WorldWideScience

Sample records for model observables light

  1. Observation and modeling of polarized light from scarab beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrey, Sam; de Silva, Lakshman; Hodgkinson, Ian; Leader, John

    2007-08-01

    The light reflected from scarab beetles illuminated with unpolarized white light is analyzed ellipsometrically and displayed as the sum of an elliptically polarized spectrum Ip and an unpolarized spectrum Iu. A chirped stack of chiral resonators, each with a characteristic Bragg wavelength and partial realignment of birefringent material to a fixed axis, is proposed as a model for simulation of both reflection and polarization spectra. Possible mechanisms that effectively eliminate impedance mismatch at the air-elytron interface and allow some beetles to exhibit nearly perfect circularly polarized reflections are discussed. Results are presented for three representative beetles, Ischiosopha bifasciata, which is shown to be a narrowband left-circular polarizer; Chrysophora chrysochlora, a broadband left-circular polarizer; and Chrysina woodi, an elliptical polarizer. The methods that are developed are applicable to the more general problem of synthesis of reflectors with prescribed reflection and polarization spectra.

  2. Characterizing Exoplanet Atmospheres: From Light-curve Observations to Radiative-transfer Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Cubillos, Patricio E

    2016-01-01

    Multi-wavelength transit and secondary-eclipse light-curve observations are some of the most powerful techniques to probe the thermo-chemical properties of exoplanets. Although the large planet-to-star brightness contrast and few available spectral bands produce data with low signal-to-noise ratios, a Bayesian approach can robustly reveal what constraints we can set, without over-interpreting the data. Here I performed an end-to-end analysis of transiting exoplanet data. I analyzed space-telescope data for three planets to characterize their atmospheres and refine their orbits, investigated correlated noise estimators, and contributed to the development of the respective data-analysis pipelines. Chapters 2 and 3 describe the Photometry for Orbits, Eclipses and Transits (POET) pipeline to model Spitzer Space Telescope light curves, applied to secondary-eclipse observations of the Jupiter-sized planets WASP-8b and TrES-1. Chapter 4 studies commonly used correlated-noise estimators for exoplanet light-curve mode...

  3. Polarized light scanning cryomacroscopy, part II: Thermal modeling and analysis of experimental observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feig, Justin S G; Solanki, Prem K; Eisenberg, David P; Rabin, Yoed

    2016-10-01

    This study aims at developing thermal analysis tools and explaining experimental observations made by means of polarized-light cryomacroscopy (Part I). Thermal modeling is based on finite elements analysis (FEA), where two model parameters are extracted from thermal measurements: (i) the overall heat transfer coefficient between the cuvette and the cooling chamber, and (ii) the effective thermal conductivity within the cryoprotective agent (CPA) at the upper part of the cryogenic temperature range. The effective thermal conductivity takes into account enhanced heat transfer due to convection currents within the CPA, creating the so-called Bénard cells. Comparison of experimental results with simulation data indicates that the uncertainty in simulations due to the propagation of uncertainty in measured physical properties exceeds the uncertainty in experimental measurements, which validates the modeling approach. It is shown in this study that while a cavity may form in the upper-center portion of the vitrified CPA, it has very little effect on estimating the temperature distribution within the domain. This cavity is driven by thermal contraction of the CPA, with the upper-center of the domain transitioning to glass last. Finally, it is demonstrated in this study that additional stresses may develop within the glass transition temperature range due to nonlinear behavior of the thermal expansion coefficient. This effect is reported here for the first time in the context of cryobiology, using the capabilities of polarized-light cryomacroscopy.

  4. Observed light yield of scintillation pixels: Extending the two-ray model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantorski, Igor; Jurkowski, Jacek; Drozdowski, Winicjusz

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we propose an extended, two dimensional model describing the propagation of scintillation photons inside a cuboid crystal until they reach a PMT window. In the simplest approach the model considers two main reasons for light losses: standard absorption obeying the classical Lambert-Beer law and non-ideal reflectivity of the "mummy" covering formed by several layers of Teflon tape wrapping the sample. Results of the model calculations are juxtaposed with experimental data as well as with predictions of an earlier, one dimensional model.

  5. Quasars Are Not Light-Bulbs: Testing Models of Quasar Lifetimes with the Observed Eddington Ratio Distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Hopkins, Philip F

    2008-01-01

    We use the observed distribution of Eddington ratios as a function of supermassive black hole (BH) mass to constrain models of AGN lifetimes and lightcurves. Given the observed AGN luminosity function, a model for AGN lifetimes (time above a given luminosity) translates directly to a predicted Eddington ratio distribution. Models for self-regulated BH growth, in which feedback produces a 'blowout' decay phase after some peak luminosity (shutting down accretion) make specific predictions for the lifetimes distinct from those expected if AGN are simply gas starved (without feedback) and very different from simple phenomenological 'light bulb' models. Present observations of the Eddington ratio distribution, spanning 5 decades in Eddington ratio, 3 in BH mass, and redshifts z=0-1, agree with the predictions of self-regulated models, and rule out 'light-bulb', pure exponential, and gas starvation models at high significance. We compare the Eddington ratio distributions at fixed BH mass and fixed luminosity (both ...

  6. Reversals of the solar magnetic dipole in the light of observational data and simple dynamo models

    CERN Document Server

    Moss, D; Sokoloff, D D; Hoeksema, J T

    2013-01-01

    Observations show that the photospheric solar magnetic dipole usually does not vanish during the inversion of the solar magnetic field, which occurs in each solar cycle. In contrast, mean-field solar dynamo models predict that the dipole field does become zero. In a recent paper Moss et al. (2013) suggested that this contradiction can be explained as a large-scale manifestation of small-scale magnetic fluctuations. Our aim is to confront this interpretation with the available observational data. Here we compare this interpretation with WSO (Wilcox Solar Observatory) photospheric magnetic field data in order to determine the amplitude of magnetic fluctuations required to explain the phenomenon and to compare the results with predictions from a simple dynamo model which takes fluctuations into account. We demonstrate that the WSO data concerning the magnetic dipole inversions are very similar indeed to the predictions of our very simple solar dynamo model, which includes both mean magnetic field and fluctuation...

  7. Non-invasive light observer

    CERN Document Server

    Morichetti, Francesco; Carminati, Marco; Ferrari, Giorgio; Sampietro, Marco; Strain, Michael; Sorel, Marc; Melloni, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Photonic technologies lack non-invasive monitoring tools to inspect the light inside optical waveguides. This is one of the main barriers to large scale of integration, even though photonic platforms are potentially ready to host several thousands of elements on a single chip. Here, we demonstrate non-invasive light observation in silicon photonics devices by exploiting photon interaction with intra-gap energy states localized at the waveguide surface. Light intensity is measured through a ContactLess Integrated Photonic Probe (CLIPP) that introduces no measurable extra-photon absorption and a phase perturbation as low as 0.2 mrad, comparable to thermal fluctuations of less than 3 mK. Multipoint light monitoring is demonstrated with a sensitivity of -30 dBm and a dynamic range of 40 dB. CLIPP technology is simple, inherently CMOS compatible, and scalable to hundreds of probing points per chip. This concept provides a viable way to real-time conditioning and feedback control of densely-integrated photonic syst...

  8. Observation of nonspecular effects for Gaussian Schell-model light beams

    CERN Document Server

    Merano, Michele; Mistura, Giampaolo

    2012-01-01

    We investigate experimentally the role of spatial coherence on optical beam shifts. This topic has been the subject of recent theoretical debate. We consider Gaussian Schell-model beams, with different spatial degrees of coherence, reflected at an air-glass interface. We prove that the angular Goos-H\\"anchen and the angular Imbert-Fedorov effects are affected by the spatial degree of coherence of the incident beam, whereas the spatial Goos-H\\"anchen effect does not depend on incoherence. Our data unambiguously resolve the theoretical debate in favour of one specific theory.

  9. Limb darkening laws for two exoplanet host stars derived from 3D stellar model atmospheres. Comparison with 1D models and HST light curve observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayek, W.; Sing, D.; Pont, F.; Asplund, M.

    2012-03-01

    We compare limb darkening laws derived from 3D hydrodynamical model atmospheres and 1D hydrostatic MARCS models for the host stars of two well-studied transiting exoplanet systems, the late-type dwarfs HD 209458 and HD 189733. The surface brightness distribution of the stellar disks is calculated for a wide spectral range using 3D LTE spectrum formation and opacity sampling⋆. We test our theoretical predictions using least-squares fits of model light curves to wavelength-integrated primary eclipses that were observed with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The limb darkening law derived from the 3D model of HD 209458 in the spectral region between 2900 Å and 5700 Å produces significantly better fits to the HST data, removing systematic residuals that were previously observed for model light curves based on 1D limb darkening predictions. This difference arises mainly from the shallower mean temperature structure of the 3D model, which is a consequence of the explicit simulation of stellar surface granulation where 1D models need to rely on simplified recipes. In the case of HD 189733, the model atmospheres produce practically equivalent limb darkening curves between 2900 Å and 5700 Å, partly due to obstruction by spectral lines, and the data are not sufficient to distinguish between the light curves. We also analyze HST observations between 5350 Å and 10 500 Å for this star; the 3D model leads to a better fit compared to 1D limb darkening predictions. The significant improvement of fit quality for the HD 209458 system demonstrates the higher degree of realism of 3D hydrodynamical models and the importance of surface granulation for the formation of the atmospheric radiation field of late-type stars. This result agrees well with recent investigations of limb darkening in the solar continuum and other observational tests of the 3D models. The case of HD 189733 is no contradiction as the model light curves are less sensitive to the temperature stratification of

  10. XMM-Newton observations of OY Car III: OM light curve modelling, X-ray timing and spectral studies

    CERN Document Server

    Hakala, P; Hakala, Pasi; Ramsay, Gavin

    2003-01-01

    We revisit the XMM-Newton observations of the dwarf nova OY Car taken in July 2000 which occured shortly after an outburst. Ramsay et al (2001a) found a prominent energy dependent modulation at a period of 2240 sec: this modulation was only seen for app. 1/3 of the observation duration. In our new analysis, we examine this time interval in greater detail. In addition to the 2240 sec period we find evidence for other periods, the most prominent being near 3500 sec. Both these modulations are most likely due to changes in photoelectric absorption over this period: this is supported by phase-resolved spectroscopy. This may indicate the presence of matter above the accretion disc or a presence of a magnetic accretion curtain. In this case the 2240 sec period could represent a spin period of the white dwarf and the 3500 sec period a beat period between the spin and orbital periods. We also model the B band and UV eclipse profiles and light curves using a new technique to map the spatial extent of the accretion dis...

  11. Three-dimensional simulation of the Ring effect in observations of scattered sun light using Monte Carlo radiative transfer models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Deutschmann

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a new technique for the quantitative simulation of the "Ring effect" for scattered light observations from various platforms and under different atmospheric situations. The method is based on radiative transfer calculations at only one wavelength λ0 in the wavelength range under consideration, and is thus computationally fast. The strength of the Ring effect is calculated from statistical properties of the photon paths for a given situation, which makes Monte Carlo radiative transfer models in particular appropriate. We quantify the Ring effect by the so called rotational Raman scattering probability, the probability that an observed photon has undergone a rotational Raman scattering event. The Raman scattering probability is independent from the spectral resolution of the instrument and can easily be converted into various definitions used to characterise the strength of the Ring effect. We compare the results of our method to the results of previous studies and in general good quantitative agreement is found. In addition to the simulation of the Ring effect, we developed a detailed retrieval strategy for the analysis of the Ring effect based on DOAS retrievals, which allows the precise determination of the strength of the Ring effect for a specific wavelength while using the spectral information within a larger spectral interval around the selected wavelength. Using our technique, we simulated synthetic satellite observation of an atmospheric scenario with a finite cloud illuminated from different sun positions. The strength of the Ring effect depends systematically on the measurement geometry, and is strongest if the satellite points to the side of the cloud which lies in the shadow of the sun.

  12. Modeling LED street lighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Ivan; Avendaño-Alejo, Maximino; Saucedo-A, Tonatiuh; Bugarin, Alejandra

    2014-07-10

    LED luminaires may deliver precise illumination patterns to control light pollution, comfort, visibility, and light utilization efficiency. Here, we provide simple equations to determine how the light distributes in the streets. In particular, we model the illuminance spatial distribution as a function of Cartesian coordinates on a floor, road, or street. The equations show explicit dependence on the luminary position (pole height and arm length), luminary angle (fixture tilt), and the angular intensity profile (radiation pattern) of the LED luminary. To achieve this, we propose two mathematical representations to model the sophisticated intensity profiles of LED luminaries. Furthermore, we model the light utilization efficiency, illumination uniformity, and veiling luminance of glare due to one or several LED streetlamps.

  13. Light Propagation For Accelerated Observers

    CERN Document Server

    Adewole, A I A

    2001-01-01

    We show that for an observer in translational, rotational or gravitational motion, a linearly polarized plane wave has two modes of propagation in a stationary, homogeneous and isotropic medium according to Hertz's version of Maxwell's theory. The first mode is characterized by polarization at right angles to the direction of propagation and has a phase velocity that is controlled by the material constants of the medium. The second mode is characterized by polarization along the propagation direction and has a phase velocity that is controlled by the motion of the observer. We outline some applications of the second mode in emerging technologies.

  14. Neural differentiation of transplanted neural stem cells in a rat model of striatal lacunar infarction: light and electron microscopic observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñetón-Gómez, Vilma C.; Doncel-Pérez, Ernesto; Fernandez, Ana P.; Serrano, Julia; Pozo-Rodrigálvarez, Andrea; Vellosillo-Huerta, Lara; Taylor, Julian S.; Cardona-Gómez, Gloria P.; Nieto-Sampedro, Manuel; Martínez-Murillo, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    The increased risk and prevalence of lacunar stroke and Parkinson's disease (PD) makes the search for better experimental models an important requirement for translational research. In this study we assess ischemic damage of the nigrostriatal pathway in a model of lacunar stroke evoked by damaging the perforating arteries in the territory of the substantia nigra (SN) of the rat after stereotaxic administration of endothelin-1 (ET-1), a potent vasoconstrictor peptide. We hypothesized that transplantation of neural stem cells (NSCs) with the capacity of differentiating into diverse cell types such as neurons and glia, but with limited proliferation potential, would constitute an alternative and/or adjuvant therapy for lacunar stroke. These cells showed neuritogenic activity in vitro and a high potential for neural differentiation. Light and electron microscopy immunocytochemistry was used to characterize GFP-positive neurons derived from the transplants. 48 h after ET-1 injection, we characterized an area of selective degeneration of dopaminergic neurons within the nigrostriatal pathway characterized with tissue necrosis and glial scar formation, with subsequent behavioral signs of Parkinsonism. Light microscopy showed that grafted cells within the striatal infarction zone differentiated with a high yield into mature glial cells (GFAP-positive) and neuron types present in the normal striatum. Electron microscopy revealed that NSCs-derived neurons integrated into the host circuitry establishing synaptic contacts, mostly of the asymmetric type. Astrocytes were closely associated with normal small-sized blood vessels in the area of infarct, suggesting a possible role in the regulation of the blood brain barrier and angiogenesis. Our results encourage the use of NSCs as a cell-replacement therapy for the treatment of human vascular Parkinsonism. PMID:22876219

  15. Neural differentiation of transplanted neural stem cells in a rat model of striatal lacunar infarction: light and electron microscopic observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Consuelo Muñeton-Gomez

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The increased risk and prevalence of lacunar stroke and Parkinson's disease makes the search for better experimental models an important requirement for translational research. In this study we assess ischemic damage of the nigrostriatal pathway in a model of lacunar stroke evoked by damaging the perforating arteries in the territory of the substantia nigra of the rat after stereotaxic administration of endothelin-1, a potent vasoconstrictor peptide. We hypothesized that transplantation of neural stem cells (NSCs with the capacity of differentiating into diverse cell types such as neurons and glia, but with limited proliferation potential, would constitute an alternative and/or adjuvant therapy for lacunar stroke. These cells showed neuritogenic activity in vitro and a high potential for neural differentiation. Light and electron microscopy immunocytochemistry was used to characterize green fluorescent-derived neurons. 48h after endothelin-1 injection, we characterized an area of selective degeneration of dopaminergic neurons within the nigrostriatal pathway characterised with tissue necrosis and glial scar formation, with subsequent behavioral signs of Parkinsonism. Light microscopy showed that grafted cells within the striatal infarction zone differentiated with a high yield into mature glial cells (GFAP-positive and into neurons of diverse neurotransmitter-striatal subtypes, suggesting that they were functional. Electron microscopy revealed that NSCs-derived neurons integrated into the host circuitry establishing synaptic contacts, mostly of the asymmetric type. Astrocytes were closely associated with normal small-sized blood vessels in the area of infarct, suggesting their implication in angiogenesis during recovery from stroke. Our results encourage the use of NSCs as a cell-replacement therapy for the treatment of human vascular Parkinsonism.

  16. Observations and models of emissions of volatile terpenoid compounds from needles of ponderosa pine trees growing in situ: control by light, temperature and stomatal conductance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harley, Peter; Eller, Allyson; Guenther, Alex; Monson, Russell K.

    2014-07-12

    Terpenoid emissions from ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa subsp. scopulorum) were measured in Colorado, USA over two growing seasons to evaluate the role of incident light, needle temperature and stomatal conductance in controlling emissions of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO) and several monoterpenes. MBO was the dominant daylight terpenoid emission, comprising on average 87% of the total flux, and diurnal variations were largely determined by light and temperature. During daytime, oxygenated monoterpenes (especially linalool) comprised up to 75% of the total monoterpenoid flux from needles. A significant fraction of monoterpenoid emissions was light dependent and 13CO2 labeling studies confirmed de novo production. Thus, modeling of monoterpenoid emissions required a hybrid model in which a significant fraction of emissions was dependent on both light and temperature, while the remainder was dependent on temperature alone. Experiments in which stomata were forced to close using abscisic acid demonstrated that MBO and a large fraction of the monoterpene flux, presumably linalool, could be limited at the scale of seconds to minutes by stomatal conductance. Using a previously published model of terpenoid emissions which explicitly accounts for the physico-chemical properties of emitted compounds, we are able to simulate these observed stomatal effects, whether induced through experimentation or arising under naturally fluctuation conditions of temperature and light. This study shows unequivocally that, under naturally occurring field conditions, de novo light dependent monoterpenes can comprise a large fraction of emissions. Differences between the monoterpene composition of ambient air and needle emissions imply a significant non-needle emission source enriched in Δ-3-carene.

  17. Observations and models of emissions of volatile terpenoid compounds from needles of ponderosa pine trees growing in situ: control by light, temperature and stomatal conductance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Peter; Eller, Allyson; Guenther, Alex; Monson, Russell K

    2014-09-01

    Terpenoid emissions from ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa subsp. scopulorum) were measured in Colorado, USA over two growing seasons to evaluate the role of incident light, needle temperature, and stomatal conductance in controlling emissions of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO) and several monoterpenes. MBO was the dominant daylight terpenoid emission, comprising on average 87% of the total flux, and diurnal variations were largely determined by light and temperature. During daytime, oxygenated monoterpenes (especially linalool) comprised up to 75% of the total monoterpenoid flux from needles. A significant fraction of monoterpenoid emissions was dependent on light and 13CO2 labeling studies confirmed de novo production. Thus, modeling of monoterpenoid emissions required a hybrid model in which a significant fraction of emissions was dependent on both light and temperature, while the remainder was dependent on temperature alone. Experiments in which stomata were forced to close using abscisic acid demonstrated that MBO and a large fraction of the monoterpene flux, presumably linalool, could be limited at the scale of seconds to minutes by stomatal conductance. Using a previously published model of terpenoid emissions, which explicitly accounts for the physicochemical properties of emitted compounds, we were able to simulate these observed stomatal effects, whether induced experimentally or arising under naturally fluctuation conditions of temperature and light. This study shows unequivocally that, under naturally occurring field conditions, de novo light-dependent monoterpenes comprise a significant fraction of emissions in ponderosa pine. Differences between the monoterpene composition of ambient air and needle emissions imply a significant non-needle emission source enriched in Δ-3-carene.

  18. Reconstructing light curves from HXMT imaging observations

    CERN Document Server

    Huo, Zhuo-Xi; Li, Yi-Ming; Zhou, Jian-Feng

    2014-01-01

    The Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope (HXMT) is a Chinese space telescope mission. It is scheduled for launch in 2015. The telescope will perform an all-sky survey in hard X-ray band (1 - 250 keV), a series of deep imaging observations of small sky regions as well as pointed observations. In this work we present a conceptual method to reconstruct light curves from HXMT imaging observation directly, in order to monitor time-varying objects such as GRB, AXP and SGR in hard X-ray band with HXMT imaging observations.

  19. Light source modeling for automotive lighting devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerhau-Dreihoefer, Harald; Haack, Uwe; Weber, Thomas; Wendt, Dierk

    2002-08-01

    Automotive lighting devices generally have to meet high standards. For example to avoid discomfort glare for the oncoming traffic, luminous intensities of a low beam headlight must decrease by more than one order of magnitude within a fraction of a degree along the horizontal cutoff-line. At the same time, a comfortable homogeneous illumination of the road requires slowly varying luminous intensities below the cutoff line. All this has to be realized taking into account both, the legal requirements and the customer's stylistic specifications. In order to be able to simulate and optimize devices with a good optical performance different light source models are required. In the early stage of e.g. reflector development simple unstructured models allow a very fast development of the reflectors shape. On the other hand the final simulation of a complex headlamp or signal light requires a sophisticated model of the spectral luminance. In addition to theoretical models based on the light source's geometry, measured luminance data can also be used in the simulation and optimization process.

  20. Thermal-based modeling of coupled carbon, water, and energy fluxes using nominal light use efficiencies constrained by leaf chlorophyll observations

    KAUST Repository

    Schull, M. A.

    2015-03-11

    Recent studies have shown that estimates of leaf chlorophyll content (Chl), defined as the combined mass of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b per unit leaf area, can be useful for constraining estimates of canopy light use efficiency (LUE). Canopy LUE describes the amount of carbon assimilated by a vegetative canopy for a given amount of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (APAR) and is a key parameter for modeling land-surface carbon fluxes. A carbon-enabled version of the remote-sensing-based two-source energy balance (TSEB) model simulates coupled canopy transpiration and carbon assimilation using an analytical sub-model of canopy resistance constrained by inputs of nominal LUE (βn), which is modulated within the model in response to varying conditions in light, humidity, ambient CO2 concentration, and temperature. Soil moisture constraints on water and carbon exchange are conveyed to the TSEB-LUE indirectly through thermal infrared measurements of land-surface temperature. We investigate the capability of using Chl estimates for capturing seasonal trends in the canopy βn from in situ measurements of Chl acquired in irrigated and rain-fed fields of soybean and maize near Mead, Nebraska. The results show that field-measured Chl is nonlinearly related to βn, with variability primarily related to phenological changes during early growth and senescence. Utilizing seasonally varying βn inputs based on an empirical relationship with in situ measured Chl resulted in improvements in carbon flux estimates from the TSEB model, while adjusting the partitioning of total water loss between plant transpiration and soil evaporation. The observed Chl-βn relationship provides a functional mechanism for integrating remotely sensed Chl into the TSEB model, with the potential for improved mapping of coupled carbon, water, and energy fluxes across vegetated landscapes.

  1. Cosmological bimetric model with interacting positive and negative masses and two different speeds of light, in agreement with the observed acceleration of the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, J. P.; D'Agostini, G.

    2014-10-01

    An extension of a previously published model of a bimetric Universe is presented, where the speeds of light associated to positive and negative mass species are different. As shown earlier, the asymmetry of the model explains the acceleration of the positive species, while the negative one slows down. Asymmetry affects scale factors linked to lengths, times and speeds of light; so that if a mass inversion of a craft can be achieved, then interstellar travels would become non-impossible at a velocity less than the speed of light of the negative sector, and possibly much higher than that of the positive sector.

  2. A new light boson from MAGIC observations?

    CERN Document Server

    Roncadelli, Marco; Mansutti, Oriana

    2009-01-01

    Recent detection of blazar 3C279 by MAGIC has confirmed previous indications by H.E.S.S. that the Universe is more transparent to very-high-energy gamma rays than currently thought. This circumstance can be reconciled with observations of nearby blazars provided that photon oscillations into a very light Axion-Like Particle occur in extragalactic magnetic fields. The emerging "DARMA scenario" can be tested in the near future by the satellite-borne Fermi LAT detector as well as by the ground-based Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes H.E.S.S., MAGIC, CANGAROO III, VERITAS and by the Extensive Air Shower arrays ARGO-YBJ and MILAGRO.

  3. Observational constraint on the varying speed of light theory

    CERN Document Server

    Qi, Jing-Zhao; Liu, Wen-Biao

    2014-01-01

    The varying speed of light (VSL) theory is controversial. It succeeds in explaining some cosmological problems, but on the other hand it is excluded by mainstream physics because it will shake the foundation of physics. In the present paper, we devote ourselves to test whether the speed of light is varying from the observational data of the type Ia Supernova, Baryon Acoustic Oscillation, Observational $H(z)$ data and Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). We select the common form $c(t)=c_0a^n(t)$ with the contribution of dark energy and matter, where $c_0$ is the current value of speed of light, $n$ is a constant, and consequently construct a varying speed of light dark energy model (VSLDE). The combined observational data show a much trivial constraint $n=-0.0033 \\pm 0.0045$ at 68.3\\% confidence level, which indicates that the speed of light may be a constant with high significance. By reconstructing the time-variable $c(t)$, we find that the speed of light almost has no variation for redshift $z < 10^{-1}$....

  4. Orbital Signatures from Observed Light Curves of Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A. Mangalam; P. Mohan

    2014-09-01

    Variability in active galactic nuclei is observed in UV to X-ray emission based light curves. This could be attributed to orbital signatures of the plasma that constitutes the accretion flow on the putative disk or in the developing jet close to the inner region of the central black hole. We discuss some theoretical models based on this view. These models include general relativistic effects such as light bending, aberration effects, gravitational and Doppler redshifts. The novel aspects relate to the treatment of helical flow in cylindrical and conical geometries in the vicinity of a Schwarzschild black hole that leads to amplitude and frequency modulations of simulated light curves as well as the inclusion of beaming effects in these idealized geometries. We then present a suite of time series analysis techniques applicable to data with varied properties which can extract detailed information for their use in theoretical models.

  5. Observations and model simulations of snow albedo reduction in seasonal snow due to insoluble light-absorbing particles during 2014 Chinese survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Pu, Wei; Ren, Yong; Zhang, Xuelei; Zhang, Xueying; Shi, Jinsen; Jin, Hongchun; Dai, Mingkai; Chen, Quanliang

    2017-02-01

    A snow survey was carried out to collect 13 surface snow samples (10 for fresh snow, and 3 for aged snow) and 79 subsurface snow samples in seasonal snow at 13 sites across northeastern China in January 2014. A spectrophotometer combined with chemical analysis was used to quantify snow particulate absorption by insoluble light-absorbing particles (ILAPs, e.g., black carbon, BC; mineral dust, MD; and organic carbon, OC) in snow. Snow albedo was measured using a field spectroradiometer. A new radiative transfer model (Spectral Albedo Model for Dirty Snow, or SAMDS) was then developed to simulate the spectral albedo of snow based on the asymptotic radiative transfer theory. A comparison between SAMDS and an existing model - the Snow, Ice, and Aerosol Radiation (SNICAR) - indicates good agreements in the model-simulated spectral albedos of pure snow. However, the SNICAR model values tended to be slightly lower than those of SAMDS when BC and MD were considered. Given the measured BC, MD, and OC mixing ratios of 100-5000, 2000-6000, and 1000-30 000 ng g-1, respectively, in surface snow across northeastern China, the SAMDS model produced a snow albedo in the range of 0.95-0.75 for fresh snow at 550 nm, with a snow grain optical effective radius (Reff) of 100 µm. The snow albedo reduction due to spherical snow grains assumed to be aged snow is larger than fresh snow such as fractal snow grains and hexagonal plate or column snow grains associated with the increased BC in snow. For typical BC mixing ratios of 100 ng g-1 in remote areas and 3000 ng g-1 in heavy industrial areas across northern China, the snow albedo for internal mixing of BC and snow is lower by 0.005 and 0.036 than that of external mixing for hexagonal plate or column snow grains with Reff of 100 µm. These results also show that the simulated snow albedos by both SAMDS and SNICAR agree well with the observed values at low ILAP mixing ratios but tend to be higher than surface observations at high ILAP

  6. A time dependent approach to model X-ray and γ-ray light curves of Mrk 421 observed during the flare in February 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, K. K.; Sahayanathan, S.; Sinha, A.; Bhatt, N.; Tickoo, A. K.; Yadav, K. K.; Rannot, R. C.; Chandra, P.; Venugopal, K.; Marandi, P.; Kumar, N.; Goyal, H. C.; Goyal, A.; Agarwal, N. K.; Kothari, M.; Chanchalani, K.; Dhar, V. K.; Chouhan, N.; Bhat, C. K.; Koul, M. K.; Koul, R.

    2017-07-01

    Strong X-ray and γ-ray flares have been detected in February 2010 from the high synchrotron peaked blazar Mrk 421 (z = 0.031). With the motivation of understanding the physics involved in this flaring activity, we study the variability of the source in X-ray and γ-ray energy bands during the period February 10-23, 2010 (MJD 55237-55250). We use near simultaneous X-ray data collected by MAXI, Swift-XRT and γ-ray data collected by Fermi-LAT and TACTIC along with the optical V-band observations by SPOLat Steward Observatory. We observe that the variation in the one day averaged flux from the source during the flare is characterized by fast rise and slow decay. Besides, the TeV γ-ray flux shows a strong correlation with the X-ray flux, suggesting the former to be an outcome of synchrotron self Compton emission process. To model the observed X-ray and γ-ray light curves, we numerically solve the kinetic equation describing the evolution of particle distribution in the emission region. The injection of particle distribution into the emission region, from the putative acceleration region, is assumed to be a time dependent power law. The synchrotron and synchrotron self Compton emission from the evolving particle distribution in the emission region are used to reproduce the X-ray and γ-ray flares successfully. Our study suggests that the flaring activity of Mrk 421 can be an outcome of an efficient acceleration process associated with the increase in underlying non-thermal particle distribution.

  7. Observation of subluminal twisted light in vacuum

    CERN Document Server

    Bouchard, Frédéric; Mand, Harjaspreet; Boyd, Robert W; Karimi, Ebrahim

    2015-01-01

    Einstein's theory of relativity establishes the speed of light in vacuum, c, as a fundamental constant. However, the speed of light pulses can be altered significantly in dispersive materials. While significant control can be exerted over the speed of light in such media, no experimental demonstration of altered light speeds has hitherto been achieved in vacuum for ``twisted'' optical beams. We show that ``twisted'' light pulses exhibit subluminal velocities in vacuum, being slowed by 0.1\\% relative to c. This work does not challenge relativity theory, but experimentally supports a body of theoretical work on the counterintuitive vacuum group velocities of twisted pulses. These results are particularly important given recent interest in applications of twisted light to quantum information, communication and quantum key distribution.

  8. Individual Colorimetric Observer Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuta Asano

    Full Text Available This study proposes a vision model for individual colorimetric observers. The proposed model can be beneficial in many color-critical applications such as color grading and soft proofing to assess ranges of color matches instead of a single average match. We extended the CIE 2006 physiological observer by adding eight additional physiological parameters to model individual color-normal observers. These eight parameters control lens pigment density, macular pigment density, optical densities of L-, M-, and S-cone photopigments, and λmax shifts of L-, M-, and S-cone photopigments. By identifying the variability of each physiological parameter, the model can simulate color matching functions among color-normal populations using Monte Carlo simulation. The variabilities of the eight parameters were identified through two steps. In the first step, extensive reviews of past studies were performed for each of the eight physiological parameters. In the second step, the obtained variabilities were scaled to fit a color matching dataset. The model was validated using three different datasets: traditional color matching, applied color matching, and Rayleigh matches.

  9. Geomagnetic Observations and Models

    CERN Document Server

    Mandea, Mioara

    2011-01-01

    This volume provides comprehensive and authoritative coverage of all the main areas linked to geomagnetic field observation, from instrumentation to methodology, on ground or near-Earth. Efforts are also focused on a 21st century e-Science approach to open access to all geomagnetic data, but also to the data preservation, data discovery, data rescue, and capacity building. Finally, modeling magnetic fields with different internal origins, with their variation in space and time, is an attempt to draw together into one place the traditional work in producing models as IGRF or describing the magn

  10. Light propagation and interaction observed with electrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Word, Robert C; Fitzgerald, J P S; Könenkamp, R

    2016-01-01

    We discuss possibilities for a microscopic optical characterization of thin films and surfaces based on photoemission electron microscopy. We show that propagating light with wavelengths across the visible range can readily be visualized, and linear and non-linear materials properties can be evaluated non-invasively with nanometer spatial resolution. While femtosecond temporal resolution can be achieved in pump-probe-type experiments, the interferometric approach presented here has typical image frame times of ~200 fs.

  11. Light element synthesis in baryon isocurvature models

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, D L P

    2006-01-01

    The prejudice against baryon isocurvature models is primarily because of their inconsistency with early universe light element nucleosynthesis results. We propose that incipient low metallicity (Pop II) star forming regions can be expected to have environments conducive to Deuterium production by spallation, up to levels observed in the universe.

  12. Has superluminal light propagation been observed?

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yuan-Zhong

    2000-01-01

    It says in the report$^1$ by Wang et al. that a negative group velocity $u=-c/310$ is obtained and that a pulse advancement shift 62-ns is measured. The authors claim that the negative group velocity is associated with superluminal light propagation and that the pulse advancement is not at odds with causality or special relativity. However, it is shown here that their conclusions above are not true. Furthermore, I give some suggestion concerning a re-definition of group-velocity and a new exp...

  13. HYDRODYNAMICAL MODELS OF TYPE II-P SUPERNOVA LIGHT CURVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Bersten

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present progress in light curve models of type II-P supernovae (SNe II-P obtained using a newly devel- oped, one-dimensional hydrodynamic code. Using simple initial models (polytropes, we reproduced the global behavior of the observed light curves and we analyzed the sensitivity of the light curves to the variation of free parameters.

  14. Light fermions in composite models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlebnikov, S. Yu.; Peccei, R. D.

    1993-07-01

    In preon models based on chiral gauge theories, we show that light composite fermions can ensue as a result of gauging a subset of preons in a vectorlike manner. After demonstrating how this mechanism works in a toy example, we construct a one-generation model of quarks which admits a hierarchy between the up and down quark masses as well as between these masses and the compositeness scale. In simple extensions of this model to more generations we discuss the challenges of obtaining any quark mixing. Some possible phenomenological implications of scenarios where quarks and leptons which are heavier are also less pointlike are also considered.

  15. Light fermions in composite models

    CERN Document Server

    Khlebnikov, S Yu

    1993-01-01

    In preon models based on chiral gauge theories, we show that light composite fermions can ensue as a result of gauging a subset of preons in a vector-like manner. After demonstrating how this mechanism works in a toy example, we construct a one generation model of quarks which admits a hierarchy between the up and down quark masses as well as between these masses and the compositeness scale. In simple extensions of this model to more generations we discuss the challenges of obtaining any quark mixing. Some possible phenomenological implications of scenarios where quarks and leptons which are heavier are also less pointlike are also considered.

  16. Some curious phenomena when observing strobe-lights.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    Visual perception is suppressed during saccadic eye movements. Intense light flashes may still be observed but are difficult to localize. Two possible causes are suggested on the basis of observations made with police patrol- car strobe lights. See also B 24963 T.

  17. Drift of Light Rays Induced by Nonsymmetric Cosmic Flow: an observational test of homogeneity of the Universe + a few general comments on inhomogeneous models

    CERN Document Server

    Krasiński, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    Investigation of null geodesic equations in the Szekeres models shows that observers in favourable positions would see galaxies drift across the sky at a rate of up to $10^{-6}$ arc seconds per year. Such a drift would be possible to measure using devices that are under construction; the required time of monitoring would be $\\approx10$ years. This effect is zero in the FLRW models, so it provides a measure of inhomogeneity of the Universe. In the Szekeres models, the condition for zero drift is zero shear. But in the shearfree normal models, the condition for zero drift is that, in the comoving coordinates, the time dependence of the metric completely factors out. In the second part of the article, the real-time cosmology program is briefly described, and a few widespread misconceptions about the cosmological models are pointed out and corrected.

  18. PyTransit: Transit light curve modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parviainen, Hannu

    2015-05-01

    PyTransit implements optimized versions of the Giménez and Mandel & Agol transit models for exoplanet transit light-curves. The two models are implemented natively in Fortran with OpenMP parallelization, and are accessed by an object-oriented python interface. PyTransit facilitates the analysis of photometric time series of exoplanet transits consisting of hundreds of thousands of data points, and of multipassband transit light curves from spectrophotometric observations. It offers efficient model evaluation for multicolour observations and transmission spectroscopy, built-in supersampling to account for extended exposure times, and routines to calculate the projected planet-to-star distance for circular and eccentric orbits, transit durations, and more.

  19. Modeling and Fitting Exoplanet Transit Light Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millholland, Sarah; Ruch, G. T.

    2013-01-01

    We present a numerical model along with an original fitting routine for the analysis of transiting extra-solar planet light curves. Our light curve model is unique in several ways from other available transit models, such as the analytic eclipse formulae of Mandel & Agol (2002) and Giménez (2006), the modified Eclipsing Binary Orbit Program (EBOP) model implemented in Southworth’s JKTEBOP code (Popper & Etzel 1981; Southworth et al. 2004), or the transit model developed as a part of the EXOFAST fitting suite (Eastman et al. in prep.). Our model employs Keplerian orbital dynamics about the system’s center of mass to properly account for stellar wobble and orbital eccentricity, uses a unique analytic solution derived from Kepler’s Second Law to calculate the projected distance between the centers of the star and planet, and calculates the effect of limb darkening using a simple technique that is different from the commonly used eclipse formulae. We have also devised a unique Monte Carlo style optimization routine for fitting the light curve model to observed transits. We demonstrate that, while the effect of stellar wobble on transit light curves is generally small, it becomes significant as the planet to stellar mass ratio increases and the semi-major axes of the orbits decrease. We also illustrate the appreciable effects of orbital ellipticity on the light curve and the necessity of accounting for its impacts for accurate modeling. We show that our simple limb darkening calculations are as accurate as the analytic equations of Mandel & Agol (2002). Although our Monte Carlo fitting algorithm is not as mathematically rigorous as the Markov Chain Monte Carlo based algorithms most often used to determine exoplanetary system parameters, we show that it is straightforward and returns reliable results. Finally, we show that analyses performed with our model and optimization routine compare favorably with exoplanet characterizations published by groups such as the

  20. Forward modelling to determine the observational signatures of white-light imaging and interplanetary scintillation for the propagation of an interplanetary shock in the ecliptic plane

    CERN Document Server

    Xiong, Ming; Bisi, M M; Owens, M J; Fallows, R A; Dorrian, G D; Davies, J A; Thomasson, P

    2011-01-01

    Recent coordinated observations of interplanetary scintillation (IPS) and stereoscopic heliospheric imagers (HIs) are significant to continuously track the propagation and evolution of solar eruptions throughout interplanetary space. In order to obtain a better understanding of the observational signatures in these two remote-sensing techniques, the magnetohydrodynamics of the macro-scale interplanetary disturbance and the radio-wave scattering of the micro-scale electron-density fluctuation are coupled and investigated using a newly-constructed multi-scale numerical model. This model is then applied to a case of an interplanetary shock propagation within the ecliptic plane. The shock could be nearly invisible to an HI, once entering the Thomson-scattering sphere of the HI. The asymmetry in the optical images between the western and eastern HIs suggests the shock propagation off the Sun-Earth line. Meanwhile, an IPS signal, strongly dependent on the local electron density, is insensitive to the density cavity...

  1. Model of light variations of Be stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepinski, T. (Polska Akademia Nauk, Warsaw. Centrum Astronomiczne)

    1980-01-01

    The following model of Be star is proposed: a star rotating rigidly with a ''break up'' velocity is surrounded with a flat, geometrically thin, optically thick gaseous disk rotating with a Keplerian velocity. The disk absorbs and reemits stellar light. Viscous heat dissipation in the disk is neglected. The emerging spectrum of the system is calculated in black body approximation with temperature being a function of a position on the star and on the disk. Variation of the inner and outer disk radii may give rise to monochromatic light variations of the whole system in the range of 0.1-0.7 magnitudes. The light variations observed in Be stars are in the same range.

  2. Transparent alumina: A light scattering model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apetz, R.; Van Bruggen, P.B.

    2003-01-01

    A model based on Rayleigh-Gans-Debye light scattering theory has been developed to describe the light transmission properties of fine-grained, fully dense polycrystalline ceramics consisting of birefringent crystals. This model extends light transmission models based on geometrical optics, which are

  3. A New Light Boson from Cherenkov Telescopes Observations?

    CERN Document Server

    Roncadelli, Marco; Mansutti, Oriana

    2010-01-01

    Early indications by H.E.S.S. and the subsequent detection of blazar 3C279 by MAGIC show that the Universe is more transparent to very-high-energy gamma rays than previously thought. We demonstrate that this circumstance can be reconciled with standard blazar emission models provided that photon oscillations into a very light Axion-Like Particle occur in extragalactic magnetic fields. A quantitative estimate of this effect indeed explains the observed spectrum of 3C279. Our prediction can be tested by the satellite-borne Fermi/LAT detector as well as by the ground-based Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes H.E.S.S., MAGIC, CANGAROO III, VERITAS and by the Extensive Air Shower arrays ARGO-YBJ and MILAGRO.

  4. GreenLight Model 960.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Richard; Carey, Conn; Hynes, James; Papkovsky, Dmitri

    2013-01-01

    The importance of food safety has resulted in a demand for a more rapid, high-throughput method for total viable count (TVC). The industry standard for TVC determination (ISO 4833:2003) is widely used but presents users with some drawbacks. The method is materials- and labor-intensive, requiring multiple agar plates per sample. More importantly, the method is slow, with 72 h typically required for a definitive result. Luxcel Biosciences has developed the GreenLight Model 960, a microtiter plate-based assay providing a rapid high-throughput method of aerobic bacterial load assessment through analysis of microbial oxygen consumption. Results are generated in 1-12 h, depending on microbial load. The mix and measure procedure allows rapid detection of microbial oxygen consumption and equates oxygen consumption to microbial load (CFU/g), providing a simple, sensitive means of assessing the microbial contamination levels in foods (1). As bacteria in the test sample grow and respire, they deplete O2, which is detected as an increase in the GreenLight probe signal above the baseline level (2). The time required to reach this increase in signal can be used to calculate the CFU/g of the original sample, based on a predetermined calibration. The higher the initial microbial load, the earlier this threshold is reached (1).

  5. Radial Velocity Observations and Light Curve Noise Modeling Confirm That Kepler-91b is a Giant Planet Orbiting a Giant Star

    CERN Document Server

    Barclay, Thomas; Huber, Daniel; Foreman-Mackey, Daniel; Cochran, William D; MacQueen, Phillip J; Rowe, Jason F; Quintana, Elisa V

    2014-01-01

    Kepler-91b is a rare example of a transiting hot Jupiter around a red giant star, providing the possibility to study the formation and composition of hot Jupiters under different conditions compared to main-sequence stars. However, the planetary nature of Kepler-91b, which was confirmed using phase-curve variations by Lillo-Box et al., was recently called into question based on a re-analysis of Kepler data. We have obtained ground-based radial velocity observations from the Hobby-Eberly Telescope and unambiguously confirm the planetary nature of Kepler-91b by simultaneously modeling the Kepler and radial velocity data. The star exhibits temporally correlated noise due to stellar granulation which we model as a Gaussian Process. We hypothesize that it is this noise component that led previous studies to suspect Kepler-91b to be a false positive. Our work confirms the conclusions presented by Lillo-Box et al. that Kepler-91b is a 0.73+/-0.13 Mjup planet orbiting a red giant star.

  6. RADIAL VELOCITY OBSERVATIONS AND LIGHT CURVE NOISE MODELING CONFIRM THAT KEPLER-91b IS A GIANT PLANET ORBITING A GIANT STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barclay, Thomas; Huber, Daniel; Rowe, Jason F.; Quintana, Elisa V. [NASA Ames Research Center, M/S 244-30, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Endl, Michael; Cochran, William D.; MacQueen, Phillip J. [McDonald Observatory, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Foreman-Mackey, Daniel [New York University, Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

    2015-02-10

    Kepler-91b is a rare example of a transiting hot Jupiter around a red giant star, providing the possibility to study the formation and composition of hot Jupiters under different conditions compared to main-sequence stars. However, the planetary nature of Kepler-91b, which was confirmed using phase-curve variations by Lillo-Box et al., was recently called into question based on a re-analysis of Kepler data. We have obtained ground-based radial velocity observations from the Hobby-Eberly Telescope and unambiguously confirm the planetary nature of Kepler-91b by simultaneously modeling the Kepler and radial velocity data. The star exhibits temporally correlated noise due to stellar granulation which we model as a Gaussian Process. We hypothesize that it is this noise component that led previous studies to suspect Kepler-91b to be a false positive. Our work confirms the conclusions presented by Lillo-Box et al. that Kepler-91b is a 0.73 ± 0.13 M {sub Jup} planet orbiting a red giant star.

  7. Modeling repetitive motions using structured light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yi; Aliaga, Daniel G

    2010-01-01

    Obtaining models of dynamic 3D objects is an important part of content generation for computer graphics. Numerous methods have been extended from static scenarios to model dynamic scenes. If the states or poses of the dynamic object repeat often during a sequence (but not necessarily periodically), we call such a repetitive motion. There are many objects, such as toys, machines, and humans, undergoing repetitive motions. Our key observation is that when a motion-state repeats, we can sample the scene under the same motion state again but using a different set of parameters; thus, providing more information of each motion state. This enables robustly acquiring dense 3D information difficult for objects with repetitive motions using only simple hardware. After the motion sequence, we group temporally disjoint observations of the same motion state together and produce a smooth space-time reconstruction of the scene. Effectively, the dynamic scene modeling problem is converted to a series of static scene reconstructions, which are easier to tackle. The varying sampling parameters can be, for example, structured-light patterns, illumination directions, and viewpoints resulting in different modeling techniques. Based on this observation, we present an image-based motion-state framework and demonstrate our paradigm using either a synchronized or an unsynchronized structured-light acquisition method.

  8. Shelter models and observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peña, Alfredo; Bechmann, Andreas; Conti, Davide;

    This report documents part of the work performed by work package (WP) 3 of the ‘Online WAsP’ project funded by the Danish Energy Technology and Demonstration Program (EUDP). WP3 initially identified the shortcomings of the current WAsP engine for small and medium wind turbines (Peña et al., 2014b...... in the wake of a fence. The experiment is the basis of the study of the error and uncertainty of the obstacle models....

  9. Antiepileptic effect of fisetin in iron-induced experimental model of traumatic epilepsy in rats in the light of electrophysiological, biochemical, and behavioral observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Jharana; Singh, Rameshwar; Sharma, Deepak

    2017-05-01

    Traumatic epilepsy is defined by episodes of recurring seizures secondary to severe brain injury. Though drugs are found effective to control seizures, their long-term use have been observed to increase reactive oxygen species in animals. Flavonoid fisetin, a natural bioactive phytonutrient reported to exert anticonvulsive effect in experimental seizure models. But, trauma-induced seizures could not be prevented by anticonvulsants was reported in some clinical studies. To study the effect of fisetin on epileptiform electrographic activity in iron-induced traumatic epilepsy and also the probable reason behind the effect in rats. Fisetin pretreatment (20 mg/kg body wt., p.o.) of rats for 12 weeks were chosen followed by injecting iron (5 µl, 100 mM) stereotaxically to generate iron-induced epilepsy. Experimental design include electrophysiological study (electroencephalograph in correlation with multiple unit activity (MUA) in the cortex and CA1 subfield of the hippocampus; spectral analysis of seizure and seizure-associated behavioral study (Morris water maze for spatial learning, open-field test for anxiety) and biochemical study (lipid peroxidation, Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity) in both the cortex and the hippocampus. Fisetin pretreatment was found to prevent the development of iron-induced electrical seizure and decrease the corresponding MUA in the cortex (*P˂0.05) as well as in the hippocampus (***P˂0.001). Fisetin pretreatment decreased the lipid peroxides (*P˂0.05) and retained the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity (*P˂0.05) which was found altered in the epileptic animals and also found to attenuate the seizure-associated cognitive dysfunctions. This study demonstrated the antiepileptic action of fisetin in iron-induced model of epileptic rats by inhibiting oxidative stress.

  10. Contrasting trends in light pollution across Europe based on satellite observed night time lights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennie, Jonathan; Davies, Thomas W.; Duffy, James P.; Inger, Richard; Gaston, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1970s nighttime satellite images of the Earth from space have provided a striking illustration of the extent of artificial light. Meanwhile, growing awareness of adverse impacts of artificial light at night on scientific astronomy, human health, ecological processes and aesthetic enjoyment of the night sky has led to recognition of light pollution as a significant global environmental issue. Links between economic activity, population growth and artificial light are well documented in rapidly developing regions. Applying a novel method to analysis of satellite images of European nighttime lights over 15 years, we show that while the continental trend is towards increasing brightness, some economically developed regions show more complex patterns with large areas decreasing in observed brightness over this period. This highlights that opportunities exist to constrain and even reduce the environmental impact of artificial light pollution while delivering cost and energy-saving benefits.

  11. Light Front Boson Model Propagation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jorge Henrique Sales; Alfredo Takashi Suzuki

    2011-01-01

    stract The scope and aim of this work is to describe the two-body interaction mediated by a particle (either the scalar or the gauge boson) within the light-front formulation. To do this, first of all we point out the importance of propagators and Green functions in Quantum Mechanics. Then we project the covariant quantum propagator onto the light front time to get the propagator for scalar particles in these coordinates. This operator propagates the wave function from x+ = 0 to x+ > O. It corresponds to the definition of the time ordering operation in the light front time x+. We calculate the light-front Green's function for 2 interacting bosons propagating forward in x+. We also show how to write down the light front Green's function from the Feynman propagator and finally make a generalization to N bosons.

  12. Study of white-light flares observed by Hinode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Min Wang

    2009-01-01

    White-light flares are considered to be the most energetic flaring events that are observable in the optical broad-band continuum of the solar spectrum. They have not been commonly observed. Observations of white-light flares with sub-arcsecond resolution have been very rare. The continuous high resolution observations of Hinode provide a unique opportunity to systematically study the white-light flares with a spatial resolution around 0.2 arcsec. We surveyed all the flares above GOES magnitude C5.0 since the launch of Hinode in 2006 October. 13 of these kinds of flares were covered by the Hinode G-band observations. We analyzed the peak contrasts and equivalent areas (calculated via integrated excess emission contrast) of these flares as a function of the GOES X-ray flux, and found that the cut-off visibility is likely around M1 flares under the observing limit of Hinode. Many other observational and physical factors should affect the visibility of white-light flares; as the observing conditions are improved, smaller flares are likely to have detectable white-light emissions. We are cautious that this limiting visibility is an overestimate, because G-band observations contain emissions from the upper atmosphere.Among the 13 events analyzed, only the M8.7 flare of 2007 June 4 had near-simultaneous observations in both the G-band and the blue continuum. The blue continuum had a peak contrast of 94% vs. 175% in G-band for this event. The equivalent area in the blue continuum is an order of magnitude lower than that in the G-band. Very recently, Jess et al.studied a C2.0 flare with a peak contrast of 300% in the blue continuum. Compared to the events presented in this letter, that event is probably an unusual white-light flare: a very small kernel with a large contrast that can be detected in high resolution observations.

  13. Ground-Based Observations of Unusual Atmospheric Light Emissions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨静; 陆高鹏; 杜艰; 潘蔚琳

    2014-01-01

    Unusual atmospheric light emissions were observed from a station located in Shandong Province of East China. The main morphology of these events includes a bright glowing spot, which differs distinctly from any type of transient luminous events (TLEs) well recognized in literature, such as sprites, halos, elves, gigantic jets, blue jets, and blue starters. A comparison between the observations of four such light emission events and the data from lightning detection networks reveals no correlation between these events and the intense lightning activity in the adjacent area. The events reported in this paper may imply the existence of a new phenomenon with a mechanism that remains to be investigated with further observation and complementary lightning measurement.

  14. Observation of the geometric spin Hall effect of light

    CERN Document Server

    Korger, Jan; Chille, Vanessa; Banzer, Peter; Wittmann, Christoffer; Lindlein, Norbert; Marquardt, Christoph; Leuchs, Gerd

    2013-01-01

    The spin Hall effect of light (SHEL) is the photonic analogue of spin Hall effects occurring for charge carriers in solid-state systems. A prime example of this intriguing phenomenon occurs when a light beam refracts at an air-glass interface. It amounts to a polarization-dependent displacement perpendicular to the plane of incidence. At optical wavelengths, this shift is about a few tens of nanometres. Recently, it was predicted that a light beam projected onto an oblique plane can undergo a significantly larger displacement. This effect, named geometric SHEL, is a consequence of spin-orbit coupling and is largely independent from the physical implementation of the projection. Here, we experimentally demonstrate this novel phenomenon by observing an optical beam transmitted across an oblique polarizer. The spatial intensity distribution of the transmitted beam depends on the incident state of polarization and its centroid undergoes a positional displacement exceeding one wavelength. This novel type of spin-o...

  15. The Effects of Improper Lighting on Professional Astronomical Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Patat, F

    2010-01-01

    Europe and a number of countries in the world are investing significant amounts of public money to operate and maintain large, ground-based astronomical facilities. Even larger projects are under development to observe the faintest and most remote astrophysical sources in the universe. As of today, on the planet there are very few sites that satisfy all the demanding criteria for such sensitive and expensive equipment, including a low level of light pollution. Because of the uncontrolled growth of incorrect illumination, even these protected and usually remote sites are at risk. Although the reasons for intelligent lighting reside in energy saving and environmental effects, the impact on scientific research cannot be neglected or underestimated, because of its high cultural value for the progress of the whole mankind. After setting the stage, in this paper I review the effects of improper lighting on professional optical and near-UV astronomical data, and discuss the possible solutions to both preserve the ni...

  16. Light Front Fermion Model Propagation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jorge Henrique Sales; Alfredo Takashi Suzuki

    2013-01-01

    In this work we consider the propagation of two fermion fields interacting with each other by the exchange of intermediate scalar bosons in the light front.We obtain the corrections up to fourth order in the coupling constant using hierarchical equations in order to obtain the bound state equation (Bethe-Salpeter equation).

  17. Observation of quantum entanglement using spatial light modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Eric; Franke-Arnold, Sonja; Courtial, Johannes; Padgett, Miles J; Barnett, Stephen M

    2006-12-25

    We use spatial light modulators to observe the quantum entanglement of down-converted photon pairs. Acting as diffractive optical elements within one of the beams, they can be reconfigured in real time to set the spatial profile of the measured mode. Such configurations are highly applicable to the measurement of orbital angular momentum states or other spatial modes, such as those associated with quantum imaging.

  18. Observation of Anti-correlation of Classical Chaotic Light

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Hui; Xie, Zhenda; Shih, Yanhua

    2009-01-01

    We wish to report an experimental observation of anti-correlation from first-order incoherent classical chaotic light. We explain why the classical statistical theory does not apply and provide a quantum interpretation. In quantum theory, either correlation or anti-correlation is a two-photon interference phenomenon, which involves the superposition of two-photon amplitudes, a nonclassical entity corresponding to different yet indistinguishable alternative ways of producing a joint-photodetection event.

  19. Observation of four-wave mixing in slow-light silicon photonic crystal waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, James F; Yu, Mingbin; Kwong, Dim-Lee; Wong, Chee Wei

    2010-07-19

    Four-wave mixing is observed in a silicon W1 photonic crystal waveguide. The dispersion dependence of the idler conversion efficiency is measured and shown to be enhanced at wavelengths exhibiting slow group velocities. A 12-dB increase in the conversion efficiency is observed. Concurrently, a decrease in the conversion bandwidth is observed due to the increase in group velocity dispersion in the slow-light regime. The experimentally observed conversion efficiencies agree with the numerically modeled results.

  20. Observations of four-wave mixing in slow-light silicon photonic crystal waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    McMillan, James F; Kwong, Dim-Lee; Wong, Chee Wei

    2010-01-01

    Four-wave mixing is observed in a silicon W1 photonic crystal waveguide. The dispersion dependence of the idler conversion efficiency is measured and shown to be enhanced at wavelengths exhibiting slow group velocities. A 12-dB increase in the conversion efficiency is observed. Concurrently, a decrease in the conversion bandwidth is observed due to the increase in group velocity dispersion in the slow-light regime. The experimentally observed conversion efficiencies agree with the numerically modeled results.

  1. Observation of light emissions in superconducting cavities; Observation d`emissions lumineuses dans une cavite supraconductrice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caruette, A.; Fouaidy, M.; Hammoudi, N.; Junquera, T.; Le Goff, A.; Lesrel, J.; Maissa, S. [Services Techniques, Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France)

    1999-11-01

    In order to investigate the light emissions associated to the electron emission in a superconducting RF cavity, an optical observation system is mounted on the `mushroom` cavity. After an intentional contamination of the cavity with alumina particles, stable luminous spots are observed around the contaminated area. (authors) 3 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Stray-light contamination and spatial deconvolution of slit-spectrograph observations

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, C; Fabbian, D

    2011-01-01

    Stray light caused by scattering on optical surfaces and in the Earth's atmosphere degrades the spatial resolution of observations. We study the contribution of stray light to the two channels of POLIS. We test the performance of different methods of stray-light correction and spatial deconvolution to improve the spatial resolution post-facto. We model the stray light as having two components: a spectrally dispersed component and a component of parasitic light caused by scattering inside the spectrograph. We use several measurements to estimate the two contributions: observations with a (partly) blocked FOV, a convolution of the FTS spectral atlas, imaging in the pupil plane, umbral profiles, and spurious polarization signal in telluric lines. The measurements allow us to estimate the spatial PSF of POLIS and the main spectrograph of the German VTT. We use the PSF for a deconvolution of both spectropolarimetric data and investigate the effect on the spectra. The parasitic contribution can be directly and accu...

  3. Quantitative observation of light flash sensations experiment MA-106

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budinger, T. F.; Tobias, C. A.; Schopper, E.; Schott, J. U.; Huesman, R. H.; Upham, F. T.; Wieskamp, T. F.; Kucala, J. M.; Goulding, F. S.; Landis, D. A.

    1976-01-01

    Light flashes caused by the interaction of cosmic particles with the visual apparatus have been observed by astronauts on all space missions since Apollo 11. This Apollo Soyuz Test Project experiment compared measurements of the observer's visual sensitivity with measurements of the ambient radiation environment and with the frequency and character of the flashes observed. The data obtained reveal a latitude dependence of the frequency of observed flashes. This distribution of flashes is correlated with the distribution of cosmic particles with stopping power greater than 15 keV/ micrometers in the eye. The interaction of dark adaptation, specific ionization, and range of particles in the retina as factors in the visualization of particle passage is discussed.

  4. Measuring and modeling twilight's purple light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Raymond L.; Hernández-Andrés, Javier

    2003-01-01

    During many clear twilights, much of the solar sky is dominated by pastel purples. This purple light's red component has long been ascribed to transmission through and scattering by stratospheric dust and other aerosols. Clearly the vivid purples of post-volcanic twilights are related to increased stratospheric aerosol loading. Yet our time-series measurements of purple-light spectra, combined with radiative transfer modeling and satellite soundings, indicate that background stratospheric aerosols by themselves do not redden sunlight enough to cause the purple light's reds. Furthermore, scattering and extinction in both the troposphere and the stratosphere are needed to explain most purple lights.

  5. The white-light flare of 1982 June 15 - Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauas, P.J.D. (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (USA))

    1990-10-01

    This paper presents spectral observations of the continuum as well as the profiles of 29 selected atomic lines for the two continuum-emitting kernels of the June 15 1982 white-light flare, and for the neighboring quiet sun. It is found that one of the kernels does not show enhanced emission in chromospheric lines, particularly in H-alpha, although it presents the same level of white-light emission as the other kernel. This suggests that both kernels have the same thermal structure in the continuum-emitting region, but a different structure in the chromosphere, thus supporting the hypothesis that the continuum emission is of photospheric origin, and due to H(-). 11 refs.

  6. The white-light flare of 1982 June 15 - Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauas, Pablo J. D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents spectral observations of the continuum as well as the profiles of 29 selected atomic lines for the two continuum-emitting kernels of the June 15 1982 white-light flare, and for the neighboring quiet sun. It is found that one of the kernels does not show enhanced emission in chromospheric lines, particularly in H-alpha, although it presents the same level of white-light emission as the other kernel. This suggests that both kernels have the same thermal structure in the continuum-emitting region, but a different structure in the chromosphere, thus supporting the hypothesis that the continuum emission is of photospheric origin, and due to H(-).

  7. Observations involving broadband impedance modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, J.S. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Results for single- and multi-bunch instabilities can be significantly affected by the precise model that is used for the broadband impedance. This paper discusses three aspects of broadband impedance modelling. The first is an observation of the effect that a seemingly minor change in an impedance model has on the single-bunch mode coupling threshold. The second is a successful attempt to construct a model for the high-frequency tails of an r.f. cavity. The last is a discussion of requirements for the mathematical form of an impedance which follow from the general properties of impedances. (author)

  8. Observations involving broadband impedance modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, J.S.

    1995-08-01

    Results for single- and multi-bunch instabilities can be significantly affected by the precise model that is used for the broadband impendance. This paper discusses three aspects of broadband impendance modeling. The first is an observation of the effect that a seemingly minor change in an impedance model has on the single-bunch mode coupling threshold. The second is a successful attempt to construct a model for the high-frequency tails of an r.f cavity. The last is a discussion of requirements for the mathematical form of an impendance which follow from the general properties of impendances.

  9. Near-field observation of light propagation in nanocoax waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlo, Juan M; Ye, Fan; Rizal, Binod; Burns, Michael J; Naughton, Michael J

    2014-06-16

    We report the observation of propagating modes of visible and near infrared light in nanoscale coaxial (metal-dielectric-metal) structures, using near-field scanning optical microscopy. Together with numerical calculations, we show that the propagated modes have different nature depending on the excitation wavelength, i.e., plasmonic TE11 and TE21 modes in the near infrared and photonic TE31, TE41 and TM11 modes in the visible. Far field transmission out of the nanocoaxes is dominated by the superposition of Fabry-Perot cavity modes resonating in the structures, consistent with theory. Such coaxial optical waveguides may be useful for future nanoscale photonic systems.

  10. Possible Observation of a Second Kind of Light

    CERN Document Server

    Kuhne, R

    2000-01-01

    According to classical electrodynamics, sunlight that is passed through an iron layer can be detected with the naked eye only if the thickness of the layer is less than 170nm. However, in an old experiment, August Kundt was able to see the sunlight with the naked eye even when it had passed an iron layer with thickness greater than 200nm. To explain this observation, we propose a second kind of light which was introduced in a different context by Abdus Salam. A tabletop experiment can verify this possibility.

  11. Possible Observation of a Second Kind of Light

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhne, R.

    2000-01-01

    According to classical electrodynamics, sunlight that is passed through an iron layer can be detected with the naked eye only if the thickness of the layer is less than 170nm. However, in an old experiment, August Kundt was able to see the sunlight with the naked eye even when it had passed an iron layer with thickness greater than 200nm. To explain this observation, we propose a second kind of light which was introduced in a different context by Abdus Salam. A tabletop experiment can verify ...

  12. Observational modeling of topological spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molaei, M.R. [Department of Mathematics, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman 76169-14111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: mrmolaei@mail.uk.ac.ir

    2009-10-15

    In this paper a model for a multi-dimensional observer by using of the fuzzy theory is presented. Relative form of Tychonoff theorem is proved. The notion of topological entropy is extended. The persistence of relative topological entropy under relative conjugate relation is proved.

  13. Observation of nonlinear resonances in the advanced light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, D.; Collins, H.; Decking, W.; Portmann, G.; Schachinger, L.; Zholents, A.

    1995-09-01

    Observations of nonlinear resonances in the Advanced Light Source have been made by scanning betatron tunes and observing count rates in a beam-loss radiation monitor placed down stream of a beam scraper. We have found that it is possible to see structural resonances which are unallowed as well as those which are allowed by the ring's natural 12-fold symmetry. By systematically breaking the amount of symmetry we see that the widths of the unallowed resonances grow while the widths of the allowed resonances do not. In this paper we briefly discuss the importance of symmetry and its effect on resonances in the design of the ALS. Next we describe our experimental setup and discuss the performance of the beam loss monitor which we used to view the resonances. We then present scans of the tune space where one can see the presence of the structural resonances and their evolution when the lattice symmetry is systematically broken.

  14. Observations of the first light and the epoch of reionization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaohui Fan

    2012-01-01

    Studying the first generation of stars,galaxies and supermassive black holes as well as the epoch of reionization is one of the fundamental questions of modern astrophysics.The last few years have witnessed the first confirmation of the discoveries of galaxies,quasars and Gamma-Ray Bursts at z > 7,with possible detections at z ~ 10.There is also mounting evidence that cosmic reionization is a prolonged process that peaks around z ~ 10 and ends at z ~ 6 - 7.Observations of the highest redshift intergalactic medium and the most metal-poor stars in the Galaxy begin to constrain the earliest chemical enrichment processes in the Universe.These observations provide a glimpse of cosmic history over the first billion years after the Big Bang.In this review,we will present recent results on the observations of the high-redshift Universe over the past decade,highlight key challenges and uncertainties in these observations,and preview what is possible with the next generation facilities in studying the first light and mapping the history of reionization.

  15. Modeling the galaxy/light-mass connection with cosmological simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Tasitsiomi, A

    2006-01-01

    I review some results on the galaxy/light-mass connection obtained by dissipationless simulations in combination with a simple, non-parametric model to connect halo circular velocity to the luminosity of the galaxy they would host. I focus on the galaxy-mass correlation and mass-to-light ratios obtained from galaxy up to cluster scales. The predictions of this simple scheme are shown to be in very good agreement with SDSS observations.

  16. Intermediate inflation in light of the three-year WMAP observations

    CERN Document Server

    Barrow, J D; Pahud, C; Barrow, John D; Liddle, Andrew R

    2006-01-01

    The three-year observations from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe have been hailed as giving the first clear indication of a spectral index n_s0 is given (within the slow-roll approximation) by a version of the intermediate inflation model with expansion rate H(t) \\propto t^{-1/3}. We assess the status of this model in light of the WMAP3 data.

  17. Light-Front Spin-1 Model: Parameters Dependence

    CERN Document Server

    Mello, Clayton S; de Melo, J P B C; Frederico, T

    2015-01-01

    We study the structure of the $\\rho$-meson within a light-front model with constituent quark degrees of freedom. We calculate electroweak static observables: magnetic and quadrupole moments, decay constant and charge radius. The prescription used to compute the electroweak quantities is free of zero modes, which makes the calculation implicitly covariant. We compare the results of our model with other ones found in the literature. Our model parameters give a decay constant close to the experimental one.

  18. Precise Radial Velocity First Light Observations With iSHELL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cale, Bryson Lee; Plavchan, Peter; Nishimoto, America; Tanner, Angelle M.; Gagne, Jonathan; Gao, Peter; Furlan, Elise; White, Russel J.; Walp, Bernie; von Braun, Kaspar; Brinkworth, Carolyn; Johnson, John A.; Anglada-Escudé, Guillem; Henry, Todd J.; Catanzarite, Joseph; Kane, Stephen R.; Beichman, Charles; Ciardi, David R.; Wallace, J. Kent; Mennesson, Bertrand; Vasisht, Gautam

    2017-01-01

    We present our first light observations with the new iSHELL spectrograph at the NASA Infrared Telescope facility. iShell replaces the 25 year old CSHELL with improvements in spectral grasp (~40x), resolution (70,000 versus 46,000), throughput, optics, and detector characteristics. With CSHELL, we obtained a radial velocity precision of 3 m/s on a bright red giant and we identified several radial velocity variable M dwarfs for future follow up. Our goal with iSHELL is to characterize the precise radial velocity performance of the methane isotopologue absorption gas cell in the calibration unit. We observe bright nearby radial velocity standards to better understand the instrument and data reduction techniques. We have updated our CSHELL analysis code to handle multiple orders and the increased number of pixels. It is feasible that we will obtain a radial velocity precision of < 3 m/s, sufficient to detect terrestrial planets in the habitable zone of nearby M dwarfs. We will also follow up radial velocity variables we have discovered, along with transiting exoplanets orbiting M dwarfs identified with the K2 and TESS missions.

  19. Contrasting trends in light pollution across Europe based on satellite observed night time lights

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bennie, Jonathan; Davies, Thomas W; Duffy, James P; Inger, Richard; Gaston, Kevin J

    2014-01-01

    ... to recognition of light pollution as a significant global environmental issue. Links between economic activity, population growth and artificial light are well documented in rapidly developing regions...

  20. A light knowledge model for linguistic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baud, R H; Lovis, C; Ruch, P; Rassinoux, A M

    2001-01-01

    Content extraction from medical texts is achievable today by linguistic applications, in so far as sufficient domain knowledge is available. Such knowledge represents a model of the domain and is hard to collect with sufficient depth and good coverage, despite numerous attempts. To leverage this task is a priority in order to benefit from the awaited linguistic tools. The light model is designed with this goal in mind. Syntactic and lexical information are generally available with large lexicons. A domain model should add the necessary semantic information. The authors have designed a light knowledge model for the collection of semantic information on the basis of the recognized syntactical and lexical attributes. It has been tailored for the acquisition of enough semantic information in order to retrieve terms of a controlled vocabulary from free texts, as for example, to retrieve Mesh terms from patient records.

  1. New Directions in Modeling the Lighting Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Fiala

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents information about new directions in the modelingof lighting systems, and an overview of methods for the modeling oflighting systems. The new R-FEM method is described, which is acombination of the Radiosity method and the Finite Elements Method. Thepaper contains modeling results and their verification by experimentalmeasurements and by the Matlab simulation for this R-FEM method.

  2. Modelling the light curves of Fermi LAT millisecond pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Venter, C; Harding, AK; Grove, JE

    2014-01-01

    We modelled the radio and gamma-ray light curves of millisecond pulsars using outer gap, two-pole caustic, low-altitude slot gap, and pair-starved polar cap geometric models, combined with a semi-empirical conal radio model. We find that no model fits all cases, with the outer gap and two-pole caustic models providing best fits for comparable numbers of millisecond pulsar light curves. We find a broad distribution of best-fit inclination angles as well as a clustering at large observer angles. The outer gap model furthermore seems to require relatively larger inclination angles, while the two-pole caustic model hints at an inverse trend between inclination angle and pulsar spin-down luminosity.

  3. Dynamical observations of self-stabilizing stationary light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, J. L.; Campbell, G. T.; Cho, Y.-W.; Vernaz-Gris, P.; Higginbottom, D. B.; Pinel, O.; Robins, N. P.; Lam, P. K.; Buchler, B. C.

    2017-01-01

    The precise control of atom-light interactions is vital to many quantum technologies. For instance, atomic systems can be used to slow and store light, acting as a quantum memory. Optical storage can be achieved via stopped light, where no optical energy continues to exist in the atomic system, or as stationary light, where some optical energy remains present during storage. Here, we demonstrate a form of self-stabilizing stationary light. From any initial state, our atom-light system evolves to a stable configuration that may contain bright optical excitations trapped within the atomic ensemble. This phenomenon is verified experimentally in a cloud of cold Rb87 atoms. The spinwave in our atomic cloud is imaged from the side, allowing direct comparison with theoretical predictions.

  4. Observation of spatial quantum correlations induced by multiple scattering of nonclassical light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolka, S; Huck, A; Andersen, U L; Lagendijk, A; Lodahl, P

    2009-05-15

    We present the experimental realization of spatial quantum correlations of photons that are induced by multiple scattering of squeezed light. The quantum correlation relates photons propagating along two different light paths through the random medium and is infinite in range. Both positive and negative spatial quantum correlations are observed when varying the quantum state incident to the multiple scattering medium, and the strength of the correlations is controlled by the number of photons. The experimental results are in excellent agreement with recent theoretical proposals by implementing the full quantum model of multiple scattering.

  5. Protection of SAAO observing site against light and dust pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefako, Ramotholo; Väisänen, Petri

    2016-10-01

    The South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) observing station near Sutherland, Northern Cape in South Africa, is one of the darkest sites in the world for optical and IR astronomy. The SAAO hosts and operates several facilities, including the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) and a number of international robotic telescopes. To ensure that the conditions remain optimal for astronomy, legislation called the Astronomy Geographic Advantage (AGA) Act, of 2007, was enacted. The Act empowers the Department of Science and Technology (DST) to regulate issues that pose a threat to optical and/or radio astronomy in areas declared Astronomy Advantage Areas in South Africa. For optical astronomy, the main challenges are those posed by light and dust pollution as result of wind energy developments, and petroleum gas and oil exploration/exploitation in the area. We give an update of possible threats to the quality of the night skies at SAAO, and the challenges relating to the AGA Act implementation and enforcement. We discuss measures that are put in place to protect the Observatory, including a study to quantify the threat by a planned wind energy facility.

  6. HD100546 Multi-Epoch Scattered-Light Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Avenhaus, Henning; Meyer, Michael R; Brittain, Sean D; Carr, John S; Najita, Joan R

    2014-01-01

    We present H, Ks and L filter polarimetric differential imaging (PDI) data for the transitional disk around HD100546 obtained in 2013, together with an improved re-reduction of previously published 2006 data. We reveal the disk in polarized scattered light in all three filters, achieving an inner working angle of 0.1 arcsec. Additional, short-exposure observations in the H and Ks filter probe the surrounding of the star down to about 0.03 (about 3 AU). HD100546 is fascinating because of its variety of sub-structures possibly related to forming planets in the disk, and PDI is currently the best technique to image them in the near-IR. Our key results are: (1) For the first time ever, we detect a disk in L-band PDI data. (2) We constrain the outer radius of the inner hole to 14pm2 AU and its eccentricity to < 0.133. (3) We detect a dark lane in the front side of the disk, which is likely an effect of the scattering angle and the scattering function of the grains. (4) We find a spiral arm in the northeast whic...

  7. Spatial Reasoning Training Through Light Curves Of Model Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziffer, Julie; Nakroshis, Paul A.; Rudnick, Benjamin T.; Brautigam, Maxwell J.; Nelson, Tyler W.

    2015-11-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that spatial reasoning skills, long known to be crucial to math and science success, are teachable. Even short stints of training can improve spatial reasoning skills among students who lack them (Sorby et al., 2006). Teaching spatial reasoning is particularly valuable to women and minorities who, through societal pressure, often doubt their spatial reasoning skill (Hill et al., 2010). We have designed a hands on asteroid rotation lab that provides practice in spatial reasoning tasks while building the student’s understanding of photometry. For our tool, we mount a model asteroid, with any shape of our choosing, on a slowly rotating motor shaft, whose speed is controlled by the experimenter. To mimic an asteroid light curve, we place the model asteroid in a dark box, shine a movable light source upon our asteroid, and record the light reflected onto a moveable camera. Students may then observe changes in the light curve that result from varying a) the speed of rotation, b) the model asteroid’s orientation with respect to the motor axis, c) the model asteroid’s shape or albedo, and d) the phase angle. After practicing with our tool, students are asked to pair new objects to their corresponding light curves. To correctly pair objects to their light curves, students must imagine how light scattering off of a three dimensional rotating object is imaged on a ccd sensor plane, and then reduced to a series of points on a light curve plot. Through the use of our model asteroid, the student develops confidence in spatial reasoning skills.

  8. Modeling Light-Dependent Biofilm Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernan, Chase; Huang, Jean; Christianson, Rebecca

    2013-03-01

    Bacterial aggregates on submerged substrates can produce complex biofilm morphologies that are subject to environmental and metabolic factors. We develop a reductionistic cellular automata model of these structures with the intent of guiding experimentation and explaining prior results. We focus on reproducing the columnar and ``mushroom'' phases of aerobic R. palustris and light-sensitive anaerobic R. palustris, respectively. This light sensitivity requires the novel inclusion of a characteristic light penetration depth in addition to surface tension and media penetration parameters. We quantitatively divide this parameter space into roughly four morphological phases--columnar, mushroom, uniform, and irregular--by examining the resultant convexity defect distribution, horizontal correlation, and coverage as a function of height. Finally, we both validate experimental evidence of these phases and suggest new parameter regimes to investigate empirically.

  9. Afterglow Observations Shed New Light on the Nature of X-ray Flashes

    CERN Document Server

    Granot, J; Perna, R; Granot, Jonathan; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Perna, Rosalba

    2005-01-01

    X-ray flashes (XRFs) and X-ray rich gamma-ray bursts (XRGRBs) share many observational characteristics with long duration GRBs, but the reason for which their prompt emission peaks at lower photon energies, $E_p$, is still under debate. Although many different models have been invoked in order to explain the lower $E_p$ values, their implications for the afterglow emission were not considered in most cases, mainly because observations of XRF afterglows have become available only recently. Here we examine the predictions of the various XRF models for the afterglow emission, and test them against the observations of XRF 030723 and XRGRB 041006, the events with the best monitored afterglow light curves in their respective class. We show that most existing XRF models are hard to reconcile with the observed afterglow light curves, which are very flat at early times. Such light curves are, however, naturally produced by a roughly uniform jet with relatively sharp edges that is viewed off-axis (i.e. from outside of ...

  10. Observational signatures of anisotropic inflationary models

    CERN Document Server

    Ohashi, Junko; Tsujikawa, Shinji

    2013-01-01

    We study observational signatures of two classes of anisotropic inflationary models in which an inflaton field couples to (i) a vector kinetic term F_{mu nu}F^{mu nu} and (ii) a two-form kinetic term H_{mu nu lambda}H^{mu nu lambda}. We compute the corrections from the anisotropic sources to the power spectrum of gravitational waves as well as the two-point cross correlation between scalar and tensor perturbations. The signs of the anisotropic parameter g_* are different depending on the vector and the two-form models, but the statistical anisotropies generally lead to a suppressed tensor-to-scalar ratio r and a smaller scalar spectral index n_s in both models. In the light of the recent Planck bounds of n_s and r, we place observational constraints on several different inflaton potentials such as those in chaotic and natural inflation in the presence of anisotropic interactions. In the two-form model we also find that there is no cross correlation between scalar and tensor perturbations, while in the vector ...

  11. HD100546 multi-epoch scattered light observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avenhaus, Henning; Quanz, Sascha P.; Meyer, Michael R. [ETH Zurich, Institute for Astronomy, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Brittain, Sean D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 118 Kinard Laboratory, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Carr, John S. [Naval Research Laboratory, Code 7211, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Najita, Joan R., E-mail: havenhaus@astro.phys.ethz.ch [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)

    2014-07-20

    We present H, K{sub s}, and L' filter polarimetric differential imaging (PDI) data for the transitional disk around HD100546 obtained in 2013, together with an improved re-reduction of previously published 2006 data. We reveal the disk in polarized scattered light in all three filters, achieving an inner working angle of ∼0.''1. Additional, short-exposure observations in the H and K{sub s} filters probe the surroundings of the star down to ∼0.''03 (∼3 AU). HD100546 is fascinating because of its variety of sub-structures possibly related to forming planets in the disk, and PDI is currently the best technique for imaging them in the near-IR. For the first time ever, we detect a disk in L-band PDI data, and we constrain the outer radius of the inner hole to 14 ± 2 AU and its eccentricity to <0.133. A dark lane is detected between ∼0.''2-0.''6 AU in the front side of the disk, which is likely an effect of the scattering angle and the scattering function of the grains. We find a spiral arm in the northeast that has no obvious connection to spiral arms seen before by other authors further out in the disk, but winds are in the same direction (clockwise). The two bright scattering peaks along the semi-major axis are asymmetric, with the southeastern one being significantly brighter. This could be related to the inner companion candidate that is close to the brighter side of the disk at the time of the observations. The scattering color is close to gray between the H and K{sub s} filters ([H]–[K{sub s}] = 0.19 ± 0.11), but the scattering in the L' filter is significantly weaker ([H]–[L'] = –1.08 ± 0.35, [K{sub s}]–[L'] = –1.27 ± 0.35). We measure the position angle of the disk to be 138° ± 3°, consistent with previous observations, and we derive the dust scattering function in the H and K{sub s} filters between ∼35° and ∼130° at two different radii (30-50 and 80-110 AU) and show that

  12. CCD Photometric Observations and Light Curve Synthesis of the Near-Contact Binary XZ Canis Minoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chun-Hwey; Park, Jang-Ho; Lee, Jae Woo; Jeong, Jang-Hae

    2009-06-01

    Through the photometric observations of the near-contact binary, XZ CMi, new BV light curves were secured and seven times of minimum light were determined. An intensive period study with all published timings, including ours, confirms that the period of XZ CMi has varied in a cyclic period variation superposed on a secular period decrease over last 70 years. Assuming the cyclic change of period to occur by a light-time effect due to a third-body, the light-time orbit with a semi-amplitude of 0.0056d, a period of 29y and an eccentricity of 0.71 was calculated. The observed secular period decrease of -5.26× 10^{-11} d/P was interpreted as a result of simultaneous occurrence of both a period decrease of -8.20 × 10^{-11} d/P by angular momentum loss (AML) due to a magnetic braking stellar wind and a period increase of 2.94 × 10^{-11} d/P by a mass transfer from the less massive secondary to the primary components in the system. In this line the decreasi! ng rate of period due to AML is about 3 times larger than the increasing one by a mass transfer in their absolute values. The latter implies a mass transfer of dot M_{s}= 3.21 × 10^{-8} M_⊙ y^{-1} from the less massive secondary to the primary. The BV light curves with the latest Wilson-Devinney binary code were analyzed for two separate models of 8200K and 7000K as the photospheric temperature of the primary component. Both models confirm that XZ CMi is truly a near-contact binary with a less massive secondary completely filling Roche lobe and a primary inside the inner Roche lobe and there is a third-light corresponding to about 15-17% of the total system light. However, the third-light source can not be the same as the third-body suggested from the period study. At the present, however, we can not determine which one between two models is better fitted to the observations because of a negligible difference of sum (O-C)^2 between them. The diversity of mass ratios, with which previous investigators were in

  13. Modeling Light Propagation in Luminescent Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Derya

    This study presents physical, computational and analytical modeling approaches for light propagation in luminescent random media. Two different approaches are used, namely (i) a statistical approach: Monte-Carlo simulations for photon transport and (ii) a deterministic approach: radiative transport theory. Both approaches account accurately for the multiple absorption and reemission of light at different wavelengths and for anisotropic luminescence. The deterministic approach is a generalization of radiative transport theory for solving inelastic scattering problems in random media. We use the radiative transport theory to study light propagation in luminescent media. Based on this theory, we also study the optically thick medium. Using perturbation methods, a corrected diffusion approximation with asymptotically accurate boundary conditions and a boundary layer solution are derived. The accuracy and the efficacy of this approach is verified for a plane-parallel slab problem. In particular, we apply these two approaches (MC and radiative transport theory) to model light propagation in semiconductor-based luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs). The computational results for both approaches are compared with each other and found to agree. The results of this dissertation present practical and reliable techniques to use for solving forward/inverse inelastic scattering problems arising in various research areas such as optics, biomedical engineering, nuclear engineering, solar science and material science.

  14. Observation and modelling of urban dew

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Katrina

    Despite its relevance to many aspects of urban climate and to several practical questions, urban dew has largely been ignored. Here, simple observations an out-of-doors scale model, and numerical simulation are used to investigate patterns of dewfall and surface moisture (dew + guttation) in urban environments. Observations and modelling were undertaken in Vancouver, B.C., primarily during the summers of 1993 and 1996. Surveys at several scales (0.02-25 km) show that the main controls on dew are weather, location and site configuration (geometry and surface materials). Weather effects are discussed using an empirical factor, FW . Maximum dew accumulation (up to ~ 0.2 mm per night) is seen on nights with moist air and high FW , i.e., cloudless conditions with light winds. Favoured sites are those with high Ysky and surfaces which cool rapidly after sunset, e.g., grass and well insulated roofs. A 1/8-scale model is designed, constructed, and run at an out-of-doors site to study dew patterns in an urban residential landscape which consists of house lots, a street and an open grassed park. The Internal Thermal Mass (ITM) approach is used to scale the thermal inertia of buildings. The model is validated using data from full-scale sites in Vancouver. Patterns in the model agree with those seen at the full-scale, i.e., dew distribution is governed by weather, site geometry and substrate conditions. Correlation is shown between Ysky and surface moisture accumulation. The feasibility of using a numerical model to simulate urban dew is investigated using a modified version of a rural dew model. Results for simple isolated surfaces-a deciduous tree leaf and an asphalt shingle roof-show promise, especially for built surfaces.

  15. Upward-moving low-light meteor. I: Observation results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, P. M.; Watanabe, J.

    2017-01-01

    The results of TV-detecting an earth-atmosphere-grazing low-light meteor are presented. The meteor was registered near Kyiv, Ukraine, on 23 September 2003 at UT = 20:55:52 during the Autumn Equinox observations. It was registered with both observational cameras within the altitude range H ≈ 115.6 div 117.9 km (Δ {H} ≈ - 2.3 km), the zenith distance of its radiant varying within the bounds of {Z_R} ≈ 93.7° div 94.0°. After 3D reconstruction of the trajectory, the perigee distance of the meteor was found {R_P} ≈ {{6467}}{{.4}} km, while the altitude of the minimal encounter with earth above sea level was{H_P} = 101.7 km. Traveling with the velocity of {υ}_{∞} ≈ 62.9 km/s, the meteor reached the view fields of the cameras ˜426 km after the perigee (˜6.8 s), and left them at the height of ˜461 km, practically not changing its absolute magnitude which varied in the range of {2.9^m} div {4.1^m} . Thus, the meteor remained inside the view fields of the cameras for ˜0.5 s, passing the distance of ˜35˜ km during this time. The right ascension and declination of geocentric radiant of the meteor before perigee were {α _G} ≈ 79.3°, {δ _G} ≈ - 4.2° accordingly, and the geocentric velocity {υ_G} ≈ 61.9 km/s, while after the perigee {α _G} ≈ 78.1°, {δ _G} ≈ - 2.8°, and {υ_G} ≈ 61.9 km/s (the atmosphere deceleration was neglected). The computations of heliocentric orbit elements of the meteor led to the conclusion that the meteoroid does not belong to any known meteor streams. While traveling through the view fields of the cameras, the meteor lost the mass of ˜ 5 × 10-3 g. Since the meteor was registered at the heights where ablation must become lower and eventually stop, one can assert that the meteoroid left the earth atmosphere saving part of its mass.

  16. SHOCK BREAKOUT AND EARLY LIGHT CURVES OF TYPE II-P SUPERNOVAE OBSERVED WITH KEPLER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnavich, P. M. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN, 46556-5670 (United States); Tucker, B. E. [The Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Mount Stromlo Observatory, via Cotter Road, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia); Rest, A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Shaya, E. J.; Olling, R. P. [Astronomy Department, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Kasen, D [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Villar, A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2016-03-20

    We discovered two transient events in the Kepler field with light curves that strongly suggest they are type II-P supernovae (SNe II-P). Using the fast cadence of the Kepler observations we precisely estimate the rise time to maximum for KSN2011a and KSN2011d as 10.5 ± 0.4 and 13.3 ± 0.4 rest-frame days, respectively. Based on fits to idealized analytic models, we find the progenitor radius of KSN2011a (280 ± 20 R{sub ⊙}) to be significantly smaller than that for KSN2011d (490 ± 20 R{sub ⊙}), but both have similar explosion energies of 2.0 ± 0.3 × 10{sup 51} erg. The rising light curve of KSN2011d is an excellent match to that predicted by simple models of exploding red supergiants (RSG). However, the early rise of KSN2011a is faster than the models predict, possibly due to the supernova shock wave moving into pre-existing wind or mass-loss from the RSG. A mass-loss rate of 10{sup −4}M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} from the RSG can explain the fast rise without impacting the optical flux at maximum light or the shape of the post-maximum light curve. No shock breakout emission is seen in KSN2011a, but this is likely due to the circumstellar interaction suspected in the fast rising light curve. The early light curve of KSN2011d does show excess emission consistent with model predictions of a shock breakout. This is the first optical detection of a shock breakout from a SNe II-P.

  17. Observation of light dragging in rubidium vapor cell

    CERN Document Server

    Strekalov, D V; Yu, N; Maleki, L; Strekalov, Dmitry; Matsko, Andrey B.; Yu, Nan; Maleki, Lute

    2003-01-01

    We report on the experimental demonstration of light dragging effect due to atomic motion in a rubidium vapor cell. We found that the minimum group velocity is achieved for light red-shifted from the center of the atomic resonance, and that the value of this shift increases with decreasing group velocity, in agreement with the theoretical predictions by Kocharovskaya, Rostovtsev, and Scully [Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 86}, 628 (2001)].

  18. The Szekeres Swiss Cheese model and the CMB observations

    CERN Document Server

    Bolejko, Krzysztof

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the application of the Szekeres Swiss Cheese model to observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. It aims to study the CMB temperature fluctuations by the means of the exact inhomogeneous Szekeres model. So far the impact of inhomogeneous matter distribution on the CMB observations has been almost exclusively studied within the linear perturbations of the Friedmann model. However, since the density contrast of cosmic structures is larger than 1 this issue is worth studying using another approach. The Szekeres model is an inhomogeneous, non-symmetrical and exact solution of the Einstein equations. In this model, light propagation and matter evolution can be exactly calculated, without approximations such as small amplitude of the density contrast. This will allow us to examine the impact of light propagation effects on the CMB temperature fluctuations. The results of such analysis show that small-scale, non-linear inhomogeneities introduce - via light propagation effect...

  19. Model Observers in Medical Imaging Research

    OpenAIRE

    He, Xin; Park, Subok

    2013-01-01

    Model observers play an important role in the optimization and assessment of imaging devices. In this review paper, we first discuss the basic concepts of model observers, which include the mathematical foundations and psychophysical considerations in designing both optimal observers for optimizing imaging systems and anthropomorphic observers for modeling human observers. Second, we survey a few state-of-the-art computational techniques for estimating model observers and the principles of im...

  20. Type II Supernovae: Model Light Curves and Standard Candle Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasen, Daniel; Woosley, S. E.

    2009-10-01

    A survey of Type II supernovae explosion models has been carried out to determine how their light curves and spectra vary with their mass, metallicity, and explosion energy. The presupernova models are taken from a recent survey of massive stellar evolution at solar metallicity supplemented by new calculations at subsolar metallicity. Explosions are simulated by the motion of a piston near the edge of the iron core and the resulting light curves and spectra are calculated using full multi-wavelength radiation transport. Formulae are developed that describe approximately how the model observables (light curve luminosity and duration) scale with the progenitor mass, explosion energy, and radioactive nucleosynthesis. Comparison with observational data shows that the explosion energy of typical supernovae (as measured by kinetic energy at infinity) varies by nearly an order of magnitude—from 0.5 to 4.0 × 1051 ergs, with a typical value of ~0.9 × 1051 ergs. Despite the large variation, the models exhibit a tight relationship between luminosity and expansion velocity, similar to that previously employed empirically to make SNe IIP standardized candles. This relation is explained by the simple behavior of hydrogen recombination in the supernova envelope, but we find a sensitivity to progenitor metallicity and mass that could lead to systematic errors. Additional correlations between light curve luminosity, duration, and color might enable the use of SNe IIP to obtain distances accurate to ~20% using only photometric data.

  1. Colour dependence of zodiacal light models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giese, R. H.; Hanner, M. S.; Leinert, C.

    1973-01-01

    Colour models of the zodiacal light in the ecliptic have been calculated for both dielectric and metallic particles in the sub-micron and micron size range. Two colour ratios were computed, a blue ratio and a red ratio. The models with a size distribution proportional to s to the -2.5 power ds (where s is the particle radius) generally show a colour close to the solar colour and almost independent of elongation. Especially in the blue colour ratio there is generally no significant dependence on the lower cutoff size (0.1-1 micron). The main feature of absorbing particles is a reddening at small elongations. The models for size distributions proportional to s to the -4 power ds show larger departures from solar colour and more variation with model parameters. Colour measurements, including red and near infra-red, therefore are useful to distinguish between flat and steep size spectra and to verify the presence of slightly absorbing particles.

  2. Observation of the geometric spin Hall effect of light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korger, Jan; Aiello, Andrea; Chille, Vanessa; Banzer, Peter; Wittmann, Christoffer; Lindlein, Norbert; Marquardt, Christoph; Leuchs, Gerd

    2014-03-21

    The spin Hall effect of light (SHEL) is the photonic analogue of the spin Hall effect occurring for charge carriers in solid-state systems. This intriguing phenomenon manifests itself when a light beam refracts at an air-glass interface (conventional SHEL) or when it is projected onto an oblique plane, the latter effect being known as the geometric SHEL. It amounts to a polarization-dependent displacement perpendicular to the plane of incidence. In this work, we experimentally investigate the geometric SHEL for a light beam transmitted across an oblique polarizer. We find that the spatial intensity distribution of the transmitted beam depends on the incident state of polarization and its centroid undergoes a positional displacement exceeding one wavelength. This novel phenomenon is virtually independent from the material properties of the polarizer and, thus, reveals universal features of spin-orbit coupling.

  3. BLAM (Benthic Light Availability Model): A Proposed Model of Hydrogeomorphic Controls on Light in Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julian, J. P.; Doyle, M. W.; Stanley, E. H.

    2006-12-01

    Light is vital to the dynamics of aquatic ecosystems. It drives photosynthesis and photochemical reactions, affects thermal structure, and influences behavior of aquatic biota. Despite the fundamental role of light to riverine ecosystems, light studies in rivers have been mostly neglected because i) boundary conditions (e.g., banks, riparian vegetation) make ambient light measurements difficult, and ii) the optical water quality of rivers is highly variable and difficult to characterize. We propose a benthic light availability model (BLAM) that predicts the percent of incoming photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) available at the river bed. BLAM was developed by quantifying light attenuation of the five hydrogeomorphic controls that dictate riverine light availability: topography, riparian vegetation, channel geometry, optical water quality, and water depth. BLAM was calibrated using hydrogeomorphic data and light measurements from two rivers: Deep River - a 5th-order, turbid river in central North Carolina, and Big Spring Creek - a 2nd-order, optically clear stream in central Wisconsin. We used a series of four PAR sensors to measure i) above-canopy PAR, ii) PAR above water surface, iii) PAR below water surface, and iv) PAR on stream bed. These measurements were used to develop empirical light attenuation coefficients, which were then used in combination with optical water quality measurements, shading analyses, channel surveys, and flow records to quantify the spatial and temporal variability in riverine light availability. Finally, we apply BLAM to the Baraboo River - a 6th-order, 120-mile, unimpounded river in central Wisconsin - in order to characterize light availability along the river continuum (from headwaters to mouth).

  4. Understanding the central kinematics of globular clusters with simulated integrated-light IFU observations

    CERN Document Server

    Bianchini, Paolo; van de Ven, Glenn; Schinnerer, Eva

    2015-01-01

    The detection of intermediate mass black holes in the centres of globular clusters is highly controversial, as complementary observational methods often deliver significantly different results. In order to understand these discrepancies, we develop a procedure to simulate integral field unit (IFU) observations of globular clusters: Simulating IFU Star Cluster Observations (SISCO). The input of our software are realistic dynamical models of globular clusters that are then converted in a spectral data cube. We apply SISCO to Monte Carlo cluster simulations from Downing et al. (2010), with a realistic number of stars and concentrations. Using independent realisations of a given simulation we are able to quantify the stochasticity intrinsic to the problem of observing a partially resolved stellar population with integrated-light spectroscopy. We show that the luminosity-weighted IFU observations can be strongly biased by the presence of a few bright stars that introduce a scatter in the velocity dispersion measur...

  5. Model of Light Scattering in Cavitation Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Skvortsov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The offered work presents analysis of extinction mechanisms and justification of light scattering model in ultrasonic cavitation area to justify a control method of ultrasonic cavitation through its optical sounding by low-intensity laser radiation and through photo-detector record of last radiation.The analysis of the extinction mechanisms has shown that the most essential mechanism causing a change of the transmission coefficient with time is dispersion on pulsating cavitation bubbles. Other extinction mechanisms lead to the time-constant reduction of last radiation intensity and can be taken into consideration by normalizing a recorded transmission coefficient for a previously measured liquid transmission coefficient when there is no cavitation.The feature of light scattering on the cavitation bubbles is primary dispersion in a forward direction that is connected with great values of bubbles radius from units to hundreds of micrometers. In case of single bubbles, dispersion can be described by Mi's theory, and, as to the cavitation area, it is reasonable to use the theory of V. Tversky for multiple light scattering. Thus, dispersion section, according to the paradox of extinction, can be considered to be equal to doubled geometrical section of a bubble. With increasing bubble radius the transmission coefficient monotonically decreases. So, the law of bubble pulsations and the model of light scattering define the law of changing transmission coefficient.Therefore, the cavitation area with its optical sounding acts as a peculiar opto-acoustic modulator. Thus, the demodulated signal of a photo-detector comprises information on pulsations of bubbles.The paper examines the influence of cavitation area thickness and bubbles concentration on the transmission coefficient. It shows a type of transmission coefficient dependence on the radius of cavitation bubbles.The optical sounding method is attractive because it allows us to obtain data on the

  6. Model observers in medical imaging research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xin; Park, Subok

    2013-10-04

    Model observers play an important role in the optimization and assessment of imaging devices. In this review paper, we first discuss the basic concepts of model observers, which include the mathematical foundations and psychophysical considerations in designing both optimal observers for optimizing imaging systems and anthropomorphic observers for modeling human observers. Second, we survey a few state-of-the-art computational techniques for estimating model observers and the principles of implementing these techniques. Finally, we review a few applications of model observers in medical imaging research.

  7. Properties of analytic transit light curve models

    CERN Document Server

    Pál, András

    2008-01-01

    In this paper a set of analytic formulae are presented with which the partial derivatives of the flux obscuration function can be evaluated -- for planetary transits and eclipsing binaries -- under the assumption of quadratic limb darkening. The knowledge of these partial derivatives are crucial for many of the data modeling algorithms and estimates of the light curve variations directly from the changes in the orbital elements. These derivatives can also be utilized to speed up some of the fitting methods. A gain of 10 in computing time can be achieved in the implementation of the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm, relative to using numerical derivatives.

  8. Modeling light trapping in nanostructured solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry, Vivian E; Polman, Albert; Atwater, Harry A

    2011-12-27

    The integration of nanophotonic and plasmonic structures with solar cells offers the ability to control and confine light in nanoscale dimensions. These nanostructures can be used to couple incident sunlight into both localized and guided modes, enhancing absorption while reducing the quantity of material. Here we use electromagnetic modeling to study the resonances in a solar cell containing both plasmonic metal back contacts and nanostructured semiconductor top contacts, identify the local and guided modes contributing to enhanced absorption, and optimize the design. We then study the role of the different interfaces and show that Al is a viable plasmonic back contact material.

  9. Comparison between observations and model

    OpenAIRE

    Claußnitzer, Antje

    2010-01-01

    In recent years the development of numerical weather prediction models has shown great progress in the short-term and medium-range forecast of temperature, wind speed or direction and cloud coverage, but only little success in the quantitative precipitation forecast. Rainfall is one of the most difficult forecasting meteorological variable. To improve the numerical models, it is necessary to understand the rainfall processes. This thesis contributes towards an understanding since the precipit...

  10. Approximation of lateral distribution of atmospheric Cherenkov light at different observation levels. Comparison with previous results

    CERN Document Server

    Mishev, A; Stamenov, J

    2005-01-01

    This work summarizes the results presented at 29th International Cosmic Ray Conference in Pune India. Generally the aim of this work is to obtain the lateral distribution of the atmospheric Cherenkov light in extensive air showers produced by different primary particles in wide energy range and at several observation levels and to fit the obtained lateral distributions. Using one large detector and partially modified CORSIKA code version are obtained the lateral distributions of Cherenkov light flux densities at several observation levels for different particle primaries precisely at 536 g/cm2 Chacaltaya, 700 g/cm2 Moussala and 875 g/cm2 Kartalska field observation levels for hadronic primaries and gamma quanta in the energy range 1011 eV-1016 eV. On the basis of the solution of over-determined inverse problem the approximation of these distributions is obtained. The same model function for all the primaries is used and for the different observation levels. The different model parameters for the different pri...

  11. Increased light-use efficiency in northern terrestrial ecosystems indicated by CO2 and greening observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Rebecca T.; Prentice, Iain Colin; Graven, Heather; Ciais, Philippe; Fisher, Joshua B.; Hayes, Daniel J.; Huang, Maoyi; Huntzinger, Deborah N.; Ito, Akihiko; Jain, Atul; Mao, Jiafu; Michalak, Anna M.; Peng, Shushi; Poulter, Benjamin; Ricciuto, Daniel M.; Shi, Xiaoying; Schwalm, Christopher; Tian, Hanqin; Zeng, Ning

    2016-11-01

    Observations show an increasing amplitude in the seasonal cycle of CO2 (ASC) north of 45°N of 56 ± 9.8% over the last 50 years and an increase in vegetation greenness of 7.5-15% in high northern latitudes since the 1980s. However, the causes of these changes remain uncertain. Historical simulations from terrestrial biosphere models in the Multiscale Synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project are compared to the ASC and greenness observations, using the TM3 atmospheric transport model to translate surface fluxes into CO2 concentrations. We find that the modeled change in ASC is too small but the mean greening trend is generally captured. Modeled increases in greenness are primarily driven by warming, whereas ASC changes are primarily driven by increasing CO2. We suggest that increases in ecosystem-scale light use efficiency (LUE) have contributed to the observed ASC increase but are underestimated by current models. We highlight potential mechanisms that could increase modeled LUE.

  12. Shock Breakout and Early Light Curves of Type II-P Supernovae Observed with Kepler

    CERN Document Server

    Garnavich, P M; Rest, A; Shaya, E J; Olling, R P; Kasen, D; Villar, A

    2016-01-01

    We discovered two transient events in the Kepler field with light curves that strongly suggest they are type II-P supernovae. Using the fast cadence of the Kepler observations we precisely estimate the rise time to maximum for KSN2011a and KSN2011d as 10.5$\\pm 0.4$ and 13.3$\\pm 0.4$ rest-frame days respectively. Based on fits to idealized analytic models, we find the progenitor radius of KSN2011a (280$\\pm 20$ R$_\\odot$) to be significantly smaller than that for KSN2011d (490$\\pm 20$ R$_\\odot$) but both have similar explosion energies of 2.0$\\pm 0.3\\times 10^{51}$ erg. The rising light curve of KSN2011d is an excellent match to that predicted by simple models of exploding red supergiants (RSG). However, the early rise of KSN2011a is faster than the models predict possibly due to the supernova shockwave moving into pre-existing wind or mass-loss from the RSG. A mass loss rate of $10^{-4}$ M$_\\odot$ yr$^{-1}$ from the RSG can explain the fast rise without impacting the optical flux at maximum light or the shape ...

  13. First light and beyond making a success of astronomical observing

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, D A

    2015-01-01

    Amateur astronomers who have been disappointed by the results of an observing session can still gain useful experience in a seemingly “failed” night at the telescope. In a world with imperfect seeing conditions, incredible observing sessions are often mixed with less inspiring ones, discouraging the amateur observer. This book is designed to help novice observers take something worthwhile away each and every time they go out under the night sky, regardless of what was originally planned. Almost every observer remembers his first sight of Ringed Saturn, hanging majestically in the blackness of space. Practitioners agree that visual observing is special. Real-time observations at the eyepiece can provide fleeting yet intense feelings that connect us with the universe. But when expectations aren’t met at the eyepiece, there are other ways to profit from the practice of astronomy. These rewards, though less showy, are well worth cultivating. This book will help you see what constitutes a “successful” vi...

  14. Age determinations and Earth-based multispectral observations of lunar light plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, U.; Jaumann, R.; Neukum, G.

    1993-01-01

    The history of light plains still remains doubtful, but there are good arguments - mainly obtained by age determinations and supported by multispectral observations - for an endogenic (magmatic) instead of an (exclusively) impact related origin. Light plains are characterized by smooth areas with an albedo lower than the surrounding highlands (12 - 13 percent), but significantly higher than maria (5 - 6 percent). Before Apollo 16 a volcanic source has been supposed, but analysis of returned samples (highly brecciated and metamorphosed rocks) favored an impact ejecta related origin. Among the currently discussed models are formation by ejecta sedimentation from multi-ringed basins, formation by secondary and tertiary cratering action of ballistically ejected material during the formation of multi-ringed basins, in situ formation by impact melt of large events, and premare (crypto-) volcanism basalts covered by a thin ejecta cover; younger impacts penetrated the ejecta surface to create the dark haloed craters. To find arguments in favor or against these ideas the chronology of light plains is of major importance. Obviously a genetic relationship between the evolution of light plains and the basin forming impacts can be possible only if the events of emplacement features happened simultaneously.

  15. Earth scenes in polarized light observed from the Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Victor S.; Coulson, Kinsell L.

    1989-01-01

    By means of a pair of boresighted and synchronized cameras fitted with orthogonally oriented polarizing filters and carried aboard the Space Shuttle, a large number of polarized images of the earth's surface have been obtained from orbital altitude. Selected pairs of images, both in color and in black and white, have been digitized and computer-processed to yield analogous images in each of the three Stokes parameters necessary for characterizing the state of linear polarization of the emergent light. Many of the images show surface properties more distinctly in degree and plane of polarization than in simple intensity alone. It is believed that these are the first, and certainly the most extensive, set of polarized images of the earth ever obtained from space. Selected pairs of the images are presented here along with some early results of analysis.

  16. Observations of the White Light Corona from Solar Orbiter and Solar Probe Plus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, R. A.; Thernisien, A. F.; Vourlidas, A.; Plunkett, S. P.; Korendyke, C. M.; Sheeley, N. R.; Morrill, J. S.; Socker, D. G.; Linton, M. G.; Liewer, P. C.; De Jong, E. M.; Velli, M. M.; Mikic, Z.; Bothmer, V.; Lamy, P. L.

    2011-12-01

    The SoloHI instrument on Solar Orbiter and the WISPR instrument on Solar Probe+ will make white light coronagraphic images of the corona as the two spacecraft orbit the Sun. The minimum perihelia for Solar Orbiter is about 60 Rsun and for SP+ is 9.5 Rsun. The wide field of view of the WISPR instrument (about 105 degrees radially) corresponds to viewing the corona from 2.2 Rsun to 20 Rsun. Thus the entire Thomson hemisphere is contained within the telescope's field and we need to think of the instrument as being a traditional remote sensing instrument and then transitioning to a local in-situ instrument. The local behavior derives from the fact that the maximum Thomson scattering will favor the electron plasma close to the spacecraft - exactly what the in-situ instruments will be sampling. SoloHI and WISPR will also observe scattered light from dust in the inner heliosphere, which will be an entirely new spatial regime for dust observations from a coronagraph, which we assume to arise from dust in the general neighborhood of about half way between the observer and the Sun. As the dust grains approach the Sun, they evaporate and do not contribute to the scattering. A dust free zone has been postulated to exist somewhere inside of 5 Rsun where all dust is evaporated, but this has never been observed. The radial position where the evaporation occurs will depend on the precise molecular composition of the individual grains. The orbital plane of Solar Orbiter will gradually increase up to about 35 degrees, enabling a very different view through the zodiacal dust cloud to test the models generated from in-ecliptic observations. In this paper we will explore some of the issues associated with the observation of the dust and will present a simple model to explore the sensitivity of the instrument to observe such evaporations.

  17. The white-light flare of 1982 June 15 - Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauas, Pablo J. D.; Avrett, Eugene H.; Machado, Marcos E.

    1990-01-01

    Models are presented for the two continuum-emitting kernels observed in the white-light flare (WLF) of June 15, 1982. They are the first semiempirical models of a WLF which are consistent not only with observations of the continuum emission level but also with a set of spectral lines having heights of formation which span the chromosphere and upper photosphere. It is shown that the models are not compatible with the hypothesis that the continuum emission is caused by enhanced Balmer and Paschen hydrogen continua, and they present strong evidence instead that the emission is of photospheric origin and that its source is due to H(-). The observation and the models derived from them show that white-light emission can occur in areas of the active region where there is no chromospheric emission and in particular no H-alpha emission. This fact seems to rule out the viability of downward transport mechanisms as the source of the energy required for the WLF.

  18. The white-light flare of 1982 June 15 - Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauas, P.J.D.; Avrett, E.H.; Machado, M.E. (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (USA) Comision Nacional de Investigaciones Espaciales, San Miguel (Argentina))

    1990-09-01

    Models are presented for the two continuum-emitting kernels observed in the white-light flare (WLF) of June 15, 1982. They are the first semiempirical models of a WLF which are consistent not only with observations of the continuum emission level but also with a set of spectral lines having heights of formation which span the chromosphere and upper photosphere. It is shown that the models are not compatible with the hypothesis that the continuum emission is caused by enhanced Balmer and Paschen hydrogen continua, and they present strong evidence instead that the emission is of photospheric origin and that its source is due to H(-). The observation and the models derived from them show that white-light emission can occur in areas of the active region where there is no chromospheric emission and in particular no H-alpha emission. This fact seems to rule out the viability of downward transport mechanisms as the source of the energy required for the WLF. 31 refs.

  19. Study on calculation model of road lighting visibility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Visibility is an evaluation index for road lighting, which comprehensively influences the vision reliability of drivers and is a key factor for road lighting safety and energy saving. This paper introduces the concept of road lighting visibility and its influencing factors. It also explains the small target visibility calculation model for road lighting design, and describes the significance of establishing urban road lighting visibility standards from a point of view of visual function and visual comfort of drivers.

  20. Observation of Anticorrelation with Classical Light in a Linear Optical System

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jianbin; Li, Fu-Li; Xu, Zhuo

    2013-01-01

    Two-photon anticorrelation is observed when laser and pseudothermal light beams are incident to the two input ports of a Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometer, respectively. The spatial second-order interference pattern of laser and pseudothermal light beams is reported. Temporal Hong-Ou-Mandel dip is also observed when these two detectors are at the symmetrical positions. These results are helpful to understand the physics behind the second-order interference of light.

  1. Influence of evidence, time, source and interferents in the observation of biological fluids with forensic lights

    OpenAIRE

    Laverde-Angarita, Lilia Judith; Clavijo-Bolívar, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The laboratory receives different evidence for analysis, which maycontain fluids such as blood, semen, saliva or urine. A support tool in identifying nonvisible biological stains is observation with forensic lights. At present, there have been research advances in reference to wavelength and combination of different filters for the observation of biological fluids. Methodology: For this research, the alternate lights equipment Polilight® Flare with blue light was used, along wit...

  2. Phenomenological model for light-projectile breakup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalbach, C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Projectile breakup can make a large contribution to reactions induced by projectiles with mass numbers 2, 3, and 4, yet there is no global model for it and no clear agreement on the details of the reaction mechanism. Purpose: This project aims to develop a phenomenological model for light-projectile breakup that can guide the development of detailed theories and provide a useful tool for applied calculations. Method: An extensive database of double-differential cross sections for the breakup of deuterons, 3He ions, and α particles was assembled from the literature and analyzed in a consistent way. Results: Global systematics for the centroid energies, peak widths, and angular distributions of the breakup peaks have been extracted from the data. The dominant mechanism appears to be absorptive breakup, where the unobserved projectile fragment fuses with the target nucleus during the initial interaction. The global target-mass-number and incident-energy dependencies of the absorptive breakup cross section have also been determined, along with channel-specific normalization constants. Conclusions: Results from the model generally agree with the original data after subtraction of a reasonable underlying continuum. Absorptive breakup can account for as much as 50%-60% of the total reaction cross section.

  3. Light microscope observations on the epididymis of paca (Agouti paca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimming, Bruno Cesar; Machado, Márcia Rita Fernandes; Simões, Karina; da Cruz, Claudinei; Domeniconi, Raquel Fantin

    2013-01-01

    The features of paca epididymis, based on its appearance in light microscope, is described in this paper. The cellular population of the epithelial lining comprises principal cells, basal cells, apical cells, narrows cells, and hallo cells. The epididymis is divided in five distinct and continuous regions, Zone I, or initial segment, and zone II, are both localized into the head. Zone III comprises the distal head and all the body. Zones IV and V are restricted to the tail, in the proximal and distal cauda epididymis respectively. Each zone can be readily distinguished on the basis of morphological characteristics. The height of epididymal epithelium is greater in zone I. There is a progressive increase in the diameter of the tubular lumen through the different areas, with the maximum in the zone V. The presence of a high epithelium, and the virtual absence of sperm in zone I suggest fast transit of spermatozoa in this region. Zone V comprises the distal tail, has smaller epithelial lining, greater luminal diameter, shorter stereocilia than the other zones, and contains spermatozoa packed inside the lumen, that characterizes this zone as a place of sperm storage. The findings are compared with other reports in rodents and other domestic animals, to contribute to the understanding of epididymal morphophysiology.

  4. Lighting Model of the Real World in Augmented Reality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周雅; 闫达远; 赵虎

    2004-01-01

    Construction of a lighting model of the real world is one of the critical aims in an augmented reality (AR) system. The theory of lighting modeling used in computer graphics(CG) is applied in this study. The position of the real light-source is first conjectured from light and shade of the registration image element by element using a ray tracking algorithm. Then the virtual light-source and virtual fiducial are constructed in the CG environment, in which, the Phong model is used to draw the light effect. By comparing the CG scene with the real image, one can modify the pareters of the lighting model over and over again, until the lighting effect of the CG scene is close enough to that of the real image. It is proved that this method works well in the indoor AR system. The method can be used feasibly in most applications with some improvements.

  5. Light microscope observation of circulating human lymphocytes cultured in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naila Francis Paulo de Oliveira

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to study the isolation and a light microscopy technique for cultured lymphocytes. Blood samples were obtained by venipuncture with an anticoagulant added and centrifuged in a Percoll density gradient to separate the leukocytes. Lymphocytes were placed in 25 cm ³ tissue culture flasks at 37ºC. After culturing, they were fixed and stained with the methods used for blood smears. Results showed that not all fixing solutions and stains were an equally good choice for cultured lymphocytes.Os linfócitos são células importantes do sistema imune e têm sido largamente utilizados em estudos morfológicos. Entretanto, a literatura sobre técnicas de preparação dessas células é escassa e antiga, especialmente para linfócitos cultivados in vitro. Portanto, o objetivo desse estudo foi relatar com detalhes as técnicas de isolamento e microscopia de luz de linfócitos mantidos em cultura. Amostras de sangue foram obtidas por punção venosa e centrifugadas em gradiente de densidade de Percoll, para separar os leucócitos. Os linfócitos foram mantidos em frascos de cultura de 25 cm³ a 37ºC. Após a cultura, as células foram fixadas e coradas de acordo com a metodologia utilizada para esfregaços sanguíneos. Nossos resultados mostraram que nem todos os fixadores e corantes utilizados para esfregaços sanguíneos são uma boa escolha para linfócitos cultivados in vitro.

  6. The Martian Plasma Environment: Model Calculations and Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenegger, H. I. M.; Dubinin, E.; Schwingenschuh, K.; Riedler, W.

    Based on a modified version of the model of an induced martian magnetosphere developed by Luhmann (1990), the dynamics and spatial distribution of different planetary ion species is examined. Three main regions are identified: A cloud of ions travelling along cycloidal trajectories, a plasma mantle and a plasma sheet. The latter predominantly consists of oxygen ions of ionospheric origin with minor portions of light particles. Comparison of model results with Phobos-2 observations shows reasonable agreement.

  7. Light Bridge in a Developing Active Region. I. Observation of Light Bridge and its Dynamic Activity Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Toriumi, Shin; Cheung, Mark C M

    2015-01-01

    Light bridges, the bright structures that divide the umbra of sunspots and pores into smaller pieces, are known to produce wide variety of activity events in solar active regions (ARs). It is also known that the light bridges appear in the assembling process of nascent sunspots. The ultimate goal of this series of papers is to reveal the nature of light bridges in developing ARs and the occurrence of activity events associated with the light bridge structures from both observational and numerical approaches. In this first paper, exploiting the observational data obtained by Hinode, IRIS, and Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), we investigate the detailed structure of the light bridge in NOAA AR 11974 and its dynamic activity phenomena. As a result, we find that the light bridge has a weak, horizontal magnetic field, which is transported from the interior by large-scale convective upflow and is surrounded by strong, vertical fields of adjacent pores. In the chromosphere above the bridge, a transient brightening ...

  8. Dynamical dark energy in light of the latest observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Gong-Bo; Raveri, Marco; Pogosian, Levon; Wang, Yuting; Crittenden, Robert G.; Handley, Will J.; Percival, Will J.; Beutler, Florian; Brinkmann, Jonathan; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Cuesta, Antonio J.; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; Koyama, Kazuya; L'Huillier, Benjamin; Nichol, Robert C.; Pieri, Matthew M.; Rodriguez-Torres, Sergio; Ross, Ashley J.; Rossi, Graziano; Sánchez, Ariel G.; Shafieloo, Arman; Tinker, Jeremy L.; Tojeiro, Rita; Vazquez, Jose A.; Zhang, Hanyu

    2017-09-01

    A flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe dominated by a cosmological constant (Λ) and cold dark matter (CDM) has been the working model preferred by cosmologists since the discovery of cosmic acceleration1,2. However, tensions of various degrees of significance are known to be present among existing datasets within the ΛCDM framework3-11. In particular, the Lyman-α forest measurement of the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) by the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey3 prefers a smaller value of the matter density fraction ΩM than that preferred by cosmic microwave background (CMB). Also, the recently measured value of the Hubble constant, H0 = 73.24 ± 1.74 km s-1 Mpc-1 (ref. 12), is 3.4σ higher than the 66.93 ± 0.62 km s-1 Mpc-1 inferred from the Planck CMB data7. In this work, we investigate whether these tensions can be interpreted as evidence for a non-constant dynamical dark energy. Using the Kullback-Leibler divergence13 to quantify the tension between datasets, we find that the tensions are relieved by an evolving dark energy, with the dynamical dark energy model preferred at a 3.5σ significance level based on the improvement in the fit alone. While, at present, the Bayesian evidence for the dynamical dark energy is insufficient to favour it over ΛCDM, we show that, if the current best-fit dark energy happened to be the true model, it would be decisively detected by the upcoming Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument survey14.

  9. Observation of ultraslow light propagation in a ruby crystal at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, Matthew S; Lepeshkin, Nick N; Boyd, Robert W

    2003-03-21

    We have observed slow light propagation with a group velocity as low as 57.5+/-0.5 m/s at room temperature in a ruby crystal. A quantum coherence effect, coherent population oscillations, produces a very narrow spectral "hole" in the homogeneously broadened absorption profile of ruby. The resulting rapid spectral variation of the refractive index leads to a large value of the group index. We observe slow light propagation both for Gaussian-shaped light pulses and for amplitude modulated optical beams in a system that is much simpler than those previously used for generating slow light.

  10. Caenorhabditis elegans as a model to study the impact of exposure to light emitting diode (LED) domestic lighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Rahman, Fawzia; Okeremgbo, Bethel; Alhamadah, Fatimah; Jamadar, Sakha; Anthony, Kevin; Saleh, Mahmoud A

    2017-04-16

    This study aimed to investigate the biological impact of exposure on domestic light emitting diodes (LED) lighting using the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a model. Nematodes were separately exposed to white LED light covering the range of 380-750 nm, blue light at 450 nm and black light at 380-420 nm for one life cycle (egg to adult) with dark exposure as the control. Each light range induced stress to the nematode C. elegans such as reducing the number of the hatched eggs and/or delayed the maturation of the hatched eggs to the adult stage. In addition, it lowered or prevented the ability of adults to lay eggs and impaired the locomotion in the exposed worms. The observed type of biological stress was also associated with the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as compared to nematodes grown in the dark. It is concluded that the blue light component of white LED light may cause health problems, and further investigation is required to test commercial brands of white LEDs that emit different amounts of blue light.

  11. Direct observation of frequency modulated transcription in single cells using light activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Daniel R; Fritzsch, Christoph; Sun, Liang; Meng, Xiuhau; Lawrence, David S; Singer, Robert H

    2013-01-01

    Single-cell analysis has revealed that transcription is dynamic and stochastic, but tools are lacking that can determine the mechanism operating at a single gene. Here we utilize single-molecule observations of RNA in fixed and living cells to develop a single-cell model of steroid-receptor mediated gene activation. We determine that steroids drive mRNA synthesis by frequency modulation of transcription. This digital behavior in single cells gives rise to the well-known analog dose response across the population. To test this model, we developed a light-activation technology to turn on a single steroid-responsive gene and follow dynamic synthesis of RNA from the activated locus. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00750.001 PMID:24069527

  12. Estimation of the extragalactic background light using TeV observations of BL Lac objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, Atreyee; Acharya, B. S. [Department of High Energy Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400005 (India); Sahayanathan, S.; Godambe, S. [Astrophysical Sciences Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai (India); Misra, R., E-mail: atreyee@tifr.res.in, E-mail: acharya@tifr.res.in, E-mail: sunder@barc.ernet.in, E-mail: gsagar@barc.ernet.in, E-mail: rmisra@iucaa.ernet.in [Inter-University Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Post Bag 4, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India)

    2014-11-01

    The very high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray spectral index of high-energy peaked blazars correlates strongly with its corresponding redshift, whereas no such correlation is observed in the X-ray or GeV bands. We attribute this correlation to photon-photon absorption of TeV photons with the extragalactic background light (EBL), and utilizing this we compute the allowed flux range for the EBL, which is independent of previous estimates. The observed VHE spectrum of the sources in our sample can be well approximated by a power law, and if the de-absorbed spectrum is also assumed to be a power law, then we show that the spectral shape of EBL will be εn(ε) ∼ klog (ε/ε {sub p}). We estimate the range of values for the parameters defining the EBL spectrum, k and ε {sub p}, such that the correlation of the intrinsic VHE spectrum with redshift is nullified. The estimated EBL depends only on the observed correlation and the assumption of a power-law source spectrum. Specifically, it does not depend on the spectral modeling or radiative mechanism of the sources or on any theoretical shape of the EBL spectrum obtained through cosmological calculations. The estimated EBL spectrum is consistent with the upper and lower limits imposed by different observations. Moreover, it also agrees closely with the theoretical estimates obtained through cosmological evolution models.

  13. Modeling light adaptation in circadian clock: prediction of the response that stabilizes entrainment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunichika Tsumoto

    Full Text Available Periods of biological clocks are close to but often different from the rotation period of the earth. Thus, the clocks of organisms must be adjusted to synchronize with day-night cycles. The primary signal that adjusts the clocks is light. In Neurospora, light transiently up-regulates the expression of specific clock genes. This molecular response to light is called light adaptation. Does light adaptation occur in other organisms? Using published experimental data, we first estimated the time course of the up-regulation rate of gene expression by light. Intriguingly, the estimated up-regulation rate was transient during light period in mice as well as Neurospora. Next, we constructed a computational model to consider how light adaptation had an effect on the entrainment of circadian oscillation to 24-h light-dark cycles. We found that cellular oscillations are more likely to be destabilized without light adaption especially when light intensity is very high. From the present results, we predict that the instability of circadian oscillations under 24-h light-dark cycles can be experimentally observed if light adaptation is altered. We conclude that the functional consequence of light adaptation is to increase the adjustability to 24-h light-dark cycles and then adapt to fluctuating environments in nature.

  14. Modeling light adaptation in circadian clock: prediction of the response that stabilizes entrainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsumoto, Kunichika; Kurosawa, Gen; Yoshinaga, Tetsuya; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2011-01-01

    Periods of biological clocks are close to but often different from the rotation period of the earth. Thus, the clocks of organisms must be adjusted to synchronize with day-night cycles. The primary signal that adjusts the clocks is light. In Neurospora, light transiently up-regulates the expression of specific clock genes. This molecular response to light is called light adaptation. Does light adaptation occur in other organisms? Using published experimental data, we first estimated the time course of the up-regulation rate of gene expression by light. Intriguingly, the estimated up-regulation rate was transient during light period in mice as well as Neurospora. Next, we constructed a computational model to consider how light adaptation had an effect on the entrainment of circadian oscillation to 24-h light-dark cycles. We found that cellular oscillations are more likely to be destabilized without light adaption especially when light intensity is very high. From the present results, we predict that the instability of circadian oscillations under 24-h light-dark cycles can be experimentally observed if light adaptation is altered. We conclude that the functional consequence of light adaptation is to increase the adjustability to 24-h light-dark cycles and then adapt to fluctuating environments in nature.

  15. Modeling the Frequency of Cyclists’ Red-Light Running Behavior Using Bayesian PG Model and PLN Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Red-light running behaviors of bicycles at signalized intersection lead to a large number of traffic conflicts and high collision potentials. The primary objective of this study is to model the cyclists’ red-light running frequency within the framework of Bayesian statistics. Data was collected at twenty-five approaches at seventeen signalized intersections. The Poisson-gamma (PG and Poisson-lognormal (PLN model were developed and compared. The models were validated using Bayesian p values based on posterior predictive checking indicators. It was found that the two models have a good fit of the observed cyclists’ red-light running frequency. Furthermore, the PLN model outperformed the PG model. The model estimated results showed that the amount of cyclists’ red-light running is significantly influenced by bicycle flow, conflict traffic flow, pedestrian signal type, vehicle speed, and e-bike rate. The validation result demonstrated the reliability of the PLN model. The research results can help transportation professionals to predict the expected amount of the cyclists’ red-light running and develop effective guidelines or policies to reduce red-light running frequency of bicycles at signalized intersections.

  16. Observational Signatures of Planets in Protoplanetary Disks: Spiral Arms Observed in Scattered Light Imaging Can be Induced by Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ruobing; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Rafikov, Roman R.; Stone, James M.

    2015-08-01

    Using 3D global hydro simulations coupled with radiative transfer calculations, we study the appearance of density waves induced by giant planets in direct imaging observations at near-infrared wavelengths. We find that a 6{M}{{J}} planet in a typical disk around a 1{M}⊙ star can produce prominent and detectable spiral arms both interior and exterior to its orbit. The inner arms have (1) two well separated arms in roughly m = 2 symmetry, (2) exhibit ˜10°-15° pitch angles, (3) ˜180°-270° extension in the azimuthal direction, and (4) ˜ 150 % surface brightness enhancement, all broadly consistent with observed spiral arms in the SAO 206462 and MWC 758 systems. The outer arms cannot explain observations as they are too tightly wound given typical disk scale height. We confirm previous results that the outer density waves excited by a 1{M}{{J}} planet exhibit low contrast in the IR and are practically not detectable. We also find that 3D effects of the waves are important. Compared to isothermal models, density waves in adiabatic disks exhibit weaker contrast in surface density but stronger contrast in scattered light images, due to a more pronounced vertical structure in the former caused by shock heating and maybe hydraulic jump effect. To drive observed pairs of arms with an external companion on a circular orbit, a massive planet, possibly a brown dwarf, is needed at around [r˜ 0\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 7, {PA}˜ 10^\\circ ] (position angle PA from north to east) in SAO 206462 and [r˜ 0\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 6, {PA}˜ 10^\\circ ] in MWC 758. Their existence may be confirmed by direct imaging planet searches.

  17. Light-light and heavy-light mesons in the model of QCD string with quarks at the ends

    CERN Document Server

    Nefediev, A V

    2002-01-01

    The variational einbein field method is applied to the model of the QCD string with quarks at the ends for the case of light-light and heavy-light mesons. Special attention is payed to the proper string dynamics. The correct string slope of the Regge trajectories is reproduced for light-light states which comes out from the picture of rotating string. Masses of several low-lying orbitally and radially excited states in the D, D_s, B, and B_s meson spectra are calculated and a good agreement with the experimental data as well as with recent lattice calculations is found. The role of the string correction to the interquark interaction is discussed at the example of the identification of D*'(2637) state recently claimed by DELPHI Collaboration. For the heavy-light mesons the standard constants used in Heavy Quark Effective Theory are extracted and compared to the results of other approaches.

  18. Observing and Modeling Earth's Energy Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Bjorn; Schwartz, Stephen E.

    2012-07-01

    This article reviews, from the authors' perspective, progress in observing and modeling energy flows in Earth's climate system. Emphasis is placed on the state of understanding of Earth's energy flows and their susceptibility to perturbations, with particular emphasis on the roles of clouds and aerosols. More accurate measurements of the total solar irradiance and the rate of change of ocean enthalpy help constrain individual components of the energy budget at the top of the atmosphere to within ±2 W m-2. The measurements demonstrate that Earth reflects substantially less solar radiation and emits more terrestrial radiation than was believed even a decade ago. Active remote sensing is helping to constrain the surface energy budget, but new estimates of downwelling surface irradiance that benefit from such methods are proving difficult to reconcile with existing precipitation climatologies. Overall, the energy budget at the surface is much more uncertain than at the top of the atmosphere. A decade of high-precision measurements of the energy budget at the top of the atmosphere is providing new opportunities to track Earth's energy flows on timescales ranging from days to years, and at very high spatial resolution. The measurements show that the principal limitation in the estimate of secular trends now lies in the natural variability of the Earth system itself. The forcing-feedback-response framework, which has developed to understand how changes in Earth's energy flows affect surface temperature, is reviewed in light of recent work that shows fast responses (adjustments) of the system are central to the definition of the effective forcing that results from a change in atmospheric composition. In many cases, the adjustment, rather than the characterization of the compositional perturbation (associated, for instance, with changing greenhouse gas concentrations, or aerosol burdens), limits accurate determination of the radiative forcing. Changes in clouds contribute

  19. Light

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2003-01-01

    Why is left right and right left in the mirror? Baffled by the basics of reflection and refraction? Wondering just how the eye works? If you have trouble teaching concepts about light that you don t fully grasp yourself, get help from a book that s both scientifically accurate and entertaining with Light. By combining clear explanations, clever drawings, and activities that use easy-to-find materials, this book covers what science teachers and parents need to know to teach about light with confidence. It uses ray, wave, and particle models of light to explain the basics of reflection and refraction, optical instruments, polarization of light, and interference and diffraction. There s also an entire chapter on how the eye works. Each chapter ends with a Summary and Applications section that reinforces concepts with everyday examples. Whether you need a deeper understanding of how light bends or a good explanation of why the sky is blue, you ll find Light more illuminating and accessible than a college textbook...

  20. Observing and modelling phytoplankton community structure in the North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, David A.; van der Molen, Johan; Hyder, Kieran; Bacon, John; Barciela, Rosa; Creach, Veronique; McEwan, Robert; Ruardij, Piet; Forster, Rodney

    2017-03-01

    Phytoplankton form the base of the marine food chain, and knowledge of phytoplankton community structure is fundamental when assessing marine biodiversity. Policy makers and other users require information on marine biodiversity and other aspects of the marine environment for the North Sea, a highly productive European shelf sea. This information must come from a combination of observations and models, but currently the coastal ocean is greatly under-sampled for phytoplankton data, and outputs of phytoplankton community structure from models are therefore not yet frequently validated. This study presents a novel set of in situ observations of phytoplankton community structure for the North Sea using accessory pigment analysis. The observations allow a good understanding of the patterns of surface phytoplankton biomass and community structure in the North Sea for the observed months of August 2010 and 2011. Two physical-biogeochemical ocean models, the biogeochemical components of which are different variants of the widely used European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model (ERSEM), were then validated against these and other observations. Both models were a good match for sea surface temperature observations, and a reasonable match for remotely sensed ocean colour observations. However, the two models displayed very different phytoplankton community structures, with one better matching the in situ observations than the other. Nonetheless, both models shared some similarities with the observations in terms of spatial features and inter-annual variability. An initial comparison of the formulations and parameterizations of the two models suggests that diversity between the parameter settings of model phytoplankton functional types, along with formulations which promote a greater sensitivity to changes in light and nutrients, is key to capturing the observed phytoplankton community structure. These findings will help inform future model development, which should be coupled

  1. Spectra of heavy-light mesons in a relativistic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jing-Bin; Lue, Cai-Dian [Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China)

    2017-05-15

    The spectra and wave functions of heavy-light mesons are calculated within a relativistic quark model which is based on a heavy-quark expansion of the instantaneous Bethe-Salpeter equation by applying the Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation. The kernel we choose is the standard combination of linear scalar and Coulombic vector. The effective Hamiltonian for heavy-light quark-antiquark system is calculated up to order 1/m{sub Q}{sup 2}. Our results are in good agreement with available experimental data except for the anomalous D{sub s0}{sup *}(2317) and D{sub s1}(2460) states. The newly observed heavy-light meson states can be accommodated successfully in the relativistic quark model with their assignments presented. The D{sub sJ}{sup *}(2860) can be interpreted as the vertical stroke 1{sup 3/2}D{sub 1} right angle and vertical stroke 1{sup 5/2}D{sub 3} right angle states being members of the 1D family with J{sup P} = 1{sup -} and 3{sup -}. (orig.)

  2. A Guess about light quantum model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongquan, Han

    2016-03-01

    Photon is a ring, the diameter of the ring is the quantum fluctuated wave length. The linear movement of the ring, namely, the transmission of light, is reflected in the particle of light. A plurality of light quantum interactions or through a very narrow gap, the shape of quantum would temporarily be changed. The motion of photons to interference and diffraction phenomena occurs is determined by the structure of light quantum, the quantum ring radius and light quantum mass squared product is a constant. The smaller the light quantum ring radius is, the bigger the quality is, just consistent as the modern scientific experimental results, the energy of the purple is bigger than the red. This conclusion can be extrapolated to all of the electromagnetic wave. The shorter the photon wavelength is, the bigger the quality and density is , when the wavelength is less than 10-15 meters, it will convergence to atomic or subatomic composition material entity due to the gravity. In fact, the divergence and convergence of quantum is reversible, that is, the phenomenon of radiate ``light'' quantum occurs due to the energy exchange or other external energy. Author: hanyongquan TEL: 15611860790.

  3. Modeling of an Adjustable Beam Solid State Light Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Toni

    2015-01-01

    This proposal is for the development of a computational model of a prototype variable beam light source using optical modeling software, Zemax Optics Studio. The variable beam light source would be designed to generate flood, spot, and directional beam patterns, while maintaining the same average power usage. The optical model would demonstrate the possibility of such a light source and its ability to address several issues: commonality of design, human task variability, and light source design process improvements. An adaptive lighting solution that utilizes the same electronics footprint and power constraints while addressing variability of lighting needed for the range of exploration tasks can save costs and allow for the development of common avionics for lighting controls.

  4. Implications of light charginos for Higgs observables, LHC searches and dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Casas, J Alberto; Rolbiecki, Krzysztof; Zaldivar, Bryan

    2013-01-01

    A rather high Higgs mass, m_h = 126 GeV, suggests that at least a part of the supersymmetric spectrum of the MSSM may live beyond O(1TeV) and hence inaccessible to the LHC. However, there are theoretical and phenomenological reasons supporting a possibility that charginos and neutralinos remain much closer to the electroweak scale. In this paper, we explore such a scenario in the light of recent Higgs measurements, mainly its di-photon decay rate, where the data might indicate a slight excess over the SM prediction. That excess could be fitted by the contribution of light charginos provided tan(beta) is low to moderate, a possibility that is receiving much attention for other theoretical reasons. We investigate the implications of this scenario for other observables, such as dark matter constraints, electroweak observables and experimental signals at the LHC, like di-lepton, tri-lepton and same-sign dilepton. An important part of the models survive all the constraints and are able to give positive signals at ...

  5. $Extrasolar~Storms$: Pressure-dependent Changes In Light Curve Phase In Brown Dwarfs From Simultaneous $Hubble$ and $Spitzer$ Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Hao; Marley, Mark S; Karalidi, Theodora; Flateau, Davin; Showman, Adam P; Metchev, Stanimir; Buenzli, Esther; Radigan, Jacqueline; Artigau, Étienne; Lowrance, Patrick J; Burgasser, Adam J

    2016-01-01

    We present $Spitzer$/IRAC Ch1 and Ch2 monitoring of six brown dwarfs during 8 different epochs over the course of 20 months. For four brown dwarfs, we also obtained simulataneous $HST$/WFC3 G141 Grism spectra during two epochs and derived light curves in five narrow-band filters. Probing different pressure levels in the atmospheres, the multi-wavelength light curves of our six targets all exhibit variations, and the shape of the light curves evolves over the timescale of a rotation period, ranging from 1.4 h to 13 h. We compare the shapes of the light curves and estimate the phase shifts between the light curves observed at different wavelengths by comparing the phase of the primary Fourier components. We use state-of-the-art atmosphere models to determine the flux contribution of different pressure layers to the observed flux in each filter. We find that the light curves that probe higher pressures are similar and in phase, but are offset and often different from the light curves that probe lower pressures. ...

  6. Mapping man-made CO2 emissions using satellite-observed nighttime lights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, T.; Maksyutov, S. S.; Andres, R. J.; Elvidge, C.; Baugh, K.; Hsu, F. C.; Roman, M. O.

    2015-12-01

    The Open-Data Inventory for Anthropogenic Carbon dioxide (ODIAC) is a global high spatial resolution (1x1km) emission dataset for CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion. The original version of ODIAC was developed at the Japanese Greenhouse Gas Observing Satellite (GOSAT) project to prescribe their inverse model. ODIAC first introduced the combined use of satellite-observed nighttime light data and individual power plant emission/geolocation information to estimate the spatial extent of fossil fuel CO2. The ODIAC emission data has been widely used by the international carbon cycle research community and appeared in a number of publications in the literature. Since its original publication in 2011, we have made numerous modifications to the ODIAC emission model and the emission data have been updated on annual basis. We are switching from BP statistical data based emission estimates to estimates made by Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. In recent versions of ODIAC data, the emission seasonality has been adopted from the CDIAC monthly emission dataset. The emissions from international bunkers, which are not included in the CDIAC gridded emission data, are estimated using the UN Energy Database and included with the spatial distributions. In the next version of ODIAC emission model, we will explore the use of satellite data collected by the NASA's Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite. We will estimate emission spatial distributions using global 500x500m nighttime lights data created from VIIRS data. We will also utilize a combustion detection algorithm Nightfire developed at NOAA National Geophysical Data Center to map gas flaring emissions. We also plan to expand our two emission sector emission distributing approach (power plant emission and non-point source emissions) by introducing a transportation emission sector which should improve emission distributions in urban and rural areas.

  7. Observation Platform for Dynamic Biomedical and Biotechnology Experiments using the ISS Light Microscopy Module Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed "Observation platform for dynamic biomedical and biotechnology experiments using the ISS Light Microscopy Module" consists of a platen sized to fit the...

  8. Observation Platform for Dynamic Biomedical and Biotechnology Experiments using the ISS Light Microscopy Module Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the research is the completion of an observation platform for the ISS Light Microscopy Module (LMM) as it currently resides on the US Fluids...

  9. Improved light and temperature responses for light use efficiency based GPP models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. McCallum

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Gross primary production (GPP is the process by which carbon enters ecosystems. Diagnostic models, based on the theory of light use efficiency (LUE have emerged as one method to estimate ecosystem GPP. However, problems have been noted particularly when applying global results at regional levels. We hypothesize that accounting for non-linear light response and temperature acclimation of daily GPP in boreal regions will improve model performance. To test this hypothesis, we have chosen four diagnostic models for comparison, namely: an LUE model (linear in its light response both with and without temperature acclimation and an LUE model and a big leaf model both with temperature acclimation and non-linear in their light response. All models include environmental modifiers for temperature and vapour pressure deficit (VPD. Initially, all models were calibrated against four eddy covariance sites within Russia for the years 2002–2004, for a total of 10 site years. Model evaluation was performed via 10-out cross-validation. This study presents a methodology for comparing diagnostic modeling approaches. Cross validation clearly demonstrates the improvement in model performance that temperature acclimation makes in modeling GPP at strongly temperature controlled sites in Russia. Additionally, the inclusion of a non-linear light response function is shown to further improve performance. Furthermore we demonstrate the parameterization of the big leaf model, incorporating environmental modifiers for temperature and VPD.

  10. Advancing an Information Model for Environmental Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsburgh, J. S.; Aufdenkampe, A. K.; Hooper, R. P.; Lehnert, K. A.; Schreuders, K.; Tarboton, D. G.; Valentine, D. W.; Zaslavsky, I.

    2011-12-01

    Observational data are fundamental to hydrology and water resources, and the way they are organized, described, and shared either enables or inhibits the analyses that can be performed using the data. The CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System (HIS) project is developing cyberinfrastructure to support hydrologic science by enabling better access to hydrologic data. HIS is composed of three major components. HydroServer is a software stack for publishing time series of hydrologic observations on the Internet as well as geospatial data using standards-based web feature, map, and coverage services. HydroCatalog is a centralized facility that catalogs the data contents of individual HydroServers and enables search across them. HydroDesktop is a client application that interacts with both HydroServer and HydroCatalog to discover, download, visualize, and analyze hydrologic observations published on one or more HydroServers. All three components of HIS are founded upon an information model for hydrologic observations at stationary points that specifies the entities, relationships, constraints, rules, and semantics of the observational data and that supports its data services. Within this information model, observations are described with ancillary information (metadata) about the observations to allow them to be unambiguously interpreted and used, and to provide traceable heritage from raw measurements to useable information. Physical implementations of this information model include the Observations Data Model (ODM) for storing hydrologic observations, Water Markup Language (WaterML) for encoding observations for transmittal over the Internet, the HydroCatalog metadata catalog database, and the HydroDesktop data cache database. The CUAHSI HIS and this information model have now been in use for several years, and have been deployed across many different academic institutions as well as across several national agency data repositories. Additionally, components of the HIS

  11. An Exploration into Integrating Daylight and Artificial Light via an Observational Instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin

    2015-01-01

    An Exploration into Integrating Daylight and Artificial Light via an Observational Instrument Daylight is dynamic and dependent upon weather conditions; unfolding with both subtle and dramatic variations in qualities of light. Through a building’s apertures, daylight creates a connection between...... that examine how the dynamic artificial lighting in the observational instrument unfolds during the changing of the daylight situations that are generated by the weather outside. This research employs the concept of coupling between interior and exterior, in order to identify a spectrum of design parameters...... Danish Academy of Fine Arts Schools of Architecture, Design and Conservation and The IT University of Copenhagen....

  12. Pioneer 10 observations of zodiacal light brightness near the ecliptic - Changes with heliocentric distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanner, M. S.; Weinberg, J. L.; Beeson, D. E.; Sparrow, J. G.

    1976-01-01

    Sky maps made by the Pioneer 10 Imaging Photopolarimeter (IPP) at sun-spacecraft distances from 1 to 3 AU have been analyzed to derive the brightness of the zodiacal light near the ecliptic at elongations greater than 90 degrees. The change in zodiacal light brightness with heliocentric distance is compared with models of the spatial distribution of the dust. Use of background starlight brightnesses derived from IPP measurements beyond the asteroid belt, where the zodiacal light is not detected, and, especially, use of a corrected calibration lead to considerably lower values for zodiacal light than those reported by us previously.

  13. Phenomenological study of extended seesaw model for light sterile neutrino

    CERN Document Server

    Nath, Newton; Goswami, Srubabati; Gupta, Shivani

    2016-01-01

    We study the zero textures of the Yukawa matrices in the minimal extended type-I seesaw (MES) model which can give rise to $\\sim$ eV scale sterile neutrinos. In this model, three right handed neutrinos and one extra singlet $S$ are added to generate a light sterile neutrino. The light neutrino mass matrix for the active neutrinos, $ m_{\

  14. Observational constraints on the LLTB model

    CERN Document Server

    Marra, Valerio

    2010-01-01

    We directly compare the concordance LCDM model to the inhomogeneous matter-only alternative represented by LTB void models. To achieve a "democratic" confrontation we explore LLTB models with non-vanishing cosmological constant and perform a global likelihood analysis in the parameter space of cosmological constant and void radius. In our analysis we carefully consider SNe, Hubble constant, CMB and BAO measurements, marginalizing over the age of the universe and the background curvature. We find that the LCDM model is not the only possibility compatible with the observations, and that a matter-only void model is a viable alternative to the concordance model only if the BAO constraints are relaxed. Moreover, we will show that the areas of the parameter space which give a good fit to the observations are always disconnected with the result that a small local void does not significantly affect the parameter extraction for LCDM models.

  15. Modelling the effect of supplementary lighting on production and light utilisation efficiency of greenhouse crops.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, de J.C.M.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of supplementary lighting (SL) on dry matter production of greenhouse crops is predictable with ALSIM, a new crop growth model based on SUCROS87. The light utilization efficiency (LUE), defined as daily dry matter production divided by the daily photosynthetic photon flux is a parameter f

  16. Observational Challenges for the Standard FLRW Model

    CERN Document Server

    Buchert, Thomas; Kleinert, Hagen; Roukema, Boudewijn F; Wiltshire, David L

    2015-01-01

    In the context of the "Fourteenth Marcel Grossman Meeting on General Relativity" parallel session DE3, "Large--scale Structure and Statistics", concerning observational issues in cosmology, we summarise some of the main observational challenges for the standard FLRW model and describe how the results presented in the session are related to these challenges.

  17. Modelling of classical ghost images obtained using scattered light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, S.; Castelletto, S.; Aruldoss, C.; Scholten, R. E.; Roberts, A.

    2007-08-01

    The images obtained in ghost imaging with pseudo-thermal light sources are highly dependent on the spatial coherence properties of the incident light. Pseudo-thermal light is often created by reducing the coherence length of a coherent source by passing it through a turbid mixture of scattering spheres. We describe a model for simulating ghost images obtained with such partially coherent light, using a wave-transport model to calculate the influence of the scattering on initially coherent light. The model is able to predict important properties of the pseudo-thermal source, such as the coherence length and the amplitude of the residual unscattered component of the light which influence the resolution and visibility of the final ghost image. We show that the residual ballistic component introduces an additional background in the reconstructed image, and the spatial resolution obtainable depends on the size of the scattering spheres.

  18. Computational Modeling to Limit the Impact Displays and Indicator Lights Have on Habitable Volume Operational Lighting Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, T. A.; Brainard, G.; Salazar, G.; Johnston, S.; Schwing, B.; Litaker, H.; Kolomenski, A.; Venus, D.; Tran, K.; Hanifin, J.; Adolf, J.

    2017-01-01

    NASA has demonstrated an interest in improving astronaut health and performance through the installment of a new lighting countermeasure on the International Space Station. The Solid State Lighting Assembly (SSLA) system is designed to positively influence astronaut health by providing a daily change to light spectrum to improve circadian entrainment. Unfortunately, existing NASA standards and requirements define ambient light level requirements for crew sleep and other tasks, yet the number of light-emitting diode (LED) indicators and displays within a habitable volume is currently uncontrolled. Because each of these light sources has its own unique spectral properties, the additive lighting environment ends up becoming something different from what was planned or researched. Restricting the use of displays and indicators is not a solution because these systems provide beneficial feedback to the crew. The research team for this grant used computer-based computational modeling and real-world lighting mockups to document the impact that light sources other than the ambient lighting system contribute to the ambient spectral lighting environment. In particular, the team was focused on understanding the impacts of long-term tasks located in front of avionics or computer displays. The team also wanted to understand options for mitigating the changes to the ambient light spectrum in the interest of maintaining the performance of a lighting countermeasure. The project utilized a variety of physical and computer-based simulations to determine direct relationships between system implementation and light spectrum. Using real-world data, computer models were built in the commercially available optics analysis software Zemax Optics Studio(c). The team also built a mockup test facility that had the same volume and configuration as one of the Zemax models. The team collected over 1200 spectral irradiance measurements, each representing a different configuration of the mockup

  19. Spectra of heavy-light mesons in a relativistic model

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jing-Bin

    2016-01-01

    The spectra and wave functions of heavy-light mesons are calculated within a relativistic quark model, which is derived from the instantaneous Bethe-Salpeter equation by applying the Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation on the heavy quark. The kernel we choose is based on scalar confining and vector Coulomb potentials. The Hamiltonian for heavy-light quark-antiquark system is calculated up to order $1/m_Q^2$. The results are in good agreement with available experimental data except for the masses of the anomalous $D_{s0}^*(2317)$ and $D_{s1}(2460)$ states. The newly observed charmed meson states can be accommodated successfully in the relativistic model and their assignments are presented, the $D_{sJ}^*(2860)$ can be interpreted as the $|1^{3/2}D_1\\rangle$ and $|1^{5/2}D_3\\rangle$ states being the $J^P=1^-$ and $3^-$ members of the 1D family in our model.

  20. Supersymmetry and Light Quark Masses in a Realistic Superstring Model

    CERN Document Server

    Halyo, E

    1994-01-01

    We examine the light quark masses in a standard--like superstring model in the four dimensional free fermionic formulation. We find that the supersymmetry constraints in the observable and hidden sectors eliminate all large contributions to $m_u$ and $m_d$ and force them to be much smaller than the other quark masses. The requirement for an acceptable Higgs doublet spectrum results in $m_u<models a realistic $m_d$ can always be obtained whereas $m_u$ is at most $10^{-5}~MeV$. For particular choices of flat directions or vacua $m_u$ can be as small as $10^{-7}~MeV$ but cannot vanish.

  1. Observations and Modelling of DQ White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Vornanen, Tommi; Berdyugin, Andrei

    2012-01-01

    We present spectropolarimetric observations and modelling of 12 DQ white dwarfs. Modelling is based on the method presented in Berdyugina et al. (2005). We use the model to fit the C_2 absorption bands to get atmospheric parameters in different configurations, including stellar spots and stratified atmospheres, searching for the best possible fit. We still have problem to solve before we can give temperature estimates based on the Swan bands alone.

  2. Red light-induced redox reactions in cells observed with TEMPO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler, Maor; Lavi, Ronit; Friedmann, Harry; Shainberg, Asher; Lubart, Rachel

    2007-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the wavelength dependence of light-induced redox reactions in cells, particularly whether there is any contribution by red wavelengths. An additional aim was to assess the potential of 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl piperidine-N-oxyl (TEMPO) as a tool for measuring these redox reactions. Visible light has been shown to affect cells, and redox reactions, which have been detected previously using spin traps, have been proposed as a mechanism. However, there is little evidence that red light, which is used in most such experiments, is redox active in cells. Redox activity was observed by measuring the decay of the electron paramagnetic resonance signal of TEMPO that occurs in the presence of illuminated cells. Color filters were used to generate blue, green, and red light, and the decay resulting from these wavelengths was compared to the decay caused by white light. Shorter wavelengths have a considerably stronger effect than longer wavelengths, although red light has some effect. Creation of reactive oxygen species by red light was confirmed with the spin trap 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO). Red light can induce redox reactions in illuminated cells. However, shorter wavelengths are more efficient in this regard. In addition, TEMPO was found to be a more sensitive probe than DMPO for detecting light-induced cellular redox reactions.

  3. Backscattering Light Model of Seawater for Modulated Lidar Based on the Stationarity of Light Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Hang; MA Yong; LIANG Kun; WANG Hong-yuan

    2007-01-01

    The backscattering signal, which arises from the pulsed laser traveling through water, has limited the lidar system sensitivity and underwater target contrast. The transmitted optical carrier is modulated to be ultrashort pulsed laser and i t is effective to suppress the backscattering to adopt the coherent detection technology by identifying the modulation envelope. A nonstationary light field is formed in seawater by the ultrashort pulsed laser. The inherent relationship between the nonstationary light field formed by modulated lidar and the stationary light field formed by conventional lidar was discussed and the backscattering light model of the stationary light field for the ultrashort pulsed laser was proposed. The backscattering signal in modulated lidar system was processed and analyzed in the frequency domain on the basis of the model.

  4. Models and observations of sunspot penumbrae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BORRERO; Juan; Manuel

    2009-01-01

    The mysteries of sunspot penumbrae have been under an intense scrutiny for the past 10 years. During this time, some models have been proposed and refuted, while the surviving ones had to be modified, adapted and evolved to explain the ever-increasing array of observational constraints. In this contribution I will review two of the present models, emphasizing their contributions to this field, but also pinpointing some of their inadequacies to explain a number of recent observations at very high spatial resolution (0.32 ). To help explaining these new observations I propose some modifications to each of those models. These modifications bring those two seemingly opposite models closer together into a general picture that agrees well with recent 3D magneto-hydrodynamic simulations.

  5. Observations and Modeling of Solar Flare Atmospheric Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.

    2015-09-01

    spectral lines at the first point are mostly blueshifted, with the hotter lines showing a dominant blueshifted component over the stationary one. At the second point, however, only weak upflows are detected; instead, notable downflows appear at high temperatures (up to 2.5-5.0 MK). The third point is similar to the second one except that it shows evidence of multi-component downflows. While the evaporated plasma falling back down as warm rain is a possible cause of the redshifts at the second and third points, the different patterns of chromospheric evaporation at the three points imply the existence of different heating mechanisms in the flaring region. Then, we study the flare heating and dynamics using the ``enthalpy-based thermal evolution of loops'' (EBTEL) model. We analyze an M1.0 flare on 2011 February 16. This flare is composed of two distinctive loop systems observed in EUV images. The UV 1600 Å emission at the feet of these loops exhibits a rapid rise, followed by enhanced emission in different EUV channels observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). Such a behavior is indicative of impulsive energy deposit, and the subsequent response of overlying coronal loops. Using the method recently developed, we infer empirical heating functions from the rapid rise of the UV light curves for the two loop systems, respectively, treated as two big loops with cross-sectional area of 5'' by 5'', and compute the plasma evolution in the loops using the EBTEL model. We further compute the synthetic EUV light curves, which, with the limitation of the model, agree reasonably with the observed light curves obtained in multiple AIA channels and EIS lines: they show the same evolution trend, and their magnitudes are comparable within a factor of two. We also compare the computed mean enthalpy flow velocity with the Doppler shifts of EIS lines during the decay phase of the two loops. Our results suggest that the two different

  6. IRTF/SPEX OBSERVATIONS OF THE UNUSUAL KEPLER LIGHT CURVE SYSTEM KIC 8462852

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisse, C. M. [JHU-APL, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Sitko, M. L. [Department of Physics, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0011 (United States); Marengo, M., E-mail: carey.lisse@jhuapl.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, 12 Physics Hall, Ames, IA 50010 (United States)

    2015-12-20

    We have utilized the NASA/IRTF 3 m SpeX instrument’s high-resolution spectral mode to observe and characterize the near-infrared flux emanating from the unusual Kepler light curve system KIC 8462852. By comparing the resulting 0.8–4.2 μm spectrum to a mesh of model photospheric spectra, the 6 emission line analyses of the Rayner et al. catalog, and the 25 system collections of debris disks we have observed to date using SpeX under the Near InfraRed Debris disk Survey, we have been able to additionally characterize the system. Within the errors of our measurements, this star looks like a normal solar abundance main-sequence F1V to F3V dwarf star without any obvious traces of significant circumstellar dust or gas. Using Connelley and Greene’s emission measures, we also see no evidence of significant ongoing accretion onto the star nor any stellar outflow away from it. Our results are inconsistent with large amounts of static close-in obscuring material or the unusual behavior of a YSO system, but are consistent with the favored episodic giant comet models of a Gyr old stellar system favored by Boyajian et al. We speculate that KIC 8462852, like the ∼1.4 Gyr old F2V system η Corvi, is undergoing a late heavy bombardment, but is only in its very early stages.

  7. Improved light and temperature responses for light-use-efficiency-based GPP models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. McCallum

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Gross primary production (GPP is the process by which carbon enters ecosystems. Models based on the theory of light use efficiency (LUE have emerged as an efficient method to estimate ecosystem GPP. However, problems have been noted when applying global parameterizations to biome-level applications. In particular, model–data comparisons of GPP have shown that models (including LUE models have difficulty matching estimated GPP. This is significant as errors in simulated GPP may propagate through models (e.g. Earth system models. Clearly, unique biome-level characteristics must be accounted for if model accuracy is to be improved. We hypothesize that in boreal regions (which are strongly temperature controlled, accounting for temperature acclimation and non-linear light response of daily GPP will improve model performance. To test this hypothesis, we have chosen four diagnostic models for comparison, namely an LUE model (linear in its light response both with and without temperature acclimation and an LUE model and a big leaf model both with temperature acclimation and non-linear in their light response. All models include environmental modifiers for temperature and vapour pressure deficit (VPD. Initially, all models were calibrated against five eddy covariance (EC sites within Russia for the years 2002–2005, for a total of 17 site years. Model evaluation was performed via 10-out cross-validation. Cross-validation clearly demonstrates the improvement in model performance that temperature acclimation makes in modelling GPP at strongly temperature-controlled sites in Russia. These results would indicate that inclusion of temperature acclimation in models on sites experiencing cold temperatures is imperative. Additionally, the inclusion of a non-linear light response function is shown to further improve performance, particularly in less temperature-controlled sites.

  8. Urban light pollution - The effect of atmospheric aerosols on astronomical observations at night

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Joachim H.; Mekler, Yuri; Kaufman, Yoram J.

    1991-01-01

    The transfer of diffuse city light from a localized source through a dust-laden atmosphere with optical depth less than 0.5 has been analyzed in the source-observer plane on the basis of an approximate treatment. The effect on several types of astronomical observation at night has been studied, considering different size distributions and amounts as well as particle shapes of the aerosols. The analysis is made in terms of the signal-to-noise ratios for a given amount of aerosol. The model is applied to conditions at the Wise Astronomical Observatory in the Negev desert, and limiting backgrounds for spectroscopy, photometry, and photography of stars and extended objects have been calculated for a variety of signal-to-noise ratios. Applications to observations with different equipment at various distances from an urban area of any size are possible. Due to the use of signal-to-noise ratios, the conclusions are different for the different experimental techniques used in astronomy.

  9. Moving picture recording and observation of femtosecond light pulse propagation using a rewritable holographic material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Seiji; Takimoto, Tetsuya; Tosa, Kazuya; Kakue, Takashi [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Matsugasaki, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Awatsuji, Yasuhiro, E-mail: awatsuji@kit.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Matsugasaki, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Nishio, Kenzo [Advanced Technology Center, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Matsugasaki, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Ura, Shogo [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Matsugasaki, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Kubota, Toshihiro [Kubota Holography Laboratory, Corporation, Nishihata 34-1-609, Ogura, Uji 611-0042 (Japan)

    2011-08-01

    We succeeded in recording and observing femtosecond light pulse propagation as a form of moving picture by means of light-in-flight recording by holography using a rewritable holographic material, for the first time. We used a femtosecond pulsed laser whose center wavelength and duration were 800 nm and {approx}120 fs, respectively. A photo-conductor plastic hologram was used as a rewritable holographic material. The femtosecond light pulse was collimated and obliquely incident to the diffuser plate. The behavior of the cross-section between the collimated femtosecond light pulse and the diffuser plate was recorded on the photo-conductor plastic hologram. We experimentally obtained a spatially and temporally continuous moving picture of the femtosecond light pulse propagation for 58.3 ps. Meanwhile, we also investigated the rewritable performance of the photo-conductor plastic hologram. As a result, we confirmed that ten-time rewriting was possible for a photo-conductor plastic hologram.

  10. Results from the Prototype GLOBE at Night Worldwide Light Pollution Observation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Constance E.; Pompea, S. M.; Isbell, D.; Orellana, D.; Blurton, C.; Henderson, S.

    2006-06-01

    Students, families, and educators worldwide participated in GLOBE at Night - an international event designed to observe and record the visible stars as a means of measuring light pollution in a given location. Participation was open to anyone - anywhere in the world - who could get outside and look skyward during the week of March 22-29, 2006. Our goal was 5000 observations from around the world in this prototype program.The hands-on learning activities associated with the program were designed to extend the traditional classroom and school day with a week of nighttime observations involving teachers, students and their families. By locating specific constellations in the sky, students from around the world learned how the lights in their community contribute to light pollution. Students explored the different light sources in their community learning the relationship between science, technology and society, and they reported their observations online through a central database allowing for authentic worldwide research and analysis. The observations made during GLOBE at Night helped students and scientists together assess how the quality of the night sky varies around the world as well as the level of energy wastage associated with poorly-shielded lights.For more information, visit http://www.globe.gov/globeatnight.GLOBE at Night is a collaboration between The GLOBE Program, the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), Centro de Apoyo a la Didactica de la Astronomia (CADIAS) in Chile , Windows to the Universe, and Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc. (ESRI).

  11. Photometric Observation and Light Curve Analysis of Binary System ER-Orionis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M. M. Lame’e; B. Javanmardi; N. Riazi

    2010-06-01

    Photometric observations of the over-contact binary ER ORI were performed during November 2007 and February to April 2008 with the 51 cm telescope of Biruni Observatory of Shiraz University in U, B and V filters (Johnson system) and an RCA 4509 photomultiplier. We used these data to obtain the light curves and calculate the newtimes of minimum light in each filter and plot the O–C diagram of ER ORI. Using the Wilson’s computer code with the help of an auxiliary computer program to improve the optimizations, the light curve analyses were carried out to find out the photometric elements of the system.

  12. Models and Observations of Sunspot Penumbrae

    CERN Document Server

    Borrero, J M

    2008-01-01

    The mysteries of sunspot penumbrae have been under an intense scrutiny for the past 10 years. During this time, some models have been proposed and refuted, while the surviving ones had to be modified, adapted and evolved to explain the ever-increasing array of observational constraints. In this contribution I will review two of the present models, emphasizing their contributions to this field, but also pinpointing some of their inadequacies to explain a number of recent observations at very high spatial resolution. To help explaining these new observations I propose some modifications to each of them. These modifications bring those two seemingly opposite models closer together into a general picture that agrees well with recent 3D magneto-hydrodynamic simulations.

  13. Modeling the role of mid-wavelength cones in circadian responses to light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dkhissi-Benyahya, Ouria; Gronfier, Claude; De Vanssay, Wena; Flamant, Frederic; Cooper, Howard M

    2007-03-01

    Nonvisual responses to light, such as photic entrainment of the circadian clock, involve intrinsically light-sensitive melanopsin-expressing ganglion cells as well as rod and cone photoreceptors. However, previous studies have been unable to demonstrate a specific contribution of cones in the photic control of circadian responses to light. Using a mouse model that specifically lacks mid-wavelength (MW) cones we show that these photoreceptors play a significant role in light entrainment and in phase shifting of the circadian oscillator. The contribution of MW cones is mainly observed for light exposures of short duration and toward the longer wavelength region of the spectrum, consistent with the known properties of this opsin. Modeling the contributions of the various photoreceptors stresses the importance of considering the particular spectral, temporal, and irradiance response domains of the photopigments when assessing their role and contribution in circadian responses to light.

  14. The Szekeres Swiss Cheese model and the CMB observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolejko, Krzysztof

    2009-08-01

    This paper presents the application of the Szekeres Swiss Cheese model to the analysis of observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. The impact of inhomogeneous matter distribution on the CMB observations is in most cases studied within the linear perturbations of the Friedmann model. However, since the density contrast and the Weyl curvature within the cosmic structures are large, this issue is worth studying using another approach. The Szekeres model is an inhomogeneous, non-symmetrical and exact solution of the Einstein equations. In this model, light propagation and matter evolution can be exactly calculated, without such approximations as small amplitude of the density contrast. This allows to examine in more realistic manner the contribution of the light propagation effect to the measured CMB temperature fluctuations. The results of such analysis show that small-scale, non-linear inhomogeneities induce, via Rees-Sciama effect, temperature fluctuations of amplitude 10-7-10-5 on angular scale ϑ 750). This is still much smaller than the measured temperature fluctuations on this angular scale. However, local and uncompensated inhomogeneities can induce temperature fluctuations of amplitude as large as 10-3, and thus can be responsible the low multipoles anomalies observed in the angular CMB power spectrum.

  15. Effects of Traffic Lights on CA Traffic Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SuweiFENG; GuoqingGU

    1997-01-01

    Cellular automaton traffic models can include various factors in traffic system with simple regulations and the corresponding computations and simulations are rather convenient and effective.In this paper,the Biham-Middleton-Levine model(briefly saying the BML model)is improved by removing its limitation of synchronized change of traffic lights.In new model,the traffic light at each crossing could arbitrarily change its starting time and tempo of variation and hence the model could more realistically describe the influence of traffic lights on the performance of traffic systems.The cases of traffic light with unsynchronized starting time and different tempo of variation are simulated in this paper.

  16. Current-voltage model of LED light sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beczkowski, Szymon; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2012-01-01

    Amplitude modulation is rarely used for dimming light-emitting diodes in polychromatic luminaires due to big color shifts caused by varying magnitude of LED driving current and nonlinear relationship between intensity of a diode and driving current. Current-voltage empirical model of light...

  17. Cell Division in the Light of Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellaïche, Yohanns

    2016-09-26

    Theoretical modeling is central to elucidating underlying principles of emergent properties of complex systems. In cell and developmental biology, the last 15 years have witnessed a convergence of empirical and modeling approaches for fresh perspectives. The role of cell division in coordinating size, shape, and fate in particular illustrates the ever-growing impact of modeling.

  18. Are there consistent models giving observable NSI ?

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez, Enrique Fernandez

    2013-01-01

    While the existing direct bounds on neutrino NSI are rather weak, order 10(−)(1) for propagation and 10(−)(2) for production and detection, the close connection between these interactions and new NSI affecting the better-constrained charged letpon sector through gauge invariance make these bounds hard to saturate in realistic models. Indeed, Standard Model extensions leading to neutrino NSI typically imply constraints at the 10(−)(3) level. The question of whether consistent models leading to observable neutrino NSI naturally arises and was discussed in a dedicated session at NUFACT 11. Here we summarize that discussion.

  19. An update on Earth's energy balance in light of the latest global observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Graeme L.; Li, Juilin; Wild, Martin; Clayson, Carol Anne; Loeb, Norman; Kato, Seiji; L'Ecuyer, Tristan; Stackhouse, Paul W.; Lebsock, Matthew; Andrews, Timothy

    2012-10-01

    Climate change is governed by changes to the global energy balance. At the top of the atmosphere, this balance is monitored globally by satellite sensors that provide measurements of energy flowing to and from Earth. By contrast, observations at the surface are limited mostly to land areas. As a result, the global balance of energy fluxes within the atmosphere or at Earth's surface cannot be derived directly from measured fluxes, and is therefore uncertain. This lack of precise knowledge of surface energy fluxes profoundly affects our ability to understand how Earth's climate responds to increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases. In light of compilations of up-to-date surface and satellite data, the surface energy balance needs to be revised. Specifically, the longwave radiation received at the surface is estimated to be significantly larger, by between 10 and 17 Wm-2, than earlier model-based estimates. Moreover, the latest satellite observations of global precipitation indicate that more precipitation is generated than previously thought. This additional precipitation is sustained by more energy leaving the surface by evaporation -- that is, in the form of latent heat flux -- and thereby offsets much of the increase in longwave flux to the surface.

  20. Stratospheric dryness: model simulations and satellite observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lelieveld

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms responsible for the extreme dryness of the stratosphere have been debated for decades. A key difficulty has been the lack of comprehensive models which are able to reproduce the observations. Here we examine results from the coupled lower-middle atmosphere chemistry general circulation model ECHAM5/MESSy1 together with satellite observations. Our model results match observed temperatures in the tropical lower stratosphere and realistically represent the seasonal and inter-annual variability of water vapor. The model reproduces the very low water vapor mixing ratios (below 2 ppmv periodically observed at the tropical tropopause near 100 hPa, as well as the characteristic tape recorder signal up to about 10 hPa, providing evidence that the dehydration mechanism is well-captured. Our results confirm that the entry of tropospheric air into the tropical stratosphere is forced by large-scale wave dynamics, whereas radiative cooling regionally decelerates upwelling and can even cause downwelling. Thin cirrus forms in the cold air above cumulonimbus clouds, and the associated sedimentation of ice particles between 100 and 200 hPa reduces water mass fluxes by nearly two orders of magnitude compared to air mass fluxes. Transport into the stratosphere is supported by regional net radiative heating, to a large extent in the outer tropics. During summer very deep monsoon convection over Southeast Asia, centered over Tibet, moistens the stratosphere.

  1. Anomaly and Condensate in the Light-Cone Schwinger Model

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    The axial anomaly and fermion condensate in the light cone Schwinger model are studied following path integral methods. This formalism allows for a simple and direct calculation for these and other vacuum dependent phenomena.

  2. New Approach for Environmental Monitoring and Plant Observation Using a Light-Field Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schima, Robert; Mollenhauer, Hannes; Grenzdörffer, Görres; Merbach, Ines; Lausch, Angela; Dietrich, Peter; Bumberger, Jan

    2015-04-01

    The aim of gaining a better understanding of ecosystems and the processes in nature accentuates the need for observing exactly these processes with a higher temporal and spatial resolution. In the field of environmental monitoring, an inexpensive and field applicable imaging technique to derive three-dimensional information about plants and vegetation would represent a decisive contribution to the understanding of the interactions and dynamics of ecosystems. This is particularly true for the monitoring of plant growth and the frequently mentioned lack of morphological information about the plants, e.g. plant height, vegetation canopy, leaf position or leaf arrangement. Therefore, an innovative and inexpensive light-field (plenoptic) camera, the Lytro LF, and a stereo vision system, based on two industrial cameras, were tested and evaluated as possible measurement tools for the given monitoring purpose. In this instance, the usage of a light field camera offers the promising opportunity of providing three-dimensional information without any additional requirements during the field measurements based on one single shot, which represents a substantial methodological improvement in the area of environmental research and monitoring. Since the Lytro LF was designed as a daily-life consumer camera, it does not support depth or distance estimation or rather an external triggering by default. Therefore, different technical modifications and a calibration routine had to be figured out during the preliminary study. As a result, the used light-field camera was proven suitable as a depth and distance measurement tool with a measuring range of approximately one meter. Consequently, this confirms the assumption that a light field camera holds the potential of being a promising measurement tool for environmental monitoring purposes, especially with regard to a low methodological effort in field. Within the framework of the Global Change Experimental Facility Project, founded by

  3. Observations and NLTE modeling of Ellerman bombs

    CERN Document Server

    Berlicki, Arkadiusz

    2014-01-01

    Ellerman bombs (EBs) are short-lived and compact structures that are observed well in the wings of the hydrogen H-alpha line. EBs are also observed in the chromospheric CaII lines and in UV continua. H-alpha line profiles of EBs show a deep absorption at the line center and enhanced emission in the line wings. Similar shapes of the line profiles are observed for the CaII IR line at 8542 ang. It is generally accepted that EBs may be considered as compact microflares located in lower solar atmosphere. However, it is still not clear where exactly the emission of EBs is formed in the solar atmosphere. High-resolution spectrophotometric observations of EBs were used for determining of their physical parameters and construction of semi-empirical models. In our analysis we used observations of EBs obtained in the H-alpha and CaII H lines. We also used NLTE numerical codes for the construction of grids of 243 semi-empirical models simulating EBs structures. In this way, the observed emission could be compared with th...

  4. Supporting observation campaigns with high resolution modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klocke, Daniel; Brueck, Matthias; Voigt, Aiko

    2017-04-01

    High resolution simulation in support of measurement campaigns offers a promising and emerging way to create large-scale context for small-scale observations of clouds and precipitation processes. As these simulation include the coupling of measured small-scale processes with the circulation, they also help to integrate the research communities from modeling and observations and allow for detailed model evaluations against dedicated observations. In connection with the measurement campaign NARVAL (August 2016 and December 2013) simulations with a grid-spacing of 2.5 km for the tropical Atlantic region (9000x3300 km), with local refinement to 1.2 km for the western part of the domain, were performed using the icosahedral non-hydrostatic (ICON) general circulation model. These simulations are again used to drive large eddy resolving simulations with the same model for selected days in the high definition clouds and precipitation for advancing climate prediction (HD(CP)2) project. The simulations are presented with the focus on selected results showing the benefit for the scientific communities doing atmospheric measurements and numerical modeling of climate and weather. Additionally, an outlook will be given on how similar simulations will support the NAWDEX measurement campaign in the North Atlantic and AC3 measurement campaign in the Arctic.

  5. Neptune's Dynamic Atmosphere from Kepler K2 Observations: Implications for Brown Dwarf Light Curve Analyses

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Amy A; Gaulme, Patrick; Hammel, Heidi B; Casewell, Sarah L; Fortney, Jonathan J; Gizis, John E; Lissauer, Jack J; Morales-Juberias, Raul; Orton, Glenn S; Wong, Michael H; Marley, Mark S

    2015-01-01

    Observations of Neptune with the Kepler Space Telescope yield a 49-day light curve with 98% coverage at a 1-minute cadence. A significant signature in the light curve comes from discrete cloud features. We compare results extracted from the light curve data with contemporaneous disk-resolved imaging of Neptune from the Keck 10-meter telescope at 1.65 microns and Hubble Space Telescope visible imaging acquired 9 months later. This direct comparison validates the feature latitudes assigned to the K2 light curve periods based on Neptune's zonal wind profile, and confirms observed cloud feature variability. Although Neptune's clouds vary in location and intensity on short and long time scales, a single large discrete storm seen in Keck imaging dominates the K2 and Hubble light curves; smaller or fainter clouds likely contribute to short-term brightness variability. The K2 Neptune light curve, in conjunction with our imaging data, provides context for the interpretation of current and future brown dwarf and extras...

  6. A Practical Approach for Simultaneous Estimation of Light Source Position, Scene Structure, and Blind Restoration Using Photometric Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjunath V. Joshi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Given blurred observations of a stationary scene captured using a static camera but with different and unknown light source positions, we estimate the light source positions and scene structure (surface gradients and perform blind image restoration. The images are restored using the estimated light source positions, surface gradients, and albedo. The surface of the object is assumed to be Lambertian. We first propose a simple approach to obtain a rough estimate of the light source position from a single image using the shading information which does not use any calibration or initialization. We model the prior information for the scene structure as a separate Markov random field (MRF with discontinuity preservation, and the blur function is modeled as Gaussian. A proper regularization approach is then used to estimate the light source position, scene structure, and blur parameter. The optimization is carried out using the graph cuts approach. The advantage of the proposed approach is that its time complexity is much less as compared to other approaches that use global optimization techniques such as simulated annealing. Reducing the time complexity is crucial in many of the practical vision problems. Results of experimentation on both synthetic and real images are presented.

  7. Observations of the Near-Infrared Spectrum of the Zodiacal Light with CIBER

    CERN Document Server

    Tsumura, K; Bock, J; Cooray, A; Hristov, V; Keating, B; Lee, D H; Levenson, L R; Mason, P; Matsumoto, T; Matsuura, S; Nam, U W; Renbarger, T; Sullivan, I; Suzuki, K; Wada, T; Zemcov, M

    2010-01-01

    Interplanetary dust (IPD) scatters solar radiation which results in the zodiacal light that dominates the celestial diffuse brightness at optical and near-infrared wavelengths. Both asteroid collisions and cometary ejections produce the IPD, but the relative contribution from these two sources is still unknown. The Low Resolution Spectrometer (LRS) onboard the Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment (CIBER) observed the astrophysical sky spectrum between 750 and 2100 nm over a wide range of ecliptic latitude. The resulting zodiacal light spectrum is redder than the solar spectrum, and shows a broad absorption feature, previously unreported, at approximately 900 nm, suggesting the existence of silicates in the IPD material. The spectral shape of the zodiacal light is isotropic at all ecliptic latitudes within the measurement error. The zodiacal light spectrum, including the extended wavelength range to 2500 nm using IRTS data, is qualitatively similar to the reflectance of S-type asteroids. This result can be ex...

  8. Modeling Water Clarity and Light Quality in Oceans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Abdelrhman

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton is a primary producer of organic compounds, and it forms the base of the food chain in ocean waters. The concentration of phytoplankton in the water column controls water clarity and the amount and quality of light that penetrates through it. The availability of adequate light intensity is a major factor in the health of algae and phytoplankton. There is a strong negative coupling between light intensity and phytoplankton concentration (e.g., through self-shading by the cells, which reduces available light and in return affects the growth rate of the cells. Proper modeling of this coupling is essential to understand primary productivity in the oceans. This paper provides the methodology to model light intensity in the water column, which can be included in relevant water quality models. The methodology implements relationships from bio-optical models, which use phytoplankton chlorophyll a (chl-a concentration as a surrogate for light attenuation, including absorption and scattering by other attenuators. The presented mathematical methodology estimates the reduction in light intensity due to absorption by pure seawater, chl-a pigment, non-algae particles (NAPs and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM, as well as backscattering by pure seawater, phytoplankton particles and NAPs. The methods presented facilitate the prediction of the effects of various environmental and management scenarios (e.g., global warming, altered precipitation patterns, greenhouse gases on the wellbeing of phytoplankton communities in the oceans as temperature-driven chl-a changes take place.

  9. Modeling the dynamic modulation of light energy in photosynthetic algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Ioannis A; Kotzabasis, Kiriakos; Lika, Konstadia

    2012-05-01

    An integrated cell-based dynamic mathematical model that take into account the role of the photon absorbing process, the partition of excitation energy, and the photoinactivation and repair of photosynthetic units, under variable light and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) availability is proposed. The modeling of the photon energy absorption and the energy dissipation is based on the photoadaptive changes of the underlying mechanisms. The partition of the excitation energy is based on the relative availability of light and DIC to the cell. The modeling of the photoinactivation process is based on the common aspect that it occurs under any light intensity and the modeling of the repair process is based on the evidence that it is controlled by chloroplast and nuclear-encoded enzymes. The present model links the absorption of photons and the partitioning of excitation energy to the linear electron flow and other quenchers with chlorophyll fluorescence emission parameters, and the number of the functional photosynthetic units with the photosynthetic oxygen production rate. The energy allocation to the LEF increases as DIC availability increases and/or light intensity decreases. The rate of rejected energy increases with light intensity and with DIC availability. The resulting rate coefficient of photoinactivation increases as light intensity and/or as DIC concentration increases. We test the model against chlorophyll fluorescence induction and photosynthetic oxygen production rate measurements, obtained from cultures of the unicellular green alga Scenedesmus obliquus, and find a very close quantitative and qualitative correspondence between predictions and data.

  10. Placing Observational Constraints on Massive Star Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfield, Philip

    2011-10-01

    The lives and deaths of massive stars are intricately linked to the evolution of galaxies. Yet, despite their integral importance to understanding galaxy evolution, models of massive stars are inconsistent with observations. These uncertainties can be traced to limited observational constraints available for improving massive star models. A sensitive test of the underlying physics of massive stars, e.g., convection, rotation, and mass loss is to measure the ratio of blue core helium burning stars {BHeB} to red core helium burning stars {RHeB}, 5-20Msun stars in the stage evolution immediately following the main sequence. Even the most sophisticated models cannot accurately predict the observed ratio over a range of metallicities, suggesting an insufficient understanding of the underlying physics. However, observational measurements of this ratio over a wide range of environments would provide substantial constraints on the physical parameters governing the evolution of all stars >5 Msun.We propose to place stringent observational constraints on the physics of massive star evolution by uniformly measuring the B/R HeB ratio in a wide range of galaxies. The HST archive contains high quality optical imaging of resolved stellar populations of dozens of nearby galaxies. From the ANGST program, we identified 38 galaxies, spanning 2 dex in metallicity that have significant BHeB and RHeB populations. Using this sample, we will empirically characterize the colors of the BHeB and RHeB sequences as a function of luminosity and metallicity, measure the B/R ratio, and constrain the lifetimes of the BHeB and RHeBs in the Padova stellar evolution models and the Cambridge STARS code.

  11. Constraining Numerical Geodynamo Modeling with Surface Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Weijia; Tangborn, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Numerical dynamo solutions have traditionally been generated entirely by a set of self-consistent differential equations that govern the spatial-temporal variation of the magnetic field, velocity field and other fields related to dynamo processes. In particular, those solutions are obtained with parameters very different from those appropriate for the Earth s core. Geophysical application of the numerical results therefore depends on correct understanding of the differences (errors) between the model outputs and the true states (truth) in the outer core. Part of the truth can be observed at the surface in the form of poloidal magnetic field. To understand these differences, or errors, we generate new initial model state (analysis) by assimilating sequentially the model outputs with the surface geomagnetic observations using an optimal interpolation scheme. The time evolution of the core state is then controlled by our MoSST core dynamics model. The final outputs (forecasts) are then compared with the surface observations as a means to test the success of the assimilation. We use the surface geomagnetic data back to year 1900 for our studies, with 5-year forecast and 20-year analysis periods. We intend to use the result; to understand time variation of the errors with the assimilation sequences, and the impact of the assimilation on other unobservable quantities, such as the toroidal field and the fluid velocity in the core.

  12. Comparison of BRDF-Predicted and Observed Light Curves of GEO Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-18

    as the sum of the specular and diffuse reflections, which are functions of its material properties, as well as the angles of incidence and...illumination model. The Ashikhmin-Premoze BRDF differs from the Ashikhmin-Shirley model mainly in that it simplifies the denominator of the specular term...models incorporate diffuse and specular reflectivity terms. While the specular term consists of the light reflected in a specific direction, as

  13. An Exploration into Integrating Daylight and Artificial Light via an Observational Instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin

    2015-01-01

    An Exploration into Integrating Daylight and Artificial Light via an Observational Instrument Daylight is dynamic and dependent upon weather conditions; unfolding with both subtle and dramatic variations in qualities of light. Through a building’s apertures, daylight creates a connection between...... the space inside and the world outside. The aperture or window itself constitutes the frame that simultaneously separates, and connects, us to our surroundings. One can say that the world outside projects itself into the interior space, essentially as diffused illuminating reflections. As figuratively...... that examine how the dynamic artificial lighting in the observational instrument unfolds during the changing of the daylight situations that are generated by the weather outside. This research employs the concept of coupling between interior and exterior, in order to identify a spectrum of design parameters...

  14. Transcranial red and near infrared light transmission in a cadaveric model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared R Jagdeo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Low level light therapy has garnered significant interest within the past decade. The exact molecular mechanisms of how red and near infrared light result in physiologic modulation are not fully understood. Heme moieties and copper within cells are red and near infrared light photoreceptors that induce the mitochondrial respiratory chain component cytochrome C oxidase, resulting in a cascade linked to cytoprotection and cellular metabolism. The copper centers in cytochrome C oxidase have a broad absorption range that peaks around 830 nm. Several in vitro and in vivo animal and human models exist that have demonstrated the benefits of red light and near infrared light for various conditions. Clinical applications for low level light therapy are varied. One study in particular demonstrated improved durable functional outcomes status post-stroke in patients treated with near infrared low level light therapy compared to sham treatment [1]. Despite previous data suggesting the beneficial effect in treating multiple conditions, including stroke, with low level light therapy, limited data exists that measures transmission in a human model. STUDY DESIGN/MATERIALS AND METHODS: To investigate this idea, we measured the transmission of near infrared light energy, using red light for purposes of comparison, through intact cadaver soft tissue, skull bones, and brain using a commercially available LED device at 830 nm and 633 nm. RESULTS: Our results demonstrate that near infrared measurably penetrates soft tissue, bone and brain parenchyma in the formalin preserved cadaveric model, in comparison to negligible red light transmission in the same conditions. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that near infrared light can penetrate formalin fixed soft tissue, bone and brain and implicate that benefits observed in clinical studies are potentially related to direct action of near infrared light on neural tissue.

  15. Reaction times to weak test lights. [psychophysics biological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandell, B. A.; Ahumada, P.; Welsh, D.

    1984-01-01

    Maloney and Wandell (1984) describe a model of the response of a single visual channel to weak test lights. The initial channel response is a linearly filtered version of the stimulus. The filter output is randomly sampled over time. Each time a sample occurs there is some probability increasing with the magnitude of the sampled response - that a discrete detection event is generated. Maloney and Wandell derive the statistics of the detection events. In this paper a test is conducted of the hypothesis that the reaction time responses to the presence of a weak test light are initiated at the first detection event. This makes it possible to extend the application of the model to lights that are slightly above threshold, but still within the linear operating range of the visual system. A parameter-free prediction of the model proposed by Maloney and Wandell for lights detected by this statistic is tested. The data are in agreement with the prediction.

  16. Personalized nursing LIGHT model. Love, Intend, Give, Help, Touching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, M D; Smereck, G A

    1989-01-01

    The Personalized Nursing LIGHT model is a prescriptive model for nursing. It is a model for nursing practice derived from a synthesis of Aristotle's theory of ethics and Martha E. Rogers' science of unitary human beings. The LIGHT model provides a mechanism for nurses to assist clients to improve their sense of well-being. The authors believe that improving well-being is the focus of nursing. Using principles synthesized from Aristotle and Rogers, clients are encouraged to use their talents in the pursuit of well-being and happiness in an increasingly complex world.

  17. First Light Observations from the International Study of Astronomy Reasoning (ISTAR) Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatge, Coty B.; Slater, Stephanie; Slater, Timothy F.; Bretones, Paulo S.; McKinnon, David; Schleigh, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    During the period between Fall 2014 and Summer 2015, the International Astronomical Union reorganized its structure to include the IAU Working Group on Theory and Methods in Astronomy Education. The initial goals of that working group are 1) promoting Astronomy Education Research (AER) by adopting the international collaboration model used by astronomy researchers, 2) fostering international astronomy education and AER capacity through the development of networks, training and shared resources, and 3) improving astronomy education by describing research based approaches to the teaching and learning of astronomy. In support of those efforts, the working group began a collaboration with the Center for Astronomy & Physics Education Research to develop the International Study of Astronomy Reasoning (ISTAR) Database, an online, searchable research tool, intended to catalog, characterize, and provide access to all known astronomy education research production, world-wide. Beginning in the Summer of 2015, a test of ISTAR's functionality began with a survey of a previously uncatalogued set of test objects: U.S.-based doctoral dissertations and masters. This target population was selected for its familiarity to the ISTAR developers, and for its small expected sample size (50-75 objects). First light observations indicated that the sample exceeded 300 dissertation objects. These objects were characterized across multiple variables, including: year of production, document source, type of resource, empirical methodology, context, informal setting type, research construct, type of research subject, scientific content, language, and nation of production. These initial observations provide motivation to extend this project to observe masters levels thesis, which are anticipated to be ten times more numerous as doctoral dissertations, other peer-reviewed contributions, contributions from the larger international community.

  18. Observing Nanometre Scale Particles with Light Scattering for Manipulation Using Optical Tweezers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Jin-Hua; Qu Lian-Jie; Yao Kun; ZHONG Min-Cheng; LI Yin-Mei

    2008-01-01

    Nanometre-scale particles can be manipulated using optical tweezers,but cannot be directly observed.We Drasent a simple method that nanoparticles can be directly observed using optical tweezers combined with dark field microscopy.A laser beam perpendicular to a tightly focused laser beam for trap illuminates specimen and does not enter objective,nanoparticles in focal plane all can be directly observed in dark field because of light scattering.It is implemented that the polystyrene beads of diameter 100nm can be directly observed and trapped.

  19. Developmental morphology of the human fetus kidney : Observation by light and electron microscope

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    The author observed the human fetus kidney at the fetal age of 3 weeks, 5 weeks and 6 month in utero by means of light and electron microscope in order to add some new findings to the already known knowledge. Especially, the metanephros, metanephric blastema, nephrogenic zone of the cortex and blood-urine barrier which consists of glomerulus, capillary vessel, basement membrane, podocyte and mesangium cells are observed and then physiological significance of the kidney are also discussed. On ...

  20. Controllability, Observability, and Stability of Mathematical Models

    OpenAIRE

    Iggidr, Abderrahman

    2004-01-01

    International audience; This article presents an overview of three fundamental concepts in Mathematical System Theory: controllability, stability and observability. These properties play a prominent role in the study of mathematical models and in the understanding of their behavior. They constitute the main research subject in Control Theory. Historically the tools and techniques of Automatic Control have been developed for artificial engineering systems but nowadays they are more and more ap...

  1. Characterization, Modeling, and Optimization of Light-Emitting Diode System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorseth, Anders

    . It is shown that the droop in quantum efficiency can be approximated by a simple parabolic function. The investigated models of the spectral power distributions (SPD) from LEDs are the strictly empirical single and double Gaussian functions, and a semi empirical model using quasi Fermi levels and other basic...... solid state principles. The models are fitted to measured SPDs, using the free parameters. The result show a high correlation between the measured LED SPD and the fitted models. When comparing the chromaticity of the measured SPD with fitted models, the deviation is found to be larger than the lower...... limit of human color perception. A method has been developed to optimize multicolored cluster LED systems with respect to light quality, using multi objective optimization. The results are simulated SPDs similar to traditional light sources, and with high light quality. As part of this work...

  2. Evaluation of CNN as anthropomorphic model observer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massanes, Francesc; Brankov, Jovan G.

    2017-03-01

    Model observers (MO) are widely used in medical imaging to act as surrogates of human observers in task-based image quality evaluation, frequently towards optimization of reconstruction algorithms. In this paper, we explore the use of convolutional neural networks (CNN) to be used as MO. We will compare CNN MO to alternative MO currently being proposed and used such as the relevance vector machine based MO and channelized Hotelling observer (CHO). As the success of the CNN, and other deep learning approaches, is rooted in large data sets availability, which is rarely the case in medical imaging systems task-performance evaluation, we will evaluate CNN performance on both large and small training data sets.

  3. Mathematical Models Light Up Plant Signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chew, Y.H.; Smith, R.W.; Jones, H.J.; Seaton, D.D.; Grima, R.; Halliday, K.J.

    2014-01-01

    Plants respond to changes in the environment by triggering a suite of regulatory networks that control and synchronize molecular signaling in different tissues, organs, and the whole plant. Molecular studies through genetic and environmental perturbations, particularly in the model plant Arabidopsis

  4. Mathematical Models Light Up Plant Signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chew, Y.H.; Smith, R.W.; Jones, H.J.; Seaton, D.D.; Grima, R.; Halliday, K.J.

    2014-01-01

    Plants respond to changes in the environment by triggering a suite of regulatory networks that control and synchronize molecular signaling in different tissues, organs, and the whole plant. Molecular studies through genetic and environmental perturbations, particularly in the model plant Arabidopsis

  5. A Monte Carlo Model of Light Propagation in Nontransparent Tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚建铨; 朱水泉; 胡海峰; 王瑞康

    2004-01-01

    To sharpen the imaging of structures, it is vital to develop a convenient and efficient quantitative algorithm of the optical coherence tomography (OCT) sampling. In this paper a new Monte Carlo model is set up and how light propagates in bio-tissue is analyzed in virtue of mathematics and physics equations. The relations,in which light intensity of Class 1 and Class 2 light with different wavelengths changes with their permeation depth,and in which Class 1 light intensity (signal light intensity) changes with the probing depth, and in which angularly resolved diffuse reflectance and diffuse transmittance change with the exiting angle, are studied. The results show that Monte Carlo simulation results are consistent with the theory data.

  6. Lighting

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Lighting Systems Test Facilities aid research that improves the energy efficiency of lighting systems. • Gonio-Photometer: Measures illuminance from each portion of...

  7. [Observation and Analysis of Ground Daylight Spectra of China's Different Light Climate Partitions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shu-ying; Yang, Chun-yu

    2015-12-01

    The territory of China is vast, so the daylight climates of different regions are not the same. In order to expand theutilization scope and improve the utilization efficiency of solar energy and daylight resources, this article observed and analyzed the ground daylight spectra of China's different light climate partitions. Using a portable spectrum scanner, this article did a tracking observation of ground direct daylight spectra in the period of 380-780 nm visible spectrum of different solar elevation angles during one day in seven representative cities of china's different light climate partitions. The seven representative cities included Kunming, Xining, Beijing, Shenzhen, Nanjing, Nanchang and Chongqing. According to the observation results, this article analyzed the daylight spectrum changing law, compared the daylight spectrum curves of different light climate partitions cities, and summarized the influence factors of daylight spectral radiation intensity. The Analysis of the ground direct daylight spectra showed that the daylight spectral radiation intensity of different solar elevation angles during one day of china's different light climate partitions cities was different, but the distribution and trend of daylight power spectra were basically the same which generally was first increased and then decreased. The maximum peak of spectral power distribution curve appeared at about 475 nm, and there were a steep rise between 380-475 nm and a smooth decline between 475-700 nm while repeatedly big ups and downs appearing after 700 nm. The distribution and trend of daylight power spectra of china's different light climate partitions cities were basically the same, and there was no obvious difference between the daylight spectral power distribution curves and the different light climate partitions. The daylight spectral radiation intensity was closely related to the solar elevation angle and solar surface condition.

  8. Observations and Modeling of Geospace Energetic Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinlin

    2016-07-01

    Comprehensive measurements of energetic particles and electric and magnetic fields from state-of-art instruments onboard Van Allen Probes, in a geo-transfer-like orbit, revealed new features of the energetic particles and the fields in the inner magnetosphere and impose new challenges to any quantitative modeling of the physical processes responsible for these observations. Concurrent measurements of energetic particles by satellites in highly inclined low Earth orbits and plasma and fields by satellites in farther distances in the magnetospheres and in the up stream solar wind are the critically needed information for quantitative modeling and for leading to eventual accurate forecast of the variations of the energetic particles in the magnetosphere. In this presentation, emphasis will be on the most recent advance in our understanding of the energetic particles in the magnetosphere and the missing links for significantly advance in our modeling and forecasting capabilities.

  9. Dark energy observational evidence and theoretical models

    CERN Document Server

    Novosyadlyj, B; Shtanov, Yu; Zhuk, A

    2013-01-01

    The book elucidates the current state of the dark energy problem and presents the results of the authors, who work in this area. It describes the observational evidence for the existence of dark energy, the methods and results of constraining of its parameters, modeling of dark energy by scalar fields, the space-times with extra spatial dimensions, especially Kaluza---Klein models, the braneworld models with a single extra dimension as well as the problems of positive definition of gravitational energy in General Relativity, energy conditions and consequences of their violation in the presence of dark energy. This monograph is intended for science professionals, educators and graduate students, specializing in general relativity, cosmology, field theory and particle physics.

  10. INTERVAL OBSERVER FOR A BIOLOGICAL REACTOR MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Kharkovskaia

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The method of an interval observer design for nonlinear systems with parametric uncertainties is considered. The interval observer synthesis problem for systems with varying parameters consists in the following. If there is the uncertainty restraint for the state values of the system, limiting the initial conditions of the system and the set of admissible values for the vector of unknown parameters and inputs, the interval existence condition for the estimations of the system state variables, containing the actual state at a given time, needs to be held valid over the whole considered time segment as well. Conditions of the interval observers design for the considered class of systems are shown. They are: limitation of the input and state, the existence of a majorizing function defining the uncertainty vector for the system, Lipschitz continuity or finiteness of this function, the existence of an observer gain with the suitable Lyapunov matrix. The main condition for design of such a device is cooperativity of the interval estimation error dynamics. An individual observer gain matrix selection problem is considered. In order to ensure the property of cooperativity for interval estimation error dynamics, a static transformation of coordinates is proposed. The proposed algorithm is demonstrated by computer modeling of the biological reactor. Possible applications of these interval estimation systems are the spheres of robust control, where the presence of various types of uncertainties in the system dynamics is assumed, biotechnology and environmental systems and processes, mechatronics and robotics, etc.

  11. Light scattering by neutrophils: model, simulation, and experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlova, Darya Yu; Yurkin, Maxim A; Hoekstra, Alfons G; Maltsev, Valeri P

    2008-01-01

    We studied the elastic light-scattering properties of human blood neutrophils, both experimentally and theoretically. The experimental study was performed with a scanning flow cytometer measuring the light-scattering patterns (LSPs) of individual cells over an angular range of 5-60 deg. We determined the absolute differential light-scattering cross sections of neutrophils. We also proposed an optical model for a neutrophil as a sphere filled by small spheres and prolate spheroids that correspond to granules and segmented nucleus, respectively. This model was used in simulations of LSPs using the discrete dipole approximation and different compositions of internal organelles. A comparison of experimentally measured and simulated LSPs gives a good qualitative agreement in LSP shape and quantitative agreement in overall magnitude of the differential light-scattering cross section.

  12. Improved spring model-based collaborative indoor visible light positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhijie; Zhang, WeiNan; Zhou, GuoFu

    2016-06-01

    Gaining accuracy with indoor positioning of individuals is important as many location-based services rely on the user's current position to provide them with useful services. Many researchers have studied indoor positioning techniques based on WiFi and Bluetooth. However, they have disadvantages such as low accuracy or high cost. In this paper, we propose an indoor positioning system in which visible light radiated from light-emitting diodes is used to locate the position of receivers. Compared with existing methods using light-emitting diode light, we present a high-precision and simple implementation collaborative indoor visible light positioning system based on an improved spring model. We first estimate coordinate position information using the visible light positioning system, and then use the spring model to correct positioning errors. The system can be employed easily because it does not require additional sensors and the occlusion problem of visible light would be alleviated. We also describe simulation experiments, which confirm the feasibility of our proposed method.

  13. Observations, Modeling and Theory of Debris Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Matthews, Brenda C; Wyatt, Mark C; Bryden, Geoff; Eiroa, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Main sequence stars, like the Sun, are often found to be orbited by circumstellar material that can be categorized into two groups, planets and debris. The latter is made up of asteroids and comets, as well as the dust and gas derived from them, which makes debris disks observable in thermal emission or scattered light. These disks may persist over Gyrs through steady-state evolution and/or may also experience sporadic stirring and major collisional breakups, rendering them atypically bright for brief periods of time. Most interestingly, they provide direct evidence that the physical processes (whatever they may be) that act to build large oligarchs from micron-sized dust grains in protoplanetary disks have been successful in a given system, at least to the extent of building up a significant planetesimal population comparable to that seen in the Solar System's asteroid and Kuiper belts. Such systems are prime candidates to host even larger planetary bodies as well. The recent growth in interest in debris dis...

  14. Naturally light neutrinos in Diracon model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, Cesar; Valle, Jose W. F.

    2016-11-01

    We propose a simple model for Dirac neutrinos where the smallness of neutrino mass follows from a parameter κ whose absence enhances the symmetry of the theory. Symmetry breaking is performed in a two-doublet Higgs sector supplemented by a gauge singlet scalar, realizing an accidental global U(1) symmetry. Its spontaneous breaking at the few TeV scale leads to a physical Nambu-Goldstone boson - the Diracon, denoted D - which is restricted by astrophysics and induces invisible Higgs decays such as h → DD. The scheme provides a rich, yet very simple scenario for symmetry breaking studies at colliders such as the LHC.

  15. A precise model of LED lighting and its application in uniform illumination system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Feng-tie; HUANG Qi-lu

    2011-01-01

    Optical models directly effect the irradiance distribution of observed surface.Traditionally,approximate Lambertian models are widely used in designing the light-emitting diodes(LED) arrays in spite of their errors compared with the experimental data.But now a novel LED optical model for uniform illumination system has been proposed,in which the curvefitting technique is used to reduce the inherited errors and modify those previous models.The points from the curve of the LED light intensity are adopted,and a spline curve is designed for fitting,which obtains the revised mode.To verify its feasibility,we apply the new model in a 4 × 4 array design.The results show that compared with the approximate Lambertian,the light intensity distribution produced by the fitting model is more uniform and intense,as is expected.

  16. Modeling nanostructure-enhanced light trapping in organic solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adam, Jost

    A promising approach for improving the power conversion efficiencies of organic solar cells (OSCs) is by incorporating nanostructures in their thin film architecture to improve the light absorption in the device’s active polymer layers. Here, we present a modelling framework for the prediction....... Diffraction by fractal metallic supergratings. Optics Express, 15(24), 15628–15636 (2007) [3] Goszczak, A. J. et al. Nanoscale Aluminum dimples for light trapping in organic thin films (submitted)...

  17. A Degeneracy in DRW Modelling of AGN Light Curves

    CERN Document Server

    Kozlowski, Szymon

    2016-01-01

    Individual light curves of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are nowadays successfully modelled with the damped random walk (DRW) stochastic process, characterized by the power exponential covariance matrix of the signal, with the power $\\beta=1$. By Monte Carlo simulation means, we generate mock AGN light curves described by non-DRW stochastic processes ($0.5\\leq\\beta\\leq 1.5$ and $\\beta\

  18. Observing random walks of atoms in buffer gas through resonant light absorption

    CERN Document Server

    Aoki, Kenichiro

    2016-01-01

    Using resonant light absorption, random walk motions of rubidium atoms in nitrogen buffer gas are observed directly. The transmitted light intensity through atomic vapor is measured and its spectrum is obtained, down to orders of magnitude below the shot noise level to detect fluctuations caused by atomic motions. To understand the measured spectra, the spectrum for atoms performing random walks in a gaussian light beam is computed and its analytical form is obtained. The spectrum has $1/f^2$ ($f$: frequency) behavior at higher frequencies, crossing over to a different, but well defined behavior at lower frequencies. The properties of this theoretical spectrum agree excellently with the measured spectrum. This understanding also enables us to obtain the diffusion constant, the photon cross section of atoms in buffer gas and the atomic number density, from a single spectral measurement. We further discuss other possible applications of our experimental method and analysis.

  19. Observational Equivalence of Discrete String Models and Market Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhof, F.L.J.; Pelsser, A.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we show that, contrary to the claim made in Longsta, Santa-Clara, and Schwartz (2001a) and Longsta, Santa-Clara, and Schwartz (2001b), discrete string models are not more parsimonious than market models.In fact, they are found to be observationally equivalent.We derive that, for the es

  20. Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, N.B.; Kristensen, Helle Halkjær; Wathes, C.M.

    2004-01-01

    This chapter presents the effect of artificial light environments (light levels, colour, photoperiod and flicker) on the welfare of broilers in terms of vision, behaviour, lameness and mortality......This chapter presents the effect of artificial light environments (light levels, colour, photoperiod and flicker) on the welfare of broilers in terms of vision, behaviour, lameness and mortality...

  1. Naturally light neutrinos in $Diracon$ model

    CERN Document Server

    Bonilla, Cesar

    2016-01-01

    We propose a simple model for Dirac neutrinos where the smallness of neutrino mass follows from a parameter $\\kappa$ whose absence enhances the symmetry of the theory. The symmetry breaking is performed by a two-doublet Higgs sector supplemented by an extra gauge singlet scalar, realizing an accidental global $U(1)$ symmetry. Its spontaneous breaking at the few TeV scale leads to a physical Nambu-Goldstone boson - the $Diracon$, denoted $\\mathcal{D}$ - which is restricted by astrophysics and induces invisible Higgs decays $h\\to \\mathcal{D} \\mathcal {D}$. The scheme provides a rich, yet very simple reference scenario for symmetry breaking studies at colliders such as the LHC.

  2. Inner Disk Structure of Dwarf Novae in the Light of X-Ray Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Balman

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Diversity of the X-ray observations of dwarf nova are still not fully understood. I review the X-ray spectral characteristics of dwarf novae during the quiescence in general explained by cooling flow models and the outburst spectra that show hard X-ray emission dominantly with few sources that reveal soft X-ray/EUV blackbody emission. The nature of aperiodic time variability of brightness of dwarf novae shows band limited noise, which can be adequately described in the framework of the model of propagating fluctuations. The frequency of the break (1-6 mHz indicates inner disk truncation of the optically thick disk with a range of radii (3.0-10.0×109 cm. The RXTE and optical (RTT150 data of SS Cyg in outburst and quiescence reveal that the inner disk radius moves towards the white dwarf and receeds as the outburst declines to quiescence. A preliminary analysis of SU UMa indicates a similar behaviour. In addition, I find that the outburst spectra of WZ Sge shows two component spectrum of only hard X-ray emission, one of which may be fitted with a power law suggesting thermal Comptonization occuring in the system. Cross-correlations between the simultaneous UV and X-ray light curves (XMM −Newton of five DNe in quiescence show time lags in the X-rays of 96-181 sec consistent with travel time of matter from a truncated inner disk to the white dwarf surface. All this suggests that dwarf novae and other plausible nonmagnetic systems have truncated accretion disks indicating that the disks may be partially evaporated and the accretion may occur through hot (coronal flows in the disk.

  3. Spitzer Observations of V838 Monocerotis: Detection of a Rare Infrared Light Echo

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, D P K; Misselt, K A; Su, K Y L

    2006-01-01

    We present Spitzer observations of the unusual variable V838 Monocerotis. Extended emission is detected around the object at 24, 70 and 160um. The extended infrared emission is strongly correlated spatially with the HST optical light echo images taken at a similar epoch. We attribute this diffuse nebulosity to be from an infrared light echo caused by reprocessed thermal emission from dust heated by the outward-propagating radiation from the 2002 eruption. The detection of an IR light echo provides an opportunity to estimate the mass in dust of the echo material and hence constrain its origin. We estimate the dust mass of the light echo to be on the order of a solar mass - thereby implying the total gas plus dust mass to be considerably more - too massive for the echo material to be the ejecta from previous outburst/mass-losing events. This is therefore suggestive that a significant fraction of the matter seen through the light echo is interstellar in origin. Unresolved emission at 24 and 70um is also seen at ...

  4. Constraining Cosmological Models with Different Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, J. J.

    2016-07-01

    With the observations of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), scientists discovered that the Universe is experiencing an accelerated expansion, and then revealed the existence of dark energy in 1998. Since the amazing discovery, cosmology has became a hot topic in the physical research field. Cosmology is a subject that strongly depends on the astronomical observations. Therefore, constraining different cosmological models with all kinds of observations is one of the most important research works in the modern cosmology. The goal of this thesis is to investigate cosmology using the latest observations. The observations include SNe Ia, Type Ic Super Luminous supernovae (SLSN Ic), Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), angular diameter distance of galaxy cluster, strong gravitational lensing, and age measurements of old passive galaxies, etc. In Chapter 1, we briefly review the research background of cosmology, and introduce some cosmological models. Then we summarize the progress on cosmology from all kinds of observations in more details. In Chapter 2, we present the results of our studies on the supernova cosmology. The main difficulty with the use of SNe Ia as standard candles is that one must optimize three or four nuisance parameters characterizing SN luminosities simultaneously with the parameters of an expansion model of the Universe. We have confirmed that one should optimize all of the parameters by carrying out the method of maximum likelihood estimation in any situation where the parameters include an unknown intrinsic dispersion. The commonly used method, which estimates the dispersion by requiring the reduced χ^{2} to equal unity, does not take into account all possible variances among the parameters. We carry out such a comparison of the standard ΛCDM cosmology and the R_{h}=ct Universe using the SN Legacy Survey sample of 252 SN events, and show that each model fits its individually reduced data very well. Moreover, it is quite evident that SLSNe Ic may be useful

  5. Full Bayesian hierarchical light curve modeling of core-collapse supernova populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Nathan; Betancourt, Michael; Soderberg, Alicia Margarita

    2016-06-01

    While wide field surveys have yielded remarkable quantities of photometry of transient objects, including supernovae, light curves reconstructed from this data suffer from several characteristic problems. Because most transients are discovered near the detection limit, signal to noise is generally poor; because coverage is limited to the observing season, light curves are often incomplete; and because temporal sampling can be uneven across filters, these problems can be exacerbated at any one wavelength. While the prevailing approach of modeling individual light curves independently is successful at recovering inferences for the objects with the highest quality observations, it typically neglects a substantial portion of the data and can introduce systematic biases. Joint modeling of the light curves of transient populations enables direct inference on population-level characteristics as well as superior measurements for individual objects. We present a new hierarchical Bayesian model for supernova light curves, where information inferred from observations of every individual light curve in a sample is partially pooled across objects to constrain population-level hyperparameters. Using an efficient Hamiltonian Monte Carlo sampling technique, the model posterior can be explored to enable marginalization over weakly-identified hyperparameters through full Bayesian inference. We demonstrate our technique on the Pan-STARRS1 (PS1) Type IIP supernova light curve sample published by Sanders et al. (2015), consisting of nearly 20,000 individual photometric observations of more than 70 supernovae in five photometric filters. We discuss the Stan probabilistic programming language used to implement the model, computational challenges, and prospects for future work including generalization to multiple supernova types. We also discuss scientific results from the PS1 dataset including a new relation between the peak magnitude and decline rate of SNe IIP, a new perspective on the

  6. Observations and Models of Galaxy Assembly Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Duncan A.

    2017-01-01

    The assembly history of dark matter haloes imparts various correlations between a halo’s physical properties and its large scale environment, i.e. assembly bias. It is common for models of the galaxy-halo connection to assume that galaxy properties are only a function of halo mass, implicitly ignoring how assembly bias may affect galaxies. Recently, programs to model and constrain the degree to which galaxy properties are influenced by assembly bias have been undertaken; however, the extent and character of galaxy assembly bias remains a mystery. Nevertheless, characterizing and modeling galaxy assembly bias is an important step in understanding galaxy evolution and limiting any systematic effects assembly bias may pose in cosmological measurements using galaxy surveys.I will present work on modeling and constraining the effect of assembly bias in two galaxy properties: stellar mass and star-formation rate. Conditional abundance matching allows for these galaxy properties to be tied to halo formation history to a variable degree, making studies of the relative strength of assembly bias possible. Galaxy-galaxy clustering and galactic conformity, the degree to which galaxy color is correlated between neighbors, are sensitive observational measures of galaxy assembly bias. I will show how these measurements can be used to constrain galaxy assembly bias and the peril of ignoring it.

  7. Direct observation of strong localization of quasi-two-dimensional light waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    1999-01-01

    Scattering of surface plasmon polaritons on rough metal surfaces is investigated by using scanning near-field optical microscopy. Different scattering regimes, i.e. single, double and multiple scattering, are observed and related to the spatial Fourier spectra of the corresponding near......-field optical images. For the regime of strong multiple scattering, the near-field optical images exhibit spatially localized (within 150-250 nm) intensity enhancement by 10-50 times. This feature is attributed to strong localization of surface polaritons due to interference effects in multiple scattering...... caused by surface roughness. Similar bright light spots are observed with light scattering by silver colloid clusters deposited on glass substrates. Differences and similarities in these scattering phenomena are discussed....

  8. The Energetics of White-light Flares Observed by SDO/HMI and RHESSI

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Nengyi; Wang, Haimin

    2016-01-01

    White-light (WL) flares have been observed and studied more than a century since the first discovery. However, some fundamental physics behind the brilliant emission remains highly controversial. One of the important facts in addressing the flare energetics is the spatialtemporal correlation between the white-light emission and the hard X-ray radiation, presumably suggesting that the energetic electrons are the energy sources. In this study, we present a statistical analysis of 25 strong flares (?greater than or equal to M5) observed simultaneously by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI). Among these events, WL emission was detected by SDO/HMI in 13 flares, associated with HXR emission. To quantitatively describe the strength of WL emission, equivalent area (EA) is defined as the integrated contrast enhancement over the entire flaring area. Our results show that the equivalent area is inve...

  9. Pion electromagnetic current in a light-front model

    CERN Document Server

    Pacheco-Bicudo-Cabral de Melo, J; Frederico, T

    1999-01-01

    The electromagnetic form factor of the pion is calculated in a pseudoscalar field theoretical model which constituent quarks. We extract the form factor using the "+" component of the electromagnetic current in the light-cone formalism. For comparison, we also compute the form factor in the covariant framework and we obtain perfect agreement. It is shown that the pair terms do not contribute in this pseudoscalar model. This explains why a naive light-cone calculation, i.e., omitting pair terms from the onset, also yields the same results.

  10. Lagrangian Observations and Modeling of Marine Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Claire B.; Irisson, Jean-Olivier

    2017-04-01

    Just within the past two decades, studies on the early-life history stages of marine organisms have led to new paradigms in population dynamics. Unlike passive plant seeds that are transported by the wind or by animals, marine larvae have motor and sensory capabilities. As a result, marine larvae have a tremendous capacity to actively influence their dispersal. This is continuously revealed as we develop new techniques to observe larvae in their natural environment and begin to understand their ability to detect cues throughout ontogeny, process the information, and use it to ride ocean currents and navigate their way back home, or to a place like home. We present innovative in situ and numerical modeling approaches developed to understand the underlying mechanisms of larval transport in the ocean. We describe a novel concept of a Lagrangian platform, the Drifting In Situ Chamber (DISC), designed to observe and quantify complex larval behaviors and their interactions with the pelagic environment. We give a brief history of larval ecology research with the DISC, showing that swimming is directional in most species, guided by cues as diverse as the position of the sun or the underwater soundscape, and even that (unlike humans!) larvae orient better and swim faster when moving as a group. The observed Lagrangian behavior of individual larvae are directly implemented in the Connectivity Modeling System (CMS), an open source Lagrangian tracking application. Simulations help demonstrate the impact that larval behavior has compared to passive Lagrangian trajectories. These methodologies are already the base of exciting findings and are promising tools for documenting and simulating the behavior of other small pelagic organisms, forecasting their migration in a changing ocean.

  11. Observation of Interaction of Spin and Intrinsic Orbital Angular Momentum of Light

    CERN Document Server

    Vitullo, Dashiell L P; Gregg, Patrick; Smith, Roger A; Reddy, Dileep V; Ramachandran, Siddharth; Raymer, Michael G

    2016-01-01

    Spin and intrinsic orbital angular momentum interaction of light is observed, as evidenced by length-dependent rotations of both spatial patterns and optical polarization in an isotropic optical fiber. The distinction between intrinsic and extrinsic orbital angular momentum (as seen in helically coiled fiber) is made clear by controllable excitation of a small number of optical modes in a straight, few-mode fiber.

  12. New Cosmological Model and Its Implications on Observational Data Interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlahovic Branislav

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paradigm of ΛCDM cosmology works impressively well and with the concept of inflation it explains the universe after the time of decoupling. However there are still a few concerns; after much effort there is no detection of dark matter and there are significant problems in the theoretical description of dark energy. We will consider a variant of the cosmological spherical shell model, within FRW formalism and will compare it with the standard ΛCDM model. We will show that our new topological model satisfies cosmological principles and is consistent with all observable data, but that it may require new interpretation for some data. Considered will be constraints imposed on the model, as for instance the range for the size and allowed thickness of the shell, by the supernovae luminosity distance and CMB data. In this model propagation of the light is confined along the shell, which has as a consequence that observed CMB originated from one point or a limited space region. It allows to interpret the uniformity of the CMB without inflation scenario. In addition this removes any constraints on the uniformity of the universe at the early stage and opens a possibility that the universe was not uniform and that creation of galaxies and large structures is due to the inhomogeneities that originated in the Big Bang.

  13. FACT - Long-term stability and observations during strong Moon light

    CERN Document Server

    Knoetig, M L; Bretz, T; Buß, J; Dorner, D; Einecke, S; Eisenacher, D; Hildebrand, D; Krähenbühl, T; Lustermann, W; Mannheim, K; Meier, K; Neise, D; Overkemping, A -K; Paravac, A; Pauss, F; Rhode, W; Ribordy, M; Steinbring, T; Temme, F; Thaele, J; Vogler, P; Walter, R; Weitzel, Q; Zänglein, M

    2013-01-01

    The First G-APD Cherenkov Telescope (FACT) is the first Cherenkov telescope equipped with a camera made of silicon photon detectors (G-APD aka. SiPM). Since October 2011, it is regularly taking data on the Canary Island of La Palma. G-APDs are ideal detectors for Cherenkov telescopes as they are robust and stable. Furthermore, the insensitivity of G-APDs towards strong ambient light allows to conduct observations during bright Moon and twilight. This gain in observation time is essential for the long-term monitoring of bright TeV blazars. During the commissioning phase, hundreds of hours of data (including data from the the Crab Nebula) were taken in order to understand the performance and sensitivity of the instrument. The data cover a wide range of observation conditions including different weather conditions, different zenith angles and different light conditions (ranging from dark night to direct full Moon). We use a new parmetrisation of the Moon light background to enhance our scheduling and to monitor ...

  14. Observation of sperm-head vacuoles and sperm morphology under light microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong-Seog; Park, Sol; Ko, Duck Sung; Park, Dong Wook; Seo, Ju Tae; Yang, Kwang Moon

    2014-09-01

    The presence of sperm-head vacuoles has been suspected to be deleterious to the outcomes of assisted reproductive technology (ART). It is difficult to accurately distinguish morphologically abnormal sperm with vacuoles under a light microscope. This study was performed to analyze the result of the observation of sperm-head vacuoles using Papanicolaou staining under a light microscope and whether the male partner's age affects these vacuoles. Sperm morphology with vacuoles was evaluated using Papanicolaou staining and observed under a light microscope (400×) in 980 men. The normal morphology was divided into three categories (group A, 14% of normal morphology). The criteria for the sperm-head vacuoles were those given in the World Health Organization manual. For the analysis of the age factor, the participants were divided into the following groups: 26-30 years, 31-35 years, 36-40 years, 41-45 years, and 46-50 years. The percentage of sperm-head vacuoles increased with normal sperm morphology (group A vs. groups B, C) (p<0.05). In the case of the age factor, a statistically significant difference was not observed across any of the age groups. A majority of the sperm-head vacuoles showed a statistically significant difference among normal morphology groups. Therefore, we should consider the probability of the percentage of sperm-head vacuoles not increasing with age but with abnormal sperm morphology. A further study is required to clarify the effect of the sperm-head vacuoles on ART outcomes.

  15. Glow in the dark matter: observing galactic halos with scattered light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jonathan H; Silk, Joseph

    2015-02-06

    We consider the observation of diffuse halos of light around the discs of spiral galaxies, as a probe of the interaction cross section between dark matter (DM) and photons. Using the galaxy M101 as an example, we show that for a scattering cross section at the level of 10(-23)(m/GeV)  cm(2) or greater dark matter in the halo will scatter light out from the more luminous center of the disc to larger radii, contributing to an effective increased surface brightness at the edges of the observed area on the sky. This allows us to set an upper limit on the DM-photon cross section using data from the Dragonfly instrument. We then show how to improve this constraint, and the potential for discovery, by combining the radial profile of DM-photon scattering with measurements at multiple wavelengths. Observation of diffuse light presents a new and potentially powerful way to probe the interactions of dark matter with photons, a way that is complementary to existing searches.

  16. Glow in the Dark Matter: Observing galactic halos with scattered light

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Jonathan H

    2014-01-01

    We consider the observation of diffuse halos of light around the discs of spiral galaxies, as a probe of the interaction cross section between Dark Matter and photons. Using the galaxy M101 as an example, we show that for a scattering cross section at the level of 10^(-23) x (m/GeV) cm^2 or greater Dark Matter in the halo will scatter light out from the more luminous centre of the disc to larger radii, contributing to an effective increased surface brightness at the edges of the observed area on the sky. This allows us to set an upper limit on the DM-photon cross section using data from the Dragonfly instrument. We then show how to improve this constraint, and the potential for discovery, by combining the radial profile of DM-photon scattering with measurements at multiple wavelengths. Observation of diffuse light presents a new and potentially powerful way to probe the interactions of Dark Matter with photons, which is complimentary to existing searches.

  17. Polarized light scanning cryomacroscopy, part I: Experimental apparatus and observations of vitrification, crystallization, and photoelasticity effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feig, Justin S G; Eisenberg, David P; Rabin, Yoed

    2016-10-01

    Cryomacroscopy is an effective means to observe physical events affecting cryopreservation success in large-size specimens. The current study aims at integrating polarized-light in the study of large-size cryopreservation, using the scanning cryomacroscope as a development platform. Results of this study demonstrate polarized light as a visualization enhancement means, including the following effects: contaminants in the CPA solution, crystallization, fracture formation, thermal contraction, and solute precipitation. In addition, photoelasticity effects are used to demonstrate the development of residual stresses and the potential for stress relaxation above the glass transition temperature. Furthermore, this study suggests that the ability to periodically switch between non-polarized light and polarized light is an essential feature of investigation. When using polarized light for example, a dark region may represent a free-of-stress and free-of-crystals material, or fully crystallized material, which may potentially experience mechanical stress; switching to a non-polarized light would help to distinguish between the different cases. The analysis of thermo-mechanical stress in cryopreservation is essentially based on four key elements: identification of physical events, knowledge of physical properties, thermal analysis of the specimen, and description of the mechanical behavior of the cryopreserved material (also known as the constitutive law). With the above knowledge, one can investigate the conditions to preserve structural integrity. While the current study aims at identification of physical events, critical knowledge on physical properties and mechanical behavior has already been developed in previous studies. The companion manuscript (Part II) aims at providing means for thermal analysis in the specimen, which will serve as the basis for a multi-scale analysis of thermo-mechanical stress in large-size specimens. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. LASCO White-Light Observations of Eruptive Current Sheets Trailing CMEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, David F.; Vourlidas, Angelos

    2016-12-01

    Many models of eruptive flares or coronal mass ejections (CMEs) involve formation of a current sheet connecting the ejecting CME flux rope with a magnetic loop arcade. However, there is very limited observational information on the properties and evolution of these structures, hindering progress in understanding eruptive activity from the Sun. In white-light images, narrow coaxial rays trailing the outward-moving CME have been interpreted as current sheets. Here, we undertake the most comprehensive statistical study of CME-rays to date. We use SOHO/LASCO data, which have a higher cadence, larger field of view, and better sensitivity than any previous coronagraph. We compare our results to a previous study of Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) CMEs, in 1984 - 1989, having candidate magnetic disconnection features at the CME base, about half of which were followed by coaxial bright rays. We examine all LASCO CMEs during two periods of minimum and maximum activity in Solar Cycle 23, resulting in many more events, ˜130 CME-rays, than during SMM. Important results include: The occurrence rate of the rays is ˜11 % of all CMEs during solar minimum, but decreases to ˜7 % at solar maximum; this is most likely related to the more complex coronal background. The rays appear on average 3 - 4 hours after the CME core, and are typically visible for three-fourths of a day. The mean observed current sheet length over the ray lifetime is ˜12 R_{⊙}, with the longest current sheet of 18.5 R_{⊙}. The mean CS growth rates are 188 km s^{-1} at minimum and 324 km s^{-1} at maximum. Outward-moving blobs within several rays, which are indicative of reconnection outflows, have average velocities of ˜350 km s^{-1} with small positive accelerations. A pre-existing streamer is blown out in most of the CME-ray events, but half of these are observed to reform within ˜1 day. The long lifetime and long lengths of the CME-rays challenge our current understanding of the evolution of the magnetic

  19. Modeling of coherent ultrafast magneto-optical experiments: Light-induced molecular mean-field model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinschberger, Y. [Instituto de Física dos Materiais da Universidade do Porto, Departamento de Física et Astronomia, Rua do campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Hervieux, P.-A. [Institut de Physique et Chimie des Matériaux de Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS UMR 7504 BP 43 - F-67034 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France)

    2015-12-28

    We present calculations which aim to describe coherent ultrafast magneto-optical effects observed in time-resolved pump-probe experiments. Our approach is based on a nonlinear semi-classical Drude-Voigt model and is used to interpret experiments performed on nickel ferromagnetic thin film. Within this framework, a phenomenological light-induced coherent molecular mean-field depending on the polarizations of the pump and probe pulses is proposed whose microscopic origin is related to a spin-orbit coupling involving the electron spins of the material sample and the electric field of the laser pulses. Theoretical predictions are compared to available experimental data. The model successfully reproduces the observed experimental trends and gives meaningful insight into the understanding of magneto-optical rotation behavior in the ultrafast regime. Theoretical predictions for further experimental studies are also proposed.

  20. Light propagation through large-scale inhomogeneities in the Universe and its impact on cosmological observations

    CERN Document Server

    Bolejko, Krzysztof

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses cosmological observations within inhomogeneous and exact solutions of the Einstein equations. In some way the analyses presented here can be freed from assumptions such as small amplitude of the density contrast. The supernova observations are analysed using the Lema\\itre-Tolman model and the CMB observations are analysed using the quasispherical Szekeres model. The results show that it is possible to fit the supernova data without the cosmological constant. However if inhomogeneities of sizes and amplitudes as observed in the local Universe are considered, their impact on cosmological observations is small.

  1. Observations of the Earth in polarized light from the US Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger, Jean-Claude; Santer, Richard; Herman, M.; Deuze, J.-L.; Whitehead, V. C.

    1991-01-01

    During the four American Space Shuttle missions of year 1985, the crewmembers took pictures of the Earth in polarized light. Different problems were encountered in the quantitative use of the data: induced polarization by the shuttle window, lack of calibration correction of the window polarization and enveloped in flight calibration methods. The analysis of the selected data first confirmed the previous observation over snow and sand. A low polarization on these surfaces was observed. On the other hand, the measurements show the potentiability of the polarization for agricultural inventory. Contamination of the atmosphere is well characterized.

  2. Models of Polarized Light from Oceans and Atmospheres of Earth-like Extrasolar Planets

    CERN Document Server

    McCullough, P R

    2006-01-01

    Specularly reflected light, or glint, from an ocean surface may provide a useful observational tool for studying extrasolar terrestrial planets. Detection of sea-surface glints would differentiate ocean-bearing terrestrial planets, i.e. those similar to Earth, from other terrestrial extrasolar planets. The brightness and degree of polarization of both sea-surface glints and atmospheric Rayleigh scattering are strong functions of the phase angle of the extrasolar planet. We modify analytic expressions for the bi-directional reflectances previously validated by satellite imagery of the Earth to account for the fractional linear polarization of sea-surface reflections and of Rayleigh scattering in the atmosphere. We compare our models with Earth's total visual light and degree of linear polarization as observed in the ashen light of the Moon, or Earthshine. We predict the spatially-integrated reflected light and its degree of polarization as functions of the diurnal cycle and orbital phase of Earth and Earth-lik...

  3. A light front quark-diquark model for the nucleons

    CERN Document Server

    Maji, Tanmay

    2016-01-01

    We present a quark-diquark model for the nucleons where the light front wave functions are constructed from the soft-wall AdS/QCD prediction. The model is consistent with quark counting rule and Drell-Yan-West relation. The model reproduces the scale evolution of unpolarized PDF of proton for a wide range of energy scale. Helicity and transversity distributions for the proton predicted in this model agree with phenomenological fits. The axial and tensor charges are also shown to agree with the experimental data. The model can be used to evaluate distributions like GPDS, TMDs etc. and their scale evolutions.

  4. Spectral and Imaging Observations of a White-light Flare in the Mid-Infrared

    CERN Document Server

    Penn, M; Hudson, H; Jhabvala, M; Jennings, D; Lunsford, A; Kaufmann, P

    2015-01-01

    We report high-resolution observations at mid-infrared wavelengths of a minor solar flare, SOL2014-09-24T17T17:50 (C7.0), using Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector (QWIP) cameras at an auxiliary of the McMath-Pierce telescope. The flare emissions, the first simultaneous observations in two mid-infrared bands at $5\\ \\mu$m and $8\\ \\mu$m with white-light and hard X-ray coverage, revealed impulsive time variability with increases on time scales of $\\sim 4$~s followed by exponential decay at $\\sim$10 s in two bright regions separated by about 13$"$. The brightest source is compact, unresolved spatially at the diffraction limit ($1.3"$ at $5\\ \\mu$m). We identify the IR sources as flare ribbons also seen in white-light emission at 6173~\\AA~observed by SDO/HMI, with twin hard X-ray sources observed by RHESSI, and with EUV sources (e.g., 94~\\AA) observed by SDO/AIA. The two infrared points have closely the same flux density ($f_\

  5. Modern observations and models of Solar flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritsyk, Pavel; Somov, Boris

    As well known, that fast particles propagating along flare loop generate bremsstrahlung hard x-ray emission and gyro-synchrotron microwave emission. We present the self-consistent kinetic description of propagation accelerated particles. The key point of this approach is taking into account the effect of reverse current. In our two-dimensional model the electric field of reverse current has the strong influence to the beam of accelerated particles. It decelerates part of the electrons in the beam and turns back other part of them without significant energy loss. The exact analytical solution for the appropriate kinetic equation with Landau collision integral was found. Using derived distribution function of electrons we’ve calculated evolution of their energy spectrum and plasma heating, coronal microwave emission and characteristics of hard x-ray emission in the corona and in the chromosphere. All results were compared with modern high precision space observations.

  6. Observations of the Near-infrared Spectrum of the Zodiacal Light with CIBER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsumura, K.; Battle, J.; Bock, J.; Cooray, A.; Hristov, V.; Keating, B.; Lee, D. H.; Levenson, L. R.; Mason, P.; Matsumoto, T.; Matsuura, S.; Nam, U. W.; Renbarger, T.; Sullivan, I.; Suzuki, K.; Wada, T.; Zemcov, M.

    2010-08-01

    Interplanetary dust (IPD) scatters solar radiation which results in the zodiacal light that dominates the celestial diffuse brightness at optical and near-infrared wavelengths. Both asteroid collisions and cometary ejections produce the IPD, but the relative contribution from these two sources is still unknown. The low resolution spectrometer (LRS) onboard the Cosmic Infrared Background ExpeRiment (CIBER) observed the astrophysical sky spectrum between 0.75 and 2.1 μm over a wide range of ecliptic latitude. The resulting zodiacal light spectrum is redder than the solar spectrum, and shows a broad absorption feature, previously unreported, at approximately 0.9 μm, suggesting the existence of silicates in the IPD material. The spectral shape of the zodiacal light is isotropic at all ecliptic latitudes within the measurement error. The zodiacal light spectrum, including the extended wavelength range to 2.5 μm using Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS) data, is qualitatively similar to the reflectance of S-type asteroids. This result can be explained by the proximity of S-type asteroidal dust to Earth's orbit, and the relatively high albedo of asteroidal dust compared with cometary dust.

  7. The largest white light flare ever observed: 25 April 1984, 0001 UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neidig, D. F.; Grosser, H.; Kiplinger, A. L.

    1987-01-01

    The X13/3B flare of 25 April 1984, 0001 UT, was accompanied by intense white light emission that reached a peak power output approx 2x10 to the 29 erg/sec in the optical/near UV continuum; the total energy radiated in the continuum alone reached 10 to the 32 power ergs. This was the most powerful white light flare yet recorded, exceeding the peak output of the largest previously known event by more than one order of magnitude. The flare was a two-ribbon type with intense embedded kernels as observed in both Balmer-alpha line and Balmer continuum, and each of these flare ribbons covered separate umbrae shortly after the maximum of the event. The onset and peak of the white light emission coincided with the onset and peak of the associated E greater than 100 KeV hard X-ray burst, while the 1-8 angstrom soft X-ray emission reached its maximum 4 minutes after the peak in white light.

  8. Balamuthia mandrillaris: Further morphological observations of trophozoites by light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Robles, Arturo; Lares-Villa, Fernando; Lares-Jiménez, Luis Fernando; Omaña-Molina, Maritza; Salazar-Villatoro, Lizbeth; Martínez-Palomo, Adolfo

    2015-10-01

    Additional morphological features of Balamuthia mandrillaris observed by light and electron microscopy are reported. Trophozoites were extremely pleomorphic: their cell shapes ranged from rounded to elongated and sometimes they appeared exceptionally stretched out and branched. By transmission electron microscopy it was possible to observe two different cytoplasmic areas, the ectoplasm and the endoplasm and often sections of rough endoplasmic reticulum were found in the transition zone. The cytoplasm was very fibrogranular and most of the organelles typically found in eukaryotic cells were observed. A particular finding was the presence of numerous mitochondria with a different structure from those of other free-living amoebae. The observations reported here may reinforce the morphological knowledge of this amoeba and provide a background for further analyses.

  9. The Whisper of Deep Basins: Observation & Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burjanek, J.; Ermert, L. A.; Poggi, V.; Michel, C.; Fäh, D.

    2013-12-01

    Free oscillations of Earth have been used for a long time to retrieve information about the deep Earth's interior. On a much smaller scale, standing waves develop in deep sedimentary basins and can possibly be used in a similar way. The sensitivity of these waves to subsurface properties makes them a potential source of information about the deep basin characteristics. We investigated the sequence of two-dimensional resonance modes occurring in Rhône Valley, a strongly over-deepened, glacially carved basin with a sediment fill reaching up to 900 m thickness. We obtained two synchronous linear-array recordings of ambient vibrations and analysed them with two different processing techniques. First, both 2D resonance frequencies and their corresponding modal shapes were identified by frequency-domain decomposition of the signal cross-spectral density matrix. Second, time-frequency polarization analysis was applied to support the addressing of the modes and to determine the relative contributions of the vertical and horizontal components of the fundamental in-plane mode. Simplified 2-D finite element models were then used to support the interpretation of the observations. We were able to identify several resonance modes including previously unmeasured higher modes at all investigated locations in the valley. Good agreement was found between results of our study and previous studies, between the two processing techniques and between observed and modelled results. Finally, a parametric study was performed to qualitatively assess the sensitivity of the mode's order, shape and frequency to subsurface properties like bedrock geometry, Poisson's ratio and shear wave velocity of the sediments. We concluded that the sequence of modes as they appear by frequency depends strongly on subsurface properties. Therefore addressing of the higher modes can be done reliably only with prior information on the sediment structure.

  10. Synechococcus sp. (PTCC 6021) cultivation under different light irradiances-Modeling of growth rate-light response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosavi Zenooz, Alireza; Zokaee Ashtiani, Farzin; Ranjbar, Reza; Javadi, Najvan

    2016-08-17

    Synechococcus sp. (PTCC 6021), a cyanobacterium species, was cultivated in an internally illuminated photobioreactor. The reactor was designed to achieve a monoseptic cultivation of the species. The goal was to study the growth-irradiance behavior of Synechococcus sp. (PTCC 6021). To accomplish this, different initial light irradiances were implemented inside the photobioreactor and the growth of the cells was monitored. It was observed that cell growth increased with higher light intensity until the photoinhibition occurrence at light irradiance higher than 250 μE m(-2) s(-1). The maximum OD600, maximum growth rate, and biomass productivity increased, and hence the extinction coefficient decreased, with the increase in light irradiance before photoinhibition. The maximum optical density (OD600) of 5.91 was obtained with irradiance below 250 μE m(-2) s(-1) during a growth period of 80 days. The modified Monod function could model the growth-irradiance of cells with satisfactory agreement with the experimental data. The comparison of growth-irradiance of the studied species with other photosynthetic organisms showed the same trend as for cyanobacteria with photoinhibition.

  11. Spectral and Imaging Observations of a White-light Solar Flare in the Mid-infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Matt; Krucker, Säm; Hudson, Hugh; Jhabvala, Murzy; Jennings, Don; Lunsford, Allen; Kaufmann, Pierre

    2016-03-01

    We report high-resolution observations at mid-infrared wavelengths of a minor solar flare, SOL2014-09-24T17:50 (C7.0), using Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector cameras at an auxiliary of the McMath-Pierce telescope. The flare emissions, the first simultaneous observations in two mid-infrared bands at 5.2 and 8.2 μ {{m}} with white-light and hard X-ray coverage, revealed impulsive time variability with increases on timescales of ˜4 s followed by exponential decay at ˜10 s in two bright regions separated by about 13\\prime\\prime . The brightest source is compact, unresolved spatially at the diffraction limit (1\\_\\_AMP\\_\\_farcs;72 at 5.2 μ {{m}}). We identify the IR sources as flare ribbons also seen in white-light emission at 6173 Å observed by SDO/HMI, with twin hard X-ray sources observed by Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager, and with EUV sources (e.g., 94 Å) observed by SDO/AIA. The two infrared points have nearly the same flux density (fν, W m-2 Hz) and extrapolate to a level of about an order of magnitude below that observed in the visible band by HMI, but with a flux of more than two orders of magnitude above the free-free continuum from the hot (˜15 MK) coronal flare loop observed in the X-ray range. The observations suggest that the IR emission is optically thin; this constraint and others suggest major contributions from a density less than about 4× {10}13 cm-3. We tentatively interpret this emission mechanism as predominantly free-free emission in a highly ionized but cool and rather dense chromospheric region.

  12. Light dependence of carboxylation capacity for C3 photosynthesis models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Photosynthesis at high light is often modelled by assuming limitation by the maximum capacity of Rubisco carboxylation at low carbon dioxide concentrations, by electron transport capacity at higher concentrations, and sometimes by triose-phosphate utilization rate at the highest concentrations. Pho...

  13. Investigating Students' Mental Models about the Quantization of Light, Energy, and Angular Momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didis, Nilüfer; Eryilmaz, Ali; Erkoç, Sakir

    2014-01-01

    This paper is the first part of a multiphase study examining students' mental models about the quantization of physical observables--light, energy, and angular momentum. Thirty-one second-year physics and physics education college students who were taking a modern physics course participated in the study. The qualitative analysis of data…

  14. 3D Modelling with Structured Light GAMMA Calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eser Sert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Structured light method is one of the non-contact measurement methods used for high resolution and high sensitive 3D modeling. In this method, a projector, camera and computer are used. Projector projects patterns that are generated with specific coding strategies onto the object that will be 3D modeled. Camera receives these patterns. By processing the images received by the camera, object is 3D modeled. Light intensity that is emitted from the projector generally not a linear function of the signal input. This causes brightness problems in the patterns projected. Thus, images received from the camera needs to the gamma corrected. In this study, gamma calibration method is proposed to overcome this problem. Test results show that proposed calibration system improves the accuracy and quality of the 3D modeling.

  15. Observational Possibility of the "Snow Line" on the Surface of Circumstellar Disks with the Scattered Light

    CERN Document Server

    Inoue, Akio K; Nakamoto, Taishi; Oka, Akinori

    2008-01-01

    We discuss how we obtain the spatial distribution of ice on the surface of the circumstellar disk around young stars. Ice in the disks plays a very important role in various issues, for instance, on the disk structure, on the planet formation, on the isotopic anomaly in meteorites, and on the origin of the sea on the Earth. Therefore, the spatially resolved observation of the condensation/sublimation front of ice, so-called ``snow line'' is strongly required. Here, we propose a new method for obtaining the spatially resolved ``snow line'' on the circumstellar disks by observing 3 \\micron H$_2$O ice feature in the scattered light. Based on radiative transfer considerations, we show that the feature is clearly imprinted in the spectrum of the scattered light from both optically thick and thin circumstellar disks. We also show that the scattered light and the H$_2$O ice feature from protoplanetary disks are detectable and spatially resolvable with the current instruments through a $H_2O$ narrowband filter around...

  16. (25143) Itokawa: The Power of Radiometric Techniques for the Interpretation of Remote Thermal Observations in the Light of the Hayabusa Rendezvous Results

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, T G; Usui, F

    2014-01-01

    The near-Earth asteroid (25143) Itokawa was characterised in great detail by the Japanese Hayabusa mission. We revisited the available thermal observations in the light of the true asteroid properties with the goal to evaluate the possibilities and limitations of thermal model techniques. In total, we used 25 published ground-based mid-infrared photometric observations and 5 so far unpublished measurements from the Japanese infrared astronomical satellite AKARI in combination with improved H-G values. Our thermophysical model (TPM) approach allowed us to determine correctly the sense of rotation, to estimate the thermal inertia and to derive robust effective size and albedo values by only using a simple spherical shape model. A more complex shape model, derived from light-curve inversion techniques, improved the quality of the predictions considerably and made the interpretation of thermal light-curve possible. The radiometrically derived effective diameter value agrees within 2% of the true Itokawa size valu...

  17. Experimental observation of stochastic, periodic, and localized light structures in a brillouin cavity system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yingchun; Feng, Qi; Zhang, Bin; Liu, Zhongxuan; Tang, Xin; Lin, Chengyou; Chen, Zhaoyang

    2017-06-01

    It has been an important research subject to find new nonlinear optical phenomena. In this paper, we report the experimental observation of stochastic, periodic, and localized light structures in a super long single-mode standard fiber with external optical feedback provided by the fiber end. The end facet reflection provides an analogous Fabry-Perot stimulated Brillouin resonator cavity. By increasing the pump power to exceed stimulated Brillouin scattering threshold, we observed light structures exhibiting extremely rich temporal-pulse characteristics that had never been reported in literature before, including supercontinuum background generation, the localization of periodic optical structure formation, fission, and compression. These optical structures are of period-doubling distribution and have different recurrence rates. What is more interesting is that we have observed sets of low frequency bipolar cycle-pulse trains that is often seen in the electrical field and hardly seen in pure optical system. Real-time specification of dynamical temporal regimes of laser operation may bring new insight into rich underlying nonlinear physics of practical fiber cavity systems. Therefore, some new nonlinear optical phenomena have been observed.

  18. Light-limited growth and competition for light in well-mixed aquatic environments : An elementary model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Jef; Weissing, F.J.

    1994-01-01

    Light is never distributed homogeneously since it forms a gradient over biomass. As a consequence, the common theories on nutrient competition are not applicable to competition for light. In this paper, we investigate a model for light-limited growth and competition among phytoplankton species in a

  19. Light-limited growth and competition for light in well-mixed aquatic environments : An elementary model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Jef; Weissing, F.J.

    1994-01-01

    Light is never distributed homogeneously since it forms a gradient over biomass. As a consequence, the common theories on nutrient competition are not applicable to competition for light. In this paper, we investigate a model for light-limited growth and competition among phytoplankton species in a

  20. Model independent control of lightly damped noise/vibration systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jing

    2008-07-01

    Feedforward control is a popular strategy of active noise/vibration control. In well-damped noise/vibration systems, path transfer functions from actuators to sensors can be modeled by finite impulse response (FIR) filters with negligible errors. It is possible to implement noninvasive model independent feedforward control by a recently proposed method called orthogonal adaptation. In lightly damped noise/vibration systems, however, path transfer functions have infinite impulse responses (IIRs) that cause difficulties in design and implementation of broadband feedforward controllers. A major source of difficulties is model error if IIR path transfer functions are approximated by FIR filters. In general, active control performance deteriorates as model error increases. In this study, a new method is proposed to design and implement model independent feedforward controllers for broadband in lightly damped noise/vibration systems. It is shown analytically that the proposed method is able to drive the convergence of a noninvasive model independent feedforward controller to improve broadband control in lightly damped noise/vibration systems. The controller is optimized in the minimum H2 norm sense. Experiment results are presented to verify the analytical results.

  1. Initiation and early evolution of the Coronal Mass Ejection on May 13, 2009 from EUV and white-light observations

    CERN Document Server

    Reva, Anton; Bogachev, Sergey; Kuzin, Sergey

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of the observations of a coronal mass ejection (CME), which occurred on May 13, 2009. The most important feature of these observations is that the CME was observed from the very early stage (the solar surface) up to a distance of 15 solar radii ($R_\\odot$). Below 2 $R_\\odot$, we used the data from the TESIS EUV telescopes obtained in the Fe 171 A and He 304 A lines, and above 2 $R_\\odot$, we used the observations of the LASCO C2 and C3 coronagraphs. The CME was formed at a distance of 0.2-0.5 $R_\\odot$from the Sun's surface as a U-shaped structure, which was observed both in the 171 A images and in white-light. Observations in the He 304 A line showed that the CME was associated with an erupting prominence, which was located not above-as predicts the standard model-but in the lowest part of the U-shaped structure close to the magnetic X-point. The prominence location can be explained with the CME breakout model. Estimates showed that CME mass increased with time. The CME trajectory was ...

  2. A simple method for correcting spatially resolved solar intensity oscillation observations for variations in scattered light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, S. M.; Duvall, T. L., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    A measurement of the intensity distribution in an image of the solar disk will be corrupted by a spatial redistribution of the light that is caused by the earth's atmosphere and the observing instrument. A simple correction method is introduced here that is applicable for solar p-mode intensity observations obtained over a period of time in which there is a significant change in the scattering component of the point spread function. The method circumvents the problems incurred with an accurate determination of the spatial point spread function and its subsequent deconvolution from the observations. The method only corrects the spherical harmonic coefficients that represent the spatial frequencies present in the image and does not correct the image itself.

  3. Microscopic Observation of the Light-Cone-Like Thermal Correlations in Cracking Excitations

    CERN Document Server

    Ghaffari, H O

    2016-01-01

    Many seemingly intractable systems can be reduced to a system of interacting spins. Here, we introduce a system of artificial acoustic spins which are manipulated with ultrasound excitations associated with micro-cracking sources in thin sheets of crystals. Our spin-like system shows a peculiar relaxation mechanism after inducing an impulsive stress-ramp akin to splitting, or rupturing, of the system. Using real-time construction of correlations between spins states, we observe a clear emergence of the light cone effect. It has been proposed that equilibration horizon occurs on a local scale in systems where correlations between distant sites are established at a finite speed. The observed equilibration horizon in our observations defines a region where elements of the material are in elastic communication through excited elementary excitations. These results yield important insights into dynamic communication between failing elements in brittle materials during processes such as brittle fragmentation and dyn...

  4. Observation of bubble formation in water during microwave irradiation by dynamic light scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakuma, Yusuke; Munenaga, Takuya; Nakata, Ryosuke

    2016-09-01

    A microwave reactor was designed for in situ observation of nano- and micro-bubbles, and size profiles during and after irradiation were measured with respect to irradiation power and time. Bubble formation in water during irradiation was observed even at temperatures below the boiling point of water. The maximum size strongly depended on radiation power and time, even at a given temperature. Nano-particles in the dispersion medium were found to play an important role in achieving more stable nucleation of bubbles around particles, and stable size distributions were obtained from clear autocorrelation by a dynamic light scattering system. Moreover, a combination of microwave induction heating and the addition of nano-particles to the dispersion medium can prevent heterogeneous nucleation of bubbles on the cell wall. Quantitative nano-bubble size profiles obtained by in situ observation provide useful information regarding microwave-based industrial processes for nano-particle production.

  5. Effect of Pulse Shaping on Observing Coherent Energy Transfer in Single Light-Harvesting Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kai; Bai, Shuming; Shi, Qiang

    2016-11-17

    Recent experimental and theoretical studies have revealed that quantum coherence plays an important role in the excitation energy transfer in photosynthetic light-harvesting (LH) complexes. Inspired by the recent single-molecule two-color double-pump experiment, we theoretically investigate the effect of pulse shaping on observing coherent energy transfer in the single bacterial LH2 complex. It is found that quantum coherent energy transfer can be observed when the time delay and phase difference between the two laser pulses are controlled independently. However, when the two-color pulses are generated using the pulse-shaping method, how the laser pulses are prepared is crucial to the observation of quantum coherent energy transfer in single photosynthetic complexes.

  6. Light scalar field constraints from gravitational-wave observations of compact binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Berti, Emanuele; Horbatsch, Michael; Alsing, Justin

    2012-01-01

    Scalar-tensor theories are among the simplest extensions of general relativity. In theories with light scalars, deviations from Einstein's theory of gravity are determined by the scalar mass m_s and by a Brans-Dicke-like coupling parameter \\omega_{BD}. We show that gravitational-wave observations of nonspinning neutron star-black hole binary inspirals can be used to set upper bounds on the combination m_s/\\sqrt{\\omega_{BD}}. We estimate via a Fisher matrix analysis that individual observations with signal-to-noise ratio \\rho would yield (m_s/\\sqrt{\\omega_{\\rm BD}})(\\rho/10)\\lesssim 10^{-15}, 10^{-16} and 10^{-19} eV for Advanced LIGO, ET and eLISA, respectively. A statistical combination of multiple observations may further improve this bound.

  7. Light-microscopic observations of individual microtubules reconstituted from brain tubulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriyama, R; Miki-Noumura, T

    1975-12-01

    The course of polymerization of individual brain microtubules could be observed with a light microscope employing dark-field illumination. Statistical analysis of the increase in microtubule length during the polymerization was in accordance with the time course of viscosity change of the tubulin solution. After a plateau level in viscosity was attained, there was no significant change in histograms showing length distribution. These observations were confirmed with fixed and stained microtubules, using a phase-contrast microscope. Observations with dark-field illumination revealed that reconstituted microtubules depolymerized and disappeared immediately upon exposure to buffer containing CaCl2 or sulphydryl reagents such as p-chloromercuriphenyl sulphonic acid (PCMPS) and p-chloromercuribenzoic acid (PCMB). They were also cold-labile. The growth of heterogeneous microtubules which were assembled by mixing purified tubulin dimers with ciliary outer fibres could also be followed with these optical systems.

  8. Modelling 1-minute directional observations of the global irradiance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thejll, Peter; Pagh Nielsen, Kristian; Andersen, Elsa; Furbo, Simon

    2016-04-01

    Direct and diffuse irradiances from the sky has been collected at 1-minute intervals for about a year from the experimental station at the Technical University of Denmark for the IEA project "Solar Resource Assessment and Forecasting". These data were gathered by pyrheliometers tracking the Sun, as well as with apertured pyranometers gathering 1/8th and 1/16th of the light from the sky in 45 degree azimuthal ranges pointed around the compass. The data are gathered in order to develop detailed models of the potentially available solar energy and its variations at high temporal resolution in order to gain a more detailed understanding of the solar resource. This is important for a better understanding of the sub-grid scale cloud variation that cannot be resolved with climate and weather models. It is also important for optimizing the operation of active solar energy systems such as photovoltaic plants and thermal solar collector arrays, and for passive solar energy and lighting to buildings. We present regression-based modelling of the observed data, and focus, here, on the statistical properties of the model fits. Using models based on the one hand on what is found in the literature and on physical expectations, and on the other hand on purely statistical models, we find solutions that can explain up to 90% of the variance in global radiation. The models leaning on physical insights include terms for the direct solar radiation, a term for the circum-solar radiation, a diffuse term and a term for the horizon brightening/darkening. The purely statistical model is found using data- and formula-validation approaches picking model expressions from a general catalogue of possible formulae. The method allows nesting of expressions, and the results found are dependent on and heavily constrained by the cross-validation carried out on statistically independent testing and training data-sets. Slightly better fits -- in terms of variance explained -- is found using the purely

  9. Quantitative comparisons of satellite observations and cloud models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang

    -by-cluster comparison between the observations and the simulations discloses biases in the model including overproduction of supercooled water and large hail particles. The detected biases shed light on how the model should be adjusted to generate more realistic microphysical relationships for each cluster. Guided by the model/observation discrepancies in the 'convective' cloud cluster, a new simulation is performed to provide dynamic adjustments by generating more but smaller hail particles.

  10. On light dilaton extensions of the Standard Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megías, Eugenio; Pujolàs, Oriol; Quirós, Mariano

    2016-11-01

    We discuss the presence of a light dilaton in Conformal Field Theories deformed by a single scalar operator, in the holographic realization consisting of confining Renormalization Group flows. Then, we apply this formalism to study the extension of the Standard Model with a light dilaton in a 5D warped model. We study the spectrum of scalar and vector perturbations, compare the model predictions with Electroweak Precision Tests and find the corresponding bounds for the lightest modes. Finally, we analyze the possibility that the Higgs resonance found at the LHC be a dilaton. Presented by E. Megías at the 4th International Conference on New Frontiers in Physics (ICNFP 2015), 23-30 August 2015, Kolymbari, Crete, Greece.

  11. Characterization, Modeling, and Optimization of Light-Emitting Diode Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorseth, Anders

    This thesis explores, characterization, modeling, and optimization of light-emitting diodes (LED) for general illumination. An automated setup has been developed for spectral radiometric characterization of LED components with precise control of the settings of forward current and operating...... comparing the chromaticity of the measured SPD with tted models, the deviation is found to be larger than the lower limit of human color perception. A method has been developed to optimize multicolored cluster LED systems with respect to light quality, using multi objective optimization. The results...... temperature. The automated setup has been used to characterize commercial LED components with respect to multiple settings. It is shown that the droop in quantum efficiency can be approximated by a simple parabolic function. The investigated models of the spectral power distributions (SPD) from LEDs...

  12. Fast low-level light pulses from the night sky observed with the SKYFLASH program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winckler, J. R.; Franz, R. C.; Nemzek, R. J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents further discussion of and new data on fast subvisual increases in the luminosity of the night sky described in our previous papers. A detailed technical description of the simple telescopic photometers used in the project SKYFLASH and their mode of operation including the detection of polarized Rayleigh-scattered flashes is provided. Distant lightning storms account for many of the events, and the complex relations between short and long luminous pulses with and without sferics are shown by examples from a new computerized data system, supplemented by two low-light-level TV cameras. Of particular interest are the previously observed 'long' events having a slow rise and fall, 20-ms duration, and showing small polarization and no coincident sferic. A group of such events on September 22-23 during the invasion of U.S. coasts by Hurricane Hugo, is discussed in detail. The recently observed 'plume' cloud-top-to-stratosphere lightning event is suggested as a possible source type for these flashes. An alternative source may be exploding meteors, recently identified during SKYFLASH observations by low-light-level television techniques as the origin of some sky-wide flash events described herein.

  13. The first light-curve analysis of eclipsing binaries observed by the INTEGRAL/OMC

    CERN Document Server

    Zasche, P

    2008-01-01

    Three Algol-type binaries in Cygnus constellation were selected for an analysis from a huge database of observations made by the INTEGRAL/OMC camera. These data were processed and analyzed, resulting in a first light-curve study of these neglected eclipsing binaries. The temperatures of the primary components range from 9500 K to 10500 K and the inclinations are circa 73deg (for PV Cyg and V1011 Cyg), while almost 90deg for V822 Cyg. All of them seem to be main-sequence stars, well within their critical Roche lobes. Nevertheless, further detailed analyses are still needed.

  14. Modelling light and photosynthesis in the marine environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Woźniak

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The overriding and far-reaching aim of our work has been to achieve a good understanding of the processes of light interaction with phytoplankton in the sea and to develop an innovative physical model of photosynthesis in the marine environment, suitable for the remote sensin gof marine primary production. Unlike previous models, the present one takesgreater account of the complexity of the physiological processes in phytoplankton. We have focused in particular on photophysiological processes, which are governed directly or indirectly by light energy, or in which light, besides the nutrient content in and the temperature of seawater, is one of the principal limiting factors.    To achieve this aim we have carried out comprehensive statistical analyses of the natural variability of the main photophysiological properties of phytoplankton and their links with the principal abiotic factors in the sea. These analyses have made use of extensive empirical data gathered in a wide diversity of seas and oceans by Polish and Russian teams as well as by joint Polish-Russian expeditions. Data sets available on the Internet have also been applied. As a result, a set of more or less complex, semi-empirical models of light-stimulated processes occurring in marine phytoplankton cells has been developed. The trophic type of sea, photo-acclimation and the production of photoprotecting carotenoids, chromatic acclimation and the production of various forms of chlorophyll-antennas and photosynthetic carotenoids, cell adaptation by the package effect, light absorption, photosynthesis, photoinhibition, the fluorescence effect, and the activation of PS2 centres are all considered in the models. These take into account not only the influence of light, but also, indirectly, that of the vertical mixing of water; in the case of photosynthesis, the quantum yield has been also formulated as being dependent on the nutrient concentrations and the temperature of seawater

  15. Observation of two output light pulses from a partial wavelength converter preserving phase of an input light at a single-photon level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikuta, Rikizo; Kobayashi, Toshiki; Kato, Hiroshi; Miki, Shigehito; Yamashita, Taro; Terai, Hirotaka; Fujiwara, Mikio; Yamamoto, Takashi; Sasaki, Masahide; Wang, Zhen; Koashi, Masato; Imoto, Nobuyuki

    2013-11-18

    We experimentally demonstrate that both of the two output light pulses of different wavelengths from a wavelength converter with various branching ratios preserve phase information of an input light at a single-photon level. In our experiment, we converted temporally-separated two coherent light pulses with average photon numbers of ∼ 0.1 at 780 nm to light pulses at 1522 nm by using difference-frequency generation in a periodically-poled lithium niobate waveguide. We observed an interference between temporally-separated two modes for both the converted and the unconverted light pulses at various values of the conversion efficiency. We observed interference visibilities greater than 0.88 without suppressing the background noises for any value of the conversion efficiency the wavelength converter achieves. At a conversion efficiency of ∼ 0.5, the observed visibilities are 0.98 for the unconverted light and 0.99 for the converted light. Such a phase-preserving wavelength converter with high visibilities will be useful for manipulating quantum states encoded in the frequency degrees of freedom.

  16. Pion in the Medium with a Light-Front Model

    CERN Document Server

    de Melo, J P B C; Frederico, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    The pion properties in symmetric nuclear matter are investigated with the Quark-Meson Coupling (QMC) Model plus the light-front constituent quark model~(LFCQM). The LFCQM has been quite successful in describing the properties of pseudoscalar mesons in vacuum, such as the electromagnetic elastic form factors, electromagnetic radii, and decay constants. We study the pion properties in symmetric nuclear matter with the in-medium input recalculated through the QMC model, which provides the in-medium modification of the LFCQM.

  17. Relativistic formulation of coordinate light time, Doppler and astrometric observables up to the second post-Minkowskian order

    CERN Document Server

    Hees, A; Poncin-Lafitte, C Le

    2014-01-01

    Given the extreme accuracy of modern space science, a precise relativistic modeling of observations is required. In particular, it is important to describe properly light propagation through the Solar System. For two decades, several modeling efforts based on the solution of the null geodesic equations have been proposed but they are mainly valid only for the first order Post-Newtonian approximation. However, with the increasing precision of ongoing space missions as Gaia, GAME, BepiColombo, JUNO or JUICE, we know that some corrections up to the second order have to be taken into account for future experiments. We present a procedure to compute the relativistic coordinate time delay, Doppler and astrometric observables avoiding the integration of the null geodesic equation. This is possible using the Time Transfer Function formalism, a powerful tool providing key quantities such as the time of flight of a light signal between two point-events and the tangent vector to its null-geodesic. Indeed we show how to ...

  18. Modeling filamentous cyanobacteria reveals the advantages of long and fast trichomes for optimizing light exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamulonis, Carlos; Postma, Marten; Kaandorp, Jaap

    2011-01-01

    Cyanobacteria form a very large and diverse phylum of prokaryotes that perform oxygenic photosynthesis. Many species of cyanobacteria live colonially in long trichomes of hundreds to thousands of cells. Of the filamentous species, many are also motile, gliding along their long axis, and display photomovement, by which a trichome modulates its gliding according to the incident light. The latter has been found to play an important role in guiding the trichomes to optimal lighting conditions, which can either inhibit the cells if the incident light is too weak, or damage the cells if too strong. We have developed a computational model for gliding filamentous photophobic cyanobacteria that allows us to perform simulations on the scale of a Petri dish using over 10(5) individual trichomes. Using the model, we quantify the effectiveness of one commonly observed photomovement strategy--photophobic responses--in distributing large populations of trichomes optimally over a light field. The model predicts that the typical observed length and gliding speeds of filamentous cyanobacteria are optimal for the photophobic strategy. Therefore, our results suggest that not just photomovement but also the trichome shape itself improves the ability of the cyanobacteria to optimize their light exposure.

  19. Modeling filamentous cyanobacteria reveals the advantages of long and fast trichomes for optimizing light exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Tamulonis

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria form a very large and diverse phylum of prokaryotes that perform oxygenic photosynthesis. Many species of cyanobacteria live colonially in long trichomes of hundreds to thousands of cells. Of the filamentous species, many are also motile, gliding along their long axis, and display photomovement, by which a trichome modulates its gliding according to the incident light. The latter has been found to play an important role in guiding the trichomes to optimal lighting conditions, which can either inhibit the cells if the incident light is too weak, or damage the cells if too strong. We have developed a computational model for gliding filamentous photophobic cyanobacteria that allows us to perform simulations on the scale of a Petri dish using over 10(5 individual trichomes. Using the model, we quantify the effectiveness of one commonly observed photomovement strategy--photophobic responses--in distributing large populations of trichomes optimally over a light field. The model predicts that the typical observed length and gliding speeds of filamentous cyanobacteria are optimal for the photophobic strategy. Therefore, our results suggest that not just photomovement but also the trichome shape itself improves the ability of the cyanobacteria to optimize their light exposure.

  20. Mechanistic model for light-controlled leaf phenology in the Amazon rainforests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y.; Moorcroft, P. R.; Bras, R. L.; Medvigy, D.; Hutyra, L. R.; Pyle, E. H.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2007-12-01

    Satellite-based vegetation observations in the Amazon rainforest indicate a flush of leaves during the dry season when solar radiation is high. This light-controlled phenology is further confirmed with ground-based observations at the Tapajos National Forest (TNF; 2.86S, 54.96W, Para, Brazil) near km 67 of the Santarem-Cuiaba highway from 2001 to 2006. Observed leaf litterfall and canopy photosynthesis (Gross Primary Productivity: GPP) lags a few months past the seasonal variation of solar radiation. In well-watered rainforests, rich light leads to flush of new leaves, which have a high photosynthetic efficiency, consequently increasing GPP during the following months. In this study, we incorporate these mechanistic processes into the Ecosystem Demography model (ED) in order to capture the seasonality of leaf phenology and GPP, including the dry season flush of leaves. We use leaf litterfall rates, GPP and evapotranspiration measured at the TNF to constrain the model parameterizations. The initial model underestimates litterfall rates in both magnitude and seasonal fluctuation compared to the observed ones, and predicts seasonality of GPP opposite to the observed pattern, presenting peaks during the sunny dry season. The constrained model significantly improves the simulated litterfall rates and GPP against the observed ones. The model simulates litterfall rates quite accurately, and captures some of the seasonal dynamics of GPP. We also show that this modification in phenology, together with other changes in the model sensitivity to environmental conditions, improves the predicted seasonality of Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE).

  1. Predicting exoplanet observability in time, contrast, separation and polarization, in scattered light

    CERN Document Server

    Schworer, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    Polarimetry is one of the keys to enhanced direct imaging of exoplanets. Not only does it deliver a differential observable providing extra contrast, but when coupled with spectroscopy, it also reveals valuable information on the exoplanetary atmospheric composition. Nevertheless, angular separation and contrast ratio to the host-star make for extremely challenging observation. Producing detailed predictions for exactly how the expected signals should appear is of critical importance for the designs and observational strategies of tomorrow's telescopes. We aim at accurately determining the magnitudes and evolution of the main observational signatures for imaging an exoplanet: separation, contrast ratio to the host-star and polarization as a function of the orbital geometry and the reflectance parameters of the exoplanet. These parameters were used to construct polarized-reflectance model based on the input of orbital parameters and two albedo values. The model is able to calculate a variety of observational p...

  2. An Analog Model for Light Propagation in Semiclassical Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Bessa, C H G; Ford, L H

    2014-01-01

    We treat a model based upon nonlinear optics for the semiclassical gravitational effects of quantum fields upon light propagation. Our model uses a nonlinear material with a nonzero third order polarizability. Here a probe light pulse satisfies a wave equation containing the expectation value of the squared electric field. This expectation value depends upon the presence of lower frequency quanta, the background field, and modifies the effective index of refraction, and hence the speed of the probe pulse. If the mean squared electric field is positive, then the pulse is slowed, which is analogous to the gravitational effects of ordinary matter. Such matter satisfies the null energy condition and produce gravitational lensing and time delay. If the mean squared field is negative, then the pulse has a higher speed than in the absence of the background field. This is analogous to the gravitational effects of exotic matter, such as stress tensor expectation values with locally negative energy densities, which lea...

  3. Modeling of light absorption in tissue during infrared neural stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Alexander C; Wade, Scott A; Brown, William G A; Stoddart, Paul R

    2012-07-01

    A Monte Carlo model has been developed to simulate light transport and absorption in neural tissue during infrared neural stimulation (INS). A range of fiber core sizes and numerical apertures are compared illustrating the advantages of using simulations when designing a light delivery system. A range of wavelengths, commonly used for INS, are also compared for stimulation of nerves in the cochlea, in terms of both the energy absorbed and the change in temperature due to a laser pulse. Modeling suggests that a fiber with core diameter of 200 μm and NA=0.22 is optimal for optical stimulation in the geometry used and that temperature rises in the spiral ganglion neurons are as low as 0.1°C. The results show a need for more careful experimentation to allow different proposed mechanisms of INS to be distinguished.

  4. High Temperature Chemical Kinetic Combustion Modeling of Lightly Methylated Alkanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarathy, S M; Westbrook, C K; Pitz, W J; Mehl, M

    2011-03-01

    Conventional petroleum jet and diesel fuels, as well as alternative Fischer-Tropsch (FT) fuels and hydrotreated renewable jet (HRJ) fuels, contain high molecular weight lightly branched alkanes (i.e., methylalkanes) and straight chain alkanes (n-alkanes). Improving the combustion of these fuels in practical applications requires a fundamental understanding of large hydrocarbon combustion chemistry. This research project presents a detailed high temperature chemical kinetic mechanism for n-octane and three lightly branched isomers octane (i.e., 2-methylheptane, 3-methylheptane, and 2,5-dimethylhexane). The model is validated against experimental data from a variety of fundamental combustion devices. This new model is used to show how the location and number of methyl branches affects fuel reactivity including laminar flame speed and species formation.

  5. Modeling a bus through a sequence of traffic lights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos, Jorge; Muñoz, Víctor; Rogan, José; Zarama, Roberto; Penagos, Juan Felipe; Toledo, Benjamín; Valdivia, Juan Alejandro

    2015-07-01

    We propose a model of a bus traveling through a sequence of traffic lights, which is required to stop between the traffic signals to pick up passengers. A two dimensional model, of velocity and traveled time at each traffic light, is constructed, which shows non-trivial and chaotic behaviors for realistic city traffic parameters. We restrict the parameter values where these non-trivial and chaotic behaviors occur, by following analytically and numerically the fixed points and period 2 orbits. We define conditions where chaos may arise by determining regions in parameter space where the maximum Lyapunov exponent is positive. Chaos seems to occur as long as the ratio of the braking and accelerating capacities are greater than about ∼3.

  6. Explosion models, light curves, spectra and H$_{0}$

    CERN Document Server

    Höflich, P; Wheeler, J C; Nomoto, K; Thielemann, F K

    1996-01-01

    From the spectra and light curves it is clear that SNIa are thermonuclear explosions of white dwarfs. However, details of the explosion are highly under debate. Here, we present detailed models which are consistent with respect to the explosion mechanism, the optical and infrared light curves (LC), and the spectral evolution. This leaves the description of the burning front and the structure of the white dwarf as the only free parameters. The explosions are calculated using one-dimensional Lagrangian codes including nuclear networks. Subsequently, optical and IR-LCs are constructed. Detailed NLTE-spectra are computed for several instants of time using the density, chemical and luminosity structure resulting from the LCs. The general methods and critical tests are presented (sect. 2). Different models for the thermonuclear explosion are discussed including detonations deflagrations, delayed detonations, pulsating delayed detonations (PDD) and helium detonations (sect.3). Comparisons between theoretical and obs...

  7. Resonant cavity light-emitting diodes: modeling, design, and optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrescu, Mihail M.; Sipila, Pekko; Vilokkinen, Ville; Toikkanen, L.; Melanen, Petri; Saarinen, Mika J.; Orsila, Seppo; Savolainen, Pekka; Toivonen, Mika; Pessa, Markus

    2000-02-01

    Monolithic top emitting resonant cavity light-emitting diodes operating in the 650 and 880 nm ranges have been prepared using solid-source molecular beam epitaxy growth. Transfer matrix based modeling together with a self- consistent model have been sued to optimize the devices' performances. The design of the layer structure and doping profile was assisted by computer simulations that enabled many device improvements. Among the most significant ones intermediate-composition barrier-reduction layers were introduced in the DBR mirrors for improving the I-V characteristics and the cavity and mirrors were detuned aiming at maximum extraction efficiency. The fabricated devices showed line widths below 15 nm, CW light power output of 8 and 22.5 mW, and external quantum efficiencies of 3 percent and 14.1 percent in the 650 nm and 880 nm ranges, respectively - while the simulations indicate significant performance improvement possibilities.

  8. Statistical Properties of Quasi-Periodic Pulsations in White-Light Flares Observed With Kepler

    CERN Document Server

    Pugh, C E; Nakariakov, V M; Broomhall, A -M

    2016-01-01

    We embark on a study of quasi-periodic pulsations (QPPs) in the decay phase of white-light stellar flares observed by Kepler. Out of the 1439 flares on 216 different stars detected in the short-cadence data using an automated search, 56 flares are found to have pronounced QPP-like signatures in the light curve, of which 11 have stable decaying oscillations. No correlation is found between the QPP period and the stellar temperature, radius, rotation period and surface gravity, suggesting that the QPPs are independent of global stellar parameters. Hence they are likely to be the result of processes occurring in the local environment. There is also no significant correlation between the QPP period and flare energy, however there is evidence that the period scales with the QPP decay time for the Gaussian damping scenario, but not to a significant degree for the exponentially damped case. This same scaling has been observed for MHD oscillations on the Sun, suggesting that they could be the cause of the QPPs in tho...

  9. Atmospheric Circulation on Hot Jupiters: Modeling and Observable Signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Emily Christine

    2010-12-01

    Hot Jupiters are unlike any planets in our Solar System and yet one of the most common types of extrasolar planet discovered. These gas giants orbit their parent stars with periods of a few days. Expected to be tidally locked into synchronous rotation, hot Jupiters experience intense, asymmetric heating from stellar irradiation, such that day-night temperature contrasts could reach hundreds of degrees Kelvin. This unique state of radiative forcing, as well as the slow rotation rates of these planets, places hot Jupiters within a new regime of atmospheric circulation. Hot Jupiters have also been the first type of extrasolar planet with direct detections of their atmospheres, through measurements of emitted, reflected, and transmitted light. This thesis investigates observational methods to distinguish between various atmospheric models, observational signatures of potential atmospheric variability, and presents a three dimensional model with which to study hot Jupiter circulation patterns. First, we find that eclipse mapping is a technique that can be used to image the day sides of these planets and although this is beyond the ability of current instruments, it will be achievable with future missions, such as the James Webb Space Telescope. Second, we consider the signatures of large-scale atmospheric variability in measurements of secondary eclipses and thermal orbital phase curves. For various models we predict the amount of variation in eclipse depth, and the amplitudes and detailed shapes of phase curves. Lastly, we develop a three-dimensional model of hot Jupiter atmospheric dynamics with simplified forcing and adopt a set-up nearly identical to work by another group to facilitate code inter-comparison. Our results are broadly consistent with theirs, with a transonic flow and the hottest region of the atmosphere advected eastward of the substellar point. However, we note important differences and identify areas of concern for future modeling efforts.

  10. Direct visualization and modeling of carrier distribution in organic light emitting transistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mashiko, Yasuhiro; Taguchi, Dai; Manaka, Takaaki [Department of Physical Electronics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo, 152-8552 (Japan); Iwamoto, Mitsumasa, E-mail: iwamoto@pe.titech.ac.jp [Department of Physical Electronics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo, 152-8552 (Japan); Weis, Martin [Institute of Electronics and Photonics, Slovak University of Technology, Ilkovičova 3, Bratislava 81219 (Slovakia)

    2014-03-03

    By using microscopic electric field induced second harmonic generation (EFISHG) measurement, we studied the carrier distribution in the channel of organic light emitting transistors with an active layer of poly(9,9-di-n-octylfluorene-alt-benzothiadiazole). EFISHG signals were clearly observed in the point where the electroluminescence is generated. Results suggested that the highest enhancement of the electric field is on zero-potential position in the channel, which represents the meeting point of electrons and holes and is an origin of the electroluminescence. The transmission line model analysis of the carrier distribution of the channel supported this conclusion. - Highlights: • Carrier distribution in organic light emitting transistor channel was determined. • Second-harmonic generation images were clearly observed in the emission region. • A transmission line model well accounted for the observed carrier behavior.

  11. Light-by-Light Hadronic Corrections to the Muon G-2 Problem Within the Nonlocal Chiral Quark Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorokhov, A. E.; Radzhabov, A. E.; Zhevlakov, A. S.

    2017-03-01

    Results of calculation of the light-by-light contribution from the lightest neutral pseudoscalar and scalar mesons and the dynamical quark loop to the muon anomalous magnetic moment are discussed in the framework of the nonlocal SU(3) × SU(3) chiral quark model. The model is based on four-quark interaction of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio type and Kobayashi-Maskawa-`t Hooft six-quark interaction. The full kinematic dependence of vertices with off-shell mesons and photons in intermediate states in the light-by-light scattering amplitude is taken into account. All calculations are elaborated in explicitly gauge-invariant manner. These results complete calculations of all hadronic light-by-light scattering contributions to aμ in the leading order in the 1/Nc expansion. The final result does not allow the discrepancy between the experiment and the Standard Model to be explained.

  12. EDGE EFFECT MODELING AND STUDY FOR THREE-CHIP RGB LIGHT-EMITTING DIODES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Podosinnikov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Subject of study. The paper deals with light quality improvement of multi–chip RGB light-emitting diodes (LEDs and luminaries on their basis. In particular, we have studied the issues of the edge effect reducing, which is non–uniformity of color when observing the source of light under different angles as well as non-uniformity of color distribution on the illuminated surface. Methods. Experimental study of the edge effect has been performed, namely, the analysis of the halo at the periphery of the illuminated area and the non–uniformity of area at the surface of the screen illuminated with RGB LEDs with and without light concentrators. Modeling of illumination distribution at various distances from the source for the system containing four RGB LEDs with reflectors by ZEMAX software has been carried out. Assessment of the uniformity for light distribution via calculating the chromaticity coordinates has been performed. Main results. The possibility of modeling application at the stage of a luminary design is shown on the example of RGB LEDs for assessing the efficiency of light flux usage and colorimetric parameters. Suggested method simplifies significantly the design of luminaries and reduces associated costs. Practical relevance. The findings can be used in the design of luminaries based on RGB LEDs, including the ones with secondary optics elements.

  13. Light-Cone Quantization of the Liouville Model

    CERN Document Server

    Bienkowska, J R

    1993-01-01

    We present the quantization of the Liouville model defined in light-cone coordinates in (1,1) signature space. We take advantage of the representation of the Liouville field by the free field of the Backl\\"{u}nd transformation and adapt the approch by Braaten, Curtright and Thorn. Quantum operators of the Liouville field $\\partial_{+}\\phi$, $\\partial_{-}\\phi$, $e^{g\\phi}$, $e^{2g\\phi}$ are constructed consistently in terms of the free field. The Liouville model field theory space is found to be restricted to the sector with field momentum $P_{+}=-P_{-}$, $P_{+}> 0$ , which is a closed subspace for the Liouville theory operator algebra.

  14. Heavy-light mesons in a relativistic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing-Bin; Yang, Mao-Zhi

    2016-07-01

    We study the heavy-light mesons in a relativistic model, which is derived from the Bethe-Salpeter equation by applying the Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation to the heavy quark. The kernel we choose is based on scalar confinement and vector Coulomb potentials. The transverse interaction of the gluon exchange is also taken into account in this model. The spectra and wave functions of D, Ds, B, Bs meson states are obtained. The spectra are calculated up to the order of 1/m Q, and wave functions are treated to leading order. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11375088, 10975077, 10735080, 11125525)

  15. Gluon Sivers function in a light-cone spectator model

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Zhun

    2016-01-01

    We calculate the gluon Sivers function of the proton in the valence-$x$ region using a light-cone spectator model with the presence of the gluon degree of freedom. We obtain the values of the parameters by fitting the model resulting gluon density distribution to the known parametrization. We find that our results agree with the recent phenomenological extraction of the gluon Sivers function after considering the evolution effect. We also estimate the mean transverse momentum of the gluon in a transversely polarized proton and find that it is within the range implied by the Burkardt sum rule.

  16. Numerical model of multilayer organic light-emitting devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Yue; Rao Hai-Bo

    2009-01-01

    A numerical model of multilayer organic light-emitting devices is presented in this article.This model is based on the drift-diffusion equations which include charge injection,transport,space charge effects,trapping,heterojunction interface and recombination process.The device structure in the simulation is ITO/CuPc(20 nm)/NPD(40 nm)/Alq3(60 nm)/LiF/Al.There are two heterojunctions which should be dealt with in the simulation.The Ⅰ-Ⅴ characteristics,carrier distribution and recombination rate of a device are calculated.The simulation results and measured data are in good agreement.

  17. Mathematical model for light scanning system based on circular laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peiquan Xu; Shun Yao; Fenggui Lu; Xinhua Tang; Wei Zhang

    2005-01-01

    A novel light scanning system based on circular laser trajectory for welding robot is developed. With the help of image processing technique, intelligent laser welding could be realized. According to laser triangulation algorithm and Scheimpflug condition, mathematical model for circular laser vision is built.This scanning system projects circular laser onto welded seams and recovers the depth of the welded seams,escapes from shortcomings of less information, explains ambiguity and single tracking direction inherent in "spot" or "line" type laser trajectory. Three-dimensional (3D) model for welded seams could be recognized after depth recovery. The imaging error is investigated also.

  18. Dependence on supernovae light-curve processing in void models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bengochea, Gabriel R., E-mail: gabriel@iafe.uba.ar [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (IAFE), UBA-CONICET, CC 67, Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); De Rossi, Maria E., E-mail: derossi@iafe.uba.ar [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (IAFE), UBA-CONICET, CC 67, Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2014-06-02

    In this work, we show that when supernova Ia (SN Ia) data sets are used to put constraints on the free parameters of inhomogeneous models, certain extra information regarding the light-curve fitter used in the supernovae Ia luminosity fluxes processing should be taken into account. We found that the size of the void as well as other parameters of these models might be suffering extra degenerations or additional systematic errors due to the fitter. A recent proposal to relieve the tension between the results from Planck satellite and SNe Ia is re-analyzed in the framework of these subjects.

  19. White light-emitting diodes (LEDs) at domestic lighting levels and retinal injury in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yu-Man; Wang, Gen-Shuh; Sliney, David; Yang, Chang-Hao; Lee, Li-Ling

    2014-03-01

    Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) deliver higher levels of blue light to the retina than do conventional domestic light sources. Chronic exposure to high-intensity light (2,000-10,000 lux) has previously been found to result in light-induced retinal injury, but chronic exposure to relatively low-intensity (750 lux) light has not been previously assessed with LEDs in a rodent model. We examined LED-induced retinal neuronal cell damage in the Sprague-Dawley rat using functional, histological, and biochemical measurements. We used blue LEDs (460 nm) and full-spectrum white LEDs, coupled with matching compact fluorescent lights, for exposures. Pathological examinations included electroretinogram, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, immunohistochemistry (IHC), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We also measured free radical production in the retina to determine the oxidative stress level. H&E staining and TEM revealed apoptosis and necrosis of photoreceptors, which indicated blue-light induced photochemical injury of the retina. Free radical production in the retina was increased in LED-exposed groups. IHC staining demonstrated that oxidative stress was associated with retinal injury. Although we found serious retinal light injury in LED groups, the compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) groups showed moderate to mild injury. Our results raise questions about adverse effects on the retina from chronic exposure to LED light compared with other light sources that have less blue light. Thus, we suggest a precautionary approach with regard to the use of blue-rich "white" LEDs for general lighting. Shang YM, Wang GS, Sliney D, Yang CH, Lee LL. 2014. White light-emitting diodes (LEDs) at domestic lighting levels and retinal injury in a rat model. Environ Health Perspect 122:269-276; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307294.

  20. ELLC - a fast, flexible light curve model for detached eclipsing binary stars and transiting exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Maxted, P F L

    2016-01-01

    Very high quality light curves are now available for thousands of detached eclipsing binary stars and transiting exoplanet systems as a result of surveys for transiting exoplanets and other large-scale photometric surveys. I have developed a binary star model (ELLC) that can be used to analyse the light curves of detached eclipsing binary stars and transiting exoplanet systems that is fast and accurate, and that can include the effects of star spots, Doppler boosting and light-travel time within binaries with eccentric orbits. The model represents the stars as triaxial ellipsoids. The apparent flux from the binary is calculated using Gauss-Legendre integration over the ellipses that are the projection of these ellipsoids on the sky. The model can also be used to calculate the flux-weighted radial velocity of the stars during an eclipse (Rossiter-McLaughlin effect). The main features of the model have tested by comparison to observed data and other light curve models. The model is found to be accurate enough t...

  1. Modeling the X-ray light curves of Cygnus X-3. Possible role of the jet

    CERN Document Server

    Vilhu, Osmi

    2012-01-01

    Context: Physics behind the soft X-ray light curve asymmetries in Cygnus X-3, a well-known microquasar, was studied. AIMS: Observable effects of the jet close to the line-of-sight were investigated and interpreted within the frame of light curve physics. METHODS: The path of a hypothetical imprint of the jet, advected by the WR-wind, was computed and its crossing with the line-of-sight during the binary orbit determined. We explore the possibility that physically this 'imprint' is a formation of dense clumps triggered by jet bow shocks in the wind ("clumpy trail"). Models for X-ray continuum and emission line light curves were constructed using two absorbers: mass columns along the line-of-sight of i) the WR wind and ii) the clumpy trail, as seen from the compact star. These model light curves were compared with the observed ones from the RXTE/ASM (continuum) and Chandra/HETG (emission lines). Results: We show that the shapes of the Cygnus X-3 light curves can be explained by the two absorbers using the incli...

  2. Observational Signatures of Planets in Protoplanetary Disks: Spiral Arms Observed in Scattered Light Imaging Can be Induced by Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Ruobing; Rafikov, Roman; Stone, James

    2015-01-01

    Using 3D global hydro simulations coupled with radiative transfer calculations, we study the appearance of density waves induced by giant planets in direct imaging observations at near infrared wavelengths. We find that a 6 MJ planet in a typical disk around a 1 M_sun star can produce prominent and detectable spiral arms both interior and exterior to its orbit. The inner arms have (1) two well separated arms in roughly m=2 symmetry, (2) exhibit ~10-15 degrees pitch angles, (3) ~180-270 degrees extension in the azimuthal direction, and (4) ~150% surface brightness enhancement, all broadly consistent with observed spiral arms in the SAO 206462 and MWC 758 systems. The outer arms cannot explain observations as they are too tightly wound given typical disk scale height. We confirm previous results that the outer density waves excited by a 1 MJ planet exhibit low contrast in the IR and are practically not detectable. We also find that 3D effects of the waves are important. Compared to isothermal models, density wa...

  3. Suppressing Electroweak Precision Observables in 5D Warped Models

    CERN Document Server

    Cabrer, Joan A; Quiros, Mariano

    2011-01-01

    We elaborate on a recently proposed mechanism to suppress large contributions to the electroweak precision observables in five dimensional (5D) warped models, without the need for an extended 5D gauge sector. The main ingredient is a modification of the AdS metric in the vicinity of the infrared (IR) brane corresponding to a strong deviation from conformality in the IR of the 4D holographic dual. We compute the general low energy effective theory of the 5D warped Standard Model, emphasizing additional IR contributions to the wave function renormalization of the light Higgs mode. We also derive expressions for the S and T parameters as a function of a generic 5D metric and zero-mode wave functions. We give an approximate formula for the mass of the radion that works even for strong deviation from the AdS background. We proceed to work out the details of an explicit model and derive bounds for the first KK masses of the various bulk fields. The radion is the lightest new particle although its mass is already at...

  4. Observational learning of a baseball-pitch: the effect of different model demonstrations

    OpenAIRE

    Ghorbani, Saeed

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present research was to investigate the effects of observing different model demonstrations inclusive video, stick-figure and point-light models on observational learning of a Baseball pitch. 41 young adults performed 5 pretest trials, three blocks of 10 acquisition trials, and two retention tests of 5 trials in 10 min and one week after the last acquisition block. Kinematic pattern, movement form, and movement time of overall movement and movement phases were measured as depen...

  5. Observational signatures of holographic models of inflation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. McFadden; K. Skenderis

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the phenomenology of recently proposed holographic models of inflation, in which the very early universe is non-geometric and is described by a dual three-dimensional quantum field theory (QFT). We analyze models determined by a specific class of dual QFTs and show that they have the foll

  6. Observations and modelling of snow avalanche entrainment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sovilla

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper full scale avalanche dynamics measurements from the Italian Pizzac and Swiss Vallée de la Sionne test sites are used to develop a snowcover entrainment model. A detailed analysis of three avalanche events shows that snowcover entrainment at the avalanche front appears to dominate over bed erosion at the basal sliding surface. Furthermore, the distribution of mass within the avalanche body is primarily a function of basal friction. We show that the mass distribution in the avalanche changes the flow dynamics significantly. Two different dynamical models, the Swiss Voellmy-fluid model and the Norwegian NIS model, are used to back calculate the events. Various entrainment methods are investigated and compared to measurements. We demon-strate that the Norwegian NIS model is clearly better able to simulate the events once snow entrainment has been included in the simulations.

  7. Light Stop, Heavy Higgs, and Heavy Gluino in Supersymmetric Standard Models with Extra Matters

    CERN Document Server

    Hisano, Junji; Kuwahara, Takumi

    2016-01-01

    We have explored the possibilities of scenarios with heavy gluinos and light stops in the supersymmetric (SUSY) standard models with extra vector-like multiplets. If we assume the hierarchical structure for soft masses of MSSM scalar fields and extra scalars, the light stop and the observed Higgs boson can be realized. While the stau is the lightest SUSY particle (LSP) in broad parameter space, we have found the neutralino LSP is realized in the case that the non-zero soft parameters for the MSSM Higgs doublets or the non-universal gaugino masses are assumed.

  8. Genetic-Algorithm-based Light-Curve Optimization Applied to Observations of the W Ursae Majoris Star BH Cassiopeiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Travis S.

    1999-05-01

    I have developed a procedure utilizing a genetic-algorithm (GA) based optimization scheme to fit the observed light curves of an eclipsing binary star with a model produced by the Wilson-Devinney (W-D) code. The principal advantages of this approach are the global search capability and the objectivity of the final result. Although this method can be more efficient than some other comparably global search techniques, the computational requirements of the code are still considerable. I have applied this fitting procedure to my observations of the W UMa type eclipsing binary BH Cassiopeiae. An analysis of V-band CCD data obtained in 1994-1995 from Steward Observatory and U- and B-band photoelectric data obtained in 1996 from McDonald Observatory provided three complete light curves to constrain the fit. In addition, radial velocity curves obtained in 1997 from McDonald Observatory provided a direct measurement of the system mass ratio to restrict the search. The results of the GA-based fit are in excellent agreement with the final orbital solution obtained with the standard differential corrections procedure in the W-D code.

  9. Genetic-Algorithm-Based Light-Curve Optimization Applied To Observations Of The W. Ursae Majoris Star BH Cassiopeiae

    CERN Document Server

    Metcalfe, T S

    1999-01-01

    I have developed a procedure utilizing a Genetic-Algorithm-based optimization scheme to fit the observed light curves of an eclipsing binary star with a model produced by the Wilson-Devinney code. The principal advantages of this approach are the global search capability and the objectivity of the final result. Although this method can be more efficient than some other comparably global search techniques, the computational requirements of the code are still considerable. I have applied this fitting procedure to my observations of the W UMa type eclipsing binary BH Cassiopeiae. An analysis of V-band CCD data obtained in 1994/95 from Steward Observatory and U- and B-band photoelectric data obtained in 1996 from McDonald Observatory provided three complete light curves to constrain the fit. In addition, radial velocity curves obtained in 1997 from McDonald Observatory provided a direct measurement of the system mass ratio to restrict the search. The results of the GA-based fit are in excellent agreement with the...

  10. Light front quark-diquark model for the nucleons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maji, Tanmay; Chakrabarti, Dipankar

    2016-11-01

    We present a quark-diquark model for the nucleons where the light front wave functions are constructed from the soft-wall AdS/QCD prediction. The model is consistent with the quark counting rule and Drell-Yan-West relation. The scale evolution of unpolarized parton distribution functions (PDFs) of protons is simulated by making the parameters in the PDF scale dependent. The evolution of the PDFs are reproduced for a wide range of evolution scale. Helicity and transversity distributions for the proton predicted in this model agree with phenomenological fits. The axial and tensor charges are also shown to agree with the experimental data. The model can be used to evaluate distributions like generalized parton distributions, transverse momentum dependent distributions, etc., and their scale evolutions.

  11. Nucleon parton distributions in a light-front quark model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutsche, Thomas [Universitaet Tuebingen, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Kepler Center for Astro and Particle Physics, Tuebingen (Germany); Lyubovitskij, Valery E. [Universitaet Tuebingen, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Kepler Center for Astro and Particle Physics, Tuebingen (Germany); Tomsk State University, Department of Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Tomsk Polytechnic University, Laboratory of Particle Physics, Mathematical Physics Department, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Departamento de Fisica y Centro Cientifico Tecnologico de Valparaiso (CCTVal), Valparaiso (Chile); Schmidt, Ivan [Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Departamento de Fisica y Centro Cientifico Tecnologico de Valparaiso (CCTVal), Valparaiso (Chile)

    2017-02-15

    Continuing our analysis of parton distributions in the nucleon, we extend our light-front quark model in order to obtain both the helicity-independent and the helicity-dependent parton distributions, analytically matching the results of global fits at the initial scale μ∝ 1 GeV; they also contain the correct Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi evolution. We also calculate the transverse parton, Wigner and Husimi distributions from a unified point of view, using our light-front wave functions and expressing them in terms of the parton distributions q{sub v}(x) and δq{sub v}(x). Our results are very relevant for the current and future program of the COMPASS experiment at SPS (CERN). (orig.)

  12. Nucleon parton distributions in a light-front quark model

    CERN Document Server

    Gutsche, Thomas; Schmidt, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Continuing with our analysis of parton distributions in the nucleon, we extend our light-front quark model in order to obtain both the helicity independent and helicity dependent parton distributions, analytically matching the results of global fits at the initial scale $\\mu \\sim 1$ GeV, and which also contain the correct Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi evolution. We also calculate the transverse parton, Wigner and Husimi distributions from a unified point of view, using our light-front wave functions and expressing them in terms of the parton distributions $q_v(x)$ and $\\delta q_v(x)$. Our results are very relevant for the current and future program of the COMPASS experiment at SPS (CERN).

  13. Light self-focusing in the atmosphere: thin window model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaseva, Irina A.; Fedoruk, Mikhail P.; Rubenchik, Alexander M.; Turitsyn, Sergei K.

    2016-08-01

    Ultra-high power (exceeding the self-focusing threshold by more than three orders of magnitude) light beams from ground-based laser systems may find applications in space-debris cleaning. The propagation of such powerful laser beams through the atmosphere reveals many novel interesting features compared to traditional light self-focusing. It is demonstrated here that for the relevant laser parameters, when the thickness of the atmosphere is much shorter than the focusing length (that is, of the orbit scale), the beam transit through the atmosphere in lowest order produces phase distortion only. This means that by using adaptive optics it may be possible to eliminate the impact of self-focusing in the atmosphere on the laser beam. The area of applicability of the proposed “thin window” model is broader than the specific physical problem considered here. For instance, it might find applications in femtosecond laser material processing.

  14. Long-slit spectral observations and stellar mass-to-light ratio of spiral galaxy UGC11919

    CERN Document Server

    Saburova, A; Uklein, R; Katkov, I

    2015-01-01

    We performed the long-slit observations of spiral galaxy UGC11919 with the Russian 6-m telescope to study its kinematics and stellar population. The previous studies gave basis to suspect that this galaxy possesses a peculiarly low mass-to-light ratio $M/L_B$ of stellar population which could indicate the presence of bottom-light stellar initial mass function (IMF). The ratio $M/L_B$ estimated for different evolutionary models of stellar population using both the broad-band magnitudes and the detailed spectral data confirms this peculiarity if the disc inclination angle $i>30^o$, as it was obtained earlier from the optical photometry, in a good agreement with the HI data cube modelling. However the re-processing of HI data cube we carried out showed that it is compatible with much lower value $i=13^o$ corresponding to the "normal" ratio $M/L_B$, which does not need any peculiar stellar IMF. Stellar velocity dispersion measured at one disc radial scalelength from the center also better agrees with the low disc...

  15. Predicting exoplanet observability in time, contrast, separation, and polarization, in scattered light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schworer, Guillaume; Tuthill, Peter G.

    2015-06-01

    Context. Polarimetry is one of the keys to enhanced direct imaging of exoplanets. Not only does it deliver a differential observable providing extra contrast, but when coupled with spectroscopy, it also reveals valuable information on the exoplanetary atmospheric composition. Nevertheless, angular separation and contrast ratio to the host-star make for extremely challenging observation. Producing detailed predictions for exactly how the expected signals should appear is of critical importance for the designs and observational strategies of tomorrow's telescopes. Aims: We aim at accurately determining the magnitudes and evolution of the main observational signatures for imaging an exoplanet: separation, contrast ratio to the host-star and polarization as a function of the orbital geometry and the reflectance parameters of the exoplanet. Methods: These parameters were used to construct a polarized-reflectance model based on the input of orbital parameters and two albedo values. The model is able to calculate a variety of observational predictions for exoplanets at any orbital time. Results: The inter-dependency of the three main observational criteria - angular separation, contrast ratio, polarization - result in a complex time-evolution of the system. They greatly affect the viability of planet observation by direct imaging. We introduce a new generic display of the main observational criteria, which enables an observer to determine whether an exoplanet is within detection limits: the Separation-POlarization-Contrast (SPOC) diagrams. Conclusions: We explore the complex effect of orbital and albedo parameters on the visibility of an exoplanet. The code we developed is available for public use and collaborative improvement on the python package index, together with its documentation. It is another step towards a full comprehensive simulation tool for predicting and interpreting the results of future observational exoplanetary discovery campaigns.

  16. Observational Tests of Planet Formation Models

    CERN Document Server

    Sozzetti, A; Latham, D W; Carney, B W; Laird, J B; Stefanik, R P; Boss, A P; Charbonneau, D; O'Donovan, F T; Holman, M J; Winn, J N

    2007-01-01

    We summarize the results of two experiments to address important issues related to the correlation between planet frequencies and properties and the metallicity of the hosts. Our results can usefully inform formation, structural, and evolutionary models of gas giant planets.

  17. Modeling investigation of light-absorbing aerosols in the Amazon Basin during the wet season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiaoqiao; Saturno, Jorge; Chi, Xuguang; Walter, David; Lavric, Jost; Moran-Zuloaga, Daniel; Ditas, Florian; Pöhlker, Christopher; Brito, Joel; Carbone, Samara; Artaxo, Paulo; Andreae, Meinrat

    2017-04-01

    We use a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) to interpret observed light-absorbing aerosols in Amazonia during the wet season. Observed aerosol properties, including black carbon (BC) concentration and light absorption, at the Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO) site in the central Amazon have relatively low background levels but frequently show high peaks during the study period of January-April 2014. With daily temporal resolution for open fire emissions and modified aerosol optical properties, our model successfully captures the observed variation in fine/coarse aerosol and BC concentrations as well as aerosol light absorption and its wavelength dependence over the Amazon Basin. The source attribution in the model indicates the important influence of open fire on the observed variances of aerosol concentrations and absorption, mainly from regional sources (northern South America) and from northern Africa. The contribution of open fires from these two regions is comparable, with the latter becoming more important in the late wet season. The analysis of correlation and enhancement ratios of BC versus CO suggests transport times of 1.8). Uncertainty analysis shows that accounting for absorption due to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and primary biogenic aerosol (PBA) particles could result in differences of < 8 and 5-40% in total absorption, respectively.

  18. Modeling investigation of light-absorbing aerosols in the Amazon Basin during the wet season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiaoqiao; Saturno, Jorge; Chi, Xuguang; Walter, David; Lavric, Jost V.; Moran-Zuloaga, Daniel; Ditas, Florian; Pöhlker, Christopher; Brito, Joel; Carbone, Samara; Artaxo, Paulo; Andreae, Meinrat O.

    2016-11-01

    We use a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) to interpret observed light-absorbing aerosols in Amazonia during the wet season. Observed aerosol properties, including black carbon (BC) concentration and light absorption, at the Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO) site in the central Amazon have relatively low background levels but frequently show high peaks during the study period of January-April 2014. With daily temporal resolution for open fire emissions and modified aerosol optical properties, our model successfully captures the observed variation in fine/coarse aerosol and BC concentrations as well as aerosol light absorption and its wavelength dependence over the Amazon Basin. The source attribution in the model indicates the important influence of open fire on the observed variances of aerosol concentrations and absorption, mainly from regional sources (northern South America) and from northern Africa. The contribution of open fires from these two regions is comparable, with the latter becoming more important in the late wet season. The analysis of correlation and enhancement ratios of BC versus CO suggests transport times of fossil fuel combustion in the southern part of the basin (AAE ˜ 1) but more open fire and dust influence in the northern part (AAE > 1.8). Uncertainty analysis shows that accounting for absorption due to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and primary biogenic aerosol (PBA) particles could result in differences of < 8 and 5-40 % in total absorption, respectively.

  19. TEM Observation of the Dislocations Nucleated from Cracks inside Lightly or Heavily Doped Czochralski Silicon Wafers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiji Shiba

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The crack propagation from the indent introduced with a Vickers hardness tester at room temperature and the dislocation nucleation from the cracks at 900°C inside lightly boron (B, heavily B, or heavily arsenic (As doped Czochralski (CZ Si wafers were investigated with transmission electron microscopy (TEM observations. It was found that the dopant concentration and the dopant type did not significantly affect the crack propagation and the dislocation nucleation. The slip dislocations with a density of about (0.8∼2.8 × 1013/cm3 were nucleated from the cracks propagated about 10 μm in depth. Furthermore, small dislocations that nucleated with very high density and without cracks were found around the indent introduced at 1000°C.

  20. Observations and light curve solutions of four ultrashort-period binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjurkchieva D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents light curve solutions of our observations of four new ultrashort-period eclipsing binaries with MS components. Two of them have periods almost at the upper limit (0.22 days of the ultrashort-period binaries, while the periods of around 0.18 days of CSS J171508.5+350658 and CSS J214633.8+120016 are amongst the shortest known orbital periods. CSS J171410.0+ 445850, CSS J214633.8+120016 and CSS J224326.0+154532 are over contact binaries with fill out factors around 0.25 while CSS J171508.5+350658 is a semidetached system. The two targets with shortest periods consist of M dwarfs.

  1. ADOPT: A Historically Validated Light Duty Vehicle Consumer Choice Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooker, A.; Gonder, J.; Lopp, S.; Ward, J.

    2015-05-04

    The Automotive Deployment Option Projection Tool (ADOPT) is a light-duty vehicle consumer choice and stock model supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Vehicle Technologies Office. It estimates technology improvement impacts on U.S. light-duty vehicles sales, petroleum use, and greenhouse gas emissions. ADOPT uses techniques from the multinomial logit method and the mixed logit method estimate sales. Specifically, it estimates sales based on the weighted value of key attributes including vehicle price, fuel cost, acceleration, range and usable volume. The average importance of several attributes changes nonlinearly across its range and changes with income. For several attributes, a distribution of importance around the average value is used to represent consumer heterogeneity. The majority of existing vehicle makes, models, and trims are included to fully represent the market. The Corporate Average Fuel Economy regulations are enforced. The sales feed into the ADOPT stock model. It captures key aspects for summing petroleum use and greenhouse gas emissions This includes capturing the change in vehicle miles traveled by vehicle age, the creation of new model options based on the success of existing vehicles, new vehicle option introduction rate limits, and survival rates by vehicle age. ADOPT has been extensively validated with historical sales data. It matches in key dimensions including sales by fuel economy, acceleration, price, vehicle size class, and powertrain across multiple years. A graphical user interface provides easy and efficient use. It manages the inputs, simulation, and results.

  2. Modeling of lighting behaviour of a hybrid lighting system in inner spaces of Building of Electrical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amado, L.; Osma, G.; Villamizar, R.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the modelling of lighting behaviour of a hybrid lighting system - HLS in inner spaces for tropical climate. HLS aims to mitigate the problem of high electricity consumption used by artificial lighting in buildings. These systems integrate intelligently the daylight and artificial light through control strategies. However, selection of these strategies usually depends on expertise of designer and of available budget. In order to improve the selection process of the control strategies, this paper analyses the Electrical Engineering Building (EEB) case, initially modelling of lighting behaviour is established for the HLS of a classroom and an office. This allows estimating the illuminance level of the mixed lighting in the space, and energy consumption by artificial light according to different lighting control techniques, a control strategy based on occupancy and a combination of them. The model considers the concept of Daylight Factor (DF) for the estimating of daylight illuminance on the work plane for tropical climatic conditions. The validation of the model was carried out by comparing the measured and model-estimated indoor illuminances.

  3. Extension of the Li\\`ege Intranuclear-Cascade model to reactions induced by light nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Mancusi, Davide; Cugnon, Joseph; David, Jean-Christophe; Kaitaniemi, Pekka; Leray, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, we present the extension of the Li\\`ege Intranuclear Cascade model to reactions induced by light ions. Second, we describe the C++ version of the code, which it is physics-wise equivalent to the legacy version, is available in Geant4 and will serve as the basis for all future development of the model. We describe the ideas upon which we built our treatment of nucleus-nucleus reactions and we compare the model predictions against a vast set of heterogeneous experimental data. In spite of the discussed limitations of the intranuclear-cascade scheme, we find that our model yields valid predictions for a number of observables and positions itself as one of the most attractive alternatives available to Geant4 users for the simulation of light-ion-induced reactions.

  4. A Search for Beyond Standard Model Light Bosons Decaying into Muon Pairs

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    A dataset corresponding to $2.8~\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$ of proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 13~\\mathrm{TeV}$ was recorded by the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC. These data are used to search for new light bosons with a mass in the range $0.25-8.5~\\mathrm{GeV}/c^2$ decaying into muon pairs. No excess is observed in the data, and a model-independent upper limit on the product of the cross section, branching fraction and acceptance is derived. The results are interpreted in the context of two benchmark models, namely, the next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model, and dark SUSY models including those predicting a non-negligible light boson lifetime.

  5. A diffusion approximation model of light transport in multilayered skin tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makropoulou, M.; Kaselouris, E.; Drakaki, E.; Serafetinides, A. A.; Sianoudis, J. A.

    2007-07-01

    In dermatology, biophotonic methods offer high sensitivity and non-invasive measurements of skin tissue optical properties, in various physiological and pathological conditions. There are numerous skin processes, which can be examined and characterized using diagnostic optical spectroscopy, as the monitoring of skin aging, diagnosis of benign and malignant cutaneous lesions, dosimetry in photodynamic therapy (PDT), etc. Several mathematical models have been used to calculate the tissue optical properties from experimental measurements and to predict the light propagation in soft tissues, like skin, based on transport theory or Monte Carlo modeling. This work analyses the phenomena which are observed experimentally during the irradiation of skin, such as the absorption, reflectance, scattering, fluorescence and transmission of laser light. The study was carried out on animal skin samples, extracted post-mortem. In this work we also tried to evaluate the utility of diffusion approximation modeling for measuring the light intensity distribution in the skin samples with cw visible laser beam (λ=632.8 nm). The diffusion theory model was tested for the simulation results of the spatial light distribution within a five-layer model of animal skin tissue. We have studied the dependence towards the depth and the radial distance of the photon density of the incident radiation.

  6. The model parameters of the mean light curves of the variable red giant stars in the near infrared colour-bands and compare them with the visual mean light curves

    CERN Document Server

    Kudashkina, L S

    2016-01-01

    The observational data of the near infrared bands (H and K) have been used for the modeling mean light curves. Also the visual observational data have been fitted the same. The infrared and visual mean light curves were compared. All parameters and Fourier-coefficients of the mean light curves were obtained. The periodogram analysis of the variation of the brightness have been carried out.

  7. Can Large Time Delays Observed in Light Curves of Coronal Loops be Explained by Impulsive Heating?

    CERN Document Server

    Lionello, Roberto; Winebarger, Amy R; Linker, Jon A; Mikić, Zoran

    2015-01-01

    The light curves of solar coronal loops often peak first in channels associated with higher temperatures and then in those associated with lower. The time delays between the different narrowband EUV channels have been measured for many individual loops and recently for every pixel of an active region observation. Time delays between channels for an active region exhibit a wide range of values, with maxima $>$ 5,000\\,s. These large time delays make up 3-26\\% (depending on the channel pair) of the pixels where a significant, positive time delay is measured. It has been suggested that time delays can be explained by impulsive heating. In this paper, we investigate whether the largest observed time delays can be explained by this hypothesis by simulating a series of coronal loops with different heating rates, loop lengths, abundances, and geometries to determine the range of expected time delays between a set of four EUV channels. We find that impulsive heating cannot address the largest time delays observed in t...

  8. CAN LARGE TIME DELAYS OBSERVED IN LIGHT CURVES OF CORONAL LOOPS BE EXPLAINED IN IMPULSIVE HEATING?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lionello, Roberto; Linker, Jon A.; Mikić, Zoran [Predictive Science, Inc., 9990 Mesa Rim Rd., Ste. 170, San Diego, CA 92121-3933 (United States); Alexander, Caroline E.; Winebarger, Amy R., E-mail: lionel@predsci.com, E-mail: linkerj@predsci.com, E-mail: mikicz@predsci.com, E-mail: caroline.e.alexander@nasa.gov, E-mail: amy.r.winebarger@nasa.gov [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, ZP 13, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States)

    2016-02-20

    The light curves of solar coronal loops often peak first in channels associated with higher temperatures and then in those associated with lower temperatures. The delay times between the different narrowband EUV channels have been measured for many individual loops and recently for every pixel of an active region observation. The time delays between channels for an active region exhibit a wide range of values. The maximum time delay in each channel pair can be quite large, i.e., >5000 s. These large time delays make-up 3%–26% (depending on the channel pair) of the pixels where a trustworthy, positive time delay is measured. It has been suggested that these time delays can be explained by simple impulsive heating, i.e., a short burst of energy that heats the plasma to a high temperature, after which the plasma is allowed to cool through radiation and conduction back to its original state. In this paper, we investigate whether the largest observed time delays can be explained by this hypothesis by simulating a series of coronal loops with different heating rates, loop lengths, abundances, and geometries to determine the range of expected time delays between a set of four EUV channels. We find that impulsive heating cannot address the largest time delays observed in two of the channel pairs and that the majority of the large time delays can only be explained by long, expanding loops with photospheric abundances. Additional observations may rule out these simulations as an explanation for the long time delays. We suggest that either the time delays found in this manner may not be representative of real loop evolution, or that the impulsive heating and cooling scenario may be too simple to explain the observations, and other potential heating scenarios must be explored.

  9. Light

    CERN Document Server

    Ditchburn, R W

    2011-01-01

    This classic study, available for the first time in paperback, clearly demonstrates how quantum theory is a natural development of wave theory, and how these two theories, once thought to be irreconcilable, together comprise a single valid theory of light. Aimed at students with an intermediate-level knowledge of physics, the book first offers a historical introduction to the subject, then covers topics such as wave theory, interference, diffraction, Huygens' Principle, Fermat's Principle, and the accuracy of optical measurements. Additional topics include the velocity of light, relativistic o

  10. Bayesian Network Models for Local Dependence among Observable Outcome Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almond, Russell G.; Mulder, Joris; Hemat, Lisa A.; Yan, Duanli

    2009-01-01

    Bayesian network models offer a large degree of flexibility for modeling dependence among observables (item outcome variables) from the same task, which may be dependent. This article explores four design patterns for modeling locally dependent observations: (a) no context--ignores dependence among observables; (b) compensatory context--introduces…

  11. Photometric Observation and Modeling Study of the Asteroid (26) Proserpina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin, Li; Hai-bin, Zhao; Xin, Wang

    2016-07-01

    We present the new CCD observations on the asteroid (26) Proserpina performed between 2011 December and 2012 February. Based upon the new observations, a synodic rotation period of (13.107 ± 0.002) h is obtained. Using all the light curves available sofar, the rotation vector, rotation period, and the shape model of the asteroid are determined with the convex-hull inversion method. Further more, a bootstrap method is applied to estimating the uncertainties of the rotation parameters. We derive a pair of possible rotation poles for (26) Proserpina, and believe that it has a retrograde rotation. The rotation poles are determined to be λ1 = 90.8° ± 1.4°, β1 = -53.1° ± 3.2°, and λ2 = 259.3° ± 2.2°, β2 = -62.0° ± 2.0°. The sidereal rotation periods corresponding to the two poles are almost the same as (13.109777 ± 3.8 × 10-6) h. And corresponding to this pair of rotation poles, the convex-hull shapes of the asteroid are the mirror images of each other.

  12. Modeling light use efficiency in a subtropical mangrove forest equipped with CO2 eddy covariance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, J.G.; Engel, V.; Fuentes, J.D.; Fuller, D.O.; Kwon, H.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the importance of mangrove ecosystems in the global carbon budget, the relationships between environmental drivers and carbon dynamics in these forests remain poorly understood. This limited understanding is partly a result of the challenges associated with in situ flux studies. Tower-based CO2 eddy covariance (EC) systems are installed in only a few mangrove forests worldwide, and the longest EC record from the Florida Everglades contains less than 9 years of observations. A primary goal of the present study was to develop a methodology to estimate canopy-scale photosynthetic light use efficiency in this forest. These tower-based observations represent a basis for associating CO2 fluxes with canopy light use properties, and thus provide the means for utilizing satellite-based reflectance data for larger scale investigations. We present a model for mangrove canopy light use efficiency utilizing the enhanced green vegetation index (EVI) derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) that is capable of predicting changes in mangrove forest CO2 fluxes caused by a hurricane disturbance and changes in regional environmental conditions, including temperature and salinity. Model parameters are solved for in a Bayesian framework. The model structure requires estimates of ecosystem respiration (RE), and we present the first ever tower-based estimates of mangrove forest RE derived from nighttime CO2 fluxes. Our investigation is also the first to show the effects of salinity on mangrove forest CO2 uptake, which declines 5% per each 10 parts per thousand (ppt) increase in salinity. Light use efficiency in this forest declines with increasing daily photosynthetic active radiation, which is an important departure from the assumption of constant light use efficiency typically applied in satellite-driven models. The model developed here provides a framework for estimating CO2 uptake by these forests from reflectance data and information about

  13. Modeling light use efficiency in a subtropical mangrove forest equipped with CO2 eddy covariance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Barr

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of mangrove ecosystems in the global carbon budget, the relationships between environmental drivers and carbon dynamics in these forests remain poorly understood. This limited understanding is partly a result of the challenges associated with in situ flux studies. Tower-based CO2 eddy covariance (EC systems are installed in only a few mangrove forests worldwide, and the longest EC record from the Florida Everglades contains less than 9 years of observations. A primary goal of the present study was to develop a methodology to estimate canopy-scale photosynthetic light use efficiency in this forest. These tower-based observations represent a basis for associating CO2 fluxes with canopy light use properties, and thus provide the means for utilizing satellite-based reflectance data for larger scale investigations. We present a model for mangrove canopy light use efficiency utilizing the enhanced green vegetation index (EVI derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS that is capable of predicting changes in mangrove forest CO2 fluxes caused by a hurricane disturbance and changes in regional environmental conditions, including temperature and salinity. Model parameters are solved for in a Bayesian framework. The model structure requires estimates of ecosystem respiration (RE, and we present the first ever tower-based estimates of mangrove forest RE derived from nighttime CO2 fluxes. Our investigation is also the first to show the effects of salinity on mangrove forest CO2 uptake, which declines 5% per each 10 parts per thousand (ppt increase in salinity. Light use efficiency in this forest declines with increasing daily photosynthetic active radiation, which is an important departure from the assumption of constant light use efficiency typically applied in satellite-driven models. The model developed here provides a framework for estimating CO2 uptake by these forests from reflectance data and

  14. Semi-dileptonic decays of the light vector mesons in Light Front Quark Model

    CERN Document Server

    Geng, Chao-Qiang

    2014-01-01

    We study the transition form factors of the light vector to pseudoscalar mesons as functions of the momentum transfer $q^2$ within the light-front quark model. With these form factors, we calculate the decay branching ratios of all possible modes for $V\\to P\\ell^+\\ell^-$ ($V=\\omega$ and $\\phi$, $P=\\pi^0$, $\\eta$ and $\\eta^{\\prime}$ and $\\ell=e$ and $\\mu$). We find that our numerical results fit with the data, such as those of $\\omega \\to \\pi^0 \\ell^+\\ell^-$ and $\\phi\\to \\pi^0 e^+e^-$ by NA60 and $\\phi \\to\\eta e^+e^-$ by SND. We also predict that the branching ratios of $\\phi \\to \\pi^0 \\mu^+\\mu^-$, $\\omega\\to \\eta e^+e^-$, $\\omega\\to \\eta \\mu^+\\mu^-$, $\\phi\\to \\eta \\mu^+\\mu^-$ and $\\phi\\to \\eta^{\\prime} e^+e^-$ to be aroud $3.48\\times 10^{-6}$, $3.22\\times 10^{-6}$, $1.81\\times 10^{-9}$, $6.86\\times 10^{-6}$ $2.97\\times 10^{-7}$, respectively.

  15. An Investigation of Aural Space inside Mousa Broch by Observation and Analysis of Sound and Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave Thomas

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This project emphasises the unique character and construction of Mousa broch, questions the model of Mousa broch as a roofed home (an interpretation adopted by Historic Scotland in 2002 and considers the way in which sound and light informs our understanding of the spaces contained within its structure. Underpinning the approach to data collection was the architectural concept of aural space. The author attempts to convey an impression of aural space inside Mousa broch by the creation of an audio-visual record supported by acoustic analysis, archaeological discussion, and an architectural breakdown of the spaces within the broch structure. Audio recordings, sound samples, photographs and movies were made on Mousa island and inside Mousa broch during the period of the Summer solstice of 2009.

  16. Influence of the correlated color temperature of a light source on the color discrimination capacity of the observer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Pedro J; Cordero, Eduardo M; Suero, María Isabel; Pérez, Ángel L

    2012-02-01

    It is well known that there are different preferences in correlated color temperature of light sources for daily living activities or for viewing artistic paintings. There are also data relating the capacity of observers to make judgments on color differences with the spectral power distribution of the light source used. The present work describes a visual color discrimination experiment whose results confirm the existence of a relationship between the correlated color temperature of a light source and the color discrimination capacities of the observers.

  17. Can a regional climate model reproduce observed extreme temperatures?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter F. Craigmile

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Using output from a regional Swedish climate model and observations from the Swedish synoptic observational network, we compare seasonal minimum temperatures from model output and observations using marginal extreme value modeling techniques. We make seasonal comparisons using generalized extreme value models and empirically estimate the shift in the distribution as a function of the regional climate model values, using the Doksum shift function. Spatial and temporal comparisons over south central Sweden are made by building hierarchical Bayesian generalized extreme value models for the observed minima and regional climate model output. Generally speaking the regional model is surprisingly well calibrated for minimum temperatures. We do detect a problem in the regional model to produce minimum temperatures close to 0◦C. The seasonal spatial effects are quite similar between data and regional model. The observations indicate relatively strong warming, especially in the northern region. This signal is present in the regional model, but is not as strong.

  18. The phase smearing effect in the light curves of contact binaries observed by the Kepler mission and the determination of the parameters of 17 contact systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zola, S.; Baran, A.; Debski, B.; Jableka, D.

    2017-04-01

    The Kepler mission observations, taken in the long cadence mode, have a time resolution of about 30 min. In this paper, we investigate how the long cadence binning influences the shapes of the light curves of eclipsing binaries. A simulated light curve of a contact binary exhibiting a flat-bottom secondary minimum was applied for this purpose. We found that the binning caused a change in the variation amplitude and the shape of the minima. We modelled the simulated light curves corresponding to periods between 0.2 and 2 d using a code that does not account for binning and we derived the parameters. It turned out that only when the binary period is close to or longer than about 1.5 d are the solutions derived with such a code accurate. Rigorous modelling of systems with shorter periods requires the use of codes that do account for phase smearing due to long exposure times. We selected a sample of contact binaries observed by the Kepler mission, exhibiting a flat-bottom secondary minimum and showing no intrinsic activity. We solved the light curves of the sample with the most recent (2015) version of the Wilson-Devinney code and we derived the system parameters. The best models that we derived indicate that most of the systems in our sample have a deep contact configuration and that 13 out of 17 required the addition of a third light for good fits. Our results suggest that 13 systems could have tertiary companions.

  19. Television Advertising and Children's Observational Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkin, Charles K.

    This paper assesses advertising effects on children and adolescents from a social learning theory perspective, emphasizing imitative performance of vicariously reinforced consumption stimuli. The basic elements of social psychologist Albert Bandura's modeling theory are outlined. Then specific derivations from the theory are applied to the problem…

  20. Bicycle Rider Control: Observations, Modeling & Experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, J.D.G.

    2012-01-01

    Bicycle designers traditionally develop bicycles based on experience and trial and error. Adopting modern engineering tools to model bicycle and rider dynamics and control is another method for developing bicycles. This method has the potential to evaluate the complete design space, and thereby dev

  1. Double parton distributions in Light-Front constituent quark models

    CERN Document Server

    Rinaldi, Matteo; Traini, Marco; Vento, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Double parton distribution functions (dPDF), accessible in high energy proton-proton and proton nucleus collisions, encode information on how partons inside a proton are correlated among each other and could represent a tool to explore the 3D proton structure. In recent papers, double parton correlations have been studied in the valence quark region, by means of constituent quark models. This framework allows to understand clearly the dynamical origin of the correlations and to establish which, among the features of the results, are model independent. Recent relevant results, obtained in a relativistic light-front scheme, able to overcome some drawbacks of previous calculations, such as the poor support, will be presented. Peculiar transverse momentum correlations, generated by the correct treatment of the boosts, are obtained. The role of spin correlations will be also shown. In this covariant approach, the symmetries of the dPDFs are unambiguously reproduced. The study of the QCD evolution of the model resu...

  2. Modeling diffuse reflectance measurements of light scattered by layered tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Shelley B.

    In this dissertation, we first present a model for the diffuse reflectance due to a continuous beam incident normally on a half space composed of a uniform scattering and absorbing medium. This model is the result of an asymptotic analysis of the radiative transport equation for strong scattering, weak absorption and a defined beam width. Through comparison with the diffuse reflectance computed using the numerical solution of the radiative transport equation, we show that this diffuse reflectance model gives results that are accurate for small source-detector separation distances. We then present an explicit model for the diffuse reflectance due to a collimated beam of light incident normally on layered tissues. This model is derived using the corrected diffusion approximation applied to a layered medium, and it takes the form of a convolution with an explicit kernel and the incident beam profile. This model corrects the standard diffusion approximation over all source-detector separation distances provided the beam is sufficiently wide compared to the scattering mean-free path. We validate this model through comparison with Monte Carlo simulations. Then we use this model to estimate the optical properties of an epithelial layer from Monte Carlo simulation data. Using measurements at small source-detector separations and this model, we are able to estimate the absorption coefficient, scattering coefficient and anisotropy factor of epithelial tissues efficiently with reasonable accuracy. Finally, we present an extension of the corrected diffusion approximation for an obliquely incident beam. This model is formed through a Fourier Series representation in the azimuthal angle which allows us to exhibit the break in axisymmetry when combined with the previous analysis. We validate this model with Monte Carlo simulations. This model can also be written in the form of a convolution of an explicit kernel with the incident beam profile. Additionally, it can be used to

  3. Design and modeling of a light powered biomimicry micropump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, Tsun-kay Jackie; Liu, Jin; Dutta, Prashanta

    2015-06-01

    The design of compact micropumps to provide steady flow has been an on-going challenge in the field of microfluidics. In this work, a novel micropump concept is introduced utilizing bacteriorhodopsin and sugar transporter proteins. The micropump utilizes light energy to activate the transporter proteins, which create an osmotic pressure gradient and drive the fluid flow. The capability of the bio inspired micropump is demonstrated using a quasi 1D numerical model, where the contributions of bacteriorhodopsin and sugar transporter proteins are taken care of by appropriate flux boundary conditions in the flow channel. Proton flux created by the bacteriorhodopsin proteins is compared with experimental results to obtain the appropriate working conditions of the proteins. To identify the pumping capability, we also investigate the influences of several key parameters, such as the membrane fraction of transporter proteins, membrane proton permeability and the presence of light. Our results show that there is a wide bacteriorhodopsin membrane fraction range (from 0.2 to 10%) at which fluid flow stays nearly at its maximum value. Numerical results also indicate that lipid membranes with low proton permeability can effectively control the light source as a method to turn on/off fluid flow. This capability allows the micropump to be activated and shut off remotely without bulky support equipment. In comparison with existing micropumps, this pump generates higher pressures than mechanical pumps. It can produce peak fluid flow and shutoff head comparable to other non-mechanical pumps.

  4. A New Hybrid Model Rotor Flux Observer and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A new hybrid model rotor flux observer, based on a new voltage model, is presented. In the first place, the voltage model of an induction machine was constructed by using the modeling method discussed in this paper and then the current model using a flux feedback was adopted in this flux observer. Secondly, the two models were combined via a filter and then the rotor flux observer was established. In the M-T synchronous coordinate, the observer was analyzed theoretically and several important functions were derived. A comparison between the observer and the traditional models was made using Matlab software. The simulation results show that the observer model had a better performance than the traditional model.

  5. Human tissue optical properties measurements and light propagation modelling

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dam, JS

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available measurements and light propagation modelling J. S. Dam , A. Singh , and A. E. Karsten Biophotonics Group, National Laser Centre, CSIR, Pretoria. www.csir.co.za/biophotonics SAIP 2006 Slide 2 © CSIR 2006 www... and µ’s S a m p l e S a m p l e S a m p l e Integrating Sphere measurements “Measurements of the total transmittance and reflectance of a thin slab-shaped multiple scattering sample can yield the absorption- and the reduced...

  6. Using Gaussian Processes to Model Noise in Eclipsing Binary Light Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prsa, Andrej; Hambleton, Kelly M.

    2017-01-01

    The most precise data we have at hand arguably comes from NASA's Kepler mission, for which there is no good flux calibration available since it was designed to measure relative flux changes down to ~20ppm level. Instrumental artifacts thus abound in the data, and they vary with the module, location on the CCD, target brightness, electronic cross-talk, etc. In addition, Kepler's near-uninterrupted mode of observation reveals astrophysical signals and transient phenomena (i.e. spots, flares, protuberances, pulsations, magnetic field features, etc) that are not accounted for in the models. These "nuisance" signals, along with instrumental artifacts, are considered noise when modeling light curves; this noise is highly correlated and it cannot be considered poissonian or gaussian. Detrending non-white noise from light curve data has been an ongoing challenge in modeling eclipsing binary star and exoplanet transit light curves. Here we present an approach using Gaussian Processes (GP) to model noise as part of the overall likelihood function. The likelihood function consists of the eclipsing binary light curve generator PHOEBE, correlated noise model using GP, and a poissonian (shot) noise attributed to the actual stochastic component of the entire noise model. We consider GP parameters and poissonian noise amplitude as free parameters that are being sampled within the likelihood function, so the end result is the posterior probability not only for eclipsing binary model parameters, but for the noise parameters as well. We show that the posteriors of principal parameters are significantly more robust when noise is modeled rigorously compared to modeling detrended data with an eclipsing binary model alone. This work has been funded by NSF grant #1517460.

  7. Generalized Semi-Analytical Models of Supernova Light Curves

    CERN Document Server

    Chatzopoulos, Emmanouil; Vinko, Jozsef

    2011-01-01

    We present generalized supernova (SN) light curve (LC) models for a variety of power inputs. We provide an expression for the power input that is produced by self-similar forward and reverse shocks in SN ejecta - circumstellar matter (CSM) interaction. We find that this ejecta-CSM interaction luminosity is in agreement with results from multi-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics simulations in the optically-thin case. We develop a model for the case of an optically-thick CSM by invoking an approximation for the effects of radiative diffusion. In the context of this model, we provide predictions for the time of forward shock break-out from the optically-thick part of the CSM envelope. We also introduce a hybrid LC model that incorporates ejecta-CSM interaction plus Ni-56 and Co-56 radioactive decay input. We fit this hybrid model to the LC of the Super-Luminous Supernova (SLSN) 2006gy. We find that this model provides a better fit to the LC of this event than previously presented models. We also address the rel...

  8. Observation Constraints on the Simplified GCG Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Su-Mei; WU Pu-Xun

    2007-01-01

    A simplified version of generalized Chaplygin gas (GCG) as a dark energy model is studied. By using the latest 162 ESSENCE type la supernovae (Sne la) data, 30 high redshift Sne la data, the baryonk acoustic oscillation peak from SDSS and the CMB data from WMAP3, a strong constraint on this simplified GCG model is obtained. At the 95.4% confidence level we obtain 0.21 ≤ Ωm ≤ 0.31 and 0.994 ≤ a ≤ 1.0 with the best fit fim = 0.25 and a = 1. This best fit scenario corresponds to an accelerating universe with qo ~_0.65 and z ~- 0.81 (a redshift of cosmic phase transition from deceleration to acceleration).

  9. Observations and modelling of snow avalanche entrainment

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    In this paper full scale avalanche dynamics measurements from the Italian Pizzac and Swiss Vallée de la Sionne test sites are used to develop a snowcover entrainment model. A detailed analysis of three avalanche events shows that snowcover entrainment at the avalanche front appears to dominate over bed erosion at the basal sliding surface. Furthermore, the distribution of mass within the avalanche body is primarily a function of basal fric...

  10. Structural equation modeling for observational studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, J.B.

    2008-01-01

    Structural equation modeling (SEM) represents a framework for developing and evaluating complex hypotheses about systems. This method of data analysis differs from conventional univariate and multivariate approaches familiar to most biologists in several ways. First, SEMs are multiequational and capable of representing a wide array of complex hypotheses about how system components interrelate. Second, models are typically developed based on theoretical knowledge and designed to represent competing hypotheses about the processes responsible for data structure. Third, SEM is conceptually based on the analysis of covariance relations. Most commonly, solutions are obtained using maximum-likelihood solution procedures, although a variety of solution procedures are used, including Bayesian estimation. Numerous extensions give SEM a very high degree of flexibility in dealing with nonnormal data, categorical responses, latent variables, hierarchical structure, multigroup comparisons, nonlinearities, and other complicating factors. Structural equation modeling allows researchers to address a variety of questions about systems, such as how different processes work in concert, how the influences of perturbations cascade through systems, and about the relative importance of different influences. I present 2 example applications of SEM, one involving interactions among lynx (Lynx pardinus), mongooses (Herpestes ichneumon), and rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), and the second involving anuran species richness. Many wildlife ecologists may find SEM useful for understanding how populations function within their environments. Along with the capability of the methodology comes a need for care in the proper application of SEM.

  11. The Energetics of White-light Flares Observed by SDO/HMI and RHESSI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Neng-Yi; Xu, Yan; Wang, Haimin

    2016-11-01

    White-light (WL) flares have been observed and studied for more than a century since their first discovery. However, some fundamental physics behind the brilliant emission remains highly controversial. One of the important facts in addressing the flare energetics is the spatio-temporal correlation between the WL emission and the hard X-ray (HXR) radiation, presumably suggesting that energetic electrons are the energy sources. In this study, we present a statistical analysis of 25 strong flares (≥M5) observed simultaneously by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI), on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), and the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI). Among these events, WL emission was detected by SDO/HMI in 13 flares, associated with HXR emission. To quantitatively describe the strength of WL emission, equivalent area (EA) is defined as the integrated contrast enhancement over the entire flaring area. Our results show that the EA is inversely proportional to the HXR power-law index, indicating that stronger WL emission tends to be associated with a larger population of high energy electrons. However, no obvious correlation is found between WL emission and flux of non-thermal electrons at 50 keV. For the other group of 13 flares without detectable WL emission, the HXR spectra are softer (larger power-law index) than those flares with WL emission, especially for the X-class flares in this group.

  12. Is light deflected by light ? A proposal to observe a vacuum refractive index gradient induced by intense laser pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Couchot, F; Guilbaud, O; Kazamias, S; Pittman, M; Sarazin, X; Urban, M

    2016-01-01

    In very intense electromagnetic fields, the vacuum refractive index is expected to be modified due to non linear QED properties. Up to now, these predictions are tested by searching phase shifts in the propagation of polarized light through uniform magnetic fields. We propose a new approach which consists in producing a vacuum index gradient and send a light beam trough it in order to detect its angular deviation. The vacuum index gradient, similar to a "prismatic vacuum", is created by the interaction of two very intense and ultra short laser pulses, used as pump pulses. At the maximum of the index gradient, the deflection angle of the probe pulse is estimated to be $2 \\ 10^{-13} \\times (\\frac{w_0}{10 \\mu\\mathrm{m}})^{-3} \\times \\frac{I}{1 \\mathrm{J}}$ radians, where $I$ is the total energy of the two pump pulses and $w_0$ is the minimum waist (fwhm) at the interaction area of the two pump pulses. Assuming the most intense laser pulses attainable by the LASERIX facility ($I = 25$ J, 30 fs fwhm duration, 800 ...

  13. Manifestation of Hyperandrogenism in the Continuous Light Exposure-Induced PCOS Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuezhi Kang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a complex endocrine and metabolic disorder, and its pathogenesis has yet to be completely clarified. A fully convincing animal model has not been established for PCOS. In earlier studies, researchers have shown that the exposure of rats to continuous light can induce PCOS; nevertheless, hyperandrogenism, a key characteristic observed in human PCOS, has not been reported previously. In the present study, we found that (1 body weights decreased in female rats in a continuous light environment with both ovarian and uterine augmentation; (2 the estrous cycle in rats under continuous light environment was disordered, and polycystic ovary-like changes occurred, accompanied with fur loss and lethargy; and (3 serum testosterone levels in rats in a continuous light environment significantly increased. Our data suggest that continuous light can lead to the occurrence of PCOS in female rats without the need for drugs; this is a reasonable PCOS animal model that is more consistent with the natural disease state in humans; and poor sleep habits or negligence of sleep hygiene may be an important lifestyle factor in pathogenesis of PCOS.

  14. Tritium distribution modeling in a Light Water New Production Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeckle, J.W.

    1989-05-01

    The tritium distribution and tritium release pathways in a new light water production reactor were examined. A computer model was developed to track the tritium as it makes its way through the various plant systems and ends up either as a release to the atmosphere, the cooling tower blowdown or to the solid waste system. The model was designed to predict the integrated yearly tritium releases and provide estimated airborne tritium concentrations in various locations within the plant. WNP-1 was used as a representative model for a Light Water New Production Reactor (LWNPR). The Tritium Distribution Model solves for the time dependent tritium concentration in a system of nodes. These nodes are connected to one another via a set of internodal flow paths and to various sources and sinks. For example, plant systems such as the primary system are the nodes, piping and leaks are the internodal flow paths, make-up water is a source, and release to the atmosphere is a sink. The expected water mass of each node; the flow rates between nodes, sources, and sinks; and tritium source rates are provided as input. The code will solve for the time dependent tritium concentration in each node and the amount of tritium ''released'' to the sinks. Preliminary calculations have been performed using WNP-1 plant specific information obtained primarily from the WNP-1 FSAR. Further work is currently in progress to refine the model and provide a more realistic set of input values which will better represent an operating LWNPR. 1 ref., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  15. Interacting Dark Energy Models and Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaei, Hamed; Urioste, Jazmin

    2017-01-01

    Dark energy is one of the mysteries of the twenty first century. Although there are candidates resembling some features of dark energy, there is no single model describing all the properties of dark energy. Dark energy is believed to be the most dominant component of the cosmic inventory, but a lot of models do not consider any interaction between dark energy and other constituents of the cosmic inventory. Introducing an interaction will change the equation governing the behavior of dark energy and matter and creates new ways to explain cosmic coincidence problem. In this work we studied how the Hubble parameter and density parameters evolve with time in the presence of certain types of interaction. The interaction serves as a way to convert dark energy into matter to avoid a dark energy-dominated universe by creating new equilibrium points for the differential equations. Then we will use numerical analysis to predict the values of distance moduli at different redshifts and compare them to the values for the distance moduli obtained by WMAP (Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe). Undergraduate Student

  16. Retrieval of stratospheric O3 and NO2 vertical profiles using zenith scattered light observations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G S Meena; C S Bhosale; D B Jadhav

    2006-06-01

    Daily zenith scattered light intensity observations were carried out in the morning twilight hours using home-made UV-visible spectrometer over the tropical station Pune (18° 31′, 73° 51′)for the years 2000-2003.These observations are obtained in the spectral range 462-498 nm for the solar zenith angles (SZAs)varying from 87° to 91.5°. An algorithm has been developed to retrieve vertical profiles of ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) from ground-based measurements using the Chahine iteration method.This retrieval method has been checked using measured and recalculated slant column densities (SCDs)and they are found to be well matching. O3 and NO2 vertical profiles have been retrieved using a set of their air mass factors (AMFs)and SCDs measured over a range of 87-91.5° SZA during the morning.The vertical profiles obtained by this method are compared with Umkehr profiles and ozonesondes and they are found to be in good agreement.The bulk of the column density is found near layer 20-25 km.Daily total column densities (TCDs)of O3 and NO2 along with their stratospheric and tropospheric counterparts are derived using their vertical profiles for the period 2000-2003.The total column,stratospheric column and tropospheric column amounts of both trace gases are found to be maximum in summer and minimum in the winter season.Increasing trend is found in column density of NO2 in stratospheric,tropospheric and surface layers,but no trend is observed in O3 columns for above layers during the period 2000-2003.

  17. The Instanton-Dyon Liquid Model V: Twisted Light Quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yizhuang; Zahed, Ismail

    2016-01-01

    We discuss an extension of the instanton-dyon liquid model that includes twisted light quarks in the fundamental representation with explicit $Z_{N_c}$ symmetry for the case with equal number of colors $N_c$ and flavors $N_f$. We map the model on a 3-dimensional quantum effective theory, and analyze it in the mean-field approximation. The effective potential and the vacuum chiral condensates are made explicit for $N_f=N_c=2, 3$. The low temperature phase is center symmetric but breaks spontaneously flavor symmetry with $N_f-1$ massless pions. The high temperature phase breaks center symmetry but supports finite and unequal quark condensates.

  18. The Supersymmetric Parameter Space in Light of B-physics Observables and Electroweak Precision Data

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Jonathan Richard; Olive, K A; Weber, A M; Weiglein, G

    2007-01-01

    Indirect information about the possible scale of supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking is provided by B-physics observables (BPO) as well as electroweak precision observables (EWPO). We combine the constraints imposed by recent measurements of the BPO BR(b -> s gamma), BR(B_s -> mu^+ mu^-), BR(B_u -> tau nu_tau) and Delta M_{B_s} with those obtained from the experimental measurements of the EWPO M_W, sin^2 theta_eff, Gamma_Z, (g-2)_mu and M_h, incorporating the latest theoretical calculations of these observables within the Standard Model and supersymmetric extensions. We perform a chi^2 fit to the parameters of the constrained minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (CMSSM), in which the SUSY-breaking parameters are universal at the GUT scale, and the non-universal Higgs model (NUHM), in which this constraint is relaxed for the soft SUSY-breaking contributions to the Higgs masses. Assuming that the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) provides the cold dark matter density preferred by WMAP and other...

  19. The supersymmetric parameter space in light of B-physics observables and electroweak precision data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, John; Heinemeyer, Sven; Olive, Keith A.; Weber, Arne M.; Weiglein, Georg

    2007-08-01

    Indirect information about the possible scale of supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking is provided by B-physics observables (BPO) as well as electroweak precision observables (EWPO). We combine the constraints imposed by recent measurements of the BPO BR(b → sγ), BR(Bs → μ+μ-), BR(Bu → τντ) and ΔMBs with those obtained from the experimental measurements of the EWPO MW, sin2 θeff, ΓZ, (g-2)μ and Mh, incorporating the latest theoretical calculations of these observables within the Standard Model and supersymmetric extensions. We perform a χ2 fit to the parameters of the constrained minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (CMSSM), in which the SUSY-breaking parameters are universal at the GUT scale, and the non-universal Higgs model (NUHM), in which this constraint is relaxed for the soft SUSY-breaking contributions to the Higgs masses. Assuming that the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) provides the cold dark matter density preferred by WMAP and other cosmological data, we scan over the remaining parameter space. Within the CMSSM, we confirm the preference found previously for a relatively low SUSY-breaking scale, though there is some slight tension between the EWPO and the BPO. In studies of some specific NUHM scenarios compatible with the cold dark matter constraint we investigate (MA, tan β) planes and find preferred regions that have values of χ2 somewhat lower than in the CMSSM.

  20. Re-evaluation of model-based light-scattering spectroscopy for tissue spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Condon; Šćepanović, Obrad; Mirkovic, Jelena; McGee, Sasha; Yu, Chung-Chieh; Fulghum, Stephen; Wallace, Michael; Tunnell, James; Bechtel, Kate; Feld, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Model-based light scattering spectroscopy (LSS) seemed a promising technique for in-vivo diagnosis of dysplasia in multiple organs. In the studies, the residual spectrum, the difference between the observed and modeled diffuse reflectance spectra, was attributed to single elastic light scattering from epithelial nuclei, and diagnostic information due to nuclear changes was extracted from it. We show that this picture is incorrect. The actual single scattering signal arising from epithelial nuclei is much smaller than the previously computed residual spectrum, and does not have the wavelength dependence characteristic of Mie scattering. Rather, the residual spectrum largely arises from assuming a uniform hemoglobin distribution. In fact, hemoglobin is packaged in blood vessels, which alters the reflectance. When we include vessel packaging, which accounts for an inhomogeneous hemoglobin distribution, in the diffuse reflectance model, the reflectance is modeled more accurately, greatly reducing the amplitude of the residual spectrum. These findings are verified via numerical estimates based on light propagation and Mie theory, tissue phantom experiments, and analysis of published data measured from Barrett’s esophagus. In future studies, vessel packaging should be included in the model of diffuse reflectance and use of model-based LSS should be discontinued. PMID:19405760

  1. Modeling the underwater light field fluctuations in coastal oceanic waters: Validation with experimental data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundarabalan, Balasubramanian; Shanmugam, Palanisamy; Ahn, Yu-Hwan

    2016-03-01

    Modeling of the wave-induced underwater light fluctuations at near-surface depths in coastal oceanic waters is challenging because of the surface roughness and strong anisotropic effects of the light field. In the present work, a simple and computationally efficient radiative transfer model is used for the wind-driven sea surface for simulating underwater light fields such as downwelling irradiance ( E d ), upwelling irradiance ( E u ), and upwelling radiance ( L u ) in a spatial domain. It is an extension of our previous work that essentially combines the air-sea interface of the wind-driven sea surface with transmittance and reflectance along with the diffuse and direct components of the homogenous and inhomogeneous water column. The present model simulates underwater light fields for any possible values of absorption and backscattering coefficients. To assess the performance of the model, the E d , E u , and L u profiles predicted by the model are compared with experimental data from relatively clear and turbid coastal waters. Statistical results show significantly low mean relative differences regardless of the wavelength. Comparison of the simulated and in-situ time series data measured over rough sea surfaces demonstrates that model-observation agreement is good for the present model. The Hydrolight model when implemented with the modified bottom reflectance and phase function provides significantly better results than the original Hydrolight model without consideration of the bottom slope and vertically varying phase function. However, these results are non-spatial and have errors fluctuating at different wavelengths. To further demonstrate the efficiency of the present model, spatial distribution patterns of the underwater light fields are simulated based on the measured data from a coastal station for different solar zenith angles (under sunny condition). Simulated wave-induced fluctuations of the underwater lights fields show a good consistency with in

  2. Bridging EUV and white-light observations to inspect the initiation phase of a "two-stage" solar eruptive event

    CERN Document Server

    Byrne, Jason P; Seaton, Dan B; Bain, Hazel M; Habbal, Shadia R

    2014-01-01

    The initiation phase of CMEs is a very important aspect of solar physics, as these phenomena ultimately drive space weather in the heliosphere. This phase is known to occur between the photosphere and low corona, where many models introduce an instability and/or magnetic reconnection that triggers a CME, often with associated flaring activity. To this end, it is important to obtain a variety of observations of the low corona in order to build as clear a picture as possible of the dynamics that occur therein. Here, we combine the EUV imagery of the SWAP instrument on board PROBA2 with the white-light imagery of the ground-based Mk4 coronameter at MLSO in order to bridge the observational gap that exists between the disk imagery of AIA on board SDO and the coronal imagery of LASCO on board SOHO. Methods of multiscale image analysis were applied to the observations to better reveal the coronal signal while suppressing noise and other features. This allowed an investigation into the initiation phase of a CME that...

  3. Can pair-instability supernova models match the observations of superluminous supernovae?

    CERN Document Server

    Kozyreva, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of so-called superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) are discovered. It is believed that at least some of them with slowly fading light curves originate in stellar explosions induced by the pair instability mechanism. Recent stellar evolution models naturally predict pair instability supernovae (PISNe) from very massive stars at wide range of metallicities (up to Z=0.006, Yusof et al. 2013). In the scope of this study we analyse whether PISN models can match the observational properties of SLSNe with various light curve shapes. Specifically, we explore the influence of different degrees of macroscopic chemical mixing in PISN explosive products on the resulting observational properties. We artificially apply mixing to the 250 Msun PISN evolutionary model from Kozyreva et al. (2014) and explore its supernova evolution with the one-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics code STELLA. The greatest success in matching SLSN observations is achieved in the case of an extreme macroscopic mixing, where all r...

  4. ellc: A fast, flexible light curve model for detached eclipsing binary stars and transiting exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxted, P. F. L.

    2016-06-01

    Context. Very high quality light curves are now available for thousands of detached eclipsing binary stars and transiting exoplanet systems as a result of surveys for transiting exoplanets and other large-scale photometric surveys. Aims: I have developed a binary star model (ellc) that can be used to analyse the light curves of detached eclipsing binary stars and transiting exoplanet systems that is fast and accurate, and that can include the effects of star spots, Doppler boosting and light-travel time within binaries with eccentric orbits. Methods: The model represents the stars as triaxial ellipsoids. The apparent flux from the binary is calculated using Gauss-Legendre integration over the ellipses that are the projection of these ellipsoids on the sky. The model can also be used to calculate the flux-weighted radial velocity of the stars during an eclipse (Rossiter-McLaghlin effect). The main features of the model have been tested by comparison to observed data and other light curve models. Results: The model is found to be accurate enough to analyse the very high quality photometry that is now available from space-spaced instruments, flexible enough to model a wide range of eclipsing binary stars and extrasolar planetary systems, and fast enough to enable the use of modern Monte Carlo methods for data analysis and model testing. The software package is available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/591/A111

  5. Regional gravity field modelling from GOCE observables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitoňák, Martin; Šprlák, Michal; Novák, Pavel; Tenzer, Robert

    2017-01-01

    In this article we discuss a regional recovery of gravity disturbances at the mean geocentric sphere approximating the Earth over the area of Central Europe from satellite gravitational gradients. For this purpose, we derive integral formulas which allow converting the gravity disturbances onto the disturbing gravitational gradients in the local north-oriented frame (LNOF). The derived formulas are free of singularities in case of r ≠ R . We then investigate three numerical approaches for solving their inverses. In the initial approach, the integral formulas are firstly modified for solving individually the near- and distant-zone contributions. While the effect of the near-zone gravitational gradients is solved as an inverse problem, the effect of the distant-zone gravitational gradients is computed by numerical integration from the global gravitational model (GGM) TIM-r4. In the second approach, we further elaborate the first scenario by reducing measured gravitational gradients for gravitational effects of topographic masses. In the third approach, we apply additional modification by reducing gravitational gradients for the reference GGM. In all approaches we determine the gravity disturbances from each of the four accurately measured gravitational gradients separately as well as from their combination. Our regional gravitational field solutions are based on the GOCE EGG_TRF_2 gravitational gradients collected within the period from November 1 2009 until January 11 2010. Obtained results are compared with EGM2008, DIR-r1, TIM-r1 and SPW-r1. The best fit, in terms of RMS (2.9 mGal), is achieved for EGM2008 while using the third approach which combine all four well-measured gravitational gradients. This is explained by the fact that a-priori information about the Earth's gravitational field up to the degree and order 180 was used.

  6. Airborne DOAS observations of tropospheric NO2 using an UltraLight Trike and flux calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin, Daniel-Eduard; Voiculescu, Mirela; Merlaud, Alexis; Dragomir, Carmelia; Georgescu, Lucian; Hendrick, Francois; Van Roozendael, Michel

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we present airborne DOAS observations of tropospheric NO2 using an Ultralight Trike (ULT) and associated flux calculation. The instrument onboard the ULT was developed for measuring the tropospheric NO2 Vertical Column Density (VCD). Measurements were performed for several days during 2011-2014, in a region SE of Romania, over the cities of Galati (45.43°N, 28.03°E) and Braila (45.26°N, 27.95°E). Measurements of the NO2 column in the same area were performed using car-DOAS observations. The correlation between the tropospheric NO2 VCD from airborne and mobile ground-based DOAS observations was used to validate the airborne observations. A specific AMF for each case was calculated using the radiative transfer model (RTM) UVspec/DISORT. We present also a comparison between SCDstrato derived from DOMINO (Dutch OMI NO2) and the SCDstrato obtained from ground and airborne measurements. Due to the mobility and flexibility of the ULT flights, this aerial platform provides a promising tool for satellite validation, especially for space observations by high resolution sensors such as the future TROPOMI instrument. A key added value of the ULT-DOAS, illustrated in this work, is the capacity to investigate the spatial variability of NO2 inside the horizontal extent of satellite pixels, e.g. above plant exhaust plumes.

  7. A light Z′ heterotic-string derived model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alon E. Faraggi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The existence of an extra Z′ inspired from heterotic-string theory at accessible energy scales attracted considerable interest in the particle physics literature. Surprisingly, however, the construction of heterotic-string derived models that allow for an extra Z′ to remain unbroken down to low scales has proven to be very difficult. The main reason being that the U(1 symmetries that are typically discussed in the literature are either anomalous or have to be broken at a high scale to generate light neutrino masses. In this paper we use for that purpose the self-duality property under the spinor vector duality, which was discovered in free fermionic heterotic string models. The chiral massless states in the self-dual models fill complete 27 representations of E6. The anomaly free gauge symmetry in the effective low energy field theory of our string model is SU(4C×SU(2L×SU(2R×U(1ζ, where U(1ζ is the family universal U(1 symmetry that descends from E6, and is typically anomalous in other free fermionic heterotic-string models. Our model therefore allows for the existence of a low scale Z′, which is a combination of B−L, U(1ζ and T3R. The string model is free of exotic fractionally charged states in the massless spectrum. It contains exotic SO(10 singlet states that carry fractional, non-E6 charge, with respect to U(1ζ. These non-E6 string states arise in the model due to the breaking of the E6 symmetry by discrete Wilson lines. They represent a distinct signature of the string vacua. They may provide viable dark matter candidates.

  8. The red-light running behavior of electric bike riders and cyclists at urban intersections in China: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Changxu; Yao, Lin; Zhang, Kan

    2012-11-01

    Electric bikes and regular bicycles play an important role in the urban transportation system of China. Red-light running is a type of highly dangerous behavior of two-wheeled riders. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the rate, associated factors, and behavior characteristics of two-wheelers' red-light running in China. A field observational study was conducted using two synchronized video cameras at three signalized intersections in Beijing. A total of 451 two-wheelers facing a red light (222 e-bike riders and 229 cyclists) were observed and analyzed. The results showed that 56% of the two-wheelers crossed the intersection against a red light. Age was found to be a significant variable for predicting red-light runners, with the young and middle-aged riders being more likely than the old ones to run against a red light. The logistic regression analysis also indicated that the probability of a rider running a red light was higher when she or he was alone, when there were fewer riders waiting, and when there were riders already crossing on red. Further analysis of crossing behavior revealed that the majority of red-light running occurred in the early and late stages of a red-light cycle. Two-wheelers' crossing behavior was categorized into three distinct types: law-obeying (44%), risk-taking (31%) and opportunistic (25%). Males were more likely to act in a risk-taking manner than females, and so were the young and middle-aged riders than the old ones. These findings provide valuable insights in understanding two-wheelers' red-light running behaviors, and their implications in improving road safety were discussed.

  9. Preliminary observations on the response of Chironex fleckeri (Cnidaria: Cubozoa: Chirodropida) to different colors of light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershwin, Lisa-Ann; Dawes, Peter

    2008-08-01

    Cubozoans are well known for their attraction to light and light-colored objects. Two highly venomous types are a public safety concern in Australian waters and elsewhere: Chironex fleckeri, long considered the world's deadliest animal and colloquially called the box jellyfish; and the irukandjis, a group of at least 10 species that cause various degrees of debilitating illness. We were asked by the tourism industry whether there might be a color of light that box jellyfish and irukandjis are not attracted to, such that nighttime diving activities might pose less risk of being stung. Our preliminary trials with Chironex fleckeri indicated a marked positive response to lights of white, red, yellow, green, orange, and blue. All colors elicited a strong and directed attraction to light; however, medusae slowed down their pulsation rate, streamed out their tentacles, and performed a series of figure-eight patterns back and forth through the lighted area when exposed to blue light, which we interpreted as feeding behavior. This compares curiously with a report subsequent to our testing, in which the small, mangrove-inhabiting cubomedusa Tripedalia cystophora and the beach-dwelling Chiropsella bronzie demonstrate a peak sensitivity to blue-green light in the region of 500 nm, and that the former is behaviorally attracted to blue and green light, but ignores red. This leaves open the possibility that Irukandji species, which are more closely related to Tripedalia than to Chironex, may be blind to red.

  10. XMM-Newton First-Light Observations of the Hickson Galaxy Group 16

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, M J L; Ponman, T J; Arnaud, M; Barbera, M; Bennie, P J; Boër, M; Briel, U G; Butler, I; Clavel, J

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the XMM-Newton first-light observations of the Hickson-16 compact group of galaxies. Groups are possibly the oldest large-scale structures in the Universe, pre-dating clusters of galaxies, and are highly evolved. This group of small galaxies, at a redshift of 0.0132 (or 80 Mpc) is exceptional in the having the highest concentration of starburst or AGN activity in the nearby Universe. So it is a veritable laboratory for the study of the relationship between galaxy interactions and nuclear activity. Previous optical emission line studies indicated a strong ionising continuum in the galaxies, but its origin, whether from starbursts, or AGN, was unclear. Combined imaging and spectroscopy with the EPIC X-ray CCDs unequivocally reveals a heavily obscured AGN and a separately identified thermal (starburst) plasma, in NGC 835, NGC 833 and NGC 839. NGC 838 shows only starburst thermal emission. Starbursts and AGN can evidently coexist in members of this highly evolved system of merged and merging g...

  11. Light and electron microscope observations on Nephroselmis gaoae sp. nov. (Prasinophyceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, C. K.; Jiao-Fen, Chen; Zhe-Fu, Zhang; Hui-Qi, Zhang

    1994-09-01

    Nephroselmis gaoae sp. nov. is described on the basis of light and electron microscope observations of cultured material originally collected and isolated from seawater of Jiaozhou Bay, Qingdao, China. The periplasts on the cell body and flagella are covered by five types of scales, two types on the flagella and three on the body. Among these, the morphology and the number of spines of large stellate body scales differ remarkably from those of previously described species of Nephroselmis. Apart from these, the unusual fine structure of the eyespot (stigma) is very characteristic. As in the other species of Nephroselmis, the eyespot lies immediately under the two-membraned chloroplast envelope; unlike the others, however, it is not composed of a number of osmiophilic globules, but consists of about 14 curved rod-shaped osmiophilic bodies arranged loosely and randomly. This feature distinguishes the present new species not only from the other species of Nephroselmis but also from the other motile algal species, the eyespots structure of which had been previously described.

  12. Observing spin Hall effect of pseudo-thermal light through weak measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Bin; Zhang, Pei; Gao, Hong; Li, Fuli

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that the spin Hall effect of light (SHEL) can be easily observed via weak measurement by the dark strip resulted from the splitting of different polarization components. We find that the SHEL of partially coherent beam (PCB) also has similar phenomenon. However, the existence of the dark strip in the SHEL of PCB can not be properly justified by considering the beam as a statistical assemble of coherent speckles. Also, the dark strip of PCB is not purely dark. By analyzing the autocorrelation of the central dark strip part of the SHEL of PCB, we show that SHEL of PCB is essentially the direct result of overlapping coherent speckles' SHEL. Then we further prove our conclusion by adjusting the converging level and the incident angle of the beam. Finally, we develop a qualitative theory by taking the intensity distribution of PCB into account, to fully clarify the SHEL of PCB. The feasibility of our theory to Goos-H\\"anchen (GH) scenario is also demonstrated.

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Observed light curve of (3200) Phaethon (Ansdell+, 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansdell, M.; Meech, K. J.; Hainaut, O.; Buie, M. W.; Kaluna, H.; Bauer, J.; Dundon, L.

    2017-04-01

    We obtained time series photometry over 15 nights from 1994 to 2013. All but three nights used the Tektronix 2048x2048 pixel CCD camera on the University of Hawaii 2.2 m telescope on Mauna Kea. Two nights used the PRISM 2048x2048 pixel CCD camera on the Perkins 72 inch telescope at the Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff, Arizona, while one night used the Optic 2048x4096 CCD camera also on the University of Hawaii 2.2 m telescope. All observations used the standard Kron-Cousins R filter with the telescope guiding on (3200) Phaethon at non-sidereal rates. Raw images were processed with standard IRAF routines for bias subtraction, flat-fielding, and cosmic ray removal (Tody, 1986SPIE..627..733T). We constructed reference flat fields by median combining dithered images of either twilight or the object field (in both cases, flattening reduced gradients to changed depending on the night and/or exposure as they were chosen to consistently include 99.5% of the object's light. (1 data file).

  14. Exploring Anticorrelations and Light Element Variations in Northern Globular Clusters Observed by the APOGEE Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Meszaros, Szabolcs; Shetrone, Matthew; Lucatello, Sara; Troup, Nicholas W; Bovy, Jo; Cunha, Katia; Garcia-Hernandez, Domingo A; Overbeek, Jamie C; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Beers, Timothy C; Frinchaboy, Peter M; Perez, Ana E Garcia; Hearty, Fred R; Holtzman, Jon; Majewski, Steven R; Nidever, David L; Schiavon, Ricardo P; Schneider, Donald P; Sobeck, Jennifer S; Smith, Verne V; Zamora, Olga; Zasowski, Gail

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the light-element behavior of red giant stars in Northern globular clusters (GCs) observed by the SDSS-III Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE). We derive abundances of nine elements (Fe, C, N, O, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, and Ti) for 428 red giant stars in 10 globular clusters. The intrinsic abundance range relative to measurement errors is examined, and the well-known C-N and Mg-Al anticorrelations are explored using an extreme-deconvolution code for the first time in a consistent way. We find that Mg and Al drive the population membership in most clusters, except in M107 and M71, the two most metal-rich clusters in our study, where the grouping is most sensitive to N. We also find a diversity in the abundance distributions, with some clusters exhibiting clear abundance bimodalities (for example M3 and M53) while others show extended distributions. The spread of Al abundances increases significantly as cluster average metallicity decreases as previously found by other works, ...

  15. Heavy ions light flashes and brain functions: recent observations at accelerators and in spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narici, L.

    2008-07-01

    Interactions between ionizing radiation in space and brain functions, and the related risk assessments, are among the major concerns when programming long permanence in space, especially when outside the protective shield of the Earth's magnetosphere. The light flashes (LF) observed by astronauts in space, mostly when dark adapted, are an example of these interactions; investigations in space and on the ground showed that these effects can originate with the action of ionizing radiation in the eye. Recent findings from ALTEA, an interdisciplinary and multiapproach program devoted to the study of different aspects of the radiation-brain functions interaction, are presented in this paper. These include: (i) study of radiation passing through the astronauts' eyes in the International Space Station (≈20 ions min-1, excluding H and fast and very slow He), measured in conjunction with reporting of the perception of LF; (ii) preliminary electrophysiological evidence of these events in astronauts and in patients during heavy ion therapy; and (iii) in vitro results showing the radiation driven activation of rhodopsin at the start of the phototransduction cascade in the process of vision. These results are in agreement with our previous work on mice. A brief but complete summary of the earlier works is also reported to permit a discussion of the results.

  16. Impact of Model and Observation Error on Assimilating Snow Cover Fraction Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenault, Kristi R.

    Accurately modeling or observing snow cover fraction (SCF) estimates, which represent fractional snow cover area within a gridcell, can help with better understanding earth system dynamics, improving weather and climate prediction, and providing end-use water solutions. Seeking to obtain more accurate snowpack estimates, high resolution snow cover fraction observations are assimilated with different data assimilation (DA) methods within a land surface model (LSM). The LSM simulates snowpack states, snow water equivalent and snow depth, to obtain improved snowpack estimates known as the analysis. Data assimilation experiments are conducted for two mountainous areas where high spatial snow variability occurs, which can impact realistic snowpack representation for different hydrological and meteorological applications. Consequently, the experiments are conducted at higher model resolutions to better capture this variability. This study focuses on four key aspects of how assimilating SCF observations may improve snowpack estimates and impact the LSM overall. These include investigating the role of data assimilation method complexity, evaluating the impact of model and observational errors on snow state analysis estimates, improving the model's SCF representation for assimilation using observation operators, and examining subsequent model state and flux impacts when SCF observations are assimilated. A simpler direct insertion (DI) and a more complex ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) data assimilation method were applied. The more complex method proved to be superior to the simpler one; however, this method required accounting for more realistic observational and model errors. Also, the EnKF method required an ensemble of model forecasts, in which bias in the ensemble generation was found and removed. Reducing this bias improved the model snowpack estimates. Detection and geolocation errors in the satellite-based snow cover fraction observations also contributed to degrading

  17. NEPTUNE’S DYNAMIC ATMOSPHERE FROM KEPLER K2 OBSERVATIONS: IMPLICATIONS FOR BROWN DWARF LIGHT CURVE ANALYSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Jason F.; Gaulme, Patrick; Hammel, Heidi B.; Casewell, Sarah L.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Gizis, John E.; Lissauer, Jack J.; Morales-Juberias, Raul; Orton, Glenn S.; Wong, Michael H.; Marley, Mark S.

    2017-01-01

    Observations of Neptune with the Kepler Space Telescope yield a 49 day light curve with 98% coverage at a 1 minute cadence. A significant signature in the light curve comes from discrete cloud features. We compare results extracted from the light curve data with contemporaneous disk-resolved imaging of Neptune from the Keck 10-m telescope at 1.65 microns and Hubble Space Telescope visible imaging acquired nine months later. This direct comparison validates the feature latitudes assigned to the K2 light curve periods based on Neptune’s zonal wind profile, and confirms observed cloud feature variability. Although Neptune’s clouds vary in location and intensity on short and long timescales, a single large discrete storm seen in Keck imaging dominates the K2 and Hubble light curves; smaller or fainter clouds likely contribute to short-term brightness variability. The K2 Neptune light curve, in conjunction with our imaging data, provides context for the interpretation of current and future brown dwarf and extrasolar planet variability measurements. In particular we suggest that the balance between large, relatively stable, atmospheric features and smaller, more transient, clouds controls the character of substellar atmospheric variability. Atmospheres dominated by a few large spots may show inherently greater light curve stability than those which exhibit a greater number of smaller features. PMID:28127087

  18. Fast evolving pair-instability supernova models: evolution, explosion, light curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyreva, Alexandra; Gilmer, Matthew; Hirschi, Raphael; Fröhlich, Carla; Blinnikov, Sergey; Wollaeger, Ryan T.; Noebauer, Ulrich M.; van Rossum, Daniel R.; Heger, Alexander; Even, Wesley P.; Waldman, Roni; Tolstov, Alexey; Chatzopoulos, Emmanouil; Sorokina, Elena

    2017-01-01

    With an increasing number of superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) discovered, the question of their origin remains open and causes heated debates in the supernova community. Currently, there are three proposed mechanisms for SLSNe: (1) pair-instability supernovae (PISNe), (2) magnetar-driven supernovae and (3) models in which the supernova ejecta interacts with a circumstellar material ejected before the explosion. Based on current observations of SLSNe, the PISN origin has been disfavoured for a number of reasons. Many PISN models provide overly broad light curves and too reddened spectra, because of massive ejecta and a high amount of nickel. In the current study, we re-examine PISN properties using progenitor models computed with the GENEC code. We calculate supernova explosions with FLASH and light-curve evolution with the radiation hydrodynamics code STELLA. We find that high-mass models (200 and 250 M⊙) at relatively high metallicity (Z = 0.001) do not retain hydrogen in the outer layers and produce relatively fast evolving PISNe Type I and might be suitable to explain some SLSNe. We also investigate uncertainties in light-curve modelling due to codes, opacities, the nickel-bubble effect and progenitor structure and composition.

  19. Fast evolving pair-instability supernova models: Evolution, explosion, light curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyreva, Alexandra; Gilmer, Matthew; Hirschi, Raphael; Fröhlich, Carla; Blinnikov, Sergey; Wollaeger, Ryan T.; Noebauer, Ulrich M.; van Rossum, Daniel R.; Heger, Alexander; Even, Wesley P.; Waldman, Roni; Tolstov, Alexey; Chatzopoulos, Emmanouil; Sorokina, Elena

    2016-10-01

    With an increasing number of superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) discovered the question of their origin remains open and causes heated debates in the supernova community. Currently, there are three proposed mechanisms for SLSNe: (1) pair-instability supernovae (PISN), (2) magnetar-driven supernovae, and (3) models in which the supernova ejecta interacts with a circumstellar material ejected before the explosion. Based on current observations of SLSNe, the PISN origin has been disfavoured for a number of reasons. Many PISN models provide overly broad light curves and too reddened spectra, because of massive ejecta and a high amount of nickel. In the current study we re-examine PISN properties using progenitor models computed with the GENEC code. We calculate supernova explosions with FLASH and light curve evolution with the radiation hydrodynamics code STELLA. We find that high-mass models (200 M⊙ and 250 M⊙) at relatively high metallicity (Z = 0.001) do not retain hydrogen in the outer layers and produce relatively fast evolving PISNe Type I and might be suitable to explain some SLSNe. We also investigate uncertainties in light curve modelling due to codes, opacities, the nickel-bubble effect and progenitor structure and composition.

  20. Modeling self-organizing traffic lights with elementary cellular automata

    CERN Document Server

    Gershenson, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    There have been several highway traffic models proposed based on cellular automata. The simplest one is elementary cellular automaton rule 184. We extend this model to city traffic with cellular automata coupled at intersections using only rules 184, 252, and 136. The simplicity of the model offers a clear understanding of the main properties of city traffic and its phase transitions. We use the proposed model to compare two methods for coordinating traffic lights: a green-wave method that tries to optimize phases according to expected flows and a self-organizing method that adapts to the current traffic conditions. The self-organizing method delivers considerable improvements over the green-wave method. For low densities, the self-organizing method promotes the formation and coordination of platoons that flow freely in four directions, i.e. with a maximum velocity and no stops. For medium densities, the method allows a constant usage of the intersections, exploiting their maximum flux capacity. For high dens...

  1. Modeling Global Urbanization Supported by Nighttime Light Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Urbanization, a major driver of global change, profoundly impacts our physical and social world, for example, altering carbon cycling and climate. Understanding these consequences for better scientific insights and effective decision-making unarguably requires accurate information on urban extent and its spatial distributions. In this study, we developed a cluster-based method to estimate the optimal thresholds and map urban extents from the nighttime light remote sensing data, extended this method to the global domain by developing a computational method (parameterization) to estimate the key parameters in the cluster-based method, and built a consistent 20-year global urban map series to evaluate the time-reactive nature of global urbanization (e.g. 2000 in Fig. 1). Supported by urban maps derived from nightlights remote sensing data and socio-economic drivers, we developed an integrated modeling framework to project future urban expansion by integrating a top-down macro-scale statistical model with a bottom-up urban growth model. With the models calibrated and validated using historical data, we explored urban growth at the grid level (1-km) over the next two decades under a number of socio-economic scenarios. The derived spatiotemporal information of historical and potential future urbanization will be of great value with practical implications for developing adaptation and risk management measures for urban infrastructure, transportation, energy, and water systems when considered together with other factors such as climate variability and change, and high impact weather events.

  2. Modeling the drain current and its equation parameters for lightly doped symmetrical double-gate MOSFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhartia, Mini; Chatterjee, Arun Kumar

    2015-04-01

    A 2D model for the potential distribution in silicon film is derived for a symmetrical double gate MOSFET in weak inversion. This 2D potential distribution model is used to analytically derive an expression for the subthreshold slope and threshold voltage. A drain current model for lightly doped symmetrical DG MOSFETs is then presented by considering weak and strong inversion regions including short channel effects, series source to drain resistance and channel length modulation parameters. These derived models are compared with the simulation results of the SILVACO (Atlas) tool for different channel lengths and silicon film thicknesses. Lastly, the effect of the fixed oxide charge on the drain current model has been studied through simulation. It is observed that the obtained analytical models of symmetrical double gate MOSFETs are in good agreement with the simulated results for a channel length to silicon film thickness ratio greater than or equal to 2.

  3. Fireball and cannonball models of gamma ray bursts confront observations

    OpenAIRE

    Dar, Arnon

    2005-01-01

    The two leading contenders for the theory of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and their afterglows, the Fireball and Cannonball models, are compared and their predictions are confronted, within space limitations, with key GRB observations, including recent observations with SWIFT

  4. Observation of propagating femtosecond light pulse train generated by an integrated array illuminator as a spatially and temporally continuous motion picture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagiwa, Masatomo; Komatsu, Aya; Awatsuji, Yasuhiro; Kubota, Toshihiro

    2005-05-02

    We observed a propagating femtosecond light pulse train generated by an integrated array illuminator as a spatially and temporally continuous motion picture. To observe the light pulse train propagating in air, light-in-flight holography is applied. The integrated array illuminator is an optical device for generating an ultrashort light pulse train from a single ultrashort pulse. The experimentally obtained pulse width and pulse interval were 130 fs and 19.7 ps, respectively. A back-propagating femtosecond light pulse train, which is the -2 order diffracted light pulse from the array illuminator and which is difficult to observe using conventional methods, was observed.

  5. Model-independent inference on compact-binary observations

    OpenAIRE

    Mandel, Ilya; Farr, Will M.; Colonna, Andrea; Stevenson, Simon; Tiňo, Peter; Veitch, John

    2016-01-01

    The recent advanced LIGO detections of gravitational waves from merging binary black holes enhance the prospect of exploring binary evolution via gravitational-wave observations of a population of compact-object binaries. In the face of uncertainty about binary formation models, model-independent inference provides an appealing alternative to comparisons between observed and modelled populations. We describe a procedure for clustering in the multi-dimensional parameter space of observations t...

  6. Observation of spatial quantum correlations induced by multiple scattering of nonclassical light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smolka, Stephan; Huck, Alexander; Andersen, Ulrik Lund;

    2009-01-01

    We present the experimental realization of spatial quantum correlations of photons that are induced by multiple scattering of squeezed light. The quantum correlation relates photons propagating along two different light paths through the random medium and is infinite in range. Both positive...

  7. Experimental Search for Chargino and Neutralino Production in Supersymmetry Models with a Light Gravitino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B. S.; Adam, I.; Adams, D. L.; Adams, M.; Ahn, S.; Aihara, H.; Alves, G. A.; Amidi, E.; Amos, N.; Anderson, E. W.; Astur, R.; Baarmand, M. M.; Baden, A.; Balamurali, V.; Balderston, J.; Baldin, B.; Banerjee, S.; Bantly, J.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bazizi, K.; Belyaev, A.; Beri, S. B.; Bertram, I.; Bezzubov, V. A.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatnagar, V.; Bhattacharjee, M.; Biswas, N.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Bloom, P.; Boehnlein, A.; Bojko, N. I.; Borcherding, F.; Boswell, C.; Brandt, A.; Brock, R.; Bross, A.; Buchholz, D.; Burtovoi, V. S.; Butler, J. M.; Carvalho, W.; Casey, D.; Casilum, Z.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Chakraborty, D.; Chang, S.-M.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chen, L.-P.; Chen, W.; Choi, S.; Chopra, S.; Choudhary, B. C.; Christenson, J. H.; Chung, M.; Claes, D.; Clark, A. R.; Cobau, W. G.; Cochran, J.; Cooper, W. E.; Cretsinger, C.; Cullen-Vidal, D.; Cummings, M. A.; Cutts, D.; Dahl, O. I.; Davis, K.; de, K.; del Signore, K.; Demarteau, M.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; di Loreto, G.; Draper, P.; Ducros, Y.; Dudko, L. V.; Dugad, S. R.; Edmunds, D.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Engelmann, R.; Eno, S.; Eppley, G.; Ermolov, P.; Eroshin, O. V.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Fahland, T.; Fatyga, M.; Fatyga, M. K.; Featherly, J.; Feher, S.; Fein, D.; Ferbel, T.; Finocchiaro, G.; Fisk, H. E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flattum, E.; Forden, G. E.; Fortner, M.; Frame, K. C.; Fuess, S.; Gallas, E.; Galyaev, A. N.; Gartung, P.; Geld, T. L.; Genik, R. J.; Genser, K.; Gerber, C. E.; Gibbard, B.; Glenn, S.; Gobbi, B.; Goforth, M.; Goldschmidt, A.; Gómez, B.; Gómez, G.; Goncharov, P. I.; González Solís, J. L.; Gordon, H.; Goss, L. T.; Gounder, K.; Goussiou, A.; Graf, N.; Grannis, P. D.; Green, D. R.; Green, J.; Greenlee, H.; Grim, G.; Grinstein, S.; Grossman, N.; Grudberg, P.; Grünendahl, S.; Guglielmo, G.; Guida, J. A.; Guida, J. M.; Gupta, A.; Gurzhiev, S. N.; Gutierrez, P.; Gutnikov, Y. E.; Hadley, N. J.; Haggerty, H.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Hahn, K. S.; Hall, R. E.; Hanlet, P.; Hansen, S.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hedin, D.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hernández-Montoya, R.; Heuring, T.; Hirosky, R.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hoftun, J. S.; Hsieh, F.; Hu, Ting; Hu, Tong; Huehn, T.; Ito, A. S.; James, E.; Jaques, J.; Jerger, S. A.; Jesik, R.; Jiang, J. Z.-Y.; Joffe-Minor, T.; Johns, K.; Johnson, M.; Jonckheere, A.; Jones, M.; Jöstlein, H.; Jun, S. Y.; Jung, C. K.; Kahn, S.; Kalbfleisch, G.; Kang, J. S.; Kehoe, R.; Kelly, M. L.; Kim, C. L.; Kim, S. K.; Klatchko, A.; Klima, B.; Klopfenstein, C.; Klyukhin, V. I.; Kochetkov, V. I.; Kohli, J. M.; Koltick, D.; Kostritskiy, A. V.; Kotcher, J.; Kotwal, A. V.; Kourlas, J.; Kozelov, A. V.; Kozlovski, E. A.; Krane, J.; Krishnaswamy, M. R.; Krzywdzinski, S.; Kunori, S.; Lami, S.; Lan, H.; Lander, R.; Landry, F.; Landsberg, G.; Lauer, B.; Leflat, A.; Li, H.; Li, J.; Li-Demarteau, Q. Z.; Lima, J. G.; Lincoln, D.; Linn, S. L.; Linnemann, J.; Lipton, R.; Liu, Q.; Liu, Y. C.; Lobkowicz, F.; Loken, S. C.; Lökös, S.; Lueking, L.; Lyon, A. L.; Maciel, A. K.; Madaras, R. J.; Madden, R.; Magaña-Mendoza, L.; Mani, S.; Mao, H. S.; Markeloff, R.; Marshall, T.; Martin, M. I.; Mauritz, K. M.; May, B.; Mayorov, A. A.; McCarthy, R.; McDonald, J.; McKibben, T.; McKinley, J.; McMahon, T.; Melanson, H. L.; Merkin, M.; Merritt, K. W.; Miettinen, H.; Mincer, A.; Mishra, C. S.; Mokhov, N.; Mondal, N. K.; Montgomery, H. E.; Mooney, P.; da Motta, H.; Murphy, C.; Nang, F.; Narain, M.; Narasimham, V. S.; Narayanan, A.; Neal, H. A.; Negret, J. P.; Nemethy, P.; Nicola, M.; Norman, D.; Oesch, L.; Oguri, V.; Oltman, E.; Oshima, N.; Owen, D.; Padley, P.; Pang, M.; Para, A.; Park, Y. M.; Partridge, R.; Parua, N.; Paterno, M.; Perkins, J.; Peters, M.; Piegaia, R.; Piekarz, H.; Pischalnikov, Y.; Podstavkov, V. M.; Pope, B. G.; Prosper, H. B.; Protopopescu, S.; Qian, J.; Quintas, P. Z.; Raja, R.; Rajagopalan, S.; Ramirez, O.; Rasmussen, L.; Reucroft, S.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rockwell, T.; Roe, N. A.; Rubinov, P.; Ruchti, R.; Rutherfoord, J.; Sánchez-Hernández, A.; Santoro, A.; Sawyer, L.; Schamberger, R. D.; Schellman, H.; Sculli, J.; Shabalina, E.; Shaffer, C.; Shankar, H. C.; Shivpuri, R. K.; Shupe, M.; Singh, H.; Singh, J. B.; Sirotenko, V.; Smart, W.; Smith, R. P.; Snihur, R.; Snow, G. R.; Snow, J.; Snyder, S.; Solomon, J.; Sood, P. M.; Sosebee, M.; Sotnikova, N.; Souza, M.; Spadafora, A. L.; Stephens, R. W.; Stevenson, M. L.; Stewart, D.; Stichelbaut, F.; Stoianova, D. A.; Stoker, D.; Strauss, M.; Streets, K.; Strovink, M.; Sznajder, A.; Tamburello, P.; Tarazi, J.; Tartaglia, M.; Thomas, T. L.; Thompson, J.; Trippe, T. G.; Tuts, P. M.; Varelas, N.; Varnes, E. W.; Vititoe, D.; Volkov, A. A.; Vorobiev, A. P.; Wahl, H. D.; Wang, G.; Warchol, J.; Watts, G.; Wayne, M.; Weerts, H.; White, A.; White, J. T.; Wightman, J. A.; Willis, S.; Wimpenny, S. J.; Wirjawan, J. V.; Womersley, J.; Won, E.; Wood, D. R.; Xu, H.; Yamada, R.; Yamin, P.; Yanagisawa, C.; Yang, J.; Yasuda, T.; Yepes, P.; Yoshikawa, C.; Youssef, S.; Yu, J.; Yu, Y.; Zhu, Z. H.; Zieminska, D.; Zieminski, A.; Zverev, E. G.; Zylberstejn, A.

    1998-01-01

    We search for inclusive high ET diphoton events with large missing transverse energy in pp¯ collisions at s = 1.8 TeV. Such events are expected from pair production of charginos and neutralinos within the framework of the minimal supersymmetric standard model with a light gravitino. No excess of events is observed. In that model, and assuming gaugino mass unification at the GUT scale, we obtain a 95% C.L. exclusion region in the supersymmetry parameter space and lower mass bounds of 150 GeV/c2 for the lightest chargino and 77 GeV/c2 for the lightest neutralino.

  8. Light and Color Curve Properties of Type Ia Supernovae: Theory Versus Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeflich, P.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Ashall, C.; Burns, C. R.; Diamond, T. R.; Phillips, M. M.; Sand, D.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Suntzeff, N.; Contreras, C.; Krisciunas, K.; Morrell, N.; Wang, L.

    2017-09-01

    We study the optical light curve (LC) relations of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) for their use in cosmology using high-quality photometry published by the Carnegie Supernova Project (CSP-I). We revisit the classical luminosity decline rate (Δm 15) relation and the Lira relation, as well as investigate the time evolution of the (B ‑ V) color and B(B ‑ V), which serves as the basis of the color–stretch relation and Color–MAgnitude Intercept Calibrations (CMAGIC). Our analysis is based on explosion and radiation transport simulations for spherically symmetric delayed-detonation models (DDT) producing normal-bright and subluminous SNe Ia. Empirical LC relations can be understood as having the same physical underpinnings, i.e., opacities, ionization balances in the photosphere, and radioactive energy deposition changing with time from below to above the photosphere. Some three to four weeks past maximum, the photosphere recedes to 56Ni-rich layers of similar density structure, leading to a similar color evolution. An important secondary parameter is the central density ρ c of the WD because at higher densities, more electron-capture elements are produced at the expense of 56Ni production. This results in a Δm 15 spread of 0.1 mag in normal-bright and 0.7 mag in subluminous SNe Ia and ≈0.2 mag in the Lira relation. We show why color–magnitude diagrams emphasize the transition between physical regimes and enable the construction of templates that depend mostly on Δm 15 with little dispersion in both the CSP-I sample and our DDT models. This allows intrinsic SN Ia variations to be separated from the interstellar reddening characterized by E(B ‑ V) and R B . Invoking different scenarios causes a wide spread in empirical relations, which may suggest one dominant scenario.

  9. 3D Modeling of Spectra and Light Curves of Hot Jupiters with PHOENIX; a First Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Torres, J. J.

    2016-04-01

    A detailed global circulation model was used to feed the PHOENIX code and calculate 3D spectra and light curves of hot Jupiters. Cloud free and dusty radiative fluxes for the planet HD179949b were modeled to show differences between them. The PHOENIX simulations can explain the broad features of the observed 8 μm light curves, including the fact that the planet-star flux ratio peaks before the secondary eclipse. The PHOENIX reflection spectrum matches the Spitzer secondary-eclipse depth at 3.6 μm and underpredicts eclipse depths at 4.5, 5.8 and 8.0 μm. These discrepancies result from the chemical composition and suggest the incorporation of different metallicities in future studies.

  10. 3D MODELING OF SPECTRA AND LIGHT CURVES OF HOT JUPITERS WITH PHOENIX; A FIRST APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan J. Jiménez-Torres

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A detailed global circulation model was used to feed the PHOENIX code and calculate 3D spectra and light curves of hot Jupiters. Cloud free and dusty radiative fluxes for the planet HD179949b were modeled to show differences between them. The PHOENIX simulations can explain the broad features of the observed 8 µm light curves, including the fact that the planet-star flux ratio peaks before the secondary eclipse. The PHOENIX reflection spectrum matches the Spitzer secondary-eclipse depth at 3.6 µm and underpredicts eclipse depths at 4.5, 5.8 and 8.0 µm. These discrepancies result from the chemical composition and suggest the incorporation of different metallicities in future studies.

  11. 3D Modeling of Spectra and Light Curves of Hot Jupiters; A First Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Jiménez-Torres, Juan J

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a detailed Global Circulation Model was employed to feed the PHOENIX code to calculate 3D spectra and light curves of hot Jupiters. Cloud free and dusty radiative luxes for the planet HD179949b were modeled to show differences between them. The PHOENIX simulations can explain the broad features of the observed 8 {\\mu}m light curves, including the fact that the planet-star flux ratio peaks before the secondary eclipse. The PHOENIX reflection spectrum matches the Spitzer secondary-eclipse depth at 3.6 {\\mu}m and underpredicts the eclipse depths at 4.5, 5.8 and 8.0 {\\mu}m. These discrepancies result from the chemical composition and provide motivation for incorporating different metallicities in future studies.

  12. Modeling nanostructure-enhanced light trapping in organic solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adam, Jost

    A promising approach for improving the power conversion efficiencies of organic solar cells (OSCs) is by incorporating nanostructures in their thin film architecture to improve the light absorption in the device’s active polymer layers. Here, we present a modelling framework for the prediction...... of optical and plasmonic field enhancement by nanostructures in (or close to) the active layers and electrodes in OSCs. We incorporate finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculations alongside semi- analytical approaches, as the rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA) and mode-coupling theory. Our simulation......-compatible method for non-periodic electrode structuring by pores of controlled dimensions, formed through anodic oxidation of sputter-deposited high-purity aluminium films [3]. [1] Kluge, C., et al. Multi-periodic nanostructures for photon control. Optics Express, 22 (S5), A1363. (2014) [2] Skigin, D., et al...

  13. Model for Triplet State Engineering in Organic Light Emitting Diodes

    CERN Document Server

    Prodhan, Suryoday; Ramasesha, S

    2014-01-01

    Engineering the position of the lowest triplet state (T1) relative to the first excited singlet state (S1) is of great importance in improving the efficiencies of organic light emitting diodes and organic photovoltaic cells. We have carried out model exact calculations of substituted polyene chains to understand the factors that affect the energy gap between S1 and T1. The factors studied are backbone dimerisation, different donor-acceptor substitutions and twisted geometry. The largest system studied is an eighteen carbon polyene which spans a Hilbert space of about 991 million. We show that for reverse intersystem crossing (RISC) process, the best system involves substituting all carbon sites on one half of the polyene with donors and the other half with acceptors.

  14. Modeling the light-travel-time effect on the far-infrared size of IRC +10216

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Edward L.; Baganoff, Frederick K.

    1995-01-01

    Models of the far-infrared emission from the large circumstellar dust envelope surrounding the carbon star IRC +10216 are used to assess the importance of the light-travel-time effect (LTTE) on the observed size of the source. The central star is a long-period variable with an average period of 644 +/- 17 days and a peak-to-peak amplitude of two magnituds, so a large light-travel-time effect is seen at 1 min radius. An attempt is made to use the LTTE to reconcile the discrepancy between the observations of Fazio et al. and Lester et al. regarding the far-infrared source size. This discrepancy is reviewed in light of recent, high-spatial-resolution observations at 11 microns by Danchi et al. We conclude that IRC +10216 has been resolved on the arcminute scale by Fazio et al. Convolution of the model intensity profile at 61 microns with the 60 sec x 90 sec Gaussian beam of Fazio et al. yields an observed source size full width at half maximum (FWHM) that ranges from approximately 67 sec to 75 sec depending on the phase of the star and the assumed distance to the source. Using a simple r(exp -2) dust distribution and the 106 deg phase of the Fazio et al. observations, the LTTE model reaches a peak size of 74.3 sec at a distance of 300 pc. This agrees favorably with the 78 sec x 6 sec size measured by Fazio et al. Finally, a method is outlined for using the LTTE as a distance indicator to IRC +10216 and other stars with extended mass outflows.

  15. Plasmon enhanced light harvesting: multiscale modeling of the FMO protein coupled with gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreussi, Oliviero; Caprasecca, Stefano; Cupellini, Lorenzo; Guarnetti-Prandi, Ingrid; Guido, Ciro A; Jurinovich, Sandro; Viani, Lucas; Mennucci, Benedetta

    2015-05-28

    Plasmonic systems, such as metal nanoparticles, are becoming increasingly important in spectroscopies and devices because of their ability to enhance, even by several orders of magnitude, the photophysical properties of neighboring systems. In particular, it has been shown both theoretically and experimentally that combining nanoplasmonic devices with natural light-harvesting proteins substantially increases the fluorescence and absorption properties of the system. This kind of biohybrid device can have important applications in the characterization and design of efficient light-harvesting systems. In the present work, the FMO light-harvesting protein was combined with gold nanoparticles of different sizes, and its photophysical properties were characterized using a multiscale quantum-mechanical classical-polarizable and continuum model (QM/MMPol/PCM). By optimal tuning of the plasmon resonance of the metal nanoparticles, fluorescence enhancements of up to 2 orders of magnitude were observed. Orientation effects were found to be crucial: amplifications by factors of up to 300 were observed for the absorption process, while the radiative decay of the emitting state increased at most by a factor of 10, mostly as a result of poor alignment of the emitting state with the considered metal aggregates. Despite being a limiting factor for high-fluorescence-enhancement devices, the strong orientation dependence may represent an important feature of the natural light-harvesting system that could allow selective enhancement of a specific excited state of the complex.

  16. Correlation between human observer performance and model observer performance in differential phase contrast CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ke; Garrett, John [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1111 Highland Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States); Chen, Guang-Hong [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1111 Highland Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 and Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 600 Highland Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53792 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: With the recently expanding interest and developments in x-ray differential phase contrast CT (DPC-CT), the evaluation of its task-specific detection performance and comparison with the corresponding absorption CT under a given radiation dose constraint become increasingly important. Mathematical model observers are often used to quantify the performance of imaging systems, but their correlations with actual human observers need to be confirmed for each new imaging method. This work is an investigation of the effects of stochastic DPC-CT noise on the correlation of detection performance between model and human observers with signal-known-exactly (SKE) detection tasks.Methods: The detectabilities of different objects (five disks with different diameters and two breast lesion masses) embedded in an experimental DPC-CT noise background were assessed using both model and human observers. The detectability of the disk and lesion signals was then measured using five types of model observers including the prewhitening ideal observer, the nonprewhitening (NPW) observer, the nonprewhitening observer with eye filter and internal noise (NPWEi), the prewhitening observer with eye filter and internal noise (PWEi), and the channelized Hotelling observer (CHO). The same objects were also evaluated by four human observers using the two-alternative forced choice method. The results from the model observer experiment were quantitatively compared to the human observer results to assess the correlation between the two techniques.Results: The contrast-to-detail (CD) curve generated by the human observers for the disk-detection experiments shows that the required contrast to detect a disk is inversely proportional to the square root of the disk size. Based on the CD curves, the ideal and NPW observers tend to systematically overestimate the performance of the human observers. The NPWEi and PWEi observers did not predict human performance well either, as the slopes of their CD

  17. 2 types of spicules "observed" in 3D realistic models

    CERN Document Server

    Martínez-Sykora, Juan

    2010-01-01

    Realistic numerical 3D models of the outer solar atmosphere show two different kind of spicule-like phenomena, as also observed on the solar limb. The numerical models are calculated using the 2 types of spicules "observed" in 3D realistic models Oslo Staggered Code (OSC) to solve the full MHD equations with non-grey and NLTE radiative transfer and thermal conduction along the magnetic field lines. The two types of spicules arise as a natural result of the dynamical evolution in the models. We discuss the different properties of these two types of spicules, their differences from observed spicules and what needs to be improved in the models.

  18. Double parton correlations in Light-Front constituent quark models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinaldi Matteo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Double parton distribution functions (dPDF represent a tool to explore the 3D proton structure. They can be measured in high energy proton-proton and proton nucleus collisions and encode information on how partons inside a proton are correlated among each other. dPFDs are studied here in the valence quark region, by means of a constituent quark model, where two particle correlations are present without any additional prescription. This framework allows to understand the dynamical origin of the correlations and to clarify which, among the features of the results, are model independent. Use will be made of a relativistic light-front scheme, able to overcome some drawbacks of the previous calculation. Transverse momentum correlations, due to the exact treatment of the boosts, are predicted and analyzed. The role of spin correlations is also shown. Due to the covariance of the approach, some symmetries of the dPDFs are seen unambigously. For the valence sector, also the study of the QCD evolution of the model results, which can be performed safely thanks to the property of good support, has been also completed.

  19. Retinal endoilluminator toxicity of xenon and light-emitting diode (LED) light source: rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Bahri; Dinç, Erdem; Yilmaz, S Necat; Altiparmak, U Emrah; Yülek, Fatma; Ertekin, Sevda; Yilmaz, Mustafa; Yakın, Mehmet

    2014-09-01

    This study evaluates retinal toxicity due to endoillumination with the light-emitting diode (LED) light source in comparison to endoillumination with xenon light source. Twenty-five eyes of 14 New Zealand pigmented rabbits were used in the study. The LED light (Omesis Medical Systems, Turkey) group was composed of 7 right eyes, while the other 7 right eyes constituted the xenon group (420 nm filter, 357mW/cm(2)) (Bright Star; DORC, Zuidland, Netherlands). Eleven untreated left eyes composed the control group. Twenty gauge pars plana incision 1.5 mm behind the limbus was performed in the right eyes. Twenty gauge bullet type fiberoptic endoilluminator was inserted into the eye from the incision without any pars plana vitrectomy. Fiberoptic endoilluminator was placed in such a way that it was directed toward visual streak of the rabbit retina with a 5 mm distance to retinal surface. Endoillumination was then applied for 20 min with a maximum light intensity for LED and xenon light. In left control eyes, no surgical procedure and no endoillumination were performed. One week after the endoillumination procedure, both eyes of the rabbits were enucleated following electroretinography. Sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin to evaluate morphologic changes. Retina tissues were assessed by active caspase-3 staining. There was no difference in the shape of the waveforms recorded in the eyes endoilluminated with LED light and xenon light sources compared to control eyes both before and after endoillumination application (p > 0.05). Microscopic evaluation of the retinas with hematoxylin and eosin staining demonstrated that all study groups have normal histologic properties similar to control group. No apoptosis positive cells were found within all sections in all groups. When the LED light source is used with maximum power and limited duration for endoillumination in rabbit eyes it does not produce phototoxic effects that may be detectable by electrophysiology

  20. Mass-to-Light-Ratios of the galaxy clusters and groups observed with Suzaku

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, T.; Matsushita, K.; Sato, K.; Abe, Y.; Akamatsu, H.; Fujita, Y.; Kanno, Y.; Simionescu, A.; Tamura, T.; Werner, N.

    2016-06-01

    We analyzed 15 nearby (z band luminosities of galaxies and calculated the ratio of the cumulative gas mass and Fe mass in the ICM to the K-band luminosity (gas-mass-to-light ratio and iron-mass-to-light ratio, respectively). The Coma, Perseus, and medium systems have relatively flat radial profiles of the metal abundances at 0.3 solar within 0.5-1 r_{500}, and ˜ 0.2 solar beyond r_{500}. The gas-mass-to-light-ratios and iron-mass-to-light-ratios ratios increase with radius out to r_{500} and become flatter beyond the radius. The weighted average of the iron-mass-to-light ratios of the clusters at 1.6 r_{500} agrees with the expectation with the Salpeter initial-mass-function of stars, and we do not need a top-heavy slope. In contrast, groups and poor clusters have lower gas-mass-to-light ratios and lower iron-mass-to-light ratios than that of rich systems, with the higher entropy excess. Above these results, we discuss an early metal enrichment in galaxy clusters and groups.

  1. Observation-Based Modeling for Model-Based Testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanstrén, T.; Piel, E.; Gross, H.-G.

    2009-01-01

    One of the single most important reasons that modeling and modelbased testing are not yet common practice in industry is the perceived difficulty of making the models up to the level of detail and quality required for their automated processing. Models unleash their full potential only through suffi

  2. Observation-Based Modeling for Model-Based Testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanstrén, T.; Piel, E.; Gross, H.-G.

    2009-01-01

    One of the single most important reasons that modeling and modelbased testing are not yet common practice in industry is the perceived difficulty of making the models up to the level of detail and quality required for their automated processing. Models unleash their full potential only through

  3. Tests of scanning model observers for myocardial SPECT imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, H. C.; Pretorius, P. H.; Brankov, J. G.

    2009-02-01

    Many researchers have tested and applied human-model observers as part of their evaluations of reconstruction methods for SPECT perfusion imaging. However, these model observers have generally been limited to signal-known- exactly (SKE) detection tasks. Our objective is to formulate and test scanning model observers that emulate humans in detection-localization tasks involving perfusion defects. Herein, we compare several models based on the channelized nonprewhitening (CNPW) observer. Simulated Tc-99m images of the heart with and without defects were created using a mathematical anthropomorphic phantom. Reconstructions were performed with an iterative algorithm and postsmoothed with a 3D Gaussian filter. Human and model-observer studies were conducted to assess the optimal number of iterations and the smoothing level of the filter. The human-observer study was a multiple-alternative forced-choice (MAFC) study with five defects. The CNPW observer performed the MAFC study, but also performed an SKE-but-variable (SKEV) study and a localization ROC (LROC) study. A separate LROC study applied an observer based on models of human search in mammograms. The amount of prior knowledge about the possible defects differed for these four model-observer studies. The trend was towards improved agreement with the human observers as prior knowledge decreased.

  4. Physical characteristics of faint meteors by light curve and high-resolution observations, and the implications for parent bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subasinghe, Dilini; Campbell-Brown, Margaret D.; Stokan, Edward

    2016-04-01

    Optical observations of faint meteors (10-7 single body objects) show mostly symmetric light curves, surprisingly, and this indicates that light-curve shape is not an indication of fragility or fragmentation behaviour. Approximately 90 per cent of meteors observed with high-resolution video cameras show some form of fragmentation. Our results also show, unexpectedly, that meteors which show negligible fragmentation are more often on high-inclination orbits (i > 60°) than low-inclination ones. We also find that dynamically asteroidal meteors fragment as often as dynamically cometary meteors, which may suggest mixing in the early Solar system, or contamination between the dynamic groups.

  5. Observation and interpretation of fast sub-visual light pulses from the night sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemzek, R. J.; Winckler, J. R.

    1989-01-01

    Fast large-aperture photometers directed at the zenith on clear nights near Minneapolis have recorded many light pulses in the msec time range, but aside from man-made events these were almost entirely due to Rayleigh-scattered distant lightning, with a residual very low rate (less than 0.1/hr) of unidentified pulses. It is argued that 1-msec light pulses seen in several previous experiments may also be mostly Rayleigh-scattered lightning, rather than fluorescent light due to electron precipitation from lightning-induced whistlers as previously proposed.

  6. Direct observation of surface mode excitation and slow light coupling in photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volkov, V.S.; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn;

    2007-01-01

    are obtained for light at telecom wavelengths propagating in the PhCW, demonstrating directly, for the first time to our knowledge, drastic widening of the PhCW guided mode in the slow-light regime and excitation of surface waves at the PhCW interface along with their feeding into the guided mode......A scanning near-field optical microscope (SNOM) is used to systematically study the properties of guided modes in linear and slow-light regimes of silicon-on-insulator (SOI)-based photonic crystal waveguides (PhCWs) with different terminations of the photonic lattice. High quality SNOM images...

  7. Growing wheat in Biosphere 2 under elevated CO2: observations and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubiello, F. N.; Mahato, T.; Morton, T.; Druitt, J. W.; Volk, T.; Marino, B. D.

    1999-01-01

    Spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L., cv. Yecora Rojo) was grown in the intensive agricultural biome (IAB) of Biosphere 2 during the l995-l996 winter/spring season. Environmental conditions were characterized by a day/night temperature regime of 27/17 degrees C, relative humidity (RH) levels around 45%, mean atmospheric CO2 concentration of 450 ppmv, and natural light conditions with mean intensities about half of outside levels. Weekly samples of above-ground plant matter were collected throughout the growing season and phenological events recorded. A computer model, CERES-Wheat, previously tested under both field and controlled conditions, was used to simulate the observed crop growth and to help in data analysis. We found that CERES-Wheat simulated the data collected at Biosphere 2 to within 10% of observed, thus suggesting that wheat growth inside the IAB was comparable to that documented in other environments. The model predicts phenological stages and final dry matter (DM) production within l0% of the observed data. Measured DM production rates, normalized for light absorbed by the crop. suggested photosynthetic efficiencies intermediate between those observed under optimal field conditions and those recorded in NASA-Controlled Ecological Life-Support Systems (CELSS). We suggest that such a difference can be explained primarily in terms of low light levels inside the IAB, with additional effects due to elevated CO2 concentrations and diffuse light fractions.

  8. Light composite scalar boson from a see-saw mechanism in two-scale TC models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Doff, A; Natale, A.A

    2015-01-01

    We consider the possibility of a light composite scalar boson arising from mass mixing between a relatively light and heavy scalar singlets in a see-saw mechanism expected to occur in two-scale Technicolor (TC) models...

  9. High time resolution observation and statistical analysis of atmospheric light extinction properties and the chemical speciation of fine particulates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In recent years,the visibility deterioration caused by regional fine particulate pollution becomes one of the crucial air pollution problems in the urban areas of our country.The rapid variation of visibility and fine particulates make it difficult to estimate the relationship between them precisely and accurately unless high time resolution observation data can be accessed.This study aims to fill this gap in the field of atmospheric science by establishing a formula using multiple linear regressions.Excellent fitting goodness (R2=0.913,n=3167) was obtained using 10 min average of high-resolution real-time light scattering coefficients,light absorption coefficients,main chemical speciation concentration in PM1 and some meteorological parameters from 17 Jan to 16 Feb,2009.It shows that the average light extinction coefficient during the observation in the winter of Shenzhen was measured to be 290 ± 183 Mm?1,consisting of 72% of light scattering and 21% of absorption.In terms of the percentage contribution of PM1 chemical species to the total light extinction,the organic matter was estimated to be most with an average of 45%,followed by ammonium sulfate with an average of 24%.The contributions of black carbon and ammonium nitrate were 17% and 12%,respectively.Besides,the diurnal variation of light extinction was investigated as well in this study.

  10. Direct observation of relaxation modes in KNbO3 and BaTiO3 using inelastic light scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokoloff, J. P.; Chase, L. L.; Rytz, D.

    1988-07-01

    Cubic and tetragonal BaTiO3 and orthorhombic KNbO3 have been studied by Raman scattering, using an iodine filter to eliminate elastically scattered light. In addition to the usual phonon features, such as the soft E mode in tetragonal BaTiO3 and the soft B2 mode in orthorhombic KNbO3, central components have been observed in both materials for the first time. These components have the linewidths, line shapes, and thermal properties of relaxation modes, and symmetry properties consistent with an eight-site order-disorder model of the successive phase transitions. Additionally, the data provide direct evidence that clusters of precursor order are present in cubic BaTiO3 and the model provides estimates of the temperatures at which these clusters are present in both BaTiO3 and KNbO3. These values are in good agreement with the results of linear birefringence and refractive-index measurements.

  11. Observation platform for colloid science experiments using the ISS Light Microscopy Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurk, Michael Andy; Todd, Paul; Vellinger, John C.

    2012-07-01

    The role of gravity in colloid self-assembly is a long-standing subject of inquiry. The International Space Station Light Microscopy Module (LMM) is a potentially powerful tool for implementing the observation of colloids in a high-quality low-gravity environment. The main requirements for making observations of colloid self-assembly include a small-volume, thermally stabilized environment, the addition and removal of small volumes of fluids (colloidal suspensions or reagents), and on-demand access to electrokinetic and/or magnetophoretic body forces. A modular device has been designed in which a custom electronics module is designed to mate with the existing LMM cold plate and LMM controlling power. All control features, electrical power, microscope illuminator, fluid pumps and valves are components of this module. This module lies under, mates with and serves an experiment module which houses the fluid containers that fit under the LMM objective lenses and fluid transfer tubing. Four versions of the experiment module have been designed: a hollow-slide stopped flow cell, a multiwell quiescent module, a magnetization module and an electrokinetic module. Interfaces can be established in the viewing field using the stopped-flow cell, which is also applicable to living systems such as microbial cultures, suspended blood cells, nematodes, etc. Multi-well modules can be equipped with in-line static mixers that allow the investigator to combine pairs of fluids or to re-homogenize settled samples. The maximum dimension of all modules is 16 cm, so the modules can be transported in large numbers on cargo or manned spacecraft to the ISS. A doubly-contained transfer tool can be used to transfer fluids in and out of the experiment module, which is equipped with a fluid coupling that mates to the transfer tool. Experiment-specific versions of these modules can be prepared for approved experimenters within a 1-year period. The research for these devices is supported by NASA

  12. Is the island universe model consistent with observations?

    OpenAIRE

    Piao, Yun-Song

    2005-01-01

    We study the island universe model, in which initially the universe is in a cosmological constant sea, then the local quantum fluctuations violating the null energy condition create the islands of matter, some of which might corresponds to our observable universe. We examine the possibility that the island universe model is regarded as an alternative scenario of the origin of observable universe.

  13. Planck intermediate results XXIX. All-sky dust modelling with Planck, IRAS, and WISE observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Alves, M. I. R.

    2016-01-01

    . The present work extends the DL dust modelling carried out on nearby galaxies using Herschel and Spitzer data to Galactic dust emission. We employ the DL dust model to generate maps of the dust mass surface density Sigma(Md), the dust optical extinction A(V), and the starlight intensity heating the bulk......We present all-sky modelling of the high resolution Planck, IRAS, andWISE infrared (IR) observations using the physical dust model presented by Draine & Li in 2007 (DL, ApJ, 657, 810). We study the performance and results of this model, and discuss implications for future dust modelling...... of the dust, parametrized by U-min. The DL model reproduces the observed spectral energy distribution (SED) satisfactorily over most of the sky, with small deviations in the inner Galactic disk and in low ecliptic latitude areas, presumably due to zodiacal light contamination. In the Andromeda galaxy (M31...

  14. Initiation and early evolution of a Coronal Mass Ejection on May 13, 2009 from EUV and white-light observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reva, Anton; Kuzin, Sergey; Bogachev, Sergey; Ulyanov, Artyom

    In this talk we present results of the observations of a CME, which occurred on May 13, 2009. The most important feature of these observations is that the CME was observed from the very beginning stage (the solar surface) up to the distance of 15 solar radii (R_⊙). Below 2 R_⊙ we used the data from the TESIS EUV telescopes obtained in the Fe 171 Å and He 304 Å lines, and above 2 R_⊙ we used the observations of the LASCO C2 and C3 coronagraphs. Using data of these three instruments, we have studied the evolution of the CME in details. The CME had a curved trajectory -- its helio-latitude decreased with time. The mass ejection originated at a latitudes of about 50(°) and reached the ecliptic plane at a distance of 2.5 R_⊙ from the Sun’s center. The CME velocity and acceleration increased as the CME went away from the Sun. At the distance of 15 R_⊙ from the Sun’s center the CME had a velocity of 250 km/s and an acceleration of 5 m/s(2) . The CME was not associated with a flare, and didn’t have an impulsive acceleration phase. The mass ejection had U-shaped structure which was observed both in the 171 Å images and in white-light. The CME was formed at a distance of about 0.2 -- 0.5 R_⊙ from the Sun’s surface. Observations in the line 304 Å showed that the CME was associated with the erupting prominence, which was located in the lowest part of the U-shaped structure close to the X-point of the magnetic reconnection. The prominence disappeared at the height of 0.4 R_⊙ above the solar limb. Some aspects of these observations can’t be explained in the standard CME model, which predicts that the prominence should be located inside the U-shaped structure, and the CME should be associated with a flare and have an impulsive acceleration phase.

  15. Observational evidence for various models of Moving Magnetic Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeongwoo W.

    1992-01-01

    New measurements of Moving Magnetic Features (MMFs) based on the observations of the active region NOAA 5612 made at Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) on August 2, 1989 are presented. The existing theoretical models are checked against the new observations, and the origin of MMFs conjectured from the deduced observational constraints is discussed.

  16. Testing models of triggered star formation: theory and observation

    CERN Document Server

    Haworth, Thomas J; Acreman, David M

    2012-01-01

    One of the main reasons that triggered star formation is contentious is the failure to accurately link the observations with models in a detailed, quantitative, way. It is therefore critical to continuously test and improve the model details and methods with which comparisons to observations are made. We use a Monte Carlo radiation transport and hydrodynamics code TORUS to show that the diffuse radiation field has a significant impact on the outcome of radiatively driven implosion (RDI) models. We also calculate SEDs and synthetic images from the models to test observational diagnostics that are used to determine bright rimmed cloud conditions and search for signs of RDI.

  17. Holonomy observables in Ponzano-Regge type state sum models

    CERN Document Server

    Barrett, John W

    2011-01-01

    We study observables on group elements in the Ponzano-Regge model. We show that these observables have a natural interpretation in terms of Feynman diagrams on a sphere and contrast them to the well studied observables on the spin labels. We elucidate this interpretation by showing how they arise from the no-gravity limit of the Turaev-Viro model and Chern-Simons theory.

  18. Fuzzy model-based observers for fault detection in CSTR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros-Moncada, Hazael; Herrera-López, Enrique J; Anzurez-Marín, Juan

    2015-11-01

    Under the vast variety of fuzzy model-based observers reported in the literature, what would be the properone to be used for fault detection in a class of chemical reactor? In this study four fuzzy model-based observers for sensor fault detection of a Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor were designed and compared. The designs include (i) a Luenberger fuzzy observer, (ii) a Luenberger fuzzy observer with sliding modes, (iii) a Walcott-Zak fuzzy observer, and (iv) an Utkin fuzzy observer. A negative, an oscillating fault signal, and a bounded random noise signal with a maximum value of ±0.4 were used to evaluate and compare the performance of the fuzzy observers. The Utkin fuzzy observer showed the best performance under the tested conditions.

  19. Characterizing Cold Giant Planets in Reflected Light: Lessons from 50 Years of Outer Solar System Exploration and Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, Mark Scott; Hammel, Heidi

    2014-01-01

    A space based coronagraph, whether as part of the WFIRST/AFTA mission or on a dedicated space telescope such as Exo-C or -S, will be able to obtain photometry and spectra of multiple gas giant planets around nearby stars, including many known from radial velocity detections. Such observations will constrain the masses, atmospheric compositions, clouds, and photochemistry of these worlds. Giant planet albedo models, such as those of Cahoy et al. (2010) and Lewis et al. (this meeting), will be crucial for mission planning and interpreting the data. However it is equally important that insights gleaned from decades of solar system imaging and spectroscopy of giant planets be leveraged to optimize both instrument design and data interpretation. To illustrate these points we will draw on examples from solar system observations, by both HST and ground based telescopes, as well as by Voyager, Galileo, and Cassini, to demonstrate the importance clouds, photochemical hazes, and various molecular absorbers play in sculpting the light scattered by solar system giant planets. We will demonstrate how measurements of the relative depths of multiple methane absorption bands of varying strengths have been key to disentangling the competing effects of gas column abundances, variations in cloud height and opacity, and scattering by high altitude photochemical hazes. We will highlight both the successes, such as the accurate remote determination of the atmospheric methane abundance of Jupiter, and a few failures from these types of observations. These lessons provide insights into technical issues facing spacecraft designers, from the selection of the most valuable camera filters to carry to the required capabilities of the flight spectrometer, as well as mission design questions such as choosing the most favorable phase angles for atmospheric characterization.

  20. EXPLORING ANTICORRELATIONS AND LIGHT ELEMENT VARIATIONS IN NORTHERN GLOBULAR CLUSTERS OBSERVED BY THE APOGEE SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mészáros, Szabolcs [ELTE Gothard Astrophysical Observatory, H-9704 Szombathely, Szent Imre Herceg st. 112 (Hungary); Martell, Sarah L. [Department of Astrophysics, School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Shetrone, Matthew [University of Texas at Austin, McDonald Observatory, Fort Davis, TX 79734 (United States); Lucatello, Sara [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, vicolo dell Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Troup, Nicholas W.; Pérez, Ana E. García; Majewski, Steven R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Bovy, Jo [Institute for Advanced Study, Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Cunha, Katia [University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); García-Hernández, Domingo A.; Prieto, Carlos Allende [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Overbeek, Jamie C. [Department of Astronomy, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Beers, Timothy C. [Department of Physics and JINA Center for the Evolution of the Elements, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Frinchaboy, Peter M. [Texas Christian University, Fort Worth, TX 76129 (United States); Hearty, Fred R.; Schneider, Donald P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Holtzman, Jon [New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Nidever, David L. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Schiavon, Ricardo P. [Astrophysics Research Institute, IC2, Liverpool Science Park, Liverpool John Moores University, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool, L3 5RF (United Kingdom); and others

    2015-05-15

    We investigate the light-element behavior of red giant stars in northern globular clusters (GCs) observed by the SDSS-III Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment. We derive abundances of 9 elements (Fe, C, N, O, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, and Ti) for 428 red giant stars in 10 GCs. The intrinsic abundance range relative to measurement errors is examined, and the well-known C–N and Mg–Al anticorrelations are explored using an extreme-deconvolution code for the first time in a consistent way. We find that Mg and Al drive the population membership in most clusters, except in M107 and M71, the two most metal-rich clusters in our study, where the grouping is most sensitive to N. We also find a diversity in the abundance distributions, with some clusters exhibiting clear abundance bimodalities (for example M3 and M53) while others show extended distributions. The spread of Al abundances increases significantly as cluster average metallicity decreases as previously found by other works, which we take as evidence that low metallicity, intermediate mass AGB polluters were more common in the more metal-poor clusters. The statistically significant correlation of [Al/Fe] with [Si/Fe] in M15 suggests that {sup 28}Si leakage has occurred in this cluster. We also present C, N, and O abundances for stars cooler than 4500 K and examine the behavior of A(C+N+O) in each cluster as a function of temperature and [Al/Fe]. The scatter of A(C+N+O) is close to its estimated uncertainty in all clusters and independent of stellar temperature. A(C+N+O) exhibits small correlations and anticorrelations with [Al/Fe] in M3 and M13, but we cannot be certain about these relations given the size of our abundance uncertainties. Star-to-star variations of α-element (Si, Ca, Ti) abundances are comparable to our estimated errors in all clusters.

  1. Dynamical quark loop light-by-light contribution to muon g-2 within the nonlocal chiral quark model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorokhov, A.E. [Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation); M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, N.N. Bogoliubov Institute of Theoretical Problems of Microworld, Moscow (Russian Federation); Radzhabov, A.E. [Institute for System Dynamics and Control Theory SB RAS, Irkutsk (Russian Federation); Zhevlakov, A.S. [Institute for System Dynamics and Control Theory SB RAS, Irkutsk (Russian Federation); Tomsk State University, Department of Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-15

    The hadronic corrections to the muon anomalous magnetic moment a{sub μ}, due to the gauge-invariant set of diagrams with dynamical quark loop light-by-light scattering insertions, are calculated in the framework of the nonlocal chiral quark model. These results complete calculations of all hadronic light-by-light scattering contributions to a{sub μ} in the leading order in the 1/N{sub c} expansion. The result for the quark loop contribution is a{sub μ}{sup HLbL,Loop} = (11.0 ± 0.9) @ x 10{sup -10}, and the total result is a{sub μ}{sup HLbL,NχQM} = (16.8 ± 1.2) @ x 10{sup -10}. (orig.)

  2. WDAC Task Team on Observations for Model Evaluation: Facilitating the use of observations for CMIP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waliser, D. E.; Gleckler, P. J.; Ferraro, R.; Eyring, V.; Bosilovich, M. G.; Schulz, J.; Thepaut, J. N.; Taylor, K. E.; Chepfer, H.; Bony, S.; Lee, T. J.; Joseph, R.; Mathieu, P. P.; Saunders, R.

    2015-12-01

    Observations are essential for the development and evaluation of climate models. Satellite and in-situ measurements as well as reanalysis products provide crucial resources for these purposes. Over the last two decades, the climate modeling community has become adept at developing model intercomparison projects (MIPs) that provide the basis for more systematic comparisons of climate models under common experimental conditions. A prominent example among these is the coupled MIP (CMIP). Due to its growing importance in providing input to the IPCC, the framework for CMIP, now planning CMIP6, has expanded to include a very comprehensive and precise set of experimental protocols, with an advanced data archive and dissemination system. While the number, types and sophistication of observations over the same time period have kept pace, their systematic application to the evaluation of climate models has yet to be fully exploited due to a lack of coordinated protocols for identifying, archiving, documenting and applying observational resources. This presentation will discuss activities and plans of the World Climate Research Program (WCRP) Data Advisory Council's (WDAC) Task Team on Observations for Model Evaluation for facilitating the use of observations for model evaluation. The presentation will include an update on the status of the obs4MIPs and ana4MIPs projects, whose purpose is to provide a limited collection of well-established and documented observation and reanalysis datasets for comparison with Earth system models, targeting CMIP in particular. The presentation will also describe the role these activities and datasets play in the development of a set of community standard observation-based climate model performance metrics by the Working Group on Numerical Experimentation (WGNE)'s Performance Metrics Panel, as well as which CMIP6 experiments these activities are targeting, and where additional community input and contributions to these activities are needed.

  3. Inner Disk Structure of Dwarf Novae in the Light of X-ray Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Balman, S

    2014-01-01

    Diversity of the X-ray observations of dwarf nova are still not fully understood. I review the X-ray spectral characteristics of dwarf novae during the quiescence in general explained by cooling flow models and the outburst spectra that show hard X-ray emission dominantly with few sources that reveal soft X-ray/EUV blackbody emission. The nature of aperiodic time variability of brightness of dwarf novae shows band limited noise, which can be adequately described in the framework of the model of propagating fluctuations. The frequency of the break (1-6 mHz) indicates inner disk truncation of the optically thick disk with a range of radii (3.0-10.0)$\\times$10$^{9}$ cm. The RXTE and optical (RTT150) data of SS Cyg in outburst and quiescence reveal that the inner disk radius moves towards the white dwarf and receeds as the outburst declines to quiescence. A preliminary analysis of SU UMa indicates a similar behaviour. In addition, I find that the outburst spectra of WZ Sge shows two component spectrum of only har...

  4. Establishment of the Relationship between the Photochemical Reflectance Index and Canopy Light Use Efficiency Using Multi-angle Hyperspectral Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Yongguang; Qiu, Feng; Fan, Weiliang; Ju, Weimin

    2017-04-01

    The gross primary production (GPP) of terrestrial ecosystems constitutes the largest global land carbon flux and exhibits significant spatial and temporal variations. Due to its wide spatial coverage, remote sensing technology is shown to be useful for improving the estimation of GPP in combination with light use efficiency (LUE) models. Accurate estimation of LUE is essential for calculating GPP using remote sensing data and LUE models at regional and global scales. A promising method used for estimating LUE is the photochemical reflectance index (PRI = (R531-R570)/(R531 + R570), where R531 and R570 are reflectance at wavelengths 531 and 570 nm) through remote sensing. However, it has been documented that there are certain issues with PRI at the canopy scale, which need to be considered systematically. For this purpose, an improved tower-based automatic canopy multi-angle hyperspectral observation system was established at the Qianyanzhou flux station in China since January of 2013. In each 15-minute observation cycle, PRI was observed at four view zenith angles fixed at solar zenith angle and (37°, 47°, 57°) or (42°, 52°, 62°) in the azimuth angle range from 45° to 325° (defined from geodetic north). To improve the ability of directional PRI observation to track canopy LUE, the canopy is treated as two-big leaves, i.e. sunlit and shaded leaves. On the basis of a geometrical optical model, the observed canopy reflectance for each view angle is separated to four components, i.e. sunlit and shaded leaves and sunlit and shaded backgrounds. To determine the fractions of these four components at each view angle, three models based on different theories are tested for simulating the fraction of sunlit leaves. Finally, a ratio of canopy reflectance to leaf reflectance is used to represent the fraction of sunlit leaves, and the fraction of shaded leaves is calculated with the four-scale geometrical optical model. Thus, sunlit and shaded PRI are estimated using

  5. Possible signatures of nonlinear MHD waves in the solar wind: UVCS observations and models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofman, L.; Romoli, M.; Davila, J. M.; Poletto, G.; Kohl, J.; Noci, G.

    1997-01-01

    Recent ultraviolet coronagraph spectrometer (UVCS) white light channel observations are discussed. These data indicated quasi-periodic variations in the polarized brightness in the polar coronal holes. The Fourier power spectrum analysis showed significant peaks at about six minutes and possible fluctuations on longer time scales. The observations are consistent with the predictions of the nonlinear solitary-like wave model. The purpose of a planned study on plume and inter-plume regions of coronal holes, motivated by the result of a 2.5 magnetohydrodynamic model (MHD), is explained.

  6. A semi-analytical radiobiological model may assist treatment planning in light ion radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundrat, Pavel [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Na Slovance 2, CZ-182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic)

    2007-12-07

    A semi-analytical model of light ions' Bragg peaks is presented and used in conjunction with a detailed probabilistic radiobiological module to predict the biological effectiveness of light ion irradiation for hadrontherapy applications. The physical Bragg peak model is based on energy-loss calculations with the SRIM code and phenomenological formulae for the energy-loss straggling. Effects of nuclear reactions are accounted for on the level of reducing the number of primary particles only. Reaction products are not followed at all and their contribution to dose deposition is neglected. Beam widening due to multiple scattering and calculations of spread-out Bragg peaks are briefly discussed. With this simple physical model, integral depth-dose distributions are calculated for protons, carbon, oxygen and neon ions. A good agreement with published experimental data is observed for protons and lower energy ions (with ranges in water up to approximately 15 cm), while less satisfactory results are obtained for higher energy ions due to the increased role of nuclear reaction products, neglected in this model. A detailed probabilistic radiobiological module is used to complement the simple physical model and to estimate biological effectiveness along the penetration depth of Bragg peak irradiation. Excellent agreement is found between model predictions and experimental data for carbon beams, indicating potential applications of the present scheme in treatment planning in light ion hadrontherapy. Due to the semi-analytical character of the model, leading to high computational speed, applications are foreseen in particular in the fully biological optimization of multiple irradiation fields and intensity-modulated beams.

  7. A semi-analytical radiobiological model may assist treatment planning in light ion radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundrát, Pavel

    2007-12-07

    A semi-analytical model of light ions' Bragg peaks is presented and used in conjunction with a detailed probabilistic radiobiological module to predict the biological effectiveness of light ion irradiation for hadrontherapy applications. The physical Bragg peak model is based on energy-loss calculations with the SRIM code and phenomenological formulae for the energy-loss straggling. Effects of nuclear reactions are accounted for on the level of reducing the number of primary particles only. Reaction products are not followed at all and their contribution to dose deposition is neglected. Beam widening due to multiple scattering and calculations of spread-out Bragg peaks are briefly discussed. With this simple physical model, integral depth-dose distributions are calculated for protons, carbon, oxygen and neon ions. A good agreement with published experimental data is observed for protons and lower energy ions (with ranges in water up to approximately 15 cm), while less satisfactory results are obtained for higher energy ions due to the increased role of nuclear reaction products, neglected in this model. A detailed probabilistic radiobiological module is used to complement the simple physical model and to estimate biological effectiveness along the penetration depth of Bragg peak irradiation. Excellent agreement is found between model predictions and experimental data for carbon beams, indicating potential applications of the present scheme in treatment planning in light ion hadrontherapy. Due to the semi-analytical character of the model, leading to high computational speed, applications are foreseen in particular in the fully biological optimization of multiple irradiation fields and intensity-modulated beams.

  8. Drivers' phone use at red traffic lights: a roadside observation study comparing calls and visual-manual interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huth, Véronique; Sanchez, Yann; Brusque, Corinne

    2015-01-01

    Phone use while driving has become one of the priority issues in road safety, given that it may lead to decreased situation awareness and deteriorated driving performance. It has been suggested that drivers can regulate their exposure to secondary tasks and seek for compatibility of phone use and driving. Phone use strategies include the choice of driving situations with low demands and interruptions of the interaction when the context changes. Traffic light situations at urban intersections imply both a temptation to use the phone while waiting at the red traffic light and a potential threat due to the incompatibility of phone use and driving when the traffic light turns green. These two situations were targeted in a roadside observation study, with the aim to investigate the existence of a phone use strategy at the red traffic light and to test its effectiveness. N=124 phone users and a corresponding control group of non-users were observed. Strategic phone use behaviour was detected for visual-manual interactions, which are more likely to be initiated at the red traffic light and tend to be stopped before the vehicle moves off, while calls are less likely to be limited to the red traffic light situation. As an indicator of impaired situation awareness, delayed start was associated to phone use and in particular to visual-manual interactions, whether phone use was interrupted before moving off or not. Traffic light situations do not seem to allow effective application of phone use strategies, although drivers attempt to do so for the most demanding phone use mode. The underlying factors of phone use need to be studied so as to reduce the temptation of phone use and facilitate exposure regulation strategies.

  9. Predicting the future completing models of observed complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    Abarbanel, Henry

    2013-01-01

    Predicting the Future: Completing Models of Observed Complex Systems provides a general framework for the discussion of model building and validation across a broad spectrum of disciplines. This is accomplished through the development of an exact path integral for use in transferring information from observations to a model of the observed system. Through many illustrative examples drawn from models in neuroscience, fluid dynamics, geosciences, and nonlinear electrical circuits, the concepts are exemplified in detail. Practical numerical methods for approximate evaluations of the path integral are explored, and their use in designing experiments and determining a model's consistency with observations is investigated. Using highly instructive examples, the problems of data assimilation and the means to treat them are clearly illustrated. This book will be useful for students and practitioners of physics, neuroscience, regulatory networks, meteorology and climate science, network dynamics, fluid dynamics, and o...

  10. Correcting biased observation model error in data assimilation

    CERN Document Server

    Harlim, John

    2016-01-01

    While the formulation of most data assimilation schemes assumes an unbiased observation model error, in real applications, model error with nontrivial biases is unavoidable. A practical example is the error in the radiative transfer model (which is used to assimilate satellite measurements) in the presence of clouds. As a consequence, many (in fact 99\\%) of the cloudy observed measurements are not being used although they may contain useful information. This paper presents a novel nonparametric Bayesian scheme which is able to learn the observation model error distribution and correct the bias in incoming observations. This scheme can be used in tandem with any data assimilation forecasting system. The proposed model error estimator uses nonparametric likelihood functions constructed with data-driven basis functions based on the theory of kernel embeddings of conditional distributions developed in the machine learning community. Numerically, we show positive results with two examples. The first example is des...

  11. Light charged Higgs boson scenario in 3-Higgs doublet models

    CERN Document Server

    Akeroyd, A G; Yagyu, Kei; Yildirim, Emine

    2016-01-01

    The constraints from the measurements of the $B\\to X_s\\gamma$ decay rate on the parameter space of 3-Higgs Doublet Models (3HDMs), where all the doublets have non-zero vacuum expectation values, are studied at the next-to-leading order in QCD. In order to naturally avoid the presence of flavour changing neutral currents at the tree level, we impose two softly-broken discrete $Z_2$ symmetries. This gives rise to five independent types of 3HDMs that differ in their Yukawa couplings. We show that in all these 3HDMs (including the case of type-II-like Yukawa interactions) both masses of the two charged Higgs bosons $m_{H_1^\\pm}$ and $m_{H_2^\\pm}$ can be smaller than the top mass $m_t$ while complying with the constraints from $B\\to X_s\\gamma$. As an interesting phenomenological consequence, the branching ratios of the charged Higgs bosons decay into the $cb$ final states can be as large as $80\\%$ when their masses are taken to be below $m_t$ in two of the five 3HDMs (named as Type-Y and Type-Z). This light charge...

  12. Modeling chloride penetration into concrete with light-weight aggregates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maage, M.; Helland, S.; Carlsen, J. E. [SELMER ASA, Oslo (Norway)

    2000-07-01

    Results of a program of studies designed to provide input to a model for estimating the initiation period of reinforcement corrosion and to document chloride ingress into various practical concretes made with light-weight aggregates, depending on a number of variables in curing and exposure conditions, as well as concrete composition and materials, are discussed. Variables included curing time before exposure; curing temperature; exposure temperature and time; type of exposure; and type of binder. Results achieved correlate well with the initial hypothesis i.e. that the achieved chloride coefficient decreases with increasing exposure time and also with increasing curing time.Surface chloride content as the environmental load, was shown to increase with exposure time during the first years, and decrease with increased curing time and exposure temperature. The achieved diffusion coefficient was found to be independent of curing and exposure temperature, but decreased with longer exposure time and the addition of slag. Increasing the salt concentration in the exposure water and the introduction of slag increased the time dependency of the achieved diffusion coefficient. 11 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs.

  13. Light scattering by neutrophils: Model, simulation, and experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orlova, D.Y.; Yurkin, M.A.; Hoekstra, A.G.; Maltsev, V.P.

    2008-01-01

    We studied the elastic light-scattering properties of human blood neutrophils, both experimentally and theoretically. The experimental study was performed with a scanning flow cytometer measuring the light-scattering patterns (LSPs) of individual cells over an angular range of 5-60 deg. We determine

  14. What sea-ice biogeochemical modellers need from observers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Steiner

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Numerical models can be a powerful tool helping to understand the role biogeochemical processes play in local and global systems and how this role may be altered in a changing climate. With respect to sea-ice biogeochemical models, our knowledge is severely limited by our poor confidence in numerical model parameterisations representing those processes. Improving model parameterisations requires communication between observers and modellers to guide model development and improve the acquisition and presentation of observations. In addition to more observations, modellers need conceptual and quantitative descriptions of the processes controlling, for example: primary production and diversity of algal functional types in sea ice, ice algal growth, release from sea ice, heterotrophic remineralisation, transfer and emission of gases (e.g., DMS, CH4, BrO, incorporation of seawater components in growing sea ice (including Fe, organic and inorganic carbon, and major salts and subsequent release; CO2 dynamics (including CaCO3 precipitation, flushing and supply of nutrients to sea-ice ecosystems; and radiative transfer through sea ice. These issues can be addressed by focused observations, as well as controlled laboratory and field experiments that target specific processes. The guidelines provided here should help modellers and observers improve the integration of measurements and modelling efforts and advance toward the common goal of understanding biogeochemical processes in sea ice and their current and future impacts on environmental systems.

  15. Leptogenesis in the Light of Super-Kamiokande Data and a Realistic String Model

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Jonathan Richard; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V; Ellis, John

    1999-01-01

    We discuss leptogenesis in the light of indications of neutrino masses and mixings from Super-Kamiokande and other data on atmospheric neutrinos, as well as the solar neutrino deficit. Neutrino masses and mixings consistent with these data may produce in a natural and generic way a lepton asymmetry that is suffient to provide the observed baryon asymmetry, after processing via non-perturbative electroweak effects. We illustrate this discussion in the framework of the string-derived flipped SU(5) model, using particle assignments and choices of vacuum parameters that are known to give realistic masses to quarks and charged leptons. We display one scenario for neutrino masses that also accommodates leptogenesis.

  16. A NEW MODEL OF AUTONOMOUS MOBILE ROBOTS WITH LIGHTS AND ITS COMPUTATIONAL POWER

    OpenAIRE

    寺井, 智史

    2016-01-01

    We study gathering problem for robots that move on a two dimensional plane. Robots are autonomous, anonymous, and have light that represents robot’s state. Gathering algorithm for n=2 robots is proposed in previous research. We propose a new model of robots with lights and athering algorithm. Key Words :distributed , mobile robots , light

  17. Modeling of Gamma-Ray Pulsar Light Curves with Force-Free Magnetic Field

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Xue-Ning

    2009-01-01

    (Abridged) Gamma-ray emission from pulsars has long been modeled using a vacuum dipole field. This approximation ignores changes in the field structure caused by the magnetospheric plasma and strong plasma currents. We present the first results of gamma-ray pulsar light curve modeling using the more realistic field taken from 3D force-free magnetospheric simulations. Having the geometry of the field, we apply several prescriptions for the location of the emission zone, comparing the light curves to observations. We find that the conventional two-pole caustic model fails to produce double-peak pulse profiles, mainly because the size of the polar cap in force-free magnetosphere is larger than the vacuum field polar cap. The conventional outer-gap model is capable of producing only one peak under general conditions, because a large fraction of open field lines does not cross the null charge surface. We propose a novel "annular gap" model, where the high-energy emission originates from a thin layer on the open fi...

  18. Thermal Infrared Observations and Thermophysical Modeling of Phobos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nathan Michael; Edwards, Christopher Scott; Mommert, Michael; Trilling, David E.; Glotch, Timothy

    2016-10-01

    Mars-observing spacecraft have the opportunity to study Phobos from Mars orbit, and have produced a sizeable record of observations using the same instruments that study the surface of the planet below. However, these observations are generally infrequent, acquired only rarely over each mission.Using observations gathered by Mars Global Surveyor's (MGS) Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES), we can investigate the fine layer of regolith that blankets Phobos' surface, and characterize its thermal properties. The mapping of TES observations to footprints on the Phobos surface has not previously been undertaken, and must consider the orientation and position of both MGS and Phobos, and TES's pointing mirror angle. Approximately 300 fully resolved observations are available covering a significant subset of Phobos' surface at a variety of scales.The properties of the surface regolith, such as grain size, density, and conductivity, determine how heat is absorbed, transferred, and reradiated to space. Thermophysical modeling allows us to simulate these processes and predict, for a given set of assumed parameters, how the observed thermal infrared spectra will appear. By comparing models to observations, we can constrain the properties of the regolith, and see how these properties vary with depth, as well as regionally across the Phobos surface. These constraints are key to understanding how Phobos formed and evolved over time, which in turn will help inform the environment and processes that shaped the solar system as a whole.We have developed a thermophysical model of Phobos adapted from a model used for unresolved observations of asteroids. The model has been modified to integrate thermal infrared flux across each observed portion of Phobos. It will include the effects of surface roughness, temperature-dependent conductivity, as well as radiation scattered, reflected, and thermally emitted from the Martian surface. Combining this model with the newly-mapped TES

  19. Temporal Evolution of the Gamma-ray Burst Afterglow Spectrum for an Observer: GeV-TeV Synchrotron Self-Compton Light Curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Takuma; To, Sho; Asano, Katsuaki; Fujita, Yutaka

    2017-08-01

    We numerically simulate the gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglow emission with a one-zone time-dependent code. The temporal evolutions of the decelerating shocked shell and energy distributions of electrons and photons are consistently calculated. The photon spectrum and light curves for an observer are obtained taking into account the relativistic propagation of the shocked shell and the curvature of the emission surface. We find that the onset time of the afterglow is significantly earlier than the previous analytical estimate. The analytical formulae of the shock propagation and light curve for the radiative case are also different from our results. Our results show that even if the emission mechanism is switching from synchrotron to synchrotron self-Compton, the gamma-ray light curves can be a smooth power law, which agrees with the observed light curve and the late detection of a 32 GeV photon in GRB 130427A. The uncertainty of the model parameters obtained with the analytical formula is discussed, especially in connection with the closure relation between spectral index and decay index.

  20. Observational semantics of the Prolog Resolution Box Model

    CERN Document Server

    Deransart, Pierre; Ferrand, Gérard

    2007-01-01

    This paper specifies an observational semantics and gives an original presentation of the Byrd box model. The approach accounts for the semantics of Prolog tracers independently of a particular Prolog implementation. Prolog traces are, in general, considered as rather obscure and difficult to use. The proposed formal presentation of its trace constitutes a simple and pedagogical approach for teaching Prolog or for implementing Prolog tracers. It is a form of declarative specification for the tracers. The trace model introduced here is only one example to illustrate general problems relating to tracers and observing processes. Observing processes know, from observed processes, only their traces. The issue is then to be able to reconstitute, by the sole analysis of the trace, part of the behaviour of the observed process, and if possible, without any loss of information. As a matter of fact, our approach highlights qualities of the Prolog resolution box model which made its success, but also its insufficiencies...

  1. Light Kaluza Klein States in Randall-Sundrum Models with Custodial SU(2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carena, Marcela; /Fermilab; Ponton, Eduardo; /Columbia U.; Santiago, Jose; /Fermilab; Wagner, Carlos E.M.; /Argonne /Chicago U., EFI /KICP, Chicago

    2006-07-01

    We consider Randall-Sundrum scenarios based on SU(2){sub L} x SU(2){sub R} and a discrete parity exchanging L with R. The custodial and parity symmetries can be used to make the tree level contribution to the T parameter and the anomalous couplings of the bottom quark to the Z very small. We show that the resulting quantum numbers typically induce a negative T parameter at one loop that, together with the positive value of the S parameter, restrict considerably these models. There are nevertheless regions of parameter space that successfully reproduce the fit to electroweak precision observables with light Kaluza-Klein excitations accessible at colliders. We consider models of gauge-Higgs unification that implement the custodial and parity symmetries and find that the electroweak data singles out a very well defined region in parameter space. In this region one typically finds light gauge boson Kaluza-Klein excitations as well as light SU(2){sub L} singlet, and sometimes also doublet, fermionic states, that mix with the top quark, and that may yield interesting signatures at future colliders.

  2. Dusty tails of evaporating exoplanets. II. Physical modelling of the KIC 12557548b light curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lieshout, R.; Min, M.; Dominik, C.; Brogi, M.; de Graaff, T.; Hekker, S.; Kama, M.; Keller, C. U.; Ridden-Harper, A.; van Werkhoven, T. I. M.

    2016-11-01

    Context. Evaporating rocky exoplanets, such as KIC 12557548b, eject large amounts of dust, which can trail the planet in a comet-like tail. When such objects occult their host star, the resulting transit signal contains information about the dust in the tail. Aims: We aim to use the detailed shape of the Kepler light curve of KIC 12557548b to constrain the size and composition of the dust grains that make up the tail, as well as the mass loss rate of the planet. Methods: Using a self-consistent numerical model of the dust dynamics and sublimation, we calculated the shape of the tail by following dust grains from their ejection from the planet to their destruction due to sublimation. From this dust cloud shape, we generated synthetic light curves (incorporating the effects of extinction and angle-dependent scattering), which were then compared with the phase-folded Kepler light curve. We explored the free-parameter space thoroughly using a Markov chain Monte Carlo method. Results: Our physics-based model is capable of reproducing the observed light curve in detail. Good fits are found for initial grain sizes between 0.2 and 5.6 μm and dust mass loss rates of 0.6 to 15.6 M⊕ Gyr-1 (2σ ranges). We find that only certain combinations of material parameters yield the correct tail length. These constraints are consistent with dust made of corundum (Al2O3), but do not agree with a range of carbonaceous, silicate, or iron compositions. Conclusions: Using a detailed, physically motivated model, it is possible to constrain the composition of the dust in the tails of evaporating rocky exoplanets. This provides a unique opportunity to probe to interior composition of the smallest known exoplanets.

  3. Pre-main sequence stars with disks in the Eagle Nebula observed in scattered light

    CERN Document Server

    Guarcello, M G; Micela, G; Peres, G; Prisinzano, L; Sciortino, S

    2010-01-01

    NGC6611 and its parental cloud, the Eagle Nebula (M16), are well-studied star-forming regions, thanks to their large content of both OB stars and stars with disks and the observed ongoing star formation. We identified 834 disk-bearing stars associated with the cloud, after detecting their excesses in NIR bands from J band to 8.0 micron. In this paper, we study in detail the nature of a subsample of disk-bearing stars that show peculiar characteristics. They appear older than the other members in the V vs. V-I diagram, and/or they have one or more IRAC colors at pure photospheric values, despite showing NIR excesses, when optical and infrared colors are compared. We confirm the membership of these stars to M16 by a spectroscopic analysis. The physical properties of these stars with disks are studied by comparing their spectral energy distributions (SEDs) with the SEDs predicted by models of T-Tauri stars with disks and envelopes. We show that the age of these stars estimated from the V vs. V-I diagram is unrel...

  4. Technical Note: Calibration and validation of geophysical observation models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salama, M.S.; van der Velde, R.; van der Woerd, H.J.; Kromkamp, J.C.; Philippart, C.J.M.; Joseph, A.T.; O'Neill, P.E.; Lang, R.H.; Gish, T.; Werdell, P.J.; Su, Z.

    2012-01-01

    We present a method to calibrate and validate observational models that interrelate remotely sensed energy fluxes to geophysical variables of land and water surfaces. Coincident sets of remote sensing observation of visible and microwave radiations and geophysical data are assembled and subdivided i

  5. Time-symmetric universe model and its observational implication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Futamase, T.; Matsuda, T.

    1987-08-01

    A time-symmetric closed-universe model is discussed in terms of the radiation arrow of time. The time symmetry requires the occurrence of advanced waves in the recontracting phase of the Universe. We consider the observational consequences of such advanced waves, and it is shown that a test observer in the expanding phase can observe a time-reversed image of a source of radiation in the future recontracting phase.

  6. Variability and dust filtration in the transition disk J160421.7-213028 observed in optical scattered light

    CERN Document Server

    Pinilla, P; Benisty, M; Juhász, A; Ovelar, M de Juan; Dominik, C; Avenhaus, H; Birnstiel, T; Girard, J H; Huelamo, N; Isella, A; Milli, J

    2015-01-01

    Context. Some of transition disks show asymmetric structures in thermal sub-millimetre emission and optical scattered light. These structures can be the result of planet(s) or companions embedded in the disk. Aims. We aim to detect and analyse the scattered light of the transition disk J160421.7-213028, identify disk structures, and compare the results with previous observations of this disk at other wavelengths. Methods. We obtained and analysed new polarised intensity observations of the transition disk J160421.7-213028 with VLT/SPHERE using the visible light instrument ZIMPOL at $R'$-band (0.626$\\mu$m). We probe the disk gap down to a radius of confidence of 0.1'' (${\\sim}15$ AU at 145 pc). We interpret the results in the context of dust evolution when planets interact with the parental disk. Results. We observe a gap from 0.1 to 0.3'' (${\\sim}15$ to 40 AU) and a bright annulus as previously detected by HiCIAO $H$-band observations at $1.65\\mu$m. The radial width of the annulus is around $40$ AU, and its p...

  7. Modeled Effects of Encapsulated Crude Oil on Light Transmission Through Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carns, R.; Light, B.

    2015-12-01

    As part of ongoing research to further advance a range of oil spill response technologies in the Arctic, nine oil and gas companies established the Arctic Oil Spill Response Technology Joint Industry Programme (JIP) in 2012. One research theme is designed to expand the industry's remote-sensing and monitoring capabilities. A suite of sensors was tested on a saltwater ice sheet grown in the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) Ice Engineering Research Facility test basin while oil was injected under the ice at different points in the ice growth. The ice continued to grow after the oil injection, allowing the oil to become encapsulated so testing could occur with various thicknesses of ice below the oil. Measurements of apparent optical properties were taken before and after the injection of oil and during various stages of ice growth. We have used a Monte Carlo model of radiative transfer for sea ice [Light et al., 2003] to explore light transmission through sea ice containing encapsulated oil. This model uses a cylindrical domain, making it well-suited for determining how large a pool of oil encapsulated in a given thickness of ice must be before it is detectable from beneath the ice cover. We use this model in combination with the optical observations to predict the amount of light transmitted and reflected from sea ice of various thicknesses containing oil. We also examine the effects of a scattering layer on the ice surface, as would commonly be present in the Arctic, either in the form of snow or the surface scattering layer that develops on melting ice. We evaluate the feasibility of distinguishing between different types of oil based on the spectral signature of light transmitted through the ice. Further model sensitivity studies yield insight about the effects of the distribution of the oil within the ice cover. Light, B., G. A. Maykut, and T. C. Grenfell (2003), A two-dimensional Monte Carlo model of

  8. Modeling and predicting the growth boundary of Listeria monocytogenes in lightly preserved seafood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejlholm, Ole; Dalgaard, Paw

    2007-01-01

    in lightly preserved seafood. The developed growth boundary model accurately predicted growth and no-growth responses in 68 of 71 examined experiments from the present study as well as from literature data. Growth was predicted for three batches of naturally contaminated cold-smoked salmon when a no...... of products was explained by a higher content of naturally occurring lactate in cold-smoked salmon (0.77 to 0.98%, wt/ wt) than in cold-smoked Greenland halibut (0.10 to 0.15%, wt/wt). In fact, the addition of 0.15% (wt/wt) diacetate and 0.75% (wt/wt) lactate to MAP cold-smoked Greenland halibut prevented......-growth response was actually observed, indicating that the model is fail-safe. The developed model predicts both the growth boundary and growth rate of L. monocytogenes and seems useful for the risk management of lightly preserved seafood. Particularly, the model facilitates the identification of product...

  9. Fast evolving pair-instability supernova models: evolution, explosion, light curves

    CERN Document Server

    Kozyreva, Alexandra; Hirschi, Raphael; Frohlich, Carla; Blinnikov, Sergey; Wollaeger, Ryan T; Noebauer, Ulrich M; van Rossum, Daniel R; Heger, Alexander; Even, Wesley P; Waldman, Roni; Tolstov, Alexey; Chatzopoulos, Emmanouil; Sorokina, Elena

    2016-01-01

    With an increasing number of superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) discovered the question of their origin remains open and causes heated debates in the supernova community. Currently, there are three proposed mechanisms for SLSNe: (1) pair-instability supernovae (PISN), (2) magnetar-driven supernovae, and (3) models in which the supernova ejecta interacts with a circumstellar material ejected before the explosion. Based on current observations of SLSNe, the PISN origin has been disfavoured for a number of reasons. Many PISN models provide overly broad light curves and too reddened spectra, because of massive ejecta and a high amount of nickel. In the current study we re-examine PISN properties using progenitor models computed with the GENEC code. We calculate supernova explosions with FLASH and light curve evolution with the radiation hydrodynamics code STELLA. We find that high-mass models (200 and 250 solar masses) at relatively high metallicity (Z=0.001) do not retain hydrogen in the outer layers and produce r...

  10. Testing Dissipative Magnetosphere Model Light Curves and Spectra with Fermi Pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, Gabriele; Kalapotharakos, Constantinos; Harding, Alice K.; Kazanas, Demosthenes

    2015-01-01

    We explore the emission properties of a dissipative pulsar magnetosphere model introduced by Kalapotharakos et al. comparing its high-energy light curves and spectra, due to curvature radiation, with data collected by the Fermi LAT. The magnetosphere structure is assumed to be near the force-free solution. The accelerating electric field, inside the light cylinder (LC), is assumed to be negligible, while outside the LC it rescales with a finite conductivity (sigma). In our approach we calculate the corresponding high-energy emission by integrating the trajectories of test particles that originate from the stellar surface, taking into account both the accelerating electric field components and the radiation reaction forces. First, we explore the parameter space assuming different value sets for the stellar magnetic field, stellar period, and conductivity. We show that the general properties of the model are in a good agreement with observed emission characteristics of young gamma-ray pulsars, including features of the phase-resolved spectra. Second, we find model parameters that fit each pulsar belonging to a group of eight bright pulsars that have a published phase-resolved spectrum. The sigma values that best describe each of the pulsars in this group show an increase with the spin-down rate (E? ) and a decrease with the pulsar age, expected if pair cascades are providing the magnetospheric conductivity. Finally, we explore the limits of our analysis and suggest future directions for improving such models.

  11. The detection of observations possibly influential for model selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractModel selection can involve several variables and selection criteria. A simple method to detect observations possibly influential for model selection is proposed. The potentials of this method are illustrated with three examples, each of which is taken from related studies.

  12. Swelling in light water reactor internal components: Insights from computational modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoller, Roger E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Barashev, Alexander V. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Golubov, Stanislav I. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-08-01

    A modern cluster dynamics model has been used to investigate the materials and irradiation parameters that control microstructural evolution under the relatively low-temperature exposure conditions that are representative of the operating environment for in-core light water reactor components. The focus is on components fabricated from austenitic stainless steel. The model accounts for the synergistic interaction between radiation-produced vacancies and the helium that is produced by nuclear transmutation reactions. Cavity nucleation rates are shown to be relatively high in this temperature regime (275 to 325°C), but are sensitive to assumptions about the fine scale microstructure produced under low-temperature irradiation. The cavity nucleation rates observed run counter to the expectation that void swelling would not occur under these conditions. This expectation was based on previous research on void swelling in austenitic steels in fast reactors. This misleading impression arose primarily from an absence of relevant data. The results of the computational modeling are generally consistent with recent data obtained by examining ex-service components. However, it has been shown that the sensitivity of the model s predictions of low-temperature swelling behavior to assumptions about the primary damage source term and specification of the mean-field sink strengths is somewhat greater that that observed at higher temperatures. Further assessment of the mathematical model is underway to meet the long-term objective of this research, which is to provide a predictive model of void swelling at relevant lifetime exposures to support extended reactor operations.

  13. Model-independent inference on compact-binary observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Ilya; Farr, Will M.; Colonna, Andrea; Stevenson, Simon; Tiňo, Peter; Veitch, John

    2017-03-01

    The recent advanced LIGO detections of gravitational waves from merging binary black holes enhance the prospect of exploring binary evolution via gravitational-wave observations of a population of compact-object binaries. In the face of uncertainty about binary formation models, model-independent inference provides an appealing alternative to comparisons between observed and modelled populations. We describe a procedure for clustering in the multidimensional parameter space of observations that are subject to significant measurement errors. We apply this procedure to a mock data set of population-synthesis predictions for the masses of merging compact binaries convolved with realistic measurement uncertainties, and demonstrate that we can accurately distinguish subpopulations of binary neutron stars, binary black holes, and mixed neutron star-black hole binaries with tens of observations.

  14. Hints on halo evolution in SFDM models with galaxy observations

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez-Morales, Alma X; Urena-Lopez, L Arturo; Valenzuela, Octavio

    2012-01-01

    A massive, self-interacting scalar field has been considered as a possible candidate for the dark matter in the universe. We present an observational constraint to the model arising from strong lensing observations in galaxies. The result points to a discrepancy in the properties of scalar field dark matter halos for dwarf and lens galaxies, mainly because halo parameters are directly related to physical quantities in the model. This is an important indication that it becomes necessary to have a better understanding of halo evolution in scalar field dark matter models, where the presence of baryons can play an important role.

  15. Seven new binaries discovered in the Kepler light curves through the BEER method confirmed by radial-velocity observations

    CERN Document Server

    Faigler, S; Quinn, S N; Latham, D W; Tal-Or, L

    2011-01-01

    We present seven newly discovered non-eclipsing short-period binary systems with low-mass companions, identified by the recently introduced BEER algorithm, applied to the publicly available 138-day photometric light curves obtained by the Kepler mission. The detection is based on the beaming effect (sometimes called Doppler boosting), which increases (decreases) the brightness of any light source approaching (receding from) the observer, enabling a prediction of the stellar Doppler radial-velocity modulation from its precise photometry. The BEER algorithm identifies the BEaming periodic modulation, with a combination of the well known Ellipsoidal and Reflection/heating periodic effects, induced by short-period companions. The seven detections were confirmed by spectroscopic radial-velocity follow-up observations, indicating minimum secondary masses in the range of 0.07-0.4 Msun. The discovered binaries establish for the first time the feasibility of the BEER algorithm as a new detection method for short-perio...

  16. Observational Constraints on a Variable Dark Energy Model

    CERN Document Server

    Movahed, M S; Movahed, Mohammad Sadegh; Rahvar, Sohrab

    2006-01-01

    We present cosmological tests for a phenomenological parametrization of quintessence model with time-varying equation of state on low, intermediate and high redshift observations \\cite{w04}. We study the sensitivity of the comoving distance and volume element with the Alcock-Paczynski test to the time varying model of dark energy. At the intermediate redshifts, Gold supernova Type Ia data is used to fit the quintessence model to the observed distance modulus. The value of the observed acoustic angular scale by WMAP experiment also is compared with the model. The combined result of CMB and SNIa data confines $w=p/\\rho$ to be more than -1.3 which can violate the dominant energy condition.

  17. Modelling the $\\gamma$-ray and radio light curves of the double pulsar system

    CERN Document Server

    Seyffert, A S; Harding, A K; Johnson, T J

    2014-01-01

    Guillemot et al. recently reported the discovery of $\\gamma$-ray pulsations from the 22.7ms pulsar (pulsar A) in the famous double pulsar system J0737-3039A/B. The $\\gamma$-ray light curve (LC) of pulsar A has two peaks separated by approximately half a rotation, and these are non-coincident with the observed radio and X-ray peaks. This suggests that the $\\gamma$-ray emission originates in a part of the magnetosphere distinct from where the radio and X-ray radiation is generated. Thus far, three different methods have been applied to constrain the viewing geometry of pulsar A (its inclination and observer angles $\\alpha$ and $\\zeta$): geometric modelling of the radio and $\\gamma$-ray light curves, modelling of the position angle sweep in phase seen in the radio polarisation data, and independent studies of the time evolution of the radio pulse profile of pulsar A. These three independent, complementary methods have yielded consistent results: pulsar A's rotation axis is likely perpendicular to the orbital pla...

  18. Ferns, mosses and liverworts as model systems for light-mediated chloroplast movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suetsugu, Noriyuki; Higa, Takeshi; Wada, Masamitsu

    2016-11-17

    Light-induced chloroplast movement is found in most plant species, including algae and land plants. In land plants with multiple small chloroplasts, under weak light conditions, the chloroplasts move towards the light and accumulate on the periclinal cell walls to efficiently perceive light for photosynthesis (the accumulation response). Under strong light conditions, chloroplasts escape from light to avoid photodamage (the avoidance response). In most plant species, blue light induces chloroplast movement, and phototropin receptor kinases are the blue light receptors. Molecular mechanisms for photoreceptors, signal transduction and chloroplast motility systems are being studied using the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. However, to further understand the molecular mechanisms and evolutionary history of chloroplast movement in green plants, analyses using other plant systems are required. Here, we review recent works on chloroplast movement in green algae, liverwort, mosses and ferns that provide new insights on chloroplast movement.

  19. Microbunch Instability Observations from a THz Detector at Diamond Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, W.; Bartolini, R.; Boorman, G.; Karataev, P.; Lyapin, A.; Puntree, J.; Rehm, G.

    2012-05-01

    Diamond Light source is a third generation synchrotron facility dedicated to producing radiation of outstanding brightness, ranging from infra-red to x-rays. The short electron bunches that are accelerated around the storage ring are susceptible to the phenomenon of microbunching instabilities when the bunch charge exceeds a threshold. The primary feature of the microbunch instabilities is the onset of bursts of radiation in the THz range. The high frequencies involved in the emissions make detection and analysis challenging. A 60-90 GHz Schottky Barrier Diode detector was installed to investigate turn by turn evolution of the instabilities.

  20. Direct observation of spin-forbidden transitions through the use of suitably polarized light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévêque, Camille; Peláez, Daniel; Köppel, Horst; Taïeb, Richard

    2014-06-13

    The study of excited triplet states of a molecular system is a difficult task because accessing them involves forbidden transitions from the singlet ground state. Nevertheless, absorption spectra of many molecules present, at low energies, the weak fingerprint of these triplet states. At higher energies this information is usually masked by the intense signal of the singlet states. Here we show, for the specific case of the sulphur dioxide molecule, that the combined use of polarized light and molecular alignment can enhance the triplet part of the spectrum, even making it the only absorption process.

  1. Constraints on the Extragalactic Background Light from Very High Energy Gamma-Ray Observations of Blazars

    OpenAIRE

    Finke, Justin D.; Razzaque, Soebur

    2009-01-01

    The extragalactic background light (EBL) from the infrared to the ultraviolet is difficult to measure directly, but can be constrained with a variety of methods. EBL photons absorb gamma-rays from distant blazars, allowing one to use blazar spectra from atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (ACTs) to put upper limits on the EBL by assuming a blazar source spectrum. Here we apply a simple technique, similar to the one developed by Schroedter (2005), to the most recent very-high energy (VHE) gamma-r...

  2. Modelling of an explosive event observed by SUMER & TRACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Daniel; Taroyan, Youra; Ishak, Bebe

    2016-07-01

    To fully understand coronal heating, we must first understand the different solar processes that move energy throughout the solar atmosphere. TRACE observations have revealed a short cold loop evolving over a small timescale, seemingly with multiple explosive events occurring along its length. An adaptive hydrodynamic radiation code was used to simulate the loop under non-equilibrium ionization. Footpoint heating and cold plasma injection were considered as possible scenarios to reproduce the observations. The simulation results were converted into synthetic observations through forward modelling, for comparison to SOHO/SUMER spectral observations of the loop.

  3. A carbohydrate supply and demand model of vegetative growth: response to temperature and light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gent, Martin P N; Seginer, Ido

    2012-07-01

    Photosynthesis is the limiting factor in crop growth models, but metabolism may also limit growth. We hypothesize that, over a wide range of temperature, growth is the minimum of the supply of carbohydrate from photosynthesis, and the demand of carbohydrate to synthesize new tissue. Biosynthetic demand limits growth at cool temperatures and increases exponentially with temperature. Photosynthesis limits growth at warm temperatures and decreases with temperature. Observations of tomato seedlings were used to calibrate a model based on this hypothesis. Model predictions were tested with published data for growth and carbohydrate content of sunflower and wheat. The model qualitatively fitted the response of growth of tomato and sunflower to both cool and warm temperatures. The transition between demand and supply limitation occurred at warmer temperatures under higher light and faster photosynthesis. Modifications were required to predict the observed non-structural carbohydrate (NSC). Some NSC was observed at warm temperatures, where demand should exceed supply. It was defined as a required reserve. Less NSC was found at cool temperatures than predicted from the difference between supply and demand. This was explained for tomato and sunflower, by feedback inhibition of NSC on photosynthesis. This inhibition was much less in winter wheat.

  4. How useful are stream level observations for model calibration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, Jan; Vis, Marc; Pool, Sandra

    2014-05-01

    Streamflow estimation in ungauged basins is especially challenging in data-scarce regions and it might be reasonable to take at least a few measurements. Recent studies demonstrated that few streamflow measurements, representing data that could be measured with limited efforts in an ungauged basin, might be needed to constrain runoff models for simulations in ungauged basins. While in these previous studies we assumed that few streamflow measurements were taken during different points in time over one year, obviously it would be reasonable to (also) measure stream levels. Several approaches could be used in practice for such stream level observations: water level loggers have become less expensive and easier to install and can be used to obtain continuous stream level time series; stream levels will in the near future be increasingly available from satellite remote sensing resulting in evenly space time series; community-based approaches (e.g., crowdhydrology.org), finally, can offer level observations at irregular time intervals. Here we present a study where a catchment runoff model (the HBV model) was calibrated for gauged basins in Switzerland assuming that only a subset of the data was available. We pretended that only stream level observations at different time intervals, representing the temporal resolution of the different observation approaches mentioned before, and a small number of streamflow observations were available. The model, which was calibrated based on these data subsets, was then evaluated on the full observed streamflow record. Our results indicate that streamlevel data alone already can provide surprisingly good model simulation results, which can be further improved by the combination with one streamflow observation. The surprisingly good results with only streamlevel time series can be explained by the relatively high precipitation in the studied catchments. Constructing a hypothetical catchment with reduced precipitation resulted in poorer

  5. The data mining III: An analysis of 21 eclipsing binary light-curves observed by the INTEGRAL/OMC

    CERN Document Server

    Zasche, P

    2011-01-01

    Twenty-one eclipsing binaries were selected for an analysis from a huge database of observations made by the INTEGRAL/OMC camera. The photometric data were processed and analyzed, resulting in a first light-curve study of these neglected eclipsing binaries. In several systems from this sample even their orbital periods have been confirmed or modified. Thirty-two new minima times of these binaries have been derived.

  6. The data mining II: An analysis of 33 eclipsing binary light-curves observed by the INTEGRAL/OMC

    CERN Document Server

    Zasche, P

    2009-01-01

    Thirty-three eclipsing binaries were selected for an analysis from a huge database of observations made by the INTEGRAL/OMC camera. The photometric data were processed and analyzed, resulting in a first light-curve study of these neglected eclipsing binaries. The system CY Lac was discovered to be an eccentric one. In several systems from this sample even their orbital periods have been confirmed or modified. Due to missing spectroscopic study of these stars, further detailed analyses are still needed.

  7. The data mining: An analysis of 20 eclipsing binary light-curves observed by the INTEGRAL/OMC

    CERN Document Server

    Zasche, P

    2008-01-01

    Twenty eclipsing binaries were selected for an analysis from a huge database of observations made by the INTEGRAL/OMC camera. The photometric data were processed and analyzed, resulting in a first light-curve study of these neglected eclipsing binaries. Most of the selected systems are the detached ones. The system ET Vel was discovered to be an eccentric one. Due to missing spectroscopic study of these stars, further detailed analyses are still needed.

  8. Used of observed snow in the Snomod model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorteberg, H. K.

    2009-04-01

    For the hydroelectric industry in Norway, it is important to know exactly what resources are available at all times. The correct volume of snow reserves and the accurate forecasting of the spring flood volume can provide the best basis for maximising production values. The forward market can fluctuate considerably, and it is therefore important to know what is available at the right time. For many years, the Snomod model has been used to calculate snow reserves and to forecast the spring flood volume. Snomod is based on a regression equation between the annual observations of inflow and one or more precipitation series. Manual snow measurements are used in both Snomod and the HBV model and other models to estimate the correct snow reserves. In operational use, Snomod is updated manually with the snow estimate that is considered to be correct. Following the winter of 2007-2008, analyses were carried out to determine how accurate the forecasting was. The analyses were based on comparing the spring flood volume forecast with the observed spring flood volume using the ‘observed precipitation' precipitation scenario. Such analyses can tell us something about the quality of the model results for this winter. Analyses have been carried out for 18 models using Snomod. When the results from the analyses are compared with the spring floods, the spring flood volume has been forecast accurately for most of the models with observed precipitation when observed snow has been used in the forecasting process. The results indicate that nine of the models are very good, five are good and two are reasonable. Only one model produced a poor forecast of the spring flood volume. If a corresponding analysis without correction for observed snow is carried out, and the observed spring flood is compared with the forecast spring flood, the results are not as good. This may stem from the fact that during the spring of 2008 there were higher levels of evaporation during the melting season than

  9. The role of observational uncertainties in testing model hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerberg, I. K.; Birkel, C.

    2012-12-01

    Knowledge about hydrological processes and the spatial and temporal distribution of water resources is needed as a basis for managing water for hydropower, agriculture and flood-protection. Conceptual hydrological models may be used to infer knowledge on catchment functioning but are affected by uncertainties in the model representation of reality as well as in the observational data used to drive the model and to evaluate model performance. Therefore, meaningful hypothesis testing of the hydrological functioning of a catchment requires such uncertainties to be carefully estimated and accounted for in model calibration and evaluation. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of observational uncertainties in hypothesis testing, in particular whether it was possible to detect model-structural representations that were wrong in an important way given the uncertainties in the observational data. We studied the relatively data-scarce tropical Sarapiqui catchment in Costa Rica, Central America, where water resources play a vital part for hydropower production and livelihood. We tested several model structures of varying complexity as hypotheses about catchment functioning, but also hypotheses about the nature of the modelling errors. The tests were made within a learning framework for uncertainty estimation which enabled insights into data uncertainties, suitable model-structural representations and appropriate likelihoods. The observational uncertainty in discharge data was estimated from a rating-curve analysis and precipitation measurement errors through scenarios relating the error to, for example, canopy interception, wind-driven rain and the elevation gradient. The hypotheses were evaluated in a posterior analysis of the simulations where the performance of each simulation was analysed relative to the observational uncertainties for the entire hydrograph as well as for different aspects of the hydrograph (e.g. peak flows, recession periods, and base flow

  10. Light-Curve Modelling Constraints on the Obliquities and Aspect Angles of the Young Fermi Pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierbattista, M.; Harding, A. K.; Grenier, I. A.; Johnson, T. J.; Caraveo, P. A.; Kerr, M.; Gonthier, P. L.

    2015-01-01

    In more than four years of observation the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi satellite has identified pulsed gamma-ray emission from more than 80 young or middle-aged pulsars, in most cases providing light curves with high statistics. Fitting the observed profiles with geometrical models can provide estimates of the magnetic obliquity alpha and of the line of sight angle zeta, yielding estimates of the radiation beaming factor and radiated luminosity. Using different gamma-ray emission geometries (Polar Cap, Slot Gap, Outer Gap, One Pole Caustic) and core plus cone geometries for the radio emission, we fit gamma-ray light curves for 76 young or middle-aged pulsars and we jointly fit their gamma-ray plus radio light curves when possible. We find that a joint radio plus gamma-ray fit strategy is important to obtain (alpha, zeta) estimates that can explain simultaneously detectable radio and gamma-ray emission: when the radio emission is available, the inclusion of the radio light curve in the fit leads to important changes in the (alpha, gamma) solutions. The most pronounced changes are observed for Outer Gap and One Pole Caustic models for which the gamma-ray only fit leads to underestimated alpha or zeta when the solution is found to the left or to the right of the main alpha-zeta plane diagonal respectively. The intermediate-to-high altitude magnetosphere models, Slot Gap, Outer Gap, and One pole Caustic, are favored in explaining the observations. We find no apparent evolution of a on a time scale of 106 years. For all emission geometries our derived gamma-ray beaming factors are generally less than one and do not significantly evolve with the spin-down power. A more pronounced beaming factor vs. spin-down power correlation is observed for Slot Gap model and radio-quiet pulsars and for the Outer Gap model and radio-loud pulsars. The beaming factor distributions exhibit a large dispersion that is less pronounced for the Slot Gap case and that decreases from

  11. Light-Curve Modelling Constraints on the Obliquities and Aspect Angles of the Young Fermi Pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierbattista, M.; Harding, A. K.; Grenier, I. A.; Johnson, T. J.; Caraveo, P. A.; Kerr, M.; Gonthier, P. L.

    2015-01-01

    In more than four years of observation the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi satellite has identified pulsed gamma-ray emission from more than 80 young or middle-aged pulsars, in most cases providing light curves with high statistics. Fitting the observed profiles with geometrical models can provide estimates of the magnetic obliquity alpha and of the line of sight angle zeta, yielding estimates of the radiation beaming factor and radiated luminosity. Using different gamma-ray emission geometries (Polar Cap, Slot Gap, Outer Gap, One Pole Caustic) and core plus cone geometries for the radio emission, we fit gamma-ray light curves for 76 young or middle-aged pulsars and we jointly fit their gamma-ray plus radio light curves when possible. We find that a joint radio plus gamma-ray fit strategy is important to obtain (alpha, zeta) estimates that can explain simultaneously detectable radio and gamma-ray emission: when the radio emission is available, the inclusion of the radio light curve in the fit leads to important changes in the (alpha, gamma) solutions. The most pronounced changes are observed for Outer Gap and One Pole Caustic models for which the gamma-ray only fit leads to underestimated alpha or zeta when the solution is found to the left or to the right of the main alpha-zeta plane diagonal respectively. The intermediate-to-high altitude magnetosphere models, Slot Gap, Outer Gap, and One pole Caustic, are favored in explaining the observations. We find no apparent evolution of a on a time scale of 106 years. For all emission geometries our derived gamma-ray beaming factors are generally less than one and do not significantly evolve with the spin-down power. A more pronounced beaming factor vs. spin-down power correlation is observed for Slot Gap model and radio-quiet pulsars and for the Outer Gap model and radio-loud pulsars. The beaming factor distributions exhibit a large dispersion that is less pronounced for the Slot Gap case and that decreases from

  12. A GLOBAL MODEL OF THE LIGHT CURVES AND EXPANSION VELOCITIES OF TYPE II-PLATEAU SUPERNOVAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pejcha, Ondřej [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, 4 Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Prieto, Jose L., E-mail: pejcha@astro.princeton.edu [Núcleo de Astronomía de la Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejército 441 Santiago (Chile)

    2015-02-01

    We present a new self-consistent and versatile method that derives photospheric radius and temperature variations of Type II-Plateau supernovae based on their expansion velocities and photometric measurements. We apply the method to a sample of 26 well-observed, nearby supernovae with published light curves and velocities. We simultaneously fit ∼230 velocity and ∼6800 mag measurements distributed over 21 photometric passbands spanning wavelengths from 0.19 to 2.2 μm. The light-curve differences among the Type II-Plateau supernovae are well modeled by assuming different rates of photospheric radius expansion, which we explain as different density profiles of the ejecta, and we argue that steeper density profiles result in flatter plateaus, if everything else remains unchanged. The steep luminosity decline of Type II-Linear supernovae is due to fast evolution of the photospheric temperature, which we verify with a successful fit of SN 1980K. Eliminating the need for theoretical supernova atmosphere models, we obtain self-consistent relative distances, reddenings, and nickel masses fully accounting for all internal model uncertainties and covariances. We use our global fit to estimate the time evolution of any missing band tailored specifically for each supernova, and we construct spectral energy distributions and bolometric light curves. We produce bolometric corrections for all filter combinations in our sample. We compare our model to the theoretical dilution factors and find good agreement for the B and V filters. Our results differ from the theory when the I, J, H, or K bands are included. We investigate the reddening law toward our supernovae and find reasonable agreement with standard R{sub V}∼3.1 reddening law in UBVRI bands. Results for other bands are inconclusive. We make our fitting code publicly available.

  13. A temporal model for early vision that explains detection thresholds for light pulses on flickering backgrounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snippe, H.P.; Poot, L.; Hateren, J.H. van

    2000-01-01

    A model is presented for the early (retinal) stages of temporal processing of light inputs in the visual system. The model consists of a sequence of three adaptation processes, with two instantaneous nonlinearities in between. The three adaptation processes are, in order of processing of the light

  14. Charon's light curves, as observed by New Horizons' Ralph color camera (MVIC) on approach to the Pluto system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howett, C. J. A.; Ennico, K.; Olkin, C. B.; Buie, M. W.; Verbiscer, A. J.; Zangari, A. M.; Parker, A. H.; Reuter, D. C.; Grundy, W. M.; Weaver, H. A.; Young, L. A.; Stern, S. A.

    2017-05-01

    Light curves produced from color observations taken during New Horizons' approach to the Pluto-system by its Multi-spectral Visible Imaging Camera (MVIC, part of the Ralph instrument) are analyzed. Fifty seven observations were analyzed, they were obtained between 9th April and 3rd July 2015, at a phase angle of 14.5° to 15.1°, sub-observer latitude of 51.2 °N to 51.5 °N, and a sub-solar latitude of 41.2°N. MVIC has four color channels; all are discussed for completeness but only two were found to produce reliable light curves: Blue (400-550 nm) and Red (540-700 nm). The other two channels, Near Infrared (780-975 nm) and Methane-Band (860-910 nm), were found to be potentially erroneous and too noisy respectively. The Blue and Red light curves show that Charon's surface is neutral in color, but slightly brighter on its Pluto-facing hemisphere. This is consistent with previous studies made with the Johnson B and V bands, which are at shorter wavelengths than that of the MVIC Blue and Red channel respectively.

  15. Testing ocean tide models using GGP superconducting gravimeter observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, T.; Bos, M.

    2003-04-01

    Observations from the global network of superconducting gravimeters in the Global Geodynamics Project (GGP) are used to test 10 ocean tide models (SCHW; FES94.1, 95.2, 98, 99; CSR3.0, 4.0; TPXO.5; GOT99.2b; and NAO.99b). In addition, observations are used from selected sites with LaCoste and Romberg gravimeters with electrostatic feedback, where special attention has been given to achieving a calibration accuracy of 0.1%. In Europe, there are several superconducting gravimeter stations in a relatively small area and this can be used to advantage in testing the ocean (and body) tide models and in identifying sites with anomalous observations. At some of the superconducting gravimeter sites there are anomalies in the in-phase components of the main tidal harmonics, which are due to calibration errors of up to 0.3%. It is shown that the recent ocean tide models are in better agreement with the tidal gravity observations than were the earlier models of Schwiderski and FES94.1. However, no single ocean tide model gives completely satisfactory results in all areas of the world. For example, for M2 the TPXO.5 and NAO99b models give anomalous results in Europe, whereas the FES95.2, FES98 and FES99 models give anomalous results in China and Japan. It is shown that the observations from this improved set of tidal gravity stations will provide an important test of the new ocean tide models that will be developed in the next few years. For further details see Baker, T.F. and Bos, M.S. (2003). "Validating Earth and ocean tide models using tidal gravity measurements", Geophysical Journal International, 152.

  16. A method of observing cherenkov light from extensive air shower at Yakutsk EAS array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeev, Lev; Anatoly, Ivanov

    2016-07-01

    Proposed a new method for measuring the cherenkov light from the extensive air shower (EAS) of cosmic rays (CR), which allows to determine not only the primary particle energy and angle of arrival, but also the parameters of the shower in the atmosphere - the maximum depth and "age". For measurements Cherenkov light produced by EAS is proposed to use a ground network of wide-angle telescopes which are separated from each other by a distance 100-300 m depending on the total number of telescopes operating in the coincidence signals, acting autonomously, or includes a detector of the charged components, radio waves, etc. as part of EAS. In a results such array could developed, energy measurement and CR angle of arrival data on the depth of the maximum and the associated mass of the primary particle generating by EAS. This is particularly important in the study of galactic cosmic ray in E> 10^14 eV, where currently there are no direct measurements of the maximum depth of the EAS.

  17. Total cloud cover from satellite observations and climate models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Probst

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Global and zonal monthly means of cloud cover fraction for total cloudiness (CF from the ISCCP D2 dataset are compared to same quantity produced by the 20th century simulations of 21 climate models from the World Climate Research Programme's (WCRP's Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 (CMIP3 multi-model dataset archived by the Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison (PCMDI. The comparison spans the time frame from January 1984 to December 1999 and the global and zonal average of CF are studied. The restriction to total cloudiness depends on the output of some models that does not include the 3D cloud structure. It is shown that the global mean of CF for the PCMDI/CMIP3 models, averaged over the whole period, exhibits a considerable variance and generally underestimates the ISCCP value. Very large discrepancies among models, and between models and observations, are found in the polar areas, where both models and satellite observations are less reliable, and especially near Antarctica. For this reason the zonal analysis is focused over the 60° S–60° N latitudinal belt, which includes the tropical area and mid latitudes. The two hemispheres are analyzed separately to show the variation of the amplitude of the seasonal cycle. Most models overestimate the yearly averaged values of CF over all of the analysed areas, while differences emerge in their ability to capture the amplitude of the seasonal cycle. The models represent, in a qualitatively correct way, the magnitude and the weak sign of the seasonal cycle over the whole geographical domain, but overestimate the strength of the signal in the tropical areas and at mid-latitudes, when taken separately. The interannual variability of the two yearly averages and of the amplitude of the seasonal cycle is greatly underestimated by all models in each area analysed. This work shows that the climate models have an heterogeneous behaviour in simulating the CF over

  18. Obs4MIPS: Satellite Observations for Model Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, R.; Waliser, D. E.; Gleckler, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    This poster will review the current status of the obs4MIPs project, whose purpose is to provide a limited collection of well-established and documented datasets for comparison with Earth system models (https://www.earthsystemcog.org/projects/obs4mips/). These datasets have been reformatted to correspond with the CMIP5 model output requirements, and include technical documentation specifically targeted for their use in model output evaluation. There are currently over 50 datasets containing observations that directly correspond to CMIP5 model output variables. We will review recent additions to the obs4MIPs collection, and provide updated download statistics. We will also provide an update on changes to submission and documentation guidelines, the work of the WCRP Data Advisory Council (WDAC) Observations for Model Evaluation Task Team, and engagement with the CMIP6 MIP experiments.

  19. Modeling of diffuse molecular gas applied to HD 102065 observations

    CERN Document Server

    Nehme, Cyrine; Boulanger, Francois; Forets, Guillaume Pineau des; Gry, Cecile

    2008-01-01

    Aims. We model a diffuse molecular cloud present along the line of sight to the star HD 102065. We compare our modeling with observations to test our understanding of physical conditions and chemistry in diffuse molecular clouds. Methods. We analyze an extensive set of spectroscopic observations which characterize the diffuse molecular cloud observed toward HD 102065. Absorption observations provide the extinction curve, H2, C I, CO, CH, and CH+ column densities and excitation. These data are complemented by observations of CII, CO and dust emission. Physical conditions are determined using the Meudon PDR model of UV illuminated gas. Results. We find that all observational results, except column densities of CH, CH+ and H2 in its excited (J > 2) levels, are consistent with a cloud model implying a Galactic radiation field (G~0.4 in Draine's unit), a density of 80 cm-3 and a temperature (60-80 K) set by the equilibrium between heating and cooling processes. To account for excited (J >2) H2 levels column densit...

  20. Observations that polar climate modelers use and want

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, J. E.; de Boer, G.; Hunke, E. C.; Bailey, D. A.; Schneider, D. P.

    2012-12-01

    Observations are essential for motivating and establishing improvement in the representation of polar processes within climate models. We believe that explicitly documenting the current methods used to develop and evaluate climate models with observations will help inform and improve collaborations between the observational and climate modeling communities. As such, we will present the current strategy of the Polar Climate Working Group (PCWG) to evaluate polar processes within Community Earth System Model (CESM) using observations. Our presentation will focus primarily on PCWG evaluation of atmospheric, sea ice, and surface oceanic processes. In the future, we hope to expand to include land surface, deep ocean, and biogeochemical observations. We hope our presentation, and a related working document developed by the PCWG (https://docs.google.com/document/d/1zt0xParsFeMYhlihfxVJhS3D5nEcKb8A41JH0G1Ic-E/edit) inspires new and useful interactions that lead to improved climate model representation of polar processes relevant to polar climate.

  1. Constraint on Heavy Element Production in Inhomogeneous Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis from The Light-Element Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamura, Riou; Fujimoto, Shin-ichiro; Sato, Katsuhiko

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the observational constraints on the inhomogeneous big-bang nucleosynthesis that Matsuura et al. suggested the possibility of the heavy element production beyond ${}^7$Li in the early universe. From the observational constraints on light elements of ${}^4$He and D, possible regions are found on the plane of the volume fraction of the high density region against the ratio between high-and low-density regions. In these allowed regions, we have confirmed that the heavy elements beyond Ni can be produced appreciably, where $p$- and/or $r$-process elements are produced well simultaneously.

  2. MHD models compared with Artemis observations at -60 Re

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gencturk Akay, Iklim; Sibeck, David; Angelopoulos, Vassilis; Kaymaz, Zerefsan; Kuznetsova, Maria

    2016-07-01

    The distant magnetotail has been one of the least studied magnetic regions of the Earth's magnetosphere compared to the other near Earth both dayside and nightside magnetospheric regions owing to the limited number of spacecraft observations. Since 2011, ARTEMIS spacecraft give an excellent opportunity to study the magnetotail at lunar distances in terms of data quality and parameter space. This also gives opportunities to improve the magnetotail models at -60 Re and encourages the modelling studies of the distant magnetotail. Using ARTEMIS data in distant magnetotail, we create magnetic field and plasma flow vector maps in different planes and separated with IMF orientation to understand the magnetotail dynamics at this distance. For this study, we use CCMC's Run-on-Request resources of the MHD models; specifically SWMF-BATS-R-US, OpenGGCM, and LFM and perform the similar analysis with the models. Our main purpose in this study is to measure the performance of the MHD models at -60 Re distant magnetotail by comparing the model results with Artemis observations. In the literature, such a comprehensive comparative study is lacking in the distant tail. Preliminary results show that in general all three models underestimate the magnetic field structure while overestimating the flow speed. In the cross-sectional view, LFM seems to produce the better agreement with the observations. A clear dipolar magnetic field structure is seen with dawn-dusk asymmetry in all models owing to slight positive IMF By but the effect was found to be exaggerated. All models show tailward flows at this distance of the magnetotail, most possibly owing to the magnetic reconnection at the near Earth tail distances. A detailed comparison of several tail characteristics from the models will be presented and discussions will be given with respect to the observations from Artemis at this distance.

  3. Influence of rainfall observation network on model calibration and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bárdossy

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective in this study is to investigate the influence of the spatial resolution of the rainfall input on the model calibration and application. The analysis is carried out by varying the distribution of the raingauge network. A meso-scale catchment located in southwest Germany has been selected for this study. First, the semi-distributed HBV model is calibrated with the precipitation interpolated from the available observed rainfall of the different raingauge networks. An automatic calibration method based on the combinatorial optimization algorithm simulated annealing is applied. The performance of the hydrological model is analyzed as a function of the raingauge density. Secondly, the calibrated model is validated using interpolated precipitation from the same raingauge density used for the calibration as well as interpolated precipitation based on networks of reduced and increased raingauge density. Lastly, the effect of missing rainfall data is investigated by using a multiple linear regression approach for filling in the missing measurements. The model, calibrated with the complete set of observed data, is then run in the validation period using the above described precipitation field. The simulated hydrographs obtained in the above described three sets of experiments are analyzed through the comparisons of the computed Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient and several goodness-of-fit indexes. The results show that the model using different raingauge networks might need re-calibration of the model parameters, specifically model calibrated on relatively sparse precipitation information might perform well on dense precipitation information while model calibrated on dense precipitation information fails on sparse precipitation information. Also, the model calibrated with the complete set of observed precipitation and run with incomplete observed data associated with the data estimated using multiple linear regressions, at the locations treated as

  4. Foundation observation of teaching project--a developmental model of peer observation of teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattison, Andrew Timothy; Sherwood, Morgan; Lumsden, Colin James; Gale, Alison; Markides, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Peer observation of teaching is important in the development of educators. The foundation curriculum specifies teaching competencies that must be attained. We created a developmental model of peer observation of teaching to help our foundation doctors achieve these competencies and develop as educators. A process for peer observation was created based on key features of faculty development. The project consisted of a pre-observation meeting, the observation, a post-observation debrief, writing of reflective reports and group feedback sessions. The project was evaluated by completion of questionnaires and focus groups held with both foundation doctors and the students they taught to achieve triangulation. Twenty-one foundation doctors took part. All completed reflective reports on their teaching. Participants described the process as useful in their development as educators, citing specific examples of changes to their teaching practice. Medical students rated the sessions as better or much better quality as their usual teaching. The study highlights the benefits of the project to individual foundation doctors, undergraduate medical students and faculty. It acknowledges potential anxieties involved in having teaching observed. A structured programme of observation of teaching can deliver specific teaching competencies required by foundation doctors and provides additional benefits.

  5. Canopy Light Absorption and Application of the Light-Use Efficiency Model of Photosynthesis in a Northern Great Plains Grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, L. B.; Sharp, E. J.; Gamon, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    The fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (fAPAR) is fundamentally important for model calculations of ecosystem productivity across large areas. The main objective of this study was to better understand factors influencing fAPAR, its relationship with seasonal variation in canopy greenness (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)), and the consequences of potential seasonal changes in the NDVI- fAPAR relationship for light-use efficiency model calculations of ecosystem photosynthesis in a semi-arid grassland. We used two approaches to determine fAPAR, (i) incoming and outgoing radiance measurements above and below the canopy, and (ii) an inversion approach based on incident photosynthetically active radiation and the light response curve of net ecosystem productivity (NEP) measured by eddy covariance at low light levels. The two approaches resulted in fAPAR values that were very strongly correlated during the initial development of the canopy until peak leaf area index (LAI) was reached. A strong linear relationship also occurred between fAPAR and NDVI, based on reflectance measurements made along a tram system above the grassland canopy during initial LAI development. After peak LAI, there was hysteresis in the NDVI- fAPAR relationship. Light-use efficiency model calculations of ecosystem photosynthesis made using fAPAR values were strongly correlated with chamber CO2 exchange measurements during the initial development of the canopy leaf area. After peak LAI, a relative stress function, based on either soil moisture or vapour pressure deficit (VPD) measurements, was necessary to reduce quantum yield and model calculations of ecosystem photosynthesis during periods of relatively low soil moisture and higher VPD later in the growing season. Both stress functions were similarly effective in improving the correlation between modeled and measured ecosystem photosynthesis values.

  6. The diverse broad-band light-curves of Swift GRBs reproduced with the cannonball model

    CERN Document Server

    Dado, Shlomo; De Rújula, A

    2009-01-01

    Two radiation mechanisms, inverse Compton scattering (ICS) and synchrotron radiation (SR), suffice within the cannonball (CB) model of long gamma ray bursts (LGRBs) and X-ray flashes (XRFs) to provide a very simple and accurate description of their observed prompt emission and afterglows. Simple as they are, the two mechanisms and the burst environment generate the rich structure of the light curves at all frequencies and times. This is demonstrated for 33 selected Swift LGRBs and XRFs, which are well sampled from early time until late time and well represent the entire diversity of the broad band light curves of Swift LGRBs and XRFs. Their prompt gamma-ray and X-ray emission is dominated by ICS of glory light. During their fast decline phase, ICS is taken over by SR which dominates their broad band afterglow. The pulse shape and spectral evolution of the gamma-ray peaks and the early-time X-ray flares, and even the delayed optical `humps' in XRFs, are correctly predicted. The canonical and non-canonical X-ra...

  7. A Generalized Ideal Observer Model for Decoding Sensory Neural Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopathy ePurushothaman

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We show that many ideal observer models used to decode neural activity can be generalizedto a conceptually and analytically simple form. This enables us to study the statisticalproperties of this class of ideal observer models in a unified manner. We consider in detailthe problem of estimating the performance of this class of models. We formulate the problemde novo by deriving two equivalent expressions for the performance and introducing the correspondingestimators. We obtain a lower bound on the number of observations (N requiredfor the estimate of the model performance to lie within a specified confidence interval at aspecified confidence level. We show that these estimators are unbiased and consistent, withvariance approaching zero at the rate of 1/N. We find that the maximum likelihood estimatorfor the model performance is not guaranteed to be the minimum variance estimator even forsome simple parametric forms (e.g., exponential of the underlying probability distributions.We discuss the application of these results for designing and interpreting neurophysiologicalexperiments that employ specific instances of this ideal observer model.

  8. Computer Modeling of Real-Time Dynamic Lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maida, James C.; Pace, J.; Novak, J.; Russo, Dane M. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Space Station tasks involve procedures that are very complex and highly dependent on the availability of visual information. In many situations, cameras are used as tools to help overcome the visual and physical restrictions associated with space flight. However, these cameras are effected by the dynamic lighting conditions of space. Training for these is conditions is necessary. The current project builds on the findings of an earlier NRA funded project, which revealed improved performance by humans when trained with computer graphics and lighting effects such as shadows and glare.

  9. Covariance of Light-Front Models Pair Current

    CERN Document Server

    Pacheco-Bicudo-Cabral de Melo, J; Naus, H W L; Sauer, P U

    1999-01-01

    We compute the "+" component of the electromagnetic current of a composite spin-one two-fermion system for vanishing momentum transfer component $q^+=q^0+q^3$. In particular, we extract the nonvanishing pair production amplitude on the light-front. It is a consequence of the longitudinal zero momentum mode, contributing to the light-front current in the Breit-frame. The covariance of the current is violated, if such pair terms are not included in its matrix elements. We illustrate our discussion with some numerical examples.

  10. A hybrid double-observer sightability model for aerial surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Paul C.; Lubow, Bruce C.; Jenkins, Kurt J.; Vales, David J.; Moeller, Barbara J.; Reid, Mason; Happe, Patricia J.; Mccorquodale, Scott M.; Tirhi, Michelle J.; Schaberi, Jim P.; Beirne, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    Raw counts from aerial surveys make no correction for undetected animals and provide no estimate of precision with which to judge the utility of the counts. Sightability modeling and double-observer (DO) modeling are 2 commonly used approaches to account for detection bias and to estimate precision in aerial surveys. We developed a hybrid DO sightability model (model MH) that uses the strength of each approach to overcome the weakness in the other, for aerial surveys of elk (Cervus elaphus). The hybrid approach uses detection patterns of 2 independent observer pairs in a helicopter and telemetry-based detections of collared elk groups. Candidate MH models reflected hypotheses about effects of recorded covariates and unmodeled heterogeneity on the separate front-seat observer pair and back-seat observer pair detection probabilities. Group size and concealing vegetation cover strongly influenced detection probabilities. The pilot's previous experience participating in aerial surveys influenced detection by the front pair of observers if the elk group was on the pilot's side of the helicopter flight path. In 9 surveys in Mount Rainier National Park, the raw number of elk counted was approximately 80–93% of the abundance estimated by model MH. Uncorrected ratios of bulls per 100 cows generally were low compared to estimates adjusted for detection bias, but ratios of calves per 100 cows were comparable whether based on raw survey counts or adjusted estimates. The hybrid method was an improvement over commonly used alternatives, with improved precision compared to sightability modeling and reduced bias compared to DO modeling.

  11. Observational constraints on the generalized $\\alpha$ attractor model

    CERN Document Server

    Shahalam, M; Myrzakul, Shynaray; Wang, Anzhong

    2016-01-01

    We study the generalized $\\alpha$ attractor model in context of late time cosmic acceleration; the model interpolates between freezing and thawing dark energy models. In the slow roll regime, the originally potential is modified whereas the modification ceases in the asymptotic regime and the effective potential behaves as quadratic. In our setting, field rolls slowly around the present epoch and mimics dark matter in future. We put observational constraints on the model parameters for which we use an integrated data base (SN+Hubble+BAO+CMB) for carrying out the data analysis.

  12. SUSY in the Light of B Physics and Electroweak Precision Observables

    CERN Document Server

    Weiglein, Georg

    2007-01-01

    Indirect information about the possible scale of supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking can be obtained from the comparison of precisely measured observables (and also of exclusion limits) with accurate theory predictions incorporating SUSY loop corrections. Recent results are reviewed obtained from a combined analysis of the most sensitive electroweak precision observables (EWPO), M_W, sin^2_theta^eff, Gamma_Z, (g-2)_\\mu and M_h, and B-physics observables (BPO), BR(b -> s \\gamma), BR(B_s -> \\mu^+\\mu^-), BR(B_u -> \\tau \

  13. Observed versus modelled u-, g-, r-, i-, z-band photometry of local galaxies - evaluation of model performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, K. S. Alexander; Lisker, Thorsten; Grebel, Eva K.

    2012-12-01

    We test how well available stellar population models can reproduce observed u-, g-, r-, i-, z-band photometry of the local galaxy population (0.02 ≤ z ≤ 0.03) as probed by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Our study is conducted from the perspective of a user of the models, who has observational data in hand and seeks to convert them into physical quantities. Stellar population models for galaxies are created by synthesizing star formation histories and chemical enrichments using single stellar populations from several groups (STARBURST99, GALAXEV, the Maraston models, GALEV). The role of dust is addressed through a simplistic, but observationally motivated, dust model that couples the amplitude of the extinction to the star formation history, metallicity and the viewing angle. Moreover, the influence of emission lines is considered (for the subset of models for which this component is included). The performance of the models is investigated by (1) comparing their prediction with the observed galaxy population in the SDSS using the (u - g)-(r - i) and (g - r)-(i - z) colour planes, (2) comparing predicted stellar mass and luminosity weighted ages and metallicities, specific star formation rates, mass-to-light ratios and total extinctions with literature values from studies based on spectroscopy. Strong differences between the various models are seen with several models occupying regions in the colour-colour diagrams where no galaxies are observed. We would therefore like to emphasize the importance of the choice of model. Using our preferred model we find that the star formation history, metallicity and also dust content can be constrained over a large part of the parameter space through the use of u-, g-, r-, i-, z-band photometry. However, strong local degeneracies are present due to overlap of models with high and low extinction in certain parts of the colour space.

  14. Testing protostellar disk formation models with ALMA observations

    CERN Document Server

    Harsono, Daniel; Bruderer, Simon; Li, Zhi-Yun; Jorgensen, Jes

    2015-01-01

    Abridged: Recent simulations have explored different ways to form accretion disks around low-mass stars. We aim to present observables to differentiate a rotationally supported disk from an infalling rotating envelope toward deeply embedded young stellar objects and infer their masses and sizes. Two 3D magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) formation simulations and 2D semi-analytical model are studied. The dust temperature structure is determined through continuum radiative transfer RADMC3D modelling. A simple temperature dependent CO abundance structure is adopted and synthetic spectrally resolved submm rotational molecular lines up to $J_{\\rm u} = 10$ are simulated. All models predict similar compact components in continuum if observed at the spatial resolutions of 0.5-1$"$ (70-140 AU) typical of the observations to date. A spatial resolution of $\\sim$14 AU and high dynamic range ($> 1000$) are required to differentiate between RSD and pseudo-disk in the continuum. The peak-position velocity diagrams indicate that the...

  15. Modeling the Compton Hump Reverberation Observed in Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoormann, Janie; Beheshtipour, Banafsheh; Krawczynski, Henric

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, observations of the Iron K alpha reverberation in supermassive black holes have provided a new way to probe the inner accretion flow. Furthermore, a time lag between the direct coronal emission and the reprocessed emission forming the Compton Hump in AGN has been observed. In order to model this Compton Hump reverberation we performed general relativistic ray tracing studies of the accretion disk surrounding supermassive black holes, taking into account both the radial and angular dependence of the ionization parameter. We are able to model emission not only from a lamp-post corona but also implementing 3D corona geometries. Using these results we are able to model the observed data to gain additional insight into the geometry of the corona and the structure of the inner accretion disk.

  16. Model-independent inference on compact-binary observations

    CERN Document Server

    Mandel, Ilya; Colonna, Andrea; Stevenson, Simon; Tiňo, Peter; Veitch, John

    2016-01-01

    The recent advanced LIGO detections of gravitational waves from merging binary black holes enhance the prospect of exploring binary evolution via gravitational-wave observations of a population of compact-object binaries. In the face of uncertainty about binary formation models, model-independent inference provides an appealing alternative to comparisons between observed and modelled populations. We describe a procedure for clustering in the multi-dimensional parameter space of observations that are subject to significant measurement errors. We apply this procedure to a mock data set of population-synthesis predictions for the masses of merging compact binaries convolved with realistic measurement uncertainties, and demonstrate that we can accurately distinguish subpopulations of binary neutron stars, binary black holes, and mixed black hole -- neutron star binaries.

  17. Finite nuclei in relativistic models with a light chiral scalar meson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnstahl, R. J.; Serot, Brian D.

    1993-05-01

    Relativistic chiral models with a light scalar meson appear to provide an economical marriage of successful relativistic mean-field theories and chiral symmetry. The scalar meson serves as both the chiral partner of the pion and the mediator of the intermediate-range nucleon-nucleon (NN) attraction. However, while some of these models can reproduce the empirical nuclear matter saturation point, they fail to reproduce observed properties of finite nuclei, such as spin-orbit splittings, shell structure, charge densities, and surface energetics. These deficiencies imply that this realization of chiral symmetry is incorrect. An alternative scenario, which features a heavy chiral scalar and dynamical generation of the NN attraction, is discussed.

  18. Fenton Process Coupled to Ultrasound and UV Light Irradiation for the Oxidation of a Model Pollutant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen E. Barrera-Salgado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Fenton process coupled to photosonolysis (UV light and Us, using Fe2O3 catalyst supported on Al2O3, was used to oxidize a model pollutant like acid green 50 textile dye (AG50. Dye degradation was followed by AG50 concentration decay analyses. It was observed that parameters like iron content on a fixed amount of catalyst supporting material, catalyst annealing temperature, initial dye concentration, and the solution pH influence the overall treatment efficiency. High removal efficiencies of the model pollutant are achieved. The stability and reusability tests of the Fe2O3 catalyst show that the catalyst can be used up to three cycles achieving high discoloration. Thus, this catalyst is highly efficient for the degradation of AG50 in the Fenton process.

  19. Modeling spectral sensitivity at low light levels based on mesopic visual performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meri Viikari

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Meri Viikari, Aleksanteri Ekrias, Marjukka Eloholma, Liisa HalonenLighting Laboratory, Helsinki University of Technology, FinlandAbstract: The spectral sensitivity of the eye at low light levels, ie, mesopic conditions, is determined by the rod and cone photoreceptors of the retina operating together in varying degree as adaptation luminance shifts between the scotopic and photopic. Thus mesopic spectral sensitivity is different from photopic, where only cones contribute to vision. There are definite needs for a practical system of mesopic photometry to be used in assessing light at low light levels, especially in road and other outdoor lighting applications. However, neither of the recently proposed systems of mesopic photometry, the MOVE-model or the X-model, is found satisfactory by common consent of the lighting community. The most active debate has considered the upper luminance limit of the mesopic region, which is regarded to be too high for the MOVE-model and too low for the X-model. The present paper proposes a new modified MOVE-model whose upper luminance limit is adjusted to meet the actual road and street lighting luminance values measured in different weather conditions. The paper compares the MOVE-model, X-model, and the proposed modified MOVE-model with three independent visual performance data sets provided by different European universities. Based on the comparison, recommendations are given for future actions towards internationally accepted practice for mesopic photometry.Keywords: spectral sensitivity, mesopic, visual performance, mesopic model, photometry, night-time driving

  20. Light absorption and morphological properties of soot-containing aerosols observed at an East Asian outflow site, Noto Peninsula, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Sayako; Nakayama, Tomoki; Taketani, Fumikazu; Adachi, Kouji; Matsuki, Atsushi; Iwamoto, Yoko; Sadanaga, Yasuhiro; Matsumi, Yutaka

    2016-03-01

    The coating of black carbon (BC) with inorganic salts and organic compounds can enhance the magnitude of light absorption by BC. To elucidate the enhancement of light absorption of aged BC particles and its relation to the mixing state and morphology of individual particles, we conducted observations of particles at an Asian outflow site in Noto Peninsula, Japan, in the spring of 2013. Absorption and scattering coefficients at 405, 532, and 781 nm and mass concentrations/mixing states of refractory BC in PM2.5 were measured using a three-wavelength photoacoustic soot spectrometer and a single-particle soot photometer (SP2), respectively, after passage through a thermodenuder (TD) maintained at 300 or 400 °C or a bypass line maintained at room temperature (25 °C). The average enhancement factor of BC light absorption due to coating was estimated by comparing absorption coefficients at 781 nm for particles that with and without passing through the TD at 300 °C and was found to be 1.22. The largest enhancements (> 1.30) were observed under high absorption coefficient periods when the air mass was long-range transported from urban areas in China. Aerosol samples were also analyzed using a transmission electron microscope (TEM) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray analyzer. The morphological features and mixing states of soot-containing particles of four samples collected during the high absorption events were analyzed by comparing microphotographs before and after the evaporation of beam-sensitive materials by irradiation with a high-density electron beam. The majority of the soot in all samples was found as mixed particles with sulfate-containing spherules or as clusters of such spherules. For samples showing high enhancement (> 1.30) of BC light absorption, the TEM showed that the internally mixed soot-containing particles tended to have a more spherical shape and to be thickly coated. The SP2 measurements also suggested that the proportion of thickly coated