detection. We found that detection probabilities tended to be higher for camera traps than traditional fish traps. Furthermore, camera trap detections were influenced by the current direction and turbidity of the water, indicating that collecting data on these variables is important for future monitoring. These models indicate that the distribution and abundance of this species is more heavily influenced by latitude and depth than by micro-scale reef characteristics lending credence to previous characterizations of red snapper as a reef habitat generalist. This study demonstrates the utility of simultaneous sampling devices, including camera traps, in aquatic environments to inform occupancy models and account for imperfect detection when

  7. Occupational stress and psychopathology in health professionals: an explorative study with the multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC) model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliceto, Paolo; Pompili, Maurizio; Spencer-Thomas, Sally; Ferracuti, Stefano; Erbuto, Denise; Lester, David; Candilera, Gabriella; Girardi, Paolo

    2013-03-01

    Occupational stress is a multivariate process involving sources of pressure, psycho-physiological distress, locus of control, work dissatisfaction, depression, anxiety, mental health disorders, hopelessness, and suicide ideation. Healthcare professionals are known for higher rates of occupational-related distress (burnout and compassion fatigue) and higher rates of suicide. The purpose of this study was to explain the relationships between occupational stress and some psychopathological dimensions in a sample of health professionals. We investigated 156 nurses and physicians, 62 males and 94 females, who were administered self-report questionnaires to assess occupational stress [occupational stress inventory (OSI)], temperament (temperament evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego autoquestionnaire), and hopelessness (Beck hopelessness scale). The best Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes model with five OSI predictors yielded the following results: χ2(9) = 14.47 (p = 0.11); χ2/df = 1.60; comparative fit index = 0.99; root mean square error of approximation = 0.05. This model provided a good fit to the empirical data, showing a strong direct influence of casual variables such as work dissatisfaction, absence of type A behavior, and especially external locus of control, psychological and physiological distress on latent variable psychopathology. Occupational stress is in a complex relationship with temperament and hopelessness and also common among healthcare professionals.

  8. Military Occupational Stressors in Garrison, Training, and Deployed Environments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adler, Amy

    2004-01-01

    .... According to Lazarus and Folkman (1984), an event or situation is considered stressful when perceived by the individual as taxing or exceeding coping resources, competencies, values, or self-concept...

  9. Exploring the Stressors of New Librarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrivee, Anne

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the different stressors and anxieties facing new librarians. It also addresses the various ways that new librarians can cope with location, emotional, and work-related stressors. The article is broken into four different categories of stress; some stressors have been more explored than others. The research is based on an…

  10. Graph configuration model based evaluation of the education-occupation match.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadar, Laszlo; Abonyi, Janos

    2018-01-01

    To study education-occupation matchings we developed a bipartite network model of education to work transition and a graph configuration model based metric. We studied the career paths of 15 thousand Hungarian students based on the integrated database of the National Tax Administration, the National Health Insurance Fund, and the higher education information system of the Hungarian Government. A brief analysis of gender pay gap and the spatial distribution of over-education is presented to demonstrate the background of the research and the resulted open dataset. We highlighted the hierarchical and clustered structure of the career paths based on the multi-resolution analysis of the graph modularity. The results of the cluster analysis can support policymakers to fine-tune the fragmented program structure of higher education.

  11. [On risk-oriented model of sanitary epidemiologic surveillance in occupational hygiene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitseval, N V; Mai, I V; Kostarev, V G; Bashketova, N S

    2015-01-01

    In 2015, Federal Service on surveillance in consumers rights protection and public well-being set a task to organize planned work of regional agencies on basis of risk-oriented model of control and supervision. Based on results of pilot project in Rospotrebnadzor Department of Perm area and St-Petersburg, the article covers methodic approaches to classification of objects liable to surveillance in occupational hygiene. The classification considers possibility of sanitary law violation, severity of this violation consequences and number of workers exposed to risk factors including hazardous work conditions. The authors specified recommendations on periodicity and forms of planned inspections considering evaluation of potential risk for human health, determined problems that require solution in implementation of risk-oriented model of surveillance.

  12. A multistate dynamic site occupancy model for spatially aggregated sessile communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukaya, Keiichi; Royle, J. Andrew; Okuda, Takehiro; Nakaoka, Masahiro; Noda, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Estimation of transition probabilities of sessile communities seems easy in principle but may still be difficult in practice because resampling error (i.e. a failure to resample exactly the same location at fixed points) may cause significant estimation bias. Previous studies have developed novel analytical methods to correct for this estimation bias. However, they did not consider the local structure of community composition induced by the aggregated distribution of organisms that is typically observed in sessile assemblages and is very likely to affect observations.We developed a multistate dynamic site occupancy model to estimate transition probabilities that accounts for resampling errors associated with local community structure. The model applies a nonparametric multivariate kernel smoothing methodology to the latent occupancy component to estimate the local state composition near each observation point, which is assumed to determine the probability distribution of data conditional on the occurrence of resampling error.By using computer simulations, we confirmed that an observation process that depends on local community structure may bias inferences about transition probabilities. By applying the proposed model to a real data set of intertidal sessile communities, we also showed that estimates of transition probabilities and of the properties of community dynamics may differ considerably when spatial dependence is taken into account.Results suggest the importance of accounting for resampling error and local community structure for developing management plans that are based on Markovian models. Our approach provides a solution to this problem that is applicable to broad sessile communities. It can even accommodate an anisotropic spatial correlation of species composition, and may also serve as a basis for inferring complex nonlinear ecological dynamics.

  13. Calibration of Airframe and Occupant Models for Two Full-Scale Rotorcraft Crash Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annett, Martin S.; Horta, Lucas G.; Polanco, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Two full-scale crash tests of an MD-500 helicopter were conducted in 2009 and 2010 at NASA Langley's Landing and Impact Research Facility in support of NASA s Subsonic Rotary Wing Crashworthiness Project. The first crash test was conducted to evaluate the performance of an externally mounted composite deployable energy absorber under combined impact conditions. In the second crash test, the energy absorber was removed to establish baseline loads that are regarded as severe but survivable. Accelerations and kinematic data collected from the crash tests were compared to a system integrated finite element model of the test article. Results from 19 accelerometers placed throughout the airframe were compared to finite element model responses. The model developed for the purposes of predicting acceleration responses from the first crash test was inadequate when evaluating more severe conditions seen in the second crash test. A newly developed model calibration approach that includes uncertainty estimation, parameter sensitivity, impact shape orthogonality, and numerical optimization was used to calibrate model results for the second full-scale crash test. This combination of heuristic and quantitative methods was used to identify modeling deficiencies, evaluate parameter importance, and propose required model changes. It is shown that the multi-dimensional calibration techniques presented here are particularly effective in identifying model adequacy. Acceleration results for the calibrated model were compared to test results and the original model results. There was a noticeable improvement in the pilot and co-pilot region, a slight improvement in the occupant model response, and an over-stiffening effect in the passenger region. This approach should be adopted early on, in combination with the building-block approaches that are customarily used, for model development and test planning guidance. Complete crash simulations with validated finite element models can be used

  14. Adolescent Decision-Making Processes regarding University Entry: A Model Incorporating Cultural Orientation, Motivation and Occupational Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jae Yup

    2013-01-01

    This study tested a newly developed model of the cognitive decision-making processes of senior high school students related to university entry. The model incorporated variables derived from motivation theory (i.e. expectancy-value theory and the theory of reasoned action), literature on cultural orientation and occupational considerations. A…

  15. Job stress, fatigue, and job dissatisfaction in Dutch lorry drivers: towards an occupation specific model of job demands and control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croon, E.M. de; Blonk, R.W.B.; Zwart, B.C.H. de; Frings-Dresen, M.H.W.; Broersen, J.P.J.

    2002-01-01

    Building on Karasek's model of job demands and control (JD-C model), this study examined the effects of job control, quantitative workload, and two occupation specific job demands on fatigue and job dissatisfaction in Dutch lorry drivers. From 1181 lorry drivers self reported information was

  16. Job stress, fatigue, and job dissatisfaction in Dutch lorry drivers: towards an occupation specific model of job demands and control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Croon, E. M.; Blonk, R. W. B.; de Zwart, B. C. H.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.; Broersen, J. P. J.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: Building on Karasek's model of job demands and control (JD-C model), this study examined the effects of job control, quantitative workload, and two occupation specific job demands (physical demands and supervisor demands) on fatigue and job dissatisfaction in Dutch lorry drivers.

  17. Differential Reactivity and the Within-person Job Stressor-Satisfaction Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Cort W; Clark, Malissa A; Jundt, Dustin K; Baltes, Boris B

    2016-12-01

    An experience sampling methodology was used to study the direct and conditional within-person relationship between job stressors and job satisfaction. One hundred and one full-time administrative staff completed momentary measures of job stressors and job satisfaction three times a day on six different workdays over a 3-week period (N = 1818 observations). Multilevel random coefficients models were specified, and the results suggest that within-person stressors are negatively related to within-person job satisfaction. These results stand when controlling for the effects of time, demographics, work characteristics, baseline levels of job stressors and satisfaction, and between-person effects of job stressors. Furthermore, consistent with the differential reactivity model, the results suggest that the observed within-person stressors-satisfaction relationship is conditional upon locus of control and positive affect. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. The association between military sexual stress and psychiatric symptoms after controlling for other stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, Maureen; Pryor, John B; Polusny, Melissa A; Wall, Melanie M; Ripley, Diane Cowper; Gackstetter, Gary Dean

    2010-12-01

    Several researchers have identified associations between exposure to occupational sexual stressors (e.g., sexual harassment) and severer psychiatric symptoms in military personnel. However, few controlled for participants' exposures to other high-magnitude stressors, which could have confounded results. We examined the unique association between military sexual stress and severity of participants' psychiatric symptoms after controlling for their other high-magnitude stressor experiences. Organizational- and individual-level predictors of military sexual stress were also assessed. We surveyed by mail all active duty troops registered in the Department of Veterans Affairs' Enrollment Database (2001-2003). The questionnaire contained well-validated measures. Eighty-four percent responded (total sample N = 611); of these 56% reported at least one sexual stressor exposure. A highly significant association between military sexual stress and psychiatric symptoms attenuated by two thirds and lost statistical significance once other stressor experiences were controlled. Besides sociodemographics, the strongest correlates of military sexual stress were working in an environment perceived to tolerate sexual harassment, reporting severer childhood maltreatment, and reporting more high-magnitude stressors. A gender-stratified analysis generated similar findings for men and women. Little unique variance in psychiatric symptom reporting was explained by military sexual stressor exposure after controlling for other stressors. Childhood maltreatment and other high-magnitude stressors acted as risk factors for and confounders of military sexual stress. Understanding how and why these stressors inter-relate could lead to better, more effective interventions to reduce them all-and their sequelae. Findings also highlight the need to routinely include men in sexual stress research. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Redshift-space distortions with the halo occupation distribution - II. Analytic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, Jeremy L.

    2007-01-01

    We present an analytic model for the galaxy two-point correlation function in redshift space. The cosmological parameters of the model are the matter density Ωm, power spectrum normalization σ8, and velocity bias of galaxies αv, circumventing the linear theory distortion parameter β and eliminating nuisance parameters for non-linearities. The model is constructed within the framework of the halo occupation distribution (HOD), which quantifies galaxy bias on linear and non-linear scales. We model one-halo pairwise velocities by assuming that satellite galaxy velocities follow a Gaussian distribution with dispersion proportional to the virial dispersion of the host halo. Two-halo velocity statistics are a combination of virial motions and host halo motions. The velocity distribution function (DF) of halo pairs is a complex function with skewness and kurtosis that vary substantially with scale. Using a series of collisionless N-body simulations, we demonstrate that the shape of the velocity DF is determined primarily by the distribution of local densities around a halo pair, and at fixed density the velocity DF is close to Gaussian and nearly independent of halo mass. We calibrate a model for the conditional probability function of densities around halo pairs on these simulations. With this model, the full shape of the halo velocity DF can be accurately calculated as a function of halo mass, radial separation, angle and cosmology. The HOD approach to redshift-space distortions utilizes clustering data from linear to non-linear scales to break the standard degeneracies inherent in previous models of redshift-space clustering. The parameters of the occupation function are well constrained by real-space clustering alone, separating constraints on bias and cosmology. We demonstrate the ability of the model to separately constrain Ωm,σ8 and αv in models that are constructed to have the same value of β at large scales as well as the same finger-of-god distortions at

  20. Teachers' modeling advantage and their modeling effects on college students' learning styles and occupational stereotypes: a case of collaborative teaching in technical courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Wen-Bin; Yang, Chao-Chin

    2006-01-01

    In this study, modeling advantage that depicts the likelihood of a teacher model being imitated by students over other competing models in a particular class was developed to differentiate the rival modeling of two kinds of teachers (the technical teachers vs. the lecturing teachers) between college students' learning styles and occupational stereotypes in the collaborative teaching of technical courses. Results of a one-semester longitudinal study indicated that the students perceived a greater modeling advantage of the technical teachers than that of the lecturing teachers. Both the students' learning styles and occupational stereotypes were in accordance with those teachers as their role models. In general, the impact of the teachers' learning styles and occupational stereotypes on students appeared to be mediated by the teachers' modeling advantage. Administrators and curriculum designers should pay attention to the fact that the technical teachers appeared to exhibit greater modeling effects than the lecturing teachers in collaborative teaching.

  1. Mechanistic understanding of human-wildlife conflict through a novel application of dynamic occupancy models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Varun R; Medhi, Kamal; Nichols, James D; Oli, Madan K

    2015-08-01

    Crop and livestock depredation by wildlife is a primary driver of human-wildlife conflict, a problem that threatens the coexistence of people and wildlife globally. Understanding mechanisms that underlie depredation patterns holds the key to mitigating conflicts across time and space. However, most studies do not consider imperfect detection and reporting of conflicts, which may lead to incorrect inference regarding its spatiotemporal drivers. We applied dynamic occupancy models to elephant crop depredation data from India between 2005 and 2011 to estimate crop depredation occurrence and model its underlying dynamics as a function of spatiotemporal covariates while accounting for imperfect detection of conflicts. The probability of detecting conflicts was consistently <1.0 and was negatively influenced by distance to roads and elevation gradient, averaging 0.08-0.56 across primary periods (distinct agricultural seasons within each year). The probability of crop depredation occurrence ranged from 0.29 (SE 0.09) to 0.96 (SE 0.04). The probability that sites raided by elephants in primary period t would not be raided in primary period t + 1 varied with elevation gradient in different seasons and was influenced negatively by mean rainfall and village density and positively by distance to forests. Negative effects of rainfall variation and distance to forests best explained variation in the probability that sites not raided by elephants in primary period t would be raided in primary period t + 1. With our novel application of occupancy models, we teased apart the spatiotemporal drivers of conflicts from factors that influence how they are observed, thereby allowing more reliable inference on mechanisms underlying observed conflict patterns. We found that factors associated with increased crop accessibility and availability (e.g., distance to forests and rainfall patterns) were key drivers of elephant crop depredation dynamics. Such an understanding is essential for

  2. Using process control concepts to model conditions required for sudden-onset occupational injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyserling, W Monroe; Smith, Gordon S

    2007-07-01

    Sudden-onset injury results from a momentary energy exchange between an agent and host, producing immediately discernible tissue damage. These injuries are common in both occupational and nonoccupational settings; typical causes include falls, mechanical contact/crushing, exposure to temperature extremes, and exposure to electrical current. We review epidemiologic and engineering approaches to injury prevention and propose a process control model for describing risk-of-exposure to injury agents during the Pre-event phase of sudden-onset injury. Process control is a proactive approach to quality engineering that is based on the premise of preventing defective products from being manufactured in the first place, instead of relying on reactive inspections to detect defects at the end of the manufacturing process. Principles of process control can be applied by occupational health and safety professionals to prevent workplace injury. The proposed model describes how work activities (process inputs) cause risk-of-exposure to injury agents to fluctuate over the course of a work shift. Risk-of-exposure is a complex function with many input factors including: the nature/magnitude of hazards, the presence and effectiveness of engineering controls, safety climate, management attitudes and practices, the surrounding work environment, the physical and mental states of the worker, and the quality and quantity of supervision and training. Injury can occur only when this function crosses a certain threshold and the host is exposed to injurious energy via physical contact. Certain factors that contribute to risk-of-exposure are stable for extended time periods (weeks, months, years), whereas other factors are transient (durations of minutes or seconds). The model extends classical work by Haddon and others, provides preliminary insights to designing epidemiologic studies and developing fault-tolerant work systems, and illustrates how interdisciplinary approaches can improve our

  3. Personality and Stressor-Related Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leger, Kate A.; Charles, Susan T.; Turiano, Nicholas A.; Almeida, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Greater increases in negative affect and greater decreases in positive affect on days stressors occur portend poorer mental and physical health years later. Although personality traits influence stressor-related affect, only neuroticism and extraversion among the Big Five personality traits have been examined in any detail. Moreover, personality traits may shape how people appraise daily stressors, yet few studies have examined how stressor-related appraisals may account for associations between personality and stressor-related affect. Two studies used participants (N=2022, age 30–84) from the National Study of Daily Experiences II (NSDE II) to examine the associations between Big Five personality traits and stressor-related affect, in addition to how appraisals may account for these relationships. Results from Study 1 indicate that higher levels of extraversion, conscientiousness, and openness to experience, and lower levels of neuroticism, are related to less stressor-related negative affect. Only agreeableness was associated with stressor-related positive affect, such that higher levels were related to greater decreases in positive affect on days stressors occur. The second study found that stressor-related appraisals partially accounted for the significant associations between stressor-related negative affect and personality. Implications for these findings in relation to how personality may influence physical and emotional health are discussed. PMID:26796984

  4. Personality and stressor-related affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leger, Kate A; Charles, Susan T; Turiano, Nicholas A; Almeida, David M

    2016-12-01

    Greater increases in negative affect and greater decreases in positive affect on days stressors occur portend poorer mental and physical health years later. Although personality traits influence stressor-related affect, only neuroticism and extraversion among the Big Five personality traits have been examined in any detail. Moreover, personality traits may shape how people appraise daily stressors, yet few studies have examined how stressor-related appraisals may account for associations between personality and stressor-related affect. Two studies used participants (N = 2,022; age range: 30-84) from the National Study of Daily Experiences II to examine the associations between Big Five personality traits and stressor-related affect and how appraisals may account for these relationships. Results from Study 1 indicate that higher levels of extraversion, conscientiousness, and openness to experience and lower levels of neuroticism are related to less stressor-related negative affect. Only agreeableness was associated with stressor-related positive affect, such that higher levels were related to greater decreases in positive affect on days stressors occur. The second study found that stressor-related appraisals partially accounted for the significant associations between stressor-related negative affect and personality. Implications for these findings in relation to how personality may influence physical and emotional health are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Nurses′ workplace stressors and coping strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vickie A Lambert

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Prior research has suggested that nurses, regardless of workplace or culture, are confronted with a variety of stressors. As the worldwide nursing shortage increases, the aged population becomes larger, there is an increase in the incidence of chronic illnesses and technology continues to advance, nurses continually will be faced with numerous workplace stressors. Thus, nurses, especially palliative care nurses, need to learn how to identify their workplace stressors and to cope effectively with these stressors to attain and maintain both their physical and mental health. This article describes workplace stressors and coping strategies, compares and contrasts cross-cultural literature on nurses′ workplace stressors and coping strategies, and delineates a variety of stress management activities that could prove helpful for contending with stressors in the workplace.

  6. Modeling of Individual and Organizational Factors Affecting Traumatic Occupational Injuries Based on the Structural Equation Modeling: A Case Study in Large Construction Industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadfam, Iraj; Soltanzadeh, Ahmad; Moghimbeigi, Abbas; Akbarzadeh, Mehdi

    2016-09-01

    Individual and organizational factors are the factors influencing traumatic occupational injuries. The aim of the present study was the short path analysis of the severity of occupational injuries based on individual and organizational factors. The present cross-sectional analytical study was implemented on traumatic occupational injuries within a ten-year timeframe in 13 large Iranian construction industries. Modeling and data analysis were done using the structural equation modeling (SEM) approach and the IBM SPSS AMOS statistical software version 22.0, respectively. The mean age and working experience of the injured workers were 28.03 ± 5.33 and 4.53 ± 3.82 years, respectively. The portions of construction and installation activities of traumatic occupational injuries were 64.4% and 18.1%, respectively. The SEM findings showed that the individual, organizational and accident type factors significantly were considered as effective factors on occupational injuries' severity (P factors and their indicator variables are very influential on the severity of traumatic occupational injuries. So, these should be considered to reduce occupational accidents' severity in large construction industries.

  7. Evaluation of Pharmacokinetic Models for the Disposition of Lead (Pb) in Humans, in Support of Application to Occupational Exposure Limit Derivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-09

    Evaluation of Pharmacokinetic Models for the Disposition of Lead (Pb) in Humans, in Support of Application to Occupational Exposure Limit...Derivation Naval Medical Research Unit Dayton EVALUATION OF PHARMACOKINETIC MODELS FOR THE DISPOSITION OF LEAD (PB) IN HUMANS, IN SUPPORT OF... pharmacokinetic models for the disposition of lead (Pb) in humans, in support of application to occupational exposure limit derivation 5a. Contract

  8. Workplace Stressors and Coping Strategies Among Public Hospital Nurses in Medan, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Fathi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nursing is considered as a stressful job when compared with other jobs. Prolonged stress without effective coping strategies affects not only nurses’ occupational life but also their nursing competencies. Medan is the biggest city in Sumatera Island of Indonesia. Two tertiary public hospital nurses in this city hold the responsibility in providing excellent care to their patients. Objective: To investigate the relationships between the nurse’s workplace stressors and the coping strategies used. Method: The descriptive correlational study was conducted to examine the relationships between workplace stressors and the coping strategies used in nurses of two public hospitals in Medan. The sample size of 126 nurses was drawn from selected in-patient units. Data were collected by using self-report questionnaires and focus group interview. The majority of subjects experienced low workplace stressors, where death/dying was the most commonly reported workplace stressor followed by workload. Religion was the most commonly used coping strategy. Result: Significant correlations were found between subscales of workplace stressors and coping strategies. Most of subjects used emotion-focused and dysfunctional coping strategies rather than problem-focused coping strategies. Conclusion: The nurse administrators in the hospitals need to advocate their in order to use problem-focused coping strategies more frequent than emotion-focused and dysfunctional coping strategies when dealing with workplace stressors. Keywords: workplace stressor, coping strategy, public hospital nurses

  9. Occupational risk perception, safety training, and injury prevention: testing a model in the Italian printing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiter, Michael P; Zanaletti, William; Argentero, Piergiorgio

    2009-01-01

    This study examined occupational risk perception in relation to safety training and injuries. In a printing industry, 350 workers from 6 departments completed a survey. Data analysis showed significant differences in risk perceptions among departments. Differences in risk perception reflected the type of work and the injury incidents in the departments. A structural equation analysis confirmed a model of risk perception on the basis of employees' evaluation of the prevalence and lethalness of hazards as well as the control over hazards they gain from training. The number of injuries sustained was positively related to the perception of risk exposure and negatively related to evaluations about the safety training. The results highlight the importance of training interventions in increasing workers' adoption of safety procedures and prevention of injuries.

  10. Modeling the potential area of occupancy at fine resolution may reduce uncertainty in species range estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiménez-Alfaro, Borja; Draper, David; Nogues, David Bravo

    2012-01-01

    resolution. To illustrate the ability of fine-resolution species distribution models for obtaining new measures of species ranges and their impact in conservation planning, we estimate the potential AOO of an endangered species in alpine environments. We use field occurrences of relict Empetrum nigrum......Area of Occupancy (AOO), is a measure of species geographical ranges commonly used for species red listing. In most cases, AOO is estimated using reported localities of species distributions at coarse grain resolution, providing measures subjected to uncertainties of data quality and spatial...... Area (MPA). As defined here, the potential AOO provides spatially-explicit measures of species ranges which are permanent in the time and scarcely affected by sampling bias. The overestimation of these measures may be reduced using higher thresholds of habitat suitability, but standard rules as the MPA...

  11. The Occupancy Rate Modeling of Kendari Hotel Room using Mexican Hat Transformation and Partial Least Squares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaretha Ohyver

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Partial Least Squares (PLS method was developed in 1960 by Herman Wold. The method particularly suits with construct a regression model when the number of independent variables is many and highly collinear. The PLS can be combined with other methods, one of which is a Continuous Wavelet Transformation (CWT. By considering that the presence of outliers can lead to a less reliable model, and this kind of transformation may be required at a stage of pre-processing, the data is free of noise or outliers. Based on the previous study, Kendari hotel room occupancy rate was affected by the outlier, and it had a low value of R2. Therefore, this research aimed to obtain a good model by combining the PLS method and CWT transformation using the Mexican Hats them other wavelet of CWT. The research concludes that merging the PLS and the Mexican Hat transformation has resulted in a better model compared to the model that combined the PLS and the Haar wavelet transformation as shown in the previous study. The research shows that by changing the mother of the wavelet, the value of R2 can be improved significantly. The result provides information on how to increase the value of R2. The other advantage is the information for hotel managements to notice the age of the hotel, the maximum rates, the facilities, and the number of rooms to increase the number of visitors.

  12. A multi-society examination of the impact of psychological resources on stressor-strain relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ralston, D.; Lee, C.H.; Perrewe, P.L.; van Deuven, C.; Vollmer, G.; Maignan, I.S.J.; Tang, M.; Wan, P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper sequentially addresses a conceptual and an empirical goal. Our conceptual goal was to develop a globally relevant model of the relationship between work role stressors and strain using conservation of resources (COR) theory as our foundation. Stressors included in the model are role

  13. Acculturation, Stressors, and Somatization Patterns among Students from Extreme South Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Gary T.

    1992-01-01

    Cervantes and Castro's model proposes that acculturation level functions both as external stressor and internal mediator influencing one's appraisal of environmental stressors and somatic/health outcomes. The model was supported by surveys of headache causes, severity, symptoms, and coping strategies among 844 Mexican-American high school and…

  14. Application of a model for delivering occupational safety and health to smaller businesses: Case studies from the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Thomas R; Sinclair, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Smaller firms are the majority in every industry in the US, and they endure a greater burden of occupational injuries, illnesses, and fatalities than larger firms. Smaller firms often lack the necessary resources for effective occupational safety and health activities, and many require external assistance with safety and health programming. Based on previous work by researchers in Europe and New Zealand, NIOSH researchers developed for occupational safety and health intervention in small businesses. This model was evaluated with several intermediary organizations. Four case studies which describe efforts to reach small businesses with occupational safety and health assistance include the following: trenching safety training for construction, basic compliance and hazard recognition for general industry, expanded safety and health training for restaurants, and fall prevention and respirator training for boat repair contractors. Successful efforts included participation by the initiator among the intermediaries' planning activities, alignment of small business needs with intermediary offerings, continued monitoring of intermediary activities by the initiator, and strong leadership for occupational safety and health among intermediaries. Common challenges were a lack of resources among intermediaries, lack of opportunities for in-person meetings between intermediaries and the initiator, and balancing the exchanges in the initiator-intermediary-small business relationships. The model offers some encouragement that initiator organizations can contribute to sustainable OSH assistance for small firms, but they must depend on intermediaries who have compatible interests in smaller businesses and they must work to understand the small business social system.

  15. Application of a model for delivering occupational safety and health to smaller businesses: Case studies from the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Thomas R.; Sinclair, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Smaller firms are the majority in every industry in the US, and they endure a greater burden of occupational injuries, illnesses, and fatalities than larger firms. Smaller firms often lack the necessary resources for effective occupational safety and health activities, and many require external assistance with safety and health programming. Based on previous work by researchers in Europe and New Zealand, NIOSH researchers developed for occupational safety and health intervention in small businesses. This model was evaluated with several intermediary organizations. Four case studies which describe efforts to reach small businesses with occupational safety and health assistance include the following: trenching safety training for construction, basic compliance and hazard recognition for general industry, expanded safety and health training for restaurants, and fall prevention and respirator training for boat repair contractors. Successful efforts included participation by the initiator among the intermediaries’ planning activities, alignment of small business needs with intermediary offerings, continued monitoring of intermediary activities by the initiator, and strong leadership for occupational safety and health among intermediaries. Common challenges were a lack of resources among intermediaries, lack of opportunities for in-person meetings between intermediaries and the initiator, and balancing the exchanges in the initiator–intermediary–small business relationships. The model offers some encouragement that initiator organizations can contribute to sustainable OSH assistance for small firms, but they must depend on intermediaries who have compatible interests in smaller businesses and they must work to understand the small business social system. PMID:26300585

  16. Use of multispecies occupancy models to evaluate the response of bird communities to forest degradation associated with logging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Rubio, Eduardo; Kéry, Marc; Morreale, Stephen J; Sullivan, Patrick J; Gardner, Beth; Cooch, Evan G; Lassoie, James P

    2014-08-01

    Forest degradation is arguably the greatest threat to biodiversity, ecosystem services, and rural livelihoods. Therefore, increasing understanding of how organisms respond to degradation is essential for management and conservation planning. We were motivated by the need for rapid and practical analytical tools to assess the influence of management and degradation on biodiversity and system state in areas subject to rapid environmental change. We compared bird community composition and size in managed (ejido, i.e., communally owned lands) and unmanaged (national park) forests in the Sierra Tarahumara region, Mexico, using multispecies occupancy models and data from a 2-year breeding bird survey. Unmanaged sites had on average higher species occupancy and richness than managed sites. Most species were present in low numbers as indicated by lower values of detection and occupancy associated with logging-induced degradation. Less than 10% of species had occupancy probabilities >0.5, and degradation had no positive effects on occupancy. The estimated metacommunity size of 125 exceeded previous estimates for the region, and sites with mature trees and uneven-aged forest stand characteristics contained the highest species richness. Higher estimation uncertainty and decreases in richness and occupancy for all species, including habitat generalists, were associated with degraded young, even-aged stands. Our findings show that multispecies occupancy methods provide tractable measures of biodiversity and system state and valuable decision support for landholders and managers. These techniques can be used to rapidly address gaps in biodiversity information, threats to biodiversity, and vulnerabilities of species of interest on a landscape level, even in degraded or fast-changing environments. Moreover, such tools may be particularly relevant in the assessment of species richness and distribution in a wide array of habitats. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  17. Occupational stress in the South African police service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Pienaar

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Policing has been described as a stressful occupation. The objectives of this study were to develop and validate a measure that could be used by the South African Police Service (SAPS to identify the frequency and intensity of occupational stressors and to assess the differences between the stressors for race, rank and gender groups. A cross sectional survey design was used. Stratified random samples (N = 2145 were taken of police members of nine provinces in South Africa. The Police Stress Inventory was developed as a measuring instrument. Three internally consistent factors were extracted through principal component analysis with a direct oblimin rotation. These factors were labelled Job Demands, Lack of Support and Crime-related Stressors. The most important stressors identified were other officers not doing their job, inadequate or poor quality equipment, inadequate salaries, and seeing criminals go free. Analysis of variance showed differences in stressors for rank, race and gender groups.

  18. Development and validation of a prediction model for long-term sickness absence based on occupational health survey variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, Corne; Thorsen, Sannie; Heymans, Martijn; Twisk, Jos; Bultmann, Ute; Bjorner, Jakob

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to develop and validate a prediction model for identifying employees at increased risk of long-term sickness absence (LTSA), by using variables commonly measured in occupational health surveys. Materials and methods: Based on the literature, 15 predictor

  19. Model versus Military Pilot: A Mixed-Methods Study of Adolescents' Attitudes toward Women in Varied Occupations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Elizabeth A.; Sherman, Aurora M.

    2016-01-01

    Using an experimental methodology, the present study investigated adolescents' attitudes toward media images of women in non-appearance-focused (CEO and military pilot) and appearance-focused occupations (model and actor). One hundred adolescent girls and 76 adolescent boys provided ratings of likability, competence, and similarity to self after…

  20. Collaborative Occupational Therapy: Teachers' Impressions of the Partnering for Change (P4C) Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, A L; Harris, S R

    2018-05-01

    Occupational therapists (OTs) often face barriers when trying to collaborate with teachers in school-based settings. Partnering for change (P4C), a collaborative practice model designed to support children with developmental coordination disorder, could potentially support all students with special needs. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore how teachers experience OT services delivered using the P4C model to support children with a variety of special needs. P4C was implemented at one elementary school in Courtenay, British Columbia. Eleven teachers participated in two focus groups and a one-on-one interview to gather descriptive, qualitative data. Grounded theory techniques were used for data analysis. Four themes (collaborating in the thick of it all, learning and taking risks, managing limited time and resources, and appreciating responsive OT support) represented teachers' experiences of P4C. Teachers strongly preferred collaborative OT services based on the P4C model. Students with a variety of special needs were supported within their classrooms as teachers learned new strategies from the OT and found ways to embed these strategies into their daily routines.

  1. Clergy motivation and occupational well-being: exploring a quadripolar model and its role in predicting burnout and engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Philip D; Martin, Andrew J

    2011-09-01

    Clergy represent a salient group in Western communities, providing a variety of services aimed at supporting diverse members of those communities. Significantly, rates of attrition among clergy are high, suggesting the need to better understand their occupational well-being and factors relevant to it. The present study draws on the quadripolar need achievement framework to hypothesize motivational profiles among clergy and the extent to which these profiles predict occupational well-being, as indicated by low burnout and high engagement. K-means cluster analysis with 200 clergy confirmed a quadripolar motivational profile (success-oriented, overstriving, self-protecting, failure accepting). Using these group profiles as predictors, structural equation modeling identified significant effects on all burnout and engagement factors, with success-oriented, overstriving, self-protecting, and failure accepting groups each reflecting differential occupational well-being profiles. Substantive and applied implications of these findings are discussed.

  2. Bus use and older people: a literature review applying the Person-Environment-Occupation model in macro practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broome, Kieran; McKenna, Kryss; Fleming, Jennifer; Worrall, Linda

    2009-03-01

    The same reasons that prompt older people to give up driving can also result in difficulties with accessing public transport. Difficulties using public transport can limit older people's participation in society, thereby impacting negatively on their health. Focusing on public buses, this review explicates the link between bus usability and the health of older people and frames existing evidence on bus usability issues. The Person-Environment-Occupation (PEO) model offers a framework by which bus usability can be assessed. A combination of person-centred, environmental, and occupation-related factors, including bus design, service provision and performance, information, and the attitudes of staff and the community, impact on older people's ability to catch buses. More systematic research needs to take place in order to develop a comprehensive understanding of bus usability. Occupational therapy has a key role to play in conceptualizing, implementing, and evaluating improvements in bus usability for older people.

  3. A structural regression model for relationship between indoor air quality with dissatisfaction of occupants in education environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Hamid Reza; Yunos, Mohd Yazid Mohd; Ismail, Sumarni; Yaman, Maheran

    2017-12-01

    This paper analysis the effects of indoor air elements on the dissatisfaction of occupants in education of environments. Tries to find the equation model for increasing the comprehension about these affects and optimizes satisfaction of occupants about indoor environment. Subsequently, increase performance of students, lecturers and staffs. As the method, a satisfaction questionnaire (SQ) and measuring environment elements (MEE) was conducted, 143 respondents at five classrooms, four staff rooms and five lectures rooms were considered. Temperature, air velocity and humidity (TVH) were used as independent variables and dissatisfaction as dependent variable. The hypothesis was tested for significant relationship between variables, and analysis was applied. Results found that indoor air quality presents direct effects on dissatisfaction of occupants and indirect effects on performance and the highest effects fallowed by temperature. These results may help to optimize the quality of efficiency and effectiveness in education environments.

  4. Multiple stressors for oceanic primary production

    KAUST Repository

    Agusti, Susana

    2015-12-15

    Marine ecosystems are increasingly exposed to stress factors of anthropogenic origin that change their function, structure and services they deliver society. Climate change occurs simultaneously with other changes in the environment acting jointly in a context of global environmental change. For oceanic phytoplankton communities, the research conducted so far has identified stress factors associated with global change and their impact individually (warming, acidification, increased UVB radiation, pollutants). But when several stressors act simultaneously interactions and responses are not equal to the sum of individual impacts, but may have synergistic effects (the effects are multiplied) or antagonistic (cancel out the effects) that hinder predictions of the vulnerability of ecosystems to global change. Here we will examine the vulnerability of oceanic primary producers to the accumulation of different stressors associated with global change. The trend for autotrophic picoplankton to increase with temperature in the ocean has led to predictions that autotrophic picoplankton abundance will increase with warming. However, it is documented a trend towards a decline in productivity, due to declined autotroph biomass and production with warming and the associated stratification in the subtropical ocean. Models predicting an increase in abundance are in contradiction with the reported decrease in productivity in several oceanic areas, and associate oligotrophication. Here we perform a global study to analyze the relationships of autotrophic picoplankton with oceanic temperature, nutrients, underwater light and ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation, and productivity. We built a model to project the future changes of autotrophic picoplankton considering multiple environmental changes in future climate scenarios for the subtropical gyres. We considered increased water temperature, and associated changes in productivity and underwater light and UVB. The model show that warming and

  5. Development and validation of a prediction model for long-term sickness absence based on occupational health survey variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roelen, Corné; Thorsen, Sannie; Heymans, Martijn

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to develop and validate a prediction model for identifying employees at increased risk of long-term sickness absence (LTSA), by using variables commonly measured in occupational health surveys. Materials and methods: Based on the literature, 15 predictor...... = 0.68; 95% CI 0.61–0.76), but not practically useful. Conclusions: A prediction model based on occupational health survey variables identified employees with an increased LTSA risk, but should be further developed into a practically useful tool to predict the risk of LTSA in the general working...... LTSA during follow-up. Results: The 15-predictor model was reduced to a 9-predictor model including age, gender, education, self-rated health, mental health, prior LTSA, work ability, emotional job demands, and recognition by the management. Discrimination by the 9-predictor model was significant (AUC...

  6. Changes of individual perception in psychosocial stressors related to German reunification in 1989/1990 and cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular diseases in a population-based study in East Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohley, Stefanie; Kluttig, Alexander; Werdan, Karl; Nuding, Sebastian; Greiser, Karin Halina; Kuss, Oliver; Markus, Marcello Ricardo Paulista; Schmidt, Carsten Oliver; Völzke, Henry; Krabbe, Christine; Haerting, Johannes

    2016-01-04

    Aim was to examine the relationship between individually perceived changes in psychosocial stressors associated with German reunification and cardiovascular effects. We hypothesised that higher levels of psychosocial stress related to German reunification were associated with an increase in cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Cross-sectional data from 2 cohort studies in East Germany were used: Cardiovascular Disease, Living and Ageing in Halle Study (CARLA), and Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP). 2 populations in East Germany. CARLA study: 1779 participants, aged 45-83 years at baseline (812 women), SHIP study: 4308 participants, aged 20-79 years at baseline (2193 women). Psychosocial stressors related to reunification were operationalised by the Reunification Stress Index (RSI; scale from 0 to 10). This index was composed of questions that were related to individually perceived changes in psychosocial stressors (occupational, financial and personal) after reunification. To examine the associations between the RSI and each stressor separately with cardiovascular risk factors and CVD, regression models were used. RSI was associated with CVD in women (RR=1.15, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.33). Cardiovascular risk factors were associated with RSI for both men and women, with strongest associations between RSI and diabetes in women (RR=1.10, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.20) and depressive disorders in men (RR=1.15, 95% CI 1.07 to 2.77). The change in occupational situation related to reunification was the major contributing psychosocial stressor. We observed a strong association with CVD in women who experienced occupational deterioration after reunification (RR=4.04, 95% CI 1.21 to 13.43). Individually perceived deterioration of psychosocial stressors (occupational, financial and personal) related to German reunification was associated with cardiovascular risk factors and CVD. The associations were stronger for women than for men. An explanation for these

  7. Occupational stress of emergency workers in Gauteng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. P. Naudé

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine the construct validity, internal consistency, construct equivalence and item bias of the Emergency Worker Stress Inventory (EWSI and to identify occupational stressors for emergency workers. A cross-sectional survey design was used. An accidental sample (N = 405 of emergency workers in Gauteng was used. The EWSI was developed as a measuring instrument and administered together with a biographical questionnaire. Three internally consistent stress factors, namely Lack of Resources, Job Demands and Inherent Emergency Work Stressors w ere extracted. Low structural equivalence regarding perceived stressors was detected for the Nguni-language group. No practically significant differences were found between occupational stressors of emergency workers in different positions and language groups. Opsomming Die doelstellings van hierdie navorsing was om die konstrukgeldigheid, interne konsekwentheid, konstrukekwivalensie en itemsydigheid van die Nooddienswerker Stresvraelys (NWSV te bepaal en beroepstressore vir nooddienswerkers te identifiseer. ’n Dwarssnee opname-ontwerp is gebruik. Die studiepopulasie is met behulp van ’n beskikbaarheidsteekproef (N = 405 van nooddienswerkers in Gauteng verkry. Die NWSV is ontwikkel vir die studie en saam met ’n biografiese vraelys afgeneem. Drie interne konsekwente stresfaktore, naamlik Tekort aan Hulpbronne, Poseise en Inherente Nooddiens Stressore is onttrek. Lae konstrukekwivalensie is ten opsigte van waargenome stressore vir die Nguni taalgroep gevind. Geen prakties betekenisvolle verskille is tussen die beroepstressore van nooddienswerkers in verskillende posisies en taalgroepe gevind nie.

  8. Stressor-related drinking and future alcohol problems among university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Michael A; Almeida, David M; Maggs, Jennifer L

    2017-09-01

    Research using daily designs has shown that daily stressors (i.e., conflict, school/work demands) are associated with alcohol use, and that the strength of within-person links between stressors and alcohol use differs from person to person. However, to our knowledge no research has tested whether individual differences in stressor-related drinking-characterized by within-person associations between daily stressors and drinking-predict risk for future alcohol problems, a relationship suggested by theoretical models. The current study used an Internet-based daily diary design among 744 university students to (a) examine the day-level relationship between stressors and alcohol use during the first 3 years of college, and (b) test whether individual differences in the stressor-drinking relationship, captured by person-specific slopes generated from multilevel models, predicted alcohol problems as measured by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) in the fourth year of college. Results showed that students were more likely to drink on days with many versus fewer stressors, and on drinking days, students consumed more drinks with each additional stressor they experienced. Next, using individual multilevel modeling slopes as predictors, we found that students whose odds of drinking alcohol increased more sharply on high- versus low-stressor days (steeper slopes) had more severe AUDIT alcohol problems in the fourth year than students whose drinking odds increased less sharply (flatter slopes). Findings highlight the role of daily stressors in college student drinking and suggest stressor-related drinking as a risk factor for future alcohol problems. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Chloroform in indoor swimming-pool air: monitoring and modeling coupled with the effects of environmental conditions and occupant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, H T; Chen, M J; Lin, C H; Chou, W S; Chen, J H

    2009-08-01

    Human exposure to chloroform in indoor swimming pools has been recognized as a potential health concern. Although environmental monitoring is a useful technique to investigate chloroform concentrations in indoor swimming-pool air, in practice, the interpretations of measured data would inevitably run into difficulties due to the complex interactions among the numerous variables, including environmental conditions and occupant activities. Considering of the relevant variables of environmental conditions and occupant activities, a mathematical model was first proposed to predict the chloroform concentration in indoor swimming-pool air. The developed model provides a straightforward, conceptually simple way to predict the indoor air chloroform concentration by calculating the mass flux, J, and the Péclet number, Pe, and by using a heuristic value of the indoor airflow recycle ratio, R. The good agreement between model simulation and measured data demonstrates the feasibility of using the presented model for indoor air quality management, operational guidelines and health-related risk assessment.

  10. Management of Local Stressors Can Improve the Resilience of Marine Canopy Algae toGlobal Stressors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strain, E.M.A.; van Belzen, J.; van Dalen, J.; Bouma, T.J.; Airoldi, L.

    2015-01-01

    Coastal systems are increasingly threatened by multiple local anthropogenic and global climatic stressors. With the difficulties in remediating global stressors, management requires alternative approaches that focus on local scales. We used manipulative experiments to test whether reducing local

  11. Effect of occupational mobility and health status on life satisfaction of Chinese residents of different occupations: logistic diagonal mobility models analysis of cross-sectional data on eight Chinese provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Life satisfaction research in China is in development, requiring new perspectives for enrichment. In China, occupational mobility is accompanied by changes in economic liberalization and the emergence of occupational stratification. On the whole, however, occupational mobility has rarely been used as an independent variable. Health status is always used as the observed or dependent variable in studies of the phenomenon and its influencing factors. A research gap still exists for enriching this field. Methods The data used in this study were obtained from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS). The study included nine provinces in China. The survey was conducted from 1989 to 2009.Every survey involved approximately 4400 families or 19,000 individual samples and parts of community data. Results First, we built a 5 × 5 social mobility table and calculated life satisfaction of Chinese residents of different occupations in each table. Second, gender, age, marital status, education level, annual income and hukou, health status, occupational mobility were used as independent variables. Lastly, we used logistic diagonal mobility models to analyze the relationship between life satisfaction and the variables. Model 1 was the basic model, which consisted of the standard model and controlled variables and excluded drift variables. Model 2 was the total model, which consisted of all variables of interest in this study. Model 3 was the screening model, which excluded the insignificant drift effect index in Model 2. Conclusion From the perspective of the analysis of controlled variables, health conditions, direction, and distance of occupational mobility significantly affected life satisfaction of Chinese residents of different occupations. (1) From the perspective of health status, respondents who have not been sick or injured had better life satisfaction than those who had been sick or injured. (2) From the perspective of occupational mobility direction

  12. Occupational asthma caused by samba (Triplochiton scleroxylon) wood dust in a professional maker of wooden models of airplanes: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk-Szulc, Patrycja; Wiszniewska, Marta; Pałczyński, Cezary; Nowakowska-Świrta, Ewa; Kozak, Anna; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta

    2014-06-01

    Wood dust is a known occupational allergen that may induce, in exposed workers, respiratory diseases including asthma and allergic rhinitis. Samba (obeche, Triplochiton scleroxylon) is a tropical tree, which grows in West Africa, therefore, Polish workers are rarely exposed to it. This paper describes a case of occupational asthma caused by samba wood dust. The patient with suspicion of occupational asthma due to wood dust was examined at the Department of Occupational Diseases and Clinical Toxicology in the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine. Clinical evaluation included: analysis of occupational history, skin prick tests (SPT) to common and occupational allergens, determination of serum specific IgE to occupational allergens, serial spirometry measurements, metacholine challenge test and specific inhalation challenge test with samba dust SPT and specific serum IgE assessment revealed sensitization to common and occupational allergens including samba. Spirometry measurements showed mild obstruction. Metacholine challenge test revealed a high level of bronchial hyperactivity. Specific inhalation challenge test was positive and cellular changes in nasal lavage and induced sputum confirmed allergic reaction to samba. IgE mediated allergy to samba wood dust was confirmed. This case report presents the first documented occupational asthma and rhinitis due to samba wood dust in wooden airplanes model maker in Poland.

  13. Abiotic stressors and stress responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sulmon, Cecile; Van Baaren, Joan; Cabello-Hurtado, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    life history traits of stressed organisms, and ii) to what extent trait responses influence individual and population responses. Common response mechanisms are evident at molecular and cellular scales but become rather difficult to define at higher levels due to evolutionary distance and environmental......Abstract Organisms are regularly subjected to abiotic stressors related to increasing anthropogenic activities, including chemicals and climatic changes that induce major stresses. Based on various key taxa involved in ecosystem functioning (photosynthetic microorganisms, plants, invertebrates), we...... review how organisms respond and adapt to chemical- and temperature-induced stresses from molecular to population level. Using field-realistic studies, our integrative analysis aims to compare i) how molecular and physiological mechanisms related to protection, repair and energy allocation can impact...

  14. Occupational health purchasing behaviour by SMEs--a new theoretical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, J; Woods, A; Dickson, K

    2013-10-01

    Factors influencing corporate decisions to purchase occupational health (OH) are unknown. To assist the marketing of OH services to small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) by characterizing purchasing behaviour. We developed a 2×2 model, based on published studies, to describe OH purchasing behaviour by SMEs. We tested the model by analysis of responses to a cross-sectional market research survey carried out in November 2007. The companies surveyed were SMEs employing 30-250 employees, within the localities of five UK National Health Service OH services: West London, Buckinghamshire, Cambridge, Portsmouth and York. We chose a sample representative of all SMEs for each location. The survey explored knowledge of OH and the perceived importance of a variety of services. We obtained responses from 387 companies (19%); 81% indicated that they knew about OH and 24% had purchased OH services. OH was rated 'very important' by 35%, and 65% rated it as 'quite' or 'very important'. Sickness absence and its business impact were monitored by 89%. Enterprises claiming OH understanding were significantly more likely to purchase OH services (odds ratio [OR] 3.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.6-8.0). Companies employing fewer than 90 employees were significantly less likely to purchase such services than larger ones (OR 0.17, 95% CI 0.09-0.3). OH knowledge and company size are key determinants of SME purchasing behaviour. Our findings support our proposed theoretical model. However, more research could explore claimed knowledge of OH with respect to the proposed purchaser types and business benefits.

  15. The Halo Occupation Distribution of Obscured Quasars: Revisiting the Unification Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Kaustav; Chatterjee, Suchetana; DiPompeo, Michael A.; Myers, Adam D.; Zheng, Zheng

    2018-03-01

    We model the projected angular two-point correlation function (2PCF) of obscured and unobscured quasars selected using the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), at a median redshift of z ˜ 1 using a five parameter Halo Occupation Distribution (HOD) parameterization, derived from a cosmological hydrodynamic simulation by Chatterjee et al. The HOD parameterization was previously used to model the 2PCF of optically selected quasars and X-ray bright active galactic nuclei (AGN) at z ˜ 1. The current work shows that a single HOD parameterization can be used to model the population of different kinds of AGN in dark matter halos suggesting the universality of the relationship between AGN and their host dark matter halos. Our results show that the median halo mass of central quasar hosts increases from optically selected (4.1^{+0.3}_{-0.4} × 10^{12} h^{-1} M_{⊙}) and infra-red (IR) bright unobscured populations (6.3^{+6.2}_{-2.3} × 10^{12} h^{-1} M_{⊙}) to obscured quasars (10.0^{+2.6}_{-3.7} × 10^{12} h^{-1} M_{⊙}), signifying an increase in the degree of clustering. The projected satellite fractions also increase from optically bright to obscured quasars and tend to disfavor a simple `orientation only' theory of active galactic nuclei unification. Our results also show that future measurements of the small scale clustering of obscured quasars can constrain current theories of galaxy evolution where quasars evolve from an IR- bright obscured phase to the optically bright unobscured phase.

  16. From eyeballing to statistical modelling : methods for assessment of occupational exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kromhout, H.

    1994-01-01

    In this thesis methods for assessment of occupational exposure are evaluated and developed. These methods range from subjective methods (qualitative and semiquantitative) to more objective quantitative methods based on actual measurement of personal exposure to chemical and physical

  17. Southern Nevada ecosystem stressors [Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton K. Pendleton; Jeanne C. Chambers; Mathew L. Brooks; Steven M. Ostoja

    2013-01-01

    Southern Nevada ecosystems and their associated resources are subject to a number of global and regional/local stressors that are affecting the sustainability of the region. Global stressors include elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations and associated changes in temperature and precipitation patterns and amounts, solar radiation, and nutrient cycles (Smith and...

  18. Teaching Practice generated stressors and coping mechanisms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Teaching Practice generated stressors and coping mechanisms among student teachers in Zimbabwe. ... South African Journal of Education ... We sought to establish stressors and coping mechanisms for student teachers on Teaching Practice from a Christian-related university and a government-owned teachers' college ...

  19. Predictive performance of two PK-PD models of D2 receptor occupancy of the antipsychotics risperidone and paliperidone in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kozielska, Magdalena; Johnson, Martin; Pilla Reddy, Venkatesh; Vermeulen, An; de Greef, Rik; Li, Cheryl; Grimwood, Sarah; Liu, Jing; Groothuis, Genoveva; Danhof, Meindert; Proost, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The level of dopamine D2 receptor occupancy is predictive of efficacy and safety in schizophrenia. Population PK-PD modelling has been used to link observed plasma and brain concentrations to receptor occupancy. The objective of this study was to compare the predictive performance of two

  20. Using occupancy models to investigate the prevalence of ectoparasitic vectors on hosts: an example with fleas on prairie dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eads, David A.; Biggins, Dean E.; Doherty, Paul F.; Gage, Kenneth L.; Huyvaert, Kathryn P.; Long, Dustin H.; Antolin, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Ectoparasites are often difficult to detect in the field. We developed a method that can be used with occupancy models to estimate the prevalence of ectoparasites on hosts, and to investigate factors that influence rates of ectoparasite occupancy while accounting for imperfect detection. We describe the approach using a study of fleas (Siphonaptera) on black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). During each primary occasion (monthly trapping events), we combed a prairie dog three consecutive times to detect fleas (15 s/combing). We used robust design occupancy modeling to evaluate hypotheses for factors that might correlate with the occurrence of fleas on prairie dogs, and factors that might influence the rate at which prairie dogs are colonized by fleas. Our combing method was highly effective; dislodged fleas fell into a tub of water and could not escape, and there was an estimated 99.3% probability of detecting a flea on an occupied host when using three combings. While overall detection was high, the probability of detection was always dogs, flea occupancy was heightened in old/natural colonies of prairie dogs, and on hosts that were in poor condition. Occupancy was initially low in plots with high densities of prairie dogs, but, as the study progressed, the rate of flea colonization increased in plots with high densities of prairie dogs in particular. Our methodology can be used to improve studies of ectoparasites, especially when the probability of detection is low. Moreover, the method can be modified to investigate the co-occurrence of ectoparasite species, and community level factors such as species richness and interspecific interactions.

  1. Impact of Non-caregiving Related Stressors on Informal Caregiver Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yvonne Yueh-Feng; Perkins, Anthony J.; Boustani, Malaz; Callahan, Christopher M.; Hendrie, Hugh C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Caregivers of persons with dementia are stressed. Stressors not related to care recipients’ needs impact caregiver outcomes, yet are seldom reported. Methods 31 caregivers completed the Most Stressful Event form, Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the Revised Memory Behavioral Problem Checklist (R-MBPC). Fisher’s exact test and two-sample t-test were used to compare Most Stressful Events between caregivers. ANOVA model tested whether the PHQ-9 and R-MBPC subscales differed by stressor. Results Caregivers reported no stressors 21.5%, 1–2 stressors 25%, and 3 stressors 53% of the time with 318 stressors total. Care recipient needs (30.2%), caregiver needs (26.7%), and decision-making (16.7%) were the most frequently reported stressors. Using a mixed effects model, there were associations between Most Stressful Events and depression (p=0.016), mobility (p=0.024) and caregiver issues (p=0.009) subscales of R-MBPC. Conclusion Results can be used to develop intervention and support strategies for caregivers experiencing non-caregiving related stressors. PMID:24413541

  2. Controlling intake of uranium in the workplace: Applications of biokinetic modeling and occupational monitoring data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL; Eckerman, Keith F [ORNL; McGinn, Wilson [ORNL; Meck, Dr. Robert A. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    2012-01-01

    This report provides methods for interpreting and applying occupational uranium monitoring data. The methods are based on current international radiation protection guidance, current information on the chemical toxicity of uranium, and best available biokinetic models for uranium. Emphasis is on air monitoring data and three types of bioassay data: the concentration of uranium in urine; the concentration of uranium in feces; and the externally measured content of uranium in the chest. Primary Reference guidance levels for prevention of chemical effects and limitation of radiation effects are selected based on a review of current scientific data and regulatory principles for setting standards. Generic investigation levels and immediate action levels are then defined in terms of these primary guidance levels. The generic investigation and immediate actions levels are stated in terms of radiation dose and concentration of uranium in the kidneys. These are not directly measurable quantities, but models can be used to relate the generic levels to the concentration of uranium in air, urine, or feces, or the total uranium activity in the chest. Default investigation and immediate action levels for uranium in air, urine, feces, and chest are recommended for situations in which there is little information on the form of uranium taken into the body. Methods are prescribed also for deriving case-specific investigation and immediate action levels for uranium in air, urine, feces, and chest when there is sufficient information on the form of uranium to narrow the range of predictions of accumulation of uranium in the main target organs for uranium: kidneys for chemical effects and lungs for radiological effects. In addition, methods for using the information herein for alternative guidance levels, different from the ones selected for this report, are described.

  3. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling of dopamine D2 receptor occupancy in humans using Bayesian modeling tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, Martin; Mafirakureva, Nyashadzaishe; Kozielska, Magdalena; Pilla Reddy, Venkatesh; Vermeulen, An; Liu, Jing; de Greef, Rik; Groothuis, Genoveva; Danhof, Meindert; Proost, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Blockade of dopamine-2 receptors is the key pharmacological component to the antipsychotic efficacy of both the typical and atypical antipsychotics (1). A pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) modeling approach was used to describe the relationship between the plasma concentration of

  4. Using ergonomics digital human modeling in evaluation of workplaces design and prevention of occupational hazards onboard fishing vessel

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Bing; Álvarez Casado, Enrique; Tello Sandoval, Sonia; Rodríguez Mondelo, Pedro Manuel

    2010-01-01

    This paper seeks to present methods for improving the occupational health and safety of Spanish fishermen, and for redesigning the workplace onboard small fishing vessels. To achieve its objective, the research project was designed in four steps: First, the equipment and procedures for catching, handling, and storing fish was studied. Second, the work postures of all the fishermen were simulated and assessed by using an ergonomic digital human modeling system (ManneQuin Pro). Third, the wo...

  5. Gender differences in stressors and reactions to stressors among Jordanian university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaideh, Shaher H

    2012-01-01

    Stress among university students has been a topic of interest for researchers and teachers for many years because it affects not only their academic performance but also their physiological and psychological health. Male and female students perceive and react to stressors differently due to their differences in appraising stressful situations. The aims of this study were to examine differences in the perception of stressors and reactions to stressors between male and female Jordanian university students, and to identify the best predictors of stressors among them. Descriptive cross-sectional design was employed. The Student-Life Stress Inventory was used to measure stressors and reactions to stressors of 465 male and 485 female Jordanian university students recruited through stratified random sampling. There were statistical differences between male and female students regarding their perception and reactions to stressors. Female students reported a higher perception of stressors in frustrations, conflict, pressures and changes, as well as emotional reactions to stressors. Male students reported higher behavioural and cognitive reactions to stressors than female students. Participation in stress workshops, perception of general health, and perception of stress level in general were found to predict stressors among male students, while mother's educational level, perception of general health, and perception of stress level in general were found to predict stressors among female students. This study showed that gender differences in perception of stressors and reactions to stressors are similar to previous studies conducted all over the world. Interventions can be developed to help students better cope with stress. Conducting specific stress-training programmes for male and female students will help in reducing stress levels.

  6. Predictive habitat models derived from nest-box occupancy for the endangered Carolina northern flying squirrel in the southern Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, W. Mark; Evans, A.M.; Odom, Richard H.; Rodrigue, Jane L.; Kelly, C.A.; Abaid, Nicole; Diggins, Corinne A.; Newcomb, Doug

    2016-01-01

    In the southern Appalachians, artificial nest-boxes are used to survey for the endangered Carolina northern flying squirrel (CNFS; Glaucomys sabrinus coloratus), a disjunct subspecies associated with high elevation (>1385 m) forests. Using environmental parameters diagnostic of squirrel habitat, we created 35 a priori occupancy models in the program PRESENCE for boxes surveyed in western North Carolina, 1996-2011. Our best approximating model showed CNFS denning associated with sheltered landforms and montane conifers, primarily red spruce Picea rubens. As sheltering decreased, decreasing distance to conifers was important. Area with a high probability (>0.5) of occupancy was distributed over 18662 ha of habitat, mostly across 10 mountain ranges. Because nest-box surveys underrepresented areas >1750 m and CNFS forage in conifers, we combined areas of high occupancy with conifer GIS coverages to create an additional distribution model of likely habitat. Regionally, above 1385 m, we determined that 31795 ha could be occupied by CNFS. Known occupied patches ranged from

  7. Can "good" stressors spark "bad" behaviors? The mediating role of emotions in links of challenge and hindrance stressors with citizenship and counterproductive behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, Jessica B; Judge, Timothy A

    2009-11-01

    The authors combined affective events theory (H. M. Weiss & Cropanzano, 1996) and the transactional stress model (R. S. Lazarus & Folkman, 1984) to build and test a model specifying the dynamic, emotion-based relationships among challenge and hindrance stressors and citizenship and counterproductive behaviors. The study employed an experience sampling methodology. Results showed that challenge stressors had offsetting indirect links with citizenship behaviors through attentiveness and anxiety and a positive indirect effect on counterproductive behaviors through anxiety. Hindrance stressors had a negative indirect effect on citizenship behaviors through anxiety and a positive indirect effect on counterproductive behaviors through anxiety and anger. Finally, multilevel moderating effects showed that the relationship between hindrance stressors and anger varied according to employees' levels of neuroticism.

  8. Occupational Licensing

    OpenAIRE

    Morris M. Kleiner

    2000-01-01

    The study of the regulation of occupations has a long and distinguished tradition in economics. In this paper, I present the central arguments and unresolved issues involving the costs and benefits of occupational licensing. The main benefits that are suggested for occupational licensing involve improving quality for those persons receiving the service. In contrast, the costs attributed to this labor market institution are that it restricts the supply of labor to the occupation and thereby dr...

  9. Occupational Dermatosis

    OpenAIRE

    Solak, Yavuzalp; Yoldaşcan, Elçin; Akbaba, Muhsin; Kurt, Burak

    2018-01-01

    Dermatosesthat occur as a result of primary irritation or sensitization are generallyreferred to as "occupational dermatosis", depending on work done by aperson, vehicle they are using and their workplace or work environment.Skin’s occupational diseases are most frequently reported occupational diseasesafter trauma. It constitutes ~ 50% of all occupational diseases. It isresponsible for ~ 25% of work loss. It is very important because it is bothfrequent and vulnerable. In addition, ...

  10. A hybrid genetic algorithm-queuing multi-compartment model for optimizing inpatient bed occupancy and associated costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belciug, Smaranda; Gorunescu, Florin

    2016-03-01

    Explore how efficient intelligent decision support systems, both easily understandable and straightforwardly implemented, can help modern hospital managers to optimize both bed occupancy and utilization costs. This paper proposes a hybrid genetic algorithm-queuing multi-compartment model for the patient flow in hospitals. A finite capacity queuing model with phase-type service distribution is combined with a compartmental model, and an associated cost model is set up. An evolutionary-based approach is used for enhancing the ability to optimize both bed management and associated costs. In addition, a "What-if analysis" shows how changing the model parameters could improve performance while controlling costs. The study uses bed-occupancy data collected at the Department of Geriatric Medicine - St. George's Hospital, London, period 1969-1984, and January 2000. The hybrid model revealed that a bed-occupancy exceeding 91%, implying a patient rejection rate around 1.1%, can be carried out with 159 beds plus 8 unstaffed beds. The same holding and penalty costs, but significantly different bed allocations (156 vs. 184 staffed beds, and 8 vs. 9 unstaffed beds, respectively) will result in significantly different costs (£755 vs. £1172). Moreover, once the arrival rate exceeds 7 patient/day, the costs associated to the finite capacity system become significantly smaller than those associated to an Erlang B queuing model (£134 vs. £947). Encoding the whole information provided by both the queuing system and the cost model through chromosomes, the genetic algorithm represents an efficient tool in optimizing the bed allocation and associated costs. The methodology can be extended to different medical departments with minor modifications in structure and parameterization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Study of occupational stress among railway engine pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Devesh; Singh, Jai Vir; Kharwar, Poonam S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Traffic volume and speed is going to be increased in Indian Railways successively, leading to higher stress in staff connected with train operations. The jobs of railway engine pilots come under the category of high-strain jobs, necessitating a need to conduct multicentric study to unfold the factors associated with occupational stress and organizational strategies. Materials and Methods: Present study covered 185 railway engine pilots and office clerks working in various railway zones by incidental method. Occupational Stress Index (OSI) test developed by Srivastva and Singh, questionnaire of specific stressors constructed by authors and laboratory test battery for psychological screening of high-speed train pilots were used as tools. Results: Means of OSI and all the 12 occupational stressors of railway engine pilots were found significantly higher to that of office clerks. Means of OSI and occupational stressors of goods train pilots were significantly higher in comparison to high-speed train pilots and passenger train pilots. Study revealed positive correlation of speed perception and complex reaction time tests and negative correlation of other constituent tests of laboratory test battery to OSI test. Highest subgroup of stressor observedwas role overload followed by role conflict. Conclusions: These findings provide a prima facie evidence of higher occupational stress among railway engine pilots because of identified specific stressors prevalent in their job and explore the possible intervention strategies for its reduction. Significant correlation is noticed between OSI and laboratory test results, indicating its relevant utility in preliminary psychological screening. PMID:21808497

  12. Occupational mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This paper aims to present the methods and main results from the Danish occupational mortality studies, and to set the Danish studies into the international context of occupational mortality studies. RESEARCH TOPICS: The first Danish occupational mortality study from 1970...

  13. Effect of Changing Work Stressors and Coping Resources on the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: The OHSPIW Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Yulong; Sun, Qing; Guan, Suzhen; Ge, Hua; Tao, Ning; Jiang, Yu; Zhang, YanXia; Ning, Li; Xiao, Jing; Liu, Jiwen

    2018-03-01

    Little is known about the relationship between changing psychosocial work conditions and type 2 diabetes. We determined whether changing work stressors and coping resources affect the risk of type 2 diabetes. In this prospective cohort (2003-2014) of 3,740 workers without diabetes (OHSPIW [Occupational Health Study of Petroleum Industry Workers]), participants completed an evaluation of work-related stress and coping resources and type 2 diabetes diagnosis at baseline and 12 years follow-up (two waves). The changes in work stressors and coping resources were measured with the Occupation Stress Inventory-Revised and the Instrument for Stress-Related Job Analysis (Version 6.0). Type 2 diabetes was diagnosed on the basis of an oral glucose tolerance test supplemented by physician report. Increased task stressors (relative risk [RR] 1.57 [95% CI 1.03-2.63]) and decreased coping resources (RR 1.68 [95% CI 1.02-2.83]) were associated with risk of type 2 diabetes. The main risk factors were increased role overload, increased role insufficiency, increased physical environment stressors, decreased self-care, and decreased rational coping. Increased coping resources also had a buffering effect on increased task stressors and type 2 diabetes. Changes in work stressors and coping resources have an influence on the risk for type 2 diabetes, highlighting the importance of preventive measures against adverse psychosocial work conditions and reduced coping resources for diabetes prevention in the workplace. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  14. The impact of automation on pharmacy staff experience of workplace stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, K Lynette; Barlow, Dave; Bithell, Anne; Hiom, Sarah; Lord, Sue; Oakley, Pat; Pollard, Mike; Roberts, Dave; Way, Cheryl; Whittlesea, Cate

    2013-04-01

    Determine the effect of installing an original pack automated dispensing system (ADS) on staff experience of occupational stressors. Pharmacy staff in a National Health Service hospital in Wales, UK, were administered an anonymous occupational stressor questionnaire pre- (n = 45) and post-automation (n = 32). Survey responses pre- and post-automation were compared using Mann-Whitney U test. Statistical significance was P ≤ 0.05. Four focus groups were conducted (two groups of accredited checking technicians (ACTs) (group 1: n = 4; group 2: n = 6), one group of pharmacists (n = 17), and one group of technicians (n = 4) post-automation to explore staff experiences of occupational stressors. Focus group transcripts were analysed according to framework analysis. Survey response rate pre-automation was 78% (n = 35) and 49% (n = 16) post-automation. Automation had a positive impact on staff experience of stress (P = 0.023), illogical workload allocation (P = 0.004) and work-life balance (P = 0.05). All focus-group participants reported that automation had created a spacious working environment. Pharmacists and ACTs reported that automation had enabled the expansion of their roles. Technicians felt like 'production-line workers.' Robot malfunction was a source of stress. The findings suggest that automation had a positive impact on staff experience of stressors, improving working conditions and workload. Technicians reported that ADS devalued their skills. When installing ADS, pharmacy managers must consider the impact of automation on staff. Strategies to reduce stressors associated with automation include rotating staff activities and role expansions. © 2012 The Authors. IJPP © 2012 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  15. An Organizational and Task Perspective Model Aimed at Enhancing Teachers' Professional Development and Occupational Expertise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Arnoud T.; Kreijns, Karel; Van der Heijden, Beatrice I. J. M.; Gerrichhauzen, John T. G.

    2011-01-01

    Currently, many countries, including the Netherlands, are "plagued" by severe, both quantitative and qualitative, teacher shortages that are even expected to increase in the years to come. Teachers' occupational development, therefore, has become an important issue on the research agenda of the respective countries. It is essential to…

  16. Enhanced FAA-hybrid III numerical dummy model in Madymo for aircraft occupant safety assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boucher, H.; Waagmeester, C.D.

    2003-01-01

    To improve survivability and to minimize the risk of injury to occupants in helicopter crash events, a complete Cabin Safety System concept including safety features and an enhanced FAA-Hybrid III dummy were developed within the HeliSafe project. A numerical tool was also created and validated to

  17. Evaluation of occupational fatalities among underground coal mine workers through hierarchical loglinear models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onder, Mustafa; Adiguzel, Erhan

    2010-01-01

    Despite the all precautions, underground coal mining is one of the dangerous industries owing to fatal occupational accidents. Accidents are complicated events to which many factors effect on their formation and preventing them is only possible by the analyses of the accident occurred in past and by straight evaluation of the obtained results. In this study, hierarchical loglinear analysis method was implemented to occupational fatalities occurred in the period of 1980-2004 in the five underground coal mines of Turkish Hardcoal Enterprises which has the most important coal production areas in Turkey. The accident records were evaluated and the main factors affecting the accidents were defined as mine, miners' age, occupation, and accident type. By taking into account the sub factors of the main factors, multi way contingency tables were prepared and thus, the probabilities might effect fatality accidents were investigated. At the end of this study, it was found that the mostly affected job group by the fatality accidents was the production workers and additionally, these workers were mostly exposed to roof collapses and methane explosions. Moreover, important accident risk factors and the occupational job groups which have high probability to be exposed to these risk factors were determined and important information about decreasing the accidents in the underground coal mines were presented.

  18. Evaluating Amphibian Declines with Site Revisits and Occupancy Models: Status of Montane Anurans in the Pacific Northwest USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brome McCreary

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Amphibian declines have been reported in mountainous areas around the western USA. Few data quantify the extent of population losses in the Pacific Northwest, a region in which amphibian declines have received much attention. From 2001–2004, we resurveyed historical breeding sites of two species of conservation concern, the Western Toad (Bufo [=Anaxyrus] boreas and Cascades Frog (Rana cascadae. We detected B. boreas breeding at 75.9% and R. cascadae breeding at 66.6% of historical sites. When we analyzed the data using occupancy models that accounted for detection probability, we estimated the current use of historically occupied sites in our study area was 84.9% (SE = 4.9 for B. boreas and 72.4% (SE = 6.6 for R. cascadae. Our ability to detect B. boreas at sites where they were present was lower in the first year of surveys (a low snowpack year and higher at sites with introduced fish. Our ability to detect R. cascadae was lower at sites with fish. The probability that B. boreas still uses a historical site for breeding was related to the easting of the site (+ and the age of record (-. None of the variables we analyzed was strongly related to R. cascadae occupancy. Both species had increased odds of occupancy with higher latitude, but model support for this variable was modest. Our analysis suggests that while local losses are possible, these two amphibians have not experienced recent, broad population losses in the Oregon Cascades. Historical site revisitation studies such as ours cannot distinguish between population losses and site switching, and do not account for colonization of new habitats, so our analysis may overestimate declines in occupancy within our study area.

  19. Development of a numerical model for calculating exposure to toxic and nontoxic stressors in the water column and sediment from drilling discharges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rye, H.; Reed, M.; Frost, T.K.; Smit, M.G.D.; Durgut, S.

    2008-01-01

    Drilling discharges are complex mixtures of chemical components and particles which might lead to toxic and nontoxic stress in the environment. In order to be able to evaluate the potential environmental consequences of such discharges in the water column and in sediments, a numerical model was

  20. A multistudy examination of organizational stressors, emotional labor, burnout, and turnover in sport organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larner, R J; Wagstaff, C R D; Thelwell, R C; Corbett, J

    2017-12-01

    While a growing body of research has examined the types of organizational stressors encountered by individuals and their allied responses, little is known about how such individuals manage their emotional responses to these stressors or the consequences of such behaviors. This article presents novel findings from two studies examining the moderating role that emotional labor plays in the relationship between the frequency of organizational stressor experience, burnout, turnover intentions, and actual turnover in sport. In study 1, participants (n=487) completed measures of organizational stressors (OSI-SP), emotional labor (ELS), burnout (ABQ), and turnover intentions. In study 2, a 6-month longitudinal design was used to examine measures of organizational stressors (OSI-SP), emotional labor (ELS), turnover intentions, and actual turnover. Study 1 showed that surface acting moderated the relationship between the frequency of organizational stressors and burnout in sport. Further, surface acting acted as an important mechanism through which burnout mediated the relationship between the frequency of organizational stressors and turnover intentions. Study 2 showed that surface acting moderated the relationship between the organizational stressor frequency and turnover intentions-but not actual turnover-over time. These results highlight the importance of surface acting in understanding how individuals respond to organizational stressors encountered in sport, expanding our understanding of the positive and negative responses component of the meta-model of stress, emotions, and performance. These findings also highlight potentially deleterious emotion-management behaviors that practitioners might consider when aiming to support individuals encountering organizational stressors in sport. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Perceived challenges of working in a fertility clinic: a qualitative analysis of work stressors and difficulties working with patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin, Jacky; Bunting, Laura; Koert, Emily; Ieng U, Chin; Verhaak, Christianne

    2017-02-01

    'Misinformation and lack of knowledge' (27.8%, e.g. Dr Google). Finally, the topics participants would be willing to address in Workshops were 'Communicating and Counselling with Patients' (24.9%), 'Dealing with Patient-related sources' (19.6%) and 'Clinical topics' (19.6%). Three general themes emerged. First, a theme of 'time and time trade-offs' expressed the oft-mentioned need to trade-off time spent on one activity (e.g. managing patient demands) against another activity (e.g. clinical workload, administration) with stress level dependent on the efficacy of trading-off. Second, the theme of 'multifactorial causes' of challenging patient interactions that embodied the many sources of difficulties working with patients. What staff would be willing to address in workshops was indicated by the final general theme of 'a little of everything', which linked to the need for multiple workshops addressing the multifactorial nature of challenges in fertility clinics. Only about 10% of members receiving the survey participated. The work was limited to the stressful and difficult aspects of working in fertility clinics, which may give a more negative impression than if questions about the rewards and benefits had also been included. The nature of stressors and difficulties of working in a fertility clinic are consistent with models of occupational stress and patient complexity. Specialized psychologists, management consultants and other occupational experts could assist fertility teams in overcoming many of the challenges. More research is required on the effect of encountered work stressors and perceived sources of difficulties in working with patients on staff and patient outcomes. None declared. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Psychosocial stressors at work and musculoskeletal problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtman, I.L.D.; Bongers, P.M.; Smulders, P.G.W.; Kompier, M.A.J.

    1994-01-01

    Objectives - This paper examines the relationship between work stressors and the following health indicators: psychosomatic complaints, health behavior, and musculoskeletal problems. Methods - Secondary analyses were performed on data from the National Work and Living Condition Survey, which

  3. Expanding the occupational health methodology: A concatenated artificial neural network approach to model the burnout process in Chinese nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladstätter, Felix; Garrosa, Eva; Moreno-Jiménez, Bernardo; Ponsoda, Vicente; Reales Aviles, José Manuel; Dai, Junming

    2016-01-01

    Artificial neural networks are sophisticated modelling and prediction tools capable of extracting complex, non-linear relationships between predictor (input) and predicted (output) variables. This study explores this capacity by modelling non-linearities in the hardiness-modulated burnout process with a neural network. Specifically, two multi-layer feed-forward artificial neural networks are concatenated in an attempt to model the composite non-linear burnout process. Sensitivity analysis, a Monte Carlo-based global simulation technique, is then utilised to examine the first-order effects of the predictor variables on the burnout sub-dimensions and consequences. Results show that (1) this concatenated artificial neural network approach is feasible to model the burnout process, (2) sensitivity analysis is a prolific method to study the relative importance of predictor variables and (3) the relationships among variables involved in the development of burnout and its consequences are to different degrees non-linear. Many relationships among variables (e.g., stressors and strains) are not linear, yet researchers use linear methods such as Pearson correlation or linear regression to analyse these relationships. Artificial neural network analysis is an innovative method to analyse non-linear relationships and in combination with sensitivity analysis superior to linear methods.

  4. Hospital physicians' work stressors in different medical specialities: a statistical group comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Grit; Bamberg, Eva; Kozak, Agnessa; Kersten, Maren; Nienhaus, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Some studies on the occupational health of hospital physicians have found that working conditions have different effects on physician's well-being and health in different medical specialities. There has been no comparative study of the effects of various work stressors in different specialities. This study aims to close this gap. German hospital physicians were asked about their working conditions and aspects of health. The short version of the Instrument for Stress-Related Job Analysis for Hospital Physicians was used to measure working conditions. Irritation and emotional exhaustion were used to assess health. Physicians were also asked for socio-demographic aspects, including their medical speciality. Data from 763 hospital physicians were included in the analyses. Significant differences between medical specialities were demonstrated for time pressure, uncertainty, frustration about how work needs to be done and social stressors with patients. Physicians in internal medicine showed consistently high levels of stressors. Time pressure, frustration about how work needs to be done, and emotional dissonance were found to be significantly related to both aspects of health. The results showed that some medical specialities are more affected by specific stressors. It is therefore discussed how improvements can be implemented. Furthermore, it is illustrated which stressors are especially relevant for health. These relationships to health should be investigated in further research and in longitudinal designs to allow hints of causal relationships.

  5. Occupational stress and strain of support staff at a higher education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine the occupational stressors and strains for support staff at a higher education institution in the North West Province, and to assess the differences between the stressors and strains of different biographical groups. A cross-sectional survey design (N = 315) was used. The ASSET and a ...

  6. Shared effects of organic microcontaminants and environmental stressors on biofilms and invertebrates in impaired rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabater, S.; Barceló, D.; De Castro-Català, N.; Ginebreda, A.; Kuzmanovic, M.; Petrovic, M.; Picó, Y.; Ponsatí, L.; Tornés, E.; Muñoz, I.

    2016-01-01

    Land use type, physical and chemical stressors, and organic microcontaminants were investigated for their effects on the biological communities (biofilms and invertebrates) in several Mediterranean rivers. The diversity of invertebrates, and the scores of the first principal component of a PCA performed with the diatom communities were the best descriptors of the distribution patterns of the biological communities against the river stressors. These two metrics decreased according to the progressive site impairment (associated to higher area of agricultural and urban-industrial, high water conductivity, higher dissolved organic carbon and dissolved inorganic nitrogen concentrations, and higher concentration of organic microcontaminants, particularly pharmaceutical and industrial compounds). The variance partition analyses (RDAs) attributed the major share (10%) of the biological communities' response to the environmental stressors (nutrients, altered discharge, dissolved organic matter), followed by the land use occupation (6%) and of the organic microcontaminants (2%). However, the variance shared by the three groups of descriptors was very high (41%), indicating that their simultaneous occurrence determined most of the variation in the biological communities. - Highlights: • River impairment was associated to increasing agricultural and urban-industrial areas, and sites were having waters with high water conductivity and nutrient concentrations, and higher concentrations of organic microcontaminants, particularly pharmaceutical and alkylphenol compounds. • Physico-chemical stressors (high nutrients and dissolved organic matter, altered water flow) were the ones mostly affecting biodiversity. • The simultaneous occurrence of microcontaminants with physico-chemical stressors in urban-industrial areas produced a much higher effect than the simple addition of stressors. - Organic microcontaminants reinforce the effects of environmental and land use

  7. High level of work stressors increase the risk of mental-emotional disturbances among airline pilots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indah S. Widyahening

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Civilian airline pilots have one of the most stressful occupations. The aim of this study was to identify the effect of work stressors and other factors on mental-emotional disturbances among airline pilots. A cross-sectional study was done by interviewing selected pilots of an airline using appropriate questionnaires, during their routine medical examination from May to July 1999 in Jakarta. Five aspects of work stressor were assessed: working conditions, physical conditions of working environment, career development, organization and interpersonal relationship. Mental-emotional disturbances were determined by using the Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL 90 questionnaire. Data analysis was carried out using relative risk by Cox regression with constant time. From 128 subjects interviewed, 109 could be analyzed. Most of the subjects were married (73.4% and college graduates (91.7%. The number of captains and first officers were almost equal. The prevalence of mental-emotional disturbances was 39.4%. Mental-emotional disturbances were significantly related to work stressors and moderately related to household tension (P = 0.184. Compared to pilots with low levels of work stressors, those with high or very high levels of work stressors had a risk of 4.6 times of mental-emotional disturbances [adjusted relative risk (RRa = 4.64; 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.01 – 19.65]. Adequate guides to cope work stressors and household tension which related to mental-emotional disturbance is recommended. (Med J Indones 2007; 16:117-21Keywords: mental-emotional disturbance, work stressors, household tension, airline pilots

  8. Timing matters: the interval between acute stressors within chronic mild stress modifies behavioral and physiologic stress responses in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavigelli, Sonia A; Bao, Alexander D; Bourne, Rebecca A; Caruso, Michael J; Caulfield, Jasmine I; Chen, Mary; Smyth, Joshua M

    2018-04-12

    Chronic mild stress can lead to negative health outcomes. Frequency, duration, and intensity of acute stressors can affect health-related processes. We tested whether the temporal pattern of daily acute stressors (clustered or dispersed across the day) affects depression-related physiology. We used a rodent model to keep stressor frequency, duration, and intensity constant, and experimentally manipulated the temporal pattern of acute stressors delivered during the active phase of the day. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to one of three chronic mild stress groups: Clustered: stressors that occurred within 1 hour of each other (n = 21), Dispersed: stressors that were spread out across the active phase (n = 21), and Control: no stressors presented (n = 21). Acute mild stressors included noise, strobe lights, novel cage, cage tilt, wet bedding, and water immersion. Depression-related outcomes included: sucrose preference, body weight, circulating glucocorticoid (corticosterone) concentration after a novel acute stressor and during basal morning and evening times, and endotoxin-induced circulating interleukin-6 concentrations. Compared to control rats, those in the Clustered group gained less weight, consumed less sucrose, had a blunted acute corticosterone response, and an accentuated acute interleukin-6 response. Rats in the Dispersed group had an attenuated corticosterone decline during the active period and after an acute stressor compared to the Control group. During a chronic mild stress experience, the temporal distribution of daily acute stressors affected health-related physiologic processes. Regular exposure to daily stressors in rapid succession may predict more depression-related symptoms, whereas exposure to stressors dispersed throughout the day may predict diminished glucocorticoid negative feedback.

  9. Using occupancy modeling and logistic regression to assess the distribution of shrimp species in lowland streams, Costa Rica: Does regional groundwater create favorable habitat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Marcia; Freeman, Mary C.; Purucker, S. Thomas; Pringle, Catherine M.

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater shrimps are an important biotic component of tropical ecosystems. However, they can have a low probability of detection when abundances are low. We sampled 3 of the most common freshwater shrimp species, Macrobrachium olfersii, Macrobrachium carcinus, and Macrobrachium heterochirus, and used occupancy modeling and logistic regression models to improve our limited knowledge of distribution of these cryptic species by investigating both local- and landscape-scale effects at La Selva Biological Station in Costa Rica. Local-scale factors included substrate type and stream size, and landscape-scale factors included presence or absence of regional groundwater inputs. Capture rates for 2 of the sampled species (M. olfersii and M. carcinus) were sufficient to compare the fit of occupancy models. Occupancy models did not converge for M. heterochirus, but M. heterochirus had high enough occupancy rates that logistic regression could be used to model the relationship between occupancy rates and predictors. The best-supported models for M. olfersii and M. carcinus included conductivity, discharge, and substrate parameters. Stream size was positively correlated with occupancy rates of all 3 species. High stream conductivity, which reflects the quantity of regional groundwater input into the stream, was positively correlated with M. olfersii occupancy rates. Boulder substrates increased occupancy rate of M. carcinus and decreased the detection probability of M. olfersii. Our models suggest that shrimp distribution is driven by factors that function at local (substrate and discharge) and landscape (conductivity) scales.

  10. [Occupational stress and mental health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigantesco, Antonella; Lega, Ilaria

    2013-01-01

    One fifth of workers reports experiencing stress in the work environment in Europe. A number of studies show that psychosocial stressors in the workplace are associated with adverse physical and mental health outcomes, including symptoms of anxiety and depression. The present paper: briefly describes the characteristics of occupational stress and the main psychosocial stressful risk factors in the work environment; reports the main results of studies on psychosocial risk factors in the work environment as risk factor for common mental disorders; presents findings from an Italian study aimed at assessing prevalence of common mental disorders and workplace psychosocial stressors in a sample of hospital employees; provides the "Working conditions Questionnaire", a validated self-administered instrument to assess perceived stress in the workplace; this questionnaire includes the assessment of organizational justice.

  11. Using occupancy models to accommodate uncertainty in the interpretation of aerial photograph data: status of beaver in Central Oregon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Christopher A.; Adams, Michael J.; Haggerty, Patricia K.; Urban, Leslie

    2015-01-01

    Beavers (Castor canadensis) influence habitat for many species and pose challenges in developed landscapes. They are increasingly viewed as a cost-efficient means of riparian habitat restoration and water storage. Still, information on their status is rare, particularly in western North America. We used aerial photography to evaluate changes in beaver occupancy between 1942–1968 and 2009 in upper portions of 2 large watersheds in Oregon, USA. We used multiple observers and occupancy modeling to account for bias related to photo quality, observers, and imperfect detection of beaver impoundments. Our analysis suggested a slightly higher rate of beaver occupancy in the upper Deschutes than the upper Klamath basin. We found weak evidence for beaver increases in the west and declines in eastern parts of the study area. Our study presents a method for dealing with observer variation in photo interpretation and provides the first assessment of the extent of beaver influence in 2 basins with major water-use challenges. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  12. Early post-stressor intervention with minocycline, a second-generation tetracycline, attenuates post-traumatic stress response in an animal model of PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levkovitz, Yechiel; Fenchel, Daphna; Kaplan, Zeev; Zohar, Joseph; Cohen, Hagit

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the effects of minocycline, a tetracycline with anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and neuroprotective capacities, in an animal model of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Rats were exposed to psychogenic stress and treated 1h later with minocycline or saline. Behavioral measures included the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and acoustic startle response (ASR) 7 days post stress-exposure. One day after behavioral testing, animals were exposed to a trauma cue and freezing response was assessed. Local levels of cytokines interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the hippocampus, frontal cortex (FC) and hypothalamus were then examined. Minocycline attenuated anxious-like behaviors in stress-exposed rats. In addition, decreased levels of cytokines were measured in exposed rats treated with minocycline compared to their counterparts treated with saline. This study suggests a potential use of minocycline in preventing physiological and behavioral alternations resulting from acute exposure to psychological stress. As this is the first study to report beneficial outcomes for minocycline treatment in an animal model of PTSD, further investigations of the use of minocycline in stress-related conditions with emphasis on PTSD is needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  13. Occupational Consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramugondo, Elelwani L

    2015-10-02

    Occupational consciousness refers to ongoing awareness of the dynamics of hegemony and recognition that dominant practices are sustained through what people do every day, with implications for personal and collective health. The emergence of the construct in post-apartheid South Africa signifies the country's ongoing struggle with negotiating long-standing dynamics of power that were laid down during colonialism, and maintained under black majority rule. Consciousness, a key component of the new terminology, is framed from post-colonial perspectives - notably work by Biko and Fanon - and grounded in the philosophy of liberation, in order to draw attention to continuing unequal intersubjective relations that play out through human occupation. The paper also draws important links between occupational consciousness and other related constructs, namely occupational possibilities, occupational choice, occupational apartheid, and collective occupation. The use of the term 'consciousness' in sociology, with related or different meanings, is also explored. Occupational consciousness is then advanced as a critical notion that frames everyday doing as a potentially liberating response to oppressive social structures. This paper advances theorizing as a scholarly practice in occupational science, and could potentially expand inter or transdisciplinary work for critical conceptualizations of human occupation.

  14. Occupational Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramugondo, Elelwani L.

    2015-01-01

    Occupational consciousness refers to ongoing awareness of the dynamics of hegemony and recognition that dominant practices are sustained through what people do every day, with implications for personal and collective health. The emergence of the construct in post-apartheid South Africa signifies the country’s ongoing struggle with negotiating long-standing dynamics of power that were laid down during colonialism, and maintained under black majority rule. Consciousness, a key component of the new terminology, is framed from post-colonial perspectives – notably work by Biko and Fanon – and grounded in the philosophy of liberation, in order to draw attention to continuing unequal intersubjective relations that play out through human occupation. The paper also draws important links between occupational consciousness and other related constructs, namely occupational possibilities, occupational choice, occupational apartheid, and collective occupation. The use of the term ‘consciousness’ in sociology, with related or different meanings, is also explored. Occupational consciousness is then advanced as a critical notion that frames everyday doing as a potentially liberating response to oppressive social structures. This paper advances theorizing as a scholarly practice in occupational science, and could potentially expand inter or transdisciplinary work for critical conceptualizations of human occupation. PMID:26549984

  15. Inference for occupancy and occupancy dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Allan F.; Bailey, Larissa L.; O'Connell, Allan F.; Nichols, James D.; Karanth, K. Ullas

    2011-01-01

    This chapter deals with the estimation of occupancy as a state variable to assess the status of, and track changes in, species distributions when sampling with camera traps. Much of the recent interest in occupancy estimation and modeling originated from the models developed by MacKenzie et al. (2002, 2003), although similar methods were developed independently (Azuma et al. 1990; Bayley and Petersen 2001; Nichols and Karanth, 2002; Tyre et al. 2003), all of which deal with species occurrence information and imperfect detection. Less than a decade after these publications, the modeling and estimation of species occurrence and occupancy dynamics have increased significantly. Special features of scientific journals have explored innovative uses of detection–nondetection data with occupancy models (Vojta 2005), and an entire volume has synthesized the use and application of occupancy estimation methods (MacKenzie et al. 2006). Reviews of the topical concepts, philosophical considerations, and various sampling designs that can be used for occupancy estimation are now readily available for a range of audiences (MacKenzie and Royle 2005; MacKenzie et al. 2006; Bailey et al. 2007; Royle and Dorazio 2008; Conroy and Carroll 2009; Kendall and White 2009; Hines et al. 2010; Link and Barker 2010). As a result, it would be pointless here to recast all that these publications have so eloquently articulated, but that said, a review of any scientific topic requires sufficient context and relevant background information, especially when relatively new methodologies and techniques such as occupancy estimation and camera traps are involved. This is especially critical in a digital age where new information is published at warp speed, making it increasingly difficult to stay abreast of theoretical advances and research developments.

  16. The role of door orientation on occupant injury in a nearside impact: a CIREN, MADYMO modeling and experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tencer, Allan F; Kaufman, Robert; Huber, Philippe; Mock, Charles

    2005-12-01

    This study addressed the effects of vehicle height mismatch in side impact crashes. A light truck or SUV tends to strike the door of a passenger car higher causing the upper border to lead into the occupant space. Conversely, an impact centered lower on the door, from a passenger car, causes the lower border to lead. We proposed the hypothesis that the type of injury sustained by the occupant could be related to door orientation during its intrusion into the passenger compartment. Data on door orientation and nearside occupant injuries were collected from 125 side impact crashes reported in the CIREN database. Experimental testing was performed using a pendulum carrying a frame and a vehicle door, impacting against a USDOT SID. The frame allowed the door orientation to be changed. A model was developed in MADYMO (v 6.2) using the more biofidelic dummies, BIOSID, and SIDIIs as well as USDOT SID. In side impact crashes with the lower border of the door leading, 81% of occupants sustained pelvic injury, 42% suffered rib fractures, and the rate of organ injury was 0.84. With the upper border leading, 46% of occupants sustained pelvic injury, 71% sustained rib fracture, and the rate of organ injuries per case increased to 1.13. The differences in the groups with respect to pelvic injury were significant at p = 0.01, rib fracture, p = 0.10, and organ injury, p = 0.001. Experimental testing showed that when the door angle changed from lower to upper border leading, peak T4 acceleration increased by 273% and pelvic acceleration decreased by 44%. The model demonstrated that when the door angle changed from lower to upper border leading, the USDOT SID showed a 29% increase in T4 acceleration and a 57% decrease in pelvic acceleration. The BIOSID dummy demonstrated a 36% increase in T1 acceleration, a 44% increase in abdominal rib 1 deflection, a 91% increase in thoracic rib 1 deflection, and a 33% decrease in pelvic acceleration. These data add more insight to the problem of

  17. Common Mental Disorders among Occupational Groups: Contributions of the Latent Class Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kionna Oliveira Bernardes Santos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20 is widely used for evaluating common mental disorders. However, few studies have evaluated the SRQ-20 measurements performance in occupational groups. This study aimed to describe manifestation patterns of common mental disorders symptoms among workers populations, by using latent class analysis. Methods. Data derived from 9,959 Brazilian workers, obtained from four cross-sectional studies that used similar methodology, among groups of informal workers, teachers, healthcare workers, and urban workers. Common mental disorders were measured by using SRQ-20. Latent class analysis was performed on each database separately. Results. Three classes of symptoms were confirmed in the occupational categories investigated. In all studies, class I met better criteria for suspicion of common mental disorders. Class II discriminated workers with intermediate probability of answers to the items belonging to anxiety, sadness, and energy decrease that configure common mental disorders. Class III was composed of subgroups of workers with low probability to respond positively to questions for screening common mental disorders. Conclusions. Three patterns of symptoms of common mental disorders were identified in the occupational groups investigated, ranging from distinctive features to low probabilities of occurrence. The SRQ-20 measurements showed stability in capturing nonpsychotic symptoms.

  18. Proof of concept of the WOMED model of benign thyroid disease: Restitution of thyroid morphology after correction of physical and psychological stressors and magnesium supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncayo, Roy; Moncayo, Helga

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of a combined supplementation with magnesium, selenium and coenzyme Q10 on the morphology of the thyroid in patients with benign diseases. The clinical examination and treatment approach aims additionally at treating musculoskeletal and psychological stress. A group of 8 patients (5 with hyperthyroidism, 3 with hypothyroidism) who initially attended a public institution received additional treatment at our private institution. The basic pharmacological treatment, i.e. substitution or thyreostatic, was kept unchanged. The inclusion of patients required good quality ultrasound images to be available. Initially the changes of the musculoskeletal system were corrected. Following this, stress components were also treated. After a period of 2-4 years of supplementation we observed a normalization of thyroid morphology as evidenced on ultrasound while at the same time there was a reduction of perfusion intensity. Thyroid antibody titers decreased in the majority of cases. Failure of the treatment was seen in 2 cases of chronic thyroiditis that was present for more than 10 years. The ultrasound images of these patients suggest a possible fibrosis. In spite of the limitation due to the small number of cases, our observational study has delivered proof of concept for our examination and treatment model for benign thyroid disease. Our results challenge validity of the prevailing dogma of a destructive unstoppable "autoimmune" destructive process of the gland. At the same time it shows new therapeutic options for patients with thyroid disease.

  19. Occupant-level injury severity analyses for taxis in Hong Kong: A Bayesian space-time logistic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fanyu; Xu, Pengpeng; Wong, S C; Huang, Helai; Li, Y C

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to identify the factors affecting the crash-related severity level of injuries in taxis and quantify the associations between these factors and taxi occupant injury severity. Casualties resulting from taxi crashes from 2004 to 2013 in Hong Kong were divided into four categories: taxi drivers, taxi passengers, private car drivers and private car passengers. To avoid any biased interpretation caused by unobserved spatial and temporal effects, a Bayesian hierarchical logistic modeling approach with conditional autoregressive priors was applied, and four different model forms were tested. For taxi drivers and passengers, the model with space-time interaction was proven to most properly address the unobserved heterogeneity effects. The results indicated that time of week, number of vehicles involved, weather, point of impact and driver age were closely associated with taxi drivers' injury severity level in a crash. For taxi passengers' injury severity an additional factor, taxi service area, was influential. To investigate the differences between taxis and other traffic, similar models were established for private car drivers and passengers. The results revealed that although location in the network and driver gender significantly influenced private car drivers' injury severity, they did not influence taxi drivers' injury severity. Compared with taxi passengers, the injury severity of private car passengers was more sensitive to average speed and whether seat belts were worn. Older drivers, urban taxis and fatigued driving were identified as factors that increased taxi occupant injury severity in Hong Kong. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Acute Stressor Effects on Goal-Directed Action in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Stephanie; Hauber, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Here we examined effects of acute stressors that involve either systemic coadministration of corticosterone/yohimbine (3 mg/kg each) to increase glucocorticoid/noradrenaline activity (denoted as "pharmacological" stressor) or one or several distinct restraint stressors (denoted as "single" vs. "multiple" stressor) on…

  1. Development and validation of a prediction model for long-term sickness absence based on occupational health survey variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelen, Corné; Thorsen, Sannie; Heymans, Martijn; Twisk, Jos; Bültmann, Ute; Bjørner, Jakob

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop and validate a prediction model for identifying employees at increased risk of long-term sickness absence (LTSA), by using variables commonly measured in occupational health surveys. Based on the literature, 15 predictor variables were retrieved from the DAnish National working Environment Survey (DANES) and included in a model predicting incident LTSA (≥4 consecutive weeks) during 1-year follow-up in a sample of 4000 DANES participants. The 15-predictor model was reduced by backward stepwise statistical techniques and then validated in a sample of 2524 DANES participants, not included in the development sample. Identification of employees at increased LTSA risk was investigated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis; the area-under-the-ROC-curve (AUC) reflected discrimination between employees with and without LTSA during follow-up. The 15-predictor model was reduced to a 9-predictor model including age, gender, education, self-rated health, mental health, prior LTSA, work ability, emotional job demands, and recognition by the management. Discrimination by the 9-predictor model was significant (AUC = 0.68; 95% CI 0.61-0.76), but not practically useful. A prediction model based on occupational health survey variables identified employees with an increased LTSA risk, but should be further developed into a practically useful tool to predict the risk of LTSA in the general working population. Implications for rehabilitation Long-term sickness absence risk predictions would enable healthcare providers to refer high-risk employees to rehabilitation programs aimed at preventing or reducing work disability. A prediction model based on health survey variables discriminates between employees at high and low risk of long-term sickness absence, but discrimination was not practically useful. Health survey variables provide insufficient information to determine long-term sickness absence risk profiles. There is a need for

  2. Individual and Neighborhood Stressors, Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazlehurst, Marnie F; Nurius, Paula S; Hajat, Anjum

    2018-03-08

    Psychosocial and environmental stress exposures across the life course have been shown to be relevant in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Assessing more than one stressor from different domains (e.g., individual and neighborhood) and across the life course moves us towards a more integrated picture of how stress affects health and well-being. Furthermore, these individual and neighborhood psychosocial stressors act on biologic pathways, including immune function and inflammatory response, which are also impacted by ubiquitous environmental exposures such as air pollution. The objective of this study is to evaluate the interaction between psychosocial stressors, at both the individual and neighborhood level, and air pollution on CVD. This study used data from the 2009-2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) from Washington State. Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) measured at the individual level, and neighborhood deprivation index (NDI) measured at the zip code level, were the psychosocial stressors of interest. Exposures to three air pollutants-particulate matter (both PM 2.5 and PM 10 ) and nitrogen dioxide (NO₂)-were also calculated at the zip code level. Outcome measures included several self-reported CVD-related health conditions. Both multiplicative and additive interaction quantified using the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI), were evaluated. This study included 32,151 participants in 502 unique zip codes. Multiplicative and positive additive interactions were observed between ACEs and PM 10 for diabetes, in models adjusted for NDI. The prevalence of diabetes was 1.58 (95% CI: 1.40, 1.79) times higher among those with both high ACEs and high PM 10 compared to those with low ACEs and low PM 10 ( p -value = 0.04 for interaction on the multiplicative scale). Interaction was also observed between neighborhood-level stressors (NDI) and air pollution (NO₂) for the stroke and diabetes outcomes on both

  3. Individual and Neighborhood Stressors, Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazlehurst, Marnie F.; Nurius, Paula S.; Hajat, Anjum

    2018-01-01

    Psychosocial and environmental stress exposures across the life course have been shown to be relevant in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Assessing more than one stressor from different domains (e.g., individual and neighborhood) and across the life course moves us towards a more integrated picture of how stress affects health and well-being. Furthermore, these individual and neighborhood psychosocial stressors act on biologic pathways, including immune function and inflammatory response, which are also impacted by ubiquitous environmental exposures such as air pollution. The objective of this study is to evaluate the interaction between psychosocial stressors, at both the individual and neighborhood level, and air pollution on CVD. This study used data from the 2009–2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) from Washington State. Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) measured at the individual level, and neighborhood deprivation index (NDI) measured at the zip code level, were the psychosocial stressors of interest. Exposures to three air pollutants—particulate matter (both PM2.5 and PM10) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)—were also calculated at the zip code level. Outcome measures included several self-reported CVD-related health conditions. Both multiplicative and additive interaction quantified using the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI), were evaluated. This study included 32,151 participants in 502 unique zip codes. Multiplicative and positive additive interactions were observed between ACEs and PM10 for diabetes, in models adjusted for NDI. The prevalence of diabetes was 1.58 (95% CI: 1.40, 1.79) times higher among those with both high ACEs and high PM10 compared to those with low ACEs and low PM10 (p-value = 0.04 for interaction on the multiplicative scale). Interaction was also observed between neighborhood-level stressors (NDI) and air pollution (NO2) for the stroke and diabetes outcomes on both multiplicative and

  4. Identifying Stressors and Reactions to Stressors in Gifted and Non-Gifted Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Marzieh

    2005-01-01

    Using the Student Life Stress Inventory and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, stressors and reactions to stressors were identified in gifted high school students and compared with non-gifted students. Altogether, 340 boys and girls (156 gifted and 184 non-gifted students) from four high schools in Shiraz (two high schools for gifted and two…

  5. Modeling the exposure functions of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon mixtures in occupational environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Pascal; Maître, Anne; Persoons, Renaud; Bicout, Dominique J

    2017-04-15

    The health risk assessment associated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) mixtures faces three main issues: the lack of knowledge regarding occupational exposure mixtures, the accurate chemical characterization and the estimation of cancer risks. To describe industries in which PAH exposures are encountered and construct working context-exposure function matrices, to enable the estimation of both the PAH expected exposure level and chemical characteristic profile of workers based on their occupational sector and activity. Overall, 1729 PAH samplings from the Exporisq-HAP database (E-HAP) were used. An approach was developed to (i) organize E-HAP in terms of the most detailed unit of description of a job and (ii) structure and subdivide the organized E-HAP into groups of detailed industry units, with each group described by the distribution of concentrations of gaseous and particulate PAHs, which would result in working context-exposure function matrices. PAH exposures were described using two scales: phase (total particulate and gaseous PAH distribution concentrations) and congener (16 congener PAH distribution concentrations). Nine industrial sectors were organized according to the exposure durations, short-term, mid-term and long-term into 5, 36 and 47 detailed industry units, which were structured, respectively, into 2, 4, and 7 groups for the phase scale and 2, 3, and 6 groups for the congener scale, corresponding to as much distinct distribution of concentrations of several PAHs. For the congener scale, which included groups that used products derived from coal, the correlations between the PAHs were strong; for groups that used products derived from petroleum, all PAHs in the mixtures were poorly correlated with each other. The current findings provide insights into both the PAH emissions generated by various industrial processes and their associated occupational exposures and may be further used to develop risk assessment analyses of cancers

  6. Human Stressors Are Driving Coastal Benthic Long-Lived Sessile Fan Mussel Pinna nobilis Population Structure More than Environmental Stressors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salud Deudero

    Full Text Available Coastal degradation and habitat disruption are severely compromising sessile marine species. The fan shell Pinna nobilis is an endemic, vulnerable species and the largest bivalve in the Mediterranean basin. In spite of species legal protection, fan shell populations are declining. Models analyzed the contributions of environmental (mean depth, wave height, maximum wave height, period of waves with high energy and mean direction of wave source versus human-derived stressors (anchoring, protection status, sewage effluents, fishing activity and diving as explanatory variables depicting Pinna nobilis populations at a mesoscale level. Human stressors were explaining most of the variability in density spatial distribution of fan shell, significantly disturbing benthic communities. Habitat protection affected P. nobilis structure and physical aggression by anchoring reveals a high impact on densities. Environmental variables instead played a secondary role, indicating that global change processes are not so relevant in coastal benthic communities as human-derived impacts.

  7. Are Leadership Fairness, Psychological Distress, and Role Stressors Interrelated? A Two-Wave Prospective Study of Forward and Reverse Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Morten B.; Christensen, Jan O.; Finne, Live B.; Knardahl, Stein

    2018-01-01

    While previous research has mainly considered leadership as an antecedent to psychological distress and role stressors (i.e., role ambiguity and role conflict) among subordinates, a reverse relationship where these variables influence reports of leadership is also possible. To determine the directionality of the associations this two-wave prospective study assesses bidirectional relationships between fair leadership and role stressors and examines whether psychological distress mediates the reciprocal associations between fair leadership and the role stressors. Analyses were conducted in a sample of 6,790 Norwegian employees with a 2-year time-lag between measurement points. Fair leadership was associated with lower stability adjusted role ambiguity, but not role conflict, over time. Role conflict, but not role ambiguity, was related to subsequent reports of the immediate leader as less fair. Psychological distress did neither mediate the relationship between fair leadership and subsequent reports of role stressors, nor the association between role stressors and subsequent reports of fair leadership. The findings suggest that the fair leadership – role stressor association is not a one-directional process, but that exposure to role stressors also influence subordinates’ perceptions of leadership. An implication of the findings is that theoretical models of organizational leadership should include this reverse impact of role stressors. To reduce the effects of role stressors, organizations could set consistent, clear and attractive goals and provide employees with necessary information for conducting their work tasks in order to help workers understand and master their roles at the workplace. PMID:29467702

  8. Are Leadership Fairness, Psychological Distress, and Role Stressors Interrelated? A Two-Wave Prospective Study of Forward and Reverse Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten B. Nielsen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available While previous research has mainly considered leadership as an antecedent to psychological distress and role stressors (i.e., role ambiguity and role conflict among subordinates, a reverse relationship where these variables influence reports of leadership is also possible. To determine the directionality of the associations this two-wave prospective study assesses bidirectional relationships between fair leadership and role stressors and examines whether psychological distress mediates the reciprocal associations between fair leadership and the role stressors. Analyses were conducted in a sample of 6,790 Norwegian employees with a 2-year time-lag between measurement points. Fair leadership was associated with lower stability adjusted role ambiguity, but not role conflict, over time. Role conflict, but not role ambiguity, was related to subsequent reports of the immediate leader as less fair. Psychological distress did neither mediate the relationship between fair leadership and subsequent reports of role stressors, nor the association between role stressors and subsequent reports of fair leadership. The findings suggest that the fair leadership – role stressor association is not a one-directional process, but that exposure to role stressors also influence subordinates’ perceptions of leadership. An implication of the findings is that theoretical models of organizational leadership should include this reverse impact of role stressors. To reduce the effects of role stressors, organizations could set consistent, clear and attractive goals and provide employees with necessary information for conducting their work tasks in order to help workers understand and master their roles at the workplace.

  9. Climate Change and Interacting Stressors: Implications for ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the release of the final document, Climate Change and Interacting Stressors: Implications for Coral Reef Management in American Samoa. This report provides a synthesis of information on the interactive effects of climate change and other stressors on the reefs of American Samoa as well as an assessment of potential management responses. This report provides the coral reef managers of American Samoa, as well as other coral reef managers in the Pacific region, with some management options to help enhance the capacity of local coral reefs to resist the negative effects of climate change. This report was designed to take advantage of diverse research and monitoring efforts that are ongoing in American Samoa to: analyze and compile the results of multiple research projects that focus on understanding climate-related stressors and their effects on coral reef ecosystem degradation and recovery; and assess implications for coral reef managment of the combined information, including possible response options.

  10. Bioenergetic Approaches to Define Resilience Potential to Compounding Environmental Stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manahan, D. T.; Frieder, C.; Applebaum, S.; Hedgecock, D.; Pan, F.

    2016-02-01

    Predicting how marine organisms may respond to rapid anthropogenic change is a major challenge in environmental sciences. It is difficult, however, to design biological experiments to test for the near-infinite combinatorial possibilities and potential interactions of biotic and abiotic processes in a changing ocean. Bioenergetic modeling of homeostatic stability provides a powerful framework for assessing the capacity of organisms to respond to compounding stressors. Since biological variance in response to ocean change is clearly evident, predictive analysis will require a merging of information on environmental, genetic, and physiological processes. Our approach is based on defining (1) metabolic limits of organismal resilience, (2) capacity for trade-offs in allocation of cellular ATP to specific response strategies, (3) biochemical markers of `tipping points' beyond which a range of stressors become lethal, and (4) genomic bases of physiological resilience by gene mapping. Such analyses offer new approaches to assess the levels of different stressors that an organism may be able to cope with under defined (laboratory) and unknown (field) conditions and to improve predictions of adaptive responses and resiliency limits to ocean change.

  11. Development and validation of a work stressor scale for Australian farming families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McShane, Connar J; Quirk, Frances; Swinbourne, Anne

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this research was to gain insight into the key stressors for Australian farming families. It is well established that the farming work environment consists of a number of unique stressors which arise from dependency on factors beyond an individual's control (e.g. climate conditions) as well as the overlap between work and family environments. Despite this, limited research has included family factors in the assessment of stress felt by farmers and their families. This research sought to develop a scale of stressors for farming families in an Australian sample. A survey design was used for validity and reliability studies. The validity study involved assessment of factor structure, concurrent validity and discriminant validity. The reliability study used a test-retest reliability design. Participants were recruited from across Australia (38% Queensland; 30% New South Wales) and multiple industries (43% beef; 27% broadacre cropping; 26% horticulture). The validity study involved 278 participants and the reliability study involved 53 participants. Development of a Farming Family Stressor scale. The generated Farming Family Stressor scale presented satisfactory levels of concurrent validity (e.g. r = .73 against the Farm Stress Survey total score), discriminant validity (e.g. r = -.42 to r = .53 against the Satisfaction with Life and Kessler-10 total scores, respectively), internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha >.90) and test-retest reliability (rho > .66). This research lends insight into the complexity of stressors for farming families and has implications for occupational health and mental health programs that seek to reduce stress and improve health outcomes for that group. © 2015 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  12. Heterogeneous occupancy and density estimates of the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in waters of North America.

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    Tara Chestnut

    Full Text Available Biodiversity losses are occurring worldwide due to a combination of stressors. For example, by one estimate, 40% of amphibian species are vulnerable to extinction, and disease is one threat to amphibian populations. The emerging infectious disease chytridiomycosis, caused by the aquatic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd, is a contributor to amphibian declines worldwide. Bd research has focused on the dynamics of the pathogen in its amphibian hosts, with little emphasis on investigating the dynamics of free-living Bd. Therefore, we investigated patterns of Bd occupancy and density in amphibian habitats using occupancy models, powerful tools for estimating site occupancy and detection probability. Occupancy models have been used to investigate diseases where the focus was on pathogen occurrence in the host. We applied occupancy models to investigate free-living Bd in North American surface waters to determine Bd seasonality, relationships between Bd site occupancy and habitat attributes, and probability of detection from water samples as a function of the number of samples, sample volume, and water quality. We also report on the temporal patterns of Bd density from a 4-year case study of a Bd-positive wetland. We provide evidence that Bd occurs in the environment year-round. Bd exhibited temporal and spatial heterogeneity in density, but did not exhibit seasonality in occupancy. Bd was detected in all months, typically at less than 100 zoospores L(-1. The highest density observed was ∼3 million zoospores L(-1. We detected Bd in 47% of sites sampled, but estimated that Bd occupied 61% of sites, highlighting the importance of accounting for imperfect detection. When Bd was present, there was a 95% chance of detecting it with four samples of 600 ml of water or five samples of 60 mL. Our findings provide important baseline information to advance the study of Bd disease ecology, and advance our understanding of amphibian exposure to free

  13. Occupational health in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampal, Krishna Gopal; Aw, Tar-Ching; Jefferelli, Shamsul Bahrin

    2002-01-01

    This article provides a detailed examination of Malaysian occupational health agencies and their roles in formulating and enforcing standards, promoting occupational health and safety (OSH), and providing advisory services. Available OSH training is described, and the need for policies and personnel in various industries is outlined. Further, the authors discuss how international models and collaboration have influenced Malaysian OSH, and how some successes can be repeated and failures remedied.

  14. Accounting for the Uncertainty Related to Building Occupants with Regards to Visual Comfort: A Literature Survey on Drivers and Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Fabi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The interactions between building occupants and control systems have a high influence on energy consumption and on indoor environmental quality. In the perspective of a future of “nearly-zero” energy buildings, it is crucial to analyse the energy-related interactions deeply to predict realistic energy use during the design stage. Since the reaction to thermal, acoustic, or visual stimuli is not the same for every human being, monitoring the behaviour inside buildings is an essential step to assert differences in energy consumption related to different interactions. Reliable information concerning occupants’ behaviours in a building could contribute to a better evaluation of building energy performances and design robustness, as well as supporting the development of occupants’ education to energy awareness. The present literature survey enlarges our understanding of which environmental conditions influence occupants’ manual controlling of the system in offices and by consequence the energy consumption. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible drivers for light-switching to model occupant behaviour in office buildings. The probability of switching lighting systems on or off was related to the occupancy and differentiated for arrival, intermediate, and departure periods. The switching probability has been reported to be higher during the entering or the leaving time in relation to contextual variables. In the analysis of switch-on actions, users were often clustered between those who take daylight level into account and switch on lights only if necessary and people who totally disregard the natural lighting. This underlines the importance of how individuality is at the base of the definition of the different types of users.

  15. Occupational Rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammer, Leslie C

    2016-05-01

    Occupational rhinitis (OR) involves nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, nasal itching, and/or sneezing resulting from workplace exposures. OR can have a significant negative effect on quality of life and productivity. OR can be divided into allergic or nonallergic subgroups based on the underlying pathogenesis. Certain occupational exposures place employees at greater risk for developing disease. Primary treatment is avoidance of implicated exposures. Antihistamines, saline rinses, and nasal steroids may be useful. OR can coexist with occupational asthma, and rhinitis symptoms have been reported to precede those of the lower respiratory tract. OR is has both medical and socioeconomic implications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Exposure to Stressors and Trajectories of Perceived Stress Among Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Scott M.; Glei, Dana A.; Weinstein, Maxine; Goldman, Noreen

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Models of stress incorporate both the environmental demands experienced by individuals (stressors) and the appraisal of these life events (perceptions). Because little is known about the extent to which experience and perceptions are related, we examine this relationship in a nationally representative population of older Taiwanese adults. Method. Using growth models applied to data from 3 waves (1999, 2003, and 2007) of the Taiwan Longitudinal Study of Aging, we (a) investigate patterns of change in perceived stress in later adulthood and (b) examine how experienced stressors influence perceived stress. Participants were asked to report the presence of, and in some cases the degree of, exposure to stressors including total number of medical conditions, difficulty with activities of daily living, difficulty with mobility functions, being financially worse off compared with the prior wave, experiencing the death of a child, and experiencing a marital disruption. Items reflecting perceived stress included concerns about various domains pertaining to the respondent and his/her family member. Results. Our results indicate that exposure to stressors increases, whereas perceived stress decreases, over time. Change in exposure to stressors is not generally associated with change in perceptions of stress, with the exception of a summary measure of health-related exposure to stressors. An increase in poor health over time is related to an increase in perceived stress in all domains. Discussion. The results underscore the importance of distinguishing between perceptions of stress and exposure to stressors when studying the links between stress and health among older adults. Furthermore, the diminishing linkage between experienced stressors and perceptions of stress suggests that older adults’ appraisal may be an adaptive coping strategy that emerges to buffer some of the difficulties that are inevitable in later life. PMID:24906395

  17. Relationship between Telomere Length, Genetic Traits and Environmental/Occupational Exposures in Bladder Cancer Risk by Structural Equation Modelling

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    Sofia Pavanello

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Telomere length (TL maintenance plays an important role in bladder cancer (BC and prognosis. However the manifold influence of everyday life exposures and genetic traits on leucocyte TL (LTL, is not fully elucidated. Methods: Within the framework of a hospital-based case (n = 96/control (n = 94 study (all Caucasian males, we investigated the extent to which LTL and BC risk were modulated by genetic polymorphisms and environmental and occupational exposures. Data on lifetime smoking, alcohol and coffee drinking, dietary habits and occupational exposures, pointing to aromatic amines (AAs and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were collected. Structural equation modelling (SEM analysis appraised this complex relationships. Results: The SEM analysis indicates negative direct links (p < 0.05 between LTL with age, DNA adducts, alcohol and NAT2, and positive ones with coffee, MPO and XRCC3; and between BC risk (p < 0.01 with cigarettes, cumulative exposure to AAs and coffee, while are negative with LTL and age. There was evidence of indirect effects (p < 0.05 on BC risk, probably via LTL reduction, by age and NAT2 (positive link, MPO and XRCC3 (negative link. Conclusions: Our study supports evidence that LTL attrition is a critical event in BC. The new finding that LTL erosion depends on some preventable everyday life exposures genetically modulated, opens new perspectives in BC prevention.

  18. Embracing Creativity in Occupational Therapy

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    Lydia Royeen, MOT, OTR/L

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Jen Gash, an occupational therapist and creativity coach living in the UK, provided the cover art for the winter 2015 issue of The Open Journal of Occupational Therapy. The picture is titled “Over the Exe.” Jen uses her inspiration of the Kawa River model in this painting. The painting is of her husband and daughter standing where the river meets the sea. This is a metaphoric representation of rejoining the greater collective. In addition, Jen has a passion for occupational therapists to encompass creativity. A core aspect of occupational therapy is the multi-dimensional concept of occupations; it allows for occupational therapists to incorporate creativity into daily practice. Jen’s goal is for occupational therapy to embrace its creative theoretical roots.

  19. Recovery experiences during vacation and their association with job stressors and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Pereira

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Vacations offer opportunities for recovery from work-related stress. However, little is known about the impact of job stressors on recovery experiences during vacation, such as psychological detachment and relaxation. This study investigated detachment and relaxation to mediate the influence of job stressors prior to vacation on recovery during vacation. A total of 136 employees from various occupations completed a questionnaire on their ability to relax and mentally detach from work during a recent vacation. Participants rated perceived time pressure and social exclusion at work prior to their vacation as well as any psychosomatic health complaints or sleep problems during vacation. The results of bootstrap mediation analysis confirmed the mediating role of recovery experiences. The association between job stressors and sleep problems was fully mediated by detachment and relaxation, whereas the association between social exclusion and psychosomatic complaints was fully mediated by relaxation. Furthermore, relaxation partially mediated the association between time pressure and psychosomatic complaints. Not only should the ability of employees to relax and mentally detach be fostered, but job stressors should be reduced in order to allow employees to reach optimal recovery during vacation.

  20. Social stressors at work, sleep quality and psychosomatic health complaints--a longitudinal ambulatory field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Diana; Elfering, Achim

    2014-02-01

    There is increasing evidence that occupational stress increases psychosomatic health complaints in the long run. However, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. The present longitudinal actigraphy field study investigated the role of sleep quality--objectively assessed sleep-onset latency, sleep efficiency and sleep fragmentation, and subjectively assessed sleep quality--as a mediator in the relationship between stressful work conditions at time 1 and psychosomatic health complaints at time 2. A longitudinal hierarchical regression analysis revealed that social stressors at work were positively related to objectively assessed sleep fragmentation and to psychosomatic health complaints. Moreover, objectively assessed sleep fragmentation mediated the effect of social stressors at work on psychosomatic health complaints. Contrary to our expectations, social stressors at work were not related to other sleep quality parameters (i.e. sleep-onset latency, sleep efficiency and subjectively assessed sleep quality) during follow-up. Sleep fragmentation is discussed as an important consequence of social stressors at work that increase the risk of psychosomatic health complaints in the long run. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Overview of Atherosclerosis and Chemical Stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Cascio’s presentation at the workshop titled, “titled “Understanding the Combined Effects of Environmental Chemical and Non-Chemical Stressors: Atherosclerosis as a Model” will highlight atherosclerosis’s rapidly growing role as a cause of increa...

  2. Habituation to a stressor predicts adolescents' adiposity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background and Objectives: Stress is associated with gains in adiposity. One factor that determines how much stress is experienced is how quickly an adolescent reduces responding (habituates) across repeated stressors. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of body mass index pe...

  3. Childhood Stress : Stressors, Coping, and Factors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Burnout is a matter of imbalance in life very often (Nijboer, 2006). In order to know more about imbalance and exhaustion in children, stress and coping in children will be investigated in this literature study. The goal is to identify common childhood stressors, the ways children cope with stress,

  4. Daily Stressors in Primary Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Baena, F. Javier; Trianes, María V.; Escobar, Milagros; Blanca, María J.; Muñoz, Ángela M.

    2015-01-01

    Daily stress can have a bearing on children's emotional and academic development. This study aimed to assess daily stressors and to determine their prevalence among primary education students, taking into account their gender, academic year, social adaptation, and the school location. A sample of 7,354 Spanish schoolchildren aged between 6 and 13…

  5. Occupational Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the enzymes of the bacteria Bacillus subtilis, while bakers may develop an allergy and occupational asthma symptoms ... counts Continuing education center Find an allergist / immunologist Journals Login / My membership Search your symptoms Shop the ...

  6. Occupational Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occupational health problems occur at work or because of the kind of work you do. These problems can include ... by exposure to radiation Exposure to germs in health care settings Good job safety and prevention practices ...

  7. Occupational health

    CERN Document Server

    Fingret, Dr Ann

    2013-01-01

    Offers a comprehensive view of health and safety issues at work. An invaluable resource for managers, personnel professionals and occupational health practitioners. Recommended by the Institute of Personnel Management.

  8. The Contribution of Pre-impact Posture on Restrained Occupant Finite Element Model Response in Frontal Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulard, David; Subit, Damien; Nie, Bingbing; Donlon, John-Paul; Kent, Richard W

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to discuss the influence of the pre-impact posture to the response of a finite element human body model (HBM) in frontal impacts. This study uses previously published cadaveric tests (PMHS), which measured six realistic pre-impact postures. Seven postured models were created from the THUMS occupant model (v4.0): one matching the standard UMTRI driving posture as it was the target posture in the experiments, and six matching the measured pre-impact postures. The same measurements as those obtained during the cadaveric tests were calculated from the simulations, and biofidelity metrics based on signals correlation (CORA) were established to compare the response of the seven models to the experiments. The HBM responses showed good agreement with the PMHS responses for the reaction forces (CORA = 0.80 ± 0.05) and the kinematics of the lower part of the torso but only fair correlation was found with the head, the upper spine, rib strains (CORA= 0.50 ± 0.05) and chest deflections (CORA = 0.67 ± 0.08). All models sustained rib fractures, sternal fracture and clavicle fracture. The average number of rib fractures for all the models was 5.3 ± 1.0, lower than in the experiments (10.8 ± 9.0). Variation in pre-impact posture greatly altered the time histories of the reaction forces, deflections and the rib strains, mainly in terms of time delay, but no definite improvement in HBM response or injury prediction was observed. By modifying only the posture of the HBM, the variability in the impact response was found to be equivalent to that observed in the experiments. The postured HBM sustained from 4 to 8 rib fractures, confirming that the pre-impact posture influenced the injury outcome predicted by the simulation. This study tries to answer an important question: what is the effect of occupant posture on kinematics and kinetics. Significant differences in kinematics observed between HBM and PMHS suggesting more coupling between the pelvis

  9. The role of the commensal microbiota in adaptive and maladaptive stressor-induced immunomodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackos, Amy R; Maltz, Ross; Bailey, Michael T

    2017-02-01

    Over the past decade, it has become increasingly evident that there are extensive bidirectional interactions between the body and its microbiota. These interactions are evident during stressful periods, where it is recognized that commensal microbiota community structure is significantly changed. Many different stressors, ranging from early life stressors to stressors administered during adulthood, lead to significant, community-wide differences in the microbiota. The mechanisms through which this occurs are not yet known, but it is known that commensal microbes can recognize, and respond to, mammalian hormones and neurotransmitters, including those that are involved with the physiological response to stressful stimuli. In addition, the physiological stress response also changes many aspects of gastrointestinal physiology that can impact microbial community composition. Thus, there are many routes through which microbial community composition might be disrupted during stressful periods. The implications of these disruptions in commensal microbial communities for host health are still not well understood, but the commensal microbiota have been linked to stressor-induced immunopotentiation. The role of the microbiota in stressor-induced immunopotentiation can be adaptive, such as when these microbes stimulate innate defenses against bacterial infection. However, the commensal microbiota can also lead to maladaptive immune responses during stressor-exposure. This is evident in animal models of colonic inflammation where stressor exposure increases the inflammation through mechanisms involving the microbiota. It is likely that during stressor exposure, immune cell functioning is regulated by combined effects of both neurotransmitters/hormones and commensal microbes. Defining this regulation should be a focus of future studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A review of hydrological and chemical stressors in the Adige catchment and its ecological status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiogna, Gabriele; Majone, Bruno; Cano Paoli, Karina; Diamantini, Elena; Stella, Elisa; Mallucci, Stefano; Lencioni, Valeria; Zandonai, Fabiana; Bellin, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying the effects of multiple stressors on Alpine freshwater ecosystems is challenging, due to the lack of tailored field campaigns for the contemporaneous measurement of hydrological, chemical and ecological parameters. Conducting exhaustive field campaigns is costly and hence most of the activities so far have been performed addressing specific environmental issues. An accurate analysis of existing information is therefore useful and necessary, to identify stressors that may act in synergy and to design new field campaigns. We present an extended review of available studies and datasets concerning the hydrological, chemical and ecological status of the Adige, which is the second longest river and the third largest river basin in Italy. The most relevant stressors are discussed in the light of the information extracted from a large number of studies. The detailed analysis of these studies identified that hydrological alterations caused by hydropower production are the main source of stress for the freshwater ecosystems in the Adige catchment. However, concurrent effects with other stressors, such as the release of pollutants from waste water treatment plants or from agricultural and industrial activities, have not been explored at depth, so far. A wealth of available studies address a single stressor separately without exploring their concurrent effect. It is concluded that a combination of extended experimental field campaigns, focusing on the coupled effects of multiple stressors, and modeling activities is highly needed in order to quantify the impact of the multifaceted human pressures on freshwater ecosystems in the Adige river. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Randomised controlled trial of a psychiatric consultation model for treatment of common mental disorder in the occupational health setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Jong Fransina J

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common mental disorders are the most prevalent of all mental disorders, with the highest burden in terms of work absenteeism and utilization of health care services. Evidence-based treatments are available, but recognition and treatment could be improved, especially in the occupational health setting. The situation in this setting has recently changed in the Netherlands because of new legislation, which has resulted in reduced sickness absence. Severe mental disorder has now become one of the main causes of work absenteeism. Occupational physicians (OPs are expected to take an active role in diagnosis and treatment, and seem to be in need of support for a new approach to handle cases of more complex mental disorders. Psychiatric consultation can be a collaborative care model to achieve this. Methods/design This is a two-armed cluster-randomized clinical trial, with randomization among OPs. Forty OPs in two big companies providing medical care for multiple companies will be randomized to either the intervention group, i.e. psychiatric consultation embedded in a training programme, or the control group, i.e. only training aimed at recognition and providing Care As Usual. 60 patients will be included who have been absent from work for 6–52 weeks and who, after screening and a MINI interview, are diagnosed with depressive disorder, anxiety disorder or somatoform disorder based on DSM-IV criteria. Baseline measurements and follow up measurements (at 3 months and 6 months will be assessed with questionnaires and an interview. The primary outcome measure is level of general functioning according to the SF-20. Secondary measures are severity of the mental disorder according to the PHQ and the SCL-90, quality of life (EQ-D5, measures of Return To Work and cost-effectiveness of the treatment assessed with the TiC-P. Process measures will be adherence to the treatment plan and assessment of the treatment provided by the Psychiatric

  12. Randomised controlled trial of a psychiatric consultation model for treatment of common mental disorder in the occupational health setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M; Meeuwissen, Jolanda A C; de Jong, Fransina J; Hoedeman, Rob; Elfeddali, Iman

    2007-02-27

    Common mental disorders are the most prevalent of all mental disorders, with the highest burden in terms of work absenteeism and utilization of health care services. Evidence-based treatments are available, but recognition and treatment could be improved, especially in the occupational health setting. The situation in this setting has recently changed in the Netherlands because of new legislation, which has resulted in reduced sickness absence. Severe mental disorder has now become one of the main causes of work absenteeism. Occupational physicians (OPs) are expected to take an active role in diagnosis and treatment, and seem to be in need of support for a new approach to handle cases of more complex mental disorders. Psychiatric consultation can be a collaborative care model to achieve this. This is a two-armed cluster-randomized clinical trial, with randomization among OPs. Forty OPs in two big companies providing medical care for multiple companies will be randomized to either the intervention group, i.e. psychiatric consultation embedded in a training programme, or the control group, i.e. only training aimed at recognition and providing Care As Usual. 60 patients will be included who have been absent from work for 6-52 weeks and who, after screening and a MINI interview, are diagnosed with depressive disorder, anxiety disorder or somatoform disorder based on DSM-IV criteria. Baseline measurements and follow up measurements (at 3 months and 6 months) will be assessed with questionnaires and an interview. The primary outcome measure is level of general functioning according to the SF-20. Secondary measures are severity of the mental disorder according to the PHQ and the SCL-90, quality of life (EQ-D5), measures of Return To Work and cost-effectiveness of the treatment assessed with the TiC-P. Process measures will be adherence to the treatment plan and assessment of the treatment provided by the Psychiatric Consultant (PC) in both groups. In the current study, a

  13. Predicting spatial and temporal gene expression using an integrative model of transcription factor occupancy and chromatin state.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartek Wilczynski

    Full Text Available Precise patterns of spatial and temporal gene expression are central to metazoan complexity and act as a driving force for embryonic development. While there has been substantial progress in dissecting and predicting cis-regulatory activity, our understanding of how information from multiple enhancer elements converge to regulate a gene's expression remains elusive. This is in large part due to the number of different biological processes involved in mediating regulation as well as limited availability of experimental measurements for many of them. Here, we used a Bayesian approach to model diverse experimental regulatory data, leading to accurate predictions of both spatial and temporal aspects of gene expression. We integrated whole-embryo information on transcription factor recruitment to multiple cis-regulatory modules, insulator binding and histone modification status in the vicinity of individual gene loci, at a genome-wide scale during Drosophila development. The model uses Bayesian networks to represent the relation between transcription factor occupancy and enhancer activity in specific tissues and stages. All parameters are optimized in an Expectation Maximization procedure providing a model capable of predicting tissue- and stage-specific activity of new, previously unassayed genes. Performing the optimization with subsets of input data demonstrated that neither enhancer occupancy nor chromatin state alone can explain all gene expression patterns, but taken together allow for accurate predictions of spatio-temporal activity. Model predictions were validated using the expression patterns of more than 600 genes recently made available by the BDGP consortium, demonstrating an average 15-fold enrichment of genes expressed in the predicted tissue over a naïve model. We further validated the model by experimentally testing the expression of 20 predicted target genes of unknown expression, resulting in an accuracy of 95% for temporal

  14. Hypertension and appraisal of physical and psychological stressors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyklicek, I.; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.; van Heck, G.L.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: In the operant conditioning of hypertension hypothesis, it is assumed that the frequently found diminished sensitivity to painful stimuli in hypertensives can be generalized to sensitivity to other stressors, including psychological stressors. The validity of this assumption is examined

  15. Management of local stressors can improve the resilience of marine canopy algae to global stressors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth M A Strain

    Full Text Available Coastal systems are increasingly threatened by multiple local anthropogenic and global climatic stressors. With the difficulties in remediating global stressors, management requires alternative approaches that focus on local scales. We used manipulative experiments to test whether reducing local stressors (sediment load and nutrient concentrations can improve the resilience of foundation species (canopy algae along temperate rocky coastlines to future projected global climate stressors (high wave exposure, increasing sea surface temperature, which are less amenable to management actions. We focused on Fucoids (Cystoseira barbata along the north-western Adriatic coast in the Mediterranean Sea because of their ecological relevance, sensitivity to a variety of human impacts, and declared conservation priority. At current levels of sediment and nutrients, C. barbata showed negative responses to the simulated future scenarios of high wave exposure and increased sea surface temperature. However, reducing the sediment load increased the survival of C. barbata recruits by 90.24% at high wave exposure while reducing nutrient concentrations resulted in a 20.14% increase in the survival and enhanced the growth of recruited juveniles at high temperature. We conclude that improving water quality by reducing nutrient concentrations, and particularly the sediment load, would significantly increase the resilience of C. barbata populations to projected increases in climate stressors. Developing and applying appropriate targets for specific local anthropogenic stressors could be an effective management action to halt the severe and ongoing loss of key marine habitats.

  16. Management of Local Stressors Can Improve the Resilience of Marine Canopy Algae to Global Stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strain, Elisabeth M. A.; van Belzen, Jim; van Dalen, Jeroen; Bouma, Tjeerd J.; Airoldi, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Coastal systems are increasingly threatened by multiple local anthropogenic and global climatic stressors. With the difficulties in remediating global stressors, management requires alternative approaches that focus on local scales. We used manipulative experiments to test whether reducing local stressors (sediment load and nutrient concentrations) can improve the resilience of foundation species (canopy algae along temperate rocky coastlines) to future projected global climate stressors (high wave exposure, increasing sea surface temperature), which are less amenable to management actions. We focused on Fucoids (Cystoseira barbata) along the north-western Adriatic coast in the Mediterranean Sea because of their ecological relevance, sensitivity to a variety of human impacts, and declared conservation priority. At current levels of sediment and nutrients, C. barbata showed negative responses to the simulated future scenarios of high wave exposure and increased sea surface temperature. However, reducing the sediment load increased the survival of C. barbata recruits by 90.24% at high wave exposure while reducing nutrient concentrations resulted in a 20.14% increase in the survival and enhanced the growth of recruited juveniles at high temperature. We conclude that improving water quality by reducing nutrient concentrations, and particularly the sediment load, would significantly increase the resilience of C. barbata populations to projected increases in climate stressors. Developing and applying appropriate targets for specific local anthropogenic stressors could be an effective management action to halt the severe and ongoing loss of key marine habitats. PMID:25807516

  17. Interpersonal workplace stressors and well-being: a multi-wave study of employees with and without arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Phillip T; Smith, Bruce W; Strobel, Kari R; Zautra, Alex J

    2002-08-01

    The within-person influence of interpersonal stressors on affective well-being and physical well-being was investigated for 109 women with and without arthritis. Participants were interviewed on a weekly basis for 12 consecutive weeks, and the prospective data were analyzed by using hierarchical linear modeling. Overall, interpersonal workplace stressors independently predicted both well-being outcomes. Interpersonal stressors outside the workplace were related to negative affect but not to arthritis symptoms. Compared with healthy controls, arthritis patients' ratings of negative affect were equally reactive to workplace stressors. Neuroticism did not moderate stressor reactivity for either dependent variable but did predict mean levels of negative affect. The data support the hypothesis that the psychosocial environment of the workplace contributes unique effects on well-being.

  18. A comparison of two semi-mechanistic models for prolactin release and prediction of receptor occupancy following administration of dopamine D2 receptor antagonists in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taneja, Amit; Vermeulen, An; Huntjens, Dymphy R H; Danhof, Meindert; De Lange, Elizabeth C M; Proost, Johannes H

    2016-10-15

    We compared the model performance of two semi-mechanistic pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic models, the precursor pool model and the agonist-antagonist interaction model, to describe prolactin response following the administration of the dopamine D2 receptor antagonists risperidone, paliperidone or remoxipride in rats. The time course of pituitary dopamine D2 receptor occupancy was also predicted. Male Wistar rats received a single dose (risperidone, paliperidone, remoxipride) or two consecutive doses (remoxipride). Population modeling was applied to fit the pool and interaction models to the prolactin data. The pool model was modified to predict the time course of pituitary D2 receptor occupancy. Unbound plasma concentrations of the D2 receptor antagonists were considered the drivers of the prolactin response. Both models were used to predict prolactin release following multiple doses of paliperidone. Both models described the data well and model performance was comparable. Estimated unbound EC50 for risperidone and paliperidone was 35.1nM (relative standard error 51%) and for remoxipride it was 94.8nM (31%). KI values for these compounds were 11.1nM (21%) and 113nM (27%), respectively. Estimated pituitary D2 receptor occupancies for risperidone and remoxipride were comparable to literature findings. The interaction model better predicted prolactin profiles following multiple paliperidone doses, while the pool model predicted tolerance better. The performance of both models in describing the prolactin profiles was comparable. The pool model could additionally describe the time course of pituitary D2 receptor occupancy. Prolactin response following multiple paliperidone doses was better predicted by the interaction model. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Predicting occupational lung diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suarthana, E.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis aims at demonstrating the development, validation, and application of prediction models for occupational lung diseases. Prediction models are developed to estimate an individual’s probability of the presence or future likelihood of occurrence of an outcome (i.e. disease of interest or

  20. Occupational Stress Amongst Librarians in Federal and State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main findings are that librarianship, like professions, predisposes its practitioners to certain occupational stressors, that these stressful experiences are caused by poor remuneration, unexciting routines and inadequacy of the basic work tools of librarianship, and that the lack of job satisfaction leads to some other ...

  1. Occupancy in continuous habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efford, Murray G.; Dawson, Deanna K.

    2012-01-01

    The probability that a site has at least one individual of a species ('occupancy') has come to be widely used as a state variable for animal population monitoring. The available statistical theory for estimation when detection is imperfect applies particularly to habitat patches or islands, although it is also used for arbitrary plots in continuous habitat. The probability that such a plot is occupied depends on plot size and home-range characteristics (size, shape and dispersion) as well as population density. Plot size is critical to the definition of occupancy as a state variable, but clear advice on plot size is missing from the literature on the design of occupancy studies. We describe models for the effects of varying plot size and home-range size on expected occupancy. Temporal, spatial, and species variation in average home-range size is to be expected, but information on home ranges is difficult to retrieve from species presence/absence data collected in occupancy studies. The effect of variable home-range size is negligible when plots are very large (>100 x area of home range), but large plots pose practical problems. At the other extreme, sampling of 'point' plots with cameras or other passive detectors allows the true 'proportion of area occupied' to be estimated. However, this measure equally reflects home-range size and density, and is of doubtful value for population monitoring or cross-species comparisons. Plot size is ill-defined and variable in occupancy studies that detect animals at unknown distances, the commonest example being unlimited-radius point counts of song birds. We also find that plot size is ill-defined in recent treatments of "multi-scale" occupancy; the respective scales are better interpreted as temporal (instantaneous and asymptotic) rather than spatial. Occupancy is an inadequate metric for population monitoring when it is confounded with home-range size or detection distance.

  2. Statistical Analysis and Modeling of Occupancy Patterns in Open-Plan Offices using Measured Lighting-Switch Data

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Wen-Kuei

    2013-01-01

    Occupancy profile is one of the driving factors behind discrepancies between the measured and simulated energy consumption of buildings. The frequencies of occupants leaving their offices and the corresponding durations of absences have significant impact on energy use and the operational controls of buildings. This study used statistical methods to analyze the occupancy status, based on measured lighting-switch data in five-minute intervals, for a total of 200 open-plan (cubicle) offices. Fi...

  3. [Influence of affectivity trait on relationships between occupational stress and subjective physical health and job satisfaction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shan-fa; Zhou, Wen-hui; Gu, Gui-zhen

    2008-09-01

    To explore the influence of affectivity trait on relationships between occupational stress and subjective physical health and job satisfaction. Self-reports for psychosocial work conditions and health and well-being in a sample of 878 workers from a thermal power plant in China were conducted using the job demand-control model, the effort-reward imbalance model, job satisfaction, depression symptom, and physical health complaints questionnaires. Logistic regression analysis was used by controlling for age, sex, and educational level. Negative and positive affectivity were correlated with occupational stressors or strains (Paffectivity or positive affectivity was controlled; Odds ratios decreased greater when negative affectivity and positive affectivity were controlled simultaneously. Furthermore in some equation no variable entered. Affectivity trait has effect on relationships between occupational stress and subjective physical health and job satisfaction. According to the outcome category of study, the possible confounding role of affectivity should be controlled in the study of the relationships between occupational stress and health self-reports.

  4. Life Change Units (LCU Rating as Stressors in Iranian Hospitals’ Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Dargahi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare workers suffer from work-related or occupational stress. This can lead to severe distress, burnout or physical illness, and finally to decrease quality of work life and services provision. Nurses must be aware of retential stressors, because they add to the cumulative effect of other stressful events. Holmes and Rahe both found a relationship between life change unit as stressors and health changes. This research reported here aims to measure the life change units as stressors among Iranian Hospitals Nurses by LCU rating. A cross - sectional, descriptive and analytical study was conducted among 389 nurses working in 15 teaching hospitals in Tehran, Iran. The respondents were asked to select each of 54 events that cause stress ranked in order of their life change units developed by Holmes and Rahe as stress scale. Before beginning the main study, the reliability and coincidental validity was performed. All data were analyzed using SPSS for windows version 18, t-test, Anova statistical methods. Approximately, half of the nurses associated major mortgage, foreclosure of mortgage or loan. More than 50% of the Iranian nurses had 150-300 and more than 300 LCU rating which had the chance to expose to extremely serious risk to health.Iranian hospitals nurses suffer from stress that caused by Life Change Units organizational factors such as change in the financial state, change in the work environment and major mortgage. We recommend to Iranian nursing policy-makers to choose strategies to help nurses cope effectively with workplace stressors. Nursing managers and / or nursing management should develop strategies to address and improve the quality of working conditions for nurses in the hospitals. Providing educational and career prospects can contribute to decrease nurses occupational stress level, the maintaining their work ability.

  5. Spatial clustering and halo occupation distribution modelling of local AGN via cross-correlation measurements with 2MASS galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumpe, Mirko; Miyaji, Takamitsu; Coil, Alison L.; Aceves, Hector

    2018-02-01

    We present the clustering properties and halo occupation distribution (HOD) modelling of very low redshift, hard X-ray-detected active galactic nuclei (AGN) using cross-correlation function measurements with Two-Micron All Sky Survey galaxies. Spanning a redshift range of 0.007 type I and type II AGN. We find a large-scale bias for the full AGN sample of b=1.04^{+0.10}_{-0.11}, which corresponds to a typical host dark matter halo mass of M_h^typ=12.84^{+0.22}_{-0.30} h^{-1} M_{⊙}. When split into low and high X-ray luminosity and type I and type II AGN subsamples, we detect no statistically significant differences in the large-scale bias parameters. However, there are differences in the small-scale clustering, which are reflected in the full HOD model results. We find that low and high X-ray luminosity AGN, as well as type I and type II AGN, occupy dark matter haloes differently, with 3.4σ and 4.0σ differences in their mean halo masses, respectively, when split by luminosity and type. The latter finding contradicts a simple orientation-based AGN unification model. As a by-product of our cross-correlation approach, we also present the first HOD model of 2MASS galaxies.

  6. Occupational stress and coping strategies among emergency department nurses of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Dong-Mei; Sun, Ning; Hong, Su; Fan, Yu-ying; Kong, Fan-ying; Li, Qiu-jie

    2015-08-01

    Emergency department(ED) nurses work in a rapidly changing environment with patients that have wide variety of conditions. Occupational stress in emergency department nurses is a common problem. The purpose of this study was to describe the relationship between coping strategies and occupational stress among ED nurses in China. A correlational, cross-sectional design was adopted. Two questionnaires were given to a random sample of 127 ED nurses registered at the Heilongjiang Nurses' Association. Data were collected from the nurses that worked in the ED of five general hospitals in Harbin China. Occupational stress and coping strategies were measured by two questionnaires. A multiple regression model was applied to analyze the relationship between stress and coping strategies. The stressors of ED nurses mainly come from the ED specialty of nursing (2.97±0.55), workload and time distribution (2.97±0.58). The mean score of positive coping strategies was 2.19±0.35, higher than the norm (1.78±0.52). The mean score of negative coping strategies was 1.20±0.61, lower than the norm (1.59±0.66), both had significant statistical difference (Pwork, criticism, instrument equipment shortage, night shift, rank of professional were the influence factors about occupational stress to positive coping styles. Too much documents work, and medical insurance for ED nurses were the influential factors on occupational stress to negative coping styles. This study identified several factors associated with occupational stress in ED nurses. These results could be used to guide nurse managers of ED nurses to reduce work stress. The managers could pay more attention to the ED nurse's coping strategies which can further influence their health state and quality of nursing care. Reducing occupational stress and enhancing coping strategies are vital not only for encouraging nurses but also for the future of nursing development. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Perceived stressors of oral hygiene students in the dental environment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nature of health sciences education generally involves early engagement with patients and communities, which may add to the stressors inherent to university life. There is sparse information on stressors in the oral hygiene educational environment. Objective. To determine perceived stressors and the level of burnout ...

  8. Job Stressors, Organizational Innovation Climate, and Employees' Innovative Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Feifei; Zhang, Jinghuan

    2015-01-01

    This study attempted to examine the influence of job stressors and organizational innovation climate on employees' innovative behavior. Data were obtained from 282 employees in 4 cities of China. Results indicated that the nature of stressors matters in predicting employees' idea generation. Specifically, stressors that employees tend to appraise…

  9. Application of experimental stressors in laboratory rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrichs, Stephen C; Koob, George F

    2006-02-01

    This unit presents eight separate stressor protocols for laboratory rodents. Stress induction is a critical element in the study of neural and neuroendocrine mechanisms involved in establishing and maintaining a state of stress. The first four procedures, immobilization, footshock, swimming, and noise, involve acute exposure to noxious stimuli. The next three procedures, social isolation, resident/intruder aggression, and maternal deprivation, induce social disruption by withdrawal from a group housing condition, attack within the unfamiliar territory of a dominant male, or segregation of a preweanling pup from its mother, respectively. The final procedure, sleep deprivation, involves passive denial of the opportunity to sleep. Support protocols are provided to address the need for environmental acclimation and calming procedures prior to any stress-related studies (including, for rats, handling of the animals as a calming measure) and to detail a simple method of quantifying the response to a given stressor by direct measurement of levels of the stress hormones adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone.

  10. A model of Occupational Safety and Health Management System (OSHMS) for promoting and controlling health and safety in textile industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manimaran, S; Rajalakshmi, R; Bhagyalakshmi, K

    2015-01-01

    The development of Occupational Safety and Health Management System in textile industry will rejuvenate the workers and energize the economy as a whole. In India, especially in Tamil Nadu, approximately 1371 textile business is running with the help of 38,461 workers under Ginning, Spinning, Weaving, Garment and Dyeing sectors. Textile industry of contributes to the growth of Indian economy but it fails to foster education and health as key components of human development and help new democracies. The present work attempts to measure and develop OSHMS which reduce the hazards and risk involved in textile industry. Among all other industries textile industry is affected by enormous hazards and risk because of negligence by management and Government. It is evident that managements are not abiding by law when an accident has occurred. Managements are easily deceiving workers and least bothered about the Quality of Work Life (QWL). A detailed analysis of factors promoting safety and health to the workers has been done by performing confirmatory factor analysis, evaluating Risk Priority Number and the framework of OHMS has been conceptualized using Structural Equation Model. The data have been collected using questionnaire and interview method. The study finds occupation health for worker in Textile industry is affected not only by safety measure but also by technology and management. The work shows that difficulty in identifying the cause and effect of hazards, the influence of management in controlling and promoting OSHMS under various dimensions. One startling fact is existence of very low and insignificance correlation between health factors and outcome.

  11. Interaction of mental and orthostatic stressors

    OpenAIRE

    Goswami, Nandu; Lackner, Helmut K.; Papousek, Ilona; Jezova, Daniela; Montani, Jean-Pierre; Hinghofer-Szalkay, Helmut G.

    2010-01-01

    We assessed hemodynamic responses induced by orthostatic and mental stressors, using passive head up tilt (HUT) and mental arithmetic (MA), respectively. The 15 healthy males underwent three protocols: (1) HUT alone, (2) MA in supine position and (3) MA+HUT, with sessions randomized and ≥2 weeks apart. In relation to baseline, HUT increased heart rate (HR) (+20.4±7.1 bpm; p

  12. Combining Decision Rules from Classification Tree Models and Expert Assessment to Estimate Occupational Exposure to Diesel Exhaust for a Case-Control Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friesen, M.C.; Wheeler, D.C.; Vermeulen, R.; Locke, S.J.; Zaebst, D.D.; Koutros, S.; Pronk, A.; Colt, J.S.; Baris, D.; Karagas, M.R.; Malats, N.; Schwenn, M.; Johnson, A.; Armenti, K.R.; Rothman, N.; Stewart, P.A.; Kogevinas, M.; Silverman, D.T.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To efficiently and reproducibly assess occupational diesel exhaust exposure in a Spanish case-control study, we examined the utility of applying decision rules that had been extracted from expert estimates and questionnaire response patterns using classification tree (CT) models from a

  13. Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Modeling of the D-2 and 5-HT2A Receptor Occupancy of Risperidone and Paliperidone in Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kozielska, Magdalena; Johnson, Martin; Reddy, Venkatesh Pilla; Vermeulen, An; Li, Cheryl; Grimwood, Sarah; de Greef, Rik; Groothuis, Geny M. M.; Danhof, Meindert; Proost, Johannes H.

    A pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) model was developed to describe the time course of brain concentration and dopamine D-2 and serotonin 5-HT2A receptor occupancy (RO) of the atypical antipsychotic drugs risperidone and paliperidone in rats. A population approach was utilized to describe the

  14. Cost Effectiveness of the Instrumentalism in Occupational Therapy (IOT) Conceptual Model as a Guide for Intervention with Adolescents with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders (EBD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikiugu, Moses N.; Anderson, Lynne

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to demonstrate the cost-effectiveness of using the Instrumentalism in Occupational Therapy (IOT) conceptual practice model as a guide for intervention to assist teenagers with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) transition successfully into adulthood. The cost effectiveness analysis was based on a project…

  15. Changing work stressors and coping resources influence blood pressure and hypertension incidence in a large OHSPIW cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Y; Qi, C; Tao, N; Han, R; Jiang, Y; Guan, S; Ge, H; Ning, L; Xiao, J; Liu, J

    2017-05-01

    Psychosocial work environments may adversely influence blood pressure, but the benefits of altering these factors and introducing coping resources is unclear. We examined whether changing work stressors and coping resources affect the risk of hypertension and elevated BP. A total of 13,145 workers from the Occupational Health Study of Petroleum Industry Workers were included in this study. A baseline evaluation of work-related stress and coping resources was followed up in all participants after 12 years. The changes in task stressors and coping resources were measured using the Occupation Stress Inventory-Revised Edition, and changes in job control and organizational stressors were evaluated using the Instrument for Stress-Related Job Analysis (v. 6.0). Elevated hypertension incidence and BP were associated with increased task and organizational stressors, together with decreased job control and reduced coping resources. Gender-specific differences were observed in the factors influencing BP. The main risk factor was decreased self-care in males (3.11 mm Hg) and increased responsibility in females (2.84 mm Hg). The present study demonstrated that promoting such factors at the task-, individual-, and organizational level may help improve cardiovascular health.

  16. Using the Job Burden-Capital Model of Occupational Stress to Predict Depression and Well-Being among Electronic Manufacturing Service Employees in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to identify the association between occupational stress and depression-well-being by proposing a comprehensive and flexible job burden-capital model with its corresponding hypotheses. Methods: For this research, 1618 valid samples were gathered from the electronic manufacturing service industry in Hunan Province, China; self-rated questionnaires were administered to participants for data collection after obtaining their written consent. The proposed model was fitted and tested through structural equation model analysis. Results: Single-factor correlation analysis results indicated that coefficients between all items and dimensions had statistical significance. The final model demonstrated satisfactory global goodness of fit (CMIN/DF = 5.37, AGFI = 0.915, NNFI = 0.945, IFI = 0.952, RMSEA = 0.052. Both the measurement and structural models showed acceptable path loadings. Job burden and capital were directly associated with depression and well-being or indirectly related to them through personality. Multi-group structural equation model analyses indicated general applicability of the proposed model to basic features of such a population. Gender, marriage and education led to differences in the relation between occupational stress and health outcomes. Conclusions: The job burden-capital model of occupational stress-depression and well-being was found to be more systematic and comprehensive than previous models.

  17. Influence of Occupational Socialization on Two Preservice Teachers' Interpretation and Delivery of the Sport Education Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stran, Margaret; Curtner-Smith, Matthew D.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to (a) examine how two preservice teachers (PTs) interpreted and delivered the sport education (SE) model during their student teaching and (b) discover factors that led to the their interpreting and delivering the model in the ways they did. The theoretical framework used to guide data collection and analysis was…

  18. Biotic interactions modify multiple-stressor effects on juvenile brown trout in an experimental stream food web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruder, Andreas; Salis, Romana K; Jones, Peter E; Matthaei, Christoph D

    2017-09-01

    Agricultural land use results in multiple stressors affecting stream ecosystems. Flow reduction due to water abstraction, elevated levels of nutrients and chemical contaminants are common agricultural stressors worldwide. Concurrently, stream ecosystems are also increasingly affected by climate change. Interactions among multiple co-occurring stressors result in biological responses that cannot be predicted from single-stressor effects (i.e. synergisms and antagonisms). At the ecosystem level, multiple-stressor effects can be further modified by biotic interactions (e.g. trophic interactions). We conducted a field experiment using 128 flow-through stream mesocosms to examine the individual and combined effects of water abstraction, nutrient enrichment and elevated levels of the nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD) on survival, condition and gut content of juvenile brown trout and on benthic abundance of their invertebrate prey. Flow velocity reduction decreased fish survival (-12% compared to controls) and condition (-8% compared to initial condition), whereas effects of nutrient and DCD additions and interactions among these stressors were not significant. Negative effects of flow velocity reduction on fish survival and condition were consistent with effects on fish gut content (-25% compared to controls) and abundance of dominant invertebrate prey (-30% compared to controls), suggesting a negative metabolic balance driving fish mortality and condition decline, which was confirmed by structural equation modelling. Fish mortality under reduced flow velocity increased as maximal daily water temperatures approached the upper limit of their tolerance range, reflecting synergistic interactions between these stressors. Our study highlights the importance of indirect stressor effects such as those transferred through trophic interactions, which need to be considered when assessing and managing fish populations and stream food webs in multiple-stressor situations

  19. Acute thermal stressor increases glucocorticoid response but minimizes testosterone and locomotor performance in the cane toad (Rhinella marina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward J Narayan

    Full Text Available Climatic warming is a global problem and acute thermal stressor in particular could be considered as a major stressor for wildlife. Cane toads (Rhinella marina have expanded their range into warmer regions of Australia and they provide a suitable model species to study the sub-lethal impacts of thermal stressor on the endocrine physiology of amphibians. Presently, there is no information to show that exposure to an acute thermal stressor could initiate a physiological stress (glucocorticoid response and secondly, the possible effects on reproductive hormones and performance. Answering these questions is important for understanding the impacts of extreme temperature on amphibians. In this study, we experimented on cane toads from Queensland, Australia by acclimating them to mildly warm temperature (25°C and then exposing to acute temperature treatments of 30°, 35° or 40°C (hypothetical acute thermal stressors. We measured acute changes in the stress hormone corticosterone and the reproductive hormone testosterone using standard capture and handling protocol and quantified the metabolites of both hormones non-invasively using urinary enzyme-immunoassays. Furthermore, we measured performance trait (i.e. righting response score in the control acclimated and the three treatment groups. Corticosterone stress responses increased in all toads during exposure to an acute thermal stressor. Furthermore, exposure to a thermal stressor also decreased testosterone levels in all toads. The duration of the righting response (seconds was longer for toads that were exposed to 40°C than to 30°, 35° or 25°C. The increased corticosterone stress response with increased intensity of the acute thermal stressor suggests that the toads perceived this treatment as a stressor. Furthermore, the results also highlight a potential trade-off with performance and reproductive hormones. Ultimately, exposure acute thermal stressors due to climatic variability could impact

  20. Common Occupational Disability Tests and Case Law References: An Ontario MVA perspective on interpretation and best practice methodology supporting a holistic model, Part I of III (Pre-104 IRB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, J Douglas; Gouws, Jacques J; Bachmann, Corina Anghel

    2016-05-01

    This three-part paper presents practical holistic models of determining impairment and occupational disability with respect to common "own occupation" and "any occupation" definitions. The models consider physical, emotional and cognitive impairments in unison, and draw upon case law support for empirically based functional assessment of secondary cognitive symptoms arising from psychological conditions, including chronic pain disorders. Case law is presented, primarily in the context of Ontario motor vehicle accident legislation, to demonstrate how triers of fact have addressed occupational disability in the context of chronic pain; and interpreted the "own occupation" and "any occupation" definitions. In interpreting the definitions of "own occupation" and "any occupation", courts have considered various concepts, such as: work as an integrated whole, competitive productivity, demonstrated job performance vs. employment, work adaptation relative to impairment stability, suitable work, retraining considerations, self-employment, and remuneration/socio-economic status. The first segment of the paper reviews the above concepts largely in the context of pre-104 Income Replacement Benefit (IRB) entitlement, while the second segment focuses on post-104 IRB entitlement. In the final segment, the paper presents a critical evaluation of computerized transferable skills analysis (TSAs) in the occupational disability context. By contrast, support is offered for the notion that (neuro) psychovocational assessments and situational work assessments should play a key role in "own occupation" disability determination, even where specific vocational rehabilitation/retraining recommendations are not requested by the referral source (e.g., insurer disability examination).

  1. Software for occupational health and safety risk analysis based on a fuzzy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanovic, Miladin; Tadic, Danijela; Djapan, Marko; Macuzic, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Risk and safety management are very important issues in healthcare systems. Those are complex systems with many entities, hazards and uncertainties. In such an environment, it is very hard to introduce a system for evaluating and simulating significant hazards. In this paper, we analyzed different types of hazards in healthcare systems and we introduced a new fuzzy model for evaluating and ranking hazards. Finally, we presented a developed software solution, based on the suggested fuzzy model for evaluating and monitoring risk.

  2. Towards inclusive occupational therapy: Introducing the CORE approach for inclusive and occupation-focused practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Robert B

    2017-12-01

    Occupation is a human right and a social determinant of health. It is also taken for granted. Having access to, and participating in, occupation, is intricately linked to positive health and wellbeing. Despite theory and evidence to support the link between occupation, health and wellbeing, occupational therapists can struggle with applying an occupation focus in practice and knowing how to use occupational frameworks to enable occupation. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the Capabilities, Opportunities, Resources and Environments (CORE) approach for inclusive and occupation-focused practice. It provides occupational therapists with a means of operationalising occupational enablement and facilitating social inclusion. The CORE approach is introduced by linking its main ideas to Economist and Nobel Prize Laureate Amartya Sen's capabilities approach, as well as findings from the author's doctoral research into entrenched disadvantage and social inclusion. Practical questions guided by the CORE approach's acronym are given to explore how the approach can be utilised alongside other occupational models and frameworks to encourage strategies for effective enablement through occupation for social inclusion. As experts in enabling occupation, occupational therapists can use the CORE approach to design occupation-focused interventions and promote inclusive occupational therapy. © 2017 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  3. Multiple stressor effects in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii--toward understanding mechanisms of interaction between effects of ultraviolet radiation and chemical pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkaric, Muris; Behra, Renata; Fischer, Beat B; Junghans, Marion; Eggen, Rik I L

    2015-05-01

    The effects of chemical pollutants and environmental stressors, such as ultraviolet radiation (UVR), can interact when organisms are simultaneously exposed, resulting in higher (synergistic) or lower (antagonistic) multiple stressor effects than expected based on the effects of single stressors. Current understanding of interactive effects is limited due to a lack of mechanism-based multiple stressor studies. It has been hypothesized that effect interactions may generally occur if chemical and non-chemical stressors cause similar physiological effects in the organism. To test this hypothesis, we exposed the model green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to combinations of UVR and single chemicals displaying modes of action (MOA) similar or dissimilar to the impact of UVR on photosynthesis. Stressor interactions were analyzed based on the independent action model. Effect interactions were found to depend on the MOA of the chemicals, and also on their concentrations, the exposure time and the measured endpoint. Indeed, only chemicals assumed to cause effects on photosynthesis similar to UVR showed interactions with UVR on photosynthetic yield: synergistic in case of Cd(II) and paraquat and antagonistic in case of diuron. No interaction on photosynthesis was observed for S-metolachlor, which acts dissimilarly to UVR. However, combined effects of S-metolachlor and UVR on algal reproduction were synergistic, highlighting the importance of considering additional MOA of UVR. Possible mechanisms of stressor effect interactions are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Transactional Relationships among Cognitive Vulnerabilities, Stressors, and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvete, Esther; Orue, Izaskun; Hankin, Benjamin L.

    2013-01-01

    The transactional cognitive vulnerability to stress model Hankin & Abramson ('Psychological Bulletin," 127:773-796, 2001) extends the traditional diathesis-stress model by proposing that the relationships among cognitions, depressive symptoms, and stressors are dynamic and bidirectional. In this study three different pathways among these variables…

  5. Demonstration of a modelling-based multi-criteria decision analysis procedure for prioritisation of occupational risks from manufactured nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristozov, Danail; Zabeo, Alex; Alstrup Jensen, Keld; Gottardo, Stefania; Isigonis, Panagiotis; Maccalman, Laura; Critto, Andrea; Marcomini, Antonio

    2016-11-01

    Several tools to facilitate the risk assessment and management of manufactured nanomaterials (MN) have been developed. Most of them require input data on physicochemical properties, toxicity and scenario-specific exposure information. However, such data are yet not readily available, and tools that can handle data gaps in a structured way to ensure transparent risk analysis for industrial and regulatory decision making are needed. This paper proposes such a quantitative risk prioritisation tool, based on a multi-criteria decision analysis algorithm, which combines advanced exposure and dose-response modelling to calculate margins of exposure (MoE) for a number of MN in order to rank their occupational risks. We demonstrated the tool in a number of workplace exposure scenarios (ES) involving the production and handling of nanoscale titanium dioxide, zinc oxide (ZnO), silver and multi-walled carbon nanotubes. The results of this application demonstrated that bag/bin filling, manual un/loading and dumping of large amounts of dry powders led to high emissions, which resulted in high risk associated with these ES. The ZnO MN revealed considerable hazard potential in vivo, which significantly influenced the risk prioritisation results. In order to study how variations in the input data affect our results, we performed probabilistic Monte Carlo sensitivity/uncertainty analysis, which demonstrated that the performance of the proposed model is stable against changes in the exposure and hazard input variables.

  6. Shared and unshared exposure measurement error in occupational cohort studies and their effects on statistical inference in proportional hazards models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurier, Dominique; Rage, Estelle

    2018-01-01

    Exposure measurement error represents one of the most important sources of uncertainty in epidemiology. When exposure uncertainty is not or only poorly accounted for, it can lead to biased risk estimates and a distortion of the shape of the exposure-response relationship. In occupational cohort studies, the time-dependent nature of exposure and changes in the method of exposure assessment may create complex error structures. When a method of group-level exposure assessment is used, individual worker practices and the imprecision of the instrument used to measure the average exposure for a group of workers may give rise to errors that are shared between workers, within workers or both. In contrast to unshared measurement error, the effects of shared errors remain largely unknown. Moreover, exposure uncertainty and magnitude of exposure are typically highest for the earliest years of exposure. We conduct a simulation study based on exposure data of the French cohort of uranium miners to compare the effects of shared and unshared exposure uncertainty on risk estimation and on the shape of the exposure-response curve in proportional hazards models. Our results indicate that uncertainty components shared within workers cause more bias in risk estimation and a more severe attenuation of the exposure-response relationship than unshared exposure uncertainty or exposure uncertainty shared between individuals. These findings underline the importance of careful characterisation and modeling of exposure uncertainty in observational studies. PMID:29408862

  7. Multiple stressor effects in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii – Toward understanding mechanisms of interaction between effects of ultraviolet radiation and chemical pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korkaric, Muris [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Department of Environmental Toxicology, 8600, Duebendorf (Switzerland); ETH Zürich, Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics, 8092 Zürich (Switzerland); Behra, Renata; Fischer, Beat B. [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Department of Environmental Toxicology, 8600, Duebendorf (Switzerland); Junghans, Marion [Swiss Center for Applied Ecotoxicology Eawag-EPFL, 8600, Duebendorf (Switzerland); Eggen, Rik I.L., E-mail: rik.eggen@eawag.ch [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Department of Environmental Toxicology, 8600, Duebendorf (Switzerland); ETH Zürich, Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics, 8092 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Systematic study of multiple stressor effects of UVR and chemicals in C. reinhardtii. • UVR and chemicals did not act independently on algal photosynthesis and reproduction. • Multiple stressor effects of UVR and chemicals depended on chemical MOA. • Synergistic effect interactions not limited to oxidative stress inducing chemicals. • Multiple MOAs of UVR may limit applicability of current prediction models. - Abstract: The effects of chemical pollutants and environmental stressors, such as ultraviolet radiation (UVR), can interact when organisms are simultaneously exposed, resulting in higher (synergistic) or lower (antagonistic) multiple stressor effects than expected based on the effects of single stressors. Current understanding of interactive effects is limited due to a lack of mechanism-based multiple stressor studies. It has been hypothesized that effect interactions may generally occur if chemical and non-chemical stressors cause similar physiological effects in the organism. To test this hypothesis, we exposed the model green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to combinations of UVR and single chemicals displaying modes of action (MOA) similar or dissimilar to the impact of UVR on photosynthesis. Stressor interactions were analyzed based on the independent action model. Effect interactions were found to depend on the MOA of the chemicals, and also on their concentrations, the exposure time and the measured endpoint. Indeed, only chemicals assumed to cause effects on photosynthesis similar to UVR showed interactions with UVR on photosynthetic yield: synergistic in case of Cd(II) and paraquat and antagonistic in case of diuron. No interaction on photosynthesis was observed for S-metolachlor, which acts dissimilarly to UVR. However, combined effects of S-metolachlor and UVR on algal reproduction were synergistic, highlighting the importance of considering additional MOA of UVR. Possible mechanisms of stressor effect interactions are

  8. Multiple stressor effects in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii – Toward understanding mechanisms of interaction between effects of ultraviolet radiation and chemical pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korkaric, Muris; Behra, Renata; Fischer, Beat B.; Junghans, Marion; Eggen, Rik I.L.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Systematic study of multiple stressor effects of UVR and chemicals in C. reinhardtii. • UVR and chemicals did not act independently on algal photosynthesis and reproduction. • Multiple stressor effects of UVR and chemicals depended on chemical MOA. • Synergistic effect interactions not limited to oxidative stress inducing chemicals. • Multiple MOAs of UVR may limit applicability of current prediction models. - Abstract: The effects of chemical pollutants and environmental stressors, such as ultraviolet radiation (UVR), can interact when organisms are simultaneously exposed, resulting in higher (synergistic) or lower (antagonistic) multiple stressor effects than expected based on the effects of single stressors. Current understanding of interactive effects is limited due to a lack of mechanism-based multiple stressor studies. It has been hypothesized that effect interactions may generally occur if chemical and non-chemical stressors cause similar physiological effects in the organism. To test this hypothesis, we exposed the model green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to combinations of UVR and single chemicals displaying modes of action (MOA) similar or dissimilar to the impact of UVR on photosynthesis. Stressor interactions were analyzed based on the independent action model. Effect interactions were found to depend on the MOA of the chemicals, and also on their concentrations, the exposure time and the measured endpoint. Indeed, only chemicals assumed to cause effects on photosynthesis similar to UVR showed interactions with UVR on photosynthetic yield: synergistic in case of Cd(II) and paraquat and antagonistic in case of diuron. No interaction on photosynthesis was observed for S-metolachlor, which acts dissimilarly to UVR. However, combined effects of S-metolachlor and UVR on algal reproduction were synergistic, highlighting the importance of considering additional MOA of UVR. Possible mechanisms of stressor effect interactions are

  9. Organizational stressors associated with job stress and burnout in correctional officers: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finney Caitlin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In adult correctional facilities, correctional officers (COs are responsible for the safety and security of the facility in addition to aiding in offender rehabilitation and preventing recidivism. COs experience higher rates of job stress and burnout that stem from organizational stressors, leading to negative outcomes for not only the CO but the organization as well. Effective interventions could aim at targeting organizational stressors in order to reduce these negative outcomes as well as COs’ job stress and burnout. This paper fills a gap in the organizational stress literature among COs by systematically reviewing the relationship between organizational stressors and CO stress and burnout in adult correctional facilities. In doing so, the present review identifies areas that organizational interventions can target in order to reduce CO job stress and burnout. Methods A systematic search of the literature was conducted using Medline, PsycINFO, Criminal Justice Abstracts, and Sociological Abstracts. All retrieved articles were independently screened based on criteria developed a priori. All included articles underwent quality assessment. Organizational stressors were categorized according to Cooper and Marshall’s (1976 model of job stress. Results The systematic review yielded 8 studies that met all inclusion and quality assessment criteria. The five categories of organizational stressors among correctional officers are: stressors intrinsic to the job, role in the organization, rewards at work, supervisory relationships at work and the organizational structure and climate. The organizational structure and climate was demonstrated to have the most consistent relationship with CO job stress and burnout. Conclusions The results of this review indicate that the organizational structure and climate of correctional institutions has the most consistent relationship with COs’ job stress and burnout. Limitations of the

  10. A discrete Model of TransMilenio Station Occupation: Representation and algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio A. Rojas-Galeano

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The current demand of Bogota’s BRT system (TransMilenio is causing critical overcrowding throughout the system, particularly in bus stations. The behaviour of individual passengers in such stations is simplistic, yet the resulting crowd dynamics are complex, as the majority of regular users of the system may attest. Discrete models such as cellular automata have proved helpful in simulating simplistic-local vs. complex-global behaviour in similar contexts. Thus, the aim of this study is to characterise a cellular automata model of a TransMilenio station that may serve as a tool to help us better understanding these dynamics, and also as a test-bed for the proposal of mitigation strategies. The paper describes representations and algorithmic aspects of the model and presents preliminary simulations that demonstrate the feasibility of the discussed considerations.

  11. Combining public participatory surveillance and occupancy modelling to predict the distributional response of Ixodes scapularis to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieske, David J; Lloyd, Vett K

    2018-02-16

    Ixodes scapularis, a known vector of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (Bbss), is undergoing range expansion in many parts of Canada. The province of New Brunswick, which borders jurisdictions with established populations of I. scapularis, constitutes a range expansion zone for this species. To better understand the current and potential future distribution of this tick under climate change projections, this study applied occupancy modelling to distributional records of adult ticks that successfully overwintered, obtained through passive surveillance. This study indicates that I. scapularis occurs throughout the southern-most portion of the province, in close proximity to coastlines and major waterways. Milder winter conditions, as indicated by the number of degree days <0 °C, was determined to be a strong predictor of tick occurrence, as was, to a lesser degree, rising levels of annual precipitation, leading to a final model with a predictive accuracy of 0.845 (range: 0.828-0.893). Both RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 climate projections predict that a significant proportion of the province (roughly a quarter to a third) will be highly suitable for I. scapularis by the 2080s. Comparison with cases of canine infection show good spatial agreement with baseline model predictions, but the presence of canine Borrelia infections beyond the climate envelope, defined by the highest probabilities of tick occurrence, suggest the presence of Bbss-carrying ticks distributed by long-range dispersal events. This research demonstrates that predictive statistical modelling of multi-year surveillance information is an efficient way to identify areas where I. scapularis is most likely to occur, and can be used to guide subsequent active sampling efforts in order to better understand fine scale species distributional patterns. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  12. Knowledge-Based Energy Damage Model for Evaluating Industrialised Building Systems (IBS Occupational Health and Safety (OHS Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abas Nor Haslinda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia’s construction industry has been long considered hazardous, owing to its poor health and safety record. It is proposed that one of the ways to improve safety and health in the construction industry is through the implementation of ‘off-site’ systems, commonly termed ‘industrialised building systems (IBS’ in Malaysia. This is deemed safer based on the risk concept of reduced exposure, brought about by the reduction in onsite workers; however, no method yet exists for determining the relative safety of various construction methods, including IBS. This study presents a comparative evaluation of the occupational health and safety (OHS risk presented by different construction approaches, namely IBS and traditional methods. The evaluation involved developing a model based on the concept of ‘argumentation theory’, which helps construction designers integrate the management of OHS risk into the design process. In addition, an ‘energy damage model’ was used as an underpinning framework. Development of the model was achieved through three phases, namely Phase I – knowledge acquisitaion, Phase II – argument trees mapping, and Phase III – validation of the model. The research revealed that different approaches/methods of construction projects carried a different level of energy damage, depending on how the activities were carried out. A study of the way in which the risks change from one construction process to another shows that there is a difference in the profile of OHS risk between IBS construction and traditional methods.Therefore, whether the option is an IBS or traditional approach, the fundamental idea of the model is to motivate construction designers or decision-makers to address safety in the design process and encourage them to examine carefully the probable OHS risk variables surrounding an action, thus preventing accidents in construction.

  13. Using occupancy and population models to assess habitat conservation opportunities for an isolated carnivore population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne Spencer; Heather Rustigian-Romsos; James Strittholt; Robert Scheller; William Zielinski; Richard Truex

    2011-01-01

    An isolated population of the fisher (Martes pennanti) in the southern Sierra Nevada, California, is threatened by small size and habitat alteration from wildfires, fuels management, and other factors. We assessed the population’s status and conservation options for its habitat using a spatially explicit population model coupled with a...

  14. Spatial occupancy models for predicting metapopulation dynamics and viability following reintroduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Richard B.; Muths, Erin L.; Sigafus, Brent H.; Schwalbe, Cecil R.; Jarchow, Christopher J.; Hossack, Blake R.

    2015-01-01

    The reintroduction of a species into its historic range is a critical component of conservation programmes designed to restore extirpated metapopulations. However, many reintroduction efforts fail, and the lack of rigorous monitoring programmes and statistical models have prevented a general understanding of the factors affecting metapopulation viability following reintroduction.

  15. Using satellite and airborne LiDAR to model woodpecker habitat occupancy at the landscape scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee A. Vierling; Kerri T. Vierling; Patrick Adam; Andrew T. Hudak

    2013-01-01

    Incorporating vertical vegetation structure into models of animal distributions can improve understanding of the patterns and processes governing habitat selection. LiDAR can provide such structural information, but these data are typically collected via aircraft and thus are limited in spatial extent. Our objective was to explore the utility of satellite-based LiDAR...

  16. Estimating the effect of multiple environmental stressors on coral bleaching and mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D Welle

    Full Text Available Coral cover has been declining in recent decades due to increased temperatures and environmental stressors. However, the extent to which different stressors contribute both individually and in concert to bleaching and mortality is still very uncertain. We develop and use a novel regression approach, using non-linear parametric models that control for unobserved time invariant effects to estimate the effects on coral bleaching and mortality due to temperature, solar radiation, depth, hurricanes and anthropogenic stressors using historical data from a large bleaching event in 2005 across the Caribbean. Two separate models are created, one to predict coral bleaching, and the other to predict near-term mortality. A large ensemble of supporting data is assembled to control for omitted variable bias and improve fit, and a significant improvement in fit is observed from univariate linear regression based on temperature alone. The results suggest that climate stressors (temperature and radiation far outweighed direct anthropogenic stressors (using distance from shore and nearby human population density as a proxy for such stressors in driving coral health outcomes during the 2005 event. Indeed, temperature was found to play a role ~4 times greater in both the bleaching and mortality response than population density across their observed ranges. The empirical models tested in this study have large advantages over ordinary-least squares-they offer unbiased estimates for censored data, correct for spatial correlation, and are capable of handling more complex relationships between dependent and independent variables. The models offer a framework for preparing for future warming events and climate change; guiding monitoring and attribution of other bleaching and mortality events regionally and around the globe; and informing adaptive management and conservation efforts.

  17. Occupants' window opening behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabi, Valentina; Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Corgnati, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    systems is proposed, based on studies presented in literature and a general process leading to the effects on energy consumptions is identified.Existing studies on the topic of window opening behaviour are highlighted and a theoretical framework to deal with occupants' interactions with building controls......, aimed at improving or maintaining the preferred indoor environmental conditions, is elaborated. This approach is used to look into the drivers for the actions taken by the occupants (windows opening and closing) and to investigate the existing models in literature of these actions for both residential...... and office buildings. The analysis of the literature highlights how a shared approach on identifying the driving forces for occupants' window opening and closing behaviour has not yet been reached. However, the reporting of variables found not to be drivers may reveal contradictions in the obtained results...

  18. Patch-occupancy models indicate human activity as major determinant of forest elephant Loxodonta cyclotis seasonal distribution in an industrial corridor in Gabon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buij, R.; McShea, W.J.; Campbell, P.; Lee, M.E.; Dallmeier, F.; Guimondou, S.; Mackaga, L.; Guisseougou, N.; Mboumba, S.; Hines, J.E.; Nichols, J.D.; Alonso, A.

    2007-01-01

    The importance of human activity and ecological features in influencing African forest elephant ranging behaviour was investigated in the Rabi-Ndogo corridor of the Gamba Complex of Protected Areas in southwest Gabon. Locations in a wide geographical area with a range of environmental variables were selected for patch-occupancy surveys using elephant dung to assess seasonal presence and absence of elephants. Patch-occupancy procedures allowed for covariate modelling evaluating hypotheses for both occupancy in relation to human activity and ecological features, and detection probability in relation to vegetation density. The best fitting models for old and fresh dung data sets indicate that (1) detection probability for elephant dung is negatively related to the relative density of the vegetation, and (2) human activity, such as presence and infrastructure, are more closely associated with elephant distribution patterns than are ecological features, such as the presence of wetlands and preferred fresh fruit. Our findings emphasize the sensitivity of elephants to human disturbance, in this case infrastructure development associated with gas and oil production. Patch-occupancy methodology offers a viable alternative to current transect protocols for monitoring programs with multiple covariates.

  19. Occupational Trends and Program Priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Rosenthal

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Institutions of higher education that respond to the economic base in their region will remain competitive and be better positioned to obtain public funds and donor support. In addition to mandated program viability standards based on measures such as graduation rate, individual institutions and state coordinating boards can use ten-year occupational trend data to assess future program viability. We used an occupational demand model to determine whether academic programs can meet projected statewide needs for high demand and high growth occupations. For example, computer engineering, the highest growth rate occupation in Alabama, is projected to have 365 annual average job openings, with 93.6% total growth over ten years. But only 46 computer engineering majors graduate annually from all Alabama institutions of higher education. We recommend using an occupational demand model as a planning tool, decision-making tool, and catalyst for collaborative initiatives.

  20. Integrating Occupational Characteristics into Human Performance Models: IPME Versus ISMAT Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    cognitive and physical abilities of a soldier. 2. Manpower: the number of personnel required to operate, maintain, sustain, and provide training for...equipment model in IPME to address such design questions as maintenance requirements. Conventional performance measures (e.g., cognitive workload) can also...from the Halifax. Contact 2 is identified as the Dolphin from Miami, Florida. It is fishing legally. VTUAV 1 turns towards Contact 3 and level

  1. Rural Broadband Mobile Communications: Spectrum Occupancy and Propagation Modeling in Western Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiles, Erin

    Fixed and mobile spectrum monitoring stations were implemented to study the spectrum range from 174 to 1000 MHz in rural and remote locations within the mountains of western Montana, USA. The measurements show that the majority of this spectrum range is underused and suitable for spectrum sharing. This work identifies available channels of 5-MHz bandwidth to test a remote mobile broadband network. Both TV broadcast stations and a cellular base station were modeled to test signal propagation and interference scenarios.

  2. Occupational rhinitis affects occupational asthma severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscato, Gianna; Pala, Gianni; Folletti, Ilenia; Siracusa, Andrea; Quirce, Santiago

    2016-06-16

    The strong interactions between asthma and rhinitis, and the influence of rhinitis in the severity and/or control of asthma, have clearly been demonstrated. Nevertheless, no specific study has been conducted in the occupational setting. The aim of the study was to assess the severity of occupational asthma and rhinitis and evaluate whether rhinitis is a predictor for increased asthma severity. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical charts of 72 patients who received a diagnosis of allergic occupational asthma, with or without associated occupational rhinitis. Our findings suggested that persistent asthma tended to be more common in subjects with associated occupational asthma and rhinitis, and occupational asthma severity was associated with occupational rhinitis severity. Moderate-severe persistent occupational rhinitis is a risk factor for persistent occupational asthma. We demonstrated, for the first time in the occupational setting, a significant association between occupational rhinitis and asthma severity.

  3. Food provisioning and parental status in songbirds: can occupancy models be used to estimate nesting performance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aude Catherine Corbani

    Full Text Available Indirect methods to estimate parental status, such as the observation of parental provisioning, have been problematic due to potential biases associated with imperfect detection. We developed a method to evaluate parental status based on a novel combination of parental provisioning observations and hierarchical modeling. In the summers of 2009 to 2011, we surveyed 393 sites, each on three to four consecutive days at Forêt Montmorency, Québec, Canada. We assessed parental status of 2331 adult songbirds based on parental food provisioning. To account for imperfect detection of parental status, we applied MacKenzie et al.'s (2002 two-state hierarchical model to obtain unbiased estimates of the proportion of sites with successfully nesting birds, and the proportion of adults with offspring. To obtain an independent evaluation of detection probability, we monitored 16 active nests in 2010 and conducted parental provisioning observations away from them. The probability of detecting food provisioning was 0.31 when using nest monitoring, a value within the 0.11 to 0.38 range that was estimated by two-state models. The proportion of adults or sites with broods approached 0.90 and varied depending on date during the sampling season and year, exemplifying the role of eastern boreal forests as highly productive nesting grounds for songbirds. This study offers a simple and effective sampling design for studying avian reproductive performance that could be implemented in national surveys such as breeding bird atlases.

  4. Language as a Stressor in Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahana-Amitay, Dalia; Albert, Martin L.; Pyun, Sung-Bom; Westwood, Andrew; Jenkins, Theodore; Wolford, Sarah; Finley, Mallory

    2012-01-01

    Background Persons with aphasia often report feeling anxious when using language while communicating. While many patients, caregivers, clinicians and researchers would agree that language may be a stressor for persons with aphasia, systematic empirical studies of stress and/or anxiety in aphasia remain scarce. Aim The aim of this paper is to review the existing literature discussing language as a stressor in aphasia, identify key issues, highlight important gaps, and propose a program for future study. In doing so, we hope to underscore the importance of understanding aspects of the emotional aftermath of aphasia, which plays a critical role in the process of recovery and rehabilitation. Main Contribution Post stroke emotional dysregulation in persons with chronic aphasia clearly has adverse effects for language performance and prospects of recovery. However, the specific role anxiety might play in aphasia has yet to be determined. As a starting point, we propose to view language in aphasia as a stressor, linked to an emotional state we term “linguistic anxiety.” Specifically, a person with linguistic anxiety is one in whom the deliberate, effortful production of language involves anticipation of an error, with the imminence of linguistic failure serving as the threat. Since anticipation is psychologically linked to anxiety and also plays an important role in the allostatic system, we suggest that examining physiologic stress responses in persons with aphasia when they are asked to perform a linguistic task would be a productive tool for assessing the potential relation of stress to “linguistic anxiety.” Conclusion Exploring the putative relationship between anxiety and language in aphasia, through the study of physiologic stress responses, could establish a platform for investigating language changes in the brain in other clinical populations, such as in individuals with Alzheimer’s disease or persons with post traumatic stress disorder, or even with

  5. The influence of immunological stressors on traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mujun; McDonald, Stuart J; Brady, Rhys D; O'Brien, Terence J; Shultz, Sandy R

    2018-03-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide, and typically involves a robust immune response. Although a great deal of preclinical research has been conducted to identify an effective treatment, all phase III clinical trials have been unsuccessful to date. These translational shortcomings are in part due to a failure to recognize and account for the heterogeneity of TBI, including how extracranial factors can influence the aftermath of TBI. For example, most preclinical studies have utilized isolated TBI models in young adult males, while clinical trials typically involve highly heterogeneous patient populations (e.g., different mechanisms of injury, a range of ages, presence of polytrauma or infection). This paper will review the current, albeit limited literature related to how TBI is affected by common concomitant immunological stressors. In particular, discussion will focus on whether extracranial trauma (i.e., polytrauma), infection, and age/immunosenescence can influence TBI pathophysiology, and thereby may result in a different brain injury than what would have occurred in an isolated TBI. It is concluded that these immunological stressors are all likely to be TBI modifiers that should be further studied and could impact translational treatment strategies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Discrimination, other psychosocial stressors, and self-reported sleep duration and difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slopen, Natalie; Williams, David R

    2014-01-01

    To advance understanding of the relationship between discrimination and sleep duration and difficulties, with consideration of multiple dimensions of discrimination, and attention to concurrent stressors; and to examine the contribution of discrimination and other stressors to racial/ ethnic differences in these outcomes. Cross-sectional probability sample. Chicago, IL. There were 2,983 black, Hispanic, and white adults. Outcomes included self-reported sleep duration and difficulties. Discrimination, including racial and nonracial everyday and major experiences of discrimination, workplace harassment and incivilities, and other stressors were assessed via questionnaire. In models adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, greater exposure to racial (β = -0.14)) and nonracial (β = -0.08) everyday discrimination, major experiences of discrimination attributed to race/ethnicity (β = -0.17), and workplace harassment and incivilities (β = -0.14) were associated with shorter sleep (P discrimination attributed to race/ethnicity and sleep duration (β = -0.09, P discrimination and racial (β = 0.04) and nonracial (β = 0.04) major experiences of discrimination, and workplace harassment and incivilities (β = 0.04) were also associated with more (log) sleep difficulties, and associations between racial and nonracial everyday discrimination and sleep difficulties remained after adjustment for other stressors (P discrimination (P > 0.05). Discrimination was associated with shorter sleep and more sleep difficulties, independent of socioeconomic status and other stressors, and may account for some of the racial/ethnic differences in sleep.

  7. Workflow interruptions, social stressors from supervisor(s) and attention failure in surgery personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Diana; Müller, Patrick; Elfering, Achim

    2015-01-01

    Workflow interruptions and social stressors among surgery personnel may cause attention failure at work that may increase rumination about work issues during leisure time. The test of these assumptions should contribute to the understanding of exhaustion in surgery personnel and patient safety. Workflow interruptions and supervisor-related social stressors were tested to predict attention failure that predicts work-related rumination during leisure time. One hundred ninety-four theatre nurses, anaesthetists and surgeons from a Swiss University hospital participated in a cross-sectional survey. The participation rate was 58%. Structural equation modelling confirmed both indirect paths from workflow interruptions and social stressors via attention failure on rumination (both pworkflow interruptions and social stressors on rumination-could not be empirically supported. Workflow interruptions and social stressors at work are likely to trigger attention failure in surgery personnel. Work redesign and team intervention could help surgery personnel to maintain a high level of quality and patient safety and detach from work related issues to recover during leisure time.

  8. City Dweller Responses to Multiple Stressors Intruding into Their Homes: Noise, Light, Odour, and Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eja Pedersen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Urban densification increases exposure to noise, light, odour, and vibration in urban dwellings. Exposure from combined environmental stressors intruding into the home could increase the risk of adverse effects on wellbeing, even when the exposure is at a relatively low level. This study assesses the prevalence of annoyance with a combination of potential environmental stressors common in urban areas and the association with wellbeing. A questionnaire was sent by mail to residents in five areas in Halmstad (Sweden with similar socioeconomic and housing characteristics but different exposure (response rate 56%; n = 385. Of the respondents, 50% were annoyed to some degree by at least one of the suggested stressors, most commonly by noise and vibration from local traffic. Structural equation modelling showed that annoyance led to lowered quality of life via the mediating construct residential satisfaction, which in turn was influenced by place attachment and perceived restoration possibilities in the dwelling. Stress had a negative impact on quality of life, but was not directly correlated to annoyance. Stress was however correlated with sensitivity. The findings suggest that dose-response relationships for environmental stressors should be studied in a broader context of environmental and individual factors. Also relatively low levels of exposure should be mitigated, especially if several stressors are present.

  9. Appraisals of stressors and common mental disorder from early to mid-adulthood in the 1946 British birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Stephani L; Mishra, Gita; Hotopf, Matthew; Jones, Peter B; Kuh, Diana

    2009-12-01

    We examined the extent to which perceived life change following experiences of stressful life events, differentiated by type of stressor, influenced mental health during adulthood. The analytic sample of 2073 cohort members was drawn from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development, a sample followed since their birth in March 1946. Logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between stressors reported at 36 and 43 years and common mental disorder at 36, 43, and 53 years. Common mental disorder was measured using the Present State Exam at 36 years, the Psychiatric Symptom Frequency at 43 years, and the 28-item General Health Questionnaire at 53 years. Data spanning across nearly 20 years suggest that stressors perceived to have contributed to a notable life change increased the likelihood of scoring above the cut off score for common mental disorder in comparison to stressors experienced without subsequent life change. Models were adjusted for gender, educational attainment, social class, relationship status, and past episodes of common mental disorder. This relationship appears to be most evident for proximal family and economic stressors and distal interpersonal relationship stressors experienced by close friends and relatives. All study information is based on self-reports and details about the nature of the life change or cognitive attribution style were not available. Appraisals of changes following stressful life events may be more important than the occurrence of stressors alone in assessing the impact of stressful life events on adult mental health.

  10. A risk prediction model of the incidence of occupational low back pain among mining workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fikry Effendi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low Back Pain (LBP is the most frequently reported musculoskeletal disorder in workers. This study was aimed to develop risk prediction model of low back pain that can be used to prevent the recurring low back pain attack.Methods: The study was case-control design based on the industrial community by using ergonomical approach. Total samples were 91 workers for cases and 91 workers for controls. Workers suffering for low back pain in the last 6 months served as cases, and those from the same age group and receiving the same amount of exposure without any symptoms of low back pain served as controls. Risk factors include socio-demographic factors, socio-ocupational factors, physical working environmental factors, non-physical environmental factors, and biomechanics factors. Receiver Operating Characreistics (ROC was used to describe relationship between true positive value (in vertical axis and false positive value (in horizontal axis in order to discover a risk predictive value of LBP.Results: The determinant risk factors for low back pain (LBP were bending work postures, waist rotation movement, manual lifting, unnatural work postures, those who had worked for more than 18 years, and irregular sport activities. By using ROC with 91.20% senstivity and 87.90% spesifi city, the calculated prediction value was 0.35. This is the cut-off point to discriminate workers with and without LBP. The risk predictors value of work-induced LBP calculated by linear equation of logistic regression varied between 0-11.25.Conclusion: The prediction model of work-induced LBP can be used for early detection of LBP to reduce the risk and prevent the recurrence of LBP. (Med J Indones. 2011; 20:212-6Keywords: Ergonomy, low back pain, prediction model, work-induced LBP

  11. Quantifying spatially derived carrying capacity occupation: Framework for characterisation modelling and application to terrestrial acidification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Anders; Margni, M.; Bulle, C.

    *year. This metric resembles that of the ecological footprint method and may be compared to the availability of land or water. The framework was applied to the terrestrial acidification impact category. The geochemical steady-state model PROFILE was used to quantify carrying capacities as deposition levels......The popularity of the ecological footprint method and the planetary boundaries concept shows an increasing interest among decision makers in comparing environmental impacts to carrying capacities of natural systems. Recently carrying capacity-based normalisation references were developed for impact...

  12. Shared effects of organic microcontaminants and environmental stressors on biofilms and invertebrates in impaired rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabater, S; Barceló, D; De Castro-Català, N; Ginebreda, A; Kuzmanovic, M; Petrovic, M; Picó, Y; Ponsatí, L; Tornés, E; Muñoz, I

    2016-03-01

    Land use type, physical and chemical stressors, and organic microcontaminants were investigated for their effects on the biological communities (biofilms and invertebrates) in several Mediterranean rivers. The diversity of invertebrates, and the scores of the first principal component of a PCA performed with the diatom communities were the best descriptors of the distribution patterns of the biological communities against the river stressors. These two metrics decreased according to the progressive site impairment (associated to higher area of agricultural and urban-industrial, high water conductivity, higher dissolved organic carbon and dissolved inorganic nitrogen concentrations, and higher concentration of organic microcontaminants, particularly pharmaceutical and industrial compounds). The variance partition analyses (RDAs) attributed the major share (10%) of the biological communities' response to the environmental stressors (nutrients, altered discharge, dissolved organic matter), followed by the land use occupation (6%) and of the organic microcontaminants (2%). However, the variance shared by the three groups of descriptors was very high (41%), indicating that their simultaneous occurrence determined most of the variation in the biological communities. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. A longitudinal investigation of work environment stressors on the performance and wellbeing of office workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, S; Kwok, K C S

    2016-01-01

    This study uses a longitudinal within-subjects design to investigate the effects of inadequate Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) on work performance and wellbeing in a sample of 114 office workers over a period of 8 months. Participants completed a total of 2261 online surveys measuring perceived thermal comfort, lighting comfort and noise annoyance, measures of work performance, and individual state factors underlying performance and wellbeing. Characterising inadequate aspects of IEQ as environmental stressors, these stress factors can significantly reduce self-reported work performance and objectively measured cognitive performance by between 2.4% and 5.8% in most situations, and by up to 14.8% in rare cases. Environmental stressors act indirectly on work performance by reducing state variables, motivation, tiredness, and distractibility, which support high-functioning work performance. Exposure to environmental stress appears to erode individuals' resilience, or ability to cope with additional task demands. These results indicate that environmental stress reduces not only the cognitive capacity for work, but the rate of work (i.e. by reducing motivation). Increasing the number of individual stress factors is associated with a near linear reduction in work performance indicating that environmental stress factors are additive, not multiplicative. Environmental stressors reduce occupant wellbeing (mood, headaches, and feeling 'off') causing indirect reductions in work performance. Improving IEQ will likely produce small but pervasive increases in productivity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  14. Stressors, social support, and tests of the buffering hypothesis: effects on psychological responses of injured athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Ian; Evans, Lynne; Rees, Tim; Hardy, Lew

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this article was to examine the main and stress-buffering effect relationships between social support and psychological responses to injury. The article presents two studies, both of which matched social support types with injury stressors. Study 1 used measures of stressors, perception of social support availability, and psychological responses of injured athletes. Study 2 utilized measures of stressors, received social support, and psychological responses of injured athletes. During physiotherapy clinic visits, injured athletes (Study 1, N = 319; Study 2, N = 302) completed measures of stressors, social support, and psychological responses to injury. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and moderated hierarchical regression were used to analyse the data. In both studies, CFA suggested adequate model fit for measures of social support and psychological responses to injury. Moderated hierarchical regression analyses in Study 1 revealed significant (p social support in relation to injury stressors and psychological responses; that is, the relationships between social support, stressors, and psychological responses to sport injury may differ with regard to received or perceived available support. The findings have important implications for the design of social support interventions with injured athletes aimed at alleviating the detrimental effects of injury stressors. What is already known on this subject? The health, social, and sport-injury related research suggests that social support has the potential to moderate (i.e., buffer) those psychological responses to stress that are detrimental to health and well-being. Despite what is a growing body of empirical research that has explored the role of social support in a sport injury context, there has been a paucity of research that has examined how social support functions in relation to injury-related stressors and psychological responses, particularly with regard to the effect of perceived and received

  15. ECONOMIC STRESSORS AND ALCOHOL-RELATED OUTCOMES: EXPLORING AGE COHORT DIFFERENCES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robyn Lewis; Richman, Judith A.; Rospenda, Kathleen M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study examined processes linking age cohort, economic stressors, coping strategies and two drinking-related outcomes (i.e., past-month drinking and problematic drinking). Methods Structural equation models were conducted utilizing data from a national survey. Results Findings revealed the associations between economic stressors and both past-month drinking and problematic drinking were significantly greater for members of the millennial cohort compared to baby boomers. These effects are partly explained by the lesser tendency of members of the millennial cohort to use collective, politically-focused coping strategies. Discussion These findings clarify the circumstances in which age matters most for the associations among economy-related stressors, coping strategies and drinking-related outcomes. They highlight how difficult economic circumstances influence the availability of coping strategies and, in turn, alcohol consumption – and differently for younger and older age cohorts. PMID:26291290

  16. ROLE STRESSOR AS AN ANTECEDENT OF EMPLOYEES’ FAMILY CONFLICT: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azman ISMAIL

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of stressors is recognized as a crucial human resource development and management issue where it can have an overpowering consequence on organizational and employee performance. This study was conducted to discover the relationship between role stressor and family conflict using self-report questionnaires gathered from academic staff of a public comprehensive university in Sarawak, Malaysia. The outcomes of SmartPLS path model revealed three findings: first, role ambiguity significantly correlated with family conflict. Second, role conflict significantly correlated with family conflict. Third, role overload significantly correlated with family conflict. This finding demonstrates that role stressor is recognized in employees’ family conflict. The paper provides discussions, implications and conclusion.

  17. Stressors and Stressor Response Levels of Hong Kong Primary School Music Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Marina Wai-yee; Chik, Maria Pik-yuk; Chan, Edmund Sze Shing

    2018-01-01

    Responses from 309 randomly sampled Hong Kong primary school music teachers to the shortened version of the Chinese Teacher Stress Questionnaire were subjected to a descriptive percentage analysis, one-way ANOVA and independent t test. Obtained results identify five key stressors: "changing education policy of the government";…

  18. Interaction of mental and orthostatic stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Nandu; Lackner, Helmut K.; Papousek, Ilona; Jezova, Daniela; Montani, Jean-Pierre; Hinghofer-Szalkay, Helmut G.

    2011-05-01

    We assessed hemodynamic responses induced by orthostatic and mental stressors, using passive head up tilt (HUT) and mental arithmetic (MA), respectively. The 15 healthy males underwent three protocols: (1) HUT alone, (2) MA in supine position and (3) MA+HUT, with sessions randomized and ≥2 weeks apart. In relation to baseline, HUT increased heart rate (HR) (+20.4±7.1 bpm; pMental challenge during orthostatic challenge elicited greater increases in heart rate, despite similar reductions in stroke volume such as those during orthostatic stress alone. Overall, cardiac output decreases were less with combinations of mental and orthostatic challenges in comparison to orthostasis alone. This would suggest that carefully chosen mental stressors might affect orthostatic responses of people on standing up. Therefore, additional mental loading could be a useful countermeasure to alleviate the orthostatic responses of persons, particularly in those with histories of dizziness on standing up or on return to earth from the spaceflight environment of microgravity.

  19. Occupation: nurse; occupational hazard: radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickson, K.

    1984-01-01

    The work of the occupational health nurses at the Pickering Generating Station is described. A staff of two nurses teach first aid and safety, practice an emergency plan, and monitor personnel for minimum health standards for radiation workers. Special attention is paid to problems which might be aggravated by radiation, such as skin complaints, respiratory diseases, emotional stability, or phobias regarding heights, plastic suits, or radiation itself. Procedures used in treating contaminated personnel are outlined

  20. Occupation: nurse; occupational hazard: radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickson, K.

    1984-03-01

    The work of the occupational health nurses at the Pickering Generating Station is described. A staff of two nurses teach first aid and safety, practice an emergency plan, and monitor personnel for minimum health standards for radiation workers. Special attention is paid to problems which might be aggravated by radiation, such as skin complaints, respiratory diseases, emotional stability, or phobias regarding heights, plastic suits, or radiation itself. Procedures used in treating contaminated personnel are outlined.

  1. Expanding the Functionality of Speech Recognition in Radiology: Creating a Real-Time Methodology for Measurement and Analysis of Occupational Stress and Fatigue

    OpenAIRE

    Reiner, Bruce I.

    2012-01-01

    While occupational stress and fatigue have been well described throughout medicine, the radiology community is particularly susceptible due to declining reimbursements, heightened demands for service deliverables, and increasing exam volume and complexity. The resulting occupational stress can be variable in nature and dependent upon a number of intrinsic and extrinsic stressors. Intrinsic stressors largely account for inter-radiologist stress variability and relate to unique attributes of th...

  2. APPROACHES FOR INCORPORATING NON-CHEMICAL STRESSORS INTO CUMULATIVE RISK ASSESSMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the past twenty years, the risk assessment paradigm has gradually shifted from an individual chemical approach to a community-based model. Inherent in community-based risk assessment is consideration of the totality of stressors affecting a defined population including both ...

  3. Forecasting the relative influence of environmental and anthropogenic stressors on polar bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd C. Atwood; Bruce G. Marcot; David C. Douglas; Steven C. Amstrup; Karyn D. Rode; George M. Durner; Jeffrey F. Bromaghin

    2016-01-01

    Effective conservation planning requires understanding and ranking threats to wildlife populations. We developed a Bayesian network model to evaluate the relative influence of environmental and anthropogenic stressors, and their mitigation, on the persistence of polar bears (Ursus maritimus). Overall sea ice conditions, affected by rising global...

  4. Appraisal of transplant-related stressors, coping strategies, and psychosocial adjustment following kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisanti, Renato; Lombardo, Caterina; Luszczynska, Aleksandra; Poli, Luca; Bennardi, Linda; Giordanengo, Luca; Berloco, Pasquale Bartolomeo; Violani, Cristiano

    2017-10-01

    This study examined the relations between appraisal of transplant-related stressors, coping, and adjustment dimensions following kidney transplantation (KT). Two models were tested: (1) the main effects model proposing that stress appraisal and coping strategies are directly associated with adjustment dimensions; and (2) the moderating model of stress proposing that each coping strategy interacts with stress appraisal. Importantly, there is a lack of research examining the two models simultaneously among recipients of solid organ transplantation. A total of 174 KT recipients completed the questionnaires. Predictors of post-transplant adjustment included appraisal of transplant-related stressors and coping strategies (task-, emotion-, and avoidance-focused). Adjustment dimensions were psychological distress, worries about the transplant, feelings of guilt, fear of disclosure of transplant, adherence, and responsibility for the functioning of the new organ. The main and moderating effects were tested with regression analyses. Appraisal of transplant-related stressors and emotion-oriented coping were related to all adjustment dimensions, except of adherence and responsibility. Task-oriented coping was positively related to responsibility. Avoidance-oriented coping was negatively correlated with adherence. Only 1 out of 18 hypothesized interactive terms was significant, yielding a synergistic interaction between appraisal of transplant-related stressors and emotion-oriented coping on the sense of guilt. The findings have the potential to inform interventions promoting psychosocial adjustment among KT recipients. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. The Relationship of Ethnicity-Related Stressors and Latino Ethnic Identity to Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Sabine Elizabeth; Chavez, Noe R.

    2010-01-01

    Based on the risk and resilience model, the current study examined the effect of ethnicity-related stressors (perceived discrimination, stereotype confirmation concern, and own-group conformity pressure) and ethnic identity (centrality, private regard, public regard, and other-group orientation) on the well-being of 171 Latino American college…

  6. Occupational physiology

    CERN Document Server

    Toomingas, Allan; Tornqvist, Ewa Wigaeus

    2011-01-01

    In a clear and accessible presentation, Occupational Physiology focuses on important issues in the modern working world. Exploring major public health problems-such as musculoskeletal disorders and stress-this book explains connections between work, well-being, and health based on up-to-date research in the field. It provides useful methods for risk assessment and guidelines on arranging a good working life from the perspective of the working individual, the company, and society as a whole.The book focuses on common, stressful situations in different professions. Reviewing bodily demands and r

  7. Analyzing and Identifying Teens' Stressful Periods and Stressor Events From a Microblog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Xue, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Liang; Jia, Jia; Feng, Ling

    2017-09-01

    Increased health problems among adolescents caused by psychological stress have aroused worldwide attention. Long-standing stress without targeted assistance and guidance negatively impacts the healthy growth of adolescents, threatening the future development of our society. So far, research focused on detecting adolescent psychological stress revealed from each individual post on microblogs. However, beyond stressful moments, identifying teens' stressful periods and stressor events that trigger each stressful period is more desirable to understand the stress from appearance to essence. In this paper, we define the problem of identifying teens' stressful periods and stressor events from the open social media microblog. Starting from a case study of adolescents' posting behaviors during stressful school events, we build a Poisson-based probability model for the correlation between stressor events and stressful posting behaviors through a series of posts on Tencent Weibo (referred to as the microblog throughout the paper). With the model, we discover teens' maximal stressful periods and further extract details of possible stressor events that cause the stressful periods. We generalize and present the extracted stressor events in a hierarchy based on common stress dimensions and event types. Taking 122 scheduled stressful study-related events in a high school as the ground truth, we test the approach on 124 students' posts from January 1, 2012 to February 1, 2015 and obtain some promising experimental results: (stressful periods: recall 0.761, precision 0.737, and F 1 -measure 0.734) and (top-3 stressor events: recall 0.763, precision 0.756, and F 1 -measure 0.759). The most prominent stressor events extracted are in the self-cognition domain, followed by the school life domain. This conforms to the adolescent psychological investigation result that problems in school life usually accompanied with teens' inner cognition problems. Compared with the state-of-the-art top

  8. Tools and perspectives for assessing chemical mixtures and multiple stressors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkke, Hans; Ragas, Ad M. J.; Holmstrup, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The present paper summarizes the most important insights and findings of the EU NoMiracle project with a focus on (1) risk assessment of chemical mixtures, (2) combinations of chemical and natural stressors, and (3) the receptor-oriented approach in cumulative risk assessment. The project aimed...... at integration of methods for human and ecological risk assessment. A mechanistically based model, considering uptake and toxicity as a processes in time, has demonstrated considerable potential for predicting mixture effects in ecotoxicology, but requires the measurement of toxicity endpoints at different...... moments in time. Within a novel framework for risk assessment of chemical mixtures, the importance of environmental factors on toxicokinetic processes is highlighted. A new paradigm for applying personal characteristics that determine individual exposure and sensitivity in human risk assessment...

  9. Chronic psychosocial stressors in adulthood: Studies in mice, rats and tree shrews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Pryce

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Human psychological stress is the major environmental risk factor for major depression and certain of the anxiety disorders. Psychological stressors often occur in the context of the adult social environment, and they or the memory formed of them impact on the individual across an extended period, thereby constituting chronic psychosocial stress (CPS. Psychosocial stressors often involve loss to the individual, such as the ending of a social relationship or the onset of interpersonal conflict leading to loss of social control and predictability. Given the difficulty in studying the etio-pathophysiological processes mediating between CPS and brain and behavior pathologies in human, considerable effort has been undertaken to study manipulations of the social environment that constitute adulthood chronic psychosocial stressors in other mammals. The majority of such research has been conducted in rodents; the focus for a considerable time period was on rats and more recently both rats and mice have been investigated, the latter species in particular providing the opportunity for essential gene x chronic psychosocial stressor interaction studies. Key studies in the tree shrew demonstrate that this approach should not be limited to rodents, however. The animal adult CPS paradigms are based on resident-intruder confrontations. These are typified by the intruder-subject's brief proximate interactions with and attacks by, and otherwise continuous distal exposure to, the resident stressor. In contrast to humans where cognitive capacities are such that the stressor pertains in its physical absence, the periods of continuous distal exposure are apparently essential in these species. Whilst the focus of this review is on the stressor rather than the stress response, we also describe some of the depression- and anxiety disorder-relevant effects on behavior, physiology and brain structure-function of chronic psychosocial stressors, as well as evidence for the

  10. Sport coaching officials and their stressors: Work overload, role ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sport coaching officials and their stressors: Work overload, role ambiguity, role conflict and the influence on job satisfaction of sport coaching officials in ... African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... Sport officials' concerns over job stressors have become common due to the adverse effect on health.

  11. Ecosystem stressors in southern Nevada [Chapter 2] (Executive Summary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton K. Pendleton; Jeanne C. Chambers; Matthew L. Brooks; Steven M. Ostoja

    2013-01-01

    Southern Nevada ecosystems are subject to a number of stressors that range in scope from local to regional to global. At the regional scale, human population growth and related activities constitute a major stressor. Nevada has undergone significant change due to unprecedented population growth and ongoing global change processes. Nevada’s growth rate has been the...

  12. Emotional Competence and Stressors of Female School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holeyannavar, P. G.; Itagi, S. K.

    2011-01-01

    A study on emotional competence and stressors of 105 primary school teachers was conducted in Dharwad in 2009. Emotional competence was assessed using EC- scale and stressors by stress inventory for teachers (SIT). Results revealed that majority of the teachers (89.5%) showed average to competent levels of emotional competence, followed by 6.7 and…

  13. The impact on environmental stressors on apiculture in Africa | Maus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Honeybees are important as pollinators of agricultural crops as well as of producers of bee products like honey and beeswax. Honeybees are exposed to various environmental stressors that can significantly affect apiculture. These stressors can vary in their prevalence and impact between different regions. In Africa ...

  14. Montessori Early Childhood Teacher Perceptions of Family Priorities and Stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Teachers of young children work closely with families. One component of teacher-family partnerships is teachers' understanding of family priorities and stressors. This study examines Montessori Early Childhood (ages three through six) teacher perceptions of family priorities and stressors through an analysis of responses to two parallel surveys.…

  15. US exposure to multiple landscape stressors and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becky K. Kerns; John B. Kim; Jeffrey D. Kline; Michelle A. Day

    2016-01-01

    We examined landscape exposure to wildfire potential, insects and disease risk, and urban and exurban development for the conterminous US (CONUS). Our analysis relied on spatial data used by federal agencies to evaluate these stressors nationally. We combined stressor data with a climate change exposure metric to identify when temperature is likely to depart from...

  16. A possibilistic approach to diverse-stressor aquatic ecological risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A possibilistic approach to assess the risk of co-occurring stressors in an aquatic ecosystem based on the use of fuzzy sets is illustrated at the hand of a hypothetical case study. There are two aspects of importance: a fuzzy stressor response relationship where the response may have reference to a lower level end-point, ...

  17. Developing a multi-stressor gradient for coral reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coral reefs are often found near coastal waters where multiple anthropogenic stressors co-occur at areas of human disturbance. Developing coral reef biocriteria under the U.S. Clean Water Act requires relationships between anthropogenic stressors and coral reef condition to be es...

  18. Review of Non-Chemical Stressors from the Social Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-chemical stressors (e.g., noise, diet, temperature, overcrowding) are found in the built, natural and social environments. Correlations between exposure to non-chemical stressors in the social environment (e.g., SES, exposure to violence, acculturation) and negative health ou...

  19. [Psychosocial stress and disease risks in occupational life. Results of international studies on the demand-control and the effort-reward imbalance models].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, J; Dragano, N

    2008-03-01

    Given the far-reaching changes of modern working life, psychosocial stress at work has received increased attention. Its influence on stress-related disease risks is analysed with the help of standardised measurements based on theoretical models. Two such models have gained special prominence in recent years, the demand-control model and the effort-reward imbalance model. The former model places its emphasis on a distinct combination of job characteristics, whereas the latter model's focus is on the imbalance between efforts spent and rewards received in turn. The predictive power of these models with respect to coronary or cardiovascular disease and depression was tested in a number of prospective epidemiological investigations. In summary, twofold elevated disease risks are observed. Effects on cardiovascular disease are particularly pronounced among men, whereas no gender differences are observed for depression. Additional evidence derived from experimental and ambulatory monitoring studies supplements this body of findings. Current scientific evidence justifies an increased awareness and assessment of these newly discovered occupational risks, in particular by occupational health professionals. Moreover, structural and interpersonal measures of stress prevention and health promotion at work are warranted, with special emphasis on gender differences.

  20. Workaholism as a Mediator between Work-Related Stressors and Health Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilie Schou Andreassen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available It is currently unknown if unfavorable working conditions, reflected by the demand–control–support model and the effort–reward imbalance model, directly influence health or if the effects may be mediated by work-related attitudes and behaviors such as workaholism. In the present study, 988 employees (55.6% males, mean age 36.09, SD = 9.23 from a large consultant firm participated in a cross-sectional survey assessing work variables such as job demands, job control, social support, effort, reward, and overcommitment. Workaholism was also assessed together with eight different health-related outcomes. Although direct effects of the work stressors on health were found on most health outcomes, the work-related stressors were overall strongly related to workaholism (R2 = 0.522, which, in turn, was positively related to four (anxiety/insomnia, somatic symptoms, emotional exhaustion, and social dysfunction of the eight outcome variables. Of a total of 40 relationships between work-related stressors and health outcomes, workaholism fully mediated three of these, and partly mediated 12. Overall, the study suggests that the effects of work-related stressors on health in many cases may be mediated by workaholism.

  1. Using a Response to Intervention (RtI) Framework with 1st Grade Students: A Model for Occupational Therapy Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    The most recent reauthorization of the Individual's with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA, 2004) allows for the expansion of occupational therapy's role in school-based practice to include students who have not been identified for special education through early intervening services such as response to intervention (RtI).…

  2. Randomised controlled trial of a psychiatric consultation model for treatment of common mental disorder in the occupational health setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M.; Meeuwissen, Jolanda A. C.; de Jong, Fransina J.; Hoedeman, Rob; Elfeddali, Iman; van der Feltz-Cornelis, CM

    2007-01-01

    Background: Common mental disorders are the most prevalent of all mental disorders, with the highest burden in terms of work absenteeism and utilization of health care services. Evidence-based treatments are available, but recognition and treatment could be improved, especially in the occupational

  3. Occupational risk of building construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aneziris, O.N.; Topali, E.; Papazoglou, I.A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the quantification of occupational risk of a building construction project. Risk assessment is based on the Occupational Risk Model (ORCA) developed under the Workgroup Occupational Risk Model project (WORM), in the Netherlands, for quantifying occupational risk. This model assesses occupational risk of a worker, by taking into account his various tasks, activities and their hazards. Risk is evaluated for three types of consequences: recoverable injury, permanent injury and death. The occupational risk model is based on a set of 63 bowties, which assess risk owing to different hazards such as fall from ladder, scaffold, roofs, falling object, struck by moving vehicle, contact by moving parts, etc. ORCA calculates the risk profile of a building construction site, consisting of thirty-eight workers in different job positions, such as operators of excavators, loaders, compaction equipment, workers in excavation and framing phases, etc. All risk profiles of workers have been quantified and jobs have been ranked according to their risk. Workers installing timber formworks have the highest fatality risk (1.57×10 −3 /yr), followed by the workers installing reinforcement (1.52×10 −3 /yr).

  4. Estimate the time varying brain receptor occupancy in PET imaging experiments using non-linear fixed and mixed effect modeling approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamuner, Stefano; Gomeni, Roberto; Bye, Alan

    2002-01-01

    Positron-Emission Tomography (PET) is an imaging technology currently used in drug development as a non-invasive measure of drug distribution and interaction with biochemical target system. The level of receptor occupancy achieved by a compound can be estimated by comparing time-activity measurements in an experiment done using tracer alone with the activity measured when the tracer is given following administration of unlabelled compound. The effective use of this surrogate marker as an enabling tool for drug development requires the definition of a model linking the brain receptor occupancy with the fluctuation of plasma concentrations. However, the predictive performance of such a model is strongly related to the precision on the estimate of receptor occupancy evaluated in PET scans collected at different times following drug treatment. Several methods have been proposed for the analysis and the quantification of the ligand-receptor interactions investigated from PET data. The aim of the present study is to evaluate alternative parameter estimation strategies based on the use of non-linear mixed effect models allowing to account for intra and inter-subject variability on the time-activity and for covariates potentially explaining this variability. A comparison of the different modeling approaches is presented using real data. The results of this comparison indicates that the mixed effect approach with a primary model partitioning the variance in term of Inter-Individual Variability (IIV) and Inter-Occasion Variability (IOV) and a second stage model relating the changes on binding potential to the dose of unlabelled drug is definitely the preferred approach

  5. College student stressors: a review of the qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Carrie S; Baranik, Lisa E; Daniel, Francis

    2013-10-01

    A total of 40 qualitative studies were reviewed and coded according to the college student stressors they represented. These studies utilized a variety of qualitative methods to examine stressors representing the following themes: relationships, lack of resources, academics, the environment, expectations, diversity, transitions and other stressors. Relationship stressors were the most commonly reported theme and covered areas including stress associated with family, romantic, peer and faculty relationships. Three of the themes (relationships, diversity and other) are novel categories of stressors compared with quantitative reviews on the topic, highlighting the importance of gathering both quantitative and qualitative pieces of information. This review contributes to the stress literature by synthesizing and identifying trends in the qualitative student stress research. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Finite element modeling of the human kidney for probabilistic occupant models: Statistical shape analysis and mesh morphing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Keegan M; Untaroiu, Costin D

    2018-04-16

    Statistical shape analysis was conducted on 15 pairs (left and right) of human kidneys. It was shown that the left and right kidney were significantly different in size and shape. In addition, several common modes of kidney variation were identified using statistical shape analysis. Semi-automatic mesh morphing techniques have been developed to efficiently create subject specific meshes from a template mesh with a similar geometry. Subject specific meshes as well as probabilistic kidney meshes were created from a template mesh. Mesh quality remained about the same as the template mesh while only taking a fraction of the time to create the mesh from scratch or morph with manually identified landmarks. This technique can help enhance the quality of information gathered from experimental testing with subject specific meshes as well as help to more efficiently predict injury by creating models with the mean shape as well as models at the extremes for each principal component. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Performing Arts and Entertainment-Related Occupations. Reprinted from the

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on performing arts and entertainment-related occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include models,…

  8. Occupational Injuries in Germany: Population-Wide National Survey Data Emphasize the Importance of Work-Related Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Rommel

    Full Text Available Unintentional injuries cause much of the global mortality burden, with the workplace being a common accident setting. Even in high-income economies, occupational injury figures remain remarkably high. Because risk factors for occupational injuries are prone to confounding, the present research takes a comprehensive approach. To better understand the occurrence of occupational injuries, sociodemographic factors and work- and health-related factors are tested simultaneously. Thus, the present analysis aims to develop a comprehensive epidemiological model that facilitates the explanation of varying injury rates in the workplace. The representative phone survey German Health Update 2010 provides information on medically treated occupational injuries sustained in the year prior to the interview. Data were collected on sociodemographics, occupation, working conditions, health-related behaviors, and chronic diseases. For the economically active population (18-70 years, n = 14,041, the 12-month prevalence of occupational injuries was calculated with a 95% confidence interval (CI. Blockwise multiple logistic regression was applied to successively include different groups of variables. Overall, 2.8% (95% CI 2.4-3.2 of the gainfully employed population report at least one occupational injury (women: 0.9%; 95% CI 0.7-1.2; men: 4.3%; 95% CI 3.7-5.0. In the fully adjusted model, male gender (OR 3.16 and age 18-29 (OR 1.54, as well as agricultural (OR 5.40, technical (OR 3.41, skilled service (OR 4.24 or manual (OR 5.12, and unskilled service (OR 3.13 or manual (OR 4.97 occupations are associated with higher chances of occupational injuries. The same holds for frequent stressors such as heavy carrying (OR 1.78, working in awkward postures (OR 1.46, environmental stress (OR 1.48, and working under pressure (OR 1.41. Among health-related variables, physical inactivity (OR 1.47 and obesity (OR 1.73 present a significantly higher chance of occupational injuries

  9. Image processing occupancy sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackney, Larry J.

    2016-09-27

    A system and method of detecting occupants in a building automation system environment using image based occupancy detection and position determinations. In one example, the system includes an image processing occupancy sensor that detects the number and position of occupants within a space that has controllable building elements such as lighting and ventilation diffusers. Based on the position and location of the occupants, the system can finely control the elements to optimize conditions for the occupants, optimize energy usage, among other advantages.

  10. Occupational therapy students' perceptions of occupational therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turpin, Merrill June; Rodger, Sylvia; Hall, Anna R

    2012-10-01

    An understanding of students' perceptions of occupational therapy on entry is required to recognise how professional socialisation occurs through curriculum. Findings pertain to a qualitative study investigating students' perceptions of occupational therapy upon entry to two occupational therapy programmes in Australia. Students commencing Bachelor of Occupational Therapy and Masters of Occupational Therapy Studies programmes participated in the study (n = 462). A purpose-designed questionnaire was distributed to students in the first lecture of each programme. Preliminary analysis comprised identification of keywords/phrases and coding categories were generated from patterns of keywords. Frequency counts and percentages of keywords/phrases within categories were completed. Students' responses were categorised as 'what' occupational therapists do; 'how' they do it; 'why' they do it; and 'who' they work with. In 'what' occupational therapists do students frequently described 'helping' people. Both undergraduate and graduate entry masters students used the term 'rehabilitation' to describe how occupational therapy is done, with graduate entry students occasionally responding with 'through occupation' and 'modifying the environment'. Students perceived the 'why' of occupational therapy as getting back to 'everyday activities', with some students emphasising returning to 'normal' activities or life. Regarding the 'who' category, students also thought occupational therapists worked with people with an 'injury' or 'disability'. Students entered their occupational therapy programmes with perceptions consistent with the general public's views of occupational therapy. However, graduate entry students exposed to a pre-reading package prior to entry had more advanced occupational therapy concepts than undergraduate students. © 2011 The Authors. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal © 2011 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  11. The association between social stressors and home smoking rules among women with infants in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint Onge, Jarron M; Gurley-Calvez, Tami; Orth, Teresa A; Okah, Felix A

    2014-12-01

    We examined the role of social stressors on home-smoking rules (HSRs) among women with infants in the United States, with attention on the moderating role of smoking status and depression. We analyzed data for 118 062 women with recent births in the United States who participated in the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (2004-2010), which is a population-based surveillance data set. We fit multinomial logistic models to predict the odds of partial or no HSRs by a cumulative index of prenatal social stressors. Compared with those with no stressors, mothers with high levels of social stressors had 2.5 times higher odds of partial or no HSRs. Smokers in the 1-2, 3-5, and ≥ 6 stressor categories were 9.0%, 9.6%, and 10.8% more likely to have partial or no HSRs, respectively. Under the highest levels of stress (≥ 6), nonsmokers were almost as likely as smokers to have partial or no HSRs. In addition, the effects of stress on HSRs were more pronounced for nonsmoker, nondepressed mothers. Increases in social stressors represented an important risk factor for partial or no HSRs and might have potential negative implications for infants.

  12. A study of the relationship between variables from the model of human occupation and subjective well-being among university students in jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, Farzaneh; Jibril, Musa; Kielhofner, Gary

    2008-01-01

    The occupational role of a university student can create challenges that negatively affect subjective well-being. Cultural factors can make these problems particularly acute for students from Arab backgrounds. This study examined the relationship between variables derived from the Model of Human Occupation (MOHO) and Jordanian university students' subjective well-being. Using cluster sampling, a total of 670 participants were recruited from the undergraduate student body at the University of Jordan. Data were collected from these students using the Role checklist, the Occupational Self-Assessment, the Affectometer 2, and the Satisfaction with Life Scale. As hypothesized, reported roles, valuation of roles, perceived competence in volition, habituation, performance capacity/skills, and the environment were significantly correlated with subjective well-being. A discriminant analysis using the most strongly correlated items significantly classified students into known groups of high and low subjective well-being. Overall, MOHO-based variables offered an effective explanation of factors that influence subjective well-being in Jordanian university students.

  13. A Study of The Relationship Between The Components of The Five-Factor Model of Personality and The Occurrence of Occupational Accidents in Industry Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsanollah Habibi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Accidents are among the most important problems of both the developed and the developing countries. Individual factors and personality traits are the primary causes of human errors and contribute to accidents. The present study aims to investigate the relationship between the components of the five-factor model of personality and the occurrence of occupational accidents in industrial workers. The independent T-test indicated that there is a meaningful relationship between the personality traits and accident proneness. In the two groups of industry workers injured in occupational accidents and industry workers without any occupational accidents, there is a significant relationship between personality traits, neuroticism (p=0.001, openness to experience (p=0.001, extraversion (p=0.024 and conscientiousness (p=0.021. Nonetheless, concerning the personality trait of agreeableness (p = 0.09, the group of workers with accidents did not differ significantly from the workers without any accidents. The results showed that there is a direct and significant relationship between accident proneness and the personality traits of neuroticism and openness to experience. Furthermore, there is a meaningful but inverse correlation between accident proneness and the personality traits of extraversion and conscientiousness, while there was no relationship between accident proneness and the personality trait of agreeableness.

  14. Complex relationships between occupation, environment, DNA adducts, genetic polymorphisms and bladder cancer in a case-control study using a structural equation modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Porru

    Full Text Available DNA adducts are considered an integrate measure of carcinogen exposure and the initial step of carcinogenesis. Their levels in more accessible peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs mirror that in the bladder tissue. In this study we explore whether the formation of PBL DNA adducts may be associated with bladder cancer (BC risk, and how this relationship is modulated by genetic polymorphisms, environmental and occupational risk factors for BC. These complex interrelationships, including direct and indirect effects of each variable, were appraised using the structural equation modeling (SEM analysis. Within the framework of a hospital-based case/control study, study population included 199 BC cases and 213 non-cancer controls, all Caucasian males. Data were collected on lifetime smoking, coffee drinking, dietary habits and lifetime occupation, with particular reference to exposure to aromatic amines (AAs and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. No indirect paths were found, disproving hypothesis on association between PBL DNA adducts and BC risk. DNA adducts were instead positively associated with occupational cumulative exposure to AAs (p = 0.028, whereas XRCC1 Arg 399 (p<0.006 was related with a decreased adduct levels, but with no impact on BC risk. Previous findings on increased BC risk by packyears (p<0.001, coffee (p<0.001, cumulative AAs exposure (p = 0.041 and MnSOD (p = 0.009 and a decreased risk by MPO (p<0.008 were also confirmed by SEM analysis. Our results for the first time make evident an association between occupational cumulative exposure to AAs with DNA adducts and BC risk, strengthening the central role of AAs in bladder carcinogenesis. However the lack of an association between PBL DNA adducts and BC risk advises that these snapshot measurements are not representative of relevant exposures. This would envisage new scenarios for biomarker discovery and new challenges such as repeated measurements at different

  15. Education and Occupational Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnes, Geraint; Freguglia, Ricardo; Spricigo, Gisele

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the dynamic relationship between policies related to educational provision and both educational participation and occupational outcomes in Brazil, using PNAD and RAIS-Migra data. Design/methodology/approach: Outcomes are examined using: static...... multinomial logit analysis, and structural dynamic discrete choice modelling. The latter approach, coupled with the quality of the RAIS-Migra data source, allows the authors to evaluate the education policy impacts over time. Findings: The main results show that the education level raises the propensity...... that the individual will be in formal sector work or still in education, and reduces the probability of the other outcomes. Transition into non-manual formal sector work following education may, however, occur via a spell of manual work. Originality/value: This is the first study of occupational destination...

  16. Occupational Stress Among Home Healthcare Workers: Integrating Worker and Agency-Level Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoeckler, Jeanette M

    2018-02-01

    Home healthcare work is physically and emotionally exhausting. In addition, home healthcare workers frequently work under precarious work arrangements for low wages and in poor work conditions. Little is known about how sources of job strain for home healthcare workers might be reduced. This research examines the occupational stressors among paid home care workers by analyzing home healthcare agency characteristics and individual home healthcare workers' experiences in upstate New York agencies (n = 9). The study augments existing theoretical models and describes new sources of stress arising from the nature of agency-based caregiving. Results feature the analysis of both agency executives' (n = 20) and home healthcare workers' narratives (n = 25) to make the agency's inner workings more transparent. Agency structures and culture are implicated in the lack of progress to address home care workers' health problems. Policy change should focus on compensation, healthier work conditions, and training requirements.

  17. The Effects of Occupational Stress, Work-Centrality, Self-Efficacy, and Job Satisfaction on Intent to Quit Among Long-Term Care Workers in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeongkyu; Yoon, Seokwon; Moon, Sung Seek; Lee, Kyoung Hag; Park, Jueun

    2017-01-01

    A large and growing population of elderly Koreans with chronic conditions necessitates an increase in long-term care. This study is aimed at investigating the effects of occupational stress, work-centrality, self-efficacy, and job satisfaction on intent to leave among long-term care workers in Korea. We tested the hypothesized structural equation model predicting the intention to quit among long-term care workers in Korea. Survey data were collected from 532 long-term care workers in Seoul, Korea. Results showed that occupational stress was positively associated with intention to leave the job. The study also identified several possible mediators (self-efficacy, work-centrality, job satisfaction) in the relationship between stress and intent to quit. Evidence-based stress management interventions are suggested to help the workers better cope with stressors. Mentoring programs should also be considered for new workers.

  18. Parenting stress and external stressors as predictors of maternal ratings of child adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostberg, Monica; Hagekull, Berit

    2013-06-01

    This study sought to disentangle the effects of different kinds of stress on maternal ratings of child externalizing and internalizing problems, social inhibition, and social competence, with a primary focus on parenting stress. The relations were explored in a sample consisting of mothers of 436 children (Mage  = 7 years) in Sweden. Half the sample had had early clinical contacts during infancy due to child regulation problems, and the rest were mothers without known such early contacts. Demographic factors, family stressors, and parenting stress were examined in stress - adjustment models. Family stressors were clinical contact during infancy, current child and parent health problems, recent negative life events, and insufficient social support. Parenting stress as a mediator of the effect of other stressors on rated child adjustment was tested as was social support as a moderator of the effect of parenting stress on adjustment. The results showed that a higher parenting stress level was associated with maternal ratings of more externalizing and internalizing behaviors, more social inhibition, and lower social competence. Other family stressors and background variables were also found to be of importance, mainly for externalizing and internalizing problems and to some extent for social competence. Social inhibition had a unique relation to parenting stress only. Parenting stress mediated effects of other stressors in twelve models, whereas social support had no moderating effect on the link between parenting stress and child adjustment. Thus, parenting stress seems to be an important overarching construct. Clinical implications are proposed. © 2013 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2013 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  19. Heterogeneous occupancy and density estimates of the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in waters of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chestnut, Tara E.; Anderson, Chauncey; Popa, Radu; Blaustein, Andrew R.; Voytek, Mary; Olson, Deanna H.; Kirshtein, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Biodiversity losses are occurring worldwide due to a combination of stressors. For example, by one estimate, 40% of amphibian species are vulnerable to extinction, and disease is one threat to amphibian populations. The emerging infectious disease chytridiomycosis, caused by the aquatic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), is a contributor to amphibian declines worldwide. Bd research has focused on the dynamics of the pathogen in its amphibian hosts, with little emphasis on investigating the dynamics of free-living Bd. Therefore, we investigated patterns of Bd occupancy and density in amphibian habitats using occupancy models, powerful tools for estimating site occupancy and detection probability. Occupancy models have been used to investigate diseases where the focus was on pathogen occurrence in the host. We applied occupancy models to investigate free-living Bd in North American surface waters to determine Bd seasonality, relationships between Bd site occupancy and habitat attributes, and probability of detection from water samples as a function of the number of samples, sample volume, and water quality. We also report on the temporal patterns of Bd density from a 4-year case study of a Bd-positive wetland. We provide evidence that Bd occurs in the environment year-round. Bd exhibited temporal and spatial heterogeneity in density, but did not exhibit seasonality in occupancy. Bd was detected in all months, typically at less than 100 zoospores L−1. The highest density observed was ∼3 million zoospores L−1. We detected Bd in 47% of sites sampled, but estimated that Bd occupied 61% of sites, highlighting the importance of accounting for imperfect detection. When Bd was present, there was a 95% chance of detecting it with four samples of 600 ml of water or five samples of 60 mL. Our findings provide important baseline information to advance the study of Bd disease ecology, and advance our understanding of amphibian exposure

  20. Organisational stressors, coping, and outcomes in competitive sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Rachel; Fletcher, David; Daniels, Kevin

    2017-04-01

    Organisational stressors are associated with positive and negative outcomes in extant literature; however, little is known about which demands predict which outcomes. Extant theory and literature also suggests that coping style may influence an individual's resilience or vulnerability to stressors and, subsequently, their psychological responses and outcomes. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to examine the main effects of organisational stressors and coping styles on various outcomes (e.g., positive and negative affect, performance satisfaction). Sport performers (n = 414) completed measures of organisational stressors, coping styles, positive and negative affect, and performance satisfaction. Multiple regression analyses revealed positive relationships of both goals and development stressors (duration and intensity) and team and culture stressors (frequency and intensity) on negative affect. Furthermore, problem-focused coping was positively related to positive affect, and emotion-focused coping was positively related to negative affect. This study furthers theoretical knowledge regarding the associations that both organisational stressors (and their dimensions) and coping styles can have with various outcomes, and practical understanding regarding the optimal design of stress management interventions.

  1. Factor structure and longitudinal measurement invariance of the demand control support model: an evidence from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holendro Singh Chungkham

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To examine the factor structure and to evaluate the longitudinal measurement invariance of the demand-control-support questionnaire (DCSQ, using the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH. METHODS: A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA and multi-group confirmatory factor analysis (MGCFA models within the framework of structural equation modeling (SEM have been used to examine the factor structure and invariance across time. RESULTS: Four factors: psychological demand, skill discretion, decision authority and social support, were confirmed by CFA at baseline, with the best fit obtained by removing the item repetitive work of skill discretion. A measurement error correlation (0.42 between work fast and work intensively for psychological demands was also detected. Acceptable composite reliability measures were obtained except for skill discretion (0.68. The invariance of the same factor structure was established, but caution in comparing mean levels of factors over time is warranted as lack of intercept invariance was evident. However, partial intercept invariance was established for work intensively. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that skill discretion and decision authority represent two distinct constructs in the retained model. However removing the item repetitive work along with either work fast or work intensively would improve model fit. Care should also be taken while making comparisons in the constructs across time. Further research should investigate invariance across occupations or socio-economic classes.

  2. Factor structure and longitudinal measurement invariance of the demand control support model: an evidence from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chungkham, Holendro Singh; Ingre, Michael; Karasek, Robert; Westerlund, Hugo; Theorell, Töres

    2013-01-01

    To examine the factor structure and to evaluate the longitudinal measurement invariance of the demand-control-support questionnaire (DCSQ), using the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH). A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and multi-group confirmatory factor analysis (MGCFA) models within the framework of structural equation modeling (SEM) have been used to examine the factor structure and invariance across time. Four factors: psychological demand, skill discretion, decision authority and social support, were confirmed by CFA at baseline, with the best fit obtained by removing the item repetitive work of skill discretion. A measurement error correlation (0.42) between work fast and work intensively for psychological demands was also detected. Acceptable composite reliability measures were obtained except for skill discretion (0.68). The invariance of the same factor structure was established, but caution in comparing mean levels of factors over time is warranted as lack of intercept invariance was evident. However, partial intercept invariance was established for work intensively. Our findings indicate that skill discretion and decision authority represent two distinct constructs in the retained model. However removing the item repetitive work along with either work fast or work intensively would improve model fit. Care should also be taken while making comparisons in the constructs across time. Further research should investigate invariance across occupations or socio-economic classes.

  3. Risk Level Based Management System: a control banding model for occupational health and safety risk management in a highly regulated environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zalk, D; Kamerzell, R; Paik, S; Kapp, J; Harrington, D; Swuste, P

    2009-05-27

    The Risk Level Based Management System (RLBMS) is an occupational risk management (ORM) model that focuses occupational safety, hygeiene, and health (OSHH) resources on the highest risk procedures at work. This article demonstrates the model's simplicity through an implementation within a heavily regulated research institution. The model utilizes control banding strategies with a stratification of four risk levels (RLs) for many commonly performed maintenance and support activities, characterizing risk consistently for comparable tasks. RLBMS creates an auditable tracking of activities, maximizes OSHH professional field time, and standardizes documentation and control commensurate to a given task's RL. Validation of RLs and their exposure control effectiveness is collected in a traditional quantitative collection regime for regulatory auditing. However, qualitative risk assessment methods are also used within this validation process. Participatory approaches are used throughout the RLBMS process. Workers are involved in all phases of building, maintaining, and improving this model. This work participation also improves the implementation of established controls.

  4. Social stressors and air pollution across New York City communities: a spatial approach for assessing correlations among multiple exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmool, Jessie L C; Kubzansky, Laura D; Newman, Ogonnaya Dotson; Spengler, John; Shepard, Peggy; Clougherty, Jane E

    2014-11-06

    Recent toxicological and epidemiological evidence suggests that chronic psychosocial stress may modify pollution effects on health. Thus, there is increasing interest in refined methods for assessing and incorporating non-chemical exposures, including social stressors, into environmental health research, towards identifying whether and how psychosocial stress interacts with chemical exposures to influence health and health disparities. We present a flexible, GIS-based approach for examining spatial patterns within and among a range of social stressors, and their spatial relationships with air pollution, across New York City, towards understanding their combined effects on health. We identified a wide suite of administrative indicators of community-level social stressors (2008-2010), and applied simultaneous autoregressive models and factor analysis to characterize spatial correlations among social stressors, and between social stressors and air pollutants, using New York City Community Air Survey (NYCCAS) data (2008-2009). Finally, we provide an exploratory ecologic analysis evaluating possible modification of the relationship between nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and childhood asthma Emergency Department (ED) visit rates by social stressors, to demonstrate how the methods used to assess stressor exposure (and/or consequent psychosocial stress) may alter model results. Administrative indicators of a range of social stressors (e.g., high crime rate, residential crowding rate) were not consistently correlated (rho = - 0.44 to 0.89), nor were they consistently correlated with indicators of socioeconomic position (rho = - 0.54 to 0.89). Factor analysis using 26 stressor indicators suggested geographically distinct patterns of social stressors, characterized by three factors: violent crime and physical disorder, crowding and poor access to resources, and noise disruption and property crimes. In an exploratory ecologic analysis, these factors were differentially

  5. The impact of changes in work stressors and coping resources on the risk of new-onset suicide ideation among Chinese petroleum industry workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jing; Guan, Suzhen; Ge, Hua; Tao, Ning; Zhang, Yanxia; Jiang, Yu; Ning, Li; Liu, Jiwen; Lian, Yulong

    2017-05-01

    Little is known about the relationship between changing psychosocial work conditions and suicidality. We examined whether or not changed work stressors and coping resources increase the risk of new-onset suicidal ideation. A total of 1384 workers from the Occupational Health Study of Petroleum Industry Workers were included in this study. A baseline evaluation of work-related stress and coping resources was followed by a final evaluation after 2 years. The changes in task stressors and coping resources were measured using the Occupation Stress Inventory-Revised Edition, and changes in job control and organizational stressors were evaluated using the Instrument for Stress-Related Job Analysis (v. 6.0). Increased task stressors (RR = 2.87, 95% CI = 1.48, 6.15) and decreased coping resources (RR = 2.53, 95% CI = 1.31, 5.34) were associated with an elevated risk of new-onset suicidal ideation incidence. Effect magnitudes were higher than known suicidal risk factors. The main risk factors were increased role overload, increased role insufficiency, increased accident risk, and decreased recreation. Decreased coping resources also increased the negative effect of task stressors on new-onset suicidal ideation. However, increased coping resources did not decrease the effect. These findings demonstrate that changes in work stressors and coping resources have a strong influence on new-onset suicidal ideation, highlighting the importance of preventive measures against adverse psychosocial work conditions and reduced coping resources for workplace suicide behavior prevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Occupant behavior and energy consumption in dwellings: An analysis of behavioral models and actual energy consumption in the dutch housing stock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merve Bedir

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Much is known about the increasing levels of energy consumption and environmental decay caused by the built environment. Also, more and more attention is shown to the energy consumption of dwellings, from the early design stage until the occupants start living in them. The increasing complexity of building technologies, the occupants’ preferences, and their needs and demands make it difficult to achieve the aimed energy consumption levels. The goal of reducing the energy consumption of dwellings and understanding the share of occupant behavior in it form the context of this research. Several studies have demonstrated the ‘energy performance gap’ between the calculated and the actual energy consumption levels of buildings, and have explored the reasons for it. The energy performance gap is either caused by calculation drawbacks, uncertainties of modeling weather conditions, construction defects regarding air tightness and insulation levels, or by occupant behavior. This research focuses on the last aspect, i.e. analyzing the relationship between occupant behavior and energy consumption in dwellings, understanding the determinants of energy consumption, and finding occupants’ behavioral patterns. There are several dimensions of occupant behavior and energy consumption of dwellings: dwelling characteristics including the energy and indoor comfort management systems, building envelope, lighting and appliances; occupant characteristics including the social, educational and economical; and actual behavior, including the control of heating, ventilation and lighting of spaces, and appliance use, hot water use, washing, bathing, and cleaning. Attempting to understand this complexity asks for a methodology that covers both quantitative and qualitative methods; and both cross-sectional and longitudinal data collection, working interdisciplinary among the domains of design for sustainability, environmental psychology, and building and design

  7. Towards a landscape scale management of pesticides: ERA using changes in modelled occupancy and abundance to assess long-term population impacts of pesticides

    OpenAIRE

    Topping, Chris J.; Craig, Peter S.; de Jong, Frank; Klein, Michael; Laskowski, Ryszard; Manachini, Barbara; Pieper, Silvia; Smith, Robert H.; Sousa, José Paulo; Streissl, Franz; Swarowsky, Klaus; Tiktak, Aaldrik; van der Linden, Ton

    2015-01-01

    Pesticides are regulated in Europe and this process includes an environmental risk assessment (ERA) for non-target arthropods (NTA). Traditionally a non-spatial or field trial assessment is used. In this study we exemplify the introduction of a spatial context to the ERA as well as suggest a way in which the results of complex models, necessary for proper inclusion of spatial aspects in the ERA, can be presented and evaluated easily using abundance and occupancy ratios (AOR). We used an agent...

  8. Disentangling the indirect links between socioeconomic status and health: the dynamic roles of work stressors and personal control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Amy M; Barling, Julian

    2009-11-01

    Prior research has documented an indirect link between socioeconomic status (SES) and health, and the goal in this study was to help unravel this phenomenon from a dynamic perspective. The authors hypothesized that SES would be positively related to feelings of personal control and negatively related to perceived work stressors. Drawing on dynamic conceptualizations of these psychosocial factors, they suggest that these psychosocial factors relate to one another over time. Individuals who have higher levels of personal control experience increasingly fewer work stressors over time than do those with lower levels of personal control, and those who experience greater work stressors increasingly perceive less personal control over time than do those with fewer work stressors. Finally, the authors argue that trajectories of personal control and work stressors are associated with the accumulation of health problems over the same period. Their model was tested with 3-wave data (over 4 years) from a nationally representative sample of Canadian employees (N = 3,419). Latent curve modeling provides support for the proposed dynamic model. Conceptual and practical implications are drawn, and suggestions for future research are outlined.

  9. On the Relationship Between First Occupation and Current Occupational Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, E. M.; Madans, J. H.

    1974-01-01

    Three alternative models are presented to represent the decreased importance of the status of first job on current occupational status overtime; there is evidence that the effects of first job erode with time. Models not explicitly incorporating labor force experience may suffer a serious specification error. (Author/AJ)

  10. THE IMPACT OF SEXUAL HARASSMENT ON DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS DURING THE EARLY OCCUPATIONAL CAREER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, Jason N.; Staff, Jeremy; Mortimer, Jeylan T.; Uggen, Christopher; Blackstone, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Sexual harassment has been theorized as a stressor with consequences for the physical and mental health of its targets. Though social scientists have documented a negative association between sexual harassment and mental health, few longitudinal studies have investigated the association between sexual harassment and depressive symptoms. Using longitudinal survey data from the Youth Development Study, combined with in-depth interviews, this article draws on Louise Fitzgerald’s theoretical framework, stress theory, and the life course perspective to assess the impact of sexual harassment on depressive affect during the early occupational career. In support of Fitzgerald’s model, our findings confirm that sexual harassment is a stressor that is associated with increased depressive symptoms. Our quantitative results show that women and men who experience more frequent sexual harassment at work have significantly higher levels of depressed mood than non-harassed workers, even after controlling for prior harassment and depressive symptoms. Moreover, we find evidence that sexual harassment early in the career has long-term effects on depressive symptoms in adulthood. Interviews with a subset of our survey respondents point to a variety of coping strategies and reveal further links between harassment and other aspects of mental health, such as anger and self-doubt. PMID:22140650

  11. Sensory input from the osphradium modulates the response to memory-enhancing stressors in Lymnaea stagnalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnik, Vikram; Braun, Marvin; Dalesman, Sarah; Lukowiak, Ken

    2012-02-01

    In the freshwater environment species often rely on chemosensory information to modulate behavior. The pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, is a model species used to characterize the causal mechanisms of long-term memory (LTM) formation. Chemical stressors including crayfish kairomones and KCl enhance LTM formation (≥24 h) in Lymnaea; however, how these stressors are sensed and the mechanism by which they affect the electrophysiological properties of neurons necessary for memory formation are poorly understood. Here, we assessed whether the osphradium, a primary chemosensory organ in Lymnaea, modulates LTM enhancement. To test this we severed the osphradial nerve proximal to the osphradium, using sham-operated animals as controls, and assessed the behavioral and electrophysiological response to crayfish kairomones and KCl. We operantly conditioned aerial respiratory behavior in intact, sham and osphradially cut animals, and tested for enhanced memory formation after exposure to the chemical stressors. Sham-operated animals displayed the same memory enhancement as intact animals but snails with a severed osphradial nerve did not show LTM enhancement. Extracellular recordings made from the osphradial nerve demonstrate that these stressors evoked afferent sensory activity. Intracellular recordings from right pedal dorsal 1 (RPeD1), a neuron necessary for LTM formation, demonstrate that its electrophysiological activity is altered by input from the osphradium following exposure to crayfish kairomones or KCl in sham and intact animals but no response is seen in RPeD1 in osphradially cut animals. Therefore, sensory input from the osphradium is necessary for LTM enhancement following exposure to these chemical stressors.

  12. Evaluation of stressors and coping strategies for stress in Indian anaesthesiologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R V Shidhaye

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have been done to assess job satisfaction and quantify effects of stressors on anaesthesiologists in different regions and countries.Studies related to stress in Indian anaesthesiologists are very limited, which prompted us to design this study not only to identify the stressors but also to find out how anaesthesiologists react to stress and devise means to minimize it to increase their job satisfaction levels. A set of questions was handed over personally to 200 anaesthesiologists at the national- and state-level anaesthesiology conferences and continuing medical educations with a request to return them duly filled in, with an assurance that confidentiality and anonymity would bemaintained.Main outcome measures were demographics, factors causing stress, how the responding anaesthesiologists and their colleagues react to it and methods they adopt to reduce stress at their workplace. Response rate was 96%. The total number of respondents was 192 (54% males and 46% females; juniors, 76%; and seniors, 24%. Identified stressors were as follows: time constraints (34%, medicolegal concerns (24%, interference with home life (22%, clinical problems (20% and communication problems (9%. Different strategies for coping with stress were identified. This survey is just a beginning. Indian Society of Anaesthesiologists is requested to look into the matter and take it further on a larger scale by multicentric studies to lay down standards related to number of working hours, number of night-call duties per week, proper assistance, medicolegal protection, etc., which would not only reduce occupational stress but also improve efficiency and job satisfaction among anaesthesiologists.

  13. Physiological monitoring of team and task stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orasanu, Judith; Tada, Yuri; Kraft, Norbert; Fischer, Ute

    2005-05-01

    Sending astronauts into space, especially on long-durations missions (e.g. three-year missions to Mars), entails enormous risk. Threats include both physical dangers of radiation, bone loss and other consequences of weightlessness, and also those arising from interpersonal problems associated with extended life in a high-risk isolated and confined environment. Before undertaking long-duration missions, NASA seeks to develop technologies to monitor indicators of potentially debilitating stress at both the individual and team level so that countermeasures can be introduced to prevent further deterioration. Doing so requires a better understanding of indicators of team health and performance. To that end, a study of team problem solving in a simulation environment was undertaken to explore effects of team and task stress. Groups of four males (25-45 yrs) engaged in six dynamic computer-based Antarctic search and rescue missions over four days. Both task and team stressors were manipulated. Physiological responses (ECG, respiration rate and amplitude, SCL, EMG, and PPG); communication (voice and email); individual personality and subjective team dynamics responses were collected and related to task performance. Initial analyses found that physiological measures can be used to identify transient stress, predict performance, and reflect subjective workload. Muscle tension and respiration were the most robust predictors. Not only the level of arousal but its variability during engagement in the task is important to consider. In general, less variability was found to be associated with higher levels of performance. Individuals scoring high on specific personality characteristics responded differently to task stress.

  14. Performers' responses to stressors encountered in sport organisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, David; Hanton, Sheldon; Wagstaff, Christopher R D

    2012-01-01

    We investigated athletes' responses to organisational stressors. Ten sport performers (five males and five females) were interviewed with regard to the organisational-related demands they had encountered and their responses to these stressors. The main emotional responses that were revealed were anger, anxiety, disappointment, distress, happiness, hope, relief, reproach and resentment. The main attitudinal responses were beliefs, motivation and satisfaction. The main behavioural responses were categorised as verbal and physical. The data indicate that performers generally respond to organisational stressors with a wide range of emotions, attitudes and behaviours. The findings are discussed in relation to the extant literature and in terms of their implications for applied practice and future research. Consultants should employ reactive strategies alongside proactive approaches to ensure that performers are psychologically prepared to manage and cope with any demands that are not eliminated. Future research should focus on performers' cognitive appraisals of the organisational stressors they encounter.

  15. CADDIS Volume 1. Stressor Identification: About Causal Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    An introduction to the history of our approach to causal assessment, A chronology of causal history and philosophy, An introduction to causal history and philosophy, References for the Causal Assessment Background section of Stressor Identification

  16. Accounting for the uncertainty related to building occupants with regards to visual comfort: A literature survey on drivers and models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabi, Valentina; Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Corgnati, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    was related to the occupancy and differentiated for arrival, intermediate, and departure periods. The switching probability has been reported to be higher during the entering or the leaving time in relation to contextual variables. In the analysis of switch-on actions, users were often clustered between those...... who take daylight level into account and switch on lights only if necessary and people who totally disregard the natural lighting. This underlines the importance of how individuality is at the base of the definition of the different types of users....

  17. Teaching Clinical Social Work under Occupation: Listening to the Voices of Palestinian Social Work Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaliari, Efrosini; Berzoff, Joan; Byers, David S.; Fareed, Anan; Berzoff-Cohen, Jake; Hreish, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    The authors were invited to teach clinical social work in the Palestinian West Bank. In order to teach, we designed a study exploring how 65 Palestinian social work students described the psychological and social effects of working under occupation. Students described social stressors of poverty, unemployment, lack of infrastructure, violence,…

  18. Clinical Laboratory Stressors Used to Study Alcohol?Stress Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Suzanne; Bacon, Amy K.; Sinha, Rajita; Uhart, Magdalena; Adinoff, Bryon

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the biologic systems that underlie the relationship between stress and alcohol consumption may lead to better prevention efforts and more effective treatments for alcoholism. Clinical laboratory studies offer a unique opportunity to examine these relationships by using a controlled environment to study how an acute stressor affects alcohol drinking and alcohol craving, how individuals in recovery or those at risk for alcoholism may respond differently to stressors relative to co...

  19. Family Stressors as the Cause of Rehospitalization in Psychotic Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Victoria Omranifard; Mohsen Yazdani; Mohammad Yaghoubi; Mahshid Namdari

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to describe attributors of family stressors which cause rehospitalizations in patients with psychotic disorders.Materials and methods: In a cross sectional study (during 2006-7) 203 randomly selected psychiatric readmitted patients with psychotic diagnosis and registered demographic and psychiatric clinical data were included. Family stressors as the possible cause of readmission were asked through a structured interview by the psychiatrist.Results: Family factors ...

  20. Impact of stressors on the performance of employees

    OpenAIRE

    Rana, Badar-ul-islam; Munir, Kashif

    2011-01-01

    It is important to recognize workplace stress because workplace stressors badly affect people’s mental as well as physiological health. Some of the reasons of stress at workplace could be the inability to meet out the demands of the job, relationship with colleagues and to control subordinate staff. After starting one’s career the key stressors are related to work, environment and people. Stress is the reaction of body due to interaction with any stimulus in the environment. This study focuse...

  1. Stressors in clinical nursing education in Iran: A systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Changiz, Tahereh; Malekpour, Alireza; Zargham-Boroujeni, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Background: Clinical education is a critical and complex component of nursing education that is influenced by many variables. One of them is stress, which may disturb students? learning, too. Stressors may differ according to the learning situation and environment, and recognizing them, seems to be essential for corrective interventions. The present work was performed to identify stressors in clinical nursing education in Iran, according to the published research reports. Materials and Method...

  2. The effects of exposure to multiple occupational health stressors on distortion product otoacoustic emissions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Edwards, A

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available -induced hearing loss (NIHL). Furthermore, exposure to heat is believed to influence the biochemical properties of cochlear outer hair cells (OHCs) and heat stress structurally modifies the OHCs, making them stiffer through an increase in F-actin5. This experiment...

  3. Stressors and common mental disorder in informal carers--an analysis of the English Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfeld, Stephen; Smuk, Melanie; Onwumere, Juliana; Clark, Charlotte; Pike, Cleo; McManus, Sally; Harris, Jenny; Bebbington, Paul

    2014-11-01

    This study investigates potential explanations of the association between caring and common mental disorder, using the English Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2007. We examined whether carers are more exposed to other stressors additional to caring--such as domestic violence and debt--and if so whether this explains their elevated rates of mental disorder. We analysed differences between carers and non-carers in common mental disorders (CMD), suicidal thoughts, suicidal attempts, recent stressors, social support, and social participation. We used multivariate models to investigate whether differences between carers and non-carers in identifiable stressors and supports explained the association between caring and CMD, as measured by the revised Clinical Interview Schedule. The prevalence of CMD (OR=1.64 95% CI 1.37-1.97), suicidal thoughts in the last week (OR=2.71 95% CI 1.31-5.62) and fatigue (OR=1.33 95% CI 1.14-1.54) was increased in carers. However, caring remained independently associated with CMD (OR=1.58 1.30-1.91) after adjustment for other stressors and social support. Thus caring itself is associated with increased risk of CMD that is not explained by other identified social stressors. Carers should be recognized as being at increased risk of CMD independent of the other life stressors they have to deal with. Interventions aimed at a direct reduction of the stressfulness of caring are indicated. However, carers also reported higher rates of debt problems and domestic violence and perceived social support was slightly lower in carers than in non-carers. So carers are also more likely to experience stressors other than caring and it is likely that they will need support not only aimed at their caring role, but also at other aspects of their lives. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Occupational stress and burnout among Hong Kong dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, H B; Wong, M Cm

    2017-10-01

    Professional burnout has been described as a gradual erosion of a person and may be one of the possible consequences of chronic occupational stress. Although occupational stress has been surveyed among dentists in Hong Kong, no study has been published about burnout in the profession. This study aimed to evaluate burnout among Hong Kong dentists and its association with occupational stress. We surveyed a random sample of 1086 registered dentists in Hong Kong, which formed 50% of the local profession. They were mailed an anonymous questionnaire about burnout and occupational stress in 2015. The questionnaire assessed occupational stress, coping strategies, effects of stress, level of burnout, and socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents. Occupational stress assessment concerned 33 stressors in five groups: patient-related, time-related, income-related, job-related, and staff-/technically related. Level of burnout was assessed by the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (22 items) with three scores: emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation, and personal accomplishment. Completed questionnaires were received from 301 dentists (response rate, 28.3%), of whom 25.4% had a high level of emotional exhaustion, 17.2% had a high level of depersonalisation, and 39.0% had a low level of personal accomplishment. Only 7.0% of respondents, however, had a high level of overall burnout (high emotional exhaustion, high depersonalisation, and low personal accomplishment). A high level of overall burnout was significantly associated with a higher mean score for job-related stressors and lack of postgraduate qualifications (Pburnout. There was a positive association between occupational stress and level of burnout.

  5. Simulation of annual electric lighting demand using various occupancy profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Anne; Andersen, Philip Hvidthøft Delff; Svendsen, Svend

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes an investigation of the effect on electric lighting demand of applying occupancy models of various resolution to climate-based daylight modelling. The lighting demand was evaluated for a building zone with the occupant always present, with occupancy corresponding to absence...... factors, based on an estimated annual mean occupancy, based on estimated 1-hour mean occupancy, and based on 2-min occupancy intervals. The results showed little difference in the annual electric lighting demand when the same occupancy profile was used every day, as opposed to when profiles were used...... where occupancy varied every day. Furthermore, the results showed that annual electric lighting demand was evaluated slightly conservatively when a mean absence factor was applied as opposed to using dynamic occupancy profiles....

  6. The role of anger and ongoing stressors in mental health following a natural disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, David; Alkemade, Nathan; Waters, Elizabeth; Gibbs, Lisa; Gallagher, Colin; Pattison, Phillipa; Lusher, Dean; MacDougall, Colin; Harms, Louise; Block, Karen; Snowdon, Elyse; Kellet, Connie; Sinnott, Vikki; Ireton, Greg; Richardson, John; Bryant, Richard A

    2015-08-01

    Research has established the mental health sequelae following disaster, with studies now focused on understanding factors that mediate these outcomes. This study focused on anger, alcohol, subsequent life stressors and traumatic events as mediators in the development of mental health disorders following the 2009 Black Saturday Bushfires, Australia's worst natural disaster in over 100 years. This study examined data from 1017 (M = 404, F = 613) adult residents across 25 communities differentially affected by the fires and participating in the Beyond Bushfires research study. Data included measures of fire exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, alcohol abuse, anger and subsequent major life stressors and traumatic events. Structural equation modeling assessed the influence of factors mediating the effects of fire exposure on mental health outcomes. Three mediation models were tested. The final model recorded excellent fit and observed a direct relationship between disaster exposure and mental health outcomes (b = .192, p disaster exposure and development of mental health problems. The findings have significant implications for the assessment of anger post disaster, the provision of targeted anger-focused interventions and delivery of government and community assistance and support in addressing ongoing stressors in the post-disaster context to minimize subsequent mental health consequences. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  7. Evaluation of kinematics and injuries to restrained occupants in far-side crashes using full-scale vehicle and human body models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun, Mike W J; Umale, Sagar; Humm, John R; Yoganandan, Narayan; Hadagali, Prasanaah; Pintar, Frank A

    2016-09-01

    The objective of the current study was to perform a parametric study with different impact objects, impact locations, and impact speeds by analyzing occupant kinematics and injury estimations using a whole-vehicle and whole-body finite element-human body model (FE-HBM). To confirm the HBM responses, the biofidelity of the model was validated using data from postmortem human surrogate (PMHS) sled tests. The biofidelity of the model was validated using data from sled experiments and correlational analysis (CORA). Full-scale simulations were performed using a restrained Global Human Body Model Consortium (GHBMC) model seated on a 2001 Ford Taurus model using a far-side lateral impact condition. The driver seat was placed in the center position to represent a nominal initial impact condition. A 3-point seat belt with pretensioner and retractor was used to restrain the GHBMC model. A parametric study was performed using 12 simulations by varying impact locations, impacting object, and impact speed using the full-scale models. In all 12 simulations, the principal direction of force (PDOF) was selected as 90°. The impacting objects were a 10-in.-diameter rigid vertical pole and a movable deformable barrier. The impact location of the pole was at the C-pillar in the first case, at the B-pillar in the second case, and, finally, at the A-pillar in the third case. The vehicle and the GHBMC models were defined an initial velocity of 35 km/h (high speed) and 15 km/h (low speed). Excursion of the head center of gravity (CG), T6, and pelvis were measured from the simulations. In addition, injury risk estimations were performed on head, rib cage, lungs, kidneys, liver, spleen, and pelvis. The average CORA rating was 0.7. The shoulder belt slipped in B- and C-pillar impacts but somewhat engaged in the A-pillar case. In the B-pillar case, the head contacted the intruding struck-side structures, indicating higher risk of injury. Occupant kinematics depended on interaction with

  8. Feeling old today? Daily health, stressors, and affect explain day-to-day variability in subjective age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotter-Grühn, Dana; Neupert, Shevaun D; Stephan, Yannick

    2015-01-01

    Subjective age is an important correlate of health, well-being, and longevity. So far, little is known about short-term variability in subjective age and the circumstances under which individuals feel younger/older in daily life. This study examined whether (a) older adults' felt age fluctuates on a day-to-day basis, (b) daily changes in health, stressors, and affect explain fluctuations in felt age, and (c) the daily associations between felt age and health, stressors, or affect are time-ordered. Using an eight-day daily diary approach, N = 43 adults (60-96 years, M = 74.65, SD = 8.19) filled out daily questionnaires assessing subjective age, health, daily stressors, and affect. Data were analysed using multilevel modelling. Subjective age, health, daily stressors, affect. Intra-individual variability in felt age was not explained by time but by short-term variability in other variables. Specifically, on days when participants experienced more than average health problems, stress, or negative affect they felt older than on days with average health, stress, or negative affect. No time-ordered effects were found. Bad health, many stressors, and negative affective experiences constitute circumstances under which older adults feel older than they typically do. Thus, daily measures of subjective age could be markers of health and well-being.

  9. Occupational hearing loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001048.htm Occupational hearing loss To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Occupational hearing loss is damage to the inner ear from noise ...

  10. Occupational Noise Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safety and Health Topics / Occupational Noise Exposure Occupational Noise Exposure This page requires that javascript be enabled ... interprets the signal as sound. x What is noise? Noise and vibration are both fluctuations in the ...

  11. Relationships among supervisor feedback environment, work-related stressors, and employee deviance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jei-Chen; Tseng, Mei-Man; Lee, Yin-Ling

    2011-03-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that the employee deviance imposes enormous costs on organizational performance and productivity. Similar research supports the positive effect of favorable supervisor feedback on employee job performance. In light of such, it is important to understand the interaction between supervisor feedback environment and employee deviant behavior to streamline organization operations. The purposes of this study were to explore how the supervisor feedback environment influences employee deviance and to examine the mediating role played by work-related stressors. Data were collected from 276 subordinate-supervisor dyads at a regional hospital in Yilan. Structural equation modeling analyses were conducted to test hypotheses. Structural equation modeling analysis results show that supervisor feedback environment negatively related to interpersonal and organizational deviance. Moreover, work-related stressors were found to partially mediate the relationship between supervisor feedback environment and employee deviance. Study findings suggest that when employees (nurses in this case) perceive an appropriate supervisor-provided feedback environment, their deviance is suppressed because of the related reduction in work-related stressors. Thus, to decrease deviant behavior, organizations may foster supervisor integration of disseminated knowledge such as (a) how to improve employees' actual performance, (b) how to effectively clarify expected performance, and (c) how to improve continuous performance feedback. If supervisors absorb this integrated feedback knowledge, they should be in a better position to enhance their own daily interactions with nurses and reduce nurses' work-related stress and, consequently, decrease deviant behavior.

  12. Physiological response to etho-ecological stressors in male Alpine chamois: timescale matters!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corlatti, Luca; Palme, Rupert; Lovari, Sandro

    2014-07-01

    From a life history perspective, glucocorticoids secreted by the neuroendocrine system, integrating different sources of stress through an adaptive feedback mechanism, may have important consequences on individual fitness. Although stress responses have been the object of several investigations, few studies have explored the role of proximate mechanisms responsible for the potential trade-offs between physiological stress and life history traits integrating social and environmental stressors. In 2011 and 2012, we collected data on faecal cortisol metabolites (FCM) in a marked male population of Alpine chamois, within the Gran Paradiso National Park (Italy). Using a model selection approach we analysed the effect of potential etho-ecological stressors such as age, social status (territorial vs. non-territorial males), minimum temperature, snow depth and precipitation on FCM variation. To correctly interpret environmentally and socially induced stress responses, we conducted model selections over multiple temporal scales defined a priori: year, cold months, spring, warm months, mating season. Over the year, FCM levels showed a negative relationship with minimum temperature, but altogether, climatic stressors had negligible effects on glucocorticoid secretion, possibly owing to good adaptations of chamois to severe weather conditions. Age was negatively related to FCM during the rut, possibly due to greater experience of older males in agonistic contests. Social status was an important determinant of FCM excretion: while both the `stress of subordination' and the `stress of domination' hypotheses received some support in spring and during the mating season, respectively, previous data suggest that only the latter may have detrimental fitness consequences on male chamois.

  13. Husbands' return migration and wives' occupational choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahe, Clotilde

    2017-01-01

    Exploiting the documented effect of migration on occupational choice upon return to their origin country with data from Egypt, we establish a link between return migration of men and their wives' time use through within-couple occupational interdependence. Seemingly Unrelated Regression model

  14. Stressors and barriers to using mental health services among diverse groups of first-generation immigrants to the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saechao, Fay; Sharrock, Sally; Reicherter, Daryn; Livingston, James D; Aylward, Alexandra; Whisnant, Jill; Koopman, Cheryl; Kohli, Sarita

    2012-02-01

    This study examined stressors and barriers to using mental health services among first-generation immigrants in San Jose, California. Focus groups for 30 immigrants from Cambodia, Eastern Europe, Iran, Iraq, Africa, and Vietnam were audio-recorded, translated and transcribed. Two researchers coded the data and identified themes pertaining to mental health stressors and barriers. Six primary stressors were identified: economic, discrimination, acculturation due to language differences, enculturation, parenting differences, and finding suitable employment. Primary barriers included: stigma, lack of a perceived norm in country of origin for using mental health services, competing cultural practices, lack of information, language barriers, and cost. A conceptual model is presented that may be used to inform the design and implementation of mental health services for this population.

  15. Forecasting the relative influence of environmental and anthropogenic stressors on polar bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Todd C.; Marcot, Bruce G.; Douglas, David C.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Rode, Karyn D.; Durner, George M.; Bromaghin, Jeffrey F.

    2016-01-01

    Effective conservation planning requires understanding and ranking threats to wildlife populations. We developed a Bayesian network model to evaluate the relative influence of environmental and anthropogenic stressors, and their mitigation, on the persistence of polar bears (Ursus maritimus). Overall sea ice conditions, affected by rising global temperatures, were the most influential determinant of population outcomes. Accordingly, unabated rise in atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations was the dominant influence leading to worsened population outcomes, with polar bears in three of four ecoregions reaching a dominant probability of decreased or greatly decreased by the latter part of this century. Stabilization of atmospheric GHG concentrations by mid-century delayed the greatly reduced state by ≈25 yr in two ecoregions. Prompt and aggressive mitigation of emissions reduced the probability of any regional population becoming greatly reduced by up to 25%. Marine prey availability, linked closely to sea ice trend, had slightly less influence on outcome state than sea ice availability itself. Reduced mortality from hunting and defense of life and property interactions resulted in modest declines in the probability of a decreased or greatly decreased population outcome. Minimizing other stressors such as trans-Arctic shipping, oil and gas exploration, and contaminants had a negligible effect on polar bear outcomes, although the model was not well-informed with respect to the potential influence of these stressors. Adverse consequences of loss of sea ice habitat became more pronounced as the summer ice-free period lengthened beyond four months, which could occur in most of the Arctic basin after mid-century if GHG emissions are not promptly reduced. Long-term conservation of polar bears would be best supported by holding global mean temperature to ≤ 2°C above preindustrial levels. Until further sea ice loss is stopped, management of other stressors may

  16. Demographic differences in sport performers' experiences of organizational stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, R; Fletcher, D; Daniels, K

    2016-03-01

    Organizational stressors are particularly prevalent across sport performers' experiences and can influence their performance, health, and well-being. Research has been conducted to identify which organizational stressors are encountered by sport performers, but little is known about how these experiences vary from athlete to athlete. The purpose of this study was to examine if the frequency, intensity, and duration of the organizational stressors that sport performers encounter vary as a function of gender, sport type, and performance level. Participants (n = 1277) completed the Organizational Stressor Indicator for Sport Performers (OSI-SP; Arnold et al., 2013), and the resultant data were analyzed using multivariate analyses of covariance. The findings show that demographic differences are apparent in the dimensions of the goals and development, logistics and operations, team and culture, coaching, and selection organizational stressors that sport performers encounter. More specifically, significant differences were found between males and females, between team and individual-based performers, and between performers competing at national or international, regional or university, and county or club levels. These findings have important implications for theory and research on organizational stress, and for the development of stress management interventions with sport performers. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Occupational Therapy (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Occupational Therapy KidsHealth / For Parents / Occupational Therapy What's in this ... care for some kids. Kids Who Might Need Occupational Therapy According to the AOTA, kids with these medical ...

  18. Development and Initial Validation of the Student Rating of Environmental Stressors Scale: Stressors Faced by Students in Accelerated High School Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suldo, Shannon M.; Dedrick, Robert F.; Shaunessy-Dedrick, Elizabeth; Roth, Rachel A.; Ferron, John

    2015-01-01

    High school students in accelerated curricula face stressors beyond typical adolescent developmental challenges. The Student Rating of Environmental Stressors Scale (StRESS) is a self-report measure of environmental stressors appropriate for students in Advanced Placement (AP) and International Baccalaureate (IB) courses. We developed the StRESS…

  19. Sampling scales define occupancy and underlying occupancy-abundance relationships in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenweg, Robin; Hebblewhite, Mark; Whittington, Jesse; Lukacs, Paul; McKelvey, Kevin

    2018-01-01

    Occupancy-abundance (OA) relationships are a foundational ecological phenomenon and field of study, and occupancy models are increasingly used to track population trends and understand ecological interactions. However, these two fields of ecological inquiry remain largely isolated, despite growing appreciation of the importance of integration. For example, using occupancy models to infer trends in abundance is predicated on positive OA relationships. Many occupancy studies collect data that violate geographical closure assumptions due to the choice of sampling scales and application to mobile organisms, which may change how occupancy and abundance are related. Little research, however, has explored how different occupancy sampling designs affect OA relationships. We develop a conceptual framework for understanding how sampling scales affect the definition of occupancy for mobile organisms, which drives OA relationships. We explore how spatial and temporal sampling scales, and the choice of sampling unit (areal vs. point sampling), affect OA relationships. We develop predictions using simulations, and test them using empirical occupancy data from remote cameras on 11 medium-large mammals. Surprisingly, our simulations demonstrate that when using point sampling, OA relationships are unaffected by spatial sampling grain (i.e., cell size). In contrast, when using areal sampling (e.g., species atlas data), OA relationships are affected by spatial grain. Furthermore, OA relationships are also affected by temporal sampling scales, where the curvature of the OA relationship increases with temporal sampling duration. Our empirical results support these predictions, showing that at any given abundance, the spatial grain of point sampling does not affect occupancy estimates, but longer surveys do increase occupancy estimates. For rare species (low occupancy), estimates of occupancy will quickly increase with longer surveys, even while abundance remains constant. Our results

  20. APPLICATION OF ELASTICITY ANALYSES AND PERTURBATION SIMULATIONS IN DETERMINING STRESSOR IMPACTS ON POPULATION GROWTH RATE AND EXTINCTION RISK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Population structure and life history strategies are determinants of how populations respond to stressor-induced impairments in individual-level responses, but a consistent and holistic analysis has not been reported. Effects on population growth rate were modeled using five theo...

  1. Depression in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Role of ASD Vulnerabilities and Family-Environmental Stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Stephanie; Lunsky, Yona; Weiss, Jonathan A.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at an increased risk of mental health problems, with depression being one of the most common presenting issues. The current study used a diathesis-stress model to investigate stressors (parent distress and negative life events [NLE]) and vulnerabilities (youth age and intellectual functioning) as…

  2. Environmental stressors influencing hormones and systems physiology in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Environmental stressors undoubtedly influence organismal biology, specifically the endocrine system that, in turn, impact cattle at the systems physiology level. Despite the significant advances in understanding the genetic determinants of the ideal dairy or beef cow, there is a grave lack of understanding of the systems physiology and effects of the environmental stressors that interfere with the endocrine system. This is a major problem because the lack of such knowledge is preventing advances in understanding gene-environment interactions and developing science-based solutions to these challenges. In this review, we synthesize the current knowledge on the nature of the major environmental stressors, such as climate (heat, cold, wind, and humidity), nutrition (feeds, feeding systems, and endocrine disruptors) and management (housing density and conditions, transportation, weaning practices). We summarize the impact of each one of these factors on cattle at the systems level, and provide solutions for the challenges. PMID:24996419

  3. Stressors, resources, and distress among homeless persons: a longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Y L; Piliavin, I

    2001-04-01

    Relations among stressors, resources, and psychological distress were examined using two waves of data obtained from a probability sample of homeless persons (N = 430) residing in a large, demographically diverse county in North California. The focus of research was to examine whether and how social resources and housing resources directly affect distress and mediate the impact of stress factors on depressive symptoms. Path analysis results revealed that levels of psychological distress were responsive to change in objective housing circumstances, with the attainment of domicile status being associated with fewer distress symptoms. Our findings, however, indicated only modest effects of social resources on psychological distress through direct effects and mediating effects of life stressors on distress. Overall, the study suggests that the relationships among stressors, resources, and distress for homeless persons may be understood within the same analytical framework for the general population.

  4. Effects of two stressors on amphibian larval development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Karolina; Scott, David E; Tsyusko, Olga; Coughlin, Daniel P; Hinton, Thomas G

    2012-05-01

    In parallel with a renewed interest in nuclear power and its possible environmental impacts, a new environmental radiation protection system calls for environmental indicators of radiological stress. However, because environmental stressors seldom occur alone, this study investigated the combined effects of an ecological stressor (larval density) and an anthropogenic stressor (ionizing radiation) on amphibians. Scaphiopus holbrookii tadpoles reared at different larval densities were exposed to four low irradiation dose rates (0.13, 2.4, 21, and 222 mGy d(-1)) from (137)Cs during the sensitive period prior to and throughout metamorphosis. Body size at metamorphosis and development rate served as fitness correlates related to population dynamics. Results showed that increased larval density decreased body size but did not affect development rate. Low dose rate radiation had no impact on either endpoint. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The prospective relationship between work stressors and cardiovascular disease, using a comprehensive work stressor measure for exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szerencsi, Karolina; van Amelsvoort, Ludovic; Prins, Martin; Kant, Ijmert

    2014-02-01

    The currently used instruments which measure the psychosocial work environment have been criticized. We analyzed the association between work stressors and cardiovascular disease, using the Maastricht Cohort Study Work Stressor Score (MCS-WSS), a comprehensive measure which has been associated with work strain. At baseline 11,489 employees of the Maastricht Cohort Study were participating. This prospective cohort study started in 1998 in the Netherlands and includes a heterogeneous population of employees. The psychosocial work environment, cardiovascular risk factors and the occurrence of cardiovascular disease were measured with questionnaires at various time points during follow-up, the last follow-up was in 2008. For a subsample of employees, CVD extracted from medical records was available. The MCS-WSS consists of items from emotional demands, psychological demands, role clarity, career possibilities, working overtime, job insecurity, cognitive demands, skills discretion and decision authority. Each item has its own contribution in inducing work strain, represented by its own weighting factor. The association between a high exposure to work stressors at baseline and cardiovascular morbidity was assessed with Cox regression analyses. Analyses were adjusted for age, gender, educational level, smoking, body mass index, alcohol consumption and leisure physical activity. During a median follow-up of 49 months, 309 employees developed incident cardiovascular disease. Overall, no significant associations were found between a high exposure to work stressors at baseline and cardiovascular morbidity. The results of this study indicate that high exposure to work stressors has no considerable impact on cardiovascular disease.

  6. Appraisal and coping with daily stressors by pediatric patients with chronic abdominal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Lynn S; Smith, Craig A; Garber, Judy; Claar, Robyn Lewis

    2007-03-01

    To test the hypothesis that pain patients differ from well children in their appraisal and coping with daily stressors and to test a model of the relation of stress appraisal and coping to symptoms and disability. Pediatric patients with chronic abdominal pain (n = 143) and well children (n = 104) completed a 5-day diary study regarding their appraisal and coping with daily stressors. Somatic symptoms, depressive symptoms, and functional disability were assessed 2 months later. Compared to well children, pain patients were less confident of their ability either to change or to adapt to stress and were less likely to use accommodative coping strategies. Different patterns of stress appraisal were associated with active, passive, and accommodative coping. Both appraisals and coping were significantly related to symptoms and disability. The relation between stress and symptoms in pediatric pain patients may be explained in part by their appraisal and coping with stressors. The relation between appraisal and coping was consistent with Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, Appraisal, and Coping. New York: Springer.

  7. The effect of multiple stressors on salt marsh end-of-season biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, J.M.; Sasser, C.E.; Cade, B.S.

    2006-01-01

    It is becoming more apparent that commonly used statistical methods (e.g., analysis of variance and regression) are not the best methods for estimating limiting relationships or stressor effects. A major challenge of estimating the effects associated with a measured subset of limiting factors is to account for the effects of unmeasured factors in an ecologically realistic matter. We used quantile regression to elucidate multiple stressor effects on end-of-season biomass data from two salt marsh sites in coastal Louisiana collected for 18 yr. Stressor effects evaluated based on available data were flooding, salinity, air temperature, cloud cover, precipitation deficit, grazing by muskrat, and surface water nitrogen and phosphorus. Precipitation deficit combined with surface water nitrogen provided the best two-parameter model to explain variation in the peak biomass with different slopes and intercepts for the two study sites. Precipitation deficit, cloud cover, and temperature were significantly correlated with each other. Surface water nitrogen was significantly correlated with surface water phosphorus and muskrat density. The site with the larger duration of flooding showed reduced peak biomass, when cloud cover and surface water nitrogen were optimal. Variation in the relatively low salinity occurring in our study area did not explain any of the variation in Spartina alterniflora biomass. ?? 2006 Estuarine Research Federation.

  8. Individual and neighborhood stressors, sleep problems, and symptoms of anxiety and depression among Latino youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubens, Sonia L; Gudiño, Omar G; Fite, Paula J; Grande, Jessica M

    2018-01-01

    Limited research has examined the relation between exposure to stressors and internalizing symptoms among Latino adolescents, including factors that account for this relation. This study examined whether sleep played a role in the relation between exposure to neighborhood- (i.e., neighborhood disadvantage) and individual-level (i.e., negative life events) stressors and symptoms of anxiety and depression among a sample of 144 low-income, Latino adolescents (54% males, mean age = 16.25, SD = 1.46) attending a charter high school in a large, Midwestern city. The bias corrected bootstrap method was used to evaluate indirect effects. Significant findings indicated an indirect effect via sleep problems in the link between negative life events and anxiety. Alternative models were also explored. Results suggest that sleep problems are important to consider for interventions among Latino youth, particularly those exposed to neighborhood and individual stressors, as this may also have implications for reducing internalizing symptoms among this population. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. How do stressors lead to burnout? The mediating role of motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubino, Cristina; Luksyte, Aleksandra; Perry, Sara Jansen; Volpone, Sabrina D

    2009-07-01

    We extend existing stressor-strain theoretical models by including intrinsic motivation as a mediator between well-established job stressors and burnout. Though the link between situational stressors and burnout is well established, little is known about mechanisms behind this relationship. With a sample of 284 self-employed individuals, we examined motivation as a mediator to explain why situational factors impact 3 dimensions of burnout: emotional exhaustion, cynicism, and inefficacy. Motivation is an explanatory mechanism that drives human behavior and thought, and thus may have an impact on important well-being outcomes. As expected, intrinsic motivation was a full mediator for the effect of perceived fit on the inefficacy dimension of burnout. Unexpectedly, neither perceived fit nor motivation was related to the other 2 dimensions of burnout, and role ambiguity had only a direct effect on the inefficacy dimension; it was also unrelated to exhaustion and cynicism. We discuss implications of these findings for researchers as well as for practitioners. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Beliefs in an Unjust World: Mediating Ethnicity-Related Stressors and Psychological Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Christopher T H; Molenaar, Carin M

    2016-06-01

    Racism is negatively associated with health. Explorations of cognitive reactions, such as beliefs in an unjust world (BUW), are needed to understand the associations between both perceived discrimination and own-group conformity pressures (OGCPS) and reduced psychological well-being. With a sample of 215 ethnic minority individuals, this study used structural equation modeling to explore BUW's mediating role between the two aforementioned forms of ethnicity-related stressors (ERS), anger rumination, and negative affect. ERS were directly positively associated with BUW, anger rumination, and negative affect. BUW were directly and positively associated with both anger rumination and negative affect. Finally, BUW significantly mediated the direct relationships between both ethnicity-related stressors and anger rumination and negative affect. Although addressing racism and OGCPS at a systemic level (e.g., policy, prejudice prevention) is needed to reduce ERS, these findings suggest that BUW is one point of possible clinical intervention for individuals who have experienced these stressors. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. BURNOUT SYNDROME IN NURSING STUDENTS BASED ON EFFECT OF STRESSOR, RELATIONAL MEANING AND COPING STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Mazarina Devi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Professional education program is a program in which nursing students are transformed to become professional nurses. At this level, nursing students will encounter various stressors. The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between stressors, relational meaning and coping strategy on burnout syndrome in nursing students who are undergoing professional education. Method: This was a correlational study using cross-sectional approach. Population comprised regular student of nursing profession program at the Faculty of Nursing, Airlangga University. Sample size was determined by simple random sampling and 61 persons were included in the inclusion criteria. Data then analyzed using multiple linear regression test with signi fi cance level ofα < 0.05. Results: This study found that total burnout syndrome was signi fi cantly related to relational meaning (p = 0.005, β = 0.460. Emotional exhaustion was signi fi cantly related to relational meaning (p= 0.001, β = 0.532 and emotion focused coping (p = 0.035, β =0.298. Relational meaning was also signifi cantly related to depersonalization (p = 0.002, β = 0.050. Subsequently, the decline in self-achievement was signi fi cantly related to personal stressors, i.e the number of room mates (p = 0.016, β = 0.344, total learning time/day (p = 0.036, β=0.366 and environmental stressors (workload (p = 0.039, β = -0.349. Discussion: It is suggested for students to prepare for professional education, and the Faculty of Nursing, Airlangga University, should strengthen the function of academic counselors in terms of preceptorship role model in order to avoid the risk of burnout syndrome when the nursing students undergoing professional education.

  12. Predictors of nurse manager stress: a dominance analysis of potential work environment stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kath, Lisa M; Stichler, Jaynelle F; Ehrhart, Mark G; Sievers, Andree

    2013-11-01

    Nurse managers have important but stressful jobs. Clinical or bedside nurse predictors of stress have been studied more frequently, but less has been done on work environment predictors for those in this first-line leadership role. Understanding the relative importance of those work environment predictors could be used to help identify the most fruitful areas for intervention, potentially improving recruitment and retention for nurse managers. Using Role Stress Theory and the Job Demands-Resources Theory, a model was tested examining the relative importance of five potential predictors of nurse manager stress (i.e., stressors). The work environment stressors included role ambiguity, role overload, role conflict, organizational constraints, and interpersonal conflict. A quantitative, cross-sectional survey study was conducted with a convenience sample of 36 hospitals in the Southwestern United States. All nurse managers working in these 36 hospitals were invited to participate. Of the 636 nurse managers invited, 480 responded, for a response rate of 75.5%. Questionnaires were distributed during nursing leadership meetings and were returned in person (in sealed envelopes) or by mail. Because work environment stressors were correlated, dominance analysis was conducted to examine which stressors were the most important predictors of nurse manager stress. Role overload was the most important predictor of stress, with an average of 13% increase in variance explained. The second- and third-most important predictors were organizational constraints and role conflict, with an average of 7% and 6% increase in variance explained, respectively. Because other research has shown deleterious effects of nurse manager stress, organizational leaders are encouraged to help nurse managers reduce their actual and/or perceived role overload and organizational constraints. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Senior management leadership, social support, job design and stressor-to-strain relationships in hospital practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttigieg, Sandra C; West, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of the quality of senior management leadership on social support and job design, whose main effects on strains, and moderating effects on work stressors-to-strains relationships were assessed. A survey involving distribution of questionnaires was carried out on a random sample of health care employees in acute hospital practice in the UK. The sample comprised 65,142 respondents. The work stressors tested were quantitative overload and hostile environment, whereas strains were measured through job satisfaction and turnover intentions. Structural equation modelling and moderated regression analyses were used in the analysis. Quality of senior management leadership explained 75 per cent and 94 per cent of the variance of social support and job design respectively, whereas work stressors explained 51 per cent of the variance of strains. Social support and job design predicted job satisfaction and turnover intentions, as well as moderated significantly the relationships between quantitative workload/hostility and job satisfaction/turnover intentions. The findings are useful to management and to health employees working in acute/specialist hospitals. Further research could be done in other counties to take into account cultural differences and variations in health systems. The limitations included self-reported data and percept-percept bias due to same source data collection. The quality of senior management leaders in hospitals has an impact on the social environment, the support given to health employees, their job design, as well as work stressors and strains perceived. The study argues in favour of effective senior management leadership of hospitals, as well as ensuring adequate support structures and job design. The findings may be useful to health policy makers and human resources managers.

  14. Use of dynamic occupancy models to assess the response of Darters (Teleostei: Percidae) to varying hydrothermal conditions in a southeastern United States tailwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, C.P.; Bettoli, Phillip William; Potoka, K. M.; Saylor, C. F.; Shute, P. W.

    2015-01-01

    During the past 100 years, most large rivers in North America have been altered for flood control, hydropower, navigation or water supply development. Although these activities clearly provide important human services, their associated environmental disturbances can profoundly affect stream-dwelling organisms. We used dynamic multi-species occupancy models combined with a trait-based approach to estimate the influence of site-level and species-level characteristics on patch dynamic rates for 15 darter species native to the Elk River, a large, flow-regulated Tennessee River tributary in Tennessee and Alabama. Dynamic occupancy modelling results indicated that for every 2.5 °C increase in stream temperature, darters were 3.94 times more likely to colonize previously unoccupied stream reaches. Additionally, large-bodied darter species were 3.72 times more likely to colonize stream reaches compared with small-bodied species, but crevice-spawning darter species were 5.24 times less likely to colonize previously unoccupied stream reaches. In contrast, darters were 2.21 times less likely to become locally extinct for every 2.5 °C increase in stream temperature, but high stream discharge conditions elevated the risk of local extinction. Lastly, the presence of populations in neighbouring upstream study reaches contributed to a lower risk of extinction, whereas the presence of populations in neighbouring downstream study reaches contributed to higher rates of colonization. Our study demonstrates the application of a trait-based approach combined with a metapopulation framework to assess the patch dynamics of darters in a regulated river. Results from our study will provide a baseline for evaluating the ecological consequences of alternative dam operations.

  15. Occupational rhinitis: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Whitney W; Grammer, Leslie C

    2015-01-01

    Occupational rhinitis is characterized by nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, nasal itching, and/or sneezing that occur secondary to exposures in the workplace. This disease can be classified into allergic or nonallergic subgroups based upon the underlying disease pathogenesis as well as the type of causative agent. While the true prevalence of occupational rhinitis is unknown, there are certain professions and occupational exposures that place workers at a higher risk for developing the disease. Additionally, occupational rhinitis can be associated with occupational asthma and upper airway symptoms may precede those of the lower respiratory tract. Taken together, occupational rhinitis is an important disease for study given its medical as well as socioeconomic implications. This review will focus on the classification of occupational rhinitis as well the prevalence, diagnosis, and treatment strategies.

  16. Climate change as a long-term stressor for the fisheries of the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collingsworth, Paris D.; Bunnell, David B.; Murray, Michael W.; Kao, Yu-Chun; Feiner, Zachary S.; Claramunt, Randall M.; Lofgren, Brent M.; Höök, Tomas O.; Ludsin, Stuart A.

    2017-01-01

    The Laurentian Great Lakes of North America provide valuable ecosystem services, including fisheries, to the surrounding population. Given the prevalence of other anthropogenic stressors that have historically affected the fisheries of the Great Lakes (e.g., eutrophication, invasive species, overfishing), climate change is often viewed as a long-term stressor and, subsequently, may not always be prioritized by managers and researchers. However, climate change has the potential to negatively affect fish and fisheries in the Great Lakes through its influence on habitat. In this paper, we (1) summarize projected changes in climate and fish habitat in the Great Lakes; (2) summarize fish responses to climate change in the Great Lakes; (3) describe key interactions between climate change and other stressors relevant to Great Lakes fish, and (4) summarize how climate change can be incorporated into fisheries management. In general, fish habitat is projected to be characterized by warmer temperatures throughout the water column, less ice cover, longer periods of stratification, and more frequent and widespread periods of bottom hypoxia in productive areas of the Great Lakes. Based solely on thermal habitat, fish populations theoretically could experience prolonged optimal growth environment within a changing climate, however, models that assess physical habitat influences at specific life stages convey a more complex picture. Looking at specific interactions with other stressors, climate change may exacerbate the negative impacts of both eutrophication and invasive species for fish habitat in the Great Lakes. Although expanding monitoring and research to consider climate change interactions with currently studied stressors, may offer managers the best opportunity to keep the valuable Great Lakes fisheries sustainable, this expansion is globally applicable for large lake ecosystem dealing with multiple stressors in the face of continued human-driven changes.

  17. Occupational stress perception and its potential impact on work ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Mei; Nasterlack, Michael; Pluto, Rolf-Peter; Lang, Stefan; Oberlinner, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    To examine perceived stress across employees with different occupational status, to investigate the impact of stress on work ability and to derive conclusions regarding health promotion activities. A comprehensive survey combining questionnaire and medical examination was offered in one division in BASF Ludwigshafen. Among 867 voluntary participants, 653 returned complete questionnaires. The questions were directed at perception of safety at the workplace, self-rated health status, frequency of stress symptoms, unrealistic job demands, time pressure and maladjustment of work life balance. The outcome of interest was self-estimated health measured by the Work Ability Index (WAI). Occupational stressors were perceived differently across occupational status groups. Frontline operators had more health concerns due to workplace conditions, while professional and managerial staff reported higher frequencies of perceived tension, time pressure, and maladjustment of work life balance. After adjustment for occupational status, demographic and lifestyle factors, perceived stress was associated with a modest to strong decline in WAI scores. While perceived occupational stress had an apparent impact on WAI, and WAI has been demonstrated to be predictive of early retirement, more intensive and employee group-specific stress management interventions are being implemented beyond traditional strategies of routine occupational medical surveillance.

  18. Occupational Stress and Turnover Intention: Implications for Nursing Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammad Mosadeghrad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe main purpose of this study was to explore the status of occupational stress among hospital nurses in Isfahan, Iran. It also aimed to examine the relationship between nurses’ occupational stress and their intention to leave the hospital. MethodsThe study employed a cross-sectional research design. A validated questionnaire was used to collect data from 296 nurses. Respondents were asked to rate the intensity of 30 common occupational stressors using a five-point scale. ResultsA third of hospital nurses rated their occupational stress high. The major sources of stress were inadequate pay, inequality at work, too much work, staff shortage, lack of promotion, job insecurity and lack of management support. More than 35% of nurses stated that they are considering leaving the hospital, if they could find another job opportunity. Occupational stress was positively associated with nurses’ turnover intentions. ConclusionHospital managers should develop and apply appropriate policies and strategies to reduce occupational stress and consequently nurses’ turnover intention.

  19. Theories of Occupational Choice: A Critical Assessment of Selected Viewpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotchkiss, Lawrence; And Others

    Five theoretical perspectives related to occupational choice were assessed. These were (1) Super's career development perspective, (2) Holland's typology of occupational choice, (3) status-attainment research in the field of sociology, (4) economic theory of individual willingness to work in different occupations, and (5) a model of decision…

  20. Occupational Recruitment, Retention, and Labor Force Cohort Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Ida Harper; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Presents an occupational competition model consisting of work qualifications, opportunities, rewards, and shelters to account for cohort representation in occupations. U.S. census data are used to follow four male and four female cohorts in 63 occupations over 20-year periods from 1920-40 and 1950-70. (Author/AM)

  1. The relationship between occupational stress and job satisfaction in orthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Stephen F; Heo, Giseon; Varnhagen, Connie; Major, Paul W

    2004-07-01

    The goal of this project was to describe the relationship between overall occupational stress (OS), categories of stressors, overall job satisfaction (JS), and facets of JS in orthodontics. Canadian orthodontists were mailed an anonymous, self-administered survey. The response rate was 51.2% (335 of 654). The survey included a list of 67 potential stressors representing 6 categories, an overall OS score, and a modified version of the Dentists Satisfaction Survey (DSS). The correlation between the overall OS score and the overall JS scale of the DSS was r = -0.392. The overall OS scores were most strongly correlated to satisfaction with personal time (r = -0.385, P satisfaction with practice management (r = -0.334, P satisfaction scores on all sections of the DSS. This difference was greatest in satisfaction with personal time and practice management. The results indicate the importance of OS in determining JS in orthodontics.

  2. Understanding the Occupational Issues Faced by Custodial Grandparents Endeavoring to Improve Scholastic Outcomes for Their Grandchildren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Myra F.; Marquis, Ruth; Batten, Rachel; Coall, David

    2015-01-01

    The Model of Human Occupation (MOHO) is an evidenced-based model of practice that occupational therapists employ to discuss and reflect on the occupational needs of clients. Custodial grandparents are one cohort of potential clients who experience considerable difficulty in adapting to the occupational challenges of their grandchild-rearing role,…

  3. Demographic differences, occupational stress and organisational commitment among employees in higher education institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simbarashe Zhuwao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study was to determine the levels of occupational stress and organizational commitment of employees and to determine the differences of occupational stress and organisational commitment based on demographic information in a higher education institution. The sample consisted of 141 academic staff. The Organisational Stress Screening Tool (ASSET, and Allen and Meyer’s Organisational Commitment Tool (OCT were used. The results showed that different occupational stressors contributed significantly to low organisational commitment. Occupational stress levels about job characteristics, work relationships, job overload and job control contributed to low levels of organisational commitment. The results also showed that there is a significant difference in occupational stress and organisational commitment levels based on the demographic differences of employees

  4. Occupancy modeling reveals territory-level effects of nest boxes on the presence, colonization, and persistence of a declining raptor in a fruit-growing region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan E Shave

    Full Text Available Nest boxes for predators in agricultural regions are an easily implemented tool to improve local habitat quality with potential benefits for both conservation and agriculture. The potential for nest boxes to increase raptor populations in agricultural regions is of particular interest given their positions as top predators. This study examined the effects of cherry orchard nest boxes on the local breeding population of a declining species, the American Kestrel (Falco sparverius, in a fruit-growing region of Michigan. During the 2013-2016 study, we added a total of 23 new nest boxes in addition to 24 intact boxes installed previously; kestrels used up to 100% of our new boxes each season. We conducted temporally-replicated surveys along four roadside transects divided into 1.6 km × 500 m sites. We developed a multi-season occupancy model under a Bayesian framework and found that nest boxes had strong positive effects on first-year site occupancy, site colonization, and site persistence probabilities. The estimated number of occupied sites increased between 2013 and 2016, which correlated with the increase in number of sites with boxes. Kestrel detections decreased with survey date but were not affected by time of day or activity at the boxes themselves. These results indicate that nest boxes determined the presence of kestrels at our study sites and support the conclusion that the local kestrel population is likely limited by nest site availability. Furthermore, our results are highly relevant to the farmers on whose properties the boxes were installed, for we can conclude that installing a nest box in an orchard resulted in a high probability of kestrels occupying that orchard or the areas adjacent to it.

  5. The reciprocal relationship between sickness presenteeism and psychological distress in response to job stressors: evidence from a three-wave cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshio, Takashi; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Inoue, Akiomi; Suzuki, Tomoko; Miyaki, Koichi

    2017-11-25

    Sickness presenteeism (SP) is postulated as workers' response to their general state of health; hence, SP is expected to affect workers' future health. In the present study, we examined the reciprocal relationship between SP and health in response to job stressors, with specific reference to psychological distress (PD) as workers' state of health. We conducted mediation analysis, using data from a three-wave cohort occupational survey conducted at 1-year intervals in Japan; it involved 1,853 employees (1,661 men and 192 women) of a manufacturing firm. We measured SP and PD, using the World Health Organization Health and Work Performance Questionnaire and Kessler 6 score, respectively. For job stressors, we considered job demands and control, effort and reward, and procedural and interactional justice. PD mediated 11.5%-36.2% of the impact of job control, reward, and procedural and interactional justice on SP, whereas SP mediated their impact on PD, albeit to a much lesser extent in the range of 3.4%-11.3%. Unlike in the cases of these job stressors related to job resources, neither SP nor PD mediated the impact of job demands or effort. Our results confirmed the reciprocal relationship between SP and PD in response to selected types of job stressors, emphasizing the need for more in-depth analysis of the dynamics of these associations.

  6. Integrating the role of stressors through carbohydrate dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillip M. Wargo

    1999-01-01

    Biological stress is defined as any environmental factor (stressors) capable of inducing a potentially injurious strain in living organisms (Levitt 1972). Organisms respond to these stresses physiologically or developmentally, and depending on the duration and severity of the stress, may or may not be injured.

  7. Common Stressors among International College Students: Research and Counseling Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Charles P.

    1999-01-01

    International college students studying in North America endure substantial psychological stress in their daily lives. The nature and function of stressors in the context of international college students' subjective appraisal are discussed and analyzed using the Lazarus and Folkman's concept of stress. Recommendations for future research are…

  8. Activity changes of the cat paraventricular hypothalamus during stressor exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Morten Pilgaard; Rector, David M; Poe, Gina R

    2004-01-01

    Dorso-medial paraventricular hypothalamus (PVH) activity was assessed by light scattering procedures in freely behaving cats during auditory stressor exposure. Acoustic noise (> 95dB) raised plasma ACTH concentrations, somatic muscle tonus, respiratory frequency and cardiac rates; PVH activity...

  9. Multiple stressor effects in relation to declining amphibian populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Greg L.; Krest, Sherry K.; Sparling, Donald; Little, E.

    2003-01-01

    Original research discusses the protocols and approaches to studying the effects of multiple environmental stressors on amphibian populations and gives new perspectives on this complicated subject. This new publication integrates a variety of stressors that can act in concert and may ultimately cause a decline in amphibian populations.Sixteen peer-reviewed papers cover:Toxicity Assessment examines methods, which range from long-established laboratory approaches for evaluating adverse chemical effects to amphibians, to methods that link chemicals in surface waters, sediments, and soils with adverse effects observed among amphibians in the field.Field and Laboratory Studies illustrates studies in the evaluation of multiple stressor effects that may lead to declining amphibian populations. A range of laboratory and field studies of chemicals, such as herbicides, insecticides, chlorinated organic compounds, metals, and complex mixtures are also included.Causal Analysis demonstrates the range of tools currently available for evaluating "cause-effect" relationships between environmental stressors and declining amphibian populations.Audience: This new publication is a must-have for scientists and resource management professionals from diverse fields, including ecotoxicology, chemistry, ecology, field biology, conservation biology, and natural resource management.

  10. Anger after Childbirth: An Overlooked Reaction to Postpartum Stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jennifer E.; Lobel, Marci; DeLuca, Robyn Stein

    2002-01-01

    Other than postpartum depression, little is known about women's emotional responses to childbirth and subsequent stressors. Anger was explored on the basis of theory and evidence that it is a likely emotional response in this context. During their third trimester of pregnancy and approximately six weeks after delivery, 163 participants completed…

  11. Montessori Early Childhood Teacher Perceptions of Family Priorities and Stressors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Epstein

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Teachers of young children work closely with families. One component of teacher-family partnerships is teachers’ understanding of family priorities and stressors. This study examines Montessori early childhood (ages three through six teacher perceptions of family priorities and stressors through an analysis of responses to two parallel surveys.  Eighty teachers (37% of those who received the survey and forty-nine family members (representing a 55% response rate completed the survey.  Significant differences were found between teachers’ perceptions of four (of seven family priorities and families’ actual responses. Teachers ranked “making academic progress” as the most important of seven possible family priorities. However, families stated that “developing kindness” is the most important priority for their young children. No significant differences were found when comparing teacher rankings of family stressors with actual family responses. Montessori early childhood teachers ranked “not having enough time” as the most stressful of six possible stressors. Families confirmed that time pressures cause them the most stress. Maria Montessori’s recommendations for teachers and families are summarized. Recommendations for building stronger family partnerships in the context of Montessori’s philosophy, for example on-going self-reflection, are provided.             Keywords: Montessori, teacher-family partnerships, early childhood teacher perceptions