WorldWideScience

Sample records for model norwecom norwegian

  1. Slavic Forest, Norwegian Wood (models)

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa, Rudolf; Žabokrtský, Zdeněk; Zeman, Daniel; Mareček, David

    2017-01-01

    Trained models for UDPipe used to produce our final submission to VarDial 2017 shared task (https://bitbucket.org/hy-crossNLP/vardial2017) and described in a paper by the same authors titled Slavic Forest, Norwegian Wood.

  2. Three Norwegian Varieties of a Nordic Model — A Historical Perspective on Working Life Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Heiret

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Through the use of a historical perspective, the aim of this article is to discuss and clarify the concurrent and conflicting interests and norms that have characterized the establishment and development of important institutions in Norwegian working life. The article concentrates on collective bargaining systems, the arrangements for codetermination, and the working environment regulations in both the public and private sector, which are regarded as the main institutions in the Norwegian and Nordic models of working life relations. The article is structured by an analytical distinction between three different historical periods that have constituted three distinct versions of the Norwegian model. By presenting a historical synthesis of Norwegian experiences, the article is a contribution to the ongoing debate on the varieties in the Nordic model, as to further comparisons and broader transnational studies.

  3. Modelling energy demand in the Norwegian building stock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartori, Igor

    2008-07-15

    understanding of the stock dynamics was needed as a precondition for addressing energy demand in a more consistent way. A methodology was developed for assessing in a coherent way both the stock and the building activities, i.e. construction, renovation and demolition. This methodology applies only to the residential stock. The analysis showed that in the coming decades renovation is likely to overtake construction as the major activity in the Norwegian residential stock. Finally, the two models, the energy model and the activity model, were merged to perform an integrated analysis of the energy demand at a regional level. The result showed how considering the stock dynamics have a great impact in determining the effectiveness of a policy. (Author). refs., figs., tabs

  4. Validation of an Eulerian population model for the marine copepod Calanus finmarchicus in the Norwegian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alver, Morten Omholt; Broch, Ole Jacob; Melle, Webjørn; Bagøien, Espen; Slagstad, Dag

    2016-08-01

    Calanus finmarchicus is an important zooplankton species in the Norwegian Sea, as a dominant food organism for pelagic fish larvae, and a potentially large source of marine lipids and proteins. Its position in the marine food web also makes it an important model species in assessing the risk posed by oil spills in the Norwegian and Arctic Seas. In this study, an Eulerian population model for C.finmarchicus, coupled to the physical and ecological model SINMOD, is presented. The model includes the full life cycle of C. finmarchicus with a representation of all developmental stages. The model has been validated against field measurements made in different areas of the Norwegian Sea in 1997 and 1998. The model displays geographical and temporal distributions of development stages that is in line with observed patterns. When comparing time series for selected regions, we see a high degree of variability both in the field samples and model output. On average, the model deviations are near half of the summed variability of the field data and model estimates. The model has applications within assessment of ecological production, and the potential for harvesting in the Norwegian and Arctic Seas, but in combination with other models, also for the assessment of ecological effects of oil spills and other types of pollution.

  5. An Econometric Examination of the Behavioral Perspective Model in the Context of Norwegian Retailing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdsson, Valdimar; Kahamseh, Saeed; Gunnarsson, Didrik; Larsen, Nils Magne; Foxall, Gordon R.

    2013-01-01

    The behavioral perspective model's (BPM; Foxall, 1990) retailing literature is built on extensive empirical research and techniques that were originally refined in choice experiments in behavioral economics and behavior analysis, and then tested mostly on British consumer panel data. We test the BPM in the context of Norwegian retailing. This…

  6. Monitoring and modeling of contaminant loads and levels in Norwegian sea 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Norman W.; Heldal, Hilde Elise; Maage, Amund; Aas, Wenche; Graefert, Torbjoern; Schrum, Corinna; Boitsov, Stepan; Breivik, Knut; Iosjpe, Mikhail; Yakushev, Evgeniy; Skogen, Morten; Hoegaasen, Tore; Eckhardt, Sabine; Christiansen, Anne Bjoerkenes; Daae, Kjersti L.; Durand, Dominique; Ledang, Anna Birgitta; Jaccard, Pierre Francois

    2012-01-01

    This report describes the calculation of the supply of oil, hazardous chemicals and radioactive substances from seven sources of seven regions in the Norwegian part of the Norwegian Sea. The data from the various sources used to calculate the concentrations of pollutants in the water column throughout the defined area of the Norwegian Sea (3 dimensions) and calculate the transport of Hg, PCB153 and BaP in and out of each of the seven regions. This transport flux is huge compared with inputs and will alternately be a net source or net sink of each region. The main feature is that the supply is dominated by the fallout from the atmosphere is balanced by decomposition and sedimentation in the water column plus exports / imports from adjacent waters. It is relatively small supply of hazardous substances. With few exceptions, for the supply of air the biggest contribution of mercury, lead, cadmium, chromium, arsenic, PCBs (PCB-153) and PAH (benzo [a] pyrene) to all regions. Exception contributions of land for chromium in mid-Norway and contributions from seabed for lead and chromium from more central parts of the Norwegian Sea. Ship traffic dominates regard. supply of oil. Supply air from the major contribution of radionuclides plutonium-239 240 and strontium-90 in the eastern part of the Norwegian Sea. Otherwise, Sellafield is the dominant source. Contaminants in sediment and cod were largely of low to moderate concentrations. The concentration of radioactive substances in water, sediment and cod were low and comparable with results from other studies in the Norwegian Sea. There are still large gaps in knowledge and uncertainties in both the data and the estimates of supplies. It is especially important to improved figures for inflows into the oceans via air and enhancement of the marine transport and dispersion models.(eb)

  7. The Norwegian Noark Model Requirements for EDRMS in the context of open government and access to governmental information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olav Hagen Sataslåtten

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the relationship between the Norwegian Noark Standard and the concepts of Open Government and Freedom of Information. Noark is the Norwegian model requirements for Electronic Documents and Records Management Systems (EDRMS. It was introduced in 1984, making it not only the world’s first model requirement for EDRMS, but also, through the introduction of versions from Noark 1 to the present Noark 5, internationally the model requirement with the longest continuation of implementation.

  8. Modelling the pelagic nitrogen cycle and vertical particle flux in the Norwegian sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupt, Olaf J.; Wolf, Uli; v. Bodungen, Bodo

    1999-02-01

    A 1D Eulerian ecosystem model (BIological Ocean Model) for the Norwegian Sea was developed to investigate the dynamics of pelagic ecosystems. The BIOM combines six biochemical compartments and simulates the annual nitrogen cycle with specific focus on production, modification and sedimentation of particles in the water column. The external forcing and physical framework is based on a simulated annual cycle of global radiation and an annual mixed-layer cycle derived from field data. The vertical resolution of the model is given by an exponential grid with 200 depth layers, allowing specific parameterization of various sinking velocities, breakdown of particles and the remineralization processes. The aim of the numerical experiments is the simulation of ecosystem dynamics considering the specific biogeochemical properties of the Norwegian Sea, for example the life cycle of the dominant copepod Calanus finmarchicus. The results of the simulations were validated with field data. Model results are in good agreement with field data for the lower trophic levels of the food web. With increasing complexity of the organisms the differences increase between simulated processes and field data. Results of the numerical simulations suggest that BIOM is well adapted to investigate a physically controlled ecosystem. The simulation of grazing controlled pelagic ecosystems, like the Norwegian Sea, requires adaptations of parameterization to the specific ecosystem features. By using seasonally adaptation of the most sensible processes like utilization of light by phytoplankton and grazing by zooplankton results were greatly improved.

  9. Ubiquitous TV: A Business Model Perspective on the Norwegian Television Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Bjøndal, Tore Stautland; Gedde, Mads

    2011-01-01

    The Internet is an emerging distribution channel for television content that will deeply impact industry incumbents in the long term. This master thesis explores what challenges are brought forth in this industry by the possibility of Internet distribution of TV and how these issues should be addressed from the business model perspective of incumbent distributors in the Norwegian television market.There have been tremendous developments in Internet related infrastructure over the last decade....

  10. The Norwegian Healthier Goats program--modeling lactation curves using a multilevel cubic spline regression model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel-Alne, G E; Krontveit, R; Bohlin, J; Valle, P S; Skjerve, E; Sølverød, L S

    2014-07-01

    In 2001, the Norwegian Goat Health Service initiated the Healthier Goats program (HG), with the aim of eradicating caprine arthritis encephalitis, caseous lymphadenitis, and Johne's disease (caprine paratuberculosis) in Norwegian goat herds. The aim of the present study was to explore how control and eradication of the above-mentioned diseases by enrolling in HG affected milk yield by comparison with herds not enrolled in HG. Lactation curves were modeled using a multilevel cubic spline regression model where farm, goat, and lactation were included as random effect parameters. The data material contained 135,446 registrations of daily milk yield from 28,829 lactations in 43 herds. The multilevel cubic spline regression model was applied to 4 categories of data: enrolled early, control early, enrolled late, and control late. For enrolled herds, the early and late notations refer to the situation before and after enrolling in HG; for nonenrolled herds (controls), they refer to development over time, independent of HG. Total milk yield increased in the enrolled herds after eradication: the total milk yields in the fourth lactation were 634.2 and 873.3 kg in enrolled early and enrolled late herds, respectively, and 613.2 and 701.4 kg in the control early and control late herds, respectively. Day of peak yield differed between enrolled and control herds. The day of peak yield came on d 6 of lactation for the control early category for parities 2, 3, and 4, indicating an inability of the goats to further increase their milk yield from the initial level. For enrolled herds, on the other hand, peak yield came between d 49 and 56, indicating a gradual increase in milk yield after kidding. Our results indicate that enrollment in the HG disease eradication program improved the milk yield of dairy goats considerably, and that the multilevel cubic spline regression was a suitable model for exploring effects of disease control and eradication on milk yield. Copyright © 2014

  11. Norwegian mutual fund performance based on Fama and French´s five-factor model

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa, Daniel Amir; Ali, Mohammad Yousaf

    2016-01-01

    Masteroppgave(MSc) in Master of Science in Finance - Handelshøyskolen BI, 2016 The following paper uses a dataset free of survivorship bias for the period 2002-2011. We investigate whether Norwegian mutual funds possess enough skills to outperform a passive benchmark based on Fama and French’s five-factor model. Our results suggest that the mutual fund industry exhibits significant excess returns on a 10% level in the recent financial crisis. Further, we examine whether the results obtaine...

  12. Introduction of hydrogen in the Norwegian energy system. NorWays - Regional model analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Eva; Fidje, Audun; Espegren, Kari Aamodt

    2008-12-15

    The overall aim of the NorWays project has been to provide decision support for the introduction of hydrogen as an energy carrier in the Norwegian energy system. The NorWays project is a research project funded by the Research Council of Norway. An important task has been to develop alternative scenarios and identifying market segments and regions of the Norwegian energy system where hydrogen may play a significant role. The main scenarios in the project have been: Reference: Based on the assumptions of World Energy Outlook with no new transport technologies; HyWays: Basic assumptions with technology costs (H{sub 2}) based on results from the HyWays project; No tax: No taxes on transport energy ('revenue neutral'); CO{sub 2} reduction: Reduced CO{sub 2} emissions by 75% in 2050. Three regional models have been developed and used to analyse the introduction of hydrogen as energy carrier in competition with other alternatives such as natural gas, electricity, district heating and bio fuels.The focus of the analysis has been on the transportation sector. (Author)

  13. Using the Prototype/Willingness model to predict smoking behaviour among Norwegian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hukkelberg, Silje Sommer; Dykstra, Jennifer L

    2009-03-01

    This paper examines cognitive antecedents of non-smoking among adolescents who reported smoking less than 1-2 times a week, and reported non-smoking intentions and willingness, in the framework of the Prototype/Willingness model. Two waves of data were obtained from a nation-wide sample of 760 Norwegian adolescents who responded to a school-based survey on smoking. Structural equation modelling was used to evaluate the predictive power of the social reaction pathway (prototype and willingness) of the P/W model, and in addition, the constructs from the Theory of Reasoned Action (subjective norm, attitude and intention). Results demonstrated the unique importance of the social reaction path when examining smoking behaviour among non-smoking adolescents. Implications of the findings and possible applications are discussed.

  14. An operational search and rescue model for the Norwegian Sea and the North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, Øyvind; Allen, Arthur A.

    A new operational, ensemble-based search and rescue model for the Norwegian Sea and the North Sea is presented. The stochastic trajectory model computes the net motion of a range of search and rescue objects. A new, robust formulation for the relation between the wind and the motion of the drifting object (termed the leeway of the object) is employed. Empirically derived coefficients for 63 categories of search objects compiled by the US Coast Guard are ingested to estimate the leeway of the drifting objects. A Monte Carlo technique is employed to generate an ensemble that accounts for the uncertainties in forcing fields (wind and current), leeway drift properties, and the initial position of the search object. The ensemble yields an estimate of the time-evolving probability density function of the location of the search object, and its envelope defines the search area. Forcing fields from the operational oceanic and atmospheric forecast system of The Norwegian Meteorological Institute are used as input to the trajectory model. This allows for the first time high-resolution wind and current fields to be used to forecast search areas up to 60 h into the future. A limited set of field exercises show good agreement between model trajectories, search areas, and observed trajectories for life rafts and other search objects. Comparison with older methods shows that search areas expand much more slowly using the new ensemble method with high resolution forcing fields and the new leeway formulation. It is found that going to higher-order stochastic trajectory models will not significantly improve the forecast skill and the rate of expansion of search areas.

  15. Exporting the 'Norwegian Model': The effect of administrative design on oil sector performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurber, Mark C.; Hults, David R.; Heller, Patrick R.P.

    2011-01-01

    Norway has administered its petroleum resources using three distinct government bodies: a national oil company engaged in commercial hydrocarbon operations; a government ministry to direct policy; and a regulatory body to provide oversight and technical expertise. Norway's relative success in managing its hydrocarbons has prompted development institutions to consider whether this 'Norwegian Model' of separated government functions should be recommended to other oil-producing countries. By studying ten countries that have used widely different approaches in administering their hydrocarbon sectors, we conclude that separation of functions is not a prerequisite to successful oil sector development. Countries where separation of functions has worked are characterized by the combination of high institutional capacity and robust political competition. Unchallenged leaders often appear able to adequately discharge commercial and policy/regulatory functions using the same entity, although this approach may not be robust against political changes. Where institutional capacity is lacking, better outcomes may result from consolidating commercial, policy, and regulatory functions until such capacity has further developed. Countries with vibrant political competition but limited institutional capacity pose the most significant challenge for oil sector reform: Unitary control over the sector is impossible but separation of functions is often difficult to implement. - Highlights: → The 'Norwegian Model' separates commercial, policy, and regulatory functions in oil. → We study ten oil-producing countries to assess the separation of functions model. → The model is useful where there is institutional capacity and political competition. → Consolidation of functions can work better when political power is concentrated. → Countries with low capacity may also be better off consolidating functions.

  16. Monitoring and modeling of contaminant loads and levels in Norwegian sea 2011; Tilfoerselsprogrammet 2011. Overvaakingav tilfoersler og miljoetilstand i Norskehavet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Norman W.; Heldal, Hilde Elise; Maage, Amund; Aas, Wenche; Graefert, Torbjoern; Schrum, Corinna; Boitsov, Stepan; Breivik, Knut; Iosjpe, Mikhail; Yakushev, Evgeniy; Skogen, Morten; Hoegaasen, Tore; Eckhardt, Sabine; Christiansen, Anne Bjoerkenes; Daae, Kjersti L.; Durand, Dominique; Ledang, Anna Birgitta; Jaccard, Pierre Francois

    2012-07-01

    This report describes the calculation of the supply of oil, hazardous chemicals and radioactive substances from seven sources of seven regions in the Norwegian part of the Norwegian Sea. The data from the various sources used to calculate the concentrations of pollutants in the water column throughout the defined area of the Norwegian Sea (3 dimensions) and calculate the transport of Hg, PCB153 and BaP in and out of each of the seven regions. This transport flux is huge compared with inputs and will alternately be a net source or net sink of each region. The main feature is that the supply is dominated by the fallout from the atmosphere is balanced by decomposition and sedimentation in the water column plus exports / imports from adjacent waters. It is relatively small supply of hazardous substances. With few exceptions, for the supply of air the biggest contribution of mercury, lead, cadmium, chromium, arsenic, PCBs (PCB-153) and PAH (benzo [a] pyrene) to all regions. Exception contributions of land for chromium in mid-Norway and contributions from seabed for lead and chromium from more central parts of the Norwegian Sea. Ship traffic dominates regard. supply of oil. Supply air from the major contribution of radionuclides plutonium-239 240 and strontium-90 in the eastern part of the Norwegian Sea. Otherwise, Sellafield is the dominant source. Contaminants in sediment and cod were largely of low to moderate concentrations. The concentration of radioactive substances in water, sediment and cod were low and comparable with results from other studies in the Norwegian Sea. There are still large gaps in knowledge and uncertainties in both the data and the estimates of supplies. It is especially important to improved figures for inflows into the oceans via air and enhancement of the marine transport and dispersion models.(eb)

  17. Norwegian Residential Energy Demand: Coordinated use of a System Engineering and a Macroeconomic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tor A Johnsen

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available In Norway, the system engineering model MARKAL and the macroeconomic model MSG-EE are both used in studies of national CO2 controlling strategies. MARKAL is a linear programming model that calculates a composite set of technologies necessary to meet demand and environmental constraints at minimised total energy expenditure. MSG-EE is an applied general equilibrium model including the link between economic activity, energy demand and emissions to air. MSG-EE has a theory consistent description of the link between income, prices and energy demand, but the representation of technological improvements is simple. MARKAL has a sophisticated description of future energy technology options, but includes no feedback to the general economy. A project for studying the potential for a coordinated use of these two models was initiated and funded by the Norwegian Research Council (NFR. This paper gives a brief presentation of the two models. Results from independent model calculations show that MARKAL gives a signficant lower residential energy demand than MSG-EE does. This is explained by major differences in modelling approach. A first attempt of coordinating the residential energy demand in the models is reported. This attempt shows that implementing results from MARKAL, in MSG-EE for the residential sector alone gives little impact on the general economy. A further development of an iteration procedure between the models should include all energy using sectors.

  18. Stochastic modelling of direct costs of pancreas disease (PD) in Norwegian farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aunsmo, Arnfinn; Valle, Paul Steinar; Sandberg, Marianne; Midtlyng, Paul Johan; Bruheim, Torkjel

    2010-02-01

    An economic model for estimating the direct costs of disease in industrial aquaculture was developed to include the following areas: biological losses, extraordinary costs, costs of treatment, costs of prevention and insurance pay-out. Direct costs of a pancreas disease (PD) outbreak in Norwegian farmed Atlantic salmon were estimated in the model, using probability distributions for the biological losses and expenditures associated with the disease. The biological effects of PD on mortality, growth, feed conversion and carcass quality and their correlations, together with costs of prevention were established using elicited data from an expert panel, and combined with basal losses in a control model. Extraordinary costs and costs associated with treatment were collected through a questionnaire sent to staff managing disease outbreaks. Norwegian national statistics for 2007 were used for prices and production costs in the model. Direct costs associated with a PD-outbreak in a site stocked with 500,000 smolts (vs. a similar site without the disease) were estimated to NOK (Norwegian kroner) 14.4 million (5% and 95% percentile: 10.5 and 17.8) (NOK=euro0.12 or $0.17 for 2007). Production was reduced to 70% (5% and 95% percentile: 57% and 81%) saleable biomass, and at an increased production cost of NOK 6.0 per kg (5% and 95% percentile: 3.5 and 8.7). Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Revealing Business Opportunities in the Norwegian Power Industry: How the implementation of AMR facilitates new business models

    OpenAIRE

    Platou, Rikke Stoud; Sleire, Maren

    2011-01-01

    This thesis aims to map out the current state of the Norwegian power industry and reveal opportunities that can serve as a fundament for the formation of new business models in the industry post AMR implementation.Demand side management (DSM) arouse to include end customers and give them incentives for having a power consumption pattern which also benefits the power system. Market structure; lack of ICT infrastructure and understanding of the solutions; costs and competitiveness, as well as t...

  20. Characteristics of the Nordic Seas overflows in a set of Norwegian Earth System Model experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chuncheng; Ilicak, Mehmet; Bentsen, Mats; Fer, Ilker

    2016-08-01

    Global ocean models with an isopycnic vertical coordinate are advantageous in representing overflows, as they do not suffer from topography-induced spurious numerical mixing commonly seen in geopotential coordinate models. In this paper, we present a quantitative diagnosis of the Nordic Seas overflows in four configurations of the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM) family that features an isopycnic ocean model. For intercomparison, two coupled ocean-sea ice and two fully coupled (atmosphere-land-ocean-sea ice) experiments are considered. Each pair consists of a (non-eddying) 1° and a (eddy-permitting) 1/4° horizontal resolution ocean model. In all experiments, overflow waters remain dense and descend to the deep basins, entraining ambient water en route. Results from the 1/4° pair show similar behavior in the overflows, whereas the 1° pair show distinct differences, including temperature/salinity properties, volume transport (Q), and large scale features such as the strength of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). The volume transport of the overflows and degree of entrainment are underestimated in the 1° experiments, whereas in the 1/4° experiments, there is a two-fold downstream increase in Q, which matches observations well. In contrast to the 1/4° experiments, the coarse 1° experiments do not capture the inclined isopycnals of the overflows or the western boundary current off the Flemish Cap. In all experiments, the pathway of the Iceland-Scotland Overflow Water is misrepresented: a major fraction of the overflow proceeds southward into the West European Basin, instead of turning westward into the Irminger Sea. This discrepancy is attributed to excessive production of Labrador Sea Water in the model. The mean state and variability of the Nordic Seas overflows have significant consequences on the response of the AMOC, hence their correct representations are of vital importance in global ocean and climate modelling.

  1. Implementation of marine spatial planning in shellfish aquaculture management: modeling studies in a Norwegian fjord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filgueira, Ramon; Grant, Jon; Strand, Øivind

    2014-06-01

    Shellfish carrying capacity is determined by the interaction of a cultured species with its ecosystem, which is strongly influenced by hydrodynamics. Water circulation controls the exchange of matter between farms and the adjacent areas, which in turn establishes the nutrient supply that supports phytoplankton populations. The complexity of water circulation makes necessary the use of hydrodynamic models with detailed spatial resolution in carrying capacity estimations. This detailed spatial resolution also allows for the study of processes that depend on specific spatial arrangements, e.g., the most suitable location to place farms, which is crucial for marine spatial planning, and consequently for decision support systems. In the present study, a fully spatial physical-biogeochemical model has been combined with scenario building and optimization techniques as a proof of concept of the use of ecosystem modeling as an objective tool to inform marine spatial planning. The object of this exercise was to generate objective knowledge based on an ecosystem approach to establish new mussel aquaculture areas in a Norwegian fjord. Scenario building was used to determine the best location of a pump that can be used to bring nutrient-rich deep waters to the euphotic layer, increasing primary production, and consequently, carrying capacity for mussel cultivation. In addition, an optimization tool, parameter estimation (PEST), was applied to the optimal location and mussel standing stock biomass that maximize production, according to a preestablished carrying capacity criterion. Optimization tools allow us to make rational and transparent decisions to solve a well-defined question, decisions that are essential for policy makers. The outcomes of combining ecosystem models with scenario building and optimization facilitate planning based on an ecosystem approach, highlighting the capabilities of ecosystem modeling as a tool for marine spatial planning.

  2. Variability along the Atlantic water pathway in the forced Norwegian Earth System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langehaug, H. R.; Sandø, A. B.; Årthun, M.; Ilıcak, M.

    2018-03-01

    The growing attention on mechanisms that can provide predictability on interannual-to-decadal time scales, makes it necessary to identify how well climate models represent such mechanisms. In this study we use a high (0.25° horizontal grid) and a medium (1°) resolution version of a forced global ocean-sea ice model, utilising the Norwegian Earth System Model, to assess the impact of increased ocean resolution. Our target is the simulation of temperature and salinity anomalies along the pathway of warm Atlantic water in the subpolar North Atlantic and the Nordic Seas. Although the high resolution version has larger biases in general at the ocean surface, the poleward propagation of thermohaline anomalies is better resolved in this version, i.e., the time for an anomaly to travel northward is more similar to observation based estimates. The extent of these anomalies can be rather large in both model versions, as also seen in observations, e.g., stretching from Scotland to northern Norway. The easternmost branch into the Nordic and Barents Seas, carrying warm Atlantic water, is also improved by higher resolution, both in terms of mean heat transport and variability in thermohaline properties. A more detailed assessment of the link between the North Atlantic Ocean circulation and the thermohaline anomalies at the entrance of the Nordic Seas reveals that the high resolution is more consistent with mechanisms that are previously published. This suggests better dynamics and variability in the subpolar region and the Nordic Seas in the high resolution compared to the medium resolution. This is most likely due a better representation of the mean circulation in the studied region when using higher resolution. As the poleward propagation of ocean heat anomalies is considered to be a key source of climate predictability, we recommend that similar methodology presented herein should be performed on coupled climate models that are used for climate prediction.

  3. Effects of snow grain shape on climate simulations: sensitivity tests with the Norwegian Earth System Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Räisänen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Snow consists of non-spherical grains of various shapes and sizes. Still, in radiative transfer calculations, snow grains are often treated as spherical. This also applies to the computation of snow albedo in the Snow, Ice, and Aerosol Radiation (SNICAR model and in the Los Alamos sea ice model, version 4 (CICE4, both of which are employed in the Community Earth System Model and in the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM. In this study, we evaluate the effect of snow grain shape on climate simulated by NorESM in a slab ocean configuration of the model. An experiment with spherical snow grains (SPH is compared with another (NONSPH in which the snow shortwave single-scattering properties are based on a combination of three non-spherical snow grain shapes optimized using measurements of angular scattering by blowing snow. The key difference between these treatments is that the asymmetry parameter is smaller in the non-spherical case (0.77–0.78 in the visible region than in the spherical case ( ≈  0.89. Therefore, for the same effective snow grain size (or equivalently, the same specific projected area, the snow broadband albedo is higher when assuming non-spherical rather than spherical snow grains, typically by 0.02–0.03. Considering the spherical case as the baseline, this results in an instantaneous negative change in net shortwave radiation with a global-mean top-of-the-model value of ca. −0.22 W m−2. Although this global-mean radiative effect is rather modest, the impacts on the climate simulated by NorESM are substantial. The global annual-mean 2 m air temperature in NONSPH is 1.17 K lower than in SPH, with substantially larger differences at high latitudes. The climatic response is amplified by strong snow and sea ice feedbacks. It is further demonstrated that the effect of snow grain shape could be largely offset by adjusting the snow grain size. When assuming non-spherical snow grains with the parameterized grain

  4. Effects of snow grain shape on climate simulations: sensitivity tests with the Norwegian Earth System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räisänen, Petri; Makkonen, Risto; Kirkevåg, Alf; Debernard, Jens B.

    2017-12-01

    Snow consists of non-spherical grains of various shapes and sizes. Still, in radiative transfer calculations, snow grains are often treated as spherical. This also applies to the computation of snow albedo in the Snow, Ice, and Aerosol Radiation (SNICAR) model and in the Los Alamos sea ice model, version 4 (CICE4), both of which are employed in the Community Earth System Model and in the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM). In this study, we evaluate the effect of snow grain shape on climate simulated by NorESM in a slab ocean configuration of the model. An experiment with spherical snow grains (SPH) is compared with another (NONSPH) in which the snow shortwave single-scattering properties are based on a combination of three non-spherical snow grain shapes optimized using measurements of angular scattering by blowing snow. The key difference between these treatments is that the asymmetry parameter is smaller in the non-spherical case (0.77-0.78 in the visible region) than in the spherical case ( ≈ 0.89). Therefore, for the same effective snow grain size (or equivalently, the same specific projected area), the snow broadband albedo is higher when assuming non-spherical rather than spherical snow grains, typically by 0.02-0.03. Considering the spherical case as the baseline, this results in an instantaneous negative change in net shortwave radiation with a global-mean top-of-the-model value of ca. -0.22 W m-2. Although this global-mean radiative effect is rather modest, the impacts on the climate simulated by NorESM are substantial. The global annual-mean 2 m air temperature in NONSPH is 1.17 K lower than in SPH, with substantially larger differences at high latitudes. The climatic response is amplified by strong snow and sea ice feedbacks. It is further demonstrated that the effect of snow grain shape could be largely offset by adjusting the snow grain size. When assuming non-spherical snow grains with the parameterized grain size increased by ca. 70 %, the

  5. A Historical Legacy Untouched by Time and Space? The Hollowing-out of the Norwegian Model of Industrial Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Cecilie Bergene

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Norwegian model of industrial relations has received a lot of praise. It is generally thought of as the pinnacle of the welfare state, a reason why Norway is not severely hit by crises, is highly adaptable, and thus still going strong. This article discusses the historical circumstances in which the model arose with a view to analyze the preconditions for its further existence, arguing that the model must be understood as consisting of, and thus dependent upon, shifting historical subjects. This calls for an analysis of the concrete interactions between various agents, and how it has changed over time and space. In this effort, historical accounts are combined with theories developed within the social sciences in order to explain the dynamics of these interactions. We will argue that the contemporary notion of a Norwegian model of industrial relations, and the accompanying praise, is an ahistorical conceptualization verging on a dogma, and that profound reconfigurations of power relations between the agents of labor and capital need to be taken into account.

  6. The shift of accounting models and accounting quality: the case of Norwegian GAAP

    OpenAIRE

    Stenheim, Tonny; Madsen, Dag Øivind

    2017-01-01

    This is an Open Access journal available from http://www.virtusinterpress.org This paper investigates the change in accounting quality w hen firms shift from a revenue - oriented historical cost accounting regime as Norwegian GAAP (NGAAP) to a balance - oriented fair value accounting regime as International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). Previous studies have demonstrated mixed effects o n the accounting quality upon IFRS adoption. One possible reason is that the investigated domest...

  7. Applying the theory of planned behavior to self-report dental attendance in Norwegian adults through structural equation modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åstrøm, Anne N; Lie, Stein Atle; Gülcan, Ferda

    2018-05-31

    Understanding factors that affect dental attendance behavior helps in constructing effective oral health campaigns. A socio-cognitive model that adequately explains variance in regular dental attendance has yet to be validated among younger adults in Norway. Focusing a representative sample of younger Norwegian adults, this cross-sectional study provided an empirical test of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) augmented with descriptive norm and action planning and estimated direct and indirect effects of attitudes, subjective norms, descriptive norms, perceived behavioral control and action planning on intended and self-reported regular dental attendance. Self-administered questionnaires provided by 2551, 25-35 year olds, randomly selected from the Norwegian national population registry were used to assess socio-demographic factors, dental attendance as well as the constructs of the augmented TPB model (attitudes, subjective norms, descriptive norms, intention, action planning). A two-stage process of structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to test the augmented TPB model. Confirmatory factor analysis, CFA, confirmed the proposed correlated 6-factor measurement model after re-specification. SEM revealed that attitudes, perceived behavioral control, subjective norms and descriptive norms explained intention. The corresponding standardized regression coefficients were respectively (β = 0.70), (β =0.18), (β = - 0.17) and (β =0.11) (p planning and action planning (β =0.19) predicted dental attendance behavior (p behavioral control on behavior through action planning and through intention and action planning, respectively. The final model explained 64 and 41% of the total variance in intention and dental attendance behavior. The findings support the utility of the TPB, the expanded normative component and action planning in predicting younger adults' intended- and self-reported dental attendance. Interventions targeting young adults' dental

  8. Exporting the 'Norwegian Model': The effect of administrative design on oil sector performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurber, Mark C., E-mail: mark.thurber@stanford.edu [Program on Energy and Sustainable Development, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Hults, David R. [Program on Energy and Sustainable Development, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Heller, Patrick R.P. [Revenue Watch Institute, New York, NY 10019 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Norway has administered its petroleum resources using three distinct government bodies: a national oil company engaged in commercial hydrocarbon operations; a government ministry to direct policy; and a regulatory body to provide oversight and technical expertise. Norway's relative success in managing its hydrocarbons has prompted development institutions to consider whether this 'Norwegian Model' of separated government functions should be recommended to other oil-producing countries. By studying ten countries that have used widely different approaches in administering their hydrocarbon sectors, we conclude that separation of functions is not a prerequisite to successful oil sector development. Countries where separation of functions has worked are characterized by the combination of high institutional capacity and robust political competition. Unchallenged leaders often appear able to adequately discharge commercial and policy/regulatory functions using the same entity, although this approach may not be robust against political changes. Where institutional capacity is lacking, better outcomes may result from consolidating commercial, policy, and regulatory functions until such capacity has further developed. Countries with vibrant political competition but limited institutional capacity pose the most significant challenge for oil sector reform: Unitary control over the sector is impossible but separation of functions is often difficult to implement. - Highlights: > The 'Norwegian Model' separates commercial, policy, and regulatory functions in oil. > We study ten oil-producing countries to assess the separation of functions model. > The model is useful where there is institutional capacity and political competition. > Consolidation of functions can work better when political power is concentrated. > Countries with low capacity may also be better off consolidating functions.

  9. Flow-dependent assimilation of sea surface temperature in isopycnal coordinates with the Norwegian Climate Prediction Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Counillon

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We document a pilot stochastic re-analysis computed by assimilating sea surface temperature (SST anomalies into the ocean component of the coupled Norwegian Climate Prediction Model (NorCPM for the period 1950–2010 (doi: 10.11582/2016.00002. NorCPM is based on the Norwegian Earth System Model and uses the ensemble Kalman filter for data assimilation (DA. Here, we assimilate SST from the stochastic HadISST2 historical reconstruction. The accuracy, reliability and drift are investigated using both assimilated and independent observations. NorCPM is slightly overdispersive against assimilated observations but shows stable performance through the analysis period. It demonstrates skills against independent measurements: sea surface height, heat and salt content, in particular in the Equatorial and North Pacific, the North Atlantic Subpolar Gyre (SPG region and the Nordic Seas. Furthermore, NorCPM provides a reliable monitoring of the SPG index and represents the vertical temperature variability there, in good agreement with observations. The monitoring of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation is also encouraging. The benefit of using a flow-dependent assimilation method and constructing the covariance in isopycnal coordinates are investigated in the SPG region. Isopycnal coordinates discretisation is found to better capture the vertical structure than standard depth-coordinate discretisation, because it leads to a deeper influence of the assimilated surface observations. The vertical covariance shows a pronounced seasonal and decadal variability that highlights the benefit of flow-dependent DA method. This study demonstrates the potential of NorCPM to compute an ocean re-analysis for the 19th and 20th centuries when SST observations are available.

  10. Seasonal-to-decadal predictions with the ensemble Kalman filter and the Norwegian Earth System Model: a twin experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois Counillon

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Here, we firstly demonstrate the potential of an advanced flow dependent data assimilation method for performing seasonal-to-decadal prediction and secondly, reassess the use of sea surface temperature (SST for initialisation of these forecasts. We use the Norwegian Climate Prediction Model (NorCPM, which is based on the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM and uses the deterministic ensemble Kalman filter to assimilate observations. NorESM is a fully coupled system based on the Community Earth System Model version 1, which includes an ocean, an atmosphere, a sea ice and a land model. A numerically efficient coarse resolution version of NorESM is used. We employ a twin experiment methodology to provide an upper estimate of predictability in our model framework (i.e. without considering model bias of NorCPM that assimilates synthetic monthly SST data (EnKF-SST. The accuracy of EnKF-SST is compared to an unconstrained ensemble run (FREE and ensemble predictions made with near perfect (i.e. microscopic SST perturbation initial conditions (PERFECT. We perform 10 cycles, each consisting of a 10-yr assimilation phase, followed by a 10-yr prediction. The results indicate that EnKF-SST improves sea level, ice concentration, 2 m atmospheric temperature, precipitation and 3-D hydrography compared to FREE. Improvements for the hydrography are largest near the surface and are retained for longer periods at depth. Benefits in salinity are retained for longer periods compared to temperature. Near-surface improvements are largest in the tropics, while improvements at intermediate depths are found in regions of large-scale currents, regions of deep convection, and at the Mediterranean Sea outflow. However, the benefits are often small compared to PERFECT, in particular, at depth suggesting that more observations should be assimilated in addition to SST. The EnKF-SST system is also tested for standard ocean circulation indices and demonstrates decadal

  11. The application of a social cognition model in explaining fruit intake in Austrian, Norwegian and Spanish schoolchildren using structural equation modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-Rodrigo Carmen

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this paper was to test the goodness of fit of the Attitude – Social influence – self-Efficacy (ASE model in explaining schoolchildren's intentions to eat fruit and their actual fruit intake in Austria, Norway and Spain; to assess how well the model could explain the observed variance in intention to eat fruit and in reported fruit intake and to investigate whether the same model would fit data from all three countries. Methods Samples consisted of schoolchildren from three of the countries participating in the cross-sectional part of the Pro Children project. Sample size varied from 991 in Austria to 1297 in Spain. Mean age ranged from 11.3 to 11.4 years. The initial model was designed using items and constructs from the Pro Children study. Factor analysis was conducted to test the structure of the measures in the model. The Norwegian sample was used to test the latent variable structure, to make a preliminary assessment of model fit, and to modify the model to increase goodness of fit with the data. The original and modified models were then applied to the Austrian and Spanish samples. All model analyses were carried out using structural equation modelling techniques. Results The ASE-model fitted the Norwegian and Spanish data well. For Austria, a slightly more complex model was needed. For this reason multi-sample analysis to test equality in factor structure and loadings across countries could not be used. The models explained between 51% and 69% of the variance in intention to eat fruit, and 27% to 38% of the variance in reported fruit intake. Conclusion Structural equation modelling showed that a rather parsimonious model was useful in explaining the variation in fruit intake of 11-year-old schoolchildren in Norway and Spain. For Austria, more modifications were needed to fit the data.

  12. Causes of the large warm bias in the Angola-Benguela Frontal Zone in the Norwegian Earth System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koseki, Shunya; Keenlyside, Noel; Demissie, Teferi; Toniazzo, Thomas; Counillon, Francois; Bethke, Ingo; Ilicak, Mehmet; Shen, Mao-Lin

    2018-06-01

    We have investigated the causes of the sea surface temperature (SST) bias in the Angola-Benguela Frontal Zone (ABFZ) of the southeastern Atlantic Ocean simulated by the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM). Similar to other coupled-models, NorESM has a warm SST bias in the ABFZ of up to 8 °C in the annual mean. Our analysis of NorESM reveals that a cyclonic surface wind bias over the ABFZ drives a locally excessively strong southward (0.05 m/s (relative to observation)) Angola Current displacing the ABFZ southward. A series of uncoupled stand-alone atmosphere and ocean model simulations are performed to investigate the cause of the coupled model bias. The stand-alone atmosphere model driven with observed SST exhibits a similar cyclonic surface circulation bias; while the stand-alone ocean model forced with the reanalysis data produces a warm SST in the ABFZ with a magnitude approximately half of that in the coupled NorESM simulation. An additional uncoupled sensitivity experiment shows that the atmospheric model's local negative surface wind curl generates anomalously strong Angola Current at the ocean surface. Consequently, this contributes to the warm SST bias in the ABFZ by 2 °C (compared to the reanalysis forced simulation). There is no evidence that local air-sea feedbacks among wind stress curl, SST, and sea level pressure (SLP) affect the ABFZ SST bias. Turbulent surface heat flux differences between coupled and uncoupled experiments explain the remaining 2 °C warm SST bias in NorESM. Ocean circulation, upwelling and turbulent heat flux errors all modulate the intensity and the seasonality of the ABFZ errors.

  13. Causes of the large warm bias in the Angola-Benguela Frontal Zone in the Norwegian Earth System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koseki, Shunya; Keenlyside, Noel; Demissie, Teferi; Toniazzo, Thomas; Counillon, Francois; Bethke, Ingo; Ilicak, Mehmet; Shen, Mao-Lin

    2017-09-01

    We have investigated the causes of the sea surface temperature (SST) bias in the Angola-Benguela Frontal Zone (ABFZ) of the southeastern Atlantic Ocean simulated by the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM). Similar to other coupled-models, NorESM has a warm SST bias in the ABFZ of up to 8 °C in the annual mean. Our analysis of NorESM reveals that a cyclonic surface wind bias over the ABFZ drives a locally excessively strong southward (0.05 m/s (relative to observation)) Angola Current displacing the ABFZ southward. A series of uncoupled stand-alone atmosphere and ocean model simulations are performed to investigate the cause of the coupled model bias. The stand-alone atmosphere model driven with observed SST exhibits a similar cyclonic surface circulation bias; while the stand-alone ocean model forced with the reanalysis data produces a warm SST in the ABFZ with a magnitude approximately half of that in the coupled NorESM simulation. An additional uncoupled sensitivity experiment shows that the atmospheric model's local negative surface wind curl generates anomalously strong Angola Current at the ocean surface. Consequently, this contributes to the warm SST bias in the ABFZ by 2 °C (compared to the reanalysis forced simulation). There is no evidence that local air-sea feedbacks among wind stress curl, SST, and sea level pressure (SLP) affect the ABFZ SST bias. Turbulent surface heat flux differences between coupled and uncoupled experiments explain the remaining 2 °C warm SST bias in NorESM. Ocean circulation, upwelling and turbulent heat flux errors all modulate the intensity and the seasonality of the ABFZ errors.

  14. On Apologizing in Norwegian

    OpenAIRE

    Awedyk, Witosław

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses selected points concerning the verbal realization of the speech act of apology in Norwegian. It sets out to establish prevailing tendencies in the choice of apology strategies applied by the native speakers of Norwegian. The present findings, which seem to indicate that Norwegian apology strategies are fairly routinized, ought to be perceived as preliminary as a more detailed analysis of apology formulae will be presented in an upcoming article.

  15. Assessment of Poisson, logit, and linear models for genetic analysis of clinical mastitis in Norwegian Red cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, A I; Gianola, D; Bates, D; Weigel, K A; Heringstad, B

    2009-02-01

    Clinical mastitis is typically coded as presence/absence during some period of exposure, and records are analyzed with linear or binary data models. Because presence includes cows with multiple episodes, there is loss of information when a count is treated as a binary response. The Poisson model is designed for counting random variables, and although it is used extensively in epidemiology of mastitis, it has rarely been used for studying the genetics of mastitis. Many models have been proposed for genetic analysis of mastitis, but they have not been formally compared. The main goal of this study was to compare linear (Gaussian), Bernoulli (with logit link), and Poisson models for the purpose of genetic evaluation of sires for mastitis in dairy cattle. The response variables were clinical mastitis (CM; 0, 1) and number of CM cases (NCM; 0, 1, 2, ..). Data consisted of records on 36,178 first-lactation daughters of 245 Norwegian Red sires distributed over 5,286 herds. Predictive ability of models was assessed via a 3-fold cross-validation using mean squared error of prediction (MSEP) as the end-point. Between-sire variance estimates for NCM were 0.065 in Poisson and 0.007 in the linear model. For CM the between-sire variance was 0.093 in logit and 0.003 in the linear model. The ratio between herd and sire variances for the models with NCM response was 4.6 and 3.5 for Poisson and linear, respectively, and for model for CM was 3.7 in both logit and linear models. The MSEP for all cows was similar. However, within healthy animals, MSEP was 0.085 (Poisson), 0.090 (linear for NCM), 0.053 (logit), and 0.056 (linear for CM). For mastitic animals the MSEP values were 1.206 (Poisson), 1.185 (linear for NCM response), 1.333 (logit), and 1.319 (linear for CM response). The models for count variables had a better performance when predicting diseased animals and also had a similar performance between them. Logit and linear models for CM had better predictive ability for healthy

  16. 3D thermal modelling within the Lofoten-Vesterålen segment of the Mid-Norwegian continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maystrenko, Yuriy P.; Gernigon, Laurent; Gradmann, Sofie; Olesen, Odleiv

    2017-04-01

    A lithosphere-scale 3D structural model has been constructed based on the available structural data to reveal a deep structure of the Lofoten-Vesterålen segment and the northern part of the Vøring segment of the Mid-Norwegian continental margin. The constructed model covers the Vestfjorden, Ribban and Røst basins, the northern parts of the Vøring Basin and the Trøndelag Platform. The model also extends from the Fennoscandian Shield to the north-eastern part of the North Atlantic Ocean. The initial 3D structural model has been refined using a 3D gravity modelling over the whole study area. The final gravity-consistent model has been used as a structural base for a further 3D thermal modelling, which has been made by use of commercial software package COMSOL Multiphysics. As an upper thermal boundary condition, time-dependent temperature at the Earth's surface and sea bottom has been set, considering palaeoclimatic changes due to the last two Europe-scale glaciations (the Saalian and Weichselian glacial periods). The lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary has been used as a lower thermal boundary which corresponds to the 1300 °C isotherm. In addition to the above-mentioned paleoclimatic scenario, the effects of late Cenozoic erosion onshore and sedimentation offshore have been taken into account during the 3D thermal modelling. Results of this thermal modelling indicate that the continent is generally colder than the basin areas within the upper part of the 3D model. In particular, considering the transient perturbations in the near-surface thermal regime, as a result of the post-Paleogene erosion and sedimentation, helps us to understand additional details of subsurface temperature distribution within the study area. The thermal effects of the simultaneous erosion over the mainland and deposition within the basin areas indicate that a positive thermal anomaly should exist onshore, whereas the negative one must occur in the offshore part. These two thermal

  17. Regional analyses of labor markets and demography: a model based Norwegian example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambol, L S; Stolen, N M; Avitsland, T

    1998-01-01

    The authors discuss the regional REGARD model, developed by Statistics Norway to analyze the regional implications of macroeconomic development of employment, labor force, and unemployment. "In building the model, empirical analyses of regional producer behavior in manufacturing industries have been performed, and the relation between labor market development and regional migration has been investigated. Apart from providing a short description of the REGARD model, this article demonstrates the functioning of the model, and presents some results of an application." excerpt

  18. Do regional weather models contribute to better wind power forecasts? A few Norwegian case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bremnes, John Bjørnar; Giebel, Gregor

    2017-01-01

    resolution of this grid determines how accurate meteorological processes can be modeled and thereby also limits forecast quality. In this study, two global and four regional operational NWP models with spatial horizontal resolutions ranging from 1 to 32 km were applied to make wind power forecasts up to 66...

  19. Operational use of distributed hydrological models. Experiences and challenges at a Norwegian hydropower company (Agder Energi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viggo Matheussen, Bernt; Andresen, Arne; Weisser, Claudia

    2014-05-01

    The Scandinavian hydropower industry has traditionally adopted the lumped conceptual hydrological model - HBV, as the tool for producing forecasts of inflows and mountain snow packs. Such forecasting systems - based on lumped conceptual models - have several drawbacks. Firstly, a lumped model does not produce spatial data, and comparisons with remote sensed snow cover data (which are now available) are complicated. Secondly, several climate parameters such as wind speed are now becoming more available and can potentially improve forecasts due to improved estimates of precipitation gauge efficiency, and more physically correct calculation of turbulent heat fluxes. At last, when the number of catchments increases, it is cumbersome and slow to run multiple hydrology models compared to running one model for all catchments. With the drawbacks of the lumped hydrology models in mind, and with inspiration from other forecasting systems using distributed models, Agder Energy decided to develop a forecasting system applying a physically based distributed model. In this paper we describe an operational inflow and snowpack forecast system developed for the Scandinavian mountain range. The system applies a modern macroscale land surface hydrology model (VIC) which in combination with historical climate data and weather predictions can be used to produce both short-term, and seasonal forecasts of inflow and mountain snowpack. Experiences with the forecast system are illustrated using results from individual subcatchments as well as aggregated regional forecasts of inflow and snowpack. Conversion of water volumes into effective energy inflow are also presented and compared to data from the Nordic hydropower system. Further on, we document several important "lessons-learned" that may be of interest to the hydrological research community. Specifically a semi-automatic data cleansing system combining spatial and temporal visualization techniques with statistical procedures are

  20. Persistent Organic Pollutants in Norwegian Men from 1979 to 2007: Intraindividual Changes, Age–Period–Cohort Effects, and Model Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, Knut; Fuskevåg, Ole-Martin; Nieboer, Evert; Odland, Jon Øyvind; Sandanger, Torkjel Manning

    2013-01-01

    in Norwegian men from 1979 to 2007: intraindividual changes, age–period–cohort effects, and model predictions. Environ Health Perspect 121:1292–1298; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1206317 PMID:24007675

  1. Deep structure of the Mid-Norwegian continental margin (the Vøring and Møre basins) according to 3-D density and magnetic modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maystrenko, Yuriy Petrovich; Gernigon, Laurent; Nasuti, Aziz; Olesen, Odleiv

    2018-03-01

    A lithosphere-scale 3-D density/magnetic structural model of the Møre and Vøring segments of the Mid-Norwegian continental margin and the adjacent areas of the Norwegian mainland has been constructed by using both published, publically available data sets and confidential data, validated by the 3-D density and magnetic modelling. The obtained Moho topography clearly correlates with the major tectonic units of the study area where a deep Moho corresponds to the base of the Precambrian continental crust and the shallower one is located in close proximity to the younger oceanic lithospheric domain. The 3-D density modelling agrees with previous studies which indicate the presence of a high-density/high-velocity lower-crustal layer beneath the Mid-Norwegian continental margin. The broad Jan Mayen Corridor gravity low is partially related to the decreasing density of the sedimentary layers within the Jan Mayen Corridor and also has to be considered in relation to a possible low-density composition- and/or temperature-related zone in the lithospheric mantle. According to the results of the 3-D magnetic modelling, the absence of a strong magnetic anomaly over the Utgard High indicates that the uplifted crystalline rocks are not so magnetic there, supporting a suggestion that the entire crystalline crust has a low magnetization beneath the greater part of the Vøring Basin and the northern part of the Møre Basin. On the contrary, the crystalline crust is much more magnetic beneath the Trøndelag Platform, the southern part of the Møre Basin and within the mainland, reaching a culmination at the Frøya High where the most intensive magnetic anomaly is observed within the study area.

  2. A two-way nesting procedure for an ocean model with application to the Norwegian Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heggelund, Yngve; Berntsen, Jarle

    2000-11-01

    Two-way nesting for a {sigma}-coordinate ocean model is implemented. The test case is a traveling low pressure along the west coast of Norway. Different methods for interaction between the coarse grid and the fine grid have been investigated. It is found that both a Dirichlet type and a FRS-type boundary condition for the fine grid give reasonable results for this test case. The FRS-type boundary condition gives a smoother transition between the coarse and fine grid, but more noise in the interior of the fine grid. With no feedback from the fine grid to the coarse grid, phase differences between the solutions on the two grids cause unphysical vortices to be found at the interface between the grids. (author)

  3. Financing the Transition to a Green Economy - An empirical investigation of how Norwegian firms can achieve business models for sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Synne Mari; Slette, Sunniva Bratt

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this Master s thesis is to explore the interaction between the state of the current financial system and sustainable value creation of companies. This is done by examining how the financial community and business actors can address tensions that currently provide barriers for sustainability investments. The thesis is structured as an exploratory case study within the context of Norwegian industry development in the transition to a green economy. More specifically, the study i...

  4. The Norwegian Earth System Model, NorESM1-M – Part 2: Climate response and scenario projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Iversen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available NorESM is a generic name of the Norwegian earth system model. The first version is named NorESM1, and has been applied with medium spatial resolution to provide results for CMIP5 (http://cmip-pcmdi.llnl.gov/cmip5/index.html without (NorESM1-M and with (NorESM1-ME interactive carbon-cycling. Together with the accompanying paper by Bentsen et al. (2012, this paper documents that the core version NorESM1-M is a valuable global climate model for research and for providing complementary results to the evaluation of possible anthropogenic climate change. NorESM1-M is based on the model CCSM4 operated at NCAR, but the ocean model is replaced by a modified version of MICOM and the atmospheric model is extended with online calculations of aerosols, their direct effect and their indirect effect on warm clouds. Model validation is presented in the companion paper (Bentsen et al., 2012. NorESM1-M is estimated to have equilibrium climate sensitivity of ca. 2.9 K and a transient climate response of ca. 1.4 K. This sensitivity is in the lower range amongst the models contributing to CMIP5. Cloud feedbacks dampen the response, and a strong AMOC reduces the heat fraction available for increasing near-surface temperatures, for evaporation and for melting ice. The future projections based on RCP scenarios yield a global surface air temperature increase of almost one standard deviation lower than a 15-model average. Summer sea-ice is projected to decrease considerably by 2100 and disappear completely for RCP8.5. The AMOC is projected to decrease by 12%, 15–17%, and 32% for the RCP2.6, 4.5, 6.0, and 8.5, respectively. Precipitation is projected to increase in the tropics, decrease in the subtropics and in southern parts of the northern extra-tropics during summer, and otherwise increase in most of the extra-tropics. Changes in the atmospheric water cycle indicate that precipitation events over continents will become more intense and dry spells more frequent. Extra

  5. Weight restrictions on geography variables in the DEA benchmarking model for Norwegian electricity distribution companies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerndal, Endre; Bjoerndal, Mette; Camanho, Ana

    2008-07-01

    The DEA model for the distribution networks is designed to take into account the diverse operating conditions of the companies through so-called 'geography' variables. Our analyses show that companies with difficult operating conditions tend to be rewarded with relatively high efficiency scores, and this is the reason for introducing weight restrictions. We discuss the relative price restrictions suggested for geography and high voltage variables by NVE (2008), and we compare these to an alternative approach by which the total (virtual) weight of the geography variables is restricted. The main difference between the two approaches is that the former tends to affect more companies, but to a lesser extent, than the latter. We also discuss how to set the restriction limits. Since the virtual restrictions are at a more aggregated level than the relative ones, it may be easier to establish the limits with this approach. Finally, we discuss implementation issues, and give a short overview of available software. (Author). 18 refs., figs

  6. Moniliformin in Norwegian grain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uhlig, S.; Torp, M.; Jarp, J.; Parich, A.; Gutleb, A.C.; Krska, R.

    2004-01-01

    Norwegian grain samples (73 oats, 75 barley, 83 wheat) from the 2000-02 growing seasons were examined for contamination with moniliformin, and the association between the fungal metabolite and the number of kernels infected with common Fusaria was investigated. Before quantification of moniliformin

  7. Norwegian Cyber Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    reliance on proprietary networks and hardware, SCADA systems were considered safe from cyber attacks and were not designed for security. The situation...operational data that could result in public safety concerns.43 In 2013 Norwegian newspaper Dagbladet found over 2,500 SCADA systems in Norway used for ...a. Siberian Pipeline Explosion (1982) In 1982, intruders planted a Trojan horse in the SCADA system that controls the Siberian Pipeline . This is the

  8. Radon in Norwegian dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, T.; Green, B.M.R.; Lomas, P.R.

    1992-01-01

    The results of a large-scale survey of radon concentrations in Norwegian dwellings are reported. Measurements of radon have been made in a total of 7500 dwellings. The dwellings were randomly selected and the number in each municipality is proportional to its population. The measurements were performed using etched track detectors from the National Radiological Protection Board in the UK. One detector was placed in the main bedroom in each dwelling for 6 months. The annual average of radon concentration in Norwegian bedrooms is calculated to be 51 Bq.m -3 . The frequency distribution is approximately log-normal with a geometric mean of 26 Bq.m -3 and about 4% of the bedrooms have concentrations above 200 Bq.m -3 . The radon concentrations are found to be about 40% higher for bedrooms in single-family houses than in blocks of flats and other multifamily houses. In a large proportion of single-family houses the living room and the kitchen are located on the ground floor and the bedrooms on the first floor. An additional factor is that the winters of 1987-1988 and 1988-1989 were much warmer than normal. Taking these factors into account, the average radon concentration in Norwegian dwellings is estimated to be between 55 and 65 Bq.m -3 . (author)

  9. Transforming Norwegian Special Operation Forces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robertsen, Tom A

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the transformation of Norwegian Special Operation Forces (NORSOF), raising the hypothesis that its current organizational structure is inconsistent with its future roles and missions...

  10. The performance of Norwegian investment grade bond funds

    OpenAIRE

    Berge, Hjalmar Laudal; Kamalanathan, Sayanthan

    2016-01-01

    The following thesis examines the performance of Norwegian investment grade bond mutual funds in the period from January 2011 to January 2016. In this study we addresstwo important issues. Firstly, by applying a CAPM model framework, we examine whether funds are able to outperform passive portfolios. Due to the lack of appropriate benchmarks for evaluation in the Norwegian market, we construct and include a bond index in our analysis. Across several different model specifi...

  11. Assessing a Norwegian translation of the Organizational Climate Measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstrøm, Vilde Hoff; Lone, Jon Anders; Bjørkli, Cato A; Ulleberg, Pål; Hoff, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    This study investigated the Norwegian translation of the Organizational Climate Measure developed by Patterson and colleagues. The Organizational Climate Measure is a global measure of organizational climate based on Quinn and Rohrbaugh's competing values model. The survey was administered to a Norwegian branch of an international service sector company (N = 555). The results revealed satisfactory internal reliability and interrater agreement for the 17 scales, and confirmatory factor analysis supported the original factor structure. The findings gave preliminary support for the Organizational Climate Measure as a reliable measure with a stable factor structure, and indicated that it is potentially useful in the Norwegian context.

  12. Stereotypes of Norwegian social groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bye, Hege H; Herrebrøden, Henrik; Hjetland, Gunnhild J; Røyset, Guro Ø; Westby, Linda L

    2014-10-01

    We present a pilot study and two main studies that address the nature of stereotypes of social groups in Norway within the framework of the Stereotype Content Model (SCM). The first study focused on stereotypes of a wide range of groups across categories such as gender, age, religious conviction, socioeconomic and health status. The second study focused on stereotypes of immigrant groups. Participants (n = 244 and n = 63, respectively) rated the groups on perceived warmth, competence, status, and competition. Results from both studies support the applicability of the SCM in Norway and provides a unique insight into stereotypes of Norwegian social groups. © 2014 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology published by Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Norwegian mastitis control programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Østerås O

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper describes the methods and results of the Norwegian Mastitis Control Program implemented in 1982. The program has formed an integral part of the Norwegian Cattle Health Services (NCHS since 1995. The NCHS also have specific programs for milk fever, ketosis, reproduction and calf diseases. The goal of the program is to improve udder health by keeping the bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC low, to reduce the use of antibiotics, to keep the cost of mastitis low at herd level and improve the consumers' attitude to milk products. In 1996, a decision was made to reduce the use of antibiotics in all animal production enterprises in Norway by 25% within five years. Relevant data has been collected through the Norwegian Cattle Herd Recording System (NCHRS; including health records since 1975 and somatic cell count (SCC data since 1980. These data have been integrated within the NCHRS. Since 2000, mastitis laboratory data have also been included in the NCHRS. Data on clinical disease, SCC and mastitis bacteriology have been presented to farmers and advisors in monthly health periodicals since 1996, and on the internet since 2005. In 1996, Norwegian recommendations on the treatment of mastitis were implemented. Optimal milking protocols and milking machine function have been emphasised and less emphasis has been placed on dry cow therapy. A selective dry cow therapy program (SDCTP was implemented in 2006, and is still being implemented in new areas. Research demonstrates that the rate of clinical mastitis could be reduced by 15% after implementing SDCTP. The results so far show a 60% reduction in the clinical treatment of mastitis between 1994 and 2007, a reduction in BMSCC from 250,000 cells/ml to 114,000 cells/ml, and a total reduction in the mastitis cost from 0.23 NOK to 0.13 NOK per litre of milk delivered to the processors, corresponding to a fall from 9.2% to 1.7% of the milk price, respectively. This reduction is attributed to

  14. Norwegian mastitis control programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the methods and results of the Norwegian Mastitis Control Program implemented in 1982. The program has formed an integral part of the Norwegian Cattle Health Services (NCHS) since 1995. The NCHS also have specific programs for milk fever, ketosis, reproduction and calf diseases. The goal of the program is to improve udder health by keeping the bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) low, to reduce the use of antibiotics, to keep the cost of mastitis low at herd level and improve the consumers' attitude to milk products. In 1996, a decision was made to reduce the use of antibiotics in all animal production enterprises in Norway by 25% within five years. Relevant data has been collected through the Norwegian Cattle Herd Recording System (NCHRS); including health records since 1975 and somatic cell count (SCC) data since 1980. These data have been integrated within the NCHRS. Since 2000, mastitis laboratory data have also been included in the NCHRS. Data on clinical disease, SCC and mastitis bacteriology have been presented to farmers and advisors in monthly health periodicals since 1996, and on the internet since 2005. In 1996, Norwegian recommendations on the treatment of mastitis were implemented. Optimal milking protocols and milking machine function have been emphasised and less emphasis has been placed on dry cow therapy. A selective dry cow therapy program (SDCTP) was implemented in 2006, and is still being implemented in new areas. Research demonstrates that the rate of clinical mastitis could be reduced by 15% after implementing SDCTP. The results so far show a 60% reduction in the clinical treatment of mastitis between 1994 and 2007, a reduction in BMSCC from 250,000 cells/ml to 114,000 cells/ml, and a total reduction in the mastitis cost from 0.23 NOK to 0.13 NOK per litre of milk delivered to the processors, corresponding to a fall from 9.2% to 1.7% of the milk price, respectively. This reduction is attributed to changes in attitude and

  15. Climatic impact of Norwegian gas power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aune, Finn Roar; Golombek, Rolf; Kittelsen, Sverre A.C.; Rosendal, Knut Einar

    2001-01-01

    This article discusses model calculations of the impact of a Norwegian gas power plant on the total carbon dioxide emission in Western Europe. The authors have set up a model that is based on the assumption that the European markets for electricity and gas be liberalized as defined in various EU directives. The model calculates all energy prices and the energy produced and consumed in Western Europe within a time horizon where all the capacities of the energy sector are given. If gas power plants are built in Norway after such liberalization, the model predicts a reduction of CO 2 emissions in Western Europe even if the gas power plant increases the local emission in Norway. This is primarily because of the phasing-out of the coal-fired power plants in other countries. Alternative calculations using different assumptions about taxes, transportation capacity, minimum run-off years in Norway give the same type of results. Thus, the principal result about the climatically beneficial effect of a Norwegian gas power plant is robust within the model. However, alternative assumptions about the extent of the liberalization and the time horizon may lead to other conclusions. In any case, the impact of a Norwegian gas power plant (6 TWh) is so small on the European scale as to be rather symbolic

  16. Radon in Norwegian dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, T.; Green, B.M.R; Lomas, P.R.; Mangnus, K.; Stranden, E.

    1991-01-01

    Measurements of radon in indoor air have been made in a total of about 7500 randomly selected dwellings in Norway from all parts of the country. The number of selected dwellings in each municipality is about proportional to its population, except for the two largest municipalities, Oslo and Bergen, where somewhat smaller samples were taken due to the higher population density. The measurements were performed by nuclear track detectors from the National Radiological Protection Boards in United Kingdom, and the integration time for the measurements was 6 months. The detectors were spread evenly over all seasons of the year to eliminate influence from seasonal variation in the radon level. One single measurement was performed in each dwelling: in the main bedroom. The results shows that the distribution of radon concentrations in Norwegian bedrooms is log-normal. The aritmetic mean of the measurements, including all categories of dwellings, is calculated to be 51 Bq/m 3 and the corresponding geometric mean to be 26 Bq/m 3 . In a large proportion of single-family houses the living room and the kitchen are located on the ground floor while the bedrooms are located one floor higher. The results of the study shows that the radon level is somewhat higher at the ground floor than on the first floor, and higher in the basement than on the first floor. Taking this into account, and assuming that measurements in bedrooms on the first floor is a representative average for living room and kitchen, the average radon concentration for Norwegian dwellings is estimated to be between 55-65 Bq/m 3 . In this estimate, possible influences of the fact that the winters 87/88 and 88/89 were much warmer than normal and may therefor have lowered the results, has been taken into account. 15 refs., 9 figs., 15 tabs

  17. A Bilingual Child Learns Social Communication Skills through Video Modeling--A Single Case Study in a Norwegian School Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özerk, Meral; Özerk, Kamil

    2015-01-01

    "Video modeling" is one of the recognized methods used in the training and teaching of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The model's theoretical base stems from Albert Bandura's (1977; 1986) social learning theory in which he asserts that children can learn many skills and behaviors observationally through modeling. One can…

  18. A bilingual child learns social communication skills through video modeling-a single case study in a norwegian school setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meral Özerk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Video modeling is one of the recognized methods used in the training and teaching of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD. The model’s theoretical base stems from Albert Bandura's (1977; 1986 social learning theory in which he asserts that children can learn many skills and behaviors observationally through modeling. One can assume that by observing others, a child with ASD can construct an idea of how new behaviors are performed, and on later occasions this mentally and visually constructed information will serve as a guide for his/her way of behaving. There are two types of methods for model learning: 1 In Vivo Modeling and 2 Video Modeling. These can be used a to teach children with ASD skills that are not yet in their behavioral repertoire and / or b to improve the children's emerging behaviors or skills. In the case of linguistic minority children at any stage of their bilingual development, it has been presumed that some of their behaviors that can be interpreted as attitude or culture-related actions. This approach, however, can sometimes delay referral, diagnosis, and intervention. In our project, we used Video Modeling and achieved positive results with regard to teaching social communication skills and target behavior to an eleven year-old bilingual boy with ASD. Our study also reveals that through Video Modeling, children with ASD can learn desirable behavioral skills as by-products. Video Modeling can also contribute positively to the social inclusion of bilingual children with ASD in school settings. In other words, bilingual children with ASD can transfer the social communication skills and targeted behaviors they learn through second-language at school to a first-language milieu.

  19. Linked models to assess the impacts of climate change on nitrogen in a Norwegian river basin and fjord system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaste, O.; Wright, R.F.; Barkved, L.J.; Bjerkeng, B.; Engen-Skaugen, T.; Magnusson, J.; Saelthun, N.R.

    2006-01-01

    Dynamically downscaled data from two Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models (AOGCMs), ECHAM4 from the Max-Planck Institute (MPI), Germany and HadAm3H from the Hadley Centre (HAD), UK, driven with two scenarios of greenhouse gas emissions (IS92a and A2, respectively) were used to make climate change projections. These projections were then used to drive four effect models linked to assess the effects on hydrology, and nitrogen (N) concentrations and fluxes, in the Bjerkreim river basin (685-km 2 ) and its coastal fjord, southwestern Norway. The four effect models were the hydrological model HBV, the water quality models MAGIC, INCA-N and the NIVA FJORD model. The downscaled climate scenarios project a general temperature increase in the study region of approximately 1 deg. C by 2030-2049 (MPI IS92a) and approximately 3 deg. C by 2071-2100 (HAD A2). Both scenarios imply increased winter precipitation, whereas the projections of summer and autumn precipitation are quite different, with the MPI scenario projecting a slight increase and the HAD scenario a significant decrease. As a response to increased winter temperature, the HBV model simulates a dramatic reduction of snow accumulation in the upper parts of the catchment, which in turn lead to higher runoff during winter and lower runoff during snowmelt in the spring. With the HAD scenario, runoff in summer and early autumn is substantially reduced as a result of reduced precipitation, increased temperatures and thereby increased evapotranspiration. The water quality models, MAGIC and INCA-N project no major changes in nitrate (NO 3 - ) concentrations and fluxes within the MPI scenario, but a significant increase in concentrations and a 40-50% increase in fluxes in the HAD scenario. As a consequence, the acidification of the river could increase, thus offsetting ongoing recovery from acidification due to reductions in acid deposition. Additionally, the increased N loading may stimulate growth of N-limited benthic

  20. Modeling thermal structure, ice cover regime and sensitivity to climate change of two regulated lakes - a Norwegian case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebre, Solomon; Boissy, Thibault; Alfredsen, Knut

    2013-04-01

    A great number of river and lakes in Norway and the Nordic region at large are regulated for water management such as hydropower production. Such regulations have the potential to alter the thermal and hydrological regimes in the lakes and rivers downstream impacting on river environment and ecology. Anticipated changes as a result of climate change in meteorological forcing data such as air temperature and precipitation cause changes in the water balance, water temperature and ice cover duration in the reservoirs. This may necessitate changes in operational rules as part of an adaptation strategy for the future. In this study, a one dimensional (1D) lake thermodynamic and ice cover model (MyLake) has been modified to take into account the effect of dynamic outflows in reservoirs and applied to two small but relatively deep regulated lakes (reservoirs) in Norway (Follsjøen and Tesse). The objective was to assess climate change impacts on the seasonal thermal characteristics, the withdrawal temperatures, and the reservoir ice cover dynamics with current operational regimes. The model solves the vertical energy balance on a daily time-step driven by meteorological and hydrological forcings: 2m air temperature, precipitation, 2m relative humidity, 10m wind speed, cloud cover, air pressure, solar insolation, inflow volume, inflow temperature and reservoir outflows. Model calibration with multi-seasonal data of temperature profiles showed that the model performed well in simulating the vertical water temperature profiles for the two study reservoirs. The withdrawal temperatures were also simulated reasonably well. The comparison between observed and simulated lake ice phenology (which were available only for one of the reservoirs - Tesse) was also reasonable taking into account the uncertainty in the observational data. After model testing and calibration, the model was then used to simulate expected changes in the future (2080s) due to climate change by considering

  1. Talent Development as an Ecology of Games: A Case Study of Norwegian Handball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørndal, Christian Thue; Ronglan, Lars Tore; Andersen, Svein S.

    2017-01-01

    Structured talent identification and development, it has been argued, is one of the foundations of international sporting success and many modern elite sport systems have applied normative talent development (TD) models. The success of Norwegian handball, however, is based on an alternative approach to TD. Norwegian handball is characterized by a…

  2. Growth of farmed blue mussels ( Mytilus edulis L.) in a Norwegian coastal area; comparison of food proxies by DEB modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handå, Aleksander; Alver, Morten; Edvardsen, Christian Vik; Halstensen, Stein; Olsen, Anders Johny; Øie, Gunvor; Reitan, Kjell Inge; Olsen, Yngvar; Reinertsen, Helge

    2011-11-01

    Seston variables and growth of the blue mussel ( Mytilus edulis L.) were measured during the growth season from March to October in three suspended longline farms in Central Norway; one in the inner part of Åfjorden (63° 56' N, 10° 11' E) and two in Inner and Outer Koet, respectively (63° 49' N, 9° 42' and 47' E). Four seston variables were used as alternative input values in a Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model to compare their suitability as food proxies for predicting mussel growth: 1; total particulate matter (TPM), 2; particulate organic matter (POM), 3; organic content (OC) and 4; chlorophyll a (chl a). Mean TPM and POM measured 6.1 and 1.9 mg L - 1 in Åfjorden, 10.3 and 4.2 mg L - 1 in Inner Koet, and 10.5 and 4.6 mg L - 1 in Outer Koet, respectively, resulting in a mean OC of 32, 41 and 44% in Åfjorden and Inner and Outer Koet, respectively. Mean chl a measured 1.6 μg L - 1 in Åfjorden, 3.1 μg L - 1 in Inner Koet, and 1.6 μg L - 1 in Outer Koet. Average length growth was 0.20% day - 1 in medium sized mussels (24-36 mm) in Åfjorden and 0.08% day - 1 in large mussels (40-55 mm) in Inner and Outer Koet. Mean standardized soft tissue dry weight ranged between 250 and 390 mg in Åfjorden, 600 and 1175 in Inner Koet, and 600 and 960 mg in Outer Koet, and showed a seasonal pattern independent of growth in length with scattered spawnings. The model showed the best match for a single criterion for growth in both length and soft tissue dry weight for different food proxies depending on location. TPM gave the best match in Åfjorden, while chl a and POM gave the best match in Inner and Outer Koet, respectively. For Åfjorden, growth in length decreased markedly at the end of the sampling period, and this decrease was not reproduced by the model for any of the food proxies. For Inner and Outer Koet, agreement between measured and modeled length was quite good for the optimal choices of food proxy, with clear variations between the proxies for both farms. The

  3. Norwegian gas export policy - management of external change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claes, Dag Harald.

    1997-01-01

    This report is the first study in the research project '' Norwegian gas policy - external change and national adaptation''. The project is financed through Norges forskningsraad's research program ''Petropol''. The main aim of the project is to understand the market, political and institutional changes in the European gas market as well as what implications they may have for the political and institutional design of the Norwegian gas sector. In this report an approach model is developed for studying the connection between changes in the European gas market and the Norwegian petroleum policy which will be central in several of the later works in the project. The report gives a historic account of Norwegian gas export policy as well, a field where altered frame conditions have given the authorities political and institutional challenges. The main focus in the report is however, connected to the empirical explanation of the connection between changed external environments and alterations in the Norwegian gas export policy. The question the study tries to answer is: To what extent and how the Norwegian gas export policy is affected by alterations in the European gas market and the EU policy towards this market. In the centre of the study of the gas export policy is the element of governmental control. The governmental control assumes ability to formulate national aims as well as the ability to produce laws and regulations which reflects the goals and counts on that the aims are reached in addition to that the authorities either implement the policies themselves or if this is left to other parties, have ability to survey and sanction these parties should they break the guidelines or oppose the national political aims. The report shows how these aspects are affected by changes in the environments surrounding the Norwegian gas export. 6 figs., 1 tab., 45 refs

  4. Facts 2010 - The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Content; Foreword; The petroleum sector - Norway's largest industry; Organisation of Norwegian petroleum activity; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology and industrial development; Environmental considerations in the Norwegian petroleum sector; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  5. Facts 2010 - The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Content; Foreword; The petroleum sector - Norway's largest industry; Organisation of Norwegian petroleum activity; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology and industrial development; Environmental considerations in the Norwegian petroleum sector; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  6. Facts 2011 - The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-15

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Content; Foreword; The petroleum sector - Norway's largest industry; Organisation of Norwegian petroleum activity; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology and industrial development; Environmental considerations in the Norwegian petroleum sector; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  7. Facts 2009 - The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Contents: Foreword; The petroleum sector; Norwegian resource management; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology; Environmental considerations; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  8. Norwegian oil and gas policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gjerde, B

    1978-04-01

    The Norwegian Minister of Oil and Energy explains the importance of integrating petroleum policy into the broad political picture because of Norway's economic situation. Since oil was found on the continental shelf 13 years ago, changes have been made in projected production levels to reflect the international recession and concerns over unemployment in Norway. Policies are aimed at keeping a constant activity in the petroleum sector through allocation of particular block development that will improve continental shelf mapping and encourage new deepwater exploration and development. He outlines licensing criteria and future exploratory activities. The report covers aspects of safety, transportation, and landing and the impacts of petroleum activities on Norwegian communities.

  9. Operating costs on Norwegian fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunnevaag, K.; Nansve, A.H.

    1992-09-01

    In this report we summarize some of the findings in a project for A/S Norske Shell, where the objective was to find trends in the development of operating expenditures on the Norwegian Continental Shelf if any, and to explain these. We also present a short compilation of articles on the subject. 23 refs., 13 figs

  10. [Job satisfaction among Norwegian doctors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nylenna, Magne; Aasland, Olaf Gjerløw

    2010-05-20

    Doctors' job satisfaction has been discussed internationally in recent years based on reports of increasing professional dissatisfaction. We have studied Norwegian doctors' job satisfaction and their general satisfaction with life. A survey was conducted among a representative sample of practicing Norwegian doctors in 2008. The validated 10-item Job Satisfaction Scale was used to assess job satisfaction. 1,072 (65 %) doctors responded. They reported a mean job satisfaction of 5.3 on a scale from 1 (very dissatisfied) to 7 (very satisfied). Job satisfaction increased with increasing age. Private practice specialists reported the highest level of job satisfaction (5.8), and general practitioners reported higher job satisfaction (5.5) than hospital doctors (5.1). Among specialty groups, community doctors scored highest (5.6) and doctors in surgical disciplines lowest (5.0). While long working hours was negatively correlated with job satisfaction, the perception of being professionally updated and having part-time affiliation(s) in addition to a regular job were positively correlated with job satisfaction. 52.9 % of doctors reported a very high general satisfaction. Norwegian doctors have a high level of job satisfaction. Satisfaction with life in general is also high and at least in line with that in the Norwegian population.

  11. Norwegian Gas in International Affairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austvik, Ole Gunnar

    2003-01-01

    Scarcity of oil and gas will continue to characterize international energy markets, either in an economic, physical or political sense, over shorter or longer time. With a constantly increasing Norwegian petroleum production, it is likely that the international community closely will observe petroleum developments in Norway. Apart from security policy, petroleum issues may be the most central single factor in Norwegian foreign policy, simply because the outside world defines it so. The size of the natural gas exports makes Norway a strategic player in a market of vital interest for the energy supplies to Europe. The economic development and national security of the receiving countries depend on secure supplies of energy at stable prices on an acceptable level. Norwegian gas strategy must be conscious that the USA, the EU and great European purchasing countries like Germany, France, the UK and Italy, as well as competitors Russia, Algeria and others, will be interested in its content. As an example of how Norwegian petroleum policy may be influenced from the outside world, the author analyzes the case when Norwegian energy policy first became an explicit element in a larger political game. In order to prevent Western European countries from completing a notable gas contract with the Soviet Union in 1982, the U.S. introduced a ban on all American exports to firms supporting the project. Also the U.S. boycotted European firms supplying equipment. The Americans claimed that if Western Europe became too dependent on Soviet gas, one might come under pressure in a future political crisis if the Soviets turned off the taps to stop the energy supply. The U. S. urged Norway to increase her gas exports as a substitute for Soviet gas. Norway, on the other hand, maintained that gas production could not be increased as quickly as desired. The Norwegians also wanted, in case a development should be accelerated, a ''price premium'' to justify an act that otherwise would have been

  12. Facts 2006. The Norwegian petroleum sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dokka, Ane; Midttun, Oeyvind

    2006-01-01

    The petroleum sector is extremely important to Norway. The industry is responsible for one fourth of all value creation in the country and more than one fourth of the state's revenues. It is currently Norway's largest industry, and the spillover effects to other industries are substantial. Norway ranks as the world's third largest exporter of oil and the eighth largest oil producer. Less than one third of the estimated petroleum reserves Norway has have been produced. The level of activity on the Norwegian continental shelf was very high in 2005. The number of producing fields was 50, and these fields produced 3 million barrels of oil (including NGL and condensate) per day and 85 billion standard cubic metres (scm) gas, for a total production saleable petroleum of 257 million scm of oil equivalents. Resource management is conducted through the models of cooperation and competition. Annual licensing rounds are held by the authorities where companies are given access to new exploration areas. The interest in the 19th licensing round in 2005 was considerable, indicating a continuous high interest in the Norwegian continental shelf. The Norwegian Petroleum Directorate estimates for the future a gradual increase in the petroleum production up until 2011, and a gradual fall thereafter. Gas production is expected to increase until 2013. Gas production represents 35 percent of the total production in 2006. It is expected that by 2013 it will represent 50 percent of the total. Other aspects accounted for include government petroleum revenues, environmental considerations, petroleum resources and overviews of fields in production, fields where production has ceased and fields under development

  13. Conference on Norwegian fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The question of instituting a systematic research programme in Norway on aspects of thermonuclear and plasma physics has been raised. The conference here reported was intended to provide basic information on the status of fusion research internationally and to discuss a possible Norwegian programme. The main contributions covered the present status of fusion research, international cooperation, fusion research in small countries and minor laboratories, fusion research in Denmark and Sweden, and a proposed fusion experiment in Bergen. (JIW)

  14. Norwegian Foreign Direct Investment : Destination Singapore Inc.

    OpenAIRE

    Hasli, Siri Hetle

    2009-01-01

    The growth and spread of FDI during the 20th century has been described as a significant economic-geographic development. Norwegian FDI has been increasing since the 1980s, but the large scale of it is a new phenomenon. Singapore is now the third most important host country for Norwegian FDI. This thesis is a study of Norwegian FDI in Singapore, and the research question is: Which economic and political factors do Norwegian companies regard as important when investing abroad, and to what degr...

  15. Norwegian gas sale in an international perspective - future-directed organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saga, B.P.

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals with future organization of the Norwegian gas sale. The author gives at first a brief review of the Norwegian gas sale, and then a discussion on which type of criteria being based on by evaluation of models for the Norwegian gas sale. A comparison on which type of criteria used in other gas supplying countries is discussed. The author discusses tendencies of development in the international market including Europe, and is questioning if the existing system of gas sale is prepared to meet future challenges. Several types of proposals are presented to solve these challenges. 5 figs

  16. Norwegian Wood Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Ingrid Marie Hjellset

    2005-01-01

    Terrengmodellering i 3D er i dag en mye brukt måte å fremstille landskap på. Slike modeller kan man se i utallige dataspill, animasjonsfilmer, og geologiske modeller. Den vanligste måten å fremstille et 3D terreng på er ved bruk av kotekart. Mønsteret i en treplate kan minne mye om slike koter, og ved segmentering av mønsteret kan dette resultatet behandles på samme måte som et ordinært kart. Denne rapporten beskriver hvordan en finerplate kan bli ført fra treplate til trelandskap ved hjelp a...

  17. Norwegian gas sales and the impacts on European CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, E.; Boug, P.; Kverndokk, S.

    2001-01-01

    This paper has studied the impacts on Western European CO 2 emissions of a reduction in Norwegian gas sales. Such impacts are due to changes in energy demand, energy supply, and environmental and political regulations. The gas supply model DYNOPOLY was used to analyse the effects on Russian and Algerian gas exports of a reduction in Norwegian gas supply. The effects on the demand side and the effects of committing to CO 2 targets were analysed using the energy demand model SEEM. If Western European countries commit to their announced CO 2 emissions targets, reduced Norwegian gas sales will have no impact on emissions. The consumption of oil and coal will increase slightly, while the total energy consumption will go down. Also, a reduction in Norwegian gas sales will have only minor impacts on the CO 2 emissions from Western Europe when no emissions regulations are considered

  18. Can Parallelingualism Save Norwegian from Extinction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linn, Andrew R.

    2010-01-01

    Language extinction is one of the most pressing issues in linguistics today, and the literature is full of discussion about how to combat it. Statements that Norwegian is amongst the languages that are already extinct are merely examples of a widespread tendency in the literature towards erroneous information about Norwegian. Nonetheless, there is…

  19. Norwegian gas supplies for the European market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, B.L.

    1994-01-01

    The conference paper deals with the Norwegian key role in the European gas market with increasing market shares. The supply capacity in a long-term perspective can be 65-70 bcm/year or more if export prices support the development of new and more costly gas resources. The main challenges for the Norwegian shelf are discussed. 5 figs

  20. Homotolerance and Heterosexuality as Norwegian Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothing, Ase; Svendsen, Stine Helena Bang

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, equality between homosexual and heterosexual relationships has increasingly been presented as a marker for Norwegian values. Norwegian schooling encourages tolerance toward homosexuals, and the state shows active interest in counteracting bullying against LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender) youth by supporting research…

  1. Homotolerance and Heteronormativity in Norwegian Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothing, Ase

    2008-01-01

    This article is based on classroom observations and discusses sexual education that addresses homosexuality. Tolerance of queer lifestyles as well as support for judicial equality between heterosexual and homosexual couples is generally perceived as being high in the Norwegian political context. Norwegian sexual politics is, however, based on a…

  2. Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation. Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation. https://www.norad.no/en/front/. Think Tank Initiative. This initiative is creating high-quality independent research and policy institutions throughout the developing world. View more. Think Tank Initiative · View all initiatives.

  3. Norwegian resource policy: The production rate for Norwegian petroleum resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiner, P.

    1995-01-01

    Petroleum activities have become a large industry in Norway. This has led to extensive changes in Norwegian economy and society. In the public debate on this activity there has been little discussion of what would be the most profitable production rate. However, it is generally agreed that the great wealth implied by the petroleum resources must be managed in ways suitable to both present and coming generations. This report discusses the production rate based on the following questions: (1) How high can the production rate be before the petroleum activities and the expenditure of the income from them influence the remaining Norwegian economy too strongly? (2) How much of this wealth should reasonably be used by present generations and how much should be left for future generations? There is much to gain from a high tempo and from relocating some of the petroleum wealth. The possibilities of influencing the production rate are mainly connected with the allotments of production licences. The consequences of uncertainties in the petroleum activities for the choice of exploitation tempo are unclear. The environment is not much affected by the production rate. The contractor activity has become Norway's largest industry. 42 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Norwegian climate research. An evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-06-15

    [English] In early 2011, the Norwegian Research Council (RCN) appointed a committee to review Norwegian climate research. The aim of the evaluation was to provide a critical review of Norwegian climate research in an international perspective and to recommend measures to enhance the quality, efficiency and relevance of future climate research. The Evaluation Committee met three times: in August and December 2011, and March 2012. RCN sent an invitation to 140 research organisations to participate by delivering background information on their climate research. Based on the initial response, 48 research units were invited to submit self-assessments and 37 research units responded. These were invited to hearings during the second meeting of the Evaluation Committee in December. In our judgement, a great majority of the most active research units are covered by this evaluation report. It should be emphasised that the evaluation concerned the Norwegian landscape of climate research rather than individual scientists or research units. Bibliometric analyses and social network analyses provided additional information. We are aware of problems in making comparisons across disciplinary publishing traditions, especially with regard to the differences between the natural and social sciences and the humanities. The Evaluation Committee also reviewed a number of governmental and RCN policy documents and conducted interviews with the chairs of the NORKLIMA Programme Steering Board and the Norwegian IPY Committee, as well as with staff members of RCN. Additional information was received from hearings organised by RCN with the science communities and various stakeholders in January 2012. For the purpose of this evaluation, climate research was divided into three broad thematic areas: 1. The climate system and climate change: research on climate variability and change in order to improve our capability of understanding climate and of projecting climate change for different time

  5. The Norwegian hydrogen guide 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    Hydrogen technologies are maturing at rapid speed, something we experience in Norway and around the globe every day as demonstration projects for vehicles and infrastructure expand at a rate unthinkable of only a few years ago. An example of this evolution happened in Norway in 2009 when two hydrogen filling stations were opened on May the 11th, making it possible to arrange the highly successful Viking Rally from Oslo to Stavanger with more than 40 competing teams. The Viking Rally demonstrated for the public that battery and hydrogen-electric vehicles are technologies that exist today and provide a real alternative for zero emission mobility in the future. The driving range of the generation of vehicles put into demonstration today is more than 450 km on a full hydrogen tank, comparable to conventional vehicles. As the car industry develops the next generation of vehicles for serial production within the next 4-5 years, we will see vehicles that are more robust, more reliable and cost effective. Also on the hydrogen production and distribution side progress is being made, and since renewable hydrogen from biomass and electrolysis is capable of making mobility basically emission free, hydrogen can be a key component in combating climate change and reducing local emissions. The research Council of Norway has for many years supported the development of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies, and The Research Council firmly believes that hydrogen and fuel cell technologies play a crucial role in the energy system of the future. Hydrogen is a flexible transportation fuel, and offers possibilities for storing and balancing intermittent electricity in the energy system. Norwegian companies, research organisations and universities have during the last decade developed strong capabilities in hydrogen and fuel cell technologies, capabilities it is important to further develop so that Norwegian actors can supply high class hydrogen and fuel cell technologies to global markets

  6. "Almost at War". The Mohammed Cartoon Crisis in Norwegian Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solveig Steien

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In January and February 2006, Norwegians witnessed the burning of their national flag in Palestine, the burning of Norwegian embassies and consulates in Syria, Lebanon and Iran; all simply because twelve Danish Mohammed cartoons from Jyllands-Posten had been reprinted in Norway; the cartoons were published in a marginal Christian conservative weekly newspaper, Magazinet, three months after their original appearance in Denmark. In February 2006 the Norwegian ISAF-forces in Afghanistan were attacked. This conflict had a surprising impact on domestic and foreign policy, and the Norwegian publication of the cartoons triggered a global escalation of the controversy; Norwegian newspapers wrote that the country was "almost at war". I have focused on how some leading Norwegian newspapers (Aften, Aftenposten, Dagbladet, Dagens Næringsliv, Dagsavisen and VG covered this unexpected crisis and studied the different discourses that became a substantial part of the media coverage. In my analysis I have used an overall approach of War versus Peace journalism. War and Peace journalism was not created as a concept for analysing media texts or photographs, but to provide practical tools for journalists in the field of conflict and war situations. Nevertheless, this approach gives an opportunity to examine the results of journalistic work and compare them with the press'es ideals and ethical codes. At the same time, the occurrence of discourses like "clash of civilisations", freedom of speech, "us" versus "them", i.e., "us" versus the Muslims, and the newspapers' choice of sources for their stories, seem to fit with a model of War and Peace journalism. The focus is on opinion materials like editorials and comments, as well as on domestic reports and reportage by correspondents. By analysing samples of articles I have tried to outline some areas where the concept of Peace versus War journalism still needs to be developed, in order to become a comprehensive or more

  7. Organising Ethics: The Case of the Norwegian Army

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen-Marie Forsberg

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This article shows how institutionalism, a theory in organisational social science, provides a model for diagnosing organisational challenges that influence the ethical practices and integration in the Norwegian Army. Institutionalism provides tools for analysing the differences between expressed values and actual practices and for understanding the organisational dynamics that unfold at the crossroads of the organisation's formal structure, informal culture and stakeholder relations. In this article we present and discuss such differences and dynamics in the Norwegian Army based on findings from a survey and a number of workshops. We also provide some suggestions for effective implementation of strategies for strengthening ethics in such an organisation. We argue that the perspective taken in this project is also relevant for other highly professionalised complex organisations and that such interdisciplinary research will strengthen practical ethics' potential for real impact.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v6i1.1779

  8. Norwegian Ocean Observatory Network (NOON)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferré, Bénédicte; Mienert, Jürgen; Winther, Svein; Hageberg, Anne; Rune Godoe, Olav; Partners, Noon

    2010-05-01

    The Norwegian Ocean Observatory Network (NOON) is led by the University of Tromsø and collaborates with the Universities of Oslo and Bergen, UniResearch, Institute of Marine Research, Christian Michelsen Research and SINTEF. It is supported by the Research Council of Norway and oil and gas (O&G) industries like Statoil to develop science, technology and new educational programs. Main topics relate to ocean climate and environment as well as marine resources offshore Norway from the northern North Atlantic to the Arctic Ocean. NOON's vision is to bring Norway to the international forefront in using cable based ocean observatory technology for marine science and management, by establishing an infrastructure that enables real-time and long term monitoring of processes and interactions between hydrosphere, geosphere and biosphere. This activity is in concert with the EU funded European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures (ESFRI) roadmap and European Multidisciplinary Seafloor Observation (EMSO) project to attract international leading research developments. NOON envisions developing towards a European Research Infrastructure Consortium (ERIC). Beside, the research community in Norway already possesses a considerable marine infrastructure that can expand towards an international focus for real-time multidisciplinary observations in times of rapid climate change. PIC The presently established cable-based fjord observatory, followed by the establishment of a cable-based ocean observatory network towards the Arctic from an O&G installation, will provide invaluable knowledge and experience necessary to make a successful larger cable-based observatory network at the Norwegian and Arctic margin (figure 1). Access to large quantities of real-time observation from the deep sea, including high definition video, could be used to provide the public and future recruits to science a fascinating insight into an almost unexplored part of the Earth beyond the Arctic Circle

  9. Big challenges for the Norwegian processessing industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The emission of greenhouse gases from the Norwegian aluminium industry has been reduced by 50 per cent during the last decade. This is due to the large sums invested by the industry in environmental technology. The article deals with the environmental challenges of the Norwegian processing industry in general, but with an emphasis on energy recovery from waste. It also discusses industrial competitivity; unlike Norway, some of the major competing countries have not committed themselves to the Kyoto agreement

  10. Fact sheet. Norwegian petroleum activity 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westgaard, T. [ed.

    1996-02-01

    The present report from the Royal Ministry of Industry and Energy deals with the Norwegian petroleum activity. Main topics are as follow: Historical overview; state organisation of petroleum activities; the economic impact of Norwegian oil and gas; state revenues; mainland activities; petroleum resources; production; marketing situation for petroleum products; environmental aspects; the legal and licence framework; licensing rounds; exploration; fields in production; fields under development; discoveries with development plan under consideration; transportation systems; licence interests; company interests. 36 refs., 24 figs., 15 tabs.

  11. Accident analyses performed for the Norwegian committee on nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tveten, U.; Thomassen, D.; Kvaal, E.

    1979-02-01

    As part of the work performed for the Norwegian Government Committee on Nuclear Power, risk calculations were carried out for two examples of possible reactor sites in Norway. The calculations were performed with the computer program COMO (or CRACK), which was also used in the American reactor safety study (WASH-1400). In connection with the Norwegian calculations some modifications were made to the program, and relevant data for Norwegian conditions were introduced. The atmospheric dispersion model and meteorological data are discussed at some length. An analysi of the population distribution around both sites is presented and land usage is also discussed. Radiation dose calculations internal, and external, are summarised. Shielding factors from terrain and buildings are also given, and the effect of evacuation briefly discussed. Health effects, immediate mortalities, and delayed and genetic effects are discussed at some length. The economic consequences of an accident due to e.g. evacuation, condemnation of agricultural products, cost of decontamination, loss in property value and relocation costs are estimated. The results are presented graphically as a function of probability. (JIW)

  12. Farm specific risk factors for Campylobacter colonisation in Danish and Norwegian broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borck Høg, Birgitte; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Larsen, Lars Stehr

    2016-01-01

    cups. Additional country specific risk factors were also identified. For Norway, the risk of colonisation increased with increasing numbers of houses on a farm and when the water used for the broilers originated from surface water or bore holes instead of mains. For Denmark, having boot dips or low...... to a standardised questionnaire, with more than 40 explanatory variables from 277 Danish and Norwegian farms. We explored several models by using different combinations of the Danish and Norwegian data, including models with single-country datasets. All models were analysed using a generalized linear model using...... backwards elimination and forward selection. The results show that Norwegian broiler flocks had a lower risk of being colonised than Danish flocks. Farm specific variables that increased the risk of flocks becoming colonised with Campylobacter in both countries were: broiler houses older than five years...

  13. Norwegian petroleum technology. A success story

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    In many ways, the Norwegian petroleum industry is an economic and technological fairy tale. In the course of a little more than 30 years Norway has developed a petroleum industry with world class products and solutions. This book highlights some of the stories behind this Norwegian success. A strong Norwegian home market has helped Norwegian industries to develop technologies in the absolute forefront. In some important areas, like the subsea market, the Norwegian 'oil cluster' became world leaders through companies like Vetco, Aker Kvaerner and FMC Technologies. Advanced products for the domestic market, with cost effective and flexible solutions, are also sought after in the international market place. Norwegian companies are now involved in some of the world's foremost projects, from Sakhalin in the east to Brazil in the west and Angola in the south. Norway, with its 4.5 million inhabitants, is a very small country indeed. As an energy supplier, however, Norway will play an increasingly important role. This will require an even stronger emphasis on research, competence and technology development. Today some 75.000 highly qualified people are working directly in the Norwegian petroleum industry, where the domestic market is still strong with large field developments like Snoehvit and Ormen Lange. Norway has established a unique Petroleum Fund, which currently is passing $ 160 billion, and political leaders in resource rich oil countries are looking to Norway for inspiration and guidance. This book describes some of the best technology stories that have emerged from Norwegian research institutions. Financial support, text and illustrations from the companies and institutions presented in the book have made its publication possible and are gratefully acknowledged. An editorial committee has been responsible for producing the book under the chairmanship of Research Director Ole Lindefjeld of ConocoPhillips, who once demonstrated a multiplier effect of at least 15

  14. Norwegian gas export policy - management of external change; Norsk gasseksportpolitikk - haandtering av ytre endring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claes, Dag Harald

    1997-12-31

    This report is the first study in the research project `` Norwegian gas policy - external change and national adaptation``. The project is financed through Norges forskningsraad`s research program ``Petropol``. The main aim of the project is to understand the market, political and institutional changes in the European gas market as well as what implications they may have for the political and institutional design of the Norwegian gas sector. In this report an approach model is developed for studying the connection between changes in the European gas market and the Norwegian petroleum policy which will be central in several of the later works in the project. The report gives a historic account of Norwegian gas export policy as well, a field where altered frame conditions have given the authorities political and institutional challenges. The main focus in the report is however, connected to the empirical explanation of the connection between changed external environments and alterations in the Norwegian gas export policy. The question the study tries to answer is: To what extent and how the Norwegian gas export policy is affected by alterations in the European gas market and the EU policy towards this market. In the centre of the study of the gas export policy is the element of governmental control. The governmental control assumes ability to formulate national aims as well as the ability to produce laws and regulations which reflects the goals and counts on that the aims are reached in addition to that the authorities either implement the policies themselves or if this is left to other parties, have ability to survey and sanction these parties should they break the guidelines or oppose the national political aims. The report shows how these aspects are affected by changes in the environments surrounding the Norwegian gas export. 6 figs., 1 tab., 45 refs

  15. Facts 2000. The Norwegian Petroleum Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-02-01

    Petroleum production on the Norwegian continental shelf (NCS) in the North Sea, the Norwegian Sea and the Barents Sea totalled 2.7 bn scm oil equivalents (oe) up to 1998. Per December 1999, remaining reserves totalled 1.5 bn scm of oil, 1.2 bn scm oe gas and 0.2 bn scm oe of NGL/condensate. Twenty-eight exploration wells were completed or temporarily abandoned on the NCS in 1999. By 31 December 1999, 967 exploration wells had been completed or temporarily abandoned off Norway. Discoveries totalled 45-60 mill scm of oil and 45-70 bn scm of gas. Governmental approval was given in 1999 for the Tune, Borg and Sygna developments. Investment in exploration, field development and pipeline transport totalled about NOK 67 bn in 1998. Oil and gas production in 1999 was roughly on the par with 1998, while NGL/condensate sales rose by 19 per cent. The Balder, Gullfaks South, Jotun, Oseberg East, Visund and Aasgard projects came on stream during 1999. It is estimated that, with the present production rate, Norway's remaining discovered oil resources will last for 17 years, and gas, 93 years. The estimated value of Norwegian petroleum export in 1999 was NOK 168 bn, which is about 36% of the country's total earnings from foreign sales. Published by the Norwegian Ministry of Petroleum and Energy, the book is a major source of information on the Norwegian offshore petroleum activities

  16. Facts 2000. The Norwegian Petroleum Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-02-01

    Petroleum production on the Norwegian continental shelf (NCS) in the North Sea, the Norwegian Sea and the Barents Sea totalled 2.7 bn scm oil equivalents (oe) up to 1998. Per December 1999, remaining reserves totalled 1.5 bn scm of oil, 1.2 bn scm oe gas and 0.2 bn scm oe of NGL/condensate. Twenty-eight exploration wells were completed or temporarily abandoned on the NCS in 1999. By 31 December 1999, 967 exploration wells had been completed or temporarily abandoned off Norway. Discoveries totalled 45-60 mill scm of oil and 45-70 bn scm of gas. Governmental approval was given in 1999 for the Tune, Borg and Sygna developments. Investment in exploration, field development and pipeline transport totalled about NOK 67 bn in 1998. Oil and gas production in 1999 was roughly on the par with 1998, while NGL/condensate sales rose by 19 per cent. The Balder, Gullfaks South, Jotun, Oseberg East, Visund and Aasgard projects came on stream during 1999. It is estimated that, with the present production rate, Norway's remaining discovered oil resources will last for 17 years, and gas, 93 years. The estimated value of Norwegian petroleum export in 1999 was NOK 168 bn, which is about 36% of the country's total earnings from foreign sales. Published by the Norwegian Ministry of Petroleum and Energy, the book is a major source of information on the Norwegian offshore petroleum activities.

  17. Fact sheet. Norwegian petroleum activity 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harv, M.R.

    1995-02-01

    This report on the Norwegian petroleum activity in 1994 is published by the Royal Ministry of Industry and Energy. Production to the end of 1994 totaled 1.63 billion scm oe. At 31 Dec 1994, total reserves on the Norwegian continental shelf comprised 1.34 billion scm oe of oil, 1.35 billion scm oe of gas and 0.1 billion scm oe of NGLs. The net increment in oil and gas during 1994 was about 115 million scm oe. Twenty-seven exploration wells, including 22 wildcats and five appraisal wells, were completed or temporarily abandoned on the Norwegian continental shelf in 1994. Governmental approval was given for developing the second phase of the Ekofisk field, the Vigdis and Snorre Lunde oil fields, and two smaller formations on the Veslefrikk field. Investment in petroleum operations totaled about NOK 50 billion. Norwegian oil and gas production came to about 180 million scm oe. At present levels of output, Norway's petroleum resources are sufficient to support production of oil for 20 years and of gas for 115 years. The estimated value of Norwegian petroleum exports in 1994 is NOK 114 billion, representing about 34% of the country's total export earnings. State revenues from taxes and royalties on petroleum operations came to about NOK 23.7 billion, or eight per cent of total government revenues. 24 figs., 13 tabs

  18. Facts 2000. The Norwegian Petroleum Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-02-01

    Petroleum production on the Norwegian continental shelf (NCS) in the North Sea, the Norwegian Sea and the Barents Sea totalled 2.7 bn scm oil equivalents (oe) up to 1998. Per December 1999, remaining reserves totalled 1.5 bn scm of oil, 1.2 bn scm oe gas and 0.2 bn scm oe of NGL/condensate. Twenty-eight exploration wells were completed or temporarily abandoned on the NCS in 1999. By 31 December 1999, 967 exploration wells had been completed or temporarily abandoned off Norway. Discoveries totalled 45-60 mill scm of oil and 45-70 bn scm of gas. Governmental approval was given in 1999 for the Tune, Borg and Sygna developments. Investment in exploration, field development and pipeline transport totalled about NOK 67 bn in 1998. Oil and gas production in 1999 was roughly on the par with 1998, while NGL/condensate sales rose by 19 per cent. The Balder, Gullfaks South, Jotun, Oseberg East, Visund and Aasgard projects came on stream during 1999. It is estimated that, with the present production rate, Norway's remaining discovered oil resources will last for 17 years, and gas, 93 years. The estimated value of Norwegian petroleum export in 1999 was NOK 168 bn, which is about 36% of the country's total earnings from foreign sales. Published by the Norwegian Ministry of Petroleum and Energy, the book is a major source of information on the Norwegian offshore petroleum activities.

  19. Facts 2011 - The Norwegian petroleum sector; Fakta 2011 - norsk petroleumsverksemd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-15

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Content; Foreword; The petroleum sector - Norway's largest industry; Organisation of Norwegian petroleum activity; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology and industrial development; Environmental considerations in the Norwegian petroleum sector; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  20. Facts 2010 - The Norwegian petroleum sector; Fakta 2010 - norsk petroleumsverksemd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Content; Foreword; The petroleum sector - Norway's largest industry; Organisation of Norwegian petroleum activity; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology and industrial development; Environmental considerations in the Norwegian petroleum sector; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  1. White Paper No 54 (2000-2001). Norwegian Climate Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This White Paper from the Norwegian Government discusses the climate problem as a global challenge, Norway's strategy for meeting the Climate Convention and the Kyoto Protocol, the national climate policies of other countries, Norwegian national climate policy in the short term, and Norwegian national climate policy with the Kyoto agreement in force

  2. Facts 2009 - The Norwegian petroleum sector; Fakta 2009 - norsk petroleumsverksemd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Contents: Foreword; The petroleum sector; Norwegian resource management; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology; Environmental considerations; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  3. Systematic risk and liquidity : an empirical study comparing Norwegian equity certificates before and after the regulation in 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Hatlevik, Håkon; Einvik, Christian

    2014-01-01

    In 2009, the Norwegian savings banks industry was subject to a regulation change, which resulted in a modification of the instrument issued by these banks. Thus, in this empirical study we compare the systematic risk and liquidity of equity certificates issued by Norwegian savings banks before and after the regulation change. We go about estimating systematic risk and liquidity using regression analysis. In order to estimate systematic risk we use the empirical model of the CAPM often referre...

  4. A new lease on life : Why do Norwegian Consumers Participate in Collaborative Consumption? A case study of Airbnb and Bilkollektivet

    OpenAIRE

    Stene, Ann Kristin; Holte, Henriette Frølich

    2014-01-01

    Norwegians have started to show an increased interest in the new socio-economic groundswell – collaborative consumption. The new economic model is characterized by components such as peer-to-peer transactions, utilization of idle capacity and access over ownership. The objective of this master thesis has been to gain knowledge of why Norwegians choose to participate in collaborative consumption. We have conducted a case study of Airbnb and Bilkollektivet. The study has been ...

  5. Norwegian gas on the European market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noreng, Oeystein

    1999-01-01

    Article. Norsk Hydro's acquisition of Saga has made the organization of Norwegian gas sales a very topical issue. Traditionally, Norwegian gas has been sold on long-term take-or-pay contracts where the sales volume is secured and the price is linked to the prices of other energy carriers, primarily oil. Norway has sold large volumes of gas to the continent and has an increasing share of the market. However, the long-term contracts place most of the price risk on the seller. Although the sale is guaranteed, earnings are low. Statoil, the largest seller of Norwegian gas, has so far earned much more by transporting the gas to the continent than by producing and selling it. The long-term take-or-pay contracts are no longer safe. In Germany, the power market is quickly opening for competition, implying falling prices and lapsing long-term contracts. A similar development is likely to occur in the gas market. From Norwegian quarters there has been little interest in establishing oneself in the gas markets on the continent, which worries the author. However, the traditional contracts will have to be renegotiated so that the prices will reflect the real competition in the market. It is argued that a sensible Norwegian strategy will be to prepare for a new world for gas, not to hold tight to historical positions. It is suggested that old plans to establish a gas transport company, Gassledd, should be revived. Such a company would be subject to the European Gas Directive and would have to admit a third party. It is likely that the Norwegian opposition to liberalization of the European gas market will one day appear poorly thought out, and that defensive considerations have overshadowed new opportunities

  6. Norwegian Petroleum Activity 97. Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report is the official governmental review of the offshore operations on the Norwegian Continental Shelf in 1996. It covers the following topics: (1) Summary, (2) Historical overview, (3) State organization of petroleum activities, (4) The economic impact of Norwegian oil and gas, (5) State revenues, (6) Mainland activities, (7) Petroleum resources, (8) Production, (9) Marketing situation for petroleum products, (10) Environmental aspects, (11) The legal and license framework, (12) Licensing rounds, (13) Exploration, (14) Fields in production, (15) Fields under development, (16) Discoveries with development plan under consideration, (17) Transportation systems, (18) License interests, (19) Company interests, (20) White papers, (21) Useful postal addresses. 24 figs., 16 tabs.

  7. Norwegians would - UK wouldn't

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, David.

    1988-01-01

    The Norwegians are now the world leaders in wave power technology and are exporting oscillating water column power stations to Tonga, Western Samoa, Vanuatu and Bali. The United Kingdom research programme was curtailed, although a wave power unit is being constructed on Islay in the Inner Hebrides. Those who favour nuclear energy generation claim that renewable sources, such as wave power, are uneconomic, but the Norwegians claim that the cost of wave-generated electricity is between 3p and 8p depending on local conditions. The economic case for nuclear power over renewables that will be presented at the Hinkley Point C Inquiry is thus less convincing. (U.K.)

  8. Morphological and immunohistochemical characterisation of seminomas in Norwegian dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorvaldsen Tor

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Seminomas in the dog have traditionally been assumed to resemble human spermatocytic seminomas, based on their low malignancy and high occurrence in old individuals. However, recently published studies indicate that canine seminomas can be classified as classical and spermatocytic seminomas in a similar way as in man, and that classical seminomas comprise a substantial proportion of seminomas in the dog. These two factors both contribute to increasing the potential of canine seminoma as a relevant model for human testicular cancer. The aim of the present study was to characterise seminoma in Norwegian dogs using morphology and immunohistochemistry, and determine whether these tumours are comparable with human classical seminoma. Methods By applying diagnostic criteria from human pathology, 45 seminomas from the Norwegian Canine Cancer Register were examined histologically with hematoxylin and eosin (HE and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS stains. All sections were stained immunohistochemically with antibodies against human placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP and the transmembrane receptor c-KIT. Results Although two of the seminomas showed immunohistochemical staining characteristics indicative of classical seminoma (PLAP+/c-KIT+, all 45 examined seminomas were morphologically consistent with spermatocytic seminoma. Conclusions The value of canine seminoma as a model for SE in man remains unclear. Among the 45 investigated tumours from Norwegian dogs, none were classified as classical seminoma based on morphological criteria consistent with human seminomas. Regional or breed differences in the occurrence of classical seminoma in the dog, as well as the lack of uniform diagnostic criteria, might explain the discrepancy between the findings in the current study and the results presented by other authors.

  9. Recruitment to the Norwegian fishing fleet: storylines, paradoxes, and pragmatism in Norwegian fisheries and recruitment policy

    OpenAIRE

    Sønvisen, Signe Annie

    2013-01-01

    The majority of actors in the Norwegian fisheries consider recruitment of fishers to be the main future challenge for the Norwegian fishing fleet. As fleet recruitment is a highly politicized field, the problem of how to mitigate the recruitment problem is a subject of heavy debate. Some argue that recruitment problems are caused by low fleet profitability, while others argue that recruitment problems are caused by fleet restructuring polices. This article aims to explore th...

  10. Formation waters of the Norwegian Continental Shelf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCartney, R. A.; Rein, E.

    2006-03-15

    New and previously published analyses of formation waters for the Norwegian Continental Shelf (NCS) have been evaluated and interpreted to determine the compositional distribution of formation waters in the region and factors controlling their compositions, and also to obtain information on subsurface fluid flow. Formation waters in the region are Na-Cl and Na-Ca-Cl-type waters that display a wide range of salinity (2500-212000 mg/kg Cl). Generally, the concentrations of most dissolved constituents are positively correlated with Cl so that their distribution in formation waters largely reflects the variations shown by salinity. Exceptions are SO4 which is generally low (less than 40 mg/l) regardless of Cl, and HCO3 and in-situ pH which are negatively correlated with Cl. The main factors determining the compositions of the formation waters are mixing of meteoric water (probably late-Jurassic to Eocene), ancient seawater and primary brine together with diagenetic reactions that have affected each of these components individually as well as mixtures of them. Evaluation of the distribution of salinity has helped us identify where vertical and/or lateral migration of brine from the evaporites has occurred. This has in turn provided us with information on the presence of leak-points and vertical mixing, although further investigation of the location of evaporites and basin palaeohydrogeology are required to determine whether regional lateral advection has occurred in the past. The results of this study may benefit oil exploration and production activities in the NCS including constraint of hydrocarbon migration models, economic evaluation of undrilled prospects, scale management and compartmentalisation studies. (Author)

  11. Specification of merger gains in the Norwegian electricity distribution industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saastamoinen, Antti; Bjørndal, Endre; Bjørndal, Mette

    2017-01-01

    Electricity distribution often exhibits economies of scale. In Norway, a number of smaller distribution system operators exist and thus there is potential to restructure the industry, possibly through mergers. However, the revenue cap regulatory model in Norway does not incentivize firms to merge as merging leads to a stricter revenue cap for the merged company. Thus the regulator compensates the firms in order to create such incentives. The amount of compensation is based on the potential gains of the merger estimated using a data envelopment analysis (DEA) based frontier approach introduced by Bogetoft and Wang (2005). DEA is however only one of many possible frontier estimators that can be used in estimation. Furthermore, the returns to scale assumption, the operating environment of firms and the presence of stochastic noise and outlier observations are all known to affect to the estimation of production technology. In this paper we explore how varying assumptions under two alternative frontier estimators shape the distribution of merger gains within the Norwegian distribution industry. Our results reveal that the restructuring policies of the industry may be significantly altered depending how potential gains from the mergers are estimated. - Highlights: • The merger gains of Norwegian electricity distribution firm are investigated. • Different estimators and model specifications are applied. • Results show that the gains are significantly affected by the model choice. • Incentives to merge may be shaped through the estimation of gains.

  12. Patient safety culture in Norwegian nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondevik, Gunnar Tschudi; Hofoss, Dag; Husebø, Bettina Sandgathe; Deilkås, Ellen Catharina Tveter

    2017-06-20

    Patient safety culture concerns leader and staff interaction, attitudes, routines, awareness and practices that impinge on the risk of patient-adverse events. Due to their complex multiple diseases, nursing home patients are at particularly high risk of adverse events. Studies have found an association between patient safety culture and the risk of adverse events. This study aimed to investigate safety attitudes among healthcare providers in Norwegian nursing homes, using the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire - Ambulatory Version (SAQ-AV). We studied whether variations in safety attitudes were related to professional background, age, work experience and mother tongue. In February 2016, 463 healthcare providers working in five nursing homes in Tønsberg, Norway, were invited to answer the SAQ-AV, translated and adapted to the Norwegian nursing home setting. Previous validation of the Norwegian SAQ-AV for nursing homes identified five patient safety factors: teamwork climate, safety climate, job satisfaction, working conditions and stress recognition. SPSS v.22 was used for statistical analysis, which included estimations of mean values, standard deviations and multiple linear regressions. P-values safety factors teamwork climate, safety climate, job satisfaction and working conditions. Not being a Norwegian native speaker was associated with a significantly higher mean score for job satisfaction and a significantly lower mean score for stress recognition. Neither professional background nor work experience were significantly associated with mean scores for any patient safety factor. Patient safety factor scores in nursing homes were poorer than previously found in Norwegian general practices, but similar to findings in out-of-hours primary care clinics. Patient safety culture assessment may help nursing home leaders to initiate targeted quality improvement interventions. Further research should investigate associations between patient safety culture and the occurrence

  13. Environment 2004. The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gooderham, Rolf E. (ed.)

    2004-07-01

    The Ministry of Petroleum and Energy produces an annual environmental review in cooperation with the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate. The purpose of this publication is threefold: (1) to increase knowledge about the environmental aspects of Norwegian oil and gas activities, (2) to take a more detailed look at a specific topic which particularly concerns both the industry and the authorities, and identify the challenges and options faced, (3) to emphasise the government's goal of ensuring that Norway reconciles its role as a large energy producer with a pioneering position on environmental issues. This year's edition focuses on the topic of produced water treatment techniques. It demonstrates that new Norwegian technology helps to limit the risk of environmental harm. New treatment techniques have been developed and adopted, but it can be difficult to understand why a specific solution is not applicable to every field. Through the thematic section in part 2, we endeavour to explain why the choice of solution will vary from field to field, and how that reflects such considerations as technical reservoir conditions and costs. The strong focus on the environmental aspects of Norwegian oil and gas production has undoubtedly helped to make the Norwegian petroleum sector a leader in this area. That reflects both the way the authorities have incorporated environmental considerations extensively into the industry's frame conditions, and from the commitment made by the industry itself. Environment 2004 also incorporates a factual section, which covers the status of emissions discharges, environmental impacts, measures to reduce discharges to the sea and emissions to the air from petroleum activities.

  14. Ownership relations and cooperation in the Norwegian power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Balbir; Skjeret, Frode

    2006-01-01

    The Norwegian Competition Authority (KT) under a grant from The Ministry for Government Administration and Reform (FAD) commissioned a study in December 2005 to outline the extent and nature of cooperation among the power production companies in the Norwegian Power market. The main objective of the study was to establish an updated data set that documents the status with respect to distribution of ownership of generation capacity, and to identify the main forms of cooperation and information exchange among the power generation companies in Norway. Both secondary and primary sources have been used in the study. Data related to the distribution of generation capacity is mainly based on secondary sources and covers the total population consisting of 622 power plants and 183 companies in the Norwegian power market. In addition, requests for information were sent to a sample of power companies to collect primary information that could shed light on the status, trend, motivations, behavioral constraints, and exchange of information associated with different forms of cooperation between the power producers. The complete data set and results are modeled in a spread sheet based database (OPS) that accompanies this report. This report summarizes the main findings of the study. The primary data collected from the power companies during the sample survey is not included in this report. Only the main conclusions drawn on the basis of the analysis of the information provided by the respondents are presented in this report. It is important to emphasize that this publication reports data and information as collected from the primary and secondary sources in this project. The material presented in this publication reports a summary of the collected information and is not meant to draw any conclusions about the existence or otherwise of any form of collusion among the responding companies (author) (ml)

  15. Revisiting Instructional and Transformational Leadership: The Contemporary Norwegian Context of School Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aas, Marit; Brandmo, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine whether the taxonomy of two conceptual models of leadership roles for principals--instructional and transformational leadership (IL and TL)--can be traced empirically in a sample of Norwegian school leaders. Design/methodology/approach: The participants consisted of 149 school leaders attending a…

  16. Export of Norwegian hydropower under a common European regime of environmental taxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amundsen, E.S.; Bjoerndalen, J. Rasmussen, H.

    1994-01-01

    This paper sets out to investigate the strategic position of Norwegian hydropower and, in particular, to study optimal decisions with respect to the installation of new export transmission lines. For this purpose an integrated long-run equilibrium model for the northern European electricity market determining production, consumption and trade is constructed. (author)

  17. Challenges in Archetypes Terminology Binding Using SNOMED-CT Compositional Grammar: The Norwegian Patient Summary Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco-Ruiz, Luis; Pedersen, Rune

    2017-01-01

    In order to cover the requirements for interoperability in the Norwegian context, we studied the terminology binding of archetypes to terminology expressions created with the SNOMED-CT compositional grammar. As a result we identified important challenges categorized as technical, expressivity, human, and models mismatch.

  18. Ecosystem structure and resilience—A comparison between the Norwegian and the Barents Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaragina, Natalia A.; Dolgov, Andrey V.

    2009-10-01

    Abundance and biomass of the most important fish species inhabited the Barents and Norwegian Sea ecosystems have shown considerable fluctuations over the last decades. These fluctuations connected with fishing pressure resulted in the trophic structure alterations of the ecosystems. Resilience and other theoretical concepts (top-down, wasp-waste and bottom-up control, trophic cascades) were viewed to examine different response of the Norwegian and Barents Sea ecosystems on disturbing forces. Differences in the trophic structure and functioning of Barents and Norwegian Sea ecosystems as well as factors that might influence the resilience of the marine ecosystems, including climatic fluctuation, variations in prey and predator species abundance, alterations in their regular migrations, and fishing exploitation were also considered. The trophic chain lengths in the deep Norwegian Sea are shorter, and energy transfer occurs mainly through the pelagic fish/invertebrates communities. The shallow Barents Sea is characterized by longer trophic chains, providing more energy flow into their benthic assemblages. The trophic mechanisms observed in the Norwegian Sea food webs dominated by the top-down control, i.e. the past removal of Norwegian Spring spawning followed by zooplankton development and intrusion of blue whiting and mackerel into the area. The wasp-waist response is shown to be the most pronounced effect in the Barents Sea, related to the position of capelin in the ecosystem; large fluctuations in the capelin abundance have been strengthened by intensive fishery. Closer links between ecological and fisheries sciences are needed to elaborate and test various food webs and multispecies models available.

  19. Harvested wood products in the context of climate change : A comparison of different models and approaches for the Norwegian greenhouse gas inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bache-Andreassen, Lihn

    2009-07-01

    Emissions of greenhouse gases is accounted for and reported annually under the UNFCCC and the Kyoto protocol. In the current accounting system, emissions of CO2 from harvested wood products (HWP) are attributed to the year of harvest and the country of harvest. All harvested wood is thus assumed to be oxidised to CO{sub 2} in the year of harvesting, and no wood goes into long term storage. This is called the IPCC default approach. Much of the harvested wood will however be stored for a short or long period of time before it oxidises and this will cause a delayed emission of CO{sub 2}. If more wood is stored than oxidised in a given year, harvested wood products will act as a sink and a removal of CO{sub 2} is recorded. However, if the consumption of wood decreases to a level below what is oxidised, harvested wood products will act as a source and emissions of CO{sub 2} is recorded. In Norway, as on many other countries, the stock of harvested wood products has been increasing for many years, and is likely to increase further. Including emissions/removals of CO{sub 2} from harvested wood products in the post Kyoto 2012 regime is under consideration by the UNFCCC, and in that context it is imperative to evaluate estimation models and approaches for the reporting/accounting. (Author)

  20. Using Decision-Analytic Modeling to Isolate Interventions That Are Feasible, Efficient and Optimal: An Application from the Norwegian Cervical Cancer Screening Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Kine; Sørbye, Sveinung Wergeland; Burger, Emily Annika; Lönnberg, Stefan; Kristiansen, Ivar Sønbø

    2015-12-01

    Decision makers often need to simultaneously consider multiple criteria or outcomes when deciding whether to adopt new health interventions. Using decision analysis within the context of cervical cancer screening in Norway, we aimed to aid decision makers in identifying a subset of relevant strategies that are simultaneously efficient, feasible, and optimal. We developed an age-stratified probabilistic decision tree model following a cohort of women attending primary screening through one screening round. We enumerated detected precancers (i.e., cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 2 or more severe (CIN2+)), colposcopies performed, and monetary costs associated with 10 alternative triage algorithms for women with abnormal cytology results. As efficiency metrics, we calculated incremental cost-effectiveness, and harm-benefit, ratios, defined as the additional costs, or the additional number of colposcopies, per additional CIN2+ detected. We estimated capacity requirements and uncertainty surrounding which strategy is optimal according to the decision rule, involving willingness to pay (monetary or resources consumed per added benefit). For ages 25 to 33 years, we eliminated four strategies that did not fall on either efficiency frontier, while one strategy was efficient with respect to both efficiency metrics. Compared with current practice in Norway, two strategies detected more precancers at lower monetary costs, but some required more colposcopies. Similar results were found for women aged 34 to 69 years. Improving the effectiveness and efficiency of cervical cancer screening may necessitate additional resources. Although efficient and feasible, both society and individuals must specify their willingness to accept the additional resources and perceived harms required to increase effectiveness before a strategy can be considered optimal. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Disintegration of a marine-based ice stream - evidence from the Norwegian Channel, north-eastern North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morén, Björn M.; Petter Sejrup, Hans; Hjelstuen, Berit O.; Haflidason, Haflidi; Schäuble, Cathrina; Borge, Marianne

    2014-05-01

    The Norwegian Channel Ice Stream repeatedly drained large part of the Fennoscandian Ice Sheet through Mid and Late Pleistocene glacial stages. During parts of Marine Isotope Stages 2 and 3, glacial ice from Fennoscandia and the British Isles coalesced in the central North Sea and the Norwegian Channel Ice Stream reached the shelf edge on multiple occasions. Through the last decades a large amount of acoustic and sediment core data have been collected from the Norwegian Channel, providing a good background for studies focussing on stability- and development-controlling parameters for marine-based ice streams, the retreat rate of the Norwegian Channel Ice Stream, and the behaviour of the Fennoscandian Ice Sheet. Further, this improved understanding can be used to develop more accurate numerical climate models and models which can be used to model ice-sheet behaviour of the past as well as the future. This study presents new acoustic records and data from sediment cores which contribute to a better understanding of the retreat pattern and the retreat rate of the last ice stream that occupied the Norwegian Channel. From bathymetric and TOPAS seismic data, mega-scale glacial lineations, grounding-zone wedges, and end moraines have been mapped, thereby allowing us to reconstruct the pro- and subglacial conditions at the time of the creation of these landforms. It is concluded that the whole Norwegian Channel was deglaciated in just over 1 000 years and that for most of this time the ice margin was located at positions reflected by depositional grounding-zone wedges. Further work will explore the influence of channel shape and feeding of ice from western Norwegian fjords on this retreat pattern through numerical modelling.

  2. [How do Norwegian dermatologists keep themselves professionally updated?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjersvik, P J; Nylenna, M; Aasland, O G

    2001-12-10

    We have explored continuing medical education among Norwegian dermatologists, especially their use of medical journals and the Internet. In April 2001, a questionnaire was sent to 170 dermatologists, including junior doctors in specialist training. 129 questionnaires (76%) were returned, of which 16 were excluded from the analysis. Mean time used per week reading articles in medical journals was 149 minutes (95% confidence interval (CI) 129-168 minutes). 90% of the respondents had Internet access at work and/or at home. Hospital consultants used the Internet for medical purposes for significantly more time per week than doctors in private practice (146 minutes (CI 98-195 minutes) versus 72 minutes (CI 52-93 minutes)). More hospital doctors had difficulties in getting or taking time off to attend courses and congresses (p private practice. Most dermatologists found the paper version of journals (88%) and courses and congresses (79%) to be important for their continuing medical education, while fewer found medical databases on the Internet (57%) and the Internet version of journals (35%) to be so. In a logistic regression model, fewer private practitioners than hospital doctors (p = 0.011) and more female than male doctors (p = 0.014) had a feeling of insufficiency in regard to the increasing amount of medical information. The Internet has become part of the professional life of most Norwegian dermatologists, but has so far not replaced traditional forms of continuing medical education.

  3. Radioactivity in the Norwegian Marine Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The national monitoring programme for radioactivity in the marine environment was established in 1999. The programme is coordinated by the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA) in cooperation with the Institute of Marine Research (IMR). The principal objective of the programme is to document levels, distributions and trends of radionuclides in the marine environment. Data regarding discharges of radionuclides from both Norwegian and other sources are collected, and assessments of the resulting radiation exposures of humans and biota will be carried out. Results from the analysis of environmental samples collected in 1999 are presented in a new NRPA report (NRPA, 2001:9 ''Radioactivity in the Marine Environment 1999''. Some results from the monitoring programme in 1999 are summarised below along with more recent data concerning concentrations of the radionuclide technetium-99. (author)

  4. Supertankers are threatening the Norwegian coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steensen, Anders J.; Haaland, Leif

    2003-01-01

    The article has three sections. The first discusses the environmental problems the tanker traffic poses to the Norwegian coastal waters and shores. Various precautionary measures and requirements are briefly presented. The size of the present marine transportation and the future Russian marine petroleum activity in the Barents area are briefly mentioned. The second named, conflicting exploration drilling, presents the conflicting interests regarding exploratory drilling in the Barents Sea in Norway. The environmental problems are large and have lead to an on-going reevaluation. Some pollution abatement measures are mentioned. The regional economic development is briefly outlined. The third deals with the Norwegian governmental safety activities and presents a brief survey of the official safety activities in the petroleum sector in Norway and the international cooperation particularly with the Russian Federation. The emphasis is on the maritime security, the safety of the maritime transportation systems, the environmental aspects such as pollution management and on the legal frameworks

  5. Relexification in a Northern Norwegian dialect?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilde Sollid

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores how the process of relexification can contribute to the understanding of the genesis of the new Norwegian dialect of Sappen in Nordreisa. The dialect has emerged in the context of language shift from Finnish to Norwegian, and the dialect syntax has features that might be regarded as products of relexification. One example is declarative main clauses with the finite verb in the third position (V3. The discussion adheres to a more general discussion of approaches to language genesis, where substratist and universalist (and also superstratist theories often are regarded as contrary to each other. I argue that different theories can contribute to the understanding of different aspects of the same question.

  6. Tanker spills Norwegian crude oil off Shetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports that crude oil was spilling last week from the U.S. owned Braer tanker after the 89,000 dwt vessel ran aground on the south end of Scotland's Shetland Islands. Workers were trying to assess the extent of damage to the tanker, shoreline, and wildlife after the January 5 accident. Braer's cargo amounted to 607,000 bbl of Norwegian oil bound for Canada. Braer loaded its cargo and sailed January 3 from Den norske stats oljeselskap AS's Mongstad, Norway, terminal with crude from Gullfaks field in the Norwegian North Sea. The $11 million shipment was destined for Ultramar Canada Inc.'s 125,000 b/d refinery at St. Romuald, Que

  7. Snacks With Nutrition Labels: Tastiness Perception, Healthiness Perception, and Willingness to Pay by Norwegian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Oostindjer, Marije; Amdam, Gro V; Egelandsdal, Bjørg

    2016-02-01

    Consumers tend to have the perception that healthy equals less tasty. This study aimed to identify whether information provided by the Keyhole symbol, a widely used front-of-package symbol in Nordic countries to indicate nutritional content, and percent daily values (%DVs) affect Norwegian adolescents' perception of the healthiness of snacks and their intention to buy them. Two tasks were used to evaluate adolescents' perception of snacks with the Keyhole symbol: with %DVs or with no nutrition label. A third task was used to test their abilities to use %DVs (pairwise selections). A survey obtained personal attributes. A total of 566 Norwegian adolescents. Taste perception, health perception, and ability to use %DVs. Linear mixed models and logistic models that tested effects of labels and personal attributes on main outcome measures. The Keyhole symbol increased health perception without influencing taste perception of snacks. Norwegian adolescents had limited abilities to use information from the %DVs correctly to identify healthier foods. Norwegian adolescents had a positive perception of the Keyhole symbols. Keyhole symbols as a simple, heuristic front-of-package label have potential as an information strategy that may influence self-efficacy in promoting healthy snack choices among adolescents. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Fact Sheet 1999. Norwegian Petroleum Activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breivik, Jan

    1999-10-01

    As discussed in this publication, petroleum resources in the order of 9.5 billion (bn) standard cubic metres (scm) oil equivalents (oe) have been discovered on the Norwegian continental shelf (NCS), 77 per cent in the North Sea, 19 per cent in the Norwegian Sea and four per cent in the Barents Sea. By the end of 1998, remaining reserves on the NCS totalled 1.6 bn scm of oil, 1.2 bn scm oe gas and 160 mill scm oe of natural gas liquids. Thirty-two exploration wells, including 21 wildcats and 11 for appraisal, were completed or temporarily abandoned on the NCS in 1998. 939 exploration wells had been completed or temporarily abandoned off Norway. In 1998 governmental approval was given for the Huldra, Snorre B phase II, Gullfaks satellites phase II and Yme Beta West. Norwegian offshore petroleum production in 1998 totalled 222.5 scm oe, including 168.9 mill scm oe of oil, 43.6 mill scm oe of gas and 10 mill scm oe of NGL/condensate. Oil production declined by 4 per cent compared with 1997, while gas sales rose by 2 per cent. The estimated value of Norwegian petroleum exports in 1998 was NOK 123 bn, or about 30 per cent of the country`s total earnings from foreign sales. Petroleum production and pipeline transport accounted for 12 per cent of Norway`s gross national product. Net government revenues from taxes and royalties on petroleum operations is put at 27.6 billion NOK. The publication also includes a list of white papers and a list of useful postal addresses. 23 figs., 14 tabs.

  9. Online consumer behavior among Norwegian business students

    OpenAIRE

    Møller-Hansen, Tor Ragnar

    2013-01-01

    Masteroppgave i økonomi og administrasjon - Universitetet i Agder 2013 E-commerce is an ever growing phenomenon which merits further research. This study conducts a literature review in the field of online consumer behavior, focusing on online consumer purchase intention and online consumer loyalty in the context of Norwegian business students. We also conduct a survey with 196 business students in Norway, and go on to identify three important variables impacting online consumer purchase i...

  10. Importance of ocean circulation in ecological modeling: An example from the North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skogen, Morten D.; Moll, Andreas

    2005-09-01

    There is an increasing number of ecological models for the North Sea around. Skogen and Moll (2000) [Skogen, M.D., Moll, A. 2000. Interannual variability of the North Sea primary production: comparison from two model studies. Continental Shelf Research 20 (2), 129-151] compared the interannual variability of the North Sea primary production using two state-of-the-art ecological models, NORWECOM and ECOHAM1. Their conclusion was that the two models agreed on an annual mean primary production, its variability and the timing and size of the peak production. On the other hand, there was a low (even negative dependent of area) correlation in the production in different years between the two models. In the present work, these conclusions are brought further. To try to better understand the observed differences between the two models, the two ecological models are run in an identical physical setting. With such a set-up also the interannual variability between the two models is in agreement, and it is concluded that the single most important factor for a reliable modeling of phytoplankton and nutrient distributions and transports within the North Sea is a proper physical model.

  11. Written Language Shift among Norwegian Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil ÖZERK

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In Norway there are two written Norwegian languages, Bokmål and Nynorsk. Of these two written languages Bokmål is being used by the majority of the people, and Bokmål has the highest prestige in the society. This article is about the shift of written language from Nynorsk to Bokmål among young people in a traditional Nynorsk district in the country. Drawing on empirical data we conclude that many adolescents are experiencing written language shift. We discuss various reasons for this phenomenon in the linguistic landscape of Norway. In our discussions we emphasize the importance of the school with regard to language maintenance and language revitalization. We call for a new language policy in the educational system that can prevent language shift. Having several dialects and two officially written forms of Norwegian in the country, creates a special linguistic landscape in Norway. Despite the fact that the Norwegian language situation is in several ways unique, it’s done very little research on how the existing policy works in practice. Our research reveals that the existing language policy and practice in the school system is not powerful enough to prevent language shift and language decay among the youngsters. The school system functions like a fabric for language shift.

  12. Breivik--the Norwegian terrorist case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syse, Aslak

    2014-01-01

    On July 22, 2011, there were two murderous attacks in Norway. Both assaults - the bombing of governmental buildings in Oslo City center and the lethal shooting down of young members of the Labour Party on an island - were planned and accomplished by a lone perpetrator. These episodes give rise to several interesting questions. What happened really, and how could it happen? Was the perpetrator sane or insane? What was the ideological background for the attacks? It is unnecessary to discuss in any detail whether or not these acts should be categorized as terrorism. However, there is good reason to consider what these terror attacks imply for Norwegian society at large. What significance did the attacks have for Norwegian democracy, and did they have any impact on the 2013 parliamentary elections? What will be the future for the offender, both in the short term and in years to come? What will happen to the Norwegian insanity defense? These questions are addressed in this article. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. The Technical Student Programme draws Norwegians

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Erik Hejne, second from left, Chairman of the Technical Students Committee, and Jens Vigen, who is concerned spefically with Norwegian students at CERN, with some of the Norwegian technical students who arrived at CERN in spring 2005, together with their teachers. From mid-April, CERN's PH and IT Departments are hosting ten Norwegian students from Bergen University College, the Sør-Trøndelag University College and the University of Science and Technology in Trondheim to take part in the Laboratory's Technical Student Programme. The Technical Student Programme is open to students of universities and technical higher education establishments in the Member States who, in the course of their studies, are required to complete a period of professional training in industry or in a laboratory. Around 70 Technical Students come to work at CERN each year. Selected by a committee, they spend between six months and one year with the Organization. The programme is funded by CERN. However, once the Laboratory's quota of...

  14. Beverage Consumption Patterns among Norwegian Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Mari Mohn; Myhre, Jannicke Borch; Andersen, Lene Frost

    2016-01-01

    Beverages may be important contributors for energy intake and dietary quality. The purpose of the study was to investigate how beverage consumption varies between different meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner, supper/evening meal, snacks) and between weekdays and weekend-days in Norwegian adults. A cross-sectional dietary survey was conducted among Norwegian adults (n = 1787) in 2010–2011. Two telephone-administered 24 h recalls were used for dietary data collection. Breakfast was the most important meal for milk and juice consumption, dinner for sugar-sweetened beverages and wine, and snacks for water, coffee, artificially sweetened beverages, and beer. Consumption of sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened beverages did not differ between weekdays and weekend-days among consumers. The average intake of wine and beer (men only) was higher on weekend-days. Higher age was positively associated with wine consumption and negatively associated with consumption of water, sugar-sweetened, and artificially sweetened beverages. Higher education was associated with consumption of water, beer, and wine, whereas lower education was associated with sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. Beverage consumption patterns among Norwegian adults vary between different meal types and in subgroups of the population. Alcohol consumption was higher on weekend-days. Knowledge regarding beverage consumption patterns in the population should be considered when revising dietary guidelines in the future. PMID:27649236

  15. Cultural and musical activity among Norwegian doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nylenna, Magne; Aasland, Olaf Gjerløw

    2013-06-25

    The cultural and musical activity of Norwegian doctors was studied in 1993. We wished to re-examine their cultural and musical activity, analyse the development and study the correlation with satisfaction, health and other leisure activities. In the autumn of 2010, a survey was undertaken among a representative sample of economically active Norwegian doctors. The survey asked the same questions as in 1993, and the responses were also compared to the population studies conducted by Statistics Norway. We also used a cultural index that we have developed ourselves. Altogether 1,019 doctors (70%) responded to the survey. They reported a higher level of cultural activity in 2010 than in 1993, measured in terms of reading of non-medical literature and visits to the cinema, theatre and concerts. The doctors engaged in musical activity of their own especially frequently: 58% reported to be able to play an instrument, and 21% reported to play on a regular basis, which is more than among other academic professions. We found a significant correlation between the doctors' level of cultural activity and their job satisfaction, general satisfaction, self-reported health and physical activity. The doctors who engage most frequently in cultural activities are thus most satisfied with their work and with life in general. Furthermore, they also have better self-reported health. Norwegian doctors give priority to cultural and musical activities. The assertion that doctors are particularly fond of music is more than just a myth.

  16. Beverage Consumption Patterns among Norwegian Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Mari Mohn; Myhre, Jannicke Borch; Andersen, Lene Frost

    2016-09-13

    Beverages may be important contributors for energy intake and dietary quality. The purpose of the study was to investigate how beverage consumption varies between different meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner, supper/evening meal, snacks) and between weekdays and weekend-days in Norwegian adults. A cross-sectional dietary survey was conducted among Norwegian adults (n = 1787) in 2010-2011. Two telephone-administered 24 h recalls were used for dietary data collection. Breakfast was the most important meal for milk and juice consumption, dinner for sugar-sweetened beverages and wine, and snacks for water, coffee, artificially sweetened beverages, and beer. Consumption of sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened beverages did not differ between weekdays and weekend-days among consumers. The average intake of wine and beer (men only) was higher on weekend-days. Higher age was positively associated with wine consumption and negatively associated with consumption of water, sugar-sweetened, and artificially sweetened beverages. Higher education was associated with consumption of water, beer, and wine, whereas lower education was associated with sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. Beverage consumption patterns among Norwegian adults vary between different meal types and in subgroups of the population. Alcohol consumption was higher on weekend-days. Knowledge regarding beverage consumption patterns in the population should be considered when revising dietary guidelines in the future.

  17. Calculation of dietary exposure to acrylamide in the Norwegian population

    OpenAIRE

    Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety

    2015-01-01

    The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety (VKM) is requested by the Norwegian Food Safety Authority (NFSA) to calculate the dietary exposure to acrylamide in the Norwegian population. NFSA refers to the recent scientific opinion on acrylamide in food by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). EFSA concludes that acrylamide in food potentially increases the risk of developing cancer for consumers in all age groups.

  18. Ichthyophonus hoferi disease in the herring in Norwegian waters

    OpenAIRE

    Hjeltnes, Brit K.; Skagen, Dankert W.

    1992-01-01

    After the discovery of I. hoferi disease in Norwegian spring spawning herring in summer 1991, a program for systematic surveillance of the disease in the herring in Norwegian waters was developed. The programme, which aims primarily at monitoring the prevalence of the disease, is described. Macroscopic lesions in the heart emerged as the standard diagnostic criterium. The results so far indicate that the situation for Norwegian spring spawning herring is not alarming, ...

  19. Binge Drinking, Cannabis and Tobacco Use Among Ethnic Norwegian and Ethnic Minority Adolescents in Oslo, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abebe, Dawit S; Hafstad, Gertrud S; Brunborg, Geir Scott; Kumar, Bernadette Nirmal; Lien, Lars

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the study was to assess prevalence and factors associated with binge drinking, cannabis use and tobacco use among ethnic Norwegians and ethnic minority adolescents in Oslo. We used data from a school-based cross-sectional survey of adolescents in junior- and senior high schools in Oslo, Norway. The participants were 10,934 adolescents aged 14-17 years, and just over half were females. The sample was comprised of 73.2 % ethnic Norwegian adolescents, 9.8 % 1st generation immigrants, and 17 % 2nd generation adolescents from Europe, the US, the Middle East, Asia and Africa. Logistic regression models were applied for the data analyses. Age, gender, religion, parental education, parent-adolescent relationships, depressive symptoms and loneliness were covariates in the regression models. Ethnic Norwegian adolescents reported the highest prevalence of binge drinking (16.1 %), whereas the lowest prevalence was found among 2nd generation adolescents from Asia (2.9 %). Likewise, the past-year prevalence for cannabis use ranged from 10.6 % among 2nd generation Europeans and those from the US to 3.7 % among 2nd generation Asians. For daily tobacco use, the prevalence ranged from 12.9 % among 2nd generation Europeans and the US to 5.1 % among 2nd generation Asians. Ethnicity, age, gender, religion, parental education, and parent-adolescent relationships and mental health status were significantly associated with binge drinking, cannabis and tobacco use. These factors partly explained the observed differences between ethnic Norwegians and ethnic minority adolescents in the current study. There are significant differences in substance use behaviors between ethnic Norwegian and immigrant youth. Factors like age, gender, religion, parental education and relationships and mental health status might influence the relationship between ethnicity and substance abuse. The findings have implications for planning selective- as well as universal prevention interventions.

  20. Fact 2004. The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gooderham, Rolf E [ed.

    2004-07-01

    The oil and gas sector is Norway's largest industry by value creation and has been a key driving force in Norwegian economic development for several decades. Developments in the petroleum industry are crucial for the future progress of Norwegian society and will remain so. While the petroleum sector has so far been characterised by growth, we can now see the beginning of a gradual reduction in the level of activity. This will have significant spin-offs for other industries and consequences for the Norwegian economy as a whole. Thus, it is important to ensure that profitable petroleum activities are pursued in order to moderate the pace of decline. This publication provides a broad picture of Norway's petroleum activities, and covers most aspects of the industry. It presents useful information and statistics on the sector both for those already familiar with this business and for readers who know less about it. Since petroleum production began on the Norwegian continental shelf (NCS) in 1971, a total of 3.8 bn standard cubic metres of oil equivalent (scm oe) has been produced. This corresponds to just under 30 per cent of the original recoverable reserves, and so substantial oil and gas resources remain. The government's Report no 38 (2001-2002) to the Storting (the Norwegian Parliament) described a long-term scenario for the NCS in which estimates for recoverable reserves from the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate are recovered. It is very important to ensure that the long-term scenario is achieved based on due consideration of environmental and safety issues. Norway's role as a major energy producer must be reconciled with the ambition to be a pioneer in the environmental area. This goal has always characterized government policy towards the petroleum industry. The strong focus on the environment has created a positive trend in safeguarding environmental concerns on the NCS. Production of oil and natural gas liquids averaged 3.3 mill barrels a day in 2003, while gas

  1. Fact 2004. The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gooderham, Rolf E. (ed.)

    2004-07-01

    The oil and gas sector is Norway's largest industry by value creation and has been a key driving force in Norwegian economic development for several decades. Developments in the petroleum industry are crucial for the future progress of Norwegian society and will remain so. While the petroleum sector has so far been characterised by growth, we can now see the beginning of a gradual reduction in the level of activity. This will have significant spin-offs for other industries and consequences for the Norwegian economy as a whole. Thus, it is important to ensure that profitable petroleum activities are pursued in order to moderate the pace of decline. This publication provides a broad picture of Norway's petroleum activities, and covers most aspects of the industry. It presents useful information and statistics on the sector both for those already familiar with this business and for readers who know less about it. Since petroleum production began on the Norwegian continental shelf (NCS) in 1971, a total of 3.8 bn standard cubic metres of oil equivalent (scm oe) has been produced. This corresponds to just under 30 per cent of the original recoverable reserves, and so substantial oil and gas resources remain. The government's Report no 38 (2001-2002) to the Storting (the Norwegian Parliament) described a long-term scenario for the NCS in which estimates for recoverable reserves from the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate are recovered. It is very important to ensure that the long-term scenario is achieved based on due consideration of environmental and safety issues. Norway's role as a major energy producer must be reconciled with the ambition to be a pioneer in the environmental area. This goal has always characterized government policy towards the petroleum industry. The strong focus on the environment has created a positive trend in safeguarding environmental concerns on the NCS. Production of oil and natural gas liquids averaged 3.3 mill barrels a

  2. Cost-effectiveness of the Norwegian breast cancer screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Luijt, P A; Heijnsdijk, E A M; de Koning, H J

    2017-02-15

    The Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Programme (NBCSP) has a nation-wide coverage since 2005. All women aged 50-69 years are invited biennially for mammography screening. We evaluated breast cancer mortality reduction and performed a cost-effectiveness analysis, using our microsimulation model, calibrated to most recent data. The microsimulation model allows for the comparison of mortality and costs between a (hypothetical) situation without screening and a situation with screening. Breast cancer incidence in Norway had a steep increase in the early 1990s. We calibrated the model to simulate this increase and included recent costs for screening, diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer and travel and productivity loss. We estimate a 16% breast cancer mortality reduction for a cohort of women, invited to screening, followed over their complete lifetime. Cost-effectiveness is estimated at NOK 112,162 per QALY gained, when taking only direct medical costs into account (the cost of the buses, examinations, and invitations). We used a 3.5% annual discount rate. Cost-effectiveness estimates are substantially below the threshold of NOK 1,926,366 as recommended by the WHO guidelines. For the Norwegian population, which has been gradually exposed to screening, breast cancer mortality reduction for women exposed to screening is increasing and is estimated to rise to ∼30% in 2020 for women aged 55-80 years. The NBCSP is a highly cost-effective measure to reduce breast cancer specific mortality. We estimate a breast cancer specific mortality reduction of 16-30%, at the cost of 112,162 NOK per QALY gained. © 2016 UICC.

  3. The UK and British Gas: Any future for Norwegian gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jungles, P.

    1996-01-01

    The paper deals with the UK natural gas market and the future for Norwegian gas in the UK. The role of the British Gas in the domestic and European markets is discussed. Topics are: The UK gas supply market; the UK upstream gas market and the Interconnector; the European market, competition and deregulation; the prospects for Norwegian gas

  4. European energy security: The future of Norwegian natural gas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soederbergh, Bengt; Jakobsson, Kristofer; Aleklett, Kjell

    2009-01-01

    The European Union (EU) is expected to meet its future growing demand for natural gas by increased imports. In 2006, Norway had a 21% share of EU gas imports. The Norwegian government has communicated that Norwegian gas production will increase by 25-40% from today's level of about 99 billion cubic meters (bcm)/year. This article shows that only a 20-25% growth of Norwegian gas production is possible due to production from currently existing recoverable reserves and contingent resources. A high and a low production forecast for Norwegian gas production is presented. Norwegian gas production exported by pipeline peaks between 2015 and 2016, with minimum peak production in 2015 at 118 bcm/year and maximum peak production at 127 bcm/year in 2016. By 2030 the pipeline export levels are 94-78 bcm. Total Norwegian gas production peaks between 2015 and 2020, with peak production at 124-135 bcm/year. By 2030 the production is 96-115 bcm/year. The results show that there is a limited potential for increased gas exports from Norway to the EU and that Norwegian gas production is declining by 2030 in all scenarios. Annual Norwegian pipeline gas exports to the EU, by 2030, may even be 20 bcm lower than today's level.

  5. Monitoring of harmful algal blooms along the Norwegian coast using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Norwegian monitoring system for harmful algal blooms, consisting of an Observer Network, the State Food Hygiene Control Agency, the Oceanographic Company of Norway, the Institute of Marine Research and the Directorate for Fisheries, is reviewed. Potentially harmful algae on the Norwegian coast are found primarily ...

  6. Work Plans 2011 – Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety

    2011-01-01

    The annual work plan for 2011 summaries activities for the Scientific Steering Committee and the 9 panels of the Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety (VKM). VKM carries out independent risk assessments for the Norwegian Food Safety Authority across the Authority’s field of responsibility as well as environmental risk assessments of genetically modified organisms for the Directorate for Nature Management.

  7. Topicality and Complexity in the Acquisition of Norwegian Object Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderssen, Merete; Bentzen, Kristine; Rodina, Yulia

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates the acquisition of object shift in Norwegian child language. We show that object shift is complex derivationally, distributionally, and referentially, and propose a new analysis in terms of IP-internal topicalization. The results of an elicited production study with 27 monolingual Norwegian-speaking children (ages…

  8. Environment 2002. The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The Ministry of Petroleum and Energy produces an annual environmental review in cooperation with the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate. The purpose of this publication is threefold: (1) to increase knowledge about the environmental aspects of Norwegian oil and gas activities, (2) to take a more detailed look at a specific topic which particularly concerns both the industry and the authorities, and identify the challenges and options faced, (3) to emphasise the governments goal of ensuring that Norway reconciles its role as a large energy producer with a pioneering position on environmental issues. This year's edition focuses on the topic of ''oil and fish - common sea''. Both the petroleum and fishing industries depend on the waters off Norway. Ever since petroleum activities began on the Norwegian continental shelf more than 30 years ago, the authorities have been keen to ensure that these two sectors can work in the same sea areas. What challenges and opportunities face the petroleum industry over discharges to the sea and living marine resources? How can the authorities ensure that this sector is able to coexist with the fisheries? These and similar questions about the relationship between the petroleum and fishing industries in their shared seas are covered in section two of this publication. Environment 2002 also incorporates a factual section, which covers the status of emissions/discharges, environmental impacts and measures to reduce discharges to the sea and emissions to the air from petroleum activities. The MPE hopes that a publication of this kind can enhance basic knowledge about petroleum activities and environmental issues.

  9. Environment 2002. The Norwegian petroleum sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The Ministry of Petroleum and Energy produces an annual environmental review in cooperation with the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate. The purpose of this publication is threefold: (1) to increase knowledge about the environmental aspects of Norwegian oil and gas activities, (2) to take a more detailed look at a specific topic which particularly concerns both the industry and the authorities, and identify the challenges and options faced, (3) to emphasise the governments goal of ensuring that Norway reconciles its role as a large energy producer with a pioneering position on environmental issues. This year's edition focuses on the topic of ''oil and fish - common sea''. Both the petroleum and fishing industries depend on the waters off Norway. Ever since petroleum activities began on the Norwegian continental shelf more than 30 years ago, the authorities have been keen to ensure that these two sectors can work in the same sea areas. What challenges and opportunities face the petroleum industry over discharges to the sea and living marine resources? How can the authorities ensure that this sector is able to coexist with the fisheries? These and similar questions about the relationship between the petroleum and fishing industries in their shared seas are covered in section two of this publication. Environment 2002 also incorporates a factual section, which covers the status of emissions/discharges, environmental impacts and measures to reduce discharges to the sea and emissions to the air from petroleum activities. The MPE hopes that a publication of this kind can enhance basic knowledge about petroleum activities and environmental issues

  10. Who are they? Identities in the Norwegian radiographer profession as presented in the Norwegian printed press

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stalsberg, R.; Thingnes, E.R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To explore how Norwegian radiographers are portrayed in written press. Method: Textual discourse analysis, following a multiple step strategy, combining both a quantitative and a qualitative approach. 189 newspaper articles were included. The articles were registered and subject fields were inductively categorized. Each subject field was analysed regarding the field's role as an agent of influence on public perception of radiographers. Results: On average, less than one article a year concerning radiography profession is published in Norwegian newspapers. A majority are published in newspapers with small circulation figures, often reporting on resources in the local health services where radiographers are involved. Mostly radiographers are placed in the articles' background playing supporting roles, frequently mentioned in the cutline as an operator of a new medical technology. There is a heavy emphasis on the technology, leaving the specialized expertise and radiography knowledge out. This focus persist in the instances where radiographers play a main role in the texts. When patient stories are told, positive value-laden words are used to describe the radiographer and both the technical and the patient-care aspects of being a radiographer are noticeable. Conclusion: Norwegian radiographers typically appear, in glimpses, as anonymous allied health technicians in local reports on new diagnostic equipment or resource utilization. The professional qualities and decisive skills required to handle sophisticated diagnostic equipment and continuity of patient care are underestimated. A more-nuanced media coverage might give radiographers a strengthened identity as important health-care service contributors. - Highlights: • The radiography profession is an inconspicuous topic in Norwegian written press. • Written press involving radiographers highlight new equipment and medical technology. • Radiographers' professional qualities and decisive

  11. Facts 2002. The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The petroleum sector is highly significant for the Norwegian economy. Its share of gross domestic product, exports and total government revenues has been substantial over the past two decades, reaching a particularly high level in 2000 and 2001. The principal reason why revenues were so high in these two years is a combination of high oil prices, a strong USD against the NOK and historically high petroleum production. The share of petroleum investment in total capital spending in the Norwegian economy was at its highest in the early 1990s. Total investment in the petroleum sector has been above NOK 40 bn every year since 1992, and peaked in 1998 at roughly NOK 80 bn. Capital spending declined to around NOK 56.9 bn in 2001. The government's most important revenue sources in recent years have been cash flow from the state's direct financial interest (SDFI) and from taxes. Production of crude oil has averaged around three mill barrels per day since 1996. The figure for 2001 was 3.1 mill barrels. Including natural gas liquids (NGL) and condensate raises the 2001 average to 3.4 mill barrels oe per day. At 53 mill scm oe, gas production was also high in 2001. Oil production is expected to remain more or less unchanged over the next few years, and then to go into a gradual decline. Gas output, on the other hand, should expand substantially over the coming decade and is expected to be increasingly significant in Norwegian petroleum output in future. The petroleum sector is also a substantial player internationally. Norway ranks as the world's sixth largest producer and third largest net exporter of oil. It is also the world's third largest exporter of pipeline gas, and Norwegian foreign sales of this commodity accounted for about two per cent of global consumption in 2001. Roughly 10 per cent of west European gas consumption is covered from Norway. Several changes were made to state participation in the petroleum sector during 2001. The government sold 15 per cent of the

  12. Characterization of Norwegian women eating wholegrain bread

    OpenAIRE

    Bakken, Toril; Braaten, Tonje; Olsen, Anja; Lund, Eiliv; Skeie, Guri

    2015-01-01

    Source: doi: 10.1017/S1368980015000245 To investigate dietary and non-dietary characteristics of wholegrain bread eaters in the Norwegian Women and Cancer study.Cross-sectional study using an FFQ.Women were divided into two groups according to wholegrain bread consumption.Adult women (n 69 471).Median daily consumption of standardized slices of wholegrain bread was 2·5 in the low intake group and 4·5 in the high intake group. The OR for high wholegrain bread consumption was 0·28, 2·19 and ...

  13. Facts 2002. The Norwegian petroleum sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The petroleum sector is highly significant for the Norwegian economy. Its share of gross (domestic product, exports and total government revenues has been substantial over the past two decades, reaching a particularly high level in 2000 and 2001. The principal reason why revenues were so high in these two years is a combination of high oil prices, a strong USD against the NOK and historically high petroleum production. The share of petroleum investment in total capital spending in the Norwegian economy was at its highest in the early 1990s. Total investment in the petroleum sector has been above NOK 40 bn every year since 1992, and peaked in 1998 at roughly NOK 80 bn. Capital spending declined to around NOK 56.9 bn in 2001. The government's most important revenue sources in recent years have been cash flow from the state's direct financial interest (SDFI) and from taxes. Production of crude oil has averaged around three mill barrels per day since 1996. The figure for 2001 was 3.1 mill barrels. Including natural gas liquids (NGL) and condensate raises the 2001 average to 3.4 mill barrels oe per day. At 53 mill scm oe, gas production was also high in 2001. Oil production is expected to remain more or less unchanged over the next few years, and then to go into a gradual decline. Gas output, on the other hand, should expand substantially over the coming decade and is expected to be increasingly significant in Norwegian petroleum output in future. The petroleum sector is also a substantial player internationally. Norway ranks as the world's sixth largest producer and third largest net exporter of oil. It is also the world's third largest exporter of pipeline gas, and Norwegian foreign sales of this commodity accounted for about two per cent of global consumption in 2001. Roughly 10 per cent of west European gas consumption is covered from Norway. Several changes were made to state participation in the petroleum sector during 2001. The government sold 15 per cent of the

  14. NOM removal technologies – Norwegian experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ødegaard

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives an overview of the methods for removal of natural organic matter (NOM in water, particularly humic substances (HS, with focus on the Norwegian experiences. It is demonstrated that humic substances may be removed by a variety of methods, such as; molecular sieving through nanofiltration membranes, coagulation with subsequent floc separation (including granular media or membrane filtration, oxidation followed by biofiltration and sorption processes including chemisorption (ion exchange and physical adsorption (activated carbon. All these processes are in use in Norway and the paper gives an overview of the operational experiences.

  15. Facts 2002. The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The petroleum sector is highly significant for the Norwegian economy. Its share of gross domestic product, exports and total government revenues has been substantial over the past two decades, reaching a particularly high level in 2000 and 2001. The principal reason why revenues were so high in these two years is a combination of high oil prices, a strong USD against the NOK and historically high petroleum production. The share of petroleum investment in total capital spending in the Norwegian economy was at its highest in the early 1990s. Total investment in the petroleum sector has been above NOK 40 bn every year since 1992, and peaked in 1998 at roughly NOK 80 bn. Capital spending declined to around NOK 56.9 bn in 2001. The government's most important revenue sources in recent years have been cash flow from the state's direct financial interest (SDFI) and from taxes. Production of crude oil has averaged around three mill barrels per day since 1996. The figure for 2001 was 3.1 mill barrels. Including natural gas liquids (NGL) and condensate raises the 2001 average to 3.4 mill barrels oe per day. At 53 mill scm oe, gas production was also high in 2001. Oil production is expected to remain more or less unchanged over the next few years, and then to go into a gradual decline. Gas output, on the other hand, should expand substantially over the coming decade and is expected to be increasingly significant in Norwegian petroleum output in future. The petroleum sector is also a substantial player internationally. Norway ranks as the world's sixth largest producer and third largest net exporter of oil. It is also the world's third largest exporter of pipeline gas, and Norwegian foreign sales of this commodity accounted for about two per cent of global consumption in 2001. Roughly 10 per cent of west European gas consumption is covered from Norway. Several changes were made to state participation in the petroleum sector during 2001. The government sold

  16. Komparativ analyse - Scandinavian Airlines & Norwegian Air Shuttle

    OpenAIRE

    Kallesen, Martin Nystrup; Singh, Ravi Pal; Boesen, Nana Wiaberg

    2017-01-01

    The project is based around a pondering of how that a company the size of Scandinavian Airlines or Norwegian Air Shuttle use their Finances and how they see their external environment. This has led to us researching the relationship between the companies and their finances as well as their external environment, and how they differ in both.To do this we have utilised a myriad of different methods to analyse the companies, including PESTEL, SWOT, TOWS; DCF, risk analysis, Sensitivity, Porter’s ...

  17. The Norwegian Climate and Ozone Research Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlin, E. [ed.

    1996-03-01

    This report includes abstracts from a workshop arranged by the Norwegian Climate and Ozone Research Programme 11-12 March 1996. The abstracts are organized according to the sessions: (1) Regional effects of climate change with emphasis on ecology, (2) Climate research related to the North Atlantic, (3) What lessons can be drawn from paleoclimatology about changes in the current climate?, (4) Changes in the ozone layer and their effect on UV and biology. Abstracts of a selection of papers presented at the workshop can be found elsewhere in the present data base. 70 refs., 19 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Market penetration analysis of hydrogen vehicles in Norwegian passenger transport towards 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, Eva; Fidje, Audun; Espegren, Kari Aamodt; Stiller, Christoph; Svensson, Ann Mari; Moeller-Holst, Steffen

    2010-01-01

    The Norwegian energy system is characterized by high dependency on electricity, mainly hydro power. If the national targets to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases should be met, a substantial reduction of CO 2 emissions has to be obtained from the transport sector. This paper presents the results of the analyses of three Norwegian regions with the energy system model MARKAL during the period 2005-2050. The MARKAL models were used in connection with an infrastructure model H2INVEST. The analyses show that a transition to a hydrogen fuelled transportation sector could be feasible in the long run, and indicate that with substantial hydrogen distribution efforts, fuel cell cars can become competitive compared to other technologies both in urban (2025) and rural areas (2030). In addition, the result shows the importance of the availability of local energy resources for hydrogen production, like the advantages of location close to chemical industry or surplus of renewable electricity. (author)

  19. Promoting coordination in Norwegian health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tor I. Romøren

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available   Introduction: The Norwegian health care system is well organized within its two main sectors - primary health and long term care on the one hand, and hospitals and specialist services on the other. However, the relation between them lacks mediating structures.Policy practice: Enhancing coordination between primary and secondary health care has been central in Norwegian health care policy the last decade. In 2003 a committee was appointed to identify coordination problems and proposed a lot of practical and organisational recommendations. It relied on an approach challenging primary and secondary health care in shared geographical regions to take action. However, these proposals were not implemented. In 2008 a new Minister of Health and Care worked out plans under the key term "Coordination Reform". These reform plans superseded and expanded the previous policy initiatives concerning cooperation, but represented also a shift in focus to a regulative and centralised strategy, including new health legislation, structural reforms and use of economic incentives that are now about to be implemented.Discussion: The article analyses the perspectives and proposals of the previous and the recent reform initiatives in Norway and discusses them in relation to integrated care measures implemented in Denmark and Sweden.

  20. The acquisition of compositional definiteness in Norwegian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merete Anderssen

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aim to explain why the prenominal definiteness marker found in modified structures only is acquired much later than the suffixal definite article in Norwegian. The coexistence of the two definiteness markers is the result of the so-called double definiteness phenomenon in Norwegian which occurs in definite structures involving an attributive adjective. As the prenominal determiner only occurs in modified contexts, one obvious explanation that presents itself is that the omission of the prenominal determiner is related to the fact that it is much less frequent in the input than the suffixal article. However, if we consider the form of this determiner, it is clear that the form itself must be very frequent in the input, as it is homophonous with the demonstrative and with inanimate third person pronouns, which are all frequent in use. Consequently, a lexical insertion approach to the double definiteness phenomenon is proposed according to which the discrepancy in the order of acquisition is argued to be due to a combination of prosodic saliency and the lexicalisation of semantic features, the latter of which will be dealt with here.

  1. The Norwegian nuclear emergency preparedness system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naadland, E.; Stranden, E.

    1995-01-01

    A new national organisation for nuclear emergency preparedness was established in Norway in 1993, based on experiences from the Chernobyl accident. This organisation is based on authorities and research institutions which in a normal situation have responsibilities and knowledge in fields that are also of major importance in a nuclear accident situation. The national emergency preparedness organisation consists of the Ministerial Co-ordination Committee, the Advisory Committee for Nuclear Accidents and their secretariat at the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, and an Information Group. The organisations participating in the Advisory Committee operate measuring networks, stations and laboratories. In an early phase of an accident, a minor group from the Advisory Committee forms a Crisis Committee for Nuclear Accidents. This committee has been delegated the authority to make decisions in this phase. The organisation represented by its secretariat at the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority is responsible for coordinating the emergency planning, the measuring capacities and the professional needs ordinarily. The secretariat is on call 24 hours a day as point of contact according to bilateral and international agreements on early notification. In this paper the features of the emergency preparedness organisation are presented. (Author)

  2. Dispersal of the radionuclide caesium-137 (137Cs) from point sources in the Barents and Norwegian Seas and its potential contamination of the Arctic marine food chain: Coupling numerical ocean models with geographical fish distribution data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heldal, Hilde Elise; Vikebø, Frode; Johansen, Geir Odd

    2013-01-01

    Dispersal of 137 Cs from the nuclear submarine wrecks Komsomolets and K-159, which are resting on the seabed in the Norwegian and Barents Seas, respectively, is simulated using realistic rates and hypothetical scenarios. Furthermore, spatiotemporal 137 Cs concentrations in Northeast Arctic cod and capelin are estimated based on survey data. The results indicate that neither continuous leakages nor pulse discharges will cause concentrations of 137 Cs in cod muscle or whole body capelin exceeding the intervention level of 600 Bq/kg fw. Continuous leakages from Komsomolets and K-159 and pulse discharges from Komsomolets induced negligible activity concentrations in cod and capelin. A pulse discharge of 100% of the 137 Cs-inventory of K-159 will, however, result in concentrations in muscle of cod of above 100 times the present levels in the eastern Barents Sea. Within three years after the release, 137 Cs levels above 20 Bq/kg fw in cod are no longer occurring in the Barents Sea. -- Highlights: •The dispersal of 137 Cs from the wrecks of Komsomolets and K-159 are simulated. •The submarine wrecks are resting on the seabed in the Norwegian and Barents Seas. •Both realistic rates of discharges and what-if scenarios are simulated. •Concentrations of 137 Cs are estimated in observational records of cod and capelin. •Only pulse discharges from K-159 causes high 137 Cs concentrations in cod and capelin. -- A pulse discharge of 137 Cs from K-159 may cause concentrations in muscle of cod up to 63 and 123 Bq/kg fresh weight in the near-surface and near-bottom layer, respectively

  3. Determinants of investment under incentive regulation: The case of the Norwegian electricity distribution networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poudineh, Rahmatallah; Jamasb, Tooraj

    2016-01-01

    Investment in electricity networks, as regulated natural monopolies, is among the highest regulatory and energy policy priorities. The electricity sector regulators adopt different incentive mechanisms to ensure that the firms undertake sufficient investment to maintain and modernise the grid. Thus, an effective regulatory treatment of investment requires understanding the response of companies to the regulatory incentives. This study analyses the determinants of investment in electricity distribution networks using a panel dataset of 129 Norwegian companies observed from 2004 to 2010. A Bayesian Model Averaging approach is used to provide a robust statistical inference by taking into account the uncertainties around model selection and estimation. The results show that three factors drive nearly all network investments: investment rate in previous period, socio-economic costs of energy not supplied and finally useful life of assets. The results indicate that Norwegian companies have, to some degree, responded to the investment incentives provided by the regulatory framework. However, some of the incentives do not appear to be effective in driving the investments. - Highlights: • This paper investigates determinants of investment under incentive regulation. • We apply a Bayesian model averaging technique to deal with model uncertainty. • Dataset comprises 129 Norwegian electricity network companies from 2004 to 2010. • The results show that firms have generally responded to investment incentives. • However, some of the incentives do not appear to have been effective.

  4. Growth and Movement in Brown Trout (Salmo trutta) in two Norwegian Rivers

    OpenAIRE

    Skjellevik, Stine Marie

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, using stream-dwelling brown trout (Salmo trutta) as a model species, movement through the summer and autumn in two large Norwegian rivers, River Glomma and River Gudbrandsdalslågen, was observed. In addition fish from each river were sampled for age and growth analysis. The aim of the study was to test for which individual characteristics (sex, body mass, body condition factor, tagging site and cohort) that influenced movement and to test for correlations between grow...

  5. Leakage from medically-certified to self-certified workplace absence among norwegian employees

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsen, Geir Runar; Ytterstad, Elinor

    2017-01-01

    Source at https://dx.doi.org/10.1080/20021518.2017.1411119 There are two different kinds of sickness absence in Norway: self-certified absence (SCA), and medically-certified absence (MCA). In this study of 6437 Norwegian employees, we applied logistic regression models for a dichotomous SCA variable on initially 38 independent vari- ables including age and gender. Our findings showed that employees reporting long-term health issues but no record of MCA in the past 12 months (...

  6. Radioactive substances - fluxes, concentrations and possible effects in the Norwegian Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liland, A.; Hosseini, A.; Iosjpe, M.; Nilsen, K.A.; Graefvert, T.; Skjerdal, H.

    2012-10-01

    Report for the comprehensive management plan for the Norwegian Sea. Different scenarios are modeled: an accident occurring while spent nuclear fuel is being transported, pollution from a submarine that sinks off the coast, discharges from Sellafield, and the consequences of discharges from the petroleum industry. Possible effects of ionising radiation to the marine environment, doses to marine organisms and contaminants in seafood, are considered. (Author)

  7. Carbon and nutrient mixed layer dynamics in the Norwegian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Findlay

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A coupled carbon-ecosystem model is compared to recent data from Ocean Weather Station M (66° N, 02° E and used as a tool to investigate nutrient and carbon processes within the Norwegian Sea. Nitrate is consumed by phytoplankton in the surface layers over the summer; however the data show that silicate does not become rapidly limiting for diatoms, in contrast to the model prediction and in contrast to data from other temperate locations. The model estimates atmosphere-ocean CO2 flux to be 37 g C m−2 yr−1. The seasonal cycle of the carbonate system at OWS M resembles the cycles suggested by data from other high-latitude ocean locations. The seasonal cycles of calcite saturation state and [CO32-] are similar in the model and in data at OWS M: values range from ~3 and ~120 μmol kg−1 respectively in winter, to ~4 and ~170 μmol kg−1 respectively in summer. The model and data provide further evidence (supporting previous modelling work that the summer is a time of high saturation state within the annual cycle at high-latitude locations. This is also the time of year that coccolithophore blooms occur at high latitudes.

  8. Greenhouse gas quotas on the Norwegian continental shelf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torvanger, Asbjoern; Godal, Odd; Kolshus, Hans H.; Aaheim, Asbjoern

    2002-01-01

    This report discusses advantages and disadvantages of voluntary quota obligations in a greenhouse gas emissions trading system at the company level, and advantages and disadvantages associated with various initial allocation mechanisms in a quota system. The analysis is based on the situation for the Norwegian oil industry in an early Norwegian emissions trading system in the period 2005-2007, and on oil companies' participation in international emissions trading under the Kyoto Protocol in the period 2008-2012. The report has been commissioned by the Norwegian Oil Industry Association, and was written in the period March-April 2002. (author)

  9. The Influence of Parents and Teachers on the Deep Learning Approach of Pupils in Norwegian Upper-Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elstad, Eyvind; Christophersen, Knut-Andreas; Turmo, Are

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this article was to explore the influence of parents and teachers on the deep learning approach of pupils by estimating the strength of the relationships between these factors and the motivation, volition and deep learning approach of Norwegian 16-year-olds. Method: Structural equation modeling for cross-sectional…

  10. Wind power, network congestion and hydro resource utilisation in the Norwegian power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foersund, Finn; Singh, Balbir; Jensen, Trond; Larsen, Cato

    2005-01-01

    Capacity constraints in electricity networks can have important impacts on utilization of new renewable energy (RE) capacity and incumbent generation resources. Neglect of such impacts in development of RE resources can result in crowding-out of incumbent generation. This trade-off is particularly problematic if the incumbent generation also consists of renewable sources, such as hydropower in the Norwegian electricity system. This paper presents a numerical analysis of the current wind-power development plans in North Norway and their impacts on utilization of hydropower. Policy simulations in paper are conducted using a dynamic partial equilibrium model that is calibrated to reflect the structure of the Nordic power market. The paper draws conclusion and policy implications for integration of RE resources in the Norwegian power market. (Author)

  11. Norwegian High-School Students Internship Programme

    CERN Multimedia

    2017-01-01

    The High-School Students Internship Programme (HSSIP is a programme developed by the ECO group’s Teacher and Student Programmes section to engage students from a young age with scientific research and innovation. Norway was selected as one out of five countries for the pilot programmes run in 2017. Out of some 150 applications, 10 boys and 14 girls, from Longyearbyen (Svalbard) in the North to Flekkefjord in the South, were invited to participate in the Norwegian programme that took place from 15 October - 28 October. The youngsters were offered an intense two-week internship at CERN, during which they took part in many diverse activities. Accompanied by mentors, the students got a deeper insight into how CERN supports particle physics by working on their own projects and through a variety of visits.

  12. Food safety practices among Norwegian consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Røssvoll, Elin Halbach; Lavik, Randi; Ueland, Øydis; Jacobsen, Eivind; Hagtvedt, Therese; Langsrud, Solveig

    2013-11-01

    An informed consumer can compensate for several potential food safety violations or contaminations that may occur earlier in the food production chain. However, a consumer can also destroy the work of others in the chain by poor food handling practices, e.g., by storing chilled ready-to-eat foods at abusive temperatures. To target risk-reducing strategies, consumer groups with high-risk behavior should be identified. The aim of this study was to identify demographic characteristics associated with high-risk food handling practices among Norwegian consumers. More than 2,000 randomly selected Norwegian consumers were surveyed, and the results were analyzed with a risk-based grading system, awarding demerit points for self-reported food safety violations. The violations were categorized into groups, and an ordinary multiple linear regression analysis was run on the summarized demerit score for each group and for the entire survey group as a whole. Young and elderly men were identified as the least informed consumer groups with the most unsafe practices regarding food safety. Single persons reported poorer practices than those in a relationship. People with higher education reported poorer practices than those with lower or no education, and those living in the capital of Norway (Oslo) reported following more unsafe food practices than people living elsewhere in Norway. Men reported poorer food safety practices than women in all categories with two exceptions: parboiling raw vegetables before consumption and knowledge of refrigerator temperature. These findings suggest that risk-reducing measures should target men, and a strategy is needed to change their behavior and attitudes.

  13. Norwegian electricity market liberalisation: questions of cost calculation and price definition by grid operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wild, J.; Vaterlaus, S.

    2002-01-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study carried out on the Norwegian electricity market 10 years after its liberalisation. The similarity of the Norwegian market to the Swiss electricity market is discussed. Similarly to the proposed situation in Switzerland, the liberalisation in Norway foresaw no privatisation of public utilities and a model for the regulation of grid access was introduced. The report describes and comments on the various phases in which the liberalisation occurred and examines the various instruments used, e.g. to ensure that individual grid operators did not make undue profits from their monopoly. The methods used for the monitoring of grid operators' costs are described and the mechanisms involved in the definition of prices for grid services are examined, including measures taken when profits were too high or too low. The report is concluded with a discussion of the conclusions that can be drawn from the Norwegian model for Swiss market opening efforts

  14. Norwegian climate policy reforms in the presence of an international quota market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjertnæs, Geir H.; Tsygankova, Marina; Martinsen, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This study shows that the second-best optimal difference between tax rates on goods that generate greenhouse gas emissions and non-polluting goods is equal to the quota price plus a Ramsey tax on the quota price when emission quotas are traded between governments and the price elasticity of these goods is identical. This tax difference exceeds the second-best optimal difference between tax rates on goods that generate a negative externality equivalent to the quota price and non-polluting goods. Model simulations show that a unilateral increase in emission tax to above the international quota price generates a welfare gain for Norway. Model simulations also show that an international tax/quota price increase generates a welfare gain (loss) for Norway if Norwegian imports of oil become substantial (marginal) in the long run. - Highlights: • Higher second-best optimal emission tax rate with government quota trading • Optimal second-best emission tax rate exceeds the quota price. • Norwegian emission tax increase above international quota price boosts welfare. • International quota price increase boosts Norwegian welfare

  15. Facts publication. Norwegian petroleum activities 1998; Faktaheftet. Norsk petroleumsvirksomhet 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaarde, Kjetil (ed.)

    1998-04-01

    This is an annual publication by the Norwegian Ministry of Industry and Energy of statistical data on petroleum resources, exploration, development, production and revenue. However, it also includes analyses and comments, and sections on history, the environment, legislation, concession etc.

  16. Facts publication. Norwegian petroleum activities 1997; Faktaheftet. Norsk petroleumsvirksomhet 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaarde, Kjetil (ed.)

    1997-02-01

    This is an annual publication by the Norwegian Ministry of Industry and Energy of statistical data on petroleum resources, exploration, development, production and revenue. However, it also includes analyses and comments, and sections on history, the environment, legislation, concession etc.

  17. Greenland-Iceland-Norwegian Seas Regional Climatology (NODC Accession 0112824)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To provide an improved oceanographic foundation and reference for multi-disciplinary studies of the Greenland-Iceland-Norwegian Seas (GINS), NODC developed a new set...

  18. Cooperation between Norwegian and Russian Regulatory Authorities: NRPA and Rostechnadzor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority has been cooperating with the Federal Environmental, Industrial and Nuclear Supervision Service, Rostechnadzor, on the upgrading of the regulatory framework for the safe decommissioning and disposal of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators. (Author)

  19. Meat and masculinity in the Norwegian Armed Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kildal, Charlotte Lilleby; Syse, Karen Lykke

    2017-05-01

    In 2013, the Norwegian Armed Forces decided to introduce a meat reduction scheme in its military mess halls, for both health reasons and environmental concerns. This article explores Norwegian soldiers' reactions to the introduction of Meat free Monday, and their attitudes towards reducing meat consumption. As of yet, Meat free Monday has not been implemented due to both structural and contextual challenges. We explore both the process and potential of the Norwegian military's Meat free Monday initiative to promote sustainable and climate friendly diets. We found significant barriers preventing the military from implementing Meat free Monday. The main reason behind the resistance to reduce meat consumption among Norwegian soldiers was meat's associations with protein, masculinity and comfort. Our results underline the importance of acknowledging the social and cultural role of food. The study is qualitative and uses focus group interviews as its main methodology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. How sustainable is the framework for Norwegian gas sales?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunnevaag, K.J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses the way Norway has organized its gas sales, and to what extent Norwegian regulatory goals are reconcilable with EU gas market objectives. Although there are strong arguments in favor of governmental resource management and coordination of Norwegian offshore activities, there are also a series of reasons why the existing organization of gas sales is not the right one in a liberalized market. (Author)

  1. Facts 2000. Norwegian petroleum activities; Fakta 2000. Norsk petroleumsvirksomhet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The petroleum resources discovered on the Norwegian Continental Shelf amounts to about 9,6 billion Sm{sup 3} oil equivalents, 76 percent in the North Sea, 20 percent in the Norwegian Sea and 4 percent in the Barents Sea. The present publication gives a summary of the resources, the exploration, the field development, the production of oil and gas, and the revenue from petroleum sale for the year 1999.

  2. Relations between Agronomic Practice and Earthworms in Norwegian Arable Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Pommeresche, Reidun; Løes, Anne-Kristin

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents Norwegian studies of earthworms (density, biomass, burrows density, species, juvenile to adult ratios) in arable soil in Norway conducted during the last 20 years. The effects of crop rotations, fertilization, soil tillage and compaction on earthworms are presented, based on various field experiments. Geophagous (soil eating) species such as Aporrectodea caliginosa and A. rosea dominate the earthworm fauna in Norwegian arable soil. Lumbricus terrestris is also present; in ...

  3. Gender Identity and Labor Division In Norwegian Households

    OpenAIRE

    Hafzi, Kamran

    2016-01-01

    Master's thesis in Economic analysis We investigate if gender identity has any effect on the division of household labor among Norwegian couples. By deriving the potential income distribution of the Norwegian population, we compare couples’ comparative advantage in market work. Our results indicate that women who have higher potential income than their spouse are more likely to increase their labor supply and work full-time, rather than reduce their hours allocated to market work in order ...

  4. Spontal-N: A Corpus of Interactional Spoken Norwegian

    OpenAIRE

    Sikveland, A.; Öttl, A.; Amdal, I.; Ernestus, M.; Svendsen, T.; Edlund, J.

    2010-01-01

    Spontal-N is a corpus of spontaneous, interactional Norwegian. To our knowledge, it is the first corpus of Norwegian in which the majority of speakers have spent significant parts of their lives in Sweden, and in which the recorded speech displays varying degrees of interference from Swedish. The corpus consists of studio quality audio- and video-recordings of four 30-minute free conversations between acquaintances, and a manual orthographic transcription of the entire material. On basis of t...

  5. The Norwegian sounding rocket programme 1980-83

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egeland, A.; Gundersen, A.

    1980-01-01

    As illustrated by the rocket program presented and discussed in this paper, exploration of the polar ionosphere still plays a central part in the Norwegian research program in science. A cornerstone in the Norwegian space program is the Andoeya Rocket Range. It will be shown that advanced radio installations in northern Scandinavia together with the new optical site at Svalbard will stimulate towards further in situ measurements and theoretical work of the polar ionosphere. (Auth.)

  6. The Norwegian sounding rocket programme 1978-81

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landmark, B.

    1978-01-01

    The Norwegian sounding rocket programme is reasonably well defined up to and including the winter of 1981/82. All the projects have been planned and will be carried out in international cooperation. Norwegian scientists so far plan to participate in a number of 24 rocket payloads over the period. Out of these 18 will be launched from the Andoya rocket range, 3 from Esrange and 3 from the siple station in the antarctic. (author)

  7. The Cash-out Refinancing in the Norwegian Housing Market

    OpenAIRE

    Almaas, Synne Schanke; Bystrøm, Line Synnøve

    2014-01-01

    The housing prices in Norway and the ratio of Norwegian household debt to disposable income have reached unprecedentedly high levels in recent years, raising concerns about whether we are in a serious housing bubble. This attracts much attention and initiates debates among politicians, researchers as well as the entire society. Contributing to the debates, the present thesis studies "cash-out" refinancing in the Norwegian housing market and has two main findings. First, along with the soaring...

  8. Investors' performance and trading behavior on the Norwegian stock market

    OpenAIRE

    Che, Limei

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation examines investors’ performance and trading behavior on the Norwegian stock market, using a unique and extensive data set of monthly holdings of all the investors. The first paper studies how Norwegian individual investors, financial institutional investors and foreign investors affect stock return volatility and finds surprising and interesting results: domestic individual investors and financial institutional investors dampen stock return volatility, and foreign investors ...

  9. The prevalence and nature of intellectual disability in Norwegian prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søndenaa, E; Rasmussen, K; Palmstierna, T; Nøttestad, J

    2008-12-01

    The objective of the study was to calculate the prevalence of inmates with intellectual disabilities (ID), and identify historical, medical and criminological characteristics of a certain impact. A random sample of 143 inmates from a Norwegian prison cross sectional sample was studied. The Hayes Ability Screening Index (HASI) was validated with the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI). The prevalence of inmates with ID, IQ intellectual handicap, are mostly absent in the Norwegian criminal justice system.

  10. Effectiveness and regulation in the Norwegian power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kittelsen, S.A.C.

    1994-03-01

    The report deals with the Norwegian research project dubbed ''Effectiveness in the power supply''. The aim of the project was to develop a methodology and a suitable tool (EDB-PC) to assess the cost effectiveness in the electric power distribution network in order to stipulate the average prices of power distribution in the different network levels. Topics cover as follow: Demand of regulation; measuring method and data; measured effectiveness; regulation of the Norwegian power distribution. 52 refs., 15 figs., 6 tabs

  11. Dispersal of the radionuclide caesium-137 ((137)Cs) from point sources in the Barents and Norwegian Seas and its potential contamination of the Arctic marine food chain: coupling numerical ocean models with geographical fish distribution data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldal, Hilde Elise; Vikebø, Frode; Johansen, Geir Odd

    2013-09-01

    Dispersal of (137)Cs from the nuclear submarine wrecks Komsomolets and K-159, which are resting on the seabed in the Norwegian and Barents Seas, respectively, is simulated using realistic rates and hypothetical scenarios. Furthermore, spatiotemporal (137)Cs concentrations in Northeast Arctic cod and capelin are estimated based on survey data. The results indicate that neither continuous leakages nor pulse discharges will cause concentrations of (137)Cs in cod muscle or whole body capelin exceeding the intervention level of 600 Bq/kg fw. Continuous leakages from Komsomolets and K-159 and pulse discharges from Komsomolets induced negligible activity concentrations in cod and capelin. A pulse discharge of 100% of the (137)Cs-inventory of K-159 will, however, result in concentrations in muscle of cod of above 100 times the present levels in the eastern Barents Sea. Within three years after the release, (137)Cs levels above 20 Bq/kg fw in cod are no longer occurring in the Barents Sea. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Norwegian forecasting and warning service for rainfall- and snowmelt-induced landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krøgli, Ingeborg K.; Devoli, Graziella; Colleuille, Hervé; Boje, Søren; Sund, Monica; Engen, Inger Karin

    2018-05-01

    The Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE) have run a national flood forecasting and warning service since 1989. In 2009, the directorate was given the responsibility of also initiating a national forecasting service for rainfall-induced landslides. Both services are part of a political effort to improve flood and landslide risk prevention. The Landslide Forecasting and Warning Service was officially launched in 2013 and is developed as a joint initiative across public agencies between NVE, the Norwegian Meteorological Institute (MET), the Norwegian Public Road Administration (NPRA) and the Norwegian Rail Administration (Bane NOR). The main goal of the service is to reduce economic and human losses caused by landslides. The service performs daily a national landslide hazard assessment describing the expected awareness level at a regional level (i.e. for a county and/or group of municipalities). The service is operative 7 days a week throughout the year. Assessments and updates are published at the warning portal http://www.varsom.no/ at least twice a day, for the three coming days. The service delivers continuous updates on the current situation and future development to national and regional stakeholders and to the general public. The service is run in close cooperation with the flood forecasting service. Both services are based on the five pillars: automatic hydrological and meteorological stations, landslide and flood historical database, hydro-meteorological forecasting models, thresholds or return periods, and a trained group of forecasters. The main components of the service are herein described. A recent evaluation, conducted on the 4 years of operation, shows a rate of over 95 % correct daily assessments. In addition positive feedbacks have been received from users through a questionnaire. The capability of the service to forecast landslides by following the hydro-meteorological conditions is illustrated by an example from autumn 2017. The

  13. Risk factors for cardiomyopathy syndrome (CMS) in Norwegian salmon farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang Jensen, Britt; Brun, Edgar; Fineid, Birgitte; Larssen, Rolf Bjerke; Kristoffersen, Anja B

    2013-12-12

    Cardiomyopathy syndrome (CMS) has been an economically important disease in Norwegian aquaculture since the 1990s. In this study, data on monthly production characteristics and case registrations were combined in a cohort study and supplemented with a questionnaire-based case-control survey on management factors in order to identify risk factors for CMS. The cohort study included cases and controls from 2005 to 2012. From this dataset differences between all cases and controls were analyzed by a mixed effect multivariate logistic regression. From this we found that the probability of CMS increased with increasing time in the sea, infection pressure, and cohort size, and that cohorts which had previously been diagnosed with heart and skeletal muscle inflammation or which were in farms with a history of CMS in previous cohorts had double the odds of developing CMS. The model was then used to calculate the predicted value for each cohort from which additional data were obtained via the questionnaire-based survey and used as offset for calculating the probability of CMS in a semi-univariate analysis of additional risk factors. Finally, the model was used to calculate the probability of developing CMS in 100 different scenarios in which the cohorts were subject to increasingly worse conditions with regards to the risk factors from the dataset. We believe that this exercise is a good way of communicating the findings to farmers, so they can make informed decisions when trying to avoid CMS in their fish cohorts.

  14. Transforming Economies. The Case of the Norwegian Electricity Market Reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, Per Ingvar

    2000-01-01

    the theoretical, analytical and methodological approach, which mainly draws from contributions within Sociology of Science and Technology (the Actor-Network approach) and from Economic Sociology (social network theory). Other lines of thought are also touched upon, like different traditions within institutional theory and institutional economics. Even though issues within main stream economics are also discussed in brief, this scientific tradition here mainly serves as an empirical area of investigation. The second part of the thesis presents the historical background of the Norwegian electricity sector in broad - drawing lines back to the early establishing of the Norwegian electricity system and passing though important formative processes and reform attempts which came to establish vital directions and constraints on the later market reform. In part three, the emergence of the market reform is triangulated through analysis with distinctly different focuses. One concentrates on the immediate controversies and rival reform programs within the sector in between 1965 and 1985. Another takes its departure from the reorientation among leading economists internationally in the late 1960s and early 1970s, and follows their new economic concepts, models and arguments back to Norway, through various economic and public sector reforms in between 1977 and 1986. The third perspective is obtained from a focus on the SAF research institution in Bergen, where the market reform program gradually got established through the carrying out of various research projects regarding the functioning of the electricity system. Finally, there is a focussed discussion of the various attempts at modernizing the Norwegian state administration and the role of the state in the economy during the second half of the 1980s, by shifting governments and in particular by actors within the state administration with the responsibility to help shaping and carrying out these political-economic ambitions. The

  15. Transforming Economies. The Case of the Norwegian Electricity Market Reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Per Ingvar

    2000-07-01

    the theoretical, analytical and methodological approach, which mainly draws from contributions within Sociology of Science and Technology (the Actor-Network approach) and from Economic Sociology (social network theory). Other lines of thought are also touched upon, like different traditions within institutional theory and institutional economics. Even though issues within main stream economics are also discussed in brief, this scientific tradition here mainly serves as an empirical area of investigation. The second part of the thesis presents the historical background of the Norwegian electricity sector in broad - drawing lines back to the early establishing of the Norwegian electricity system and passing though important formative processes and reform attempts which came to establish vital directions and constraints on the later market reform. In part three, the emergence of the market reform is triangulated through analysis with distinctly different focuses. One concentrates on the immediate controversies and rival reform programs within the sector in between 1965 and 1985. Another takes its departure from the reorientation among leading economists internationally in the late 1960s and early 1970s, and follows their new economic concepts, models and arguments back to Norway, through various economic and public sector reforms in between 1977 and 1986. The third perspective is obtained from a focus on the SAF research institution in Bergen, where the market reform program gradually got established through the carrying out of various research projects regarding the functioning of the electricity system. Finally, there is a focussed discussion of the various attempts at modernizing the Norwegian state administration and the role of the state in the economy during the second half of the 1980s, by shifting governments and in particular by actors within the state administration with the responsibility to help shaping and carrying out these political-economic ambitions. The

  16. The Norwegian state as a natural gas entrepreneur : the impact of the EEA agreement and EU gas market liberalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austvik, Ole Gunnar

    2009-07-01

    intended benefit of the industry and the state itself. When Norway entered the 1990s and EU integration processes were increasingly evident, her petroleum policy and natural gas strategy was under strong political control. The EEA agreement changed the legal framework for Norwegian domestic policy and economic activities in many areas, including the petroleum sector. In particular, it changed the institutional and regulative framework for natural gas production, transportation and sales, and the way the state could continue the control and innovation of her comprehensive gas model. Furthermore, the liberalization of downstream EU natural gas markets changed the external economic and political maneuvering room. However, the EU has not succeeded in fully liberalizing her natural gas markets. This study argues that markets for natural gas in the EU are and will remain largely imperfect and politicized for the foreseeable future, in which opportunities for adaptation, influencing developments and exercising entrepreneurship must be understood. The study therefore focuses on the effects on entrepreneurship, both from a perspective of a largely full liberalization, and from a perspective of de facto liberalization. The final chapter includes a summary of empirical findings, along with an assessment of how the study may contribute to understanding Norwegian petroleum policy and the Norwegian - EU relationship, respectively. Some theoretical implications are addressed. The study draws upon endogenous growth theory to understand the role of the Norwegian state as a political entrepreneur in the creation of her petroleum industry. Endogenous growth theory demonstrates that policy, entrepreneurship and innovation, and not only changes in exogenous factors, have an impact on the long-run growth of an industry, and more general on a national economy. To understand EU integration processes and their impact on national policy making, the disciplines of economics and political science are

  17. Dispersal of the radionuclide caesium-137 (137Cs) from point sources in the Barents and Norwegian Seas and its potential contamination of the Arctic marine food chain: Coupling numerical ocean models with geographical fish distribution data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heldal, Hilde Elise; Vikebø, Frode; Johansen, Geir Odd

    2012-01-01

    Dispersal of 137 Cs from Komsomolets and K-159 is simulated using realistic rates and hypothetical scenarios. Furthermore, spatiotemporal 137 Cs concentrations in Northeast Arctic cod and capelin are estimated based on survey data. The results indicate that only pulse discharges from K-159 will cause concentrations of 137 Cs in cod muscle exceeding the intervention level of 600 Bq/kg fresh weight. A discharge of ≥10% of the 137 Cs-inventory will result in concentrations in muscle of cod exceeding the intervention level for approximately two years. In fact, a discharge of 10% of the 137 Cs-inventory results in an overlap of 8–30% between the different size groups of cod and levels that exceed the intervention level during the first year after the discharge. For capelin, individuals less than one year old during the first year after a discharge are more likely to be severely affected by discharges comprising ≥50% of the inventory. - Highlights: ► The dispersal of 137 Cs from the wrecks of Komsomolets and K-159 are simulated. ► The submarine wrecks are resting on the seabed in the Norwegian and Barents Seas. ► Both realistic rates of discharges and what-if scenarios are simulated. ► Concentrations of 137 Cs are estimated in observational records of cod and capelin. ► Only pulse discharges from K-159 causes high 137 Cs concentrations in cod and capelin. - A leakage of 137 Cs from K-159 may cause concentrations in muscle of cod exceeding the intervention level of 600 Bq/kg fresh weight for up to two years after the leakage.

  18. Real-time ichthyoplankton drift in Northeast Arctic cod and Norwegian spring-spawning herring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikebø, Frode B; Ådlandsvik, Bjørn; Albretsen, Jon; Sundby, Svein; Stenevik, Erling Kåre; Huse, Geir; Svendsen, Einar; Kristiansen, Trond; Eriksen, Elena

    2011-01-01

    Individual-based biophysical larval models, initialized and parameterized by observations, enable numerical investigations of various factors regulating survival of young fish until they recruit into the adult population. Exponentially decreasing numbers in Northeast Arctic cod and Norwegian Spring Spawning herring early changes emphasizes the importance of early life history, when ichthyoplankton exhibit pelagic free drift. However, while most studies are concerned with past recruitment variability it is also important to establish real-time predictions of ichthyoplankton distributions due to the increasing human activity in fish habitats and the need for distribution predictions that could potentially improve field coverage of ichthyoplankton. A system has been developed for operational simulation of ichthyoplankton distributions. We have coupled a two-day ocean forecasts from the Norwegian Meteorological Institute with an individual-based ichthyoplankton model for Northeast Arctic cod and Norwegian Spring Spawning herring producing daily updated maps of ichthyoplankton distributions. Recent years observed spawning distribution and intensity have been used as input to the model system. The system has been running in an operational mode since 2008. Surveys are expensive and distributions of early stages are therefore only covered once or twice a year. Comparison between model and observations are therefore limited in time. However, the observed and simulated distributions of juvenile fish tend to agree well during early fall. Area-overlap between modeled and observed juveniles September 1(st) range from 61 to 73%, and 61 to 71% when weighted by concentrations. The model system may be used to evaluate the design of ongoing surveys, to quantify the overlap with harmful substances in the ocean after accidental spills, as well as management planning of particular risky operations at sea. The modeled distributions are already utilized during research surveys to

  19. Real-time ichthyoplankton drift in Northeast Arctic cod and Norwegian spring-spawning herring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frode B Vikebø

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Individual-based biophysical larval models, initialized and parameterized by observations, enable numerical investigations of various factors regulating survival of young fish until they recruit into the adult population. Exponentially decreasing numbers in Northeast Arctic cod and Norwegian Spring Spawning herring early changes emphasizes the importance of early life history, when ichthyoplankton exhibit pelagic free drift. However, while most studies are concerned with past recruitment variability it is also important to establish real-time predictions of ichthyoplankton distributions due to the increasing human activity in fish habitats and the need for distribution predictions that could potentially improve field coverage of ichthyoplankton. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A system has been developed for operational simulation of ichthyoplankton distributions. We have coupled a two-day ocean forecasts from the Norwegian Meteorological Institute with an individual-based ichthyoplankton model for Northeast Arctic cod and Norwegian Spring Spawning herring producing daily updated maps of ichthyoplankton distributions. Recent years observed spawning distribution and intensity have been used as input to the model system. The system has been running in an operational mode since 2008. Surveys are expensive and distributions of early stages are therefore only covered once or twice a year. Comparison between model and observations are therefore limited in time. However, the observed and simulated distributions of juvenile fish tend to agree well during early fall. Area-overlap between modeled and observed juveniles September 1(st range from 61 to 73%, and 61 to 71% when weighted by concentrations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The model system may be used to evaluate the design of ongoing surveys, to quantify the overlap with harmful substances in the ocean after accidental spills, as well as management planning of particular risky operations

  20. Organic environmental poisons in Norwegian freshwater fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    According to this article, the level of organic poisons in Norwegian freshwater fish is, on the whole, is too small to threaten human health. It has been found, however, that liver from some species such as burbot, from some lakes, should not be eaten. These lakes are found to contain higher levels of PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls) and DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane). Previously, pregnant or breast-feeding women anywhere in Norway have been advised not to eat pike, large perch or large trout because of too much mercury. Other people should not eat these species more often than once per month. In general, the level of organic environmental poisons is higher in the southern part of the country than in the northern part. The sediments of the lakes in large parts of South Norway are contaminated with lead, mercury and cadmium as compared with the conditions before the industrial revolution. However, the level of metals in the lake sediments are relatively low, and these substances are unlikely to appear in the food chain, by and large. The anthropogenic emission of lead was insignificant before the industrial revolution. The exception of lead from German mining industry in the 1700s

  1. Lifestyle and mortality among Norwegian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotevatn, S; Akslen, L A; Bjelke, E

    1989-07-01

    Information on six different habits (cigarette smoking, physical activity, frequency of alcohol and of fruit/vegetable consumption, and daily bread and potato consumption) was obtained by two postal surveys (1964 and 1967) among Norwegian men. The answers were related to mortality among 10,187 respondents ages 35-74 years at the start of the follow-up period (1967-1978). Analyses, stratified by age, place of residence, marital status, and socioeconomic group, showed an association between the six variables and observed/expected deaths, as well as odds ratio estimates. A health practice score, obtained by adding the number of favorable habits, showed a strong inverse relationship with total mortality as well as deaths from cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and other causes. Odds ratio estimates for men with only favorable habits vs those with at most one such habit, were 0.31 for total mortality, 0.44 for cancer, and 0.36 for cardiovascular mortality. Separate analyses among current smokers and nonsmokers showed a particularly strong association between the five other habits and mortality from cardiovascular disease.

  2. Zooplankton Distribution in Four Western Norwegian Fjords

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorsky, G.; Flood, P. R.; Youngbluth, M.; Picheral, M.; Grisoni, J.-M.

    2000-01-01

    A multi-instrumental array constructed in the Laboratoire d'Ecologie du Plancton Marin in Villefranche sur mer, France, named the Underwater Video Profiler (UVP), was used to investigate the vertical distribution of zooplankton in four western Norwegian fjords in the summer 1996. Six distinct zoological groups were monitored. The fauna included: (a) small crustaceans (mainly copepods), (b) ctenophores (mainly lobates), (c) siphonophores (mainly physonects), (d) a scyphomedusa Periphylla periphylla, (e) chaetognaths and (f) appendicularians. The use of the non-disturbing video technique demonstrated that the distribution of large zooplankton is heterogeneous vertically and geographically. Furthermore, the abundance of non-migrating filter feeders in the deep basins of the fjords indicates that there is enough food (living and non-living particulate organic matter) to support their dietary needs. This adaptation may be considered as a strategy for survival in fjords. Specifically, living in dark, deep water reduces visual predation and population loss encountered in the upper layer due to advective processes.

  3. Dampness and Moisture Problems in Norwegian Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rune Becher

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of dampness and mold in the indoor environment is associated with respiratory-related disease outcomes. Thus, it is pertinent to know the magnitude of such indoor environment problems to be able to estimate the potential health impact in the population. In the present study, the moisture damage in 10,112 Norwegian dwellings was recorded based on building inspection reports. The levels of moisture damage were graded based on a condition class (CC, where CC0 is immaculate and CC1 acceptable (actions not required, while CC2 and CC3 indicate increased levels of damage that requires action. Of the 10,112 dwellings investigated, 3125 had verified moisture or mold damage. This amounts to 31% of the surveyed dwellings. Of these, 27% had CC2 as the worst grade, whereas 4% had CC3 as the worst grade level. The room types and building structures most prone to moisture damage were (in rank order crawl spaces, basements, un-insulated attics, cooling rooms, and bathrooms. The high proportion of homes with moisture damage indicate a possible risk for respiratory diseases in a relatively large number of individuals, even if only the more extensive moisture damages and those located in rooms where occupants spend the majority of their time would have a significant influence on adverse health effects.

  4. Characterization of Norwegian women eating wholegrain bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakken, Toril; Braaten, Tonje; Olsen, Anja; Lund, Eiliv; Skeie, Guri

    2015-10-01

    To investigate dietary and non-dietary characteristics of wholegrain bread eaters in the Norwegian Women and Cancer study. Cross-sectional study using an FFQ. Women were divided into two groups according to wholegrain bread consumption. Adult women (n 69 471). Median daily consumption of standardized slices of wholegrain bread was 2·5 in the low intake group and 4·5 in the high intake group. The OR for high wholegrain bread consumption was 0·28, 2·19 and 4·63 for the first, third and fourth quartile of energy intake, respectively, compared with the second quartile. Living outside Oslo or in East Norway and having a high level of physical activity were associated with high wholegrain bread consumption. BMI and smoking were inversely associated with wholegrain bread consumption. Intake of many food items was positively associated with wholegrain bread consumption (P trend food items was inversely associated with wholegrain bread consumption (P trend <0·001). The mean intakes of thiamin and Fe were higher in those with high wholegrain bread consumption, even after taking energy intake into account. Energy intake was strongly positively associated with wholegrain bread consumption. Geographical differences in wholegrain bread consumption were observed. Our study suggests that women with high wholegrain bread consumption do not generally have a healthier diet than those who eat less wholegrain bread, but that they tend to be healthier in regard to other lifestyle factors.

  5. Applying Blockchain Technology: Evidence from Norwegian Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne H. Gausdal

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to develop a theoretical framework for blockchain, operations in particular. Furthermore, we aim to identify the main drivers and barriers of digital innovation and explore the general possibilities of blockchain applications within the maritime industry. A case study approach is applied: the Norwegian offshore industry. Primary data is collected through interviews, while secondary data is collected from industrial and company reports, the Internet, and national and international media reports. We have discovered that cost reduction intentions, the high level of regulation in the maritime industry, and the large amount of data that maritime companies should process, along with the intention to work more effectively, are the main drivers of digital innovation. On the other hand, the high cost of implementation, the bad quality of Internet connections offshore, the old age of decision-makers, the technology-oriented culture, the lack of investment initiatives, the low level of blockchain diffusion through the supply chain, and risk aversion are the main barriers. The results of the qualitative study show that some of the barriers and motives of digital innovation and the introduction to blockchain technology were pointed out by earlier studies. However, we have identified several unique drivers and barriers specific to the industry. Finally, the blockchain process framework is developed.

  6. Cross-cultural validation and psychometric testing of the Norwegian version of the TeamSTEPPS® teamwork perceptions questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballangrud, Randi; Husebø, Sissel Eikeland; Hall-Lord, Marie Louise

    2017-12-02

    Teamwork is an integrated part of today's specialized and complex healthcare and essential to patient safety, and is considered as a core competency to improve twenty-first century healthcare. Teamwork measurements and evaluations show promising results to promote good team performance, and are recommended for identifying areas for improvement. The validated TeamSTEPPS® Teamwork Perception Questionnaire (T-TPQ) was found suitable for cross-cultural validation and testing in a Norwegian context. T-TPQ is a self-report survey that examines five dimensions of perception of teamwork within healthcare settings. The aim of the study was to translate and cross-validate the T-TPQ into Norwegian, and test the questionnaire for psychometric properties among healthcare personnel. The T-TPQ was translated and adapted to a Norwegian context according to a model of a back-translation process. A total of 247 healthcare personnel representing different professionals and hospital settings responded to the questionnaire. A confirmatory factor analysis was carried out to test the factor structure. Cronbach's alpha was used to establish internal consistency, and an Intraclass Correlation Coefficient was used to assess the test - retest reliability. A confirmatory factor analysis showed an acceptable fitting model (χ 2 (df) 969.46 (546), p teamwork dimension clearly represents that specific construct. The Cronbach's alpha demonstrated acceptable values on the five subscales (0.786-0.844), and test-retest showed a reliability parameter, with Intraclass Correlation Coefficient scores from 0.672 to 0.852. The Norwegian version of T-TPQ was considered to be acceptable regarding the validity and reliability for measuring Norwegian individual healthcare personnel's perception of group level teamwork within their unit. However, it needs to be further tested, preferably in a larger sample and in different clinical settings.

  7. Norwegian resource policy: The production rate for Norwegian petroleum resources; Norsk ressurspolitikk: Utvinningstempoet for norske petroleumsressurser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiner, P.

    1995-12-31

    Petroleum activities have become a large industry in Norway. This has led to extensive changes in Norwegian economy and society. In the public debate on this activity there has been little discussion of what would be the most profitable production rate. However, it is generally agreed that the great wealth implied by the petroleum resources must be managed in ways suitable to both present and coming generations. This report discusses the production rate based on the following questions: (1) How high can the production rate be before the petroleum activities and the expenditure of the income from them influence the remaining Norwegian economy too strongly? (2) How much of this wealth should reasonably be used by present generations and how much should be left for future generations? There is much to gain from a high tempo and from relocating some of the petroleum wealth. The possibilities of influencing the production rate are mainly connected with the allotments of production licences. The consequences of uncertainties in the petroleum activities for the choice of exploitation tempo are unclear. The environment is not much affected by the production rate. The contractor activity has become Norway`s largest industry. 42 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Digital competence in the Norwegian teacher education and schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rune Johan Krumsvik

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to examine how policy documents in Norway the last ten years have interpreted ICT and digital competence in teacher education and in school. Norway implemented in 2006 a new national curriculum which increased the status of digital competence to be the fifth basic skill in the Norwegian elementary school (stage 1-13. This was a historic event and never before has digital competence achieved such status in curricula, neither nationally nor internationally. The same has newly happened with the new General Plan for Teacher Education where digital competence has become the fifth basic skill in all subjects. However, both teacher educators and teachers lack sufficient digital competence to fulfil these ambiguous policy goals and therefore the article suggest how a model of digital competence can bridge some of the gap between the intentions in the policy documents and the teachers/teacher educators’ practise. At the same time the article attempts to elaborate our perception of the concept digital competence in an educational discourse and how one can define digital competence in light of a Scandinavian educational perspective. The research question in this article is: how can digital competence be defined and what are the foundations of digital competence in teacher education and schools in light of the policy documents in Norway?

  9. The impacts of climate change on a Norwegian high-head hydropower plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernet, Haregewoin Haile; Alfredsen, Knut; Killintveit, Aanund

    2010-07-01

    Full text: Norway relies on hydropower for 99 percent of the electricity production and thus Hydropower is important for Norway today and in the future energy system. The work presented in this paper shows how a high-head hydropower system in Norway will be affected in the future climate. The Aurland Hydropower system, operated by E-Co Vannkraft, Norway is the test case for the study. The Aurland hydropower system has many reservoirs and transfer systems and is considered to be one of the complex systems in Norway, but also a typical example of a Norwegian high head system. The nMAG Hydropower simulation model, which has been developed at the Norwegian Hydro technical Laboratory, is used to simulate the hydropower system. Historical and future inflow series were transposed from the neighbouring catchment Flaamselvi using scaling based on area and specific runoff, as there is no discharge station in Aurland catchment with long unregulated inflow series to set up the model and to be used for developing future climate scenarios. To generate the future inflow series for the analysis, the HBV hydrological model is calibrated for the Flaamselvi catchment. The model is then used to generate future inflow series of using the Hadley GCM (HADAm3) and A2, B2 climate scenarios. The operation of the hydropower system is then simulated for the period 2071 -2100 to see how future power production is affected by the change in the inflow conditions. The HBV model is also used to see how snow accumulation will be affected in the future as snow melt is important for Norwegian reservoir and hydropower systems. The Hydrologic scenarios under climate change imply an average increase in runoff for the system. Snow accumulation will decrease with sooner snow melt and more winter precipitation as rain. The hydropower simulation results show that associated with the increase in runoff there is an increase in energy generation with 10-20% under the current reservoir operation strategies

  10. Review of arctic Norwegian bioremediation research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sveum, P.

    1991-09-01

    Traditional oil spill onshore clean up in arctic and sub-arctic parts of Norway involves methods that are both time-consuming, and labor intensive. The applicability of the methods depends both on the environmental constraints of the area, and the availability of man-power. If oil exploration is successful this will mean that the exploitation of oil moves north into the arctic regions of Norway. This area is remote, both in terms of accessability and lack of inhabitants. The threat to natural resources that always accompanies oil activities, will move into areas that are considered vulnerable, and which are also highly valued in terms of natural resources. Contingency measures must be adapted both to be feasible and to meet the framework in which they must operate. This situation has increased the focus on alternative methods for oil spill clean-ups, especially on shorelines. SINTEF (The Foundation for Scientific and Industrial Research at the Norwegian Institute of Technology) Applied Chemistry has evaluated the application of fertilizers as a practical measure in oil spill treatment for years. Several fertilizers have been assessed, in different environments. The effect of these products is difficult to establish categorically since their efficiency seems to be greatly dependent on the environment in which the test is conducted, as well as the design of the test. The aim of this paper is to summarize and evaluate a series of tests conducted with INIPOL EAP22, an oil soluble fertilizer developed by Elf Aquitaine, and water soluble fertilizers. The paper will emphasize treatment failure and success, and point out some necessary prerequisites that must be met for fertilizers to work. 14 refs., 3 figs

  11. Cancer in the Norwegian printing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvam, Bård M N; Romundstad, Pål Rikard; Boffetta, Paolo; Andersen, Aage

    2005-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate cancer risk among Norwegian workers in the printing industry, particularly lung and bladder cancer. Cancer incidence was investigated from 1953 through 1998 in a cohort of 10 549 male members of a trade union in the printing industry in Oslo and nearby areas. Rates from the region, were used to calculate standardized incidence ratios (SIR) separately for the skilled and unskilled workers. Smoking data from a sample of the cohort were utilized for evaluating the risk estimates of smoking-related cancers. Specific exposure data were not available. Among the skilled workers, significantly elevated risks of cancer of the urinary bladder [standardized incidence ratio (SIR) 1.47, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.19-1.79], liver (SIR 1.92, 95% CI 1.15-2.99), pancreas (SIR 1.46, 95% CI 1.07-1.94) and colon (SIR 1.27, 95% CI 1.05-1.55) were observed, whereas an increased risk of lung cancer in this group was confined to those born before 1910. Among the unskilled workers, there were significantly increased risks of cancer of the mouth, esophagus, stomach, larynx, lung, and all sites. The study showed that workers in the printing industry were at increased risk of several types of cancer. In particular the increased risk of bladder cancer among the skilled workers is suggestive of an occupational cause. However, no specific agent could be identified as an occupational carcinogen. The results did not support the hypothesis of a generally increased risk of lung cancer. The risk pattern for unskilled workers may reflect confounding by nonoccupational factors.

  12. Review of arctic Norwegian bioremediation research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sveum, P

    1991-09-01

    Traditional oil spill onshore clean up in arctic and sub-arctic parts of Norway involves methods that are both time-consuming, and labor intensive. The applicability of the methods depends both on the environmental constraints of the area, and the availability of man-power. If oil exploration is successful this will mean that the exploitation of oil moves north into the arctic regions of Norway. This area is remote, both in terms of accessability and lack of inhabitants. The threat to natural resources that always accompanies oil activities, will move into areas that are considered vulnerable, and which are also highly valued in terms of natural resources. Contingency measures must be adapted both to be feasible and to meet the framework in which they must operate. This situation has increased the focus on alternative methods for oil spill clean-ups, especially on shorelines. SINTEF (The Foundation for Scientific and Industrial Research at the Norwegian Institute of Technology) Applied Chemistry has evaluated the application of fertilizers as a practical measure in oil spill treatment for years. Several fertilizers have been assessed, in different environments. The effect of these products is difficult to establish categorically since their efficiency seems to be greatly dependent on the environment in which the test is conducted, as well as the design of the test. The aim of this paper is to summarize and evaluate a series of tests conducted with INIPOL EAP22, an oil soluble fertilizer developed by Elf Aquitaine, and water soluble fertilizers. The paper will emphasize treatment failure and success, and point out some necessary prerequisites that must be met for fertilizers to work. 14 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Food and Nutrient Intake among 12-Month-Old Norwegian-Somali and Norwegian-Iraqi Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewal, Navnit Kaur; Andersen, Lene Frost; Kolve, Cathrine Solheim; Kverndalen, Ingrid; Torheim, Liv Elin

    2016-09-28

    The aim of the present paper was to describe food and nutrient intake among 12-month-old Norwegian-Somali and Norwegian-Iraqi infants, with a focus on iron and vitamin D intake. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from August 2013 through September 2014. Eighty-nine mothers/infants of Somali origin and 77 mothers/infants of Iraqi origin residing in Eastern Norway participated in the study. Data were collected using two 24-h multiple-pass recalls. Forty percent of the Norwegian-Somali infants and 47% of the Norwegian-Iraqi infants were breastfed at 12 months of age ( p = 0.414). Median energy percentages (E%) from protein, fat and carbohydrates were within the recommended intake ranges, except the level of saturated fats (12-13 E%). Median intakes of almost all micronutrients were above the recommended daily intakes. Most of the infants consumed iron-enriched products (81%) and received vitamin D supplements (84%). The median intakes of iron and vitamin D were significantly higher among infants receiving iron-enriched products and vitamin D supplements compared to infants not receiving such products ( p food and nutrient intake of this group of infants in general seems to be in accordance with Norwegian dietary recommendations. Foods rich in iron and vitamin D supplements were important sources of the infants' intake of iron and vitamin D and should continue to be promoted.

  14. DETERMINANTS OF ENTREPRENEURIAL INTENTION: The Case of Norwegian Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Indarti

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to identify determinants of entrepreneurial intentions among young people. The empirical basis is Norwegian students, while an objective is also to create a basis for comparative studies among different economic and cultural contexts. Independent variables in the study include demographic factors and individual background, personality traits, and contextual elements like access to capital and information. The individual perceptions of self-efficacy and instrumental readiness are the variables that affect entrepreneurial intentions most significantly. Age, gender and educational background have no statistically significant impact. Generally, the level of the entrepreneurial intentions among Norwegian students is relatively low, which may be explained by social status and economic remuneration of entrepreneurs compared with employees in the Norwegian context.

  15. Effect of climate and farm environment on Campylobacter spp. colonisation in Norwegian broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, Malin E.; Chriél, Mariann; Norström, Madelaine

    2012-01-01

    of Campylobacter spp. in Norwegian broiler flocks and factors related to the climate and the farm environment. Data from 18,488 broiler flocks from 623 different farms during 2002–2007 were included in the study. A logistic regression analysis was conducted where Campylobacter spp. status of a broiler flock...... at the time of slaughter was defined as the dependent variable and farm was modelled as a random effect. The following factors were found to increase the probability for a broiler flock to test positive for Campylobacter spp.: daily mean temperature above 6°C during the rearing period, private water supply...

  16. Norwegian hydropower a valuable peak power source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brekke, Hermod

    2010-07-01

    given on a possible increase of the Norwegian hydropower peak power production to meet the growing the European demand for peak power caused by the growing non stationary production from wind mills and ocean energy from waves and sea current. Also building of reversible pump turbine power plants will be discussed even if approximately 10% power will be consumed by loss in the pumping phase compared to direct use of the water from reservoirs. (Author)

  17. Air pollution impacts due to petroleum extraction in the Norwegian Sea during the ACCESS aircraft campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tuccella

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Emissions from oil/gas extraction activities in the Arctic are already important in certain regions and may increase as global warming opens up new opportunities for industrial development. Emissions from oil/gas extraction are sources of air pollutants, but large uncertainties exist with regard to their amounts and composition. In this study, we focus on detailed investigation of emissions from oil/gas extraction in the Norwegian Sea combining measurements from the EU ACCESS aircraft campaign in July 2012 and regional chemical transport modeling. The goal is to (1 evaluate emissions from petroleum extraction activities and (2 investigate their impact on atmospheric composition over the Norwegian Sea. Numerical simulations include emissions for permanently operating offshore facilities from two datasets: the TNO-MACC inventory and emissions reported by Norwegian Environment Agency (NEA. It was necessary to additionally estimate primary aerosol emissions using reported emission factors since these emissions are not included in the inventories for our sites. Model runs with the TNO-MACC emissions are unable to reproduce observations close to the facilities. Runs using the NEA emissions more closely reproduce the observations although emissions from mobile facilities are missing from this inventory. Measured plumes suggest they are a significant source of pollutants, in particular NOx and aerosols. Sensitivities to NOx and NMVOC emissions show that, close to the platforms, O3 is sensitive to NOx emissions and is much less sensitive to NMVOC emissions. O3 destruction, via reaction with NO, dominates very close to the platforms. Far from the platforms, oil/gas facility emissions result in an average daytime O3 enhancement of +2% at the surface. Larger enhancements are predicted at noon ranging from +7% at the surface to +15% at 600 m. Black carbon is the aerosol species most strongly influenced by petroleum extraction emissions. The results highlight

  18. Research program on climatic and environmental problems. Summary of Norwegian climatic and ozone layer research in the last decade and important research tasks in the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlin, Elin

    1999-04-01

    This report includes 44 abstracts, 21 lectures and 23 posters from a workshop arranged by the Norwegian Research Council, the Steering Group for the Norwegian research programme for changes in climate and ozone layer. The topics dealt with are: Results from the research, the greenhouse effect and its influence on the climate of today, the interactions between ocean and climate, pollution influence on ozone layer changes, the UV radiation effects and their influence on the environment, climatic modelling and forecasting, ecological problems related to climatic and environmental changes, the climatic influences of human energy utilisation and suggestions for future research

  19. Holding Norwegian companies accountable: the case of Western Sahara : an exploration of the Norwegian government's approach to dealing with Norwegian companies' complicity in violations of human rights abroad

    OpenAIRE

    Skogsrud, Marte

    2011-01-01

    Morocco illegally occupies the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, and they are strategically exploiting the natural resources rightfully belonging to the local Saharawi people. Both of these actions are in violation of international law and fundamental human rights. Norwegian companies have been complicit in Morroco‟s trade in natural resources thereby legitimising the occupation and exploitation in political, legal, moral and economic terms. In this context this thesis invest...

  20. Radioactive substances - fluxes, concentrations and possible effects in the Norwegian Sea.; Radioaktive stoffer: tilfoersler, konsentrasjoner og mulige effekter i Norskehavet.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liland, A.; Hosseini, A.; Iosjpe, M.; Nilsen, K.A.; Graefvert, T.; Skjerdal, H.

    2012-10-15

    Report for the comprehensive management plan for the Norwegian Sea. Different scenarios are modeled: an accident occurring while spent nuclear fuel is being transported, pollution from a submarine that sinks off the coast, discharges from Sellafield, and the consequences of discharges from the petroleum industry. Possible effects of ionising radiation to the marine environment, doses to marine organisms and contaminants in seafood, are considered. (Author)

  1. Profit shifting in the Norwegian and British petroleum industry: Differentiating between the real and shifting response to tax changes

    OpenAIRE

    Vada, Helene

    2016-01-01

    In this master’s thesis, I explain the concept of profit shifting within multinational enterprises and investigate whether petroleum companies on the Norwegian and British continental shelves engage in tax motivated profit shifting, by applying ordinary least squares and company fixed effects estimation. To be able to distinguish between traditional tax distortions and profit shifting, I extend the model developed by James R. Hines and Eric M. Rice in their 1994 article “Fiscal Paradise: Fore...

  2. The Norwegian "Christianity, Religion and Philosophy" Subject "KRL" in Strasbourg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lied, Sidsel

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the judgement and dissent of the European Court of Human Rights in the "Case of Folgero and others v. Norway" regarding the subject "Christianity, Religion and Philosophy (KRL)" in Norwegian state schools. The verdict, reached with dissenting votes of 9-8, states that parents' freedom of ensuring their…

  3. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in Norwegian dairy goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stormoen Marit

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasma gondii is a major problem for the sheep industry as it may cause reproduction problems. The importance of T. gondii in Norwegian goat herds is uncertain, but outbreaks of toxoplasmosis in dairy goat farms have been recorded. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of T. gondii infection in Norwegian dairy goats by using serology. Findings Goat serum originally collected as part of two nationwide surveillance and control programmes between 2002 and 2008 were examined for T. gondii antibodies by using direct agglutination test. In total, 55 of 73 herds (75% had one or more serologically positive animals, while 377 of 2188 (17% of the individual samples tested positive for T. gondii antibodies. Conclusions This is the first prevalence study of T. gondii infection in Norwegian goats. The results show that Norwegian goat herds are commonly exposed to T. gondii. Nevertheless, the majority of goat herds have a low prevalence of antibody positive animals, which make them vulnerable to infections with T. gondii during the gestation period.

  4. The air quality in Norwegian cities. Development - reasons - measures - future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larssen, Steinar; Hagen, Leif Otto

    1998-12-01

    There is an increasing focus on the air quality in Norwegian cities and townships. The air quality depends on several factors and the connections are complex. The aim of this report is to present a short and simple survey of this complex field. The report consists of three parts: Part 1 is a survey of the development until today. Measurements of SO 2 and soot were started in the 1950's. Systematic determinations of NO x and NO 2 , CO and particles, ozone and benzene was started during the last three decades. The population exposure to air pollutants and their main sources are described as well as the air quality in Norwegian cities compared to other cities in Europe. In part 2 developments within transport, a sector necessary for understanding the development, are described. Part 3 is a survey of forecasting the air quality in Norway, pollution warnings and surveillance. The forecasts are based on assumed developments in important sectors such as transport, energy consumption for heating and industrial purposes and the effects of demands for fuel and vehicles. Effect analyses of further measures which may be useful for reaching the national goals for the air quality are carried out. A survey of the most important limiting values and criteria as well as technical terms is presented in the report and in the appendix. The report is commissioned by the Norwegian Petroleum Institute (Norsk Petroleumsinstitutt) and the Norwegian Road Federation (Opplysningsraadet for Veitrafikken)

  5. Intercultural Empathy among Norwegian Students: An Inclusive Citizenship Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solhaug, Trond; Osler, Audrey

    2018-01-01

    In recent decades, Norwegian schools have experienced increased cultural diversification among students. Growing heterogeneity in origin and culture may enhance the risk of student marginalisation, segregation and exclusion. In response to these challenges, this paper examines students' intercultural empathy and, particularly, how schools can…

  6. Educating Voters: Political Education in Norwegian Upper-Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borhaug, Kjetil

    2008-01-01

    Research on political education in schools suggests that an emphasis on formal structure, constitutional principles, formal citizen rights, and debates on current issues is common. The Norwegian national curriculum on political education envisions a different political education emphasizing that students should be critical of political life and…

  7. Predicting Intentions to Perform Protective Sexual Behaviours among Norwegian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myklestad, Ingri; Rise, Jostein

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the socio-cognitive processes underlying intentions to use condoms and contraceptive pills, using the Theory of Planned Behaviour extended with prototypes in a group of young Norwegian adolescents. The data are derived from a questionnaire survey comprising all pupils in Grade Nine at three schools in Oslo (n = 196). Using…

  8. Actual Leisure Participation of Norwegian Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolva, Anne-Stine; Kleiven, Jo; Kollstad, Marit

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the actual participation in leisure activities by a sample of Norwegian adolescents with Down syndrome aged 14. Representing a first generation to grow up in a relatively inclusive context, they live with their families, attend mainstream schools, and are part of common community life. Leisure information was obtained in…

  9. Radon concentrations in Norwegian kindergartens: survey planning and preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birovljev, A.; Strand, T.; Heiberg, A.

    1998-01-01

    An extensive radon survey in Norwegian kindergartens and schools was started in early 1997; so far 2481 kindergartens were examined. Preliminary results of the first phase of the survey are presented in tabular and graphic form including, among others, the dependence of average radon concentration on the construction year of the kindergartens and on the age of the buildings. (A.K.)

  10. Typing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains in Norwegian cystic fibrosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fluge, G; Ojeniyi, B; Høiby, N

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Typing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from Norwegian cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with chronic Pseudomonas lung infection in order to see whether cross-infection might have occurred. METHODS: Isolates from 60 patients were collected during the years 1994-98, and typed by pulsed...

  11. Possible Concepts for Waterproofing of Norwegian TBM Railway Tunnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammyr, Øyvind; Nilsen, Bjørn; Thuro, Kurosch; Grøndal, Jørn

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate and compare the durability, life expectancy and maintenance needs of traditional Norwegian waterproofing concepts to the generally more rigid waterproofing concepts seen in other European countries. The focus will be on solutions for future Norwegian tunnel boring machine railway tunnels. Experiences from operation of newer and older tunnels with different waterproofing concepts have been gathered and analyzed. In the light of functional requirements for Norwegian rail tunnels, some preliminary conclusions about suitable concepts are drawn. Norwegian concepts such as polyethylene panels and lightweight concrete segments with membrane are ruled out. European concepts involving double shell draining systems (inner shell of cast concrete with membrane) and single shell undrained systems (waterproof concrete segments) are generally evaluated as favorable. Sprayable membranes and waterproof/insulating shotcrete are welcomed innovations, but more research is needed to verify their reliability and cost effectiveness compared to the typical European concepts. Increasing traffic and reliance on public transport systems in Norway result in high demand for durable and cost effective solutions.

  12. Possibilities for rutile extraction from Norwegian eclogite by flotation

    OpenAIRE

    Gaydardzhiev, Stoyan; Sandvik, Knut

    1993-01-01

    Preliminary flotations tests towards rutile extraction from Norwegian eclogites (Verving deposit) have been carried out. Various sulfonate type flotation reagents (produced by Hoechts) have been tested. Selectivity between rutile/pyroxene has been targeted. Rutile separation from pyrite and garnet has been further identified as principal problem.

  13. Jens Glad Balchen: A Norwegian Pioneer in Engineering Cybernetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Breivik

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper tells the story of Jens Glad Balchen (1926-2009, a Norwegian research scientist and engineer who is widely regarded as the father of Engineering Cybernetics in Norway. In 1954, he founded what would later become the Department of Automatic Control at the Norwegian Institute of Technology in Trondheim. This name was changed to the Department of Engineering Cybernetics in 1972 to reflect the broader efforts being made, not only within the purely technical disciplines, but also within biology, oceanography and medicine. Balchen established an advanced research community in cybernetics in postwar Norway, whose applications span everything from the process industry and positioning of ships to control of fish and lobster farming. He was a chief among the tribe of Norwegian cybernetics engineers and made a strong impact on his colleagues worldwide. He planted the seeds of a whole generation of Norwegian industrial companies through his efforts of seeking applications for every scientific breakthrough. His strength and his wisdom in combination with his remarkable stubbornness gave extraordinary results.

  14. Future challanges for the maturing Norwegian salmon aquaculture industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asche, Frank; Guttormsen, Atle G.; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze total factor productivity change in the Norwegian salmon aquaculture sector from 1996 to 2008. During this period, the production has on average been growing with 8% per year. At the same time, the price of salmon has stabilized indicating that an increase in demand...... factor to future production growth in the salmon aquaculture industry....

  15. No indication of Coxiella burnetii infection in Norwegian farmed ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kampen Annette H

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infection with Coxiella burnetii, the cause of Q-fever, has never been detected in Norwegian animals. Recognising the increasing prevalence of the infection in neighbouring countries, the aim of the study was to perform a survey of Norwegian farmed ruminants for the prevalence of C. burnetii infection. Results Milk and blood samples from more than 3450 Norwegian dairy cattle herds, 55 beef cattle herds, 348 dairy goat herds and 118 sheep flocks were serologically examined for antibodies against C. burnetii. All samples were negative for antibodies against C. burnetii. The estimated prevalences of infected herds were 0 (95% confidence interval: 0% - 0.12%, 0 (0% - 12%, 0 (0% - 1.2% and 0 (0% - 10% for dairy cattle herds, beef cattle herds, goat herds and sheep flocks, respectively. Conclusions The study indicates that the prevalence of C. burnetii infection in farmed Norwegian ruminants is low, and it cannot be excluded that Norway is free of the infection. It would be beneficial if Norway was able to maintain the current situation. Therefore, preventive measures should be continued.

  16. Distressed Relationships : Lessons from the Norwegian Banking Crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ongena, S.; Smith, D.C.; Michalsen, D.

    2000-01-01

    This paper measures the economy-wide impact of bank distress on the loss of relationship benefits. We use the near-collapse of the Norwegian banking system during the period 1988 to 1991 to measure the impact of bank distress announcements on the stock prices of firms maintaining a relationship with

  17. Syllable reduction and articulation rates in Danish, Norwegian and Swedish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilton, N.H.; Schüppert, Anja; Gooskens, C.S.

    2011-01-01

    This investigation compares articulation rates of phonological and phonetic syllables in Norwegian, Swedish and Danish to investigate differences in degrees of syllable deletion (reduction) among these three languages. For the investigation two sets of data are used: one consisting of recorded

  18. Policing Norwegian Welfare: Disciplining and Differentiating within the Bottom Rungs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika K. Gubrium

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Policing is a disciplining means for using welfare services to govern welfare recipients towards a desired behaviour or goal. We apply Foucault’s (1977 definition of institutional discipline as a means for exploring how the distinctions made by state and local welfare authorities in Norway when policing recipients may take shape according to normative perceptions of ethnicity and deservingness. More particularly, we explore the regulating understandings and activities linked to the inclusion and exclusion of eligibility to welfare benefits and services and the form of the services offered. Our focus lies at the point of entry from the lowest tier of Norwegian welfare benefits (social assistance into two semi-parallel and higher tiers promising more (higher benefits, better services. The tiers are represented by programmes that share aims, yet differ in reach: the 2004 Introduction Programme and the 2007 Qualification Programme. The Introduction Programme is an activation programme targeted at immigrants and refugees newly arrived to Norway. Its aim is to strengthen opportunities to participate in society and labour market, as well as to promote economic independence. The Qualification Programme is an activation programme that was explicitly modelled after the Introduction Programme, yet whose target group reaches more broadly to include long-term recipients of social assistance and those whose work ability is severely lowered. While both programmes have been premised on the need to transform participants from a status of passive welfare benefit recipients to active participants in qualifying measures and society, the target groups vary and it is this contrast that is our point of focus. We contrast the two policies at two ‘moments’ in the policy cycle: (1 policy framing (public and policymaker understandings/assumptions concerning the target group, the location of accountability for the marginal position of the policy recipient and the

  19. Triclosan Exposure and Allergic Sensitization in Norwegian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelsen, Randi J.; Longnecker, Matthew P.; Løvik, Martinus; Calafat, Antonia M.; Carlsen, Kai-Håkon; London, Stephanie J.; Carlsen, Karin C. Lødrup

    2012-01-01

    Background Exposure to the synthetic antimicrobial chemical, triclosan, used in personal care products, has been hypothesized to lead to allergic disease. We investigated whether triclosan exposure was associated with allergic sensitization and symptoms in 10-year old Norwegian children. Methods Urinary concentrations of triclosan were measured in one first morning void from 623 children, collected 2001– 2004. Logistic regression models, controlling for urine specific gravity, parental allergic disease, maternal education, and household income, were fitted for allergic sensitization (either skin prick test positivity or serum specific IgE ≥0.35 kU/L to at least one of 15 evaluated inhalant and food allergens), current rhinitis, and current asthma (questionnaire and exercise challenge test). Results The adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for allergic sensitization among those in the fourth quartile of triclosan concentration was 2.0 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1, 3.4) compared with the reference group (< the limit of detection) and the aOR per log10 unit increase in triclosan was 1.2 (95% CI: 1.0, 1.4). The aOR for current rhinitis was 1.9 (95% CI: 1.1, 3.4) for the fourth quartile and 1.2 (95% CI:0.97, 1.4) per log10 unit increase in triclosan. Conclusion Triclosan concentrations were associated with allergic sensitization, especially inhalant and seasonal allergens rather thanfood allergens. Current rhinitis was associated with the highest levels of triclosan, whereas no association was seen for current asthma. These results are consistent with recent findings in other studies and provide additional evidence for an association between triclosan and allergy. PMID:23146048

  20. Developing scenarios for the Norwegian travel industry 2025

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anniken Enger

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The Norwegian travel industry faces decline in important international tourism segments and needs an industry wide and future‐oriented strategy to face these challenges. Accordingly, a common understanding of future drivers and different scenarios for the industry is needed. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach – Using the process of scenario analysis and drawing upon the involvement of the tourism industry, this paper describes the method, drivers, scenarios, and implications. Findings – The research identified six important drivers with predictable outcomes: uneven global economic development, digitalization, climate change, consumer demand – return on time, centralization, and demography. The Norwegian economy and Norwegian politics were the two drivers that stood out as the most significant for the tourism industry, with a very uncertain outcome, and constituted the two axes of the scenarios. This resulted in four scenarios: Money Rules, The Urban Diamond, Opportunities for All, and Master Plan. Practical implications – The four scenarios represent different economic value of international tourism in Norway. The Opportunities for All and Master Plan scenarios represent the greatest economic value for Norwegian tourism. They indicate great opportunities for tourism to become the “new oil” in Norway if the oil economy declines. The two scenarios differ with respect to the degree of governance control vs market liberalization. The scenarios will be used to identify implications and risks for different parts of the tourism industry, and to further explore how governance control and market liberalization may be combined. Originality/value – The research identified six drivers which are significant for the Norwegian tourism industry. This resulted in four scenarios which are used to identify implications and risks for different parts of the industry.

  1. Usage-Based vs. Rule-Based Learning: The Acquisition of Word Order in "Wh"-Questions in English and Norwegian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westergaard, Marit

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses different approaches to language acquisition in relation to children's acquisition of word order in "wh"-questions in English and Norwegian. While generative models assert that children set major word order parameters and thus acquire a rule of subject-auxiliary inversion or generalized verb second (V2) at an early stage, some…

  2. The Rhetoric of a Reform: The Construction of "Public", "Management" and the "New" in Norwegian Education Reforms of the 1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippestad, Tom Are

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a critical rhetorical analysis of the governing and reform ideology of the Norwegian school system of the 1990s. It uses Karl Popper's "The Open Society and its Enemies" as a critical resource in the reading of the reforms, and discusses some of the consequences of the regime's models of leadership and public…

  3. Brothers in arms or peace? The media representation of Swedish and Norwegian defence- and military co-operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stig Arne Nohrstedt

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the relevance of Johan Galtung's model for peace journalism and critical discourse analysis (CDA in light of the media coverage of Swedish and Norwegian defence cooperation. By analysing the proposal for closer military cooperation between the Nato-member Norway and the non-aligned Sweden the article emphasises the paradox that the fact that both Sweden and Norway have forces fighting in Afghanistan was not mentioned when the heads of the Norwegian and Swedish Defence in a joint article justified the need for a closer cooperation between the two countries. Thus this analysis illustrates some limitations of the peace journalism perspective and the necessity to take a contextual approach in which also the possibility of "peace talk" being part of a war discourse is considered.

  4. Casein SNP in Norwegian goats: additive and dominance effects on milk composition and quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The four casein proteins in goat milk are encoded by four closely linked casein loci (CSN1S1, CSN2, CSN1S2 and CSN3) within 250 kb on caprine chromosome 6. A deletion in exon 12 of CSN1S1, so far reported only in Norwegian goats, has been found at high frequency (0.73). Such a high frequency is difficult to explain because the national breeding goal selects against the variant's effect. Methods In this study, 575 goats were genotyped for 38 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP) located within the four casein genes. Milk production records of these goats were obtained from the Norwegian Dairy Goat Control. Test-day mixed models with additive and dominance fixed effects of single SNP were fitted in a model including polygenic effects. Results Significant additive effects of single SNP within CSN1S1 and CSN3 were found for fat % and protein %, milk yield and milk taste. The allele with the deletion showed additive and dominance effects on protein % and fat %, and overdominance effects on milk quantity (kg) and lactose %. At its current frequency, the observed dominance (overdominance) effects of the deletion allele reduced its substitution effect (and additive genetic variance available for selection) in the population substantially. Conclusions The selection pressure of conventional breeding on the allele with the deletion is limited due to the observed dominance (overdominance) effects. Inclusion of molecular information in the national breeding scheme will reduce the frequency of this deletion in the population. PMID:21864407

  5. Genetic variation in efficiency to deposit fat and lean meat in Norwegian Landrace and Duroc pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinsen, K H; Ødegård, J; Olsen, D; Meuwissen, T H E

    2015-08-01

    Feed costs amount to approximately 70% of the total costs in pork production, and feed efficiency is, therefore, an important trait for improving pork production efficiency. Production efficiency is generally improved by selection for high lean growth rate, reduced backfat, and low feed intake. These traits have given an effective slaughter pig but may cause problems in piglet production due to sows with limited body reserves. The aim of the present study was to develop a measure for feed efficiency that expressed the feed requirements per 1 kg deposited lean meat and fat, which is not improved by depositing less fat. Norwegian Landrace ( = 8,161) and Duroc ( = 7,202) boars from Topigs Norsvin's testing station were computed tomography scanned to determine their deposition of lean meat and fat. The trait was analyzed in a univariate animal model, where total feed intake in the test period was the dependent variable and fat and lean meat were included as random regression cofactors. These cofactors were measures for fat and lean meat efficiencies of individual boars. Estimation of fraction of total genetic variance due to lean meat or fat efficiency was calculated by the ratio between the genetic variance of the random regression cofactor and the total genetic variance in total feed intake during the test period. Genetic variance components suggested there was significant genetic variance among Norwegian Landrace and Duroc boars in efficiency for deposition of lean meat (0.23 ± 0.04 and 0.38 ± 0.06) and fat (0.26 ± 0.03 and 0.17 ± 0.03) during the test period. The fraction of the total genetic variance in feed intake explained by lean meat deposition was 12% for Norwegian Landrace and 15% for Duroc. Genetic fractions explained by fat deposition were 20% for Norwegian Landrace and 10% for Duroc. The results suggested a significant part of the total genetic variance in feed intake in the test period was explained by fat and lean meat efficiency. These new

  6. The effects of building design on hazard of first service in Norwegian dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, A D; Kielland, C; Nelson, S T; Østerås, O

    2015-12-01

    Reproductive inefficiency is one of the major production and economic constraints on modern dairy farms. The environment affects onset of ovarian activity in a cow postcalving and influences estrus behavior, which in turn affects a stockperson's ability to inseminate her at the correct time. This study used survival analysis to investigate effects of building design and animal factors on the postpartum hazard of first service (HFS) in freestall-housed Norwegian Red cows. The study was performed on 232 Norwegian dairy farms between 2004 and 2007. Data were obtained through on farm measurements and by accessing the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System. The final data set contained data on 38,436 calvings and 27,127 services. Univariate Cox proportional hazard analyses showed that herd size and milk yield were positively associated with HFS. Total free accessible area and free accessible area available per cow year were positively associated with the HFS, as was the number of freestalls available per cow. Cows housed on slatted floors had a lower HFS than those housed on solid floors. Conversely, cows housed on rubber floors had a higher HFS than cows on concrete floors. Dead-ending alleyways reduced the hazard of AI after calving. A multivariable Cox proportional hazards model, accounting for herd management by including a frailty term for herd, showed relationships between hazard of postpartum service and explanatory variables. Animals in herds with more than 50 cows had a higher HFS [hazard ratio (HR)=3.0] compared with those in smaller herds. The HFS was also higher (HR=4.3) if more than 8.8 m(2) of space was available per cow year compared with herds in which animals had less space. The HFS after calving increased with parity (parity 2 HR=0.5, parity ≥3 HR=1.7), and was reduced if a lactation began with dystocia (HR=0.82) or was a breed other than Norwegian Red (HR=0.2). The frailty term, herd, was large and highly significant indicating a significant

  7. The Norwegian version of the Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale: factor structure and psychometric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredal, Inger Schou

    2010-02-01

    The object of the study was to examine the factor structure and the psychometric properties of the Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale (Mini-MAC) among a large sample of Norwegian breast cancer patients. A total of 402 patients with breast cancer completed the Mini-MAC. Principal component analysis with varimax rotion confirmed four factors. Three had psychometric properties to the original Mini-MAC Helpless-Hopeless (HH), Anxious Preoccupation (AP) and Cognitive Avoidance (CA) subscales. The fourth, named Positive Attitude (PA) combined the Fighting Spirit (FS) and the Fatalism subscales of the original Mini-MAC. Construct validities were assessed by examining the interscale correlations as well as the correlations between the Mini-MAC subscales and the HADS subscales scores. Internal consistency of the five subscales was satisfactory for the original (HH, AP, CA, FA, coefficients=0.60-0.83), except for the FS subscale (coefficient=21). In view of the low internal reliability for the Norwegian Mini-MAC FS subscale coefficient; it appears to be more appropriate to use the Norwegian Mini-MAC as a four-factor model. If researcher or clinicians in Norway use the five-factor model, they should take great care when interpreting the fighting spirit subscale.

  8. Intake of multivitamin supplements and incident asthma in Norwegian adults: the HUNT study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Jiang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Although intake of multivitamin supplements is becoming increasingly popular, the relationship between intake of multivitamin supplements and incident asthma remains unclear. Prospective studies in adults with long-term follow-up are especially scarce. Our objective was to investigate the association between intake of multivitamin supplements and asthma development in Norwegian adults. We followed 16 952 adult subjects from the second survey of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (1995–1997 up to 2006–2008, who, at baseline, were free of asthma and provided information on their intake of multivitamin supplements and cod liver oil. Regular intake of multivitamin supplements or cod liver oil was defined as daily intake for ≥3 months during the year prior to baseline. Incident asthma was defined as reported new-onset asthma after the 11-year follow-up. Intake of multivitamin supplements only was associated with an increased odds ratio for incident asthma (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.12–2.13 after adjustment for a number of common confounding factors (model I. Similar odds ratios were found for intake of cod liver oil only and for intake of both supplements (1.59 and 1.73, respectively. Regular intake of multivitamin supplements was associated with an increased odds ratio for incident asthma in Norwegian adults.

  9. Childbearing impeded education more than education impeded childbearing among Norwegian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joel E; Kravdal, Øystein; Keilman, Nico

    2011-07-19

    In most societies, women at age 39 with higher levels of education have fewer children. To understand this association, we investigated the effects of childbearing on educational attainment and the effects of education on fertility in the 1964 birth cohort of Norwegian women. Using detailed annual data from ages 17 to 39, we estimated the probabilities of an additional birth, a change in educational level, and enrollment in the coming year, conditional on fertility history, educational level, and enrollment history at the beginning of each year. A simple model reproduced a declining gradient of children ever born with increasing educational level at age 39. When a counterfactual simulation assumed no effects of childbearing on educational progression or enrollment (without changing the estimated effects of education on childbearing), the simulated number of children ever born decreased very little with increasing completed educational level, contrary to data. However, when another counterfactual simulation assumed no effects of current educational level and enrollment on childbearing (without changing the estimated effects of childbearing on education), the simulated number of children ever born decreased with increasing completed educational level nearly as much as the decrease in the data. In summary, in these Norwegian data, childbearing impeded education much more than education impeded childbearing. These results suggest that women with advanced degrees have lower completed fertility on the average principally because women who have one or more children early are more likely to leave or not enter long educational tracks and never attain a high educational level.

  10. Perfluoroalkyl substances during pregnancy and validated preeclampsia among nulliparous women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starling, Anne P; Engel, Stephanie M; Richardson, David B; Baird, Donna D; Haug, Line S; Stuebe, Alison M; Klungsøyr, Kari; Harmon, Quaker; Becher, Georg; Thomsen, Cathrine; Sabaredzovic, Azemira; Eggesbø, Merete; Hoppin, Jane A; Travlos, Gregory S; Wilson, Ralph E; Trogstad, Lill I; Magnus, Per; Longnecker, Matthew P

    2014-04-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are persistent and ubiquitous environmental contaminants, and human exposure to these substances may be related to preeclampsia, a common pregnancy complication. Previous studies have found serum concentrations of PFAS to be positively associated with pregnancy-induced hypertension and preeclampsia in a population with high levels of exposure to perfluorooctanoate. Whether this association exists among pregnant women with background levels of PFAS exposure is unknown. Using data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health, we carried out a study of nulliparous pregnant women enrolled in 2003-2007 (466 cases, 510 noncases) to estimate associations between PFAS concentrations and an independently validated diagnosis of preeclampsia. We measured levels of 9 PFAS in maternal plasma extracted midpregnancy; statistical analyses were restricted to 7 PFAS that were quantifiable in more than 50% of samples. In proportional hazards models adjusted for maternal age, prepregnancy body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)), educational level, and smoking status, we observed no strongly positive associations between PFAS levels and preeclampsia. We found an inverse association between preeclampsia and the highest quartile of perfluoroundecanoic acid concentration relative to the lowest quartile (hazard ratio = 0.55, 95% confidence interval: 0.38, 0.81). Overall, our findings do not support an increased risk of preeclampsia among nulliparous Norwegian women with background levels of PFAS exposure.

  11. Temporal Variation of Mycotoxin Producing Fungi in Norwegian Cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif Sundheim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Spring barley is grown on about half of the Norwegian cereal area. The rest of the area is equally divided between wheat and oats. Most years the domestic production provides 70%–80% of the domestic market for bread wheat. Barley and oats are mainly grown for animal feed. During the years 2008–2012, severe epidemics of Fusarium head blight have led to increased mycotoxin contamination of cereals. During that period, precipitation was above normal during anthesis and grain maturation. The most important mycotoxin producers have been F. avenaceum, F. culmorum, F. graminearum and F. langsethiae. Increased deoxynivalenol contamination of Norwegian cereals during recent years is due to severe F. graminearum epidemics.

  12. The petroleum resources on the Norwegian continental shelf. 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-07-01

    The petroleum resources will not last for ever. It is therefore important for Norway to look ahead so as to be prepared for the changes that will come. In this report, the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate presents the current status of the petroleum resources on the Norwegian continental shelf. This is the basis on which the authorities can lay plans for the future. Since no-one can predict the future with certainty, on this occasion the Directorate is presenting four alternative scenarios for the future of Norwegian petroleum activities if the basic scenario proves incorrect. This will enable us to prepare ourselves for changes that may come, and to view the consequences of the various choices we can make. In this report, the Directorate also describes the various plays on the continental shelf, and explains the techniques used and the evaluations made when it estimates the undiscovered resources. This information is important for exploration work, particularly for new companies which need to get acquainted with the geology and the possibilities for finding oil and gas in Norway. Significant volumes remain to be produced and found on the Norwegian continental shelf. Only a third of the total resources have so far been produced, and a quarter of them have still not been discovered. Oil and gas prices are high at the moment, giving the industry and society in general good incentives to produce at a maximum rate. Oil production reached its peak a couple of years ago, but gas production is still increasing. However, the industry is finding less than it produces, which places demands on both it and the authorities. The industry must actively explore the acreage it has been allocated. The Petroleum Directorate believes that substantial resources can still be discovered in areas where production licences have been awarded. At the same time, the industry must gain access to new areas for exploration. The authorities must find an appropriate balance between concern for the

  13. Status of Norwegian climate policy 2011; Statusrapport for norsk klimapolitikk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Norwegians are generally little impressed what Norway as a society has achieved in the climate policy. This is consistent with the actual situation as it is mapped in this year's edition of the Status of Norwegian climate policy. The results obtained in a survey by TNS Gallup which was commissioned by BI Centre for Climate Strategy in connection with the disclosure of the agency's annual status report for the Norwegian climate policy. 1000 Norwegians have been asked about how good or bad they perceive the overall results in various areas of climate policy. Even for climate-friendly heating, which is the area where most perceive that there has been progress, only 39% of the population consider the results as very good or good. In addition to heating, energy efficiency in buildings, Norway's international efforts, research on climate technology and information to the public areas where most Norwegians still think the results are good, and which are the least dissatisfied.Year Status Report on Norwegian climate policy is a joint project between the organization Holder de ord (Do they keep promises) and BI Centre for Climate Strategy. The report shows that people have a fairly accurate picture of climate policy. In most areas, there is little substantial progress since the Low Emission submitted its recommendations in 2006. It is symptomatic that climate policy was recently delayed again - now to 2012. While it is a positive development in the areas that are at the top of people's list. Since 2006, for example, there has been a substantial expansion of district heating in Norway, and building standards have become much stricter when it comes to energy use. Motor vehicle taxes are changed and greenhouse emissions from new cars is 25% lower than in 2006. Norway also play a constructive role, both in relation to the negotiations at the UN on a new climate deal, but also for example in relation to a global sectoral agreement for shipping that was signed

  14. Norwegian actors in the fields of energy and climate change in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buan, Inga Fritzen

    2008-02-15

    Written for and funded by the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and StatoilHydro, this report is a descriptive inventory of Norwegian involvement and Sino-Norwegian cooperation in the fields of energy and climate change-related issues in China. Part 1 is a brief, general introduction to the relevant topics, providing both typical and atypical examples of Norwegian involvement and cooperation and partnerships between actors from the two countries. Many valuable cooperative relationships in science and business have been established. The report also comments on areas in which Norwegian involvement is falling behind the other Nordic countries. Parts 2, 3 and 4 consist of lists of the relevant Norwegian governmental bodies, research institutions and private businesses including descriptions of their partnerships, projects and expertise. (author). 57 refs

  15. Highly variable Pliocene sea surface conditions in the Norwegian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. E. Bachem

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Pliocene was a time of global warmth with small sporadic glaciations, which transitioned towards the larger-scale Pleistocene glacial–interglacial variability. Here, we present high-resolution records of sea surface temperature (SST and ice-rafted debris (IRD in the Norwegian Sea from 5.32 to 3.14 Ma, providing evidence that the Pliocene surface conditions of the Norwegian Sea underwent a series of transitions in response to orbital forcing and gateway changes. Average SSTs are 2 °C above the regional Holocene mean, with notable variability on millennial to orbital timescales. Both gradual changes and threshold effects are proposed for the progression of regional climate towards the Late Pliocene intensification of Northern Hemisphere glaciation. Cooling from 4.5 to 4.3 Ma may be linked to the onset of poleward flow through the Bering Strait. This cooling was further intensified by a period of cool summers due to weak obliquity forcing. A 7 °C warming of the Norwegian Sea at 4.0 Ma suggests a major increase in northward heat transport from the North Atlantic, leading to an enhanced zonal SST gradient in the Nordic Seas, which may be linked to the expansion of sea ice in the Arctic and Nordic Seas. A warm Norwegian Sea and enhanced zonal temperature gradient between 4.0 and 3.6 Ma may have been a priming factor for increased glaciation around the Nordic Seas due to enhanced evaporation and precipitation at high northern latitudes.

  16. Hearing status among Norwegian train drivers and train conductors

    OpenAIRE

    Lie, A.; Skogstad, M.; Johnsen, T. S.; Engdahl, B.; Tambs, K.

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a general perception that train drivers and conductors may be at increased risk of developing noise-induced hearing loss. Aims To study job-related hearing loss among train drivers and train conductors. Methods Audiograms from train drivers and train conductors were obtained from the medical records of the occupational health service of the major Norwegian railway company. The results were compared with audiograms from an internal control group of railway workers and an ex...

  17. The Norwegian Plan of Action for nuclear safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    The Plan of Action underlies Norwegian activities in the field of international co-operation to enhance nuclear safety and prevent radioactive contamination from activities in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. Geographically the highest priority has been given to support for safety measures in north-west Russia. This information brochure outlines the main content of the Plan of Action for nuclear safety issues and lists a number of associated measures and projects

  18. Norwegian Hydrological Reference Dataset for Climate Change Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnussen, Inger Helene; Killingland, Magnus; Spilde, Dag

    2012-07-01

    Based on the Norwegian hydrological measurement network, NVE has selected a Hydrological Reference Dataset for studies of hydrological change. The dataset meets international standards with high data quality. It is suitable for monitoring and studying the effects of climate change on the hydrosphere and cryosphere in Norway. The dataset includes streamflow, groundwater, snow, glacier mass balance and length change, lake ice and water temperature in rivers and lakes.(Author)

  19. The prospects of the Norwegian offshore gas scene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sael, E.

    1992-01-01

    It is not unlikely that Norway will become the major offshore gas producer in Europe in the latter part of this decade. This paper reviews the current estimates of the magnitude and geographical distribution of Norwegian gas resources, the prospects for gas supply and exports, the infrastructure such as pipelines and production facilities now in place and required for the future, and the environmental challenge which makes natural gas the most attractive of the fossil fuels for power generation. (UK)

  20. Knowledge for Sale: Norwegian Encyclopaedias in the Marketplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siv Frøydis Berg

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Encyclopedias present and contain knowledge, but historically they have also been commercial commodities, produced for sale. In this article, we study the self-presentations of a selection of Norwegian encyclopedias, as these are expressed in the form of commercial images, advertising texts and slogans. We thus present a brief but detailed study of what might be called a number of paratextual matters associated with 20th-century Norwegian encyclopedias, with the aim of identifying the most significant or recurring topoi in the material. Our analysis shows that claims about speed and modernization are among the most conspicuous ingredients in these self-presentations, claims which, we argue, feed into a particular logic of a particular version of 20th-century modernity. The article begins with an analysis of the commercially successful Konversationslexicon, the first Norwegian encyclopedia, published in 1906 and for a long time market leader of the bourgeois tradition. The Konversationslexicon was produced with the explicit aim of providing a source of conversation for the educated classes, a new and expanding group of readers. We also show how the publisher Aschehoug went on to strengthen its own position in this market through a sophisticated process of differentiation. Seen as a contrast to these market leaders, we explore the Norwegian tradition of counter-encyclopaedias, with the radical PaxLeksikon as our main example. This encyclopaedia came into existence as a result of a strong ideological motivation and was run by left-wing idealists. Nevertheless, and perhaps inevitably, it ended up situating itself within the same market mechanisms and the same commercial logic as the bourgeois encyclopaedias. The article ends by a brief consideration of the change from commercial print encyclopaedias to internet-based encyclopaedias, and of the new challenges this poses in a small nation, rhetorically and in the struggle for funding.

  1. How should Norwegians prepare for doing business with Japan?

    OpenAIRE

    Hole, Anders

    2006-01-01

    This thesis examines the differences between Norwegian and Japanese culture, and how these differences might impact business relations between companies from the two countries. We also look at the language barrier as a possible source of difficulty, and see how this can be overcome through the use of interpreters, or by using a common language. We look at the usefulness and dangers of stereotyping, before analysing both Norway and Japan using Hofstede’s and Trompenaars & Hampden-Turner’s cult...

  2. The Norwegian Plan of Action for nuclear safety issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The Plan of Action underlies Norwegian activities in the field of international co-operation to enhance nuclear safety and prevent radioactive contamination from activities in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. Geographically the highest priority has been given to support for safety measures in north-west Russia. This information brochure outlines the main content of the Plan of Action for nuclear safety issues and lists a number of associated measures and projects.

  3. [Intention] to buy organic food products among norwegian consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Muhammed Zabiullah

    2012-01-01

    Masteroppgave i økonomi og administrasjon - Universitetet i Agder 2012 The purpose of this thesis is to examine the buying intention of the Norwegian consumers towards ecological or eco-labeled food products. What are the factors that are leading people to buy organic food and which one are the most important factors among consumers. The thesis is divided into four sections, Phenomena, Theory, Reality, and conclusion. Each section is interrelated with each other. In this thesis, data w...

  4. Invisible Migrants : Norwegians in Brazil, 1820-1940

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo, Clarisse Carvalho

    2012-01-01

    The present study focuses on Norwegian migration to Brazil from a macro-level perspective: how many migrated, when, where, how and why. The present analysis is based on data from emigration and immigration records, passenger lists, as well as other “alternative” sources such as travelogues, personal and historical accounts and letters, collected both in Norway and Brazil. Official emigration and immigration statistics on this group are often incomplete, unreliable or simply inexistent, in par...

  5. Exhaust gas emission from ships in Norwegian coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meltzer, F.; Fiskaa, G.

    1991-02-01

    For the following vessel categories bunker consumption and emission of greenhouse gases and SO 2 has been calculated: Norwegian coastal trade, domestic ferries, fishing vessels (Norwegian), Norwegian military vessels, inter-coastal ferries, import and export, ships iron-ore from Narvik and Soviet vessels in transit. The carbon emission (CO 2 as carbon) within 12 nautical miles has been calculated to 0.621 MtC (Mega ton carbon) and to 1.0 MtC within the economic zone for these vessel categories. The calculated ''inland waterways'' bunker consumption in this study deviates from the Central Bureau of Statistics of Norway and OECD/IEA figures by up to 25%. This large deviation supports the need for a uniform method to calculate ''inland waterways'' bunker consumption. Scenarios for the emission outlook for the years 1995, 2000 and 2005 are discussed and calculated. With 1988 as present level it is possible, according to these scenarios, to reduce the emission of NO x by close to 40% and SO 2 by 85%. Reduction of greenhouse- and SO 2 components in the exhaust gases from ships is today technically possible, but the demand for further research and development is significant. Compared with land-based low-emission technologies, the offshore technologies are years behind. 21 refs., 9 figs., 9 tabs

  6. Explaining the appeal of militant Salafism in a Norwegian context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Nord Holmer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available By drawing upon existing literature on Islamic radicalisation, this article empirically explores why some Norwegian Muslims come to accept the use of violence in the name of Islam. Based on primary internet research and interviews with individuals who either call for violent jihad, or who have travelled to Syria to engage in armed struggle, this study identifies several complaints and grievances which may result in individuals adopting extreme positions. These grievances relate to Norwegian and Western foreign policies, feelings of being alienated and stigmatised in the public debate, a sense of not belonging, actual or perceived discrimination, and socio-economic deprivation. Interestingly, the findings in this study suggest that these factors are not significantly different in Norway than in other European countries facing the general trend of Islamic radicalisation. Rather, the ideological positions and statements identified in the data collection reflect the broader literature on the radicalisation of young Muslims living in Europe. In line with theories of Wiktorowicz (2005 and Roy (2004, this article therefore argues that Norwegian Muslims may become attracted to militant Salafism because it responds to their individual grievances, and provides an alternative worldview that offers meaning, community and justice based on shared religion and ideology. 

  7. Norwegian Oncologists' Expectations of Intensity-modulated Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muren, Ludvig P.; Mella, Olav; Hafslund, Rune; Dahl, Olav

    2002-01-01

    Although intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) may increase the therapeutic ratio of radiotherapy for a range of malignancies, only a few IMRT treatments have yet been performed in the Nordic countries. The scores derived from a national survey to assess Norwegian oncologists' expectations of IMRT are presented. A questionnaire was distributed to all consultants in oncology at Norwegian radiotherapy clinics. Summary scores of daily general radiotherapy workload (DGRTW), acquaintance with IMRT (AI) and expectations of IMRT (EI) were derived. Thirty-nine questionnaires (67%) were returned from a total of 58 oncologists. The oncologists' scores on the AI scale (mean score: 7.5 out of 21) were rather low. Their AI scores were found to be positively correlated with their DGRTW. Higher scores on the EI scale were documented (mean score: 6.2 out of 14): 15 oncologists (39%) rated IMRT as one of the three major contributors to potentially increased cancer survival. Oncologists treating patients with prostate, head and neck, gastrointestinal and CNS tumours had higher EI scores than the other oncologists (7.7 vs. 5.1; p=0.01). The Norwegian radiation oncologists' expectations of IMRT are high in terms of both the potential clinical benefit and the rate of implementation. This should encourage the radiotherapy communities to continue (or rapidly initiate) their efforts in providing the routines required for safe implementation of IMRT

  8. Planning future care services: Analyses of investments in Norwegian municipalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Terje P; Tingvold, Laila

    2018-06-01

    To analyse whether the Norwegian Central Government's goal of subsidizing 12,000 places in nursing homes or sheltered housing using an earmarked grant was reached and to determine towards which group of users the planned investments were targeted. Data from the investment plans at municipal level were provided by the Norwegian Housing Bank and linked to variables describing the municipalities' financial situation as well as variables describing the local needs for services provided by Statistics Norway. Using regression analyses we estimated the associations between municipal characteristics and planned investments in total and by type of care place. The Norwegian Central Government reached its goal of giving subsidies to 12,000 new or rebuilt places in nursing homes and sheltered housing. A total of 54% of the subsidies (6878 places) were given to places in nursing homes. About 7500 places were available by the end of the planning period and the rest were under construction. About 50% of the places were planned for user groups aged Investments in nursing homes were correlated with the share of the population older than 80 years and investments in sheltered houses were correlated with the share of users with intellectual disabilities. Earmarked grants to municipalities can be adequate measures to affect local resource allocation and thereby stimulate investments in future care. With the current institutional setup the municipalities adapt investments to local needs.

  9. Norwegian Salmon : a study of in-store promotions in China

    OpenAIRE

    Bang, Marius; Haeger, Jarling Mathias Kvam; Mikkelsen, Guro Johanne; Tomaszewski, Katrine

    2012-01-01

    This thesis focuses primarily on two in-store promotions currently used as a marketing strategy by Norwegian Seafood Council to spread the awareness of Norwegian salmon. Due to the uncertainty of the effects of these promotions on the average Chinese consumers’ purchase behavior and attention, the authors have decided to conduct a research to find out which of these are the most cost-efficient, and how Norwegian Seafood Council may improve their in-store promotions in order to ...

  10. Windmills or deepwater drills?: Normative Roles of Technology in Norwegian Resource Extraction Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Goins , Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    International audience; After discovering oil in the North and Norwegian Seas in the late 1960s, Norway is now one of the largest oil exporters and wealthiest nations in the world. Norwegians are some of the healthiest and happiest people on the planet, enjoying cradle-to-grave welfare and a national savings fund well into the billions. Yet despite its transformational power in this society, oil is a complex and highly debated topic among Norwegian policy makers and everyday citizens. In the ...

  11. Some Environmental and Economic Aspects of Energy Saving Measures in Houses. An estimation model for total energy consumption and emissions to air from the Norwegian dwelling stock, and a life cycle assessment method for energy saving measures in houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myhre, L

    1995-12-01

    Motivated by the need to reduce the total energy consumption and the environmental load from society, this doctoral thesis discusses energy conservation measures on existing houses. Alternative additional thermal insulation measures are assessed using an interdisciplinary life cycle approach. The first task is to develop an interdisciplinary assessment method for building improvement measures, taking account of energy consumption, resource consumption, emissions to air of environmentally harmful gases, and economic costs during the entire life cycle of the building. The second task is to develop an estimation model for the total energy consumption and emissions to air of environmentally harmful gases from the dwelling stock of Norway. Finally, the third task is to assess the total energy saving potential and the total environmental benefits of energy saving measures in houses on a national level, including only life cycle analyses of additional thermal insulation measures on single houses. Chap 2 describes the dwelling stock in Norway. Chaps 3 and 4 present an estimation model for total energy consumption and emissions to air from the dwelling stock, and calculations using the model. Chaps 5 and 6 propose and use a calculation method for the assessment of additional thermal insulation measures, using a ``cradle-to-grave`` approach. Since hydroelectric power is the main energy source in this sector in Norway, estimated payback periods for emissions to air are long. But hydroelectric power saved in this sector may be used to obtain reduction in fossil fuel use in other sectors as discussed in Chap 7. Some of the topics discussed are further elaborated on in appendices. 107 refs., 39 figs, 88 tabs.

  12. Structural Disadvantage: Evidence of Gender Disparities in the Norwegian Pension System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika K. Palmer

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Norway is a world leader in gender equality according to sustainable development performance indicators. This study goes beyond these indicators to investigate systemic economic disadvantages for women, focusing specifically on the Norwegian pension system. System dynamics modeling is used to understand how gender disparity is built into social systems. A significant contributor to the gender inequality in pensions is the difference in lifetime working hours due to childbearing/rearing. There are childcare policies in place to equalize lifetime working hours between the genders; however, these policies require women to conform to the pension system structure and outsource their childcare. The system dynamics modeling illustrates how social investment strategy requires women to conform to a masculine pension system if they want equivalent financial security when they reach retirement.

  13. Political rationality: Young Danish and Norwegian immigrant citizens and their political reasoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solhaug, Trond; Kristensen, Niels Nørgaard

    2012-01-01

    combining identities, emotions, and information is suggested and examined empirically. In a qualitative study the reflectivity of the students and their willingness to act as rational and responsible citizens is evaluated. Based on a selection of young Danish and Norwegian immigrant students, the dynamics......This article aims to uncover the dynamics of political reasoning among young immigrants. How do they people reason about the larger social and political world around them and what rationalities are in play? A dynamic approach is used to analyze cognitive functioning. A model of political reasoning...... between the elements of the model are explored. In the analysis, some identities play a decisive role, while emotions seem fairly often to be the trigger and the mechanism of political action....

  14. Validation of the 24-item recovery assessment scale-revised (RAS-R) in the Norwegian language and context: a multi-centre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biringer, Eva; Tjoflåt, Marit

    2018-01-25

    The Recovery Assessment Scale-revised (RAS-R) is a self-report instrument measuring mental health recovery. The purpose of the present study was to translate and adapt the RAS-R into the Norwegian language and to investigate its psychometric properties in terms of factor structure, convergent and discriminant validity and reliability in the Norwegian context. The present study is a cross-sectional multi-centre study. After a pilot test, the Norwegian version of the RAS-R was distributed to 231 service users in mental health specialist and community services. The factor structure of the instrument was investigated by a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach's alpha. The RAS-R was found to be acceptable and feasible for service users. The original five-factor structure was confirmed. All model fit indices, including the standardised root mean square residual (SRMR), which is independent of the χ 2 -test, met the criteria for an acceptable model fit. Internal consistencies within sub-scales as measured by Cronbach's alpha ranged from 0.65 to 0.85. Cronbach's alpha for the total scale was 0.90. As expected, some redundancy between factors existed (in particular among the factors Personal confidence and hope, Goal and success orientation and Not dominated by symptoms). The Norwegian RAS-R showed acceptable psychometric properties in terms of convergent validity and reliability, and fit indices from the CFA confirmed the original factor structure. We recommend the Norwegian RAS-R as a tool in service users' and health professionals' collaborative work towards the service users' recovery goals and as an outcome measure in larger evaluations.

  15. Offshore wind power. Market opportunities for the Norwegian supply industry, and regulatory framework needed to realize these opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volden, G.; Bull-Berg, H.; Skjeret, F.; Finne, H.; Hofmann, M.

    2010-07-01

    Full text: Offshore wind power has received much attention these last few years, from governments, NGOs as well as energy companies. There are still huge technological challenges to overcome, especially concerning floating constructions on deep water, but offshore wind has a potential to become an important energy source in the future. The main objective of our study was to build more knowledge about market opportunities for the Norwegian supply industry, most of which is closely related to offshore oil and gas activities. We started by mapping and quantifying the parts of the supply industry that could be relevant to offshore wind, which is actually most of it. Then, through interviews and questionnaires, we asked potential suppliers about their attitude and strategies towards offshore wind. An over-whelming majority was optimistic about future markets internationally, whereas there was less belief in large-scale power production on the Norwegian shelf. Suppliers do not necessarily find the lack of a Norwegian 'home market' to be a barrier. However many of them expressed that the risk is high and it may be crucial to establish a national demo program, for supplier to test new technological solutions at low cost, gain references and develop industrial relations with other suppliers. We argue that being part of an industrial cluster may be a success criterion within offshore wind. By using Michael Porter's 'Diamond Model' we analyse Norway's inherent competitiveness as a potential host for an offshore wind cluster - with or without energy producers. Norway's most important advantage is the existing industrial environment, with a strong maritime sector and engineering companies with special competence in floating and fixed installations for the oil industry. Norway also has disadvantages; such as lack of traditions within wind power and wind turbine manufacturing, as well as high salaries and lack of engineers. So far it is also

  16. Methodology for forecasting in the Swedish–Norwegian market for el-certificates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfgang, Ove; Jaehnert, Stefan; Mo, Birger

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we describe a novel methodology for forecasting in the Swedish–Norwegian el-certificate market, which is a variant of a tradable green certificate scheme. For the forecasting, the el-certificate market is integrated in the electricity-market model EMPS, which has weekly to hourly time-step length, whereas the planning horizon can be several years. Strategies for the certificate inventory are calculated by stochastic dynamic programming, whereas penalty-rates for non-compliance during the annual settlement of certificates are determined endogenously. In the paper the methodology is described, and we show the performance of the model under different cases that can occur in the el-certificate market. The general results correspond to theoretical findings in previous studies for tradable green certificate markets, in particular that price-scenarios spread out in such a way that the unconditional expected value of certificates is relatively stable throughout the planning period. In addition the presented methodologies allows to assess the actual dynamics of the certificate price due to climatic uncertainty. Finally, special cases are indentified where the certificate price becomes excessively high respectively zero, due the design-specific dynamics of the penalty rate. - Highlights: • A method for forecasting in the Swedish–Norwegian el-certificate market is proposed. • The developed model integrates the el-certificate and the power market. • Banking of certificates and the endogenously calculated penalty rate are included. • The certificate value is calculated using Stochastic-Dynamic-Programming. • Price dynamics due to climatic weather uncertainties are assessed and illustrated

  17. Work-Plan Heroes: Student Strategies in Lower-Secondary Norwegian Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalland, Cecilie P.; Klette, Kirsti

    2014-01-01

    This article explores how individualized teaching methods, such as the use of work plans, create new student strategies in Norwegian lower secondary classrooms. Work plans, which are frequently set up as instructional tools in Norwegian classrooms, outline different types of tasks and requirements that the students are supposed to do during a…

  18. Norwegian authorities have respect for the Three Gorges; Har respekt for Tre Kloefter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stensvold, Tore

    2003-07-01

    Norwegian authorities have been sceptical to the development of the world's largest dam and hydropower project in China. But now the Norwegian Government has some respect for the giant project after the Parliamentary Secretary of the Ministry of Petroleum and Energy visited the site.

  19. Self-rated health among Greenlandic Inuit and Norwegian Sami adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spein, Anna Rita; Pedersen, Cecilia Petrine; Silviken, Anne Cathrine

    2013-01-01

    Self-rated health (SRH) and associated risk and protective correlates were investigated among two indigenous adolescent populations, Greenlandic Inuit and Norwegian Sami.......Self-rated health (SRH) and associated risk and protective correlates were investigated among two indigenous adolescent populations, Greenlandic Inuit and Norwegian Sami....

  20. Translocated Danish in Northern Europe: The case of Faroe Danish and Dano-Norwegian

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kühl, Karoline

    2017-01-01

    of postcolonial varieties of English. The paper compares the socio-political development of the two territories and their relationship with Denmark, the identity constructions of the speakers, the sociolinguistic setting with regard to attitudes and language contact and, finally, the linguistic characteristics......The paper contains a descriptive analysis of the development of translocated Danish in historical Norway and the Faroes within a framework of postcolonial linguistic development, namely the ‘Dynamic Model of Postcolonial Englishes’ (Schneider 2009), originally proposed to cover the evolution...... of the local varieties of Danish. Despite the fact that neither the Faroes nor Norway had actual colonial status, the development from historical Dano-Norwegian to today’s Bokmål follows a postcolonial path closely in that it shows a completed advancement from a translocated Danish to an indigenous variety...

  1. Genetic Relationship between Culling, Milk Production, Fertility, and Health Traits in Norwegian Red Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtsmark, M; Heringstad, B; Madsen, P

    2008-01-01

    First-lactation records on 836,452 daughters of 3,064 Norwegian Red sires were used to examine associations between culling in first lactation and 305-d protein yield, susceptibility to clinical mastitis, lactation mean somatic cell score (SCS), nonreturn rate within 56 d in heifers and primiparous......, including functional traits such as health and fertility, most of the genetic variation in culling will probably be covered by other traits in the breeding goal. However, in populations where data on health and fertility is scarce or not available at all, selection against early culling may be useful...... cows, and interval from calving to first insemination. A Bayesian multivariate threshold-linear model was used for analysis. Posterior mean of heritability of liability to culling of primiparous cows was 0.04. The posterior means of the genetic correlations between culling and the other traits were -0...

  2. Effect of Prepregnancy Alcohol Consumption on Postpartum Relationship Satisfaction and Divorce among Norwegian Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Mellingen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the effect of prepregnancy level of alcohol use among mothers on relationship breakups with young children at 36 months after birth and the extent to which relationship satisfaction (RS throughout the postpartum period could mediate any association between alcohol use and divorce. The data were part of the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, and analyses of the present article were based on a total of 69,117 mothers divided into low-, medium-, and high-risk consumption groups. All the three groups experienced a decrease in RS, but the largest effect was observed for the high-risk group. Mothers in this group had 55% higher odds for divorce as compared to the low-risk group. The findings supported a conceptual model whereby the effects of alcohol use on divorce were mediated through lowered RS.

  3. Effect of Prepregnancy Alcohol Consumption on Postpartum Relationship Satisfaction and Divorce among Norwegian Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellingen, Sonja; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Thuen, Frode

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of prepregnancy level of alcohol use among mothers on relationship breakups with young children at 36 months after birth and the extent to which relationship satisfaction (RS) throughout the postpartum period could mediate any association between alcohol use and divorce. The data were part of the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, and analyses of the present article were based on a total of 69,117 mothers divided into low-, medium-, and high-risk consumption groups. All the three groups experienced a decrease in RS, but the largest effect was observed for the high-risk group. Mothers in this group had 55% higher odds for divorce as compared to the low-risk group. The findings supported a conceptual model whereby the effects of alcohol use on divorce were mediated through lowered RS.

  4. Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders among Norwegian female biathlon athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Østerås H

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Håvard Østerås,1 Kirsti Krohn Garnæs,2 Liv Berit Augestad3 1Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Health Education and Social Work, Sør-Trøndelag University College, Trondheim, Norway; 2Department of Human Movement Science, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway; 3Department of Human Movement Science, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway Abstract: The purpose was to examine musculoskeletal disorders in Norwegian female biathlon athletes (age ≥ 16, both juniors and seniors. The design was a retrospective cross-sectional study. In all, 148 athletes (79.1% responded; of these, 118 athletes were 16–21 years (juniors (77.6%, and 30 athletes were 22 years or older (seniors (20.3%, and mean age was 19.1. A validated questionnaire was used to collect the data. The prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders was 57.8%. The most affected parts were the knee (23.0% of the total injuries, calf (12.2%, ankle/foot (10.8%, lower back (10.8%, and thigh (10.1%. The disorders resulted in training/competition cessation for 73.5% of athletes, in alternative training for 87.8%. Fifty percent of the athletes had one or several musculoskeletal disorders. Most of the problems occurred preseason, and the duration of symptoms was often prolonged. Few differences between the juniors and seniors were found. This study showed the prevalence of musculoskeletal problems among female biathlon athletes. The results indicate that prevention of lower limb problems must be prioritized, especially during the preseason. Keywords: injuries, cross-country skiing, skating

  5. The Norwegian translations of Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows : a comparative study of the book and films

    OpenAIRE

    Selle, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    A comparative study of the Norwegian translations of Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, both book and films. Focusing on the relationship between the Norwegian literary translation and the Norwegian subtitles, in relation to names, spells and invented words. It discusses the similarities and differences between them and ethical issues relating to the similarities.

  6. Climate cure 2020 measures and instruments to achieve Norwegian climate goals by 2020. Chapter 10 - the transport sector analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-11-15

    This document is a translation of Chapter 10, Sector analysis of transport, in the Norwegian report Climate Cure 2020, Measures and Instruments for Achieving Norwegian Climate Goals by 2020. The sector analysis has been prepared by an inter agency working group, conducted by the Norwegian Public Road Administration. (Author)

  7. Use of complementary and alternative medicine within Norwegian hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobsen, Renate; Fønnebø, Vinjar; Foss, Nina; Kristoffersen, Agnete Egilsdatter

    2015-01-01

    Background: Over the recent decades complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use within and outside of the public health care system in Norway has increased. The aim of this study is to describe to what extent CAM is offered in Norwegian hospitals in 2013 and investigate possible changes since 2008. Methods: In January 2013 a one-page questionnaire was sent to the medical director of all included hospitals (n = 80). He/she was asked to report whether or not one or more specifi...

  8. The performance of immigrants in the Norwegian labor market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayfron, J E

    1998-01-01

    "This paper tests the assimilation hypothesis with Norwegian data. Using both cross-section and cohort analyses, the results show that the 1970-1979 immigrant cohort experienced an earnings growth of about 11% between 1980 and 1990, when their earnings profile was compared to that of natives. This is lower than the 19% assimilation rate predicted by the cross-section method. On the contrary, the results reveal a rapid earnings divergence across cohorts, and between the 1960-1969 cohort and natives." excerpt

  9. Improvement of fish habitat in a Norwegian river channelization scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brittain, J.E.; Brabrand, A.; Saltveit, S.J.; Heggenes, J.

    1993-01-01

    Techniques for reducing adverse effects of river and lake regulation are being developed and tested within the framework of the Norwegian Biotope Adjustment Programme. The programme is illustrated by studies of a river flowing through the wetland area, Lesjaleirene, which has been drained and channelized to provide additional agricultural land. The channelized river has a homogeneous sand substrate. Experimental placement of rocks and stones increased brown trout densities, especially in areas in contact with the river banks. The new areas of rocks and stones provide cover for fish as well as a greater variation in depth and flow conditions. (Author)

  10. Facts 2002. The Norwegian petroleum sector; Fakta 2002. Norsk petroleumsvirksomhet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The petroleum sector is highly significant for the Norwegian economy. Its share of gross domestic product, exports and total government revenues has been substantial over the past two decades, reaching a particularly high level in 2000 and 2001. The principal reason why revenues were so high in these two years is a combination of high oil prices, a strong USD against the NOK and historically high petroleum production. The share of petroleum investment in total capital spending in the Norwegian economy was at its highest in the early 1990s. Total investment in the petroleum sector has been above NOK 40 bn every year since 1992, and peaked in 1998 at roughly NOK 80 bn. Capital spending declined to around NOK 56.9 bn in 2001. The government's most important revenue sources in recent years have been cash flow from the state's direct financial interest (SDFI) and from taxes. Production of crude oil has averaged around three mill barrels per day since 1996. The figure for 2001 was 3.1 mill barrels. Including natural gas liquids (NGL) and condensate raises the 2001 average to 3.4 mill barrels oe per day. At 53 mill scm oe, gas production was also high in 2001. Oil production is expected to remain more or less unchanged over the next few years, and then to go into a gradual decline. Gas output, on the other hand, should expand substantially over the coming decade and is expected to be increasingly significant in Norwegian petroleum output in future. The petroleum sector is also a substantial player internationally. Norway ranks as the world's sixth largest producer and third largest net exporter of oil. It is also the world's third largest exporter of pipeline gas, and Norwegian foreign sales of this commodity accounted for about two per cent of global consumption in 2001. Roughly 10 per cent of west European gas consumption is covered from Norway. Several changes were made to state participation in the petroleum sector during 2001. The government sold

  11. Does elite sport develop mass sport? : a Norwegian case study

    OpenAIRE

    Skille, Eivind Å.; Hanstad, Dag Vidar

    2010-01-01

    The original publication is available at: http://www.sportstudies.org/content/vol_1_2010/051-068_vol_1_2010_hanstad-skille.pdf The notion that elite sport generates mass sport,seems to be a social fact among many and influential members of the society. The issue is, however, under-researched, and the little research which actually exists does not confirm a causal link. In this article, we take as a point of departure the case of Norwegian biathlon, and its development, both as elite sp...

  12. Digital Necrobacillosis in Norwegian Wild Tundra Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handeland, K.; Boye, Mette; Bergsjø, B.

    2010-01-01

    Outbreaks of digital necrobacillosis in Norwegian wild tundra reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) are described. The outbreaks occurred in late summer and autumn 2007 and 2008, subsequent to periods with an unusually high number of days with precipitation and high air temperature. Lesions were....... necrophorum was cultured from the foot lesions of six animals. Five of these isolates were examined by 16S rRNA sequencing. The sequences were identical and differed from all other strains listed in GenBank. These results are consistent with circulation of a reindeer-adapted pathogenic strain of F....... necrophorum in the wild reindeer population, causing outbreaks of digital necrobacillosis following warm and humid summers....

  13. Non-audit services and auditor independence: Norwegian evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yu (Elli); Hay, David; Holm, Claus

    2016-01-01

    We examine the effect on auditor independence of auditors providing non-audit services in the Norwegian audit market. We report the results of three tests of independence of mind and one test of independence in appearance. These tests find that there is a positive relationship between audit fees......-audit services and the frequency with which auditors issue modified audit opinions. There is no association between non-audit services and audit tenure. Finally, we examine the relationship between unexpected or excess non-audit fees and cost of capital. There is no relationship. Our findings fail to find any...

  14. Requirements to a Norwegian national automatic gamma monitoring system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, B.; Jensen, Per Hedemann; Nielsen, F.

    2005-01-01

    increments above the natural background levels. The study is based upon simplified deterministic calculations of the radiological consequences of generic nuclear accident scenarios. The density of gammamonitoring stations has been estimated from an analysis of the dispersion of radioactive materials over......An assessment of the overall requirements to a Norwegian gamma-monitoring network is undertaken with special emphasis on the geographical distribution of automatic gamma monitoring stations, type of detectors in such stations and the sensitivity of thesystem in terms of ambient dose equivalent rate...

  15. Road accidents caused by sleepy drivers: Update of a Norwegian survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Ross Owen; Sagberg, Fridulv

    2013-01-01

    The current study tests, updates and expands a model of factors associated with sleepy driving, originally based on a 1997 survey of accident-involved Norwegian drivers (Sagberg, F., 1999. Road accidents caused by drivers falling asleep. Accident Analysis & Prevention 31, 639-649). The aim is to establish a robust model to inform measures to tackle sleepy driving. The original questions on (i) tiredness-related accidents and (ii) incidents of sleep behind the wheel in the last 12 months were again posed in 2003 and 2008, in independent surveys of Norwegian drivers involved in accidents reported to a large insurance company. According to those drivers at-fault for the accident, tiredness or sleepiness behind the wheel contributed to between 1.9 and 3.9 per cent of all types of accident reported to the insurance company across these years. Accident-involved drivers not at fault for the accident reported a reduction in the incidence of sleep behind the wheel for the preceding year, decreasing from 8.3 per cent in 1997 to 2.9 per cent in 2008. The reasons for this are not clear. According to logistic regression analysis of survey responses, the following factors were robustly associated with road accidents involving sleepy driving: driving off the road; good road conditions; longer distance driven since the start of the trip; and fewer years with a driving licence. The following factors are consistently associated with reports of sleep behind the wheel, whether or not it leads to an accident: being male; driving further per year; being younger; and having sleep-related health problems. Taken together these findings suggest that young, inexperienced male drivers who drive long distances may be a suitable target for road safety campaigns aimed at tackling sleepy driving. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Experiences in multiyear combined state-parameter estimation with an ecosystem model of the North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans using the Ensemble Kalman Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Ehouarn; Samuelsen, Annette; Bertino, Laurent; Mouysset, Sandrine

    2015-12-01

    A sequence of one-year combined state-parameter estimation experiments has been conducted in a North Atlantic and Arctic Ocean configuration of the coupled physical-biogeochemical model HYCOM-NORWECOM over the period 2007-2010. The aim is to evaluate the ability of an ensemble-based data assimilation method to calibrate ecosystem model parameters in a pre-operational setting, namely the production of the MyOcean pilot reanalysis of the Arctic biology. For that purpose, four biological parameters (two phyto- and two zooplankton mortality rates) are estimated by assimilating weekly data such as, satellite-derived Sea Surface Temperature, along-track Sea Level Anomalies, ice concentrations and chlorophyll-a concentrations with an Ensemble Kalman Filter. The set of optimized parameters locally exhibits seasonal variations suggesting that time-dependent parameters should be used in ocean ecosystem models. A clustering analysis of the optimized parameters is performed in order to identify consistent ecosystem regions. In the north part of the domain, where the ecosystem model is the most reliable, most of them can be associated with Longhurst provinces and new provinces emerge in the Arctic Ocean. However, the clusters do not coincide anymore with the Longhurst provinces in the Tropics due to large model errors. Regarding the ecosystem state variables, the assimilation of satellite-derived chlorophyll concentration leads to significant reduction of the RMS errors in the observed variables during the first year, i.e. 2008, compared to a free run simulation. However, local filter divergences of the parameter component occur in 2009 and result in an increase in the RMS error at the time of the spring bloom.

  17. Stock structure of Atlantic herring Clupea harengus in the Norwegian Sea and adjacent waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pampoulie, Christophe; Slotte, Aril; Oskarsson, Guomundur J.

    2015-01-01

    The genetic structure of Atlantic herring Clupea harengus L. was investigated in its north-easterly distribution in the Norwegian Sea and adjacent waters, using 23 neutral and one non-neutral (Cpa111) microsatellite loci. Fish from the suspected 2 main populations-the Norwegian spring......-spawning herring (NSSH) and the Icelandic summer-spawning herring (ISSH)-were collected at spawning locations in their respective spawning seasons from 2009 to 2012. Samples were also collected from Norwegian autumn spawning locations, from different local Norwegian fjords such as the inner part...... of Trondheimsfjorden, Lindas pollene, Landvikvannet and Lusterfjorden, as well as from suspected Faroese spawning components. The observed level of genetic differentiation was significant but low (F-ST = 0.007) and mostly attributable to the differentiation of the local Norwegian fjord populations. The locus Cpa111...

  18. Oil spill contingency planning for offshore oil fields - a new concept established for the Norwegian continental shelf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singsaas, I.; Reed, M.; Nygaard, T.; Sundnes, G.Jr.

    1998-01-01

    The development of a new concept for oil spill contingency planning to be used for offshore oil fields on the Norwegian continental shelf was discussed. The factors which are important in developing a good oil spill contingency plan include a good understanding of: (1) the fate, behaviour and weathering of the specific oil, (2) relevant oil spill scenarios, (3) drift and spreading of the oil, and (4) specific requirements for the effectiveness of the chosen response options. The oil spill contingency and response (OSCAR) model was used for quantitative comparison of alternative response options. 21 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs

  19. Growth of blue mussels in a Norwegian and French culture site: comparison of food proxies with Dynamic Energy Budgets (DEB)

    OpenAIRE

    Alunno-bruscia, Marianne; Rosland, Rune; Strand, Øivind; Naustvoll, Lars; Robert, Stephane; Bacher, Cedric

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) culture occurs in temperate waters around the world under a wide range of environmental conditions, e.g. at phytoplankton concentrations below as 1-2 µg L-1 (in Norwegian fjords) up to 9-10 µg L-1 (in French Atlantic coastal sites). Under such contrasted food resources, the aim of our study is to develop a generic bio-energetic model for M. edulis, i.e. that can be applied in various contrasted environments with a constant set of parameters, to...

  20. Anticausatives are semantically reflexive in Norwegian, but not in English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Lundquist

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we will discuss cross-linguistic variation in semantic entailment patterns in causative alternations. Previous work has probed this issue with data from elicited semantic judgements on paired linguistic forms, often involving linguistic negation and contradiction. We contribute to the debate in the form of a related psycholinguistic experiment that taps into direct judgements of truth conditions based on visualized scenarios. The stimulus consisted of video sequences of agents causing events, and the task involved answering a Yes-No question based on the anticausative/inchoative alternant. We were therefore able to test two languages, Norwegian and English, with the very same stimuli and directly compare the judgements. Based on our results, we will argue that the causative alternation is qualitatively different in the two languages. More specifically, the results support an entailment relation between the causative and its anticausative counterpart in English, as predicted by the whole class of “causer-less” analyses (Levin & Rappaport Hovav 1995; Ramchand 2008; Reinhart & Siloni 2005 in the literature. In contrast to this, our results support a reflexive analysis of anticausatives in Norwegian (Chierchia 2004; Koontz-Garboden 2009, where no such entailment holds.

  1. Have Norwegian producers of hydroelectric power wasted the water?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Norwegian producers of hydroelectric power have been criticized for having exported power to Sweden during the autumn and winter 2003/2004. As this analysis shows, although the reservoir level in Norway was below normal in October already, the negative deviation from the normal reservoir level was even greater in Sweden till the end of the year. Also when the magnitude of the reserve is measured relative to the number of weeks with normal winter production for which it lasts, the situation was worse in Sweden than in Norway. After New Year the deviation from the normal reservoir level has been much the same in the two countries and has changed in parallel. During this period the exchange between the two countries has approximately balanced and the power flow from Sweden to Norway has grown gradually. With this as a background, there is no basis for asserting that the Norwegian producers have managed the water resources in an irresponsible way. In general, the power flow and the water resource management in the two countries appear reasonable considering the water influx and the prices. Different market imperfections may nevertheless have rendered the water resource management socially less then optimal.

  2. Visits to CERN by Norwegian and Portuguese officials

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    During his visit to CERN on 30 April 2003, Mr Bjørn Haugstad, State Secretary, Ministry of Education and Research, Norway, toured the LHC magnet test hall and the installations of ATLAS and the European Computing Grid project. Seen here, at a luncheon given in his honour, from left to right: Bjørn Haugstad, State Secretary, Ministry of Education and Research, Norway, Cecilia Jarlskog, CERN Adviser on Member State Relations, Morten Knutsen, CERN Purchasing Service, Jens Vigen, CERN Library, Steinar Stapnes, physicist at the ATLAS experiment and Professor at the University of Oslo, Carlo Wyss, CERN's Director for Accelerators (standing) and Leif Westgaard, Norwegian delegate to the CERN Council and member of the Norwegian Research Council. His visit was followed a few days later, on 6 May, by that of the Portuguese Minister for Science and Higher Education, H. E. Mr Pedro Augusto Lynce de Faria, who was also given a tour of various ATLAS and LHC installations. The Minister also had the opportunity to meet me...

  3. Hearing status among Norwegian train drivers and train conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, A; Skogstad, M; Johnsen, T S; Engdahl, B; Tambs, K

    2013-12-01

    There is a general perception that train drivers and conductors may be at increased risk of developing noise-induced hearing loss. To study job-related hearing loss among train drivers and train conductors. Audiograms from train drivers and train conductors were obtained from the medical records of the occupational health service of the major Norwegian railway company. The results were compared with audiograms from an internal control group of railway workers and an external reference group of people not occupationally exposed to noise. The monaural hearing threshold level at 4kHz, the mean binaural value at 3, 4 and 6kHz and the prevalence of audiometric notches (≥25 dB at 4kHz) were used for comparison. Audiograms were available for 1567 drivers, 1565 conductors, 4029 railway worker controls and 15 012 people not occupationally exposed to noise. No difference in hearing level or prevalence of audiometric notches was found between study groups after adjusting for age and gender. Norwegian train drivers and conductors have normal hearing threshold levels comparable with those in non-exposed groups.

  4. Measurement of 50 Hz magnetic fields in some Norwegian households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsen, J.; Johnsson, A.

    1987-01-01

    An examination of 50 Hz magnetic fields has been made in ten different Norwegian dwellings. The aim was to measure the general background level of the 50 Hz magnetic fields. The investigation followed a protocol also used in Swedish measurements, and direct comparisons are therefore possible. A portable, commercial coil instrument was used. In september 1986 and January 1987 the magnetic fields in living rooms, sleeping rooms, and kitchens were measured according to the standardized procedure. Current consumption and temperature at the time of the measurements were also recorded. A clear correlation was noted between the magnetic field values and the current consumption. The mean values of the magnetic fields in the living rooms, sleeping rooms and kitchens, were 12 nT, 11 nT and 160 nT, respectively. The living and sleeping room values can be regarded as very low, and they are much lower than corresponding Swedish values. The kitchen values in the two countries seem, however, to be of the same order of magnitude. The report discusses the need for additional measurements in Norwegian houses

  5. Norwegian implementation of the Climate Convention; Norsk gjennomfoering av Klimakonvensjonen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The international climate cooperation has become one of the most important results of the UN conference on environment and development that took place in Rio in 1992. This report examines whether Norway has fulfilled the goal of the Climate Convention. Norway played an important role in the negotiations of the Climate Convention, on issues of joint implementation, on the need for a just sharing of burden and on the goal of cost effectiveness. Since the end of the 1980s, Norway has implemented a series of climate measures, although probably not all directly due to the Climate Convention. A carbon dioxide tax was introduced already in 1991. The effects of the measures are still uncertain, but they appear to be insufficient. Norwegian gas emissions are increasing. The increased oil- and gas activities in the North Sea and plans for a gas power station in the western part of Norway make it very difficult to attain the goal of stabilising the CO{sub 2} emissions on the 1989 level within the year 2000. The oil- and energy policy of the Norwegian government is being criticised by the opposition and by the environmental movement. It seems that it will become difficult for Norway to assume a leading role in international climate policy that is compatible with the same country`s business interests in the energy sector. 29 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Risk of suboptimal iodine intake in pregnant Norwegian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Abel, Marianne Hope; Haugen, Margaretha; Meltzer, Helle Margrete

    2013-02-06

    Pregnant women and infants are exceptionally vulnerable to iodine deficiency. The aims of the present study were to estimate iodine intake, to investigate sources of iodine, to identify predictors of low or suboptimal iodine intake (defined as intakes below 100 μg/day and 150 μg/day) in a large population of pregnant Norwegian women and to evaluate iodine status in a sub-population. Iodine intake was calculated based on a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort. The median iodine intake was 141 μg/day from food and 166 μg/day from food and supplements. Use of iodine-containing supplements was reported by 31.6%. The main source of iodine from food was dairy products, contributing 67% and 43% in non-supplement and iodine-supplement users, respectively. Of 61,904 women, 16.1% had iodine intake below 100 μg/day, 42.0% had iodine intake below 150 μg/day and only 21.7% reached the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD recommendation of 250 μg/day. Dietary behaviors associated with increased risk of low and suboptimal iodine intake were: no use of iodine-containing supplements and low intake of milk/yogurt, seafood and eggs. The median urinary iodine concentration measured in 119 participants (69 μg/L) confirmed insufficient iodine intake. Public health strategies are needed to improve and secure the iodine status of pregnant women in Norway.

  7. Perceptions of Norwegian physiotherapy students: cultural diversity in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fougner, Marit; Horntvedt, And Tone

    2012-01-01

    At the Faculty of Health Sciences, Oslo University College there is a growing recognition of the need for cultural competency training among students at the bachelor programmes. At the Mensendieck-physiotherapy bachelor programme the students are engaged in leading physical activity groups for Muslim women. This qualitative study describes ethnically Norwegian students experiencing cultural diversity in practice. Twenty-two female physiotherapy students participated in the interviews; 6 students were interviewed individually by telephone, and 16 students were interviewed in person in 8 pairs. The students' framework for dealing with diversity is based on preconceived notions about Muslim women and is reflected in two particular ways. One is how the values and norms of Norwegian "ideology of sameness" are pursued by the students. The other is how the students constructed images of the women as "the others." The interview responses indicate difficulties in uniting the reality of diversity and the "need" for integration. The curriculum requires additional attention on cultural competency for health care professionals in a multicultural society.

  8. Carbon stocks in Norwegian forested systems. Preliminary data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyen BH.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Between 1990 and 2010 the projected emissions of greenhouse gases in Norway is assumed to increase 24%. As a signatory to the Kyoto Protocol, Norway is supposed to limit the greenhouse gas emissions in the period 2008–2012 to 1% above the 1990 level. Potentially, forestry activities may contribute as a means to achieve the set target of emission reductions. The initial Norwegian views and proposals for definitions and accounting framework for activities under Articles 3.3 and 3.4 of the Kyoto Protocol was reported to the UNFCCC August 1 2000 by the Norwegian Ministry of Environment. There was also an annex to the submission with preliminary data and information on Articles 3.3 and 3.4 of the Kyoto Protocol. This paper is based on this annex, and focuses mainly on data for forests and other woodlands. Preliminary data indicate that approximately 85% of the carbon (C pool of forested systems is found in the soil. The major part of the annual C sequestration takes place in living biomass and soil, while sequestration in wood products and landfills etc. has been found to be of minor importance. It must be noted that the reported data are preliminary and contain large uncertainties.

  9. Variation in the Norwegian gyre and its links to the termohaline circulation (THC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarson, B. E.; Linderholm, H. W.; Wilson, R.; Rydval, M.

    2017-12-01

    Summer temperature patterns in Scandinavia are partly governed by variations in the North Atlantic drift (being part of the Gulf Stream) causing northern Europe to be warmer than similar latitudes. Observation show that northwestern European climate is strongly link to sea surface temperature (SST) and the ocean circulation (the Norwegian gyre, NG) in the Norwegian Sea. On decadal- multidecadal time scales, there is also positive association with the sub-tropical gyre, but also a weaker (and negative) connection to the sub Polar gyre (SPG) which is linked to the thermohaline circulation (THC). The negative correlations occur only during the April-June and July-September (JAS) seasons, when the ocean mixed layer is shallow in the North Atlantic. A network of Maximum Latewood Density (MXD) tree-ring chronologies from 7 sites in Northern Scandinavia, 1 in central Scotland and 1 in Labrador was used to identifying SST influences on local to regional summer temperatures patterns during 1901-20XX. The sites represent tree growth strongly correlated with mean JAS temperatures (Fennoscandia r > 0.7, Scotland r > 0.6, Labrador r > 0.5). Both the Scotland and Labrador chronologies correlates only with SST from adjacent coastal areas. The Fennoscandian chronologies showed strong and temporally consistent correlations with SST across the NG (r > 0.5), but also positive correlations of the same magnitude across the sub-tropical gyre. In addition, a negative, but weaker, correlation was found over the SPG domain. Climate models (PMIP5) were not able to reproduce the correlation patterns evident in both observations and tree-ring data. The tripolar correlation pattern suggests that North Atlantic SST influences summer temperature variability in Northern Fennoscandia, illustrating the potential for using tree-rings to reconstruct the THC and the heat transport towards the North Atlantic region and atmosphere- ocean interaction back in time.

  10. Characteristics of the Norwegian Coastal Current during Years with High Recruitment of Norwegian Spring Spawning Herring (Clupea harengus L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øystein Skagseth

    Full Text Available Norwegian Spring Spawning herring (NSSH Clupea harengus L. spawn on coastal banks along the west coast of Norway. The larvae are generally transported northward in the Norwegian Coastal Current (NCC with many individuals utilizing nursery grounds in the Barents Sea. The recruitment to this stock is highly variable with a few years having exceptionally good recruitment. The principal causes of recruitment variability of this herring population have been elusive. Here we undertake an event analysis using data between 1948 and 2010 to gain insight into the physical conditions in the NCC that coincide with years of high recruitment. In contrast to a typical year when northerly upwelling winds are prominent during spring, the years with high recruitment coincide with predominantly southwesterly winds and weak upwelling in spring and summer, which lead to an enhanced northward coastal current during the larval drift period. Also in most peak recruitment years, low-salinity anomalies are observed to propagate northward during the spring and summer. It is suggested that consistent southwesterly (downwelling winds and propagating low-salinity anomalies, both leading to an enhanced northward transport of larvae, are important factors for elevated recruitment. At the same time, these conditions stabilize the coastal waters, possibly leading to enhanced production and improved feeding potential along the drift route to Barents Sea. Further studies on the drivers of early life history mortality can now be undertaken with a better understanding of the physical conditions that prevail during years when elevated recruitment occurs in this herring stock.

  11. Tactical decisions of concentrate level, slaughter age and carcass weight of bulls of five beef breeds under Norwegian conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. BONESMO

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Beef production based on suckler cow breeds is a relatively new production system in Norway as in most Nordic countries. To ensure the continuation of this production, profitable management practices designed for Norwegian conditions have to be established. Thus a simulation model was developed that integrates the daily feed intake, the daily live weight (LW gain, silage net energy concentration for beef production (feed units beef (FUb kg?1 dry matter and price, concentrate level and price, and carcass price for bulls of the country's five most common beef breeds. In this work the model was combined with production statistics to find general recommendations in the finishing of beef bulls under Norwegian conditions. Among all the five breeds the Limousin bulls had the highest estimated mean daily return and the Hereford bulls the lowest estimated mean daily return from 20 g concentrate kg?1 LW0.75 for the 940 FUb kg?1 silage dry matter, and from 40 g concentrate kg?1 LW0.75 for the 800 FUb kg?1 silage dry matter. Our estimated optimal slaughter ages and carcass weights shows that it pays to more intensively feed during the finishing period for all five breeds. Current farming practice in Norway for the five major breeds studied is that slaughter age is at least two months later with lighter carcass weights than the results expected from following our model estimated recommendations.

  12. Why do not more prisoners participate in adult education? An analysis of barriers to education in Norwegian prisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manger, Terje; Eikeland, Ole Johan; Asbjørnsen, Arve

    2018-06-01

    From a lifelong learning perspective, education during incarceration is crucial for prisoners' rehabilitation. This article describes the authors' development of their Perceived Barriers to Prison Education Scale (PBPES) and examines what deters prisoners from participating in education during their incarceration, how their perceptions differ depending on gender, age, educational level, learning difficulties, length of prison sentence, and whether the prisoners express a desire to participate in education or not. Within a larger survey conducted in all Norwegian prisons among all prisoners with Norwegian citizenship, the authors focused on those who did not participate in education (n = 838). To reveal the underlying constructs that comprise perceived barriers, they hypothesised a three-factor model to which they applied confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The analysis confirmed the model, which comprised institutional barriers (e.g. insufficient practical arrangements; lack of access to computers and to the Internet), situational barriers (e.g. education is not considered to be of help in the current situation) and dispositional barriers (e.g. having difficulties in mathematics, reading, writing and concentrating), with good fit to the data. The authors used mixed-model analyses of variance to examine differences between subgroups of prisoners. Gender, age, educational level, learning difficulties and length of prison sentence were found to influence perceived barriers. The authors also observed that prisoners who wished to participate in education were more likely than others to perceive institutional barriers and less likely to perceive situational barriers.

  13. Method for estimating road salt contamination of Norwegian lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitterød, Nils-Otto; Wike Kronvall, Kjersti; Turtumøygaard, Stein; Haaland, Ståle

    2013-04-01

    Consumption of road salt in Norway, used to improve winter road conditions, has been tripled during the last two decades, and there is a need to quantify limits for optimal use of road salt to avoid further environmental harm. The purpose of this study was to implement methodology to estimate chloride concentration in any given water body in Norway. This goal is feasible to achieve if the complexity of solute transport in the landscape is simplified. The idea was to keep computations as simple as possible to be able to increase spatial resolution of input functions. The first simplification we made was to treat all roads exposed to regular salt application as steady state sources of sodium chloride. This is valid if new road salt is applied before previous contamination is removed through precipitation. The main reasons for this assumption are the significant retention capacity of vegetation; organic matter; and soil. The second simplification we made was that the groundwater table is close to the surface. This assumption is valid for major part of Norway, which means that topography is sufficient to delineate catchment area at any location in the landscape. Given these two assumptions, we applied spatial functions of mass load (mass NaCl pr. time unit) and conditional estimates of normal water balance (volume of water pr. time unit) to calculate steady state chloride concentration along the lake perimeter. Spatial resolution of mass load and estimated concentration along the lake perimeter was 25 m x 25 m while water balance had 1 km x 1 km resolution. The method was validated for a limited number of Norwegian lakes and estimation results have been compared to observations. Initial results indicate significant overlap between measurements and estimations, but only for lakes where the road salt is the major contribution for chloride contamination. For lakes in catchments with high subsurface transmissivity, the groundwater table is not necessarily following the

  14. Teaching Norwegian to Beginners: Six Principles to Guide Lesson Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Krulatz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Teaching a foreign language is no simple task. There are several factors to consider, from curriculum design, to material selection and lesson implementation, to assessment. The challenge, however, is even greater, if you are teaching a less commonly taught language such as Norwegian – a language spoken by fewer than six million native speakers, used almost exclusively in one country, and with a limited number of available pedagogical materials. Under such circumstances, the task of preparing high quality communicative lessons is immense, even for an experienced language instructor. The goal of this article is to present how a successful language lesson can be developed even if one is using a textbook that does not foster communicative competence. As an example, I am using a unit from a Norwegian textbook for beginners: På vei, often used in Norwegian as a second language course for adults in Norway. The lesson focuses on routines and times of the day, and it concludes with the students comparing and contrasting their daily routines with a partner. Prior to this lesson, students have learned to provide basic information about themselves (where they come from, what languages they speak, what they do for work, expressions for greetings and goodbyes, basic verbs relating to daily activities such as ‘snakker’ (to speak, ‘kjører’ (to drive, ‘kjøpper’ (to buy, ‘jobber’ (to work, ‘leser’ (to read, ‘scriver’ (to write, ordinal numerals, meals, some food items, some basic prepositions and locations, words for family members, and subject and object pronouns for all persons. If you were to closely follow the textbook in teaching this unit, you would begin by teaching the students how to tell time, then briefly go over some verbs to express daily routines, listen to and read a text titled ‘Jeg står opp klokka seks,’ a narrative about Monica’s day (Monica is one of the characters in the book, and finally ask the students

  15. Diet and behavioral problems at school in Norwegian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rune Høigaard

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Discussion about dietary factors in relation to behavioral problems in children and adolescents has been going on for a long time. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the cross-sectional relation between diet and self-reported behavioral problems at school in adolescents in the southern part of Norway. Design: In total, 475 ninth- and tenth-grade students (236 boys and 239 girls out of 625 eligible students from four different secondary schools in three different communities in Vest-Agder County, Norway, participated, giving a participation rate of 77%. The students filled in a questionnaire with food frequency questions of selected healthy (e.g. fruits, vegetables, and fish and unhealthy (e.g. sweets, sugar-sweetened beverages, and crisps food items, questions of meal frequency, and four questions regarding behavioral problems at school. Results: Having breakfast regularly was significantly associated with decreased odds of behavioral problems (OR: 0.29 (0.15 − 0.55, p≤0.001. A high intake of unhealthy foods, such as sugar-sweetened soft drinks (OR: 2.8 (1.06 − 7.42, p=0.03 and sweets (OR: 2.63 (1.39 − 4.98, p=0.003, was significantly associated with increased odds of behavioral problems. At the same time, a high intake of fruits was associated with decreased odds of behavioral problems in Norwegian adolescents (OR: 0.30 (0.10 − 0.87, p=0.03. All ORs are adjusted for sex and BMI. Conclusions: This study shows that having an optimal diet and not skipping meals are associated with decreased odds of behavioral problems at school in Norwegian adolescents. Hence, it is important to improve the dietary intake and meal pattern of Norwegian adolescents. The cross-sectional design of this study limits any causal interpretations of the results of the study.

  16. Developing electronic cooperation tools: a case from norwegian health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Eli; Mydske, Per Kristen

    2013-06-19

    Many countries aim to create electronic cooperational tools in health care, but the progress is rather slow. The study aimed to uncover how the authoritys' financing policies influence the development of electronic cooperational tools within public health care. An interpretative approach was used in this study. We performed 30 semistructured interviews with vendors, policy makers, and public authorities. Additionally, we conducted an extensive documentation study and participated in 18 workshops concerning information and communication technology (ICT) in Norwegian health care. We found that the interorganizational communication in sectors like health care, that have undergone an independent development of their internal information infrastructure would find it difficult to create electronic services that interconnect the organizations because such connections would affect all interconnected organizations within the heterogenic structure. The organizations would, to a large extent, depend on new functionality in existing information systems. Electronic patient records play a central role in all parts of the health care sector and therefore dependence is established to the information systems and theirs vendors. The Norwegian government authorities, which run more than 80% of the Norwegian health care, have not taken extraordinary steps to compensate for this dependency-the government's political philosophy is that each health care institution should pay for further electronic patient record development. However, cooperational tools are complex due to the number of players involved and the way they are intertwined with the overall workflow. The customers are not able to buy new functionalities on the drawing table, while the electronic patient record vendors are not willing to take the economic risk in developing cooperational tools. Thus, the market mechanisms in the domain are challenged. We also found that public projects that were only financed for the first

  17. Efficiency effects of quality of service and environmental factors. Experience from Norwegian electricity distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Growitsch, Christian [WIK Wissenschaftliches Institut fuer Infrastruktur und Kommunikationsdienste GmbH, Bad Honnef (Germany). Dept. of Energy Markets and Energy Regulation; Jamasb, Tooraj [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Economics; Wetzel, Heike [Cologne Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Economics

    2010-08-15

    Since the 1990s, efficiency and benchmarking analysis has increasingly been used in network utilities research and regulation. A recurrent concern is the effect of environmental factors that are beyond the influence of firms (observable heterogeneity) and factors that are not identifiable (unobserved heterogeneity) on measured cost and quality performance of firms. This paper analyses the effect of geographic and weather factors and unobserved heterogeneity on a set of 128 Norwegian electricity distribution utilities for the 2001-2004 period. We utilize data on almost 100 geographic and weather variables to identify real economic inefficiency while controlling for observable and unobserved heterogeneity. We use the factor analysis technique to reduce the number of environmental factors into few composite variables and to avoid the problem of multicollinearity. We then estimate the established stochastic frontier models of Battese and Coelli (1992; 1995) and the recent true fixed effects models of Greene (2004; 2005) without and with environmental variables. In the former models some composite environmental variables have a significant effect on the performance of utilities. These effects vanish in the true fixed effects models. However, the latter models capture the entire unobserved heterogeneity and therefore show significantly higher average efficiency scores. (orig.)

  18. Trust-development in Danish and Norwegian Integration Programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tone Larsen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article the aim has been to challenge ‘integration’ as a concept and to explore integration practices in Denmark and Norway. The purpose is to analyse how trust can develop within integration practice. The article is based on a comparison between theories about inclusion/exclusion, assimilation, integration and trust/distrust, and between the Danish and Norwegian integration practices. These two countries provide an introduction programme, which has been developed as a means to integrate immigrants into the labour market and society. In accordance with these programmes language training, social studies and work practice are provided for mainly non-Western immigrants. However, the comparison between Denmark and Norway shows that the introduction programmes are both similar and different, and in this article the discussion focuses on how these two practices in many ways can be more than simply integrating.

  19. The Petroleum resources on the Norwegian Continental Shelf. 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This resource report provides a survey of petroleum resources on the NCS. Content: Resource account; Unconventional oil and gas resources; Future oil and gas production; Challenges for producing fields; Discoveries; Undiscovered resources; Curbing greenhouse gas emissions; Technology and talent; Exploration and new areas; How undiscovered resources are calculated; The NPD's project database; Play analysis; Changes to and reductions in estimated undiscovered resources; Unconventional petroleum resources; Many wells, Increased exploration, Every little helps; Varied discovery success; Sub-basalt in the Norwegian Sea; High exploration costs; Profitable exploration; Unopened areas - mostly in the far north; Resource base; Small discoveries; Location; Development solutions, Profitability of discoveries; Things may take time; Area perspective; Development of production; Remaining reserves and resources in fields; Target for reserve growth; Existing technology; Water and gas injection; Drilling and wells; Infrastructure challenges; New methods and technology; Challenges for pilot projects; Long-term thinking and creativity. (eb)

  20. The petroleum resources on the Norwegian Continental Shelf. 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    Exploration activity has reached record-breaking levels in the last couple of years, which has led to many, but small, discoveries. The NPD believes that large discoveries can still be made in areas of the shelf that have not been extensively explored. Content: Challenges on the Norwegian continental shelf; Value creation in fields; 40 years of oil and gas production; Resource management; Still many possibilities; Energy consumption and the environment; Exploration; Access to acreage; Awards of new licenses; Exploration in frontier areas; Exploration history and statistics; Resources and forecasts; Undiscovered resources; Proven recoverable resources; Forecasts; Short-term petroleum production forecast (2009-2013); Investments- and operating costs forecasts; Long-term forecast for the petroleum production; Emissions from the petroleum activity. (AG)

  1. Norwegian Institute for Air Research Annual Report 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The foundation Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU) conducts research and assessment of technical, economic, hygienic and other environmental issues related to air pollution and cleaning of polluted air. NILU serves the national market for research and development within the field of air pollution. The main purpose of the subsidiary company NILU Products Ltd., established in 1996, is to manage the strategic owner interests of the parent company as well as market products and systems developed by NILU. Among the projects in which NILU participated in 2001 are a number of EU projects under the fifth framework programme. The main topics with NILU participation are related to ozone layer- and ultraviolet changes, pollution and climate change, satellite validation, changes in atmospheric chemistry, particulate matter in air, discharges from aircraft, regional and global dispersion of environmental toxins, standardization and monitoring methods, electronic distribution of environmental data and environmental influence on building materials.

  2. Impact of integrating wind power in the Norwegian power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tande, John Olav

    2006-04-01

    Wind power may in the future constitute a significant part of the Norwegian electricity supply. 20 TWh annual wind generation is a realistic goal for 2020 assuming wind farms on-land and offshore. The development of grid codes for wind farms is sound. It is recognising that large wind farms are basically power plants and may participate in securing efficient and stable power system operation. Modern wind farms may control the reactive power or voltage as any other power plant, and may also control active power or frequency as long as wind conditions permits. Grid code requirements must however be carefully assessed and possibly adjusted over time aiming for overall least cost solutions. Development of wind farms are today to some degree hindered by conservative assumptions being made on operation of wind farms in areas with limited power transfer capacity. By accepting temporary grid congestions, however, a large increase installed wind power is viable. For grid congestion that appears a few hours per year only, the cost of lost generation will be modest and may be economic over the alternatives of limiting wind farm capacities or increasing the grid transfer capacity. Wind generation impact on power system operation and adequacy will be overall positive. Combining wind and hydro provides for a more stable annual energy supply than hydro alone, and wind generation will generally be higher in the winter period than in the summer. Wind will replace the generation with the highest operating cost, and reduce the average Nord Pool spot market price. 20 TWh wind will reduce price with about 3 oere/kWh and CO 2 emissions by 12-14 million tons for the case of replacing coal, and about 6 million tons for replacing natural gas. Wind impact on need for balancing power is small, i.e. the extra balancing cost is about 0,8 oere per kWh wind, and about half if investment in new reserve capacity is not needed. In summary this report demonstrates options for large scale integration

  3. White Paper No 21 (2011-2012). Norwegian Climate Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The Norwegian Government intends to take a number of steps to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and promote technological advances. Some of the most important are: establishing a new climate and energy fund, raising the CO 2 tax rate for the offshore industry, and improving public transport. The white paper keeps to the targets set out in the 2008 agreement on climate policy. Measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions will be implemented in most sectors in Norway. A climate and energy fund will be established for the development of emission reduction technology. The CO 2 tax on emissions from Norway's offshore petroleum production will rise by Nok 200 per tonne, giving operating companies a stronger incentive to use electricity generated onshore. The Government will also focus on public transport, energy-efficient housing and forest-related measures to maintain and increase CO 2 uptake.(Author)

  4. Hearing loss in the Royal Norwegian Navy: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irgens-Hansen, Kaja; Baste, Valborg; Bråtveit, Magne; Lind, Ola; Koefoed, Vilhelm F; Moen, Bente E

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this longitudinal study were to investigate a significant threshold shift (STS) among personnel working on board the Royal Norwegian Navy's (RNoN) vessels between 2012 and 2014 and to identify possible determinants of STS. Hearing thresholds were measured by pure tone audiometry in two consecutive examinations (n = 226). STS was defined as an average change in hearing thresholds ≥ + 10 dB at 2,000 Hz, 3,000 Hz, and 4,000 Hz in either ear. Determinants of STS were assessed through a questionnaire. The incidence of STS was 23.0%. Significant determinants of STS were the number of episodes of temporary threshold shifts (TTS) in the Navy, exposure to continuous loud noise during work on board, and the number of gun shots (in the Navy, hunting, and sports). This study indicated a significant association between noise exposure on board Navy vessels and development of STS.

  5. Hearing loss in the Royal Norwegian Navy: A longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaja Irgens-Hansen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this longitudinal study were to investigate a significant threshold shift (STS among personnel working on board the Royal Norwegian Navy′s (RNoN vessels between 2012 and 2014 and to identify possible determinants of STS. Hearing thresholds were measured by pure tone audiometry in two consecutive examinations (n = 226. STS was defined as an average change in hearing thresholds ≥ + 10 dB at 2,000 Hz, 3,000 Hz, and 4,000 Hz in either ear. Determinants of STS were assessed through a questionnaire. The incidence of STS was 23.0%. Significant determinants of STS were the number of episodes of temporary threshold shifts (TTS in the Navy, exposure to continuous loud noise during work on board, and the number of gun shots (in the Navy, hunting, and sports. This study indicated a significant association between noise exposure on board Navy vessels and development of STS.

  6. Enterobius vermicularis and allergic conditions in Norwegian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøås, H; Tapia, G; Rasmussen, T; Rønningen, K S

    2014-10-01

    Studies investigating the association between Enterobius vermicularis and allergic conditions have shown conflicting results. This study was conducted to test for any such associations in Norwegian children. Parents were asked to answer questionnaires concerning their children's history of allergies, wheezing or eczema and pinworm infections. Current pinworm infections were diagnosed by microscopic examination of anal scotch tape samples. The data were analysed using logistic regression. Atopic eczema, allergy or wheezing was reported to be confirmed by a physician in 23% of the children (84/364). A possible association between current pinworm infections and food allergy was found, with 17·5% of children without food allergy testing positive for pinworms, compared to 36·8% of children with food allergy (odds ratio 2·9, 95% confidence interval 1·1-8·0). No association was found between past pinworm treatments and present atopic conditions. The association between current E. vermicularis infections and food allergy warrants further study.

  7. Perceived barriers to consumption of fish among Norwegian women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondsen, Torbjørn; Scholderer, Joachim; Lund, Eiliv

    2003-01-01

    with consumption levels among those who would like to eat more fish. Higher education and income were associated with increased dissatisfaction about fish consumption, but also with reduced perception of most barriers. It is concluded that improvements in the supply of high-quality fresh and processed fish......This study aimed to characterize constraints on consumption of fish perceived by consumers in Norway. A random sample of Norwegian women aged 45-69 years answered a self-administered mail questionnaire in 1996 about eating habits, perceived barriers to fish consumption, socioeconomic status...... weight are dissatisfied with the range of products offered in the marketplace. Satisfaction with quality and availability of wild lean codfish, especially in inland regions, is lower than for aqua-cultured fat salmon. Neither income nor education or health factors were significantly associated...

  8. Evaluation of the Norwegian R&D Tax Credit Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ådne Cappelen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We find that the Norwegian R&D tax credit scheme introduced in 2002 mainly works as intended. The scheme is cost-effective and it is used by a large number of firms. It stimulates these firms to invest more in R&D, and, in particular, the effect is positive for small firms with little R&D experience. The returns on the R&D investments supported by the scheme are positive and generally not different from the returns to other R&D investments. We have found examples of what can be interpreted as tax motivated adjustments to the scheme, but to some extent this must be accepted as a cost to subsidy and support schemes intended for use by a large number of economic agents. This is particularly so when attempts are made to keep administrative expenditures and control routines at a low level.

  9. Self-reported competency--validation of the Norwegian version of the patient competency rating scale for traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sveen, Unni; Andelic, Nada; Bautz-Holter, Erik; Røe, Cecilie

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the psychometric properties of the Norwegian version of the Patient Competency Rating Scale (PCRS) in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) at 12 months post-injury. Demographic and injury-related data were registered upon admission to the hospital in 148 TBI patients with mild, moderate, or severe TBI. At 12 months post-injury, competency in activities and global functioning were measured using the PCRS patient version and the Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended (GOSE). Descriptive reliability statistics, factor analysis and Rasch modeling were applied to explore the psychometric properties of the PCRS. External validity was evaluated using the GOSE. The PCRS can be divided into three subscales that reflect interpersonal/emotional, cognitive, and activities of daily living competency. The three-factor solution explained 56.6% of the variance in functioning. The internal consistency was very good, with a Cronbach's α of 0.95. Item 30, "controlling my laughter", did not load above 0.40 on any factors and did not fit the Rasch model. The external validity of the subscales was acceptable, with correlations between 0.50 and 0.52 with the GOSE. The Norwegian version of the PCRS is reliable, has an acceptable construct and external validity, and can be recommended for use during the later phases of TBI.

  10. Consumption of Whole-Grain Bread and Risk of Colorectal Cancer among Norwegian Women (the NOWAC Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakken, Toril; Braaten, Tonje; Olsen, Anja; Kyrø, Cecilie; Lund, Eiliv; Skeie, Guri

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that consumption of foods containing dietary fiber decreases the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Whole grains contain dietary fiber, as well as a range of micronutrients and bioactive compounds, but the association between the consumption of whole grains and the risk of CRC remains less studied. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between whole-grain bread consumption and CRC incidence among Norwegian women, using data from a prospective cohort study (the Norwegian Women and Cancer Study). Dietary intake was estimated from the food-frequency questionnaires of 78,254 women in the cohort (median age: 55 years), and these women were then followed up for CRC incidence. During the 9 years of median follow-up, 795 women were diagnosed with CRC (316 proximal, 193 distal, 218 rectal). Associations between whole-grain bread consumption and the risk of CRC (including colorectal subsites) were investigated using Cox proportional hazards regression models. When compared to the low consumption group, the hazard ratio for CRC was 0.89 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.72–1.09) for the high consumption group and 0.86 (95% CI: 0.72–1.02) for the medium consumption group in a multivariable model. Overall, no association between whole-grain bread consumption and CRC was found. PMID:26771634

  11. Mental distress among shift workers in Norwegian offshore petroleum industry--relative influence of individual and psychosocial work factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljoså, Cathrine Haugene; Tyssen, Reidar; Lau, Bjørn

    2011-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association between individual and psychosocial work factors and mental distress among offshore shift workers in the Norwegian petroleum industry. All 2406 employees of a large Norwegian oil and gas company, who worked offshore during a two-week period in August 2006, were invited to participate in the web-based survey. Completed questionnaires were received from 1336 employees (56% response rate). The outcome variable was mental distress, assessed with a shortened version of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL-5). The following individual factors were adjusted for: age, gender, marital status, and shift work locus of control. Psychosocial work factors included: night work, demands, control and support, and shift work-home interference. The level of mental distress was higher among men than women. In the adjusted regression model, the following were associated with mental distress: (i) high scores on quantitative demands, (ii) low level of support, and (iii) high level of shift work-home interference. Psychosocial work factors explained 76% of the total explained variance (adjusted R (²)=0.21) in the final adjusted model. Psychosocial work factors, such as quantitative demands, support, and shift work-home interference were independently associated with mental distress. Shift schedules were only univariately associated with mental distress.

  12. Consumption of Whole-Grain Bread and Risk of Colorectal Cancer among Norwegian Women (the NOWAC Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakken, Toril; Braaten, Tonje; Olsen, Anja; Kyrø, Cecilie; Lund, Eiliv; Skeie, Guri

    2016-01-13

    There is evidence that consumption of foods containing dietary fiber decreases the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Whole grains contain dietary fiber, as well as a range of micronutrients and bioactive compounds, but the association between the consumption of whole grains and the risk of CRC remains less studied. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between whole-grain bread consumption and CRC incidence among Norwegian women, using data from a prospective cohort study (the Norwegian Women and Cancer Study). Dietary intake was estimated from the food-frequency questionnaires of 78,254 women in the cohort (median age: 55 years), and these women were then followed up for CRC incidence. During the 9 years of median follow-up, 795 women were diagnosed with CRC (316 proximal, 193 distal, 218 rectal). Associations between whole-grain bread consumption and the risk of CRC (including colorectal subsites) were investigated using Cox proportional hazards regression models. When compared to the low consumption group, the hazard ratio for CRC was 0.89 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.72-1.09) for the high consumption group and 0.86 (95% CI: 0.72-1.02) for the medium consumption group in a multivariable model. Overall, no association between whole-grain bread consumption and CRC was found.

  13. Consumption of Whole-Grain Bread and Risk of Colorectal Cancer among Norwegian Women (the NOWAC Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toril Bakken

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that consumption of foods containing dietary fiber decreases the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC. Whole grains contain dietary fiber, as well as a range of micronutrients and bioactive compounds, but the association between the consumption of whole grains and the risk of CRC remains less studied. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between whole-grain bread consumption and CRC incidence among Norwegian women, using data from a prospective cohort study (the Norwegian Women and Cancer Study. Dietary intake was estimated from the food-frequency questionnaires of 78,254 women in the cohort (median age: 55 years, and these women were then followed up for CRC incidence. During the 9 years of median follow-up, 795 women were diagnosed with CRC (316 proximal, 193 distal, 218 rectal. Associations between whole-grain bread consumption and the risk of CRC (including colorectal subsites were investigated using Cox proportional hazards regression models. When compared to the low consumption group, the hazard ratio for CRC was 0.89 (95% confidence interval (CI: 0.72–1.09 for the high consumption group and 0.86 (95% CI: 0.72–1.02 for the medium consumption group in a multivariable model. Overall, no association between whole-grain bread consumption and CRC was found.

  14. Use of complementary and alternative medicine within Norwegian hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, R; Fønnebø, V M; Foss, N; Kristoffersen, A E

    2015-08-13

    Over the recent decades complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use within and outside of the public health care system in Norway has increased. The aim of this study is to describe to what extent CAM is offered in Norwegian hospitals in 2013 and investigate possible changes since 2008. In January 2013 a one-page questionnaire was sent to the medical director of all included hospitals (n = 80). He/she was asked to report whether or not one or more specific CAM therapies were offered in the hospital. Fifty-nine (73.8%) hospitals responded and form the basis for the analyses. CAM was offered in 64.4% of the responding hospitals. No major differences were found between public and private, or between somatic and psychiatric, hospitals. Acupuncture was the most frequent CAM method offered, followed by art- and expression therapy and massage. The proportion of hospitals offering CAM has increased from 50.5% in 2008 to 64.4% in 2013 (p = 0.089). The largest increase was found in psychiatric hospitals where 76.5% of hospitals offered CAM in 2013 compared to 28.6% in 2008 (p = 0.003). A small decrease was found in the proportion of hospitals offering acupuncture between 2008 (41.4%) and 2013 (37.3%). A majority of Norwegian hospitals offer some sort of CAM. The largest increase since 2008 was found in psychiatric hospitals. Psychiatric hospitals seem to have established a practice of offering CAM to their patients similar to the practice in somatic hospitals. This could indicate a shift in the attitude with regard to CAM in psychiatric hospitals.

  15. Varieties in vaper identitys in a Norwegian context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikke Tokle

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background In this qualitative study, we analyze how users of e-cigarettes (vapers articulate and express the meaning of vaping and their identity as vapers. Particular attention are drawn to how they understand their use in a Norwegian context, where use of snus is widespread, combustible cigarettes are denormalized, and perspectives on harm reduction within the tobacco control community are conflicting. Methods Semi-structured personal interviews with 32 vapers, strategically recruited (age, sex, soci.ec.status to ensure coverage of different perspectives, and systematic observations of a Norwegian online vaping forum (< 12K members, are conducted to explore the complexity of identity-making processes for users of e-cigarettes. Results Majority of interviewed vapers perceived their use of e-cigarettes as a less harmful substitute for smoking. Analyzing personal interviews and observations on a virtual vaping forum we observed that their identities as vapers varies, and can be classified into three main groups: (I Users who vape to replace cigarette smoking. (II Users who (also have vaping as a hobby and participate in a vape oriented subculture. In addition, (III recreational users who switch between tobacco products (snus+ and who value the novelty of e-cigarettes in some occasions, but also are ambivalent in regard to identifying themselves as vapers because of what they see as the social meaning of use of e-cigarettes (addiction, hobby, activists. Conclusions This study provides new insight into the varieties of vaper identities in a context were also snus have a substantial marked share. They portray their vaping in various ways, but hold a shared understanding of use of e-cigarettes as harm reduction. The results are relevant to policy makers in order to understand how to address users and potential new users of e-cigarettes.

  16. Incidence of lip cancer in the male Norwegian agricultural population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordby, K C; Andersen, A; Kristensen, P

    2004-08-01

    To explore lip cancer (LC) associations with work environmental exposures in a record-linkage study of Norwegian farmers. We hypothesize immunosuppressive substances (e.g. mycotoxins, pesticides) to influence LC incidence. A cohort of 131,243 male Norwegian farmers born 1925-1971 was established by cross-linkage of national registers and followed up through 1999 for incident LC, (ICD-7 site 140) in the Cancer Registry of Norway. Farm production data from agricultural censuses 1969-1979 and meteorological data on solar radiation and fungal forecasts (events of wet and temperate conditions known to favour fungal growth and mycotoxin formation) served as exposure proxies. Adjusted rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using Poisson regression. We identified 108 LC cases (rate 4.4 per 100,000 person-years). We found LC to be moderately associated with horses on the farm (RR = 1.6, CI = 1.0-2.4), construction work employment (RR = 1.7, CI = 1.1-2.6), pesticide use (RR = 0.7, CI = 0.4-1.0), grain production (RR = 1.3, CI = 0.9-2.1) and increasing levels of fungal forecasts (RR = 1.6, CI = 0.9-2.8 in the highest two quartiles). Moderate associations of LC with grain production and fungal forecasts and the negative association with pesticide could possibly be explained by exposure to immunosuppressive mycotoxins. Some of the associations observed could be explained by solar exposure. Copyright 2004 Kluwer Academic Publishers

  17. Norwegians GPs' use of electronic patient record systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Tom; Faxvaag, Arild; Loerum, Hallvard; Grimsmo, Anders

    2009-12-01

    To evaluate GPs use of three major electronic patient record systems with emphasis on the ability of the systems to support important clinical tasks and to compare the findings with results from a study of the three major hospital-wide systems. A national, cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted in Norwegian primary care. 247 (73%) of 338 GPs responded. Proportions of the respondents who reported to use the EPR system to conduct 23 central clinical tasks, differences in the proportions of users of different EPR systems and user satisfaction and perceived usefulness of the EPR system were measured. The GPs reported extensive use of their EPR systems to support clinical tasks. There were no significant differences in functionality between the systems, but there were differences in reported software and hardware dysfunction and user satisfaction. The respondents reported high scores in computer literacy and there was no correlation between computer usage and respondent age or gender. A comparison with hospital physicians' use of three hospital-wide EPR systems revealed that GPs had higher usage than the hospital-based MDs. Primary care EPR systems support clinical tasks far better than hospital systems with better overall user satisfaction and reported impact on the overall quality of the work. EPR systems in Norwegian primary care that have been developed in accordance with the principles of user-centered design have achieved widespread adoption and highly integrated use. The quality and efficiency of the clinical work has increased in contrast to the situation of their hospital colleagues, who report more modest use and benefits of EPR systems.

  18. Norwegian physicians' knowledge of the prices of pharmaceuticals: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Ida Iren; Melberg, Hans Olav; Bringedal, Berit

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to measure physicians' knowledge of the prices of pharmaceuticals, and investigate whether there are differences in knowledge of prices between groups of physicians. This article reports on a survey study of physicians' knowledge of the prices of pharmaceuticals conducted on a representative sample of Norwegian physicians in the autumn of 2010. The importance of physicians' knowledge of costs derives from their influence on total spending and allocation of limited health-care resources. Physicians are important drivers in the effort to contain costs in health care, but only if they have the knowledge needed to choose the most cost-effective treatment options. A survey was sent to 1543 Norwegian physicians, asking them for price estimates and their opinions on the importance of considering the cost of treatment to society as a decision factor when treating their patients. This article deals with a subsection in which the physicians were asked to estimate the price of five pharmaceuticals: simvastatin, alendronate (Fosamax), infliximab (Remicade), natalizumab (Tysabri) and escitalopram (Cipralex). The response rate was 65%. For all the five pharmaceuticals, more than 50% and as many as 83% gave responses that differed more than 50% from the actual drug price. The price of more expensive pharmaceuticals was underestimated, while the opposite was the case for less expensive medicines. The data show that physicians in general have poor knowledge of the prices of the pharmaceuticals they offer their patients. However, the physicians who frequently deal with a drug have better knowledge of its price than those who do not handle a medication as often. The data also suggest that those physicians who agree that cost of care to society is an important decision factor have better knowledge of drug prices.

  19. Norwegian electricity market liberalisation: questions of cost calculation and price definition by grid operators; Norwegische Elektrizitaetsmarktoeffnung: Kostenrechnungs- und Preisbildungsfragen der Netzgesellschaften

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wild, J.; Vaterlaus, S.

    2002-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study carried out on the Norwegian electricity market 10 years after its liberalisation. The similarity of the Norwegian market to the Swiss electricity market is discussed. Similarly to the proposed situation in Switzerland, the liberalisation in Norway foresaw no privatisation of public utilities and a model for the regulation of grid access was introduced. The report describes and comments on the various phases in which the liberalisation occurred and examines the various instruments used, e.g. to ensure that individual grid operators did not make undue profits from their monopoly. The methods used for the monitoring of grid operators' costs are described and the mechanisms involved in the definition of prices for grid services are examined, including measures taken when profits were too high or too low. The report is concluded with a discussion of the conclusions that can be drawn from the Norwegian model for Swiss market opening efforts.

  20. Updating and prospective validation of a prognostic model for high sickness absence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C.A.M.; Heymans, M.W.; Twisk, J.W.R.; van Rhenen, W.; Pallesen, S.; Bjorvatn, B.; Moen, B.E.; Mageroy, N.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To further develop and validate a Dutch prognostic model for high sickness absence (SA). Methods Three-wave longitudinal cohort study of 2,059 Norwegian nurses. The Dutch prognostic model was used to predict high SA among Norwegian nurses at wave 2. Subsequently, the model was updated by

  1. Efficiency effects of observed and unobserved heterogeneity: Evidence from Norwegian electricity distribution networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Growitsch, Christian; Jamasb, Tooraj; Wetzel, Heike

    2012-01-01

    Since the 1990s, efficiency and benchmarking analysis has increasingly been used in network utilities research and regulation. A recurrent concern is the effect of observable environmental factors that are beyond the influence of firms and unobserved factors that are not identifiable on measured cost and quality performance of firms. This paper analyses the effect of observed geographic and weather factors and unobserved heterogeneity on a set of 128 Norwegian electricity distribution utilities for the 2001–2004 period. We utilise data on 78 geographic and weather variables to identify real economic inefficiency while controlling for observed and unobserved heterogeneity. We use the Factor Analysis technique to reduce the number of environmental factors into few composite variables and to avoid the problem of multicollinearity. In order to identify firm-specific inefficiency, we then estimate a pooled version of the established stochastic frontier model of Aigner et al. (1977) and the recent true random effects model of Greene (2004; 2005a,b) without and with environmental variables. The results indicate that the observed environmental factors have a rather limited influence on the utilities' average efficiency and the efficiency rankings. Moreover, the difference between the average efficiency scores and the efficiency rankings among the pooled and the true random effects models imply that the type of SFA model used is highly influencing the efficiency estimates.

  2. Facts publication. Norwegian petroleum activities 1996; Faktaheftet 1996. Norsk petroleumsvirksomhet 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westgaard, Tom (ed.)

    1996-02-01

    This is an annual publication by the Norwegian Ministry of Industry and Energy of statistical data on petroleum resources, exploration, development, production and revenue. However, it also includes analyses and comments, and sections on history, the environment, legislation, concession etc.

  3. An Analysis of the Norwegian Resistance During the Second World War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Kim

    1997-01-01

    The Norwegian Resistance during the Second World War (April 1940-June 1945) was basically a peaceful set of events conducted by the civilian population as well as underground military organizations...

  4. Potential and barrier study. Energy efficiency of Norwegian homes; Potensial- og barrierestudie. Energieffektivisering av norske boliger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mjoenes, Christian; Pettersen, Folke Vogn Haug; Kristoffersen, Bjoerge Sandberg; Birkeland, Bjoern Mangor; Essen, Jan von; Haarberg; Karl Johan

    2012-01-15

    On behalf of Enova SF, Prognosesenteret AS and Entelligens AS carried out a potential and barrier study of energy efficiency of the Norwegian housing stock. The study made use of newer and known studies of the Norwegian housing stock, known and documented barriers to energy efficiency, and new and extensive studies of several topics which have only been partially or never explored before. Through unique analysis and a case-based approach, it revealed a real energy efficiency potential in Norwegian homes with known technology and revealed representativeness, relevance, strength and extent of the barriers that prevent that one can realize most of the technical energy efficiency potential in the Norwegian housing stock. (eb)

  5. Psychometric properties of a four-component Norwegian Organizational Justice Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Olav Kjellevold; Myrseth, Helga; Eidhamar, Are; Hystad, Sigurd W

    2012-04-01

    Organizational justice has attracted attention as a predictor of employees' mental and physical health as well as commitment and work outcomes. The lack of a Norwegian translation of an organizational justice scale has precluded its use in Norway. Four dimensions of the organizational justice construct were examined in a Norwegian military context, including facet measures of distributional, interpersonal, and informational justice developed by Colquitt in 2001, in addition to procedural justice developed by Moorman in 1991. Confirmatory factor analyses supported a four-dimensional structure with good internal consistency. Follow-up analyses have suggested that the four dimensions were nested beneath a general, latent organizational justice factor. A positive relationship between organizational justice and self-sacrificial behavior was found, indicating satisfactory construct validity. The results demonstrate that the Norwegian Organizational Justice Scale is a reliable and construct-valid measure of organizational justice in a Norwegian setting.

  6. Feeding Ecology of Northeast Atlantic Mackerel, Norwegian Spring-Spawning Herring and Blue Whiting in the Norwegian Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eneko Bachiller

    Full Text Available The Norwegian spring-spawning (NSS herring (Clupea harengus, blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou and Northeast Atlantic (NEA mackerel (Scomber scombrus are extremely abundant pelagic planktivores that feed in the Norwegian Sea (NS during spring and summer. This study investigated the feeding ecology and diet composition of these commercially important fish stocks on the basis of biological data, including an extensive set of stomach samples in combination with hydrographical data, zooplankton samples and acoustic abundance data from 12 stock monitoring surveys carried out in 2005-2010. Mackerel were absent during the spring, but had generally high feeding overlap with herring in the summer, with a diet mainly based on calanoid copepods, especially Calanus finmarchicus, as well as a similar diet width. Stomach fullness in herring diminished from spring to summer and feeding incidence was lower than that of mackerel in summer. However, stomach fullness did not differ between the two species, indicating that herring maintain an equally efficient pattern of feeding as mackerel in summer, but on a diet that is less dominated by copepods and is more reliant on larger prey. Blue whiting tended to have a low dietary overlap with mackerel and herring, with larger prey such as euphausiids and amphipods dominating, and stomach fullness and feeding incidence increasing with length. For all the species, feeding incidence increased with decreasing temperature, and for mackerel so did stomach fullness, indicating that feeding activity is highest in areas associated with colder water masses. Significant annual effects on diet composition and feeding-related variables suggested that the three species are able to adapt to different food and environmental conditions. These annual effects are likely to have an important impact on the predation pressure on different plankton groups and the carrying capacity of individual systems, and emphasise the importance of

  7. Feeding Ecology of Northeast Atlantic Mackerel, Norwegian Spring-Spawning Herring and Blue Whiting in the Norwegian Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachiller, Eneko; Skaret, Georg; Nøttestad, Leif; Slotte, Aril

    2016-01-01

    The Norwegian spring-spawning (NSS) herring (Clupea harengus), blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) and Northeast Atlantic (NEA) mackerel (Scomber scombrus) are extremely abundant pelagic planktivores that feed in the Norwegian Sea (NS) during spring and summer. This study investigated the feeding ecology and diet composition of these commercially important fish stocks on the basis of biological data, including an extensive set of stomach samples in combination with hydrographical data, zooplankton samples and acoustic abundance data from 12 stock monitoring surveys carried out in 2005-2010. Mackerel were absent during the spring, but had generally high feeding overlap with herring in the summer, with a diet mainly based on calanoid copepods, especially Calanus finmarchicus, as well as a similar diet width. Stomach fullness in herring diminished from spring to summer and feeding incidence was lower than that of mackerel in summer. However, stomach fullness did not differ between the two species, indicating that herring maintain an equally efficient pattern of feeding as mackerel in summer, but on a diet that is less dominated by copepods and is more reliant on larger prey. Blue whiting tended to have a low dietary overlap with mackerel and herring, with larger prey such as euphausiids and amphipods dominating, and stomach fullness and feeding incidence increasing with length. For all the species, feeding incidence increased with decreasing temperature, and for mackerel so did stomach fullness, indicating that feeding activity is highest in areas associated with colder water masses. Significant annual effects on diet composition and feeding-related variables suggested that the three species are able to adapt to different food and environmental conditions. These annual effects are likely to have an important impact on the predation pressure on different plankton groups and the carrying capacity of individual systems, and emphasise the importance of regular

  8. Corruption and Corporate Social Responsibility in China : The case of the Norwegian shipping industry

    OpenAIRE

    Søndenaa, Eli Friisø

    2010-01-01

    This paper has two main purposes. Firstly to look at how Norwegian shipowners are affected by corruption in China. Secondly to find out how the companies’ CSR policy can protect them against corruption. The background for this thesis is among others statistics from Corruption Perceptions Index (Transparency International). Also I wanted to look deeper into the increasing focus on Corporate Social Responsibility policies the later year. It seemed interesting to look at how Norwegian Shipowners...

  9. Kinship care in child protection : Norwegian and Portuguese professional social workers' expressed perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Sæbjørnsen, Siv Elin Nord

    2011-01-01

    Master's thesis in Social work This is a qualitative study and the data is collected through qualitative interviews with Norwegian and Portuguese social workers. The aims of the study is to explore the Norwegian and Portuguese social workers’ expressed perspectives with relevance to kinship care and to look for coherence between policies, professional perspectives and the current performance of the practice. Also this study aims to illuminate some of the most relevant current laws, poli...

  10. The profitability of Norwegian salmon farming companies : a study of profitability variation

    OpenAIRE

    Eilertsen, Bendik Foss; Hui, Erik

    2015-01-01

    The conditions in the Norwegian salmon farming industry are constantly changing. Locally and globally, regulations, consolidation and technological advancements are some of the factors having a deep impact on the current industry. To ensure competitiveness, it is essential to emphasise on profitability and taking the correct strategic decisions. The objective of this thesis is to indicate what may cause variation in profitability in the current Norwegian salmon farming industry...

  11. A Nationwide Study of Norwegian Beliefs About Same-sex Marriage and Lesbian and Gay Parenthood

    OpenAIRE

    Hollekim, Ragnhild; Slaatten, Hilde; Anderssen, Norman

    2012-01-01

    In Norway, a gender-neutral Marriage Law that secured equal marriage and parenting rights for lesbian, gay and heterosexual couples took effect in January 2009. The aim of the current study was to explore Norwegian beliefs about equal marriage and parenting rights for lesbian, gay and heterosexual couples and the welfare of children with lesbian and gay parents. A sample of 1,246 Norwegians participated in the study by filling out a questionnaire. The majority reported...

  12. Bicultural Childhood. A Case Study with Greek and Greek-Norwegian Families in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Liland, Irene Midtskog

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to explore Greek and Greek–Norwegian children’s experiences of migration and bicultural childhood. The period of fieldwork took place in different cities in Norway during the autumn of 2014. The methods employed are questionnaires, worksheets, mind-mapping activities and semi-structured interviews. The participants in the study were children born in Norway with one Greek-born and one Norwegian-born parent, immigrant children from Greece who had been living in Norway between on...

  13. The Norwegian Downsizing Approach in Terms of the Insider Threat - An interpretive study

    OpenAIRE

    Benjaminsen, Terje

    2017-01-01

    This research examined how the Norwegian organizations approach a downsizing in terms of the insider threat. Ten subject matter experts in large Norwegian enterprises were interviewed. These subject matter experts serve in various industry sectors such as; petroleum and energy, climate and environment, agriculture and food, defense, finance, and maritime. The size of the organizations varies from around 400 to more than 10,000 employees. The results of these interviews have been discussed and...

  14. Dry well analysis of well 6407/10-5 at 793 area, Norwegian Sea.

    OpenAIRE

    Qamar, Javeria

    2017-01-01

    Master's thesis in Petroleum Geosciences Engineering. The region of investigation is located in the Norwegian Sea, which is an area of high hydrocarbon activity. Many reservoirs have been successfully identified, drilled, and now they are producing in large oil & gas fields. However, the Norwegian Sea has a complex geology as it resulted from Permian to Late Jurassic crustal extension, which created rift basins and several horst and graben structures. Most of the important hydrocarbon rese...

  15. Money laundering in the norwegian securities market: on the conditions of money laundering

    OpenAIRE

    Ingvaldsen, Karsten Olaf F.; Larsson, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This is the final text version of the article, it may contain minor differences from the publisher's pdf version. Norwegian authorities often claim that the financial sector, and especially the securities market, is particularly vulnerable to activities of money laundering. Money laundering is a recurrent theme in the Norwegian media. Usually the media tend to present the forms and extent of money laundering in simple and rather vague terms. The numbers circulating in the media are based u...

  16. Genetic correlations between claw health and feet and leg conformation in Norwegian Red cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ødegård, C; Svendsen, M; Heringstad, B

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate genetic correlations between claw disorders and feet and leg conformation traits in Norwegian Red cows. A total of 188,928 cows with claw health status recorded at claw trimming from 2004 to September 2013 and 210,789 first-lactation cows with feet and leg conformation scores from 2001 to September 2013 were included in the analyses. Traits describing claw health were corkscrew claw, infectious claw disorders (dermatitis, heel horn erosion, and interdigital phlegmon), and laminitis-related claw disorders (sole ulcer, white line disorder, and hemorrhage of sole and white line). The feet and leg conformation traits were rear leg rear view (new and old definition), rear leg side view, foot angle, and hoof quality. Feet and leg conformation traits were scored linearly from 1 to 9, with optimum scores depending on the trait. Claw disorders were defined as binary (0/1) traits for each lactation. Threshold sire models were used to model claw disorders, whereas the feet and leg conformation traits were described by linear sire models. Three multivariate analyses were performed, each including the 5 feet and leg conformation traits and 1 of the 3 claw disorders at a time. Posterior means of heritability of liability of claw disorders ranged from 0.10 to 0.20 and heritabilities of feet and leg conformation traits ranged from 0.04 to 0.11. Posterior standard deviation of heritability was ≤0.01 for all traits. Genetic correlations between claw disorders and feet and leg conformation traits were all low or moderate, except between corkscrew claw and hoof quality (-0.86), which are supposed to measure the same trait. The genetic correlations between rear leg rear view (new) and infectious claw disorders (-0.20) and laminitis-related claw disorders (0.26), and between hoof quality and laminitis-related claw disorders (-0.33) were moderate. Eight of the 15 genetic correlations between claw disorders and feet and leg conformation traits had 0

  17. Norwegian public health policy: revitalization of the social democratic welfare state?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosse, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    Norway is part of the so-called social democratic welfare state model, which is characterized by its emphasis on solidarity and redistribution among social groups. The concepts of upstream and downstream policy measures may be useful to characterize different approaches to public health policies: upstream measures would be structural measures, in line with the social democratic welfare state model, while downstream measures would be more targeted at individuals or groups at some sort of risk. The aim of this article is to analyze national policies in Norway and how these may be characterized in terms of upstream and downstream factors. Health promotion and public health policies have been high on the Norwegian political agenda for two decades. However, the national policy emphasis has shifted between strategies aimed at individuals and structural strategies--that is, between downstream and upstream measures. Until 2003, policies included mainly downstream measures, but since then a policy shift has taken place and current policy includes an emphasis on upstream measures. This policy was strengthened after a left-wing coalition came into government in 2005. It may be argued that the present policy represents a revitalization of universal and structural measures, in line with the social democratic welfare state model.

  18. Job stress and job satisfaction of physicians in private practice: comparison of German and Norwegian physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voltmer, Edgar; Rosta, Judith; Siegrist, Johannes; Aasland, Olaf G

    2012-10-01

    This study examined job satisfaction and job stress of German compared to Norwegian physicians in private practice. A representative sample of physicians in private practice of Schleswig-Holstein, Germany (N = 414) and a nationwide sample of Norwegian general practitioners and private practice specialists (N = 340) were surveyed in a cross-sectional design in 2010. The questionnaire comprised the standard instruments "Job Satisfaction Scale (JSS)" and a short form of the "Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire (ERI)". Norwegian physicians scored significantly higher (job satisfaction scale compared to German physicians (M 5.57, SD 0.74 vs. M 4.78, SD 1.01). The effect size was highest for the items freedom to choose method (d = 1.012), rate of pay (d = 0.941), and overall job satisfaction (d = 0.931). While there was no significant difference in the mean of the overall effort scale between German and Norwegian physicians, Norwegian physicians scored significantly higher (p job satisfaction. Job satisfaction and reward were significantly higher in Norwegian than in German physicians. An almost threefold higher proportion of German physicians exhibited a high level of work-related stress. Findings call for active prevention and health promotion among stressed practicing physicians, with a special focus on improved working conditions.

  19. Political Culture, Values and Economic Utility: A Different Perspective on Norwegian Party-based Euroscepticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne S. Skinner

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on a content analysis of party manifestos and a survey of Norwegian MPs, this article examines the nuances in, and the causality of, the different Norwegian parties’ Euroscepticism. The study of the comparative party politics of Euroscepticism, which focuses on ideology and strategy, falls short of accounting for the Norwegian case, where, unlike other European countries, the parties’ Euroscepticism is exceptionally stable and appears across the political spectrum. Therefore, the article tests an alternative set of theories, drawn from the literature on opinion formation on European integration, to find a more suitable framework for analysing and explaining the motivation of Norwegian Euroscepticism. The analysis shows that Norwegian party-based Euroscepticism can be divided into three types when it comes to its strength and policy opposition, with the Centre Party and the Socialist Left Party on the ‘hardest’ end of the Euroscepticism scale, followed by the Christian Democratic Party and the Liberal Party, and finally, the Labour Party and the Progress Party. Furthermore, the analysis indicates that Norwegian Eurosceptic party stances on Europe are primarily driven by political values and political culture concerns, except for the Progress Party, which base its Eurosceptic motivation on economic utilitarianism and political culture.

  20. Long-term monitoring of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) at the Norwegian Troll station in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallenborn, R.; Breivik, K.; Eckhardt, S.; Lunder, C. R.; Manø, S.; Schlabach, M.; Stohl, A.

    2013-07-01

    A first long-term monitoring of selected persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Antarctic air has been conducted at the Norwegian research station Troll (Dronning Maud Land). As target contaminants 32 PCB congeners, α- and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), trans- and cis-chlordane, trans- and cis-nonachlor, p,p'- and o,p-DDT, DDD, DDE as well as hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were selected. The monitoring program with weekly samples taken during the period 2007-2010 was coordinated with the parallel program at the Norwegian Arctic monitoring site (Zeppelin mountain, Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard) in terms of priority compounds, sampling schedule as well as analytical methods. The POP concentration levels found in Antarctica were considerably lower than Arctic atmospheric background concentrations. Similar to observations for Arctic samples, HCB is the predominant POP compound, with levels of around 22 pg m-3 throughout the entire monitoring period. In general, the following concentration distribution was found for the Troll samples analyzed: HCB > Sum HCH > Sum PCB > Sum DDT > Sum chlordanes. Atmospheric long-range transport was identified as a major contamination source for POPs in Antarctic environments. Several long-range transport events with elevated levels of pesticides and/or compounds with industrial sources were identified based on retroplume calculations with a Lagrangian particle dispersion model (FLEXPART).

  1. Long-term monitoring of persistent organic pollutants (POPs at the Norwegian Troll station in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kallenborn

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A first long-term monitoring of selected persistent organic pollutants (POPs in Antarctic air has been conducted at the Norwegian research station Troll (Dronning Maud Land. As target contaminants 32 PCB congeners, α- and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH, trans- and cis-chlordane, trans- and cis-nonachlor, p,p'- and o,p-DDT, DDD, DDE as well as hexachlorobenzene (HCB were selected. The monitoring program with weekly samples taken during the period 2007–2010 was coordinated with the parallel program at the Norwegian Arctic monitoring site (Zeppelin mountain, Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard in terms of priority compounds, sampling schedule as well as analytical methods. The POP concentration levels found in Antarctica were considerably lower than Arctic atmospheric background concentrations. Similar to observations for Arctic samples, HCB is the predominant POP compound, with levels of around 22 pg m−3 throughout the entire monitoring period. In general, the following concentration distribution was found for the Troll samples analyzed: HCB > Sum HCH > Sum PCB > Sum DDT > Sum chlordanes. Atmospheric long-range transport was identified as a major contamination source for POPs in Antarctic environments. Several long-range transport events with elevated levels of pesticides and/or compounds with industrial sources were identified based on retroplume calculations with a Lagrangian particle dispersion model (FLEXPART.

  2. Cross-border integration in the European electricity market. Evidence from the pricing behavior of Norwegian and Swiss exporters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balaguer, Jacint

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the electricity market integration process in two European areas based on the pricing behavior of Norwegian and Swiss exporters. The aim is to gain evidence for the period after the adoption of the 'Second Legislative Package' (2003). The pricing behavior of Norwegian exporters indicates that the wholesale markets for Denmark and Sweden are highly integrated. Moreover, results are fully compatible with the existence of a very competitive marketplace for electricity. This clearly contrasts with the evidence provided by Swiss exporters. In this last case, analysis revealed differences in pricing-to-market behavior between Italy, France and Germany, which indicates that exporters take advantage of international market segmentation and divergences between market structures. This outcome provides a reasonable explanation as to why price differences between countries cannot be fully attributed to transmission costs, as has been claimed in previous research. We also found cross-country convergence in levels of markups and in pricing-to-market behavior of the Swiss exporters for the first part of the period that was analyzed. The evidence is fully consistent with an initial impulse toward market integration originated by reforms implemented at the beginning of the last decade. - Highlights: → We exploit a model based on pricing-to-market behavior. → Price discrimination by Swiss exporters is found. → Nordic electricity markets are found to be already highly integrated. → Market integration was recently improved in continental area. → Results are consistent with reforms under the 'Second Legislative Package'.

  3. Cross-border integration in the European electricity market. Evidence from the pricing behavior of Norwegian and Swiss exporters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balaguer, Jacint, E-mail: jacint.balaguer@eco.uji.es [Department of Economics, Universitat Jaume I, 12071 Castellon (Spain)

    2011-09-15

    This paper examines the electricity market integration process in two European areas based on the pricing behavior of Norwegian and Swiss exporters. The aim is to gain evidence for the period after the adoption of the 'Second Legislative Package' (2003). The pricing behavior of Norwegian exporters indicates that the wholesale markets for Denmark and Sweden are highly integrated. Moreover, results are fully compatible with the existence of a very competitive marketplace for electricity. This clearly contrasts with the evidence provided by Swiss exporters. In this last case, analysis revealed differences in pricing-to-market behavior between Italy, France and Germany, which indicates that exporters take advantage of international market segmentation and divergences between market structures. This outcome provides a reasonable explanation as to why price differences between countries cannot be fully attributed to transmission costs, as has been claimed in previous research. We also found cross-country convergence in levels of markups and in pricing-to-market behavior of the Swiss exporters for the first part of the period that was analyzed. The evidence is fully consistent with an initial impulse toward market integration originated by reforms implemented at the beginning of the last decade. - Highlights: > We exploit a model based on pricing-to-market behavior. > Price discrimination by Swiss exporters is found. > Nordic electricity markets are found to be already highly integrated. > Market integration was recently improved in continental area. > Results are consistent with reforms under the 'Second Legislative Package'.

  4. Impact of two myostatin (MSTN mutations on weight gain and lamb carcass classification in Norwegian White Sheep (Ovis aries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blichfeldt Thor

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our aim was to estimate the effect of two myostatin (MSTN mutations in Norwegian White Sheep, one of which is close to fixation in the Texel breed. Methods The impact of two known MSTN mutations was examined in a field experiment with Norwegian White Sheep. The joint effect of the two MSTN mutations on live weight gain and weaning weight was studied on 644 lambs. Carcass weight gain from birth to slaughter, carcass weight, carcass conformation and carcass fat classes were calculated in a subset of 508 lambs. All analyses were carried out with a univariate linear animal model. Results The most significant impact of both mutations was on conformation and fat classes. The largest difference between the genotype groups was between the wild type for both mutations and the homozygotes for the c.960delG mutation. Compared to the wild types, these mutants obtained a conformation score 5.1 classes higher and a fat score 3.0 classes lower, both on a 15-point scale. Conclusions Both mutations reduced fatness and increased muscle mass, although the effect of the frameshift mutation (c.960delG was more important as compared to the 3'-UTR mutation (c.2360G>A. Lambs homozygous for the c.960delG mutation grew more slowly than those with other MSTN genotypes, but had the least fat and the largest muscle mass. Only c.960delG showed dominance effects.

  5. NORSE2015 - A Focused Experiment On Oil Emulsion Characterization Using PolSAR During the 2015 Norwegian Oil-On-Water Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, B.; Jones, C. E.; Brekke, C.; Breivik, O.; Skrunes, S.; Espeseth, M.

    2016-02-01

    A targeted experiment in characterizing the properties and development of mineral oil slicks was undertaken by NASA, UiT - The Arctic University of Norway, and the Norwegian Meteorological Institute during the 2015 Norwegian oil-on-water spill exercise in the North Sea (OPV2015). NORSE2015 (Norwegian Radar oil Spill Experiment) involved controlled release of plant oil and mineral emulsions of three different oil-to-water ratios, imaging of the slicks with satellite-borne synthetic aperture radars (SAR), and tracking their development with the NASA-UAVSAR instrument over a period of eight hours following release. During the experiment, in situ measurements were made from ship or aircraft with meteorological instruments, released drift buoys, and optical/IR imagers. The experiment was designed to provide validation data for development of a physical model relating polarization-dependent electromagnetic scattering to the dielectric properties of oil mixed with ocean water in a thick slick or emulsion. UAVSAR is a particularly low noise instrument, which enables detection of oil characteristics, and serves as the basis for a relative comparison of different radar frequencies and instruments in oil slick detection and characterization. The time series of UAVSAR polarimetric SAR (PolSAR) is used to track the spreading, movement, and change in backscatter of the different emulsion slicks and the plant oil, to look at movement relative to wind and wave directions, and to develop methods to differentiate between biogenic and mineral slicks based upon temporal changes in the slicks, including environment-driven changes. In this presentation, the experiment will be described and preliminary results presented. This work was carried out in part at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA. The Norwegian experiment was partly financed by CIRFA - Centre for integrated remote sensing and forecasting for arctic operations.

  6. Impact of data assimilation of physical variables on the spring bloom from TOPAZ operational runs in the North Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Samuelsen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A reanalysis of the North Atlantic spring bloom in 2007 was produced using the real-time analysis from the TOPAZ North Atlantic and Arctic forecasting system. The TOPAZ system uses a hybrid coordinate general circulation ocean model and assimilates physical observations: sea surface anomalies, sea surface temperatures, and sea-ice concentrations using the Ensemble Kalman Filter. This ocean model was coupled to an ecosystem model, NORWECOM (Norwegian Ecological Model System, and the TOPAZ-NORWECOM coupled model was run throughout the spring and summer of 2007. The ecosystem model was run online, restarting from analyzed physical fields (result after data assimilation every 7 days. Biological variables were not assimilated in the model. The main purpose of the study was to investigate the impact of physical data assimilation on the ecosystem model. This was determined by comparing the results to those from a model without assimilation of physical data. The regions of focus are the North Atlantic and the Arctic Ocean. Assimilation of physical variables does not affect the results from the ecosystem model significantly. The differences between the weekly mean values of chlorophyll are normally within 5–10% during the summer months, and the maximum difference of ~20% occurs in the Arctic, also during summer. Special attention was paid to the nutrient input from the North Atlantic to the Nordic Seas and the impact of ice-assimilation on the ecosystem. The ice-assimilation increased the phytoplankton concentration: because there was less ice in the assimilation run, this increased both the mixing of nutrients during winter and the area where production could occur during summer. The forecast was also compared to remotely sensed chlorophyll, climatological nutrients, and in-situ data. The results show that the model reproduces a realistic annual cycle, but the chlorophyll concentrations tend to be between 0.1 and 1.0 mg chla/m3 too

  7. European economic area in the system of the EU foreign policy: norwegian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohdan Y. Barna

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available European Economic Area was one of the first examples of developing the relations between the EU and other partner countries on the continent that rejected a full membership in this organization. This form of cooperation for over twenty years provides stability, predictability and constructive development of relations with the three European partners, including Norway. Currently, the EEA is seen as a model of deeper integration without getting a full-fledged membership in the EU. It should also be noted that this arrangement has proven its resistance to external shocks as reduction of members of EFTA, EU enlargement and adoption of new EU treaties. Therefore, Brussels supports the existence of the EEA and never officially put on the agenda of the termination of the agreement or revision of its provisions. For their part, most Norwegian political parties also defend the status quo. However, there are voices on the need to modernize the EEA, especially after the adoption of the Lisbon Treaty. It is also necessary to point out that the Norwegian model of cooperation with the EU has lost its original exceptionality, especially after the entry into force of the Association Agreement with Ukraine. Oslo has also to compete with a number of other countries, NGOs and other lobby groups for attention from the EU. Relations between Norway and the EU are characterized by the asymmetry of obligations under the EEA, as Oslo is obliged to unilaterally implement acquis communautaire, while having no effective leverage over decision-making in the EU. Another challenge is the weakness of the EFTA pillars in the EEA, as it is necessary to interact with an organization, which has 28 European member-countries. There are other negative aspects that gradually reduce the role of Norway in relations with the EU. Given the current challenges, different scenarios have been prepared focusing on for the further development of relations between the EU and Norway. According to

  8. Predictions of realised fecundity and spawning time in Norwegian spring-spawning herring ( Clupea harengus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Óskarsson, G. J.; Kjesbu, O. S.; Slotte, A.

    2002-08-01

    Maturing Norwegian spring-spawning (NSS) herring, Clupea harengus, were collected for reproductive analyses along the Norwegian coast prior to the spawning seasons of 1997-2000. Over this time period there was a marked change in weight (W) at length (TL) with 1998 showing extremely low values and 2000 high values in a historical perspective. Potential fecundity, amounting to about 20 000-100 000 developing (vitellogenic) oocytes per fish and positively related to fish size, increased significantly with fish condition. Relative somatic potential fecundity (RF P, number of oocytes per g ovary-free body weight) in NSS herring was found to vary by 35-55% between years. Unexpectedly, females in 2000 showed low RF P-values, possibly due to negative feedback from previous reproductive investments at low condition. A clear threshold value for Fulton's condition factor, K (K=100×W/TL 3), of 0.65-0.70 existed below which there was considerable atresia (resorption of vitellogenic oocytes). Thus, these components of the spawning stock, amounting to 1-46% in the period 1980-1999, obviously contributed relatively little to the total egg production. This was confirmed by low ovary weights and examples of delayed oocyte development in these individuals. An up-to-date atresia model is presented. The established oocyte growth curve, and to a lesser degree the assumed atretic oocytic turnover rate, was critical for the estimation of realised fecundity (number of eggs spawned). Modelled realised fecundity was significantly below observed potential fecundity. Females that had migrated the shortest distance from the over-wintering area, Vestfjorden, northern Norway, were in the poorest condition, had the least developed oocytes and the lowest potential and realised fecundities. In agreement with previously published studies on temporal and spatial changes in gonad weights, those females reaching the main spawning grounds in the south-western part of the coast (Møre) were the most

  9. Living the Past in the Present: An Ethnographic Study of Norwegian Americans’ Expression of Identity in Minneapolis

    OpenAIRE

    Bakken, Hege

    2016-01-01

    The study of American identity has generally been concerned with the concept of hyphenated identity, a dual identity of sorts. The Norwegian-American identity is a clear example of a hyphenated identity. This thesis will offer some perspectives on the American identity construction in general and the Norwegian-American in particular. A focal point is how the Norwegian-American identity is maintained in contemporary USA. This thesis is based on five and a half months ethnographic fieldwork con...

  10. Energy demand in the Norwegian building stock: Scenarios on potential reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartori, Igor; Wachenfeldt, Bjorn Jensen; Hestnes, Anne Grete

    2009-01-01

    A model has been developed for studying the effect of three hypothetical approaches in reducing electricity and energy demand in the Norwegian building stock: wide diffusion of thermal carriers, heat pumps and conservation measures, respectively. Combinations of these are also considered. The model has a demand side perspective, considers both residential and service sectors, and calculates energy flows from net to delivered energy. Energy demand is given by the product of activity and intensity matrices. The activity levels are defined for the stock and the new construction, renovation and demolition flows. The intensity properties are defined in archetypes, and are the result of different energy class and heating carriers share options. The scenarios are shaped by combining the activity flows with different archetypes. The results show that adopting conservation measures on a large scale does allow reducing both electricity and total energy demand from present day levels while the building stock keeps growing. The results also highlight the importance of making a clear distinction between the assumptions on intensity and activity levels.

  11. Exploration economics in a regulated petroleum province: The case of the Norwegian Continental Shelf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohn, Klaus; Osmundsen, Petter

    2008-01-01

    Reserve replacement remains a key challenge for the international oil and gas companies. As market-oriented oil and gas provinces are maturing, exploration activity is shifted towards the resource-rich, regulated regimes outside the OECD. Regulated oil and gas provinces remain under-explored also in econometric terms. In this paper, we specify and estimate an econometric model of exploration and appraisal drilling for the highly regulated Norwegian Continental Shelf (NCS) over the period 1965 to 2004. Explanatory variables include the oil price, cumulative discoveries and open exploration acreage. Estimated error-correction models account explicitly for sluggishness and short-term adjustments in exploration drilling. We find robust long-term oil price effects on exploration activity, whereas the short-term response is muted. On the other hand, the temporary influence on exploration drilling from licensing rounds for new exploration acreage is significant, and so are the feedback effects from historical exploration success. At the same time, the longer-term impact of these variables is more moderate. (author)

  12. Energy demand in the Norwegian building stock. Scenarios on potential reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartori, Igor; Hestnes, Anne Grete [Department of Architectural Design, History and Technology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), 7491 Trondheim (Norway); Wachenfeldt, Bjoern Jensen [SINTEF Building and Infrastructure, 7465 Trondheim (Norway)

    2009-05-15

    A model has been developed for studying the effect of three hypothetical approaches in reducing electricity and energy demand in the Norwegian building stock: wide diffusion of thermal carriers, heat pumps and conservation measures, respectively. Combinations of these are also considered. The model has a demand side perspective, considers both residential and service sectors, and calculates energy flows from net to delivered energy. Energy demand is given by the product of activity and intensity matrices. The activity levels are defined for the stock and the new construction, renovation and demolition flows. The intensity properties are defined in archetypes, and are the result of different energy class and heating carriers share options. The scenarios are shaped by combining the activity flows with different archetypes. The results show that adopting conservation measures on a large scale does allow reducing both electricity and total energy demand from present day levels while the building stock keeps growing. The results also highlight the importance of making a clear distinction between the assumptions on intensity and activity levels. (author)

  13. Energy demand in the Norwegian building stock: Scenarios on potential reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartori, Igor [Department of Architectural Design, History and Technology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), 7491 Trondheim (Norway)], E-mail: igor.sartori@sintef.no; Wachenfeldt, Bjorn Jensen [SINTEF Building and Infrastructure, 7465 Trondheim (Norway); Hestnes, Anne Grete [Department of Architectural Design, History and Technology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), 7491 Trondheim (Norway)

    2009-05-15

    A model has been developed for studying the effect of three hypothetical approaches in reducing electricity and energy demand in the Norwegian building stock: wide diffusion of thermal carriers, heat pumps and conservation measures, respectively. Combinations of these are also considered. The model has a demand side perspective, considers both residential and service sectors, and calculates energy flows from net to delivered energy. Energy demand is given by the product of activity and intensity matrices. The activity levels are defined for the stock and the new construction, renovation and demolition flows. The intensity properties are defined in archetypes, and are the result of different energy class and heating carriers share options. The scenarios are shaped by combining the activity flows with different archetypes. The results show that adopting conservation measures on a large scale does allow reducing both electricity and total energy demand from present day levels while the building stock keeps growing. The results also highlight the importance of making a clear distinction between the assumptions on intensity and activity levels.

  14. Work-life Balance Decision-making of Norwegian Students: Implications for Human Resources Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remigiusz Gawlik

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The paper aims at identifying and assessing the significance of work-life balance determinants between the Youth of highly developed societies and its implications for human resources management on the example of Norway. Research Design & Methods: The research target group consists of 236 respondents recruited among Norwegian tertiary education students. It employed literature analysis, two-stage exploratory research: direct individual in-depth interviews, survey based on a self-administered, web-based questionnaire with single-answer, limited choice qualitative & quantitative, as well as explanatory research (informal moderated group discussions. Findings: The research on perceptions of determinants of quality of life and attractiveness of life strategies shows that in a country with relatively high socio-economic development level, such as Norway, differences in rankings do exist. They can be observed in relevance to both material and non-material QoL determinants. Implications & Recommendations: The study revealed a need for deeper research on individually driven early decision-making of future employees and entrepreneurs. This will result in closer modelling of socio-economic phenomena, including more accurate adaptation to trends on the labour market and creation of new business models. Contribution & Value Added: Research value added comes from the comparison of perceptions of quality of life determinants between countries at various stages of socio-economic development and its implications for human resource management.

  15. Potential for energy efficiency in the Norwegian land-based industry; Potensial for energieffektivisering i norsk landbasert industri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    Process Industry Association (PIL, now the Federation of Norwegian Industries) conducted in collaboration with Enova SF, Kjelforeningen - Norwegian Energy and Institute for Energy Technology, in 2002 a study to determine the potential for more environmentally efficient energy use and production in the Norwegian process industry. It was in 2007 conducted a review of the 2002-study, and this work showed that large parts of the potential identified in 2002 were not realized, and that in addition there was further potential. Enova therefore took the initiative in 2009 to do a new review of the potential for energy efficiency in the Norwegian industry. (AG)

  16. Norwegian "Digital Border Defense" and Competence for the Unforeseen: A Grounded Theory Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boe, Ole; Torgersen, Glenn-Egil

    2018-01-01

    Strategic Competence Leadership (SCL) is a tool meant to ensure that the Norwegian Armed Forces Cyber Defence (NAFCD) has the necessary expertise to cope with current and future unforeseen events. This is necessary in order to develop a better digital border defense against digital threats from different state or non-state actors. Unforeseen cyber incidents include for instance "zero-days" attacks and similar severe threats. The goal of the SCL in the NAFCD is the development of a reliable "Cyber Resilience." In the present study, we examine how the concept of SCL is understood and carried out on the different leadership and managerial levels in the NAFCD. Our research problem was how well prepared the NAFCD is for SCL and competence development for future competence needs, especially in relation to unforeseen events? Semi-structured interviews and document analyses of governance documents were used in the present study. The Strategic Didactic Model for the Unforeseen was used to construct nine research questions that were then given to the participants. The nine questions were sorted under three categories: organizational structures, competence development and needs, and plans, handling and communication. Fourteen leaders at different levels in the NAFCD participated in the study. Our main finding was that high-level ( n = 4) and low-level ( n = 10) participants differed in their views on SCL. As for unforeseen events, both levels shared the opinion that the NAFCD can cope with a low level of didactical degrees of the unforeseen (the degree to which the management has the competence to facilitate for adequate exercises for the different hierarchical levels in the organization, i.e., sudden unknown cyber-attacks). However, no common understanding of the term SCL was found among the participants. Interaction was interpreted to be very important to the participants, and they used professional networks to a high degree. In addition, unofficial lines of communication

  17. Norwegian “Digital Border Defense” and Competence for the Unforeseen: A Grounded Theory Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Boe

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Strategic Competence Leadership (SCL is a tool meant to ensure that the Norwegian Armed Forces Cyber Defence (NAFCD has the necessary expertise to cope with current and future unforeseen events. This is necessary in order to develop a better digital border defense against digital threats from different state or non-state actors. Unforeseen cyber incidents include for instance “zero-days” attacks and similar severe threats. The goal of the SCL in the NAFCD is the development of a reliable “Cyber Resilience.” In the present study, we examine how the concept of SCL is understood and carried out on the different leadership and managerial levels in the NAFCD. Our research problem was how well prepared the NAFCD is for SCL and competence development for future competence needs, especially in relation to unforeseen events? Semi-structured interviews and document analyses of governance documents were used in the present study. The Strategic Didactic Model for the Unforeseen was used to construct nine research questions that were then given to the participants. The nine questions were sorted under three categories: organizational structures, competence development and needs, and plans, handling and communication. Fourteen leaders at different levels in the NAFCD participated in the study. Our main finding was that high-level (n = 4 and low-level (n = 10 participants differed in their views on SCL. As for unforeseen events, both levels shared the opinion that the NAFCD can cope with a low level of didactical degrees of the unforeseen (the degree to which the management has the competence to facilitate for adequate exercises for the different hierarchical levels in the organization, i.e., sudden unknown cyber-attacks. However, no common understanding of the term SCL was found among the participants. Interaction was interpreted to be very important to the participants, and they used professional networks to a high degree. In addition, unofficial

  18. Norwegian “Digital Border Defense” and Competence for the Unforeseen: A Grounded Theory Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boe, Ole; Torgersen, Glenn-Egil

    2018-01-01

    Strategic Competence Leadership (SCL) is a tool meant to ensure that the Norwegian Armed Forces Cyber Defence (NAFCD) has the necessary expertise to cope with current and future unforeseen events. This is necessary in order to develop a better digital border defense against digital threats from different state or non-state actors. Unforeseen cyber incidents include for instance “zero-days” attacks and similar severe threats. The goal of the SCL in the NAFCD is the development of a reliable “Cyber Resilience.” In the present study, we examine how the concept of SCL is understood and carried out on the different leadership and managerial levels in the NAFCD. Our research problem was how well prepared the NAFCD is for SCL and competence development for future competence needs, especially in relation to unforeseen events? Semi-structured interviews and document analyses of governance documents were used in the present study. The Strategic Didactic Model for the Unforeseen was used to construct nine research questions that were then given to the participants. The nine questions were sorted under three categories: organizational structures, competence development and needs, and plans, handling and communication. Fourteen leaders at different levels in the NAFCD participated in the study. Our main finding was that high-level (n = 4) and low-level (n = 10) participants differed in their views on SCL. As for unforeseen events, both levels shared the opinion that the NAFCD can cope with a low level of didactical degrees of the unforeseen (the degree to which the management has the competence to facilitate for adequate exercises for the different hierarchical levels in the organization, i.e., sudden unknown cyber-attacks). However, no common understanding of the term SCL was found among the participants. Interaction was interpreted to be very important to the participants, and they used professional networks to a high degree. In addition, unofficial lines of

  19. Additional costs for Norwegian power companies from the OED-proposed implementation of the Electricity Directive II; Merkostnader for norske kraftselskaper ved OEDs forslag til implementering av Eldirektiv II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The cost-related consequences for Norwegian vertically integrated power companies caused by the proposed implementation of Electricity Directive II by OED (Norwegian Oil and Energy Department) are considered. Electricity Directive II demands a company and functional division between the network activities and the activities exposed to competition. The OED proposition aims at lowering the limit for which network companies are included by the new demands, from 100.000 to either 20.000 or 10.000 network clients. Moreover, they propose measures that ensure the network companies' independence, and these exceed by far the minimum requirements of Electricity Directive II. The additional costs may be significant in some aspects. Especially the requirement of an independent management in parent- and subsidiary company will lead to added costs of about Nok 320 million for the Norwegian power business. Further, a split-up management structure may be poorly compatible with the mind set behind the corporate model, something which potentially can lead to bad investments or a weaker utilization of potential cost synergies. The motive for proposing stricter demands on Norwegian power business is among other to limit cross-subsidies so that the competition in the market is reinforced. In light of substantial, quantified additional costs and other negative effects, the proposition's effect on the competition should be investigated further, including alternative measures that may be more cost-effective and/or more accurate (ml)

  20. Solar Energy Campaign. 2008 Norwegian student-based web campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randall, Scott

    2009-07-01

    Student research campaigns (forskningskampanjer) have been an annual event in connection to Research Days (Forskningsdagene) since 2003 in Norway. The campaigns invite students from all over the country to participate in a common scientific research event, always connected to a special environmentally related theme - for example Air Quality in the Classroom (2003), Pollution along Roads (2004), Bacteria in Drinking Water (2005), and The Rain Check (2006). The year 2008, as with previous years, was overshadowed by the topic of climate change, and the specific role of humans. The research campaign theme for 2008 fit well into this focus: the potential benefits of solar energy as an alternative energy source. The campaign also was aligned with the Research Days theme of alternative energy sources and technologies. The campaign included the hands-on activity of assembling a solar panel and taking measurements with the device to determine efficiency, as well as a questionnaire to record the results and ask deeper questions regarding alternative energy and climate change. The results gained from data analysis of the campaign show that students were able to gain maximum efficient solar power from the devices they constructed, which gave them a solid understanding of solar power technology. Analysis of the campaign questionnaire in regards to the activity shows that students believe that solar energy should be better utilized as an energy source in Norway. (Also in Norwegian OR 24/2009). (Author)

  1. Norwegian or Crusted Sarcoptic Mange in Two Leishmanial Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltsogianni, Flora; Farmaki, Rania; Koutinas, Alexander F

    Norwegian or crusted scabies (N/CS) is a rare skin disease with very few cases reported in the dog or the cat. Two adult, stray dogs were admitted in our clinic with a generalized, multifocal to diffuse and nonpruritic dermatitis that was characterized by severe crusting, scaling, and ulceration. In both instances, leishmaniosis and N/CS were diagnosed by immunofluorescent antibody test serology, lymph node cytology, and skin scrapings in which high numbers of Sarcoptes mites were found. The combination of miticidal and antileishmanial treatment, supported by topical treatment and nutritional support, resulted in the complete resolution of the skin lesions and spectacular improvement of the body condition in both cases. Dog 1 eventually died from end-stage kidney disease attributed to leishmaniosis-associated glomerulonephritis, whereas the also proteinuric dog 2 remains clinically healthy. The manifestation of the rare type of N/CS in these dogs could be attributed to cell-mediated immunosuppression, which was most likely induced by leishmaniosis and malnutrition. The necessity of searching for leishmaniosis in those scabietic cases, especially in the endemic areas of leishmaniosis, is strongly recommended.

  2. Radioelement (U,Th,Rn) concentrations in Norwegian bedrock groundwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banks, D.; Roeyset, O.; Strand, T.; Skarphagen, H.

    1993-12-01

    Samples of groundwater from bedrock boreholes in three Norwegian geological provinces have been analysed for content of 222 Rn, U and Th. Median values of 290 Bq/l, 7.6 μg/l and 0.02 μg/l were obtained for Rn, U and Th, respectively, while maximum values were 8500 Bq/l, 170 μg/l and 2.2 μg/l. Commonly suggested drinking water limits range from 8 to 1000 Bq/l for radon and 14 to 160 μg/l for uranium. Radioelement content was closely related to lithology, the lowest concentrations being derived from the largely Caledonian rocks of the Troendelag area, and the highest from the Precambrian Iddefjord Granite of South East Norway where median values of 2500 Bq/l, 15 μg/l and 0.38 μg/l, respectively, were obtained. The Iddefjord Granite is not believed to be unique in Norway yielding high dissolved radionuclide contents in groundwaters, and several other granitic aquifers warrant further investigation in this respect. 63 refs., 13 figs., 8 tabs

  3. Prevalence of insomnia in the adult Norwegian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallesen, S; Nordhus, I H; Nielsen, G H; Havik, O E; Kvale, G; Johnsen, B H; Skjøtskift, S

    2001-11-01

    A representative adult sample (18 years and above) of the Norwegian population, comprising 2001 subjects, participated in telephone interviews, focusing on the one-month point prevalence of insomnia and use of prescribed hypnotics. Employment of DSM-IV inclusion criteria of insomnia yielded a prevalence rate of 11.7%. Logistic regression analysis performed on the different insomnia symptoms revealed that somatic and psychiatric health were the strongest predictors of insomnia, whereas gender, age, and socioeconomic status showed a more inconsistent relationship. Use of prescribed hypnotic drugs was reported by 6.9% and was related to being female, elderly, and having somatic and emotional problems. Sleep onset problems and daytime impairment were more common during winter compared to summer. Use of hypnotics was more common in the southern (rather than the northern) regions of Norway. For sleep onset problems a Season x Region interaction was found, indicating that the prevalence of sleep onset problems increased in southern Norway from summer to winter, while the opposite pattern was found in the northern regions. The importance of clinically adequate criteria and seasonal variation in the evaluation of insomnia is briefly discussed.

  4. From taxes to permits? The Norwegian climate policy debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bretteville, Camilla; Soefting, Guri Bang

    2000-09-01

    Taxation as an instrument for environmental policy (green taxes) has been a topic of heated debate in Norway for almost 30 years. The subject of environmental taxes has time after time inflamed both policy makers and scholars alike. The suitability of green taxes as a policy instrument was first discussed in the 1970s. The 1980s introduced the idea that income from green taxes would make reductions in other taxes possible: a green tax reform. In the 1990s, the tax discussion boiled down to whether or not all polluters should face the same carbon tax. Lately, however, the discussion around the Kyoto Protocol has led to increased interest around the alternative of introducing a system of tradable emission quotas. Environmental taxation might thus be a declining policy instrument in Norway. This is contrary to recent developments in several other European countries such as the United Kingdom, Germany, and the Netherlands. This paper explores why the idea of a green tax reform never got off the ground in Norway by providing an overview of Norwegian environmental policy in the period from 1972 to early 2000. (author)

  5. Counselling for burnout in Norwegian doctors: one year cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rø, Karin E Isaksson; Gude, Tore; Tyssen, Reidar; Aasland, Olaf G

    2008-11-11

    To investigate levels and predictors of change in dimensions of burnout after an intervention for stressed doctors. Cohort study followed by self reported assessment at one year. Norwegian resource centre. 227 doctors participating in counselling intervention, 2003-5. Counselling (lasting one day (individual) or one week (group based)) aimed at motivating reflection on and acknowledgement of the doctors' situation and personal needs. Levels of burnout (Maslach burnout inventory) and predictors of reduction in emotional exhaustion investigated by linear regression. 185 doctors (81%, 88 men, 97 women) completed one year follow-up. The mean level of emotional exhaustion (scale 1-5) was significantly reduced from 3.00 (SD 0.94) to 2.53 (SD 0.76) (t=6.76, Ppsychotherapy, from 20% (36/182) to 53% (97/182). In the whole cohort, reduction in emotional exhaustion was independently associated with reduced number of work hours/week (beta=0.17, P=0.03), adjusted for sex, age, and personality dimensions. Among men "satisfaction with the intervention" (beta=0.25, P=0.04) independently predicted reduction in emotional exhaustion. A short term counselling intervention could contribute to reduction in emotional exhaustion in doctors. This was associated with reduced working hours for the whole cohort and, in men, was predicted by satisfaction with the intervention.

  6. Innovation in Norwegian industry and oil extraction in 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frengen, G.; Foyn, F.; Ragnarsoen, R.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the first investigation of creativity - innovation - done by Statistics Norway. In 1992 companies in Norwegian industry and oil extraction expended 11,6 thousand million NOK in developing new or improved products and production processes. Most of the innovation was in research and development activities. Because of this creativity, improved products accounted for 22% of the total sales from the industry, and domestic trade comprised a higher share of product innovation than the export did. Innovations in small companies were relatively few, however, small companies had a higher share of improved products than the large innovative companies. The large companies were highly innovative in terms of innovation costs pr. employee and in that a large part of their total investments were made for innovation purposes. The small innovative companies committed themselves more to other activities than research and development than did the large ones, especially to marketing. Improved quality, capturing of market share and reduction of production time were the most important goals for the innovation activities. Customer relation and internal information sources were important for this process. Economic factors such as high costs and risk most strongly impeded innovation. 4 refs., 24 figs., 20 tabs

  7. Methodical approaches in the Norwegian Master Plan for Water Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowitz, Einar

    1997-01-01

    The Norwegian Master Plan for Water Resources instructs the management not to consider applications for concession to develop hydroelectric projects in the so called category II of the plan. These are the environmentally most controversial projects or the most expensive projects. This report discusses the methods used in this Master Plan to classify the projects. The question whether the assessments of the environmental disadvantages of hydropower development are reasonable is approached in two ways: (1) Compare the environmental costs imbedded in the Plan with direct assessments, and (2) Discuss the appropriateness of the methodology used for environmental evaluations in the Plan. The report concludes that (1) the environmental costs that can be derived from the ranking in the Plan are significantly greater than those following from direct evaluations, (2) the differences are generally so great that one may ask whether the methods used in the Plan overestimate the real environmental costs, (3) it seems to have been difficult to make a unified assessment of the environmental disadvantages, (4) the Plan has considered the economic impact on agriculture and forestry very roughly and indirectly, which may have contributed to overestimated environmental costs of hydropower development. 20 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs

  8. The outlook for investment in the Norwegian North Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enger, T.

    1992-01-01

    An outline of the investment potential for oil and gas production on the Norwegian continental shelf is given. The continental shelf includes the Haltenbanken area and the Barents Sea as well as the North Sea. A description of existing projects and present knowledge of future prospects is given. The total production of oil and gas in 1990 was 107 million toe, the ratio of oil to gas production being 4:1. The relationship between oil and gas will change dramatically in the future however as the gas share in fields under development is much greater than in currently producing fields. The greatest potential for gas is expected to be in the Barents Sea which, being located at a considerable distance from existing gas markets presents a great challenge for commercial development. The conclusion drawn from the outline is that the present level of investment will be maintained or increase slightly over the next four to five years. For the period up to the turn of the century there is increasing uncertainty over the investment level which will become more and more dependent upon further expansion of gas exports but a best estimate is for continued investment stability beyond the year 2000. The production level can be expected to increase and reach a peak during the late 1990s. The resource base is sufficient to maintain a high production level for several decades after the year 2000. (UK)

  9. Murder followed by suicide: Norwegian data and international literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galta, Karen; Olsen, Siri Lerstøl; Wik, Gustav

    2010-12-01

    In Scandinavia, the knowledge base for murder-suicides is uneven, and there has been no statistics in criminal records. We collected data from criminal registers in Norway from 1990 to 2007, and seek to compare this with international literature from the last 50 years. Over 90% of murder-suicide perpetrators are males and 80% of their victims are females. A vast majority of perpetrators are, or have been, intimate partners with their victim. The woman has often indicated an intention to break up from the relationship before the homicide. Compared with isolated homicides, the ages of both the perpetrator and victim are higher; most perpetrators use firearms, and tend to be less socially marginalized. Psychiatric instability is often a background factor, but should be seen in view of longstanding personal conflicts and threat of or loss of family, employment or social reputation. Norwegian statistics show that one in four murderers who have killed a near acquaintance also will commit suicide. Increased knowledge is essential to prevent further tragedies of murder-suicide. Scrutinizing the taboo surrounding the topic will probably lead to improved awareness. We suggest that a connection should be made between the homicide(s) and the suicide in criminal registers.

  10. Norwegian Nurses’ Experiences with Blended Learning: An Evaluation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edda Johansen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of nurses undertake continuing education via information and communication technologies. Development of best practice, based on students’ own experiences, is vital in order to create the most effective learning environment. This paper describes the challenges to and facilitators of learning for a group of Norwegian nurses enrolled in a postgraduate course in wound management delivered by blended learning, which combines face-to-face and online components. Data was gathered through a focus group interview and inductive content analysis was used to identify themes emerging from the data. A number of both personal and academic facilitators, and challenges impacted on these adult learners. Technical and academic problems combined with a lack of time created a steep learning curve for these adult students. Valuable feedback, IT support at home and an increased competence eventually gave them a foundation for lifelong learning. Blended learning is an important way to offer postgraduate courses to give adults access to continuing educational programmes independent of geographical location. Both academic and personal challenges and facilitators should be taken into account when educators design blended learning courses in order to facilitate an effective learning environment for adults through the best blend of face-to-face and online learning.

  11. Perceived barriers to consumption of fish among Norwegian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trondsen, Torbjørn; Scholderer, Joachim; Lund, Eiliv; Eggen, Anne E

    2003-12-01

    This study aimed to characterize constraints on consumption of fish perceived by consumers in Norway. A random sample of Norwegian women aged 45-69 years answered a self-administered mail questionnaire in 1996 about eating habits, perceived barriers to fish consumption, socioeconomic status, and questions related to health. Altogether, 9407 women answered the questionnaire (response rate: 52.5%). Data were analyzed by means of logistic regression. Limited supply of fish products that satisfy children's wishes reduce at-home fish consumption. People with health problems and those who wish to lose weight are dissatisfied with the range of products offered in the marketplace. Satisfaction with quality and availability of wild lean codfish, especially in inland regions, is lower than for aqua-cultured fat salmon. Neither income nor education or health factors were significantly associated with consumption levels among those who would like to eat more fish. Higher education and income were associated with increased dissatisfaction about fish consumption, but also with reduced perception of most barriers. It is concluded that improvements in the supply of high-quality fresh and processed fish products that satisfy (a) children's wishes, (b) health-oriented family members, and (c) convenience-oriented consumers, will significantly increase at-home consumption of fish.

  12. COPD predicts mortality in HF: the Norwegian Heart Failure Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Blois, Jonathan; Simard, Serge; Atar, Dan; Agewall, Stefan

    2010-03-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and chronic heart failure (HF) are common clinical conditions that share tobacco as a risk factor. Our aim was to evaluate the prognostic impact of COPD on HF patients. The Norwegian Heart Failure Registry was used. The study included 4132 HF patients (COPD, n = 699) from 22 hospitals (mean follow-up, 13.3 months). COPD patients were older, more often smokers and diabetics, less often on beta-blockers and had a higher heart rate. They were more often in New York Heart Association (NYHA) Class III or IV (COPD, 63%; no COPD, 51%), although left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) distribution was similar. COPD independently predicted death (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.188; 95% CI: 1.015 to 1.391; P = 0.03) along with age, creatinine, NYHA Class III/IV (HR, 1.464; 95% CI: 1.286 to 1.667) and diabetes. beta-blockers at baseline were associated with improved survival in patients with LVEF < or =40% independently of COPD. COPD is associated with a poorer survival in HF patients. COPD patients are overrated in terms of NYHA class in comparison with patients with similar LVEF. Nonetheless, NYHA class remains the strongest predictor of death in these patients. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Social Variations in Perceived Parenting Styles among Norwegian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elstad, Jon Ivar; Stefansen, Kari

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has documented the associations between parenting and parenting styles and child and adolescent outcomes. Little is known, however, about the social structuring of parenting in contemporary Nordic welfare states. A possible hypothesis is that socioeconomic variations in parenting styles in present-day Norway will be small because of material affluence, limited income inequality, and an active welfare state. This study examines social variations in parenting as perceived by Norwegian adolescents ( N  = 1362), with a focus on four parenting style dimensions: responsiveness, demandingness, neglecting, and intrusive. Responsiveness seems to capture major divisions in parenting. Adolescents in families with fewer economic resources experienced their parents as somewhat less responsive, but responsiveness was not related to parents' education. Low parental education was on the other hand associated with perceptions of parents as neglecting and intrusive. Viewing parents as demanding did neither vary with parental education nor with family economy. Substantial variations in parenting styles persist in present-day Norway, and these variations correspond moderately with the families' placement in the social structure. Indicators of parenting and parenting styles may be useful indicators of some aspects of child and adolescent well-being.

  14. OECD Transfer Pricing Guidelines - Implementation by Norwegian Tax Administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sollund, Stig

    1998-07-01

    Presentation. The growth of multinational enterprises and integration of world markets across national borders has increased the importance of this issue: How should corporate tax systems at the national level be applied to the profits of companies engaging in the vast number of cross border transactions? The challenges and implications of the issue are tremendous both to the national governments and to the enterprises. The OECD countries have responded to these challenges by declaring that each enterprise within a multinational group of companies shall be treated as a separate entity. In order to apply the separate entity approach to intra group transactions, individual group members must be taxed on the basis that they act at arm's length with each other. The arm's length principle is more easily understood in theory than applied in practice. In some countries, therefore, the authorities have explored other methods than the traditional ones, as described in the 1979 Transfer Pricing Report of the OECD. A confirmed consensus between the governments was reached in the form of the revised 1995 guidelines. The Norwegian Ministry of Finance has given its full support to the efforts of defending the separate entity approach and the arm's length principle in the OECD committees.

  15. Spatial diastereomer patterns of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in a Norwegian fjord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haukas, Marianne; Hylland, Ketil; Berge, John Arthur; Nygard, Torgeir; Mariussen, Espen

    2009-01-01

    Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) is the third most used brominated flame retardant globally, and has been found widely distributed in the environment. The present study reports concentrations and spatial patterns of α, β and γ-HBCD in a contaminated Norwegian fjord. Intertidal surface sediment and selected species from the marine food web were sampled at five locations in increasing distance from a known point source of HBCD. All sediment and biota samples were analyzed for the three HBCD diastereomers by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (LC/MS). The results demonstrated a HBCD gradient with decreasing concentrations at increasing distance from the point source in sediment and sedentary species, but less so in the species with large feeding ranges. Mean concentrations of ΣHBCD at the closest/most remote locations relative to the point source were 9000/300 ng g -1 TOC in sediment and 150/90 ng g -1 lw in the species with largest feeding range (great black-backed gull). The HBCD diastereomer patterns were similar for each of the matrices (sediment, organisms) independent of distance from the source, indicating no difference in environmental partitioning between the diastereomers. However, the concentration ratio of diastereomers in each matrix ranged from 3:1:10 (α:β:γ) in the sediments to 55:1 (α:γ) in the highest trophic level species, suggesting diastereomer-specific bioaccumulation in the organisms.

  16. Cesium-137 body burdens in Norwegian Lapps, 1965-1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westerlund, E.A.; Berthelsen, T.; Berteig, L.

    1987-01-01

    Results of measurements of the whole-body contents of 137 Cs during the period 1965-1983 in Lapps from the Kautokeino area in Norway are reported with measurements of 137 Cs in reindeer meat during the period 1966-1983. By using available data on 137 Cs in precipitation for the period 1950-1980, transfer coefficients from 137 Cs in precipitation to reindeer meat have been assessed. A correlation between the 137 Cs content in reindeer meat and the 137 Cs content in Lapp reindeer breeders has been established. The average whole-body committed dose equivalent, H50, to the reindeer breeders from internally deposited 137 Cs from intakes up to year 2000 was assessed to 13 mSv with a peak value of 30 mSv. In comparison, the corresponding committed dose equivalent to the Norwegian population from internally deposited 137 Cs has been estimated to be about 1 mSv. The higher intake of 137 Cs by reindeer breeders is due to the lichen-reindeer-man exposure pathway

  17. Mortality in Norwegian Seventh-Day Adventists 1962-1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fønnebø, V

    1992-02-01

    The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) was studied in Norwegian Seventh-Day Adventists, a religious group practising a life-style regarded as protective against cancer and cardiovascular disease. Persons converting before the age of 19 had a SMR of 69 (men) and 59 (women). This was both significantly lower than the general population and those converting at age 35 or above. The site mainly responsible for the low SMR in young converts was cardiovascular disease (men, 44; women, 52). Overall SMR in Seventh-Day Adventists compared to the general population was 82 (95% CI: 77-88, p less than 0.001) in men and 95 (95% CI: 91-100, NS) in women. SMR for cancer was significantly lower only in men before the age of 75 (SMR: 78, 95% CI: 61-99, p less than 0.05). Adopting a healthful lifestyle early in life seems to be of decisive importance with regard to mortality, later lifestyle changes have a smaller effect on death risk.

  18. Requirements to a Norwegian National Automatic Gamma Monitoring System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauritzen, B.; Hedemann Jensen, P.; Nielsen, F.

    2005-04-01

    An assessment of the overall requirements to a Norwegian gamma-monitoring network is undertaken with special emphasis on the geographical distribution of automatic gamma monitoring stations, type of detectors in such stations and the sensitivity of the system in terms of ambient dose equivalent rate increments above the natural background levels. The study is based upon simplified deterministic calculations of the radiological consequences of generic nuclear accident scenarios. The density of gamma monitoring stations has been estimated from an analysis of the dispersion of radioactive materials over large distances using historical weather data; the minimum density is estimated from the requirement that a radioactive plume may not slip unnoticed in between stations of the monitoring network. The sensitivity of the gamma monitoring system is obtained from the condition that events that may require protective intervention measures should be detected by the system. Action levels for possible introduction of sheltering and precautionary foodstuff restrictions are derived in terms of ambient dose equivalent rate. For emergency situations where particulates contribute with only a small fraction of the total ambient dose equivalent rate from the plume, it is concluded that measurements of dose rate are sufficient to determine the need for sheltering; simple dose rate measurements however, are inadequate to determine the need for foodstuff restrictions and spectral measurements are required. (au)

  19. The Norwegian public's perception of risk from electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maerli, M.B.

    1996-01-01

    A survey with a representative sample of the adult Norwegian population reveals that the public is concerned about the health effects of electromagnetic fields; almost 2/3 of the population regard health effects as a likely consequence if exposed, the level of exposure is regarded as higher today than previously, and a clear majority now consider the fields to be more dangerous than they formerly believed. Despite this general concern, fewer consider personal effects to be probable; approximately one of six reports concern for personal injuries due to the fields. Further, the reported will to act in situations of known exposure from a (hypothetical) power line nearby is high, either by gathering information or putting up shielding against the fields. More concerned parts of the public also show a more committed engagement, including a higher willingness to make economic sacrifices for limiting the fields. There are special features of risk perception across the sample, and gender differences are particularly prominent. Women regard health effects more probable, and respond more strongly to situations of known exposure. People living near to power lines seem to be more aware of the fields, but at the same time cancer is regarded less probable by this group. (author)

  20. Virtual Career Fairs: Perspectives from Norwegian Recruiters and Exhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ådne Stenberg Vik

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The present work introduces virtual fairs, particularly the perceived benefits, challenges, and relevance of such fairs for recruitment and employer branding. These aspects were explored in a semi-structured interview with an organizer of virtual fairs across Scandinavia, and a focus group composed of Norwegian recruiters and exhibitors. The results of the data collection can be summarized in the form of themes that relate to web analytics, web services and optimization. The benefits of virtual fairs pertain to the (a visibility and branding; (b costs; and (c analytics-based customization. Challenges of virtual career fairs pertain to the (a lack of online engagement, (b preparation and staffing costs; (c lack of guidelines; (d talent access and identification; (e security and infrastructure; (f long-term planning; (g and inter-dependencies. The discussion summarizes the implications of branding and recruitment and the value they add to business, also noting how context effects may come into play. The article concludes by exploring the possibility that virtual fairs will complement or become the new standard in recruitment and outlines future avenues for research and practice.

  1. Norwegian reference values for the Short-Form Health Survey 36: development over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Ellisiv L; Bye, Asta; Aass, Nina; Fosså, Sophie D; Grotmol, Kjersti S; Kaasa, Stein; Loge, Jon Håvard; Moum, Torbjørn; Hjermstad, Marianne J

    2018-05-01

    Reference values for patient-reported outcome measures are useful for interpretation of results from clinical trials. The study aims were to collect Norwegian SF-36 reference values and compare with data from 1996 to 2002. In 2015, SF-36 was sent by mail to a representative sample of the population (N = 6165). Time trends and associations between background variables and SF-36 scale scores were compared by linear regression models. The 2015 response rate was 36% (N = 2118) versus 67% (N = 2323) in 1996 and 56% (N = 5241) in 2002. Only 5% of the youngest (18-29 years) and 27% of the oldest (>70 years) responded in 2015. Age and educational level were significantly higher in 2015 relative to 1996/2002 (p 36 scores were relatively stable across surveys, controlled for background variables. In general, the most pronounced changes in 2015 were better scores on the role limitations emotional scale (7.4 points, p 70 years. Despite societal changes in Norway the past two decades, HRQoL has remained relatively stable.

  2. Noise exposure and cognitive performance: A study on personnel on board Royal Norwegian Navy vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaja Irgens-Hansen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prior research shows that work on board vessels of the Royal Norwegian Navy (RNoN is associated with noise exposure levels above recommended standards. Further, noise exposure has been found to impair cognitive performance in environmental, occupational, and experimental settings, although prior research in naval and maritime settings is sparse. The aim of this study was to evaluate cognitive performance after exposure to noise among personnel working on board vessels in the RNoN. Altogether 87 Navy personnel (80 men, 7 women; 31 ± 9 years from 24 RNoN vessels were included. Noise exposure was recorded by personal noise dosimeters at a minimum of 4 h prior to testing, and categorized into 4 groups for the analysis: 85.2 dB(A. The participants performed a visual attention test based on the Posner cue-target paradigm. Multivariable general linear model (GLM analyses were performed to analyze whether noise exposure was associated with response time (RT when adjusting for the covariates age, alertness, workload, noise exposure in test location, sleep the night before testing, use of hearing protection device (HPD, and percentage of errors. When adjusting for covariates, RT was significantly increased among personnel exposed to >85.2 dB(A and 77.1-85.2 dB(A compared to personnel exposed to <72.6 dB(A.

  3. Diffusion of renewable heating technologies in households. Experiences from the Norwegian Household Subsidy Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjørnstad, Even

    2012-01-01

    A sample of 896 Norwegian households participating in a subsidy programme was surveyed in order to evaluate the success of the programme. The programme subsidised investments in new heating technologies, including heat pumps and pellet stoves. The success of the programme was measured by the degree of overall satisfaction with the investment by the sampled households. Theories on diffusion of innovations and planned behaviour motivate the empirical modelling of the investment satisfaction. The economic return on the investment varied substantially both within and between the two heating technologies, with heat pumps outperforming pellet stoves in this respect. Still, the economic return showed no explanatory power toward the investment satisfaction of the household. Among the economic variables, only the electricity price had any influence on investment satisfaction. Technical quality, indoor climate and heat comfort, and the availability of the supplier of the heating equipment were the most important explanatory variables. - Highlights: ► Investments in heat pumps and pellet stoves were subsidized over a public programme. ► Heat pumps showed a strong economic return, pellet stoves performed much more poorly. ► This difference in economic return does not influence the investment satisfaction. ► Technical quality, indoor climate and heat comfort are important benefits. ► Service availability and electricity price also influence satisfaction.

  4. Noise exposure and cognitive performance: A study on personnel on board Royal Norwegian Navy vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irgens-Hansen, Kaja; Gundersen, Hilde; Sunde, Erlend; Baste, Valborg; Harris, Anette; Bråtveit, Magne; Moen, Bente E

    2015-01-01

    Prior research shows that work on board vessels of the Royal Norwegian Navy (RNoN) is associated with noise exposure levels above recommended standards. Further, noise exposure has been found to impair cognitive performance in environmental, occupational, and experimental settings, although prior research in naval and maritime settings is sparse. The aim of this study was to evaluate cognitive performance after exposure to noise among personnel working on board vessels in the RNoN. Altogether 87 Navy personnel (80 men, 7 women; 31 ± 9 years) from 24 RNoN vessels were included. Noise exposure was recorded by personal noise dosimeters at a minimum of 4 h prior to testing, and categorized into 4 groups for the analysis: 85.2 dB(A). The participants performed a visual attention test based on the Posner cue-target paradigm. Multivariable general linear model (GLM) analyses were performed to analyze whether noise exposure was associated with response time (RT) when adjusting for the covariates age, alertness, workload, noise exposure in test location, sleep the night before testing, use of hearing protection device (HPD), and percentage of errors. When adjusting for covariates, RT was significantly increased among personnel exposed to >85.2 dB(A) and 77.1-85.2 dB(A) compared to personnel exposed to <72.6 dB(A).

  5. Particle mixing processes of Chernobyl fallout in deep Norwegian Sea sediments: Evidence for seasonal effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzer, W.

    1996-09-01

    A 1430 m deep station in the Norwegian Sea (Voering Plateau) was occupied five times between May 1986 and February 1987 to investigate the seasonal variation in sediment mixing rates. Cherbnbyl-derived radiocesium, identified by its high proportion of short-lived 134Cs, was used as a tracer for mixing. Most of the nuclide input arrived at the sediment within a narrow time span in June/early July during the beginning of the seasonal biogenic sedimentation pulse. Measured 137Cs profiles in the sediment over time were compared with modelled distributions calculated with a finite difference scheme. The input function of radiocesium to the sea floor was evaluated from the increase of the total inventory with time. Time-invariant mixing coefficients did not provide reasonable fits to either summer or winter distributions. The best fit was obtained with a rate of mixing proportional to the radiocesium input flux, with an average enhancement factor of 6.6 during the two summer months. It appears that the benthic macrofauna are more active during the food supply season and rapidly ingest/bury freshly sedimented materials.

  6. Body composition impacts appetite regulation in middle childhood. A prospective study of Norwegian community children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinsbekk, Silje; Llewellyn, Clare H; Fildes, Alison; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2017-05-30

    Research suggests a role for both fat mass and muscle mass in appetite regulation, but the longitudinal relationships between them have not yet been examined in children. The present study therefore aimed to explore the prospective relationships between fat mass, muscle mass and the appetitive traits food responsiveness and satiety responsiveness in middle childhood. Food responsiveness and satiety responsiveness were measured using the parent-reported Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire in a representative sample of Norwegian 6 year olds, followed up at 8 and 10 years of age (n = 807). Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance. Applying a structural equation modeling framework we found that higher fat mass predicted greater increases in food responsiveness over time, whereas greater muscle mass predicted decreases in satiety responsiveness. This pattern was consistent both from ages 6 to 8 and from ages 8 to 10 years. Our study is the first to reveal that fat mass and muscle mass predict distinct changes in different appetitive traits over time. Replication of findings in non-European populations are needed, as are studies of children in other age groups. Future studies should also aim to reveal the underlying mechanisms.

  7. Food allergens in mattress dust in Norwegian homes - a potentially important source of allergen exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelsen, R J; Faeste, C K; Granum, B; Egaas, E; London, S J; Carlsen, K-H; Lødrup Carlsen, K C; Løvik, M

    2014-01-01

    Sensitization to food allergens and food allergic reactions are mostly caused by ingesting the allergen, but can also occur from exposure via the respiratory tract or the skin. Little is known about exposure to food allergens in the home environment. The objective of this study was firstly to describe the frequency of detection of allergens from fish, egg, milk, and peanut in mattress dust collected from homes of 13-year-old adolescents and secondly to identify home characteristics associated with the presence of food allergen contamination in dust. Food allergens were measured by dot blot analysis in mattress dust from 143 homes in Oslo, Norway. We analysed associations between home characteristics (collected by parental questionnaires and study technicians) and food allergens by multivariate regression models. Fish allergen was detected in 46%, peanut in 41%, milk in 39%, and egg allergen in 22% of the mattress dust samples; only three samples contained none of these allergens. All four food allergens were more frequently detected in mattresses in small dwellings (Food allergens occurred frequently in beds in Norwegian homes, with dwelling size and proximity of kitchen and bedroom as the most important determinants. Due to the amount of time children spent in the bedroom, mattress dust may be an important source of exposure to food allergens. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Using supervised environmental composites in production and efficiency analyses. An application to Norwegian electricity networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orea, Luis [Oviedo Univ. (Spain). Oviedo Efficiency Group; Growitsch, Christian [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Energiewirtschaftliches Inst.; Jamasb, Tooraj [Heriot-Watt Univ., Edinburgh (United Kingdom). Dept. of Economics

    2012-12-15

    Supervised dimension reduction methods have been extensively applied in different scientific fields like biology and medicine in recent years. However, they have hardly ever been used in micro economics, and in particular cost function modeling. Nonetheless, these methods can also be useful in regulation of natural monopolies such as gas, water, and electricity networks, where firms' cost and performance can be affected by a large number of environmental factors. In order to deal with this 'dimensionality' problem we propose using a supervised dimension reduction approach that aims to reduce the dimension of data without loss of information. Economic theory suggests that in the presence of other relevant production (cost) drivers, the traditional all-inclusive assumption is not satisfied and, hence, production or cost predictions (and efficiency estimates) might be biased. This paper shows that purging the data using a partial regression approach allows us to address this issue when analyzing the effect of weather and geography on cost efficiency in the context of the Norwegian electricity distribution networks.

  9. Factors associated with the number of calves born to Norwegian beef suckler cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmøy, Ingrid H; Nelson, Sindre T; Martin, Adam D; Nødtvedt, Ane

    2017-05-01

    A retrospective cohort study was performed to evaluate factors associated with the number of calves born to Norwegian beef suckler cows. Production data from 20,541 cows in 2210 herds slaughtered over a three-year period (1st of January 2010 to 23rd of January 2013) were extracted from the national beef cattle registry. This study's inclusion criteria were met for 16,917 cows (from 1858 herds) which gave birth to 50,578 calves. The median number of calves born per cow was 2 (min 1, max 18). Two multilevel Poisson regression models with herd random effects showed that early maturing breeds (Hereford and Aberdeen Angus) gave birth to more calves than late maturing breeds (Charolais and Limousin) in four out of five areas of Norway. The significant breed-region interaction indicated that the coastal South East region of Norway, which has a relatively long growing season and gentle topography, yielded the highest number of calves born for all but one breed (Simmental). Cows that needed assistance or experienced dystocia at their first calving produced fewer calves than those that did not: incidence rate ratio 0.87 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.84-0.91) for assistance and 0.70 (95% CI: 0.66-0.75) for dystocia, respectively. Cows in larger herds (>30 cows) produced 11% more calves in their lifetime compared to cows in smaller herds (≤30 cows) (Pcow. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Characteristics of autumn-winter extreme precipitation on the Norwegian west coast identified by cluster analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heikkilae, U. [Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, Uni Bjerknes Centre, Bergen (Norway); Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Sorteberg, A. [University of Bergen, Geophysical Institute, Bergen (Norway); University of Bergen, Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, Bergen (Norway)

    2012-08-15

    Extremely high autumn and winter precipitation events on the European west coast are often driven by low-pressure systems in the North Atlantic. Climate projections suggest the number and intensity of these events is likely to increase far more than the mean precipitation. In this study we investigate the autumn-winter extreme precipitation on the Norwegian west coast and the connection between its spatial distribution and sea level pressure (SLP) patterns using the k-means cluster analysis. We use three relatively high resolved downscalings of one global coupled model: the Arpege global atmospheric model (stretched grid with 35-km horizontal resolution over Norway) and the WRF-downscaled Arpege model (30 and 10-km) for the 30-year periods of 1961-1990 and 2021-2050. The cluster analysis finds three main SLP patterns responsible for extreme precipitation in different parts of the country. The SLP patterns found are similar to the NAO positive pattern known to strengthen the westerly flow towards European coast. We then apply the method to investigate future change in extreme precipitation. We find an increase in the number of days with extreme precipitation of 15, 39 and 35% in the two simulations (Arpege 35-km and WRF 30 and 10-km, respectively). We do not find evidence of a significant change in the frequency of weather patterns between the present and the future periods. Rather, it is the probability of a given weather pattern to cause extreme precipitation which is increased in the future, probably due to higher temperatures and an increased moisture content of the air. The WRF model predicts the increase in this probability caused by the most important SLP patterns to be >50%. The Arpege model does not predict such a significant change because the general increase in extreme precipitation predicted is smaller, probably due to its coarser resolution over ocean which leads to smoother representation of the low pressure systems. (orig.)

  11. The Norwegian human milk study HUMIS variations in levels of chlorinated pesticides, PCBs and PBDEs in Norwegian breast milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polder, A.; Loeken, K. [The Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, Oslo (Norway); Thomsen, C.; Becher, G.; Eggesboe, M. [Norwegian Inst. of Public Health, Oslo (Norway); Skaare, J.U. [National Veterinary Inst., Oslo (Norway)

    2004-09-15

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated, -dibenzo-pdioxins (PCDDs), -dibenzofurans (PCDFs), -biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are among the persistent organic pollutants (POPs) that have been found to accumulate in human breast milk. Because nursing children are exposed to these chemicals through the contaminated breast milk, health authorities worldwide are concerned for the infants' intake and therefore human milk monitoring programs are performed in many countries. While restrictions and bans resulted in a decline of organochlorines (OCs) in human milk during the last decades, an increasing trend has been found for PBDEs. The main goals of ''The Norwegian Human Milk Study, HUMIS'' are: to elucidate the human exposure in Norway to POPs, to identify dietary habits and other lifestyle factors that are associated with high levels of POPs in human milk, and to study the impact of exposure to the these contaminants on child health. This study reports preliminary results of recent levels of POPs in human milk in 4 different counties in Norway.

  12. Norwegian development cooperation and climate change financing; Norsk utviklingssamarbeid og et klima i endring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inderberg, Haakon; Rottem, Svein Vigeland

    2011-07-01

    The report analyses challenges within development aid with the inclusion of climate financing in the Norwegian portfolio. The report starts by identifying central concepts and challenges that arise when funding of climate change projects are made part of a traditional development aid budget. Does the inclusion of climate considerations, mitigation and adaptation projects, within the Norwegian development aid budget alter the traditional development goals? Moreover, we ask to what degree the climate change funding can be regarded as 'new and additional', as committed in international climate negotiations. The analysis is based on interviews within the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Environment, and the Norwegian Agency for Development Aid, as well as analysis of the official Norwegian development budgets from 2010 and 2011. It concludes that while mitigation financing, in particular REDD(+) can be said to be largely additional to traditional aid goals, it is difficult to assess the additionally for adaptation funding due to a lack of transparency.(auth)

  13. Psychosocial factors and distress: a comparison between ethnic Norwegians and ethnic Pakistanis in Oslo, Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Akthar

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Norwegian context, higher mental distress has been reported for the non-Western immigrants compared to the ethnic Norwegians and Western immigrants. This high level of distress is often related to different socio-economic conditions in this group. No efforts have been made earlier to observe the impact of changed psychosocial conditions on the state of mental distress of these immigrant communities due to the migration process. Therefore, the objective of the study was to investigate the association between psychological distress and psychosocial factors among Pakistani immigrants and ethnic Norwegians in Oslo, and to investigate to what extent differences in mental health could be explained by psychosocial and socioeconomic conditions. Method Data was collected from questionnaires as a part of the Oslo Health Study 2000–2001. 13581 Norwegian born (attendance rate 46% and 339 ethnic Pakistanis (attendance rate 38% in the selected age groups participated. A 10-item version of Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL was used as a measure of psychological distress. Results Pakistanis reported less education and lower employment rate than Norwegians (p Conclusion Poor social support and economic conditions are important mediators of mental health among immigrants. The public health recommendations/interventions should deal with both the economic conditions and social support system of immigrant communities simultaneously.

  14. Doses to the Norwegian population from naturally occuring radiation and from the Chernobyl fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, T.

    1987-01-01

    The doses to the Norwegian population from naturally occuring radiation are extensively reviewed. The annual population weighted average dose equivalent to the Norwegian population from 222 Rn and its daughters is estimated to be between 3.5 and 4.5 mSv. The average concentration of 220 Rn daughters in Norwegian dwellings is most probably between 1.0 and 1.5 Bq m -3 . The corresponding effective dose equivalent for 220 Rn and its daughters is estimated to be between 0.4 and 0.6 mSv. The total annual collective dose equivalent from naturally occuring radiation in Norway is found to be between 21000 and 27000 man Sv. The doses to the Norwegian population from the Chernobyl fallout are briefly discussed. Based on the results of a ''food basket'' project and supplementary data from about 30000 measurements on food samples the first year after the reactor accident, the total annual effective dose equivalent from foodstuffs to an average Norwegian consumer during this first year is estimated to be 0.15 +-0.002 m Sv at the 95% confidence level. The per caput effective dose equivalent from external fallout gamma radiation in the first year after the Chernobyl accident, is approximately 82 μSv in Norway

  15. Acquisition of locative utterances in Norwegian: structure-building via lexical learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrofanova, Natalia; Westergaard, Marit

    2018-03-15

    This paper focuses on the acquisition of locative prepositional phrases in L1 Norwegian. We report on two production experiments with children acquiring Norwegian as their first language and compare the results to similar experiments conducted with Russian children. The results of the experiments show that Norwegian children at age 2 regularly produce locative utterances lacking overt prepositions, with the rate of preposition omission decreasing significantly by age 3. Furthermore, our results suggest that phonologically strong and semantically unambiguous locative items appear earlier in Norwegian children's utterances than their phonologically weak and semantically ambiguous counterparts. This conclusion is confirmed by a corpus study. We argue that our results are best captured by the Underspecified P Hypothesis (UPH; Mitrofanova, 2017), which assumes that, at early stages of grammatical development, the underlying structure of locative utterances is underspecified, with more complex functional representations emerging gradually based on the input. This approach predicts that the rate of acquisition in the domain of locative PPs should be influenced by the lexical properties of individual language-specific grammatical elements (such as frequency, morphological complexity, phonological salience, or semantic ambiguity). Our data from child Norwegian show that this prediction is borne out. Specifically, the results of our study suggest that phonologically more salient and semantically unambiguous items are mastered earlier than their ambiguous and phonologically less salient counterparts, despite the higher frequency of the latter in the input (Clahsen et al., 1996).

  16. Cosmic radiation and airline pilots. Exposure patterns of Norwegian pilots flying aircraft not used by SAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tveten, U.

    1997-05-01

    The work which is presented in this report is part of a Norwegian epidemiological project, carried out in cooperation between Institutt for Energiteknikk (IFE), the Norwegian Cancer Registry (NCR) and the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA). The project has been partially financed by the Norwegian Research Council. Originating from the Norwegian project, a number of similar projects have been started or are in the planning stage in a number of European countries. The present report lays the ground for estimation of individual exposure histories to cosmic radiation of pilots flying a great diversity of different aircrafts. Aircrafts that appear in the time-tables of the Scandinavian Airline System (SAS) have been treated in an earlier report. The results presented in this report (radiation doserates for the different types of aircrafts in the different years) will, in a later stage of the project be utilized to estimate the individual radiation exposure histories. The major sources of information used as basis for the work in this report is information provided by several active pilots, members of the Pilots Associations, along with calculations performed using US Federal Aviation Administration's computer code CARI-3N. 2 refs

  17. Cosmic radiation and airline pilots. Exposure patterns of Norwegian SAS-pilots 1960 to 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tveten, U.

    1997-02-01

    The work which is presented in this report is part of a Norwegian epidemiological project, carried out in cooperation between Institutt for Energiteknikk (IFE), the Norwegian Cancer Registry (NCR) and the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA). The project has been partially financed by the Norwegian Research Council. Originating from the Norwegian project, a number of similar projects have been started or are in the planning stage in a number of European countries. The present report lays the ground for estimation of individual exposure histories to cosmic radiation of pilots employed by the Scandinavian Airline System (SAS). The results presented in this report (radiation doserates for the different types of aircraft in the different years) will, in a later stage of the project, be utilized to estimate the individual radiation exposure histories. The major sources of information used as basis for this work is the collection of old SAS time tables found in the SAS Museum at Fornebu Airport in Oslo, and information provided by members of the Pilots Associations

  18. Cosmic radiation and airline pilots. Exposure patterns of Norwegian pilots flying aircraft not used by SAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tveten, U.

    1997-05-01

    The work which is presented in this report is part of a Norwegian epidemiological project, carried out in cooperation between Institutt for Energiteknikk (IFE), the Norwegian Cancer Registry (NCR) and the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA). The project has been partially financed by the Norwegian Research Council. Originating from the Norwegian project, a number of similar projects have been started or are in the planning stage in a number of European countries. The present report lays the ground for estimation of individual exposure histories to cosmic radiation of pilots flying a great diversity of different aircrafts. Aircrafts that appear in the time-tables of the Scandinavian Airline System (SAS) have been treated in an earlier report. The results presented in this report (radiation doserates for the different types of aircrafts in the different years) will, in a later stage of the project be utilized to estimate the individual radiation exposure histories. The major sources of information used as basis for the work in this report is information provided by several active pilots, members of the Pilots Associations, along with calculations performed using US Federal Aviation Administration`s computer code CARI-3N. 2 refs.

  19. Cosmic radiation and airline pilots. Exposure patterns of Norwegian SAS-pilots 1960 to 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tveten, U.

    1997-02-01

    The work which is presented in this report is part of a Norwegian epidemiological project, carried out in cooperation between Institutt for Energiteknikk (IFE), the Norwegian Cancer Registry (NCR) and the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA). The project has been partially financed by the Norwegian Research Council. Originating from the Norwegian project, a number of similar projects have been started or are in the planning stage in a number of European countries. The present report lays the ground for estimation of individual exposure histories to cosmic radiation of pilots employed by the Scandinavian Airline System (SAS). The results presented in this report (radiation doserates for the different types of aircraft in the different years) will, in a later stage of the project, be utilized to estimate the individual radiation exposure histories. The major sources of information used as basis for this work is the collection of old SAS time tables found in the SAS Museum at Fornebu Airport in Oslo, and information provided by members of the Pilots Associations.

  20. Discussion on final rifting evolution and breakup : insights from the Mid Norwegian - North East Greenland rifted system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peron-Pinvidic, Gwenn; Terje Osmundsen, Per

    2016-04-01

    In terms of rifted margin studies, the characteristics of the distal and outer domains are among the today's most debated questions. The architecture and composition of deep margins are rarely well constrained and hence little understood. Except from in a handful number of cases (eg. Iberia-Newfoundland, Southern Australia, Red Sea), basement samples are not available to decipher between the various interpretations allowed by geophysical models. No consensus has been reached on the basement composition, tectonic structures, sedimentary geometries or magmatic content. The result is that non-unique end-member interpretations and models are still proposed in the literature. So, although these domains mark the connection between continents and oceans, and thus correspond to unique stages in the Earth's lithospheric life cycle, their spatial and temporal evolution are still unresolved. The Norwegian-Greenland Sea rift system represents an exceptional laboratory to work on questions related to rifting, rifted margin formation and sedimentary basin evolution. It has been extensively studied for decades by both the academic and the industry communities. The proven and expected oil and gas potentials led to the methodical acquisition of world-class geophysical datasets, which permit the detailed research and thorough testing of concepts at local and regional scales. This contribution is issued from a three years project funded by ExxonMobil aiming at better understanding the crustal-scale nature and evolution of the Norwegian-Greenland Sea. The idea was to take advantage of the data availability on this specific rift system to investigate further the full crustal conjugate scale history of rifting, confronting the various available datasets. In this contribution, we will review the possible structural and sedimentary geometries of the distal margin, and their connection to the oceanic domain. We will discuss the definition of 'breakup' and introduce a first order conceptual

  1. Spatial and temporal variations of Norwegian geohazards in a changing climate, the GeoExtreme Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Jaedicke

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Various types of slope processes, mainly landslides and avalanches (snow, rock, clay and debris pose together with floods the main geohazards in Norway. Landslides and avalanches have caused more than 2000 casualties and considerable damage to infrastructure over the last 150 years. The interdisciplinary research project "GeoExtreme" focuses on investigating the coupling between meteorological factors and landslides and avalanches, extrapolating this into the near future with a changing climate and estimating the socioeconomic implications. The main objective of the project is to predict future geohazard changes in a changing climate. A database consisting of more than 20 000 recorded historical events have been coupled with a meteorological database to assess the predictability of landslides and avalanches caused by meteorological conditions. Present day climate and near future climate scenarios are modelled with a global climate model on a stretched grid, focusing on extreme weather events in Norway. The effects of climate change on landslides and avalanche activity are studied in four selected areas covering the most important climatic regions in Norway. The statistical analysis of historical landslide and avalanche events versus weather observations shows strong regional differences in the country. Avalanches show the best correlation with weather events while landslides and rockfalls are less correlated. The new climate modelling approach applying spectral nudging to achieve a regional downscaling for Norway proves to reproduce extreme events of precipitation much better than conventional modelling approaches. Detailed studies of slope stabilities in one of the selected study area show a high sensitivity of slope stability in a changed precipitation regime. The value of elements at risk was estimated in one study area using a GIS based approach that includes an estimation of the values within given present state hazard zones. The ongoing

  2. On the vertical structure and stability of the Lofoten vortex in the Norwegian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashmachnikov, I. L.; Sokolovskiy, M. A.; Belonenko, T. V.; Volkov, D. L.; Isachsen, P. E.; Carton, X.

    2017-10-01

    The Lofoten Vortex (LV), a quasi-permanent anticyclonic eddy in the Lofoten Basin of the Norwegian Sea, is investigated with an eddy-permitting primitive equation model nested into the ECCO2 ocean state estimate. The LV, as simulated by the model, extends from the sea surface to the ocean bottom at about 3000 m and has the subsurface core between 50 m and 1100 m depths. Above and below the vortex core the relative vorticity signal decreases in amplitude while the radius increases by as much as 25-30% relative to the values in the core. Analyzing the model run, we show that the vertical structure of the LV can be casted into four standard configurations, each of which forms a distinct cluster in the parameter space of potential vorticity anomalies in and above the LV core. The stability of the LV for each of the configurations is then studied with three-layer and a two-layer (in winter) quasi-geostrophic (QG) models over a flat bottom as well as over a realistic topography. The QG results show a number of common features with those of the primitive equation model. Thus, among the azimuthal modes dominating the LV instability, both the QG model and the primitive equation model show a major role the 2nd and 3rd modes. In the QG model simulations the LV is the subject of a rather strong dynamic instability, penetrating deep into the core. The results predict 50-95% volume loss from the vortex within 4-5 months. Such a drastic effect is not observed in the primitive equation model, where, for the same intensity of perturbations, only 10-30% volume loss during the same period is detected. Taking into account the gently sloping topography of the central part of the Lofoten basin and the mean flow in the QG model, brings the rate of development of instability close to that in the primitive equation model. Some remaining differences in the two models are discussed. Overall, the LV decay rate obtained in the models is slow enough for eddy mergers and convection to restore

  3. Norwegian Natural Gas. Liberalization of the European Gas Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austvik, Ole Gunnar

    2003-01-01

    Leading abstract. This book focuses on issues that are important for Norway as a major gas exporter and to the development of a liberalized European market. Chapter 2 explains main features of the European gas market. Natural gas is sold in regional markets with independent pricing structure and particularities. In Europe, this has led to large investments for the producers and long-term contracts. The strong market growth and EU's actions to liberalize the market may change this. The organization of the Norwegian gas production and sale is discussed, as well as the reorganization taking place in 2001. Pricing mechanisms are discussed in Chapter 3, both in the ''old'' / existing structure and how a liberalization of the market may change price formation. The increased importance of energy taxation in EU countries is covered in Chapter 4. Even though natural gas is the most environmentally friendly of the fossil fuels, the use of natural gas may be taxed far harder in the future. The report discusses price effects of such a development. Chapter 5 discusses whether or not a gas producer, like Norway, necessarily must earn a resource rent. With the use of economic theory for exhaustible resources it is shown how prices to consumers may increase at the same time as prices to producers drop, where the difference is made up by higher gas taxes to the consuming countries. Transportation of natural gas involves considerable scale advantages and there are often scope advantages from production, storage and sale, as well. Chapter 6 discusses how competition and regulation may influence the functioning and social efficiency of the market, and the concentration of market power. When companies become large, they may exploit market power, supported by the authorities of their respective countries. Chapter 7 focuses on regulatory challenges for the EU, and how the transporters may change between conflicting and cooperation with the EU. Chapter 8 focuses on schedules for

  4. Exploración o deporte: comparación entre los modelos britanico y noruego en la carrera por alcanzar el polo sur = Exploration or sport: comparision between british and norwegian models in the race to reach the south pole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Gálvez González

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se analiza la carrera entre Roald Amundsen y Robert F. Scott por alcanzar el Polo Sur entre 1911 y 1912, tomando como base un planteamiento deportivo de organizar la exploración. La expedición de Amundsen fue considerada como moderna, por aplicar los avances existentes para llegar el primero a los 90º Sur. La expedición de Scott sin embargo se organizó según las tradiciones militares británicas. Al final, la victoria del noruego demostró una elección más adecuada de la los factores técnicos, tácticos, biológicos y psicológicos.--------------------------------------------------------------------------------This paper examines the race between Roald Amundsen and Robert F. Scott to reach the South Pole between 1911 and 1912, based on a Sports approach to organize the exploration. Amundsen's expedition was considered as modern to implement existing developments to be the first to get to 90 degrees south. Scott's expedition was organized, however, according to British military traditions. In the end, the Norwegian won, demonstrating a more suitable choice of the technical, tactical, biological and psychological factors.

  5. NORPERM, the Norwegian Permafrost Database - a TSP NORWAY IPY legacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliussen, H.; Christiansen, H. H.; Strand, G. S.; Iversen, S.; Midttømme, K.; Rønning, J. S.

    2010-10-01

    NORPERM, the Norwegian Permafrost Database, was developed at the Geological Survey of Norway during the International Polar Year (IPY) 2007-2009 as the main data legacy of the IPY research project Permafrost Observatory Project: A Contribution to the Thermal State of Permafrost in Norway and Svalbard (TSP NORWAY). Its structural and technical design is described in this paper along with the ground temperature data infrastructure in Norway and Svalbard, focussing on the TSP NORWAY permafrost observatory installations in the North Scandinavian Permafrost Observatory and Nordenskiöld Land Permafrost Observatory, being the primary data providers of NORPERM. Further developments of the database, possibly towards a regional database for the Nordic area, are also discussed. The purpose of NORPERM is to store ground temperature data safely and in a standard format for use in future research. The IPY data policy of open, free, full and timely release of IPY data is followed, and the borehole metadata description follows the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost (GTN-P) standard. NORPERM is purely a temperature database, and the data is stored in a relation database management system and made publically available online through a map-based graphical user interface. The datasets include temperature time series from various depths in boreholes and from the air, snow cover, ground-surface or upper ground layer recorded by miniature temperature data-loggers, and temperature profiles with depth in boreholes obtained by occasional manual logging. All the temperature data from the TSP NORWAY research project is included in the database, totalling 32 temperature time series from boreholes, 98 time series of micrometeorological temperature conditions, and 6 temperature depth profiles obtained by manual logging in boreholes. The database content will gradually increase as data from previous and future projects are added. Links to near real-time permafrost temperatures, obtained

  6. Triptan safety during pregnancy: a Norwegian population registry study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nezvalová-Henriksen, Kateřina; Spigset, Olav; Nordeng, Hedvig

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge on triptan safety during pregnancy remains limited to their class effect or studies on sumatriptan. Our aim was to evaluate the individual effect of four most frequently used triptans on several pregnancy outcomes. We used the Norwegian prescription database to access information on triptans redeemed by pregnant women living in Norway between 2004 and 2007. This database was linked to the Medical Birth Registry of Norway covering every institutional delivery in Norway and providing information on pregnancy, delivery, maternal and neonatal health. Estimates of associations with pregnancy outcomes were obtained by Generalised Estimation Equations analysis. Of the 181,125 women in our study, 1,465 (0.8 %) redeemed triptans during pregnancy, and 1,095 (0.6 %) redeemed triptans before pregnancy only (disease comparison group). The population comparison group comprised the remaining 178,565 women. Using this group as reference, we found no associations between triptan redemption during pregnancy and congenital malformations. Second trimester redemption was associated with postpartum haemorrhage (adjusted OR 1.57; 95 % CI 1.19–2.07). The disease comparison group had an increased risk of major congenital malformations (adjusted OR 1.48; 95 % CI 1.11–1.97), low birth weight (adjusted OR 1.39; 95 % CI 1.08–1.81), and preterm birth (adjusted OR 1.30; 95 % CI 1.06–1.60). The association of triptans with postpartum hemorrhage could be attributable to decreased platelet agreeability occurring in severe migraine. Likewise, the increased risk of major congenital malformations and other adverse pregnancy outcomes in the disease comparison group might be attributable to migraine severity

  7. Norwegian farmers ceasing certified organic production: characteristics and reasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaten, Ola; Lien, Gudbrand; Koesling, Matthias; Løes, Anne-Kristin

    2010-12-01

    This article examines the characteristics of and reasons for Norwegian farmers' ceasing or planning to cease certified organic production. We gathered cross-sectional survey data in late 2007 from organic farmers deregistering between January 2004 and September 2007 (n=220), and similar data from a random sample of farmers with certified organic management in 2006 (n=407). Of the respondents deregistering by November 2007, 17% had quit farming altogether, 61% now farmed conventionally, and 21% were still farming by organic principles, but without certification. Nearly one in four organic farmers in 2007 indicated that they planned to cease certification within the next 5-10 years. From the two survey samples, we categorised farmers who expect to be deregistered in 5-10 years into three groups: conventional practices (n=139), continuing to farm using organic principles (uncertified organic deregistrants, n=105), and stopped farming (n=33). Of the numerous differences among these groups, two were most striking: the superior sales of uncertified organic deregistrants through consumer-direct marketing and the lowest shares of organic land among conventional deregistrants. We summarised a large number of reasons for deregistering into five factors through factor analysis: economics, regulations, knowledge-exchange, production, and market access. Items relating to economics and regulations were the primary reasons offered for opting out. The regression analysis showed that the various factors were associated with several explanatory variables. Regulations, for example, figured more highly among livestock farmers than crop farmers. The economic factor strongly reflected just a few years of organic management. Policy recommendations for reducing the number of dropouts are to focus on economics, environmental attitudes, and the regulatory issues surrounding certified organic production. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A study of chronic fatigue in Norwegian cervical cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Rita; Dahl, Alv A; Hess, Siri Lothe; Kiserud, Cecilie E

    2017-09-01

    Chronic fatigue after treatment is a common adverse event in cancer patients, but there are few studies in long-term survivors of cervical cancer. The aim of this investigation was to explore the prevalence of chronic fatigue and its association with various clinical and treatment-related factors in a population-based cohort of Norwegian cervical cancer survivors treated by any modality. All patients, treated for cervical cancer from 2000 through 2007 in the Health Region of South-Eastern Norway, cancer-free, alive and aged ≤75years by the end 2013 (n=822) received a questionnaire covering chronic fatigue and other clinical variables. 461 of 822 survivors (56%) completed the questionnaire and 382 entered the analyses. Chronic fatigue was reported by 23% (95% confidence interval 19%-27%) with a median age of 52years (range 32-75) at survey, 11years (range 7-15) after diagnosis. Among survivors treated by minimal invasive- or radical surgery, 19% had chronic fatigue, while the prevalence was 28% in those treated with radiation and concomitant chemotherapy (chemoradiation). The chronic fatigue group reported significantly more cardiovascular disease, obesity, less physical activity, more treatment-related symptom experience, more menopausal symptoms, higher levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms, and poorer quality of life than the non-fatigued group. In multivariate analysis only increased level of depression and poorer global quality of life were significantly associated with chronic fatigue. Chronic fatigue was reported by 23% of long-term survivors after cervical cancer at a mean of 11years after treatment. Some of the associated factors are amenable to prevention and/or treatment and should be subjects of attention at follow-up. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Hearing loss and tinnitus in rock musicians: A Norwegian survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Christian Lein Størmer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Our focus in this study was to assess hearing thresholds and the prevalence and characteristics of tinnitus in a large group of rock musicians based in Norway. A further objective was to assess related factors such as exposure, instrument category, and the preventive effect of hearing protection. The study was a cross-sectional survey of rock musicians selected at random from a defined cohort of musicians. A random control group was included for comparison. We recruited 111 active musicians from the Oslo region, and a control group of 40 nonmusicians from the student population at the University of TromsØ. The subjects were investigated using clinical examination, pure tone audiometry, tympanometry, and a questionnaire. We observed a hearing loss in 37.8% of the rock musicians. Significantly poorer hearing thresholds were seen at most pure-tone frequencies in musicians than controls, with the most pronounced threshold shift at 6 kHz. The use of hearing protection, in particular custom-fitted earplugs, has a preventive effect but a minority of rock musicians apply them consistently. The degree of musical performance exposure was inversely related to the degree of hearing loss in our sample. Bass and guitar players had higher hearing thresholds than vocalists. We observed a 20% prevalence of chronic tinnitus but none of the affected musicians had severe tinnitus symptomatology. There was no statistical association between permanent tinnitus and hearing loss in our sample. We observed an increased prevalence of hearing loss and tinnitus in our sample of Norwegian rock musicians but the causal relationship between musical exposure and hearing loss or tinnitus is ambiguous. We recommend the use of hearing protection in rock musicians.

  10. Specific energy use in Swedish and Norwegian shopping malls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stensson, Sofia; Axell, Monica (SP Energy Technology, Boraas (Sweden)); Smaage, Kjell Petter (Evotek AS (Norway)); Fahlen, Per (Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Building Services Engineering, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2009-07-01

    The prevalence of shopping malls is growing worldwide. Internationally, there are differences in energy use and system solutions due to local outdoor climate, available energy resources, prices, national building regulations, traditions etc. On the other hand, tenants are usually international chains and they often have the same demands regarding indoor climate, system solutions etc. irrespective of the national differences. Shopping malls overall tends to have large lighting loads, high population density and, hence, a large air conditioning demand. There is also an apparent trend towards increasing glass surfaces and such design feature affects the energy balance of the building. For those interested in the energy efficiency of the building and its installations, it is interesting to know how different system solutions affect the energy use. Benchmarking between buildings gives valuable insight to energy efficient design and operation. However, available information on energy use for such benchmarking in shopping malls is still rather limited. This study investigates shopping malls in Sweden and Norway. Available national statistical data on retail and shopping malls are reviewed. Further building statistical data were collected from building owners and managers, covering energy use in 41 shopping malls. Additional energy use data for 115 shops, within three of these shopping malls were also collected. The building statistical data shows that the average energy use in Norwegian and Swedish shopping malls are approximately 291 and 279 kWh/m2/year respectively. The highest energy use exceeds the lowest figure by approximately 50 percent, indicating a significant potential for improvement. Results also show a wide deviation in energy use of the different shops in a shopping mall. The paper further provides a discussion concerning alternative benchmarking methods and necessary improvements to make valid conclusions regarding energy use in shopping malls.

  11. Assessment Procedures of Norwegian PhD Theses as Viewed by Examiners from the USA, the UK and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyvik, Svein

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the assessment procedures of Norwegian PhD theses as viewed by external members of evaluation committees from three countries with different examination systems; the USA, the UK and Sweden. Their viewpoints give useful information not only on the pros and cons with the Norwegian system, but also on the strengths and…

  12. Comparative Analysis of Norwegian Passive House Criteria and of Criteria related to the Concept of International Passive House Standard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anton, Karin; Vestergaard, Inge

    2013-01-01

    The analysis shows differences in definition of apssive house criterias. It also communicates issues os the passive house concept that are nor completely transferred by the Norwegian passive house standard.......The analysis shows differences in definition of apssive house criterias. It also communicates issues os the passive house concept that are nor completely transferred by the Norwegian passive house standard....

  13. Associations between the time of conception and the shape of the lactation curve in early lactation in Norwegian dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Fredrik; Østerås, Olav; Reksen, Olav

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine if an association exists between the shape of the lactation curve before it is influenced by the event of conception and the time from calving to conception in Norwegian dairy cattle. Lactation curves of Norwegian Red cows during 5 to 42 days in milk (DIM) ...

  14. Young People and the European Dimension in a Norwegian Context. Migration and National Critical Events as Challenges to Citizenship Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeie, Geir

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses the "European dimension" in a Norwegian context with focus on the relevance for young people in particular. Against a backdrop of literature discussing Norwegian majority self-understanding in relation to Europe, the article discusses some examples that are relevant for addressing the overall theme, namely recent…

  15. Cardiovascular risk factor clustering and its association with fitness in nine-year-old rural Norwegian children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Resaland, G K; Mamen, A; Boreham, C

    2010-01-01

    of those in the other quartiles. Finally, subjects were cross-tabulated into different fat-fit groups. For both sexes, the unfit and overweight/obese group had a significantly higher CVD risk factor score than the fit and normal weight group. Clustering of CVD risk factors was present in this group......This paper describes cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor levels in a population-representative sample of healthy, rural Norwegian children and examines the association between fitness and clustering of CVD risk factors. Final analyses included 111 boys and 116 girls (mean age 9.3 +/- 0.......3). To determine the degree of clustering, six CVD risk factors were selected: homeostasis model assessment score, waist circumference, triglycerides, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein ratio and fitness (VO(2peak)). Clustering was observed in 9.9% of the boys and 13...

  16. Norwegian residential electricity demand - a microeconomic assessment of the growth from 1976 to 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halvorsen, B.; Larsen, B.M.

    2001-01-01

    The Norwegian residential electricity consumption increased by an average of 3% annually during the period 1976-1993. Political signals indicate that the growth in Norwegian residential energy consumption should be reduced, and that it may be necessary to increase energy taxes. Based on data for the sample of households from the annual consumer expenditure survey, we study factors that are of importance explaining the growth in Norwegian residential electricity demand during this period. Nearly half of the growth is due to an increase in the number of households, while the rest reflects an increase in average consumption per household. The increase in average consumption per household is due to an increasing number of households possessing electric household appliances such as dryers and dishwashers, an increase in real disposable household income and in the floor space of dwellings. (author)

  17. Bioaccumulation of 137Cs in pelagic food webs in the Norwegian and Barents Seas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heldal, Hilde Elise; Foeyn, Lars; Varskog, Per

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge and documentation of the levels of radioactive contamination in fish stocks important to Norwegian fisheries is of major importance to Norwegian consumers and fish export industry. In the present study, the bioaccumulation of caesium-137 ( 137 Cs) has been investigated in marine food webs in the Barents and Norwegian Seas. The contents of 137 Cs in the different organisms were generally low ( -1 wet weight), but a marked bioaccumulation was apparent: The concentration of 137 Cs was about 10-fold higher in the harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena, representing the upper level of the food web, than in the amphipod Themisto sp., representing the lower level of the food web. The Concentration Factors (CF=Bq kg -1 wet weight/Bq l -1 seawater) increased from 10±3 for a mixed sample of krill and amphipods to 165±5 for harbour porpoises

  18. A note on the history of the Norwegian Psychoanalytic Society from 1933 to 1945.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthi, Per; Haugsgjerd, Svein

    2013-08-01

    The Norwegian analysts, who were trained in Berlin before 1933, were drawn into a struggle against fascism, informed by politically leftist analysts who worked at the Berlin Institute. The Norwegian group, including the analysts Wilhelm Reich and Otto Fenichel, were committed to Marxist or social democratic ideologies in order to fight down fascism and Nazism. They were a source of inspiration but also of conflict. After the war the leadership of the IPA was sceptical about the Norwegian group because of its former connections with Die Linke, as well as its relations with Wilhelm Reich. This paper in part considers the courageous efforts of Nic Waal, whom Ernest Jones used as a delegate and courier to solve problems for the IPA and who was unjustly treated after the war. Copyright © 2013 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  19. The Norwegian electricity industry: a deregulated market in a regulated Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diesen, E

    1994-12-01

    According to the 1990 Energy Act, the hydro power based Norwegian electricity supply industry was deregulated. The main aim of the act was to promote efficient utilisation of resources through introduction of competition. The act introduced open access for everyone to the network and fair and non-discriminatory pricing for network services. The consumers have now a free choice of suppliers. The Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Administration, NVE, has the responsibility for regulating the monopolized parts of the industry - the network - As well as supervising the competitive parts - production and trading. The Norwegian transmission grid has several connections with the neighbouring countries. Connections to Germany and the Netherlands are planned. The foreign power exchange is primarily based on exploiting the specific properties of the hydro based system by exporting peak power at high prices and import base load in off peak periods. (author).

  20. Renewable energy and environmental technology: Norwegian trends, innovations and cutting-edge companies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moses, Robert; Criscione, Valeria

    2011-07-01

    This issue of Norway Exports: Renewable Energy and environmental technology looks at Norway's role in one of most important global challenges today. Norway has long placed an emphasis on environmental issues both through global cooperation as well as initiatives on the national, regional and local level. In this issue we present you with two forewords; one from the Norwegian Minister of Petroleum and Energy, Ola Borten Moe, and one from Managing Director INTPOW, Geir Elsebutangen. A brief overview of the most important Norwegian environmental organizations as well as series of articles to give you a more in-depth understanding of Norway's present focus and activities. In the second half of the magazine you will find cutting-edge Norwegian companies within energy and renewable technology that provide their products or services on the global market.(Author)

  1. Final report: The effect of climate change on the Norwegian Energy System towards 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seljom, P.; Rosenberg, E.; Fidje, A.; Meir, M.; Haugen, J.E.; Jarlseth, T.

    2010-08-15

    The climate impact on the renewable resources, end use demand, and on the Norwegian energy system towards 2050 is identified. Climate change will reduce the heat demand, increase the cooling demand, result in no impact on the wind power potential, and increase the hydro power potential. The total impact is reduced energy system costs, and lower Norwegian electricity prices. The net electricity export will increase, and national investments in new renewable power production like offshore wind- , tidal- and wave power will decrease due to climate change. Additionally, the electricity consumption in the residential and in the commercial sector will decrease, and climate change will lead to an earlier profitable implementation of electric based vehicles in Norway. Despite great uncertainties in the future climate, various future emission scenarios are compatible regarding the Norwegian climate impact, although the magnitude of the impact varies. (Author)

  2. Breast-feeding and complementary feeding practices in the first 6 months of life among Norwegian-Somali and Norwegian-Iraqi infants: the InnBaKost survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewal, Navnit Kaur; Andersen, Lene Frost; Sellen, Daniel; Mosdøl, Annhild; Torheim, Liv Elin

    2016-03-01

    To examine breast-feeding and complementary feeding practices during the first 6 months of life among Norwegian infants of Somali and Iraqi family origin. A cross-sectional survey was performed during March 2013-February 2014. Data were collected using a semi-quantitative FFQ adapted from the second Norwegian national dietary survey among infants in 2006-2007. Somali-born and Iraqi-born mothers living in eastern Norway were invited to participate. One hundred and seven mothers/infants of Somali origin and eighty mothers/infants of Iraqi origin participated. Breast-feeding was almost universally initiated after birth. Only 7 % of Norwegian-Somali and 10 % of Norwegian-Iraqi infants were exclusively breast-fed at 4 months of age. By 1 month of age, water had been introduced to 30 % of Norwegian-Somali and 26 % of Norwegian-Iraqi infants, and infant formula to 44 % and 34 %, respectively. Fifty-four per cent of Norwegian-Somali and 68 % of Norwegian-Iraqi infants had been introduced to solid or semi-solid foods at 4 months of age. Breast-feeding at 6 months of age was more common among Norwegian-Somali infants (79 %) compared with Norwegian-Iraqi infants (58 %; P=0·001). Multivariate analyses indicated no significant factors associated with exclusive breast-feeding at 3·5 months of age. Factors positively associated with breast-feeding at 6 months were country of origin (Somalia) and parity (>2). Breast-feeding initiation was common among Iraqi-born and Somali-born mothers, but the exclusive breast-feeding period was shorter than recommended in both groups. The study suggests that there is a need for new culture-specific approaches to support exclusive breast-feeding and complementary feeding practices among foreign-born mothers living in Norway.

  3. The Norwegian Educational System, the Linguistic Diversity in the Country and the Education of Different Minority Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil ÖZERK

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Linguistic diversity has always been and still is one of the current issues in the Norwegian educational system. Norwegian is the official language of the country, but, there have been several distinct dialects and two official written Norwegian languages in the country since 1885. One of them is Bokmål and the other is Nynorsk. There has also been an indigenous Sami people with three different Sami languages in the country: Northern Sami, Lulesami and Southern Sami in the country. At the same time there are two national minority groups, Kvens and the Roma people, who have their own languages. In addition about 200 languages are represented among linguistic minority children with immigrant parents/grandparents. This linguistic diversity means that almost 15% of Norway’s population of 5 million has another first language than Norwegian. This paper gives a brief account of policies and challenges related to multilingualism and multilingual education in the Norwegian educational system.

  4. The Norwegian educational system, the linguistic diversity in the country and the education of different minority groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil ÖZERK

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Linguistic diversity has always been and still is one of the current issues in the Norwegian educational system. Norwegian is the official language of the country, but, there have been several distinct dialects and two official written Norwegian languages in the country since 1885. One of them is Bokmål and the other is Nynorsk. There has also been an indigenous Sami people with three different Sami languages in the country: Northern Sami, Lulesami and Southern Sami in the country. At the same time there are two national minority groups, Kvens and the Roma people, who have their own languages. In addition about 200 languages are represented among linguistic minority children with immigrant parents/grandparents. This linguistic diversity means that almost 15% of Norway’s population of 5 million has another first language than Norwegian. This paper gives a brief account of policies and challenges related to multilingualism and multilingual education in the Norwegian educational system.

  5. Psychosocial factors and distress: a comparison between ethnic Norwegians and ethnic Pakistanis in Oslo, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Hammad Raza; Dalgard, Odd Steffen; Dalen, Ingvild; Claussen, Bjørgulf; Hussain, Akthar; Selmer, Randi; Ahlberg, Nora

    2006-07-10

    In the Norwegian context, higher mental distress has been reported for the non-Western immigrants compared to the ethnic Norwegians and Western immigrants. This high level of distress is often related to different socio-economic conditions in this group. No efforts have been made earlier to observe the impact of changed psychosocial conditions on the state of mental distress of these immigrant communities due to the migration process. Therefore, the objective of the study was to investigate the association between psychological distress and psychosocial factors among Pakistani immigrants and ethnic Norwegians in Oslo, and to investigate to what extent differences in mental health could be explained by psychosocial and socioeconomic conditions. Data was collected from questionnaires as a part of the Oslo Health Study 2000-2001. 13581 Norwegian born (attendance rate 46%) and 339 ethnic Pakistanis (attendance rate 38%) in the selected age groups participated. A 10-item version of Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL) was used as a measure of psychological distress. Pakistanis reported less education and lower employment rate than Norwegians (p < 0.005). The Pakistani immigrants also reported higher distress, mean HSCL score 1.53(1.48-1.59), compared to the ethnic Norwegians, HSCL score 1.30(1.29-1.30). The groups differed significantly (p < 0.005) with respect to social support and feeling of powerlessness, the Pakistanis reporting less support and more powerlessness. The expected difference in mean distress was reduced from 0.23 (0.19-0.29) to 0.07 (0.01-0.12) and 0.12 (0.07-0.18) when adjusted for socioeconomic and social support variables respectively. Adjusting for all these variables simultaneously, the difference in the distress level between the two groups was eliminated Poor social support and economic conditions are important mediators of mental health among immigrants. The public health recommendations/interventions should deal with both the economic conditions

  6. Seasonal variation in the levels of organohalogen compounds in herring (Clupea harengus) from the Norwegian Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantzen, Sylvia; Måge, Amund; Iversen, Svein Arnholt; Julshamn, Kåre

    2011-09-01

    The Norwegian spring spawning (NSS) herring is an ecologically important fish stock in the Norwegian Sea, and with a catch volume exceeding one million tons a year it is also economically important and a valuable food source. In order to provide a baseline of the levels of contaminants in this fish stock, the levels of organohalogen compounds were determined in 800 individual herring sampled at 29 positions in the Norwegian Sea and off the coast of Norway. Due to seasonal migration, the herring were sampled where they were located during the different seasons. Concentrations of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs, non-dioxin-like PCBs (PCB(7)) and PBDEs were determined in fillet samples of individual herring, and found to be relatively low, with means (min-max) of 0.77 (0.24-3.5) ng TEQ kg(-1) wet weight (ww), 5.0 (1.4-24) μg kg(-1) ww and 0.47 (0.091-3.1) μg kg(-1) ww, respectively. The concentrations varied throughout the year due to the feeding- and spawning cycle: Starved, pre-spawning herring caught off the Norwegian coast in January-February had the highest levels and those caught in the Norwegian Sea in April-June, after further starvation and spawning, had the lowest levels. These results show that the concentrations of organohalogen compounds in NSS herring are relatively low and closely tied to their physiological condition, and that in the future regular monitoring of NSS herring should be made in the spawning areas off the Norwegian coast in late winter. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Psychometric properties of the Norwegian version of the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ, Generic version (Short Form 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hofoss Dag

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background How to protect patients from harm is a question of universal interest. Measuring and improving safety culture in care giving units is an important strategy for promoting a safe environment for patients. The Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ is the only instrument that measures safety culture in a way which correlates with patient outcome. We have translated the SAQ to Norwegian and validated the translated version. The psychometric properties of the translated questionnaire are presented in this article. Methods The questionnaire was translated with the back translation technique and tested in 47 clinical units in a Norwegian university hospital. SAQ's (the Generic version (Short Form 2006 the version with the two sets of questions on perceptions of management: on unit management and on hospital management were distributed to 1911 frontline staff. 762 were distributed during unit meetings and 1149 through the postal system. Cronbach alphas, item-to-own correlations, and test-retest correlations were calculated, and response distribution analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were performed, as well as early validity tests. Results 1306 staff members completed and returned the questionnaire: a response rate of 68%. Questionnaire acceptability was good. The reliability measures were acceptable. The factor structure of the responses was tested by confirmatory factor analysis. 36 items were ascribed to seven underlying factors: Teamwork Climate, Safety Climate, Stress Recognition, Perceptions of Hospital Management, Perceptions of Unit Management, Working conditions, and Job satisfaction. Goodness-of-Fit Indices showed reasonable, but not indisputable, model fit. External validity indicators – recognizability of results, correlations with "trigger tool"-identified adverse events, with patient satisfaction with hospitalization, patient reports of possible maltreatment, and patient evaluation of organization of hospital work

  8. "Reliability of the Norwegian version of the short physical performance battery in older people with and without dementia".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Cecilie Fromholt; Bergland, Astrid

    2017-06-09

    The purpose of the study was to establish the test-retest reliability of the Norwegian version of the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). This was a cross- sectional reliability study. A convenience sample of 61 older adults with a mean age of 88.4(8.1) was tested by two different physiotherapists at two time points. The mean time interval between tests was 2.5 days. The Intraclass Correlation Coefficient model 3.1 (ICC, 3.1) with 95% confidence intervals as well as the weighted Kappa (K) were used as measures of relative reliability. The Standard Error of Measurement (SEM) and Minimal Detectable Change (MDC) were used to measure absolute reliability. The results were also analyzed for a subgroup of 24 older people with dementia. The ICC reflected high relative reliability for the SPPB summary score and the 4 m walk test (4mwt), both for the total sample (ICC = 0.92, and 0.91 respectively)) and for the subgroup with dementia (ICC = 0.84 and 0.90 respectively). Furthermore, weighted Ks for the SPPB subscales were 0.64 for the chair stand, 0.80 for gait and 0.52 for balance for the total sample and almost identical for the subgroup with dementia. MDC-values at the 95% confidence intervals (MDC95) were calculated at 0.8 for the total score of SPPB and 0.39 m/s for the 4mwt in the total sample. For the subgroup with dementia MDC95 was 1.88 for the total score of SPPB and 0.28 m/s for 4mwt. The SPPB total score and the timed walking test showed overall high relative and absolute reliability for the total sample indicating that the Norwegian version of the SPPB is reliable when used by trained physiotherapists with older people. The reliability of the Norwegian SPPB in older people with dementia seems high, but due to a small sample size this needs further investigation.

  9. Long-Term Trends and Variability in Spring Development of Calanus finmarchicus in the Southeastern Norwegian Sea during 1996-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, N.; Bagøien, E.; Melle, W.

    2016-02-01

    Calanus finmarchicus is the dominant copepod species in the Norwegian Sea in terms of biomass, playing a key role in the ecosystem by transferring energy from primary producers to higher trophic levels. This study analyses the long-term trend of a 17-year time series (1996-2012) on abundance of adult Calanus finmarchicus in the Atlantic water-mass of the southern Norwegian Sea during spring. The long-term trend in spring abundance was assessed by using Generalised Additive Models, while simultaneously accounting for both general population development and inter-annual variation in population development throughout the study period. In one model, we focus on inter-annual changes in timing of the Calanus spring seasonal development by including Mean Stage Composition as a measure for state of population development. Following a short increase during the years 1996 to 2000, the abundance of Calanus finmarchicus decreased strongly until about the year 2010. For the two last years of the studied period, 2011-2012, increasing population abundances are suggested but with less certainty. The model results suggest that the analysis is capturing the G0 generation, displaying a peak for the adults in about mid-April. Inter-annual differences in spring seasonal development, with the peak of adults shifting towards earlier in the season as well as a shorter generation time are suggested. Considering the importance of Calanus finmarchicus as food for planktivorous predators in the Norwegian Sea, our time series analysis suggests relevant changes both with respect to the spring abundance and timing of this food source. The next step is to relate variation in the Calanus time series to environmental factors with special emphasis on climatic drivers.

  10. Risk level project. Summary report, Norwegian Shelf, Phase 7; Risikonivaaprosjektet. Sammendragsrapport Norsk Sokkel, fase 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-04-15

    The project 'developments in risk level - Norwegian shelf', also known as the risk level project, was initiated by the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate in 2000. From 2004 the project has been continued by Petroleum Safety Authority Norway. The project's main objectives are to measure the effect of the health, security and environment (HSE) work in the industry, and contribute to identify the areas critical to HSE, where efforts must be made to prevent unwanted events or accidents. A summary report with results from phase 7 in the project (ml)

  11. Examining Convergence in the Cultural Value Orientations of Norwegians in the Oil and Gas Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teague, Jennifer

    There is much debate in Norway as to whether Norwegian cultural values are being diluted by the increasing influx of international organizations. Little empirical work has been done to assess the effect of employment by international organizations on the cultural values of Norwegians. The aim of this study was to determine if individuals retain cultural values closest to their own nationality or the nationality of their employing organization. This objective was accomplished by comparing cultural value dimensions of Norwegians employed in organizations headquartered in one of five countries. Recruitment emails were sent to 612 possible participants and 160 individuals completed the survey completely, resulting in a sample size of N=160, a response rate of 26%. From the completed surveys, cultural dimension scores were calculated for each individual and group in the areas of power distance, individualism, masculinity, and uncertainty avoidance. Using those cultural dimension scores, three groups of one-way ANOVA tests were run in accordance with the parameters of each of three research questions. Comparing Norwegians employed in local government or a Norwegian oil and gas company, a significant difference existed only for uncertainty avoidance (p=.0074). Comparing cultural dimension scores of Norwegians employed in local government with those employed by one of four internationally-headquartered oil companies resulted in significant differences in scores for power distance (p=.0007), individualism (p=.0000), and uncertainty avoidance (p=.0000); however, there was not a statistically significant difference in masculinity scores between the two groups (p=.0792). Comparing cultural dimension scores of Norwegians employed in a Norwegian oil and gas company with those employed by one of four internationally-headquartered oil and gas companies also resulted in statistically significant differences in scores for power distance (p=.0015), individualism (p=.0000), and

  12. License withdrawn : a moral evaluation of Norwegian arms export to Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Fixdal, Mona Christine

    1997-01-01

    License Withdrawn A Moral Evaluation of Norwegian Arms Export to Turkey On March 13, 1992, the Norwegian Foreign Ministry granted Raufoss A/S a license to export ammunition to Turkey. Two weeks later the Foreign Ministry withdrew the license, and Raufoss A/S was consequently denied the possibility to export. The aim of this thesis is to give a moral evaluation of the decision to withdraw the license for ammunition. This evaluation is partly based on the question whether it was right to ...

  13. The Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority's Environmental Unit - 10 years in the Polar Environmental Centre, Tromsoe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA) established an Environmental Unit at the Polar Environmental Centre in Tromsoe in the summer of 1999. The aim of establishing the unit in Tromsoe was to further the monitoring programmes of the NRPA in the Arctic and to the promote collaboration within the Polar Environmental Centre. Over the last 10 years, the NRPA's Environmental Unit has undertaken a range of research and monitoring activities in close cooperation with other institutes in the Polar Environmental Centre that have helped to further understand the current radiological status of the Norwegian Arctic. (Author)

  14. State intervention causing inefficiency: an empirical analysis of the Norwegian Continental Shelf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashani, Hossein A.

    2005-01-01

    State intervention in the Norwegian Continental Shelf started with the establishment of Statoil as the medium of state ownership over the found petroleum and as a tool to monitor oil companies' procurement behaviour. This paper tests the extent to which the state intervention created inefficiencies in the Norwegian Continental Shelf (NCS) activities, as measured by data envelopment analysis, stochastic frontier analysis, Malmquist Indices, and standard regression analysis. Our results confirm such inefficiencies. Accordingly, the results provide an important insight into NCS production techniques and, more generally, into governments' abilities to influence private sector behaviour through contracts and tendering

  15. Adherence of pregnant women to Nordic dietary guidelines in relation to postpartum weight retention: results from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Ruesten, Anne; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Haugen, Margaretha; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Mehlig, Kirsten; Winkvist, Anna; Lissner, Lauren

    2014-01-24

    Pregnancy is a major life event for women and often connected with changes in diet and lifestyle and natural gestational weight gain. However, excessive weight gain during pregnancy may lead to postpartum weight retention and add to the burden of increasing obesity prevalence. Therefore, it is of interest to examine whether adherence to nutrient recommendations or food-based guidelines is associated with postpartum weight retention 6 months after birth. This analysis is based on data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Diet during the first 4-5 months of pregnancy was assessed by a food-frequency questionnaire and maternal weight before pregnancy as well as in the postpartum period was assessed by questionnaires. Two Healthy Eating Index (HEI) scores were applied to measure compliance with either the official Norwegian food-based guidelines (HEI-NFG) or the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (HEI-NNR) during pregnancy. The considered outcome, i.e. weight retention 6 months after birth, was modelled in two ways: continuously (in kg) and categorically (risk of substantial postpartum weight retention, i.e. ≥ 5% gain to pre-pregnancy weight). Associations between the HEI-NFG and HEI-NNR score with postpartum weight retention on the continuous scale were estimated by linear regression models. Relationships of both HEI scores with the categorical outcome variable were evaluated using logistic regression. In the continuous model without adjustment for gestational weight gain (GWG), the HEI-NFG score but not the HEI-NNR score was inversely related to postpartum weight retention. However, after additional adjustment for GWG as potential intermediate the HEI-NFG score was marginally inversely and the HEI-NNR score was inversely associated with postpartum weight retention. In the categorical model, both HEI scores were inversely related with risk of substantial postpartum weight retention

  16. Mapping of Norwegian civil society organizations working on energy and sustainable development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This study provides a mapping of Norwegian CSOs working on energy and development issues in developing countries and an overview assessment of how the CSOs fit with the priorities of the Norwegian Governments Clean Energy for Development Initiative. The study has been commissioned by Norad, the Norwegian agency for development aid. The study surveys 10 Norwegian CSOs, five of which are primarily environmentally oriented (Bellona, FIVAS, Naturvernforbundet, WWF-Norway and Zero, with green backgrounds in the tables) and five of which are primarily socially oriented (ARC-Aid, Kirkens Noedhjelp, Misjonsalliansen, Norges Vel and Utviklingsfondet, with reddish background in the tables). The study is based on a desk-top review of available material from the CSOs as well as semi-structured interviews. The goal of the Clean Energy for Development Initiative is to increase access to clean energy at an affordable price based on the long-term management of natural resources and efficient energy use. Activities shall also contribute to sustainable economic and social development in selected partner countries and to international efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.The study shows that many Norwegian CSOs have potential to contribute further to effective implementation of Clean Energy for Development Initiative strategies and realization of goals: At least five Cos are already carrying out relevant work in the Initiatives core countries (ref. table A below). In addition, most of the Cos surveyed have a long track-record of relevant activities in non-core countries (ref. table A), something which provides substantial potential for transfer of relevant experience and concepts from non-core countries to work in core countries. Most of the Cos have a relevant and professional competence base, capacity and plans for scaling-up Clean Energy for Development Initiative related work.The CSOs engaged in clean energy for development activities are mainly engaged in developing clean

  17. Community pharmacists' prescription intervention practices--exploring variations in practice in Norwegian pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandt, Ingunn; Horn, Anne Marie; Ekedahl, Anders; Granas, Anne Gerd

    2010-03-01

    Evidence suggests that prescription intervention frequencies have been found to vary as much as 10-fold among Norwegian pharmacies and among pharmacists within the same pharmacy. To explore community pharmacists' perceptions of how their prescription intervention practices were influenced by their working environment, their technological resources, the physical and social structures of the pharmacies, their relations with colleagues, and to the individual pharmacist's professional skills. Two focus groups consisting of 14 community pharmacists in total, from urban and rural areas in Norway, discussed their working procedures and professional judgments related to prescription interventions. Organizational theories were used as theoretical and analytical frameworks in the study. A framework based on Leavitt's organizational model was to structure our interview guide. The study units were the statements of the individual pharmacists. Recurrent themes were identified and condensed. Two processes describing variations in the dispensing workflow including prescription interventions were derived--an active dispensing process extracting information about the patient's medication from several sources and a fast dispensing process focusing mainly on the information available on the prescription. Both workflow processes were used in the same pharmacies and by the same pharmacist but on different occasions. A pharmacy layout allowing interactions between pharmacist and patients and a convenient organization of technology, layout, pharmacist-patient and pharmacist-coworker transactions at the workplace was essential for detecting and solving prescription problems. Pharmacists limited their contact with general practitioners when they considered the problem a formality and/or when they knew the answers themselves. The combined use of dispensing software and the Internet was a driving force toward more independent and cognitively advanced prescription interventions

  18. Twin-singleton differences in intelligence: a register-based birth cohort study of Norwegian males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Willy; Sundet, Jon M; Tambs, Kristian

    2012-10-01

    The aim was to determine the difference in intelligence between singletons and twins in young adulthood. Data from the Medical Birth Register of Norway were linked with register data from the Norwegian National Conscript Service. The study base consisted of data on the 445,463 males who were born alive in either single or twin births in Norway during 1967-1984 and who were examined at the time of the mandatory military conscription (age 18-20). Within this study base, there were data on 1,653 sibships of full brothers that included at least one man born in single birth and at least one man born in twin birth (4,307 persons, including 2,378 twins and 1,929 singletons). The intelligence scores of the singletons were 11% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 9-14%) of a standard deviation higher than those of the twins, after adjustment for birth year, birth order, parental ages at delivery, parental education levels, and other factors. The adjusted within-family difference was also 11% (95 % CI: 6-16%) of a standard deviation, indicating that unmeasured factors shared by siblings (e.g., maternal body height) have not influenced the estimate in important ways. When gestational age at birth was added to the model, the estimate for the difference in intelligence score was approximately the same. Including birth weight in the model strongly reduced the estimate. In conclusion, twins born in Norway during 1967-1984 had slightly lower intelligence in early adulthood compared with the singletons.

  19. Lean fish consumption is associated with lower risk of metabolic syndrome: a Norwegian cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tørris, C; Molin, M; Cvancarova, M Småstuen

    2016-04-19

    Fish consumption may have a role in reducing the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aim of this study was to identify associations between fish consumption and MetS and its components, especially regarding differences concerning consumption of fatty and lean fish. This cross sectional study uses data from the Tromsø 6 survey (2007-08), where a sample of 12 981 adults, aged 30-87 years (47 % men) from the Norwegian general population was included. Fish consumption was assessed using food frequency questionnaires (FFQ). Blood sample assessments, anthropometric and blood pressure measurements were carried out according to standard protocols. MetS was defined using the Joint Interim Societies (JIS) definition. All tests were two-sided. Analyses were performed using IBM SPSS Statistics 22 (Pearson's correlation, Chi-Square tests, analysis of variance (ANOVA), linear and logistic regression models). Mean age was 57.5, and the prevalence of MetS was 22.6 %. Fish consumption once a week or more was associated with lower risk of having MetS among men (OR 0.85, CI 95 % 0.74 to 0.98, P = 0.03). In the adjusted models, lean fish consumption was associated with a decreased risk of having MetS, whereas fatty fish consumption was not associated with a decreased risk of having MetS. Both an increased fatty and lean fish consumption (0-1 times per month, 2-3 times per month, 1-3 times per week, 4-6 times per week, 1-2 times per day) were associated with decreased serum triglyceride (TG), and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Fish consumption may be associated with a lower risk of having MetS and consumption of lean fish seems to be driving the association. Further investigation is warranted to establish associations between fish consumption and MetS.

  20. Prenatal mercury exposure and infant birth weight in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vejrup, Kristine; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Knutsen, Helle K; Magnus, Per; Alexander, Jan; Kvalem, Helen E; Meltzer, Helle M; Haugen, Margaretha

    2014-09-01

    To examine the association between calculated maternal dietary exposure to Hg in pregnancy and infant birth weight in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Exposure was calculated with use of a constructed database of Hg in food items and reported dietary intake during pregnancy. Multivariable regression models were used to explore the association between maternal Hg exposure and infant birth weight, and to model associations with small-for-gestational-age offspring. The study is based on data from MoBa. The study sample consisted of 62 941 women who answered a validated FFQ which covered the habitual diet during the first five months of pregnancy. Median exposure to Hg was 0·15 μg/kg body weight per week and the contribution from seafood intake was 88 % of total Hg exposure. Women in the highest quintile compared with the lowest quintile of Hg exposure delivered offspring with 34 g lower birth weight (95 % CI -46 g, -22 g) and had an increased risk of giving birth to small-for-gestational-age offspring, adjusted OR = 1·19 (95 % CI 1·08, 1·30). Although seafood intake was positively associated with increased birth weight, stratified analyses showed negative associations between Hg exposure and birth weight within strata of seafood intake. Although seafood intake in pregnancy is positively associated with birth weight, Hg exposure is negatively associated with birth weight. Seafood consumption during pregnancy should not be avoided, but clarification is needed to identify at what level of Hg exposure this risk might exceed the benefits of seafood.

  1. Gender and sexuality in Norwegian development policy and practice : The introduction of sexual orientation and gender identity in Norwegian development cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, Annika W.

    2012-01-01

    Since 2005 Norwegian policy makers have sought to include perspectives on sexual orientation and gender identity in development cooperation. The main objectives of this study has been - To explore how the government and people who work with development cooperation perceive the roles sexual orientation and gender identity may or may not have in development cooperation. - To critically analyse Norway¡¦s development cooperation - its aims, strategies and justification - and explore how sex...

  2. Parkinson's disease as community health problem: study in Norwegian nursing homes. The Norwegian Study Group of Parkinson's Disease in the Elderly.

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, J P

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine the extent of under-diagnosis and overdiagnosis of Parkinson's disease and to determine quality of treatment in a defined population. DESIGN--Clinical evaluation of an elderly population. SETTING--40 Norwegian nursing homes. SUBJECTS--3322 residents of nursing homes, of whom 500 were selected by nursing staff for evaluation on the basis of a structured information programme on Parkinson's disease and 269 were examined in detail by neurologists. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Pat...

  3. Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority. Roles, responsibilities, crisis management and challenges in Norwegian nuclear and radiological preparedness.; Statens straalevern. Roller, ansvar, krisehaandtering og utfordringer i norsk atomberedskap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-15

    The Crisis Committee for Nuclear and Radiological Preparedness initiated a project to assess the current national preparedness regarding nuclear and radiological emergencies. The purpose of the project was to make recommendations on how to further develop the Norwegian nuclear and radiological preparedness. The Crisis Committee outlines in this report the most important areas in the further development of Norway's nuclear and radiological emergency preparedness. (Author)

  4. Observed Sea-Level Changes along the Norwegian Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Breili

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Norway’s national sea level observing system consists of an extensive array of tide gauges, permanent GNSS stations, and lines of repeated levelling. Here, we make use of this observation system to calculate relative sea-level rates and rates corrected for glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA along the Norwegian coast for three different periods, i.e., 1960 to 2010, 1984 to 2014, and 1993 to 2016. For all periods, the relative sea-level rates show considerable spatial variations that are largely due to differences in vertical land motion due to GIA. The variation is reduced by applying corrections for vertical land motion and associated gravitational effects on sea level. For 1960 to 2010 and 1984 to 2014, the coastal average GIA-corrected rates for Norway are 2.0 ± 0.6 mm/year and 2.2 ± 0.6 mm/year, respectively. This is close to the rate of global sea-level rise for the same periods. For the most recent period, 1993 to 2016, the GIA-corrected coastal average is 3.5 ± 0.6 mm/year and 3.2 ± 0.6 mm/year with and without inverse barometer (IB corrections, respectively, which is significantly higher than for the two earlier periods. For 1993 to 2016, the coastal average IB-corrected rates show broad agreement with two independent sets of altimetry. This suggests that there is no systematic error in the vertical land motion corrections applied to the tide-gauge data. At the same time, altimetry does not capture the spatial variation identified in the tide-gauge records. This could be an effect of using altimetry observations off the coast instead of directly at each tide gauge. Finally, we note that, owing to natural variability in the climate system, our estimates are highly sensitive to the selected study period. For example, using a 30-year moving window, we find that the estimated rates may change by up to 1 mm/year when shifting the start epoch by only one year.

  5. Physicians' Perception of Teratogenic Risk and Confidence in Prescribing Drugs in Pregnancy-Influence of Norwegian Drug Information Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakkebø, Tina; Widnes, Sofia Frost; Aamlid, Synnøve Stubmo; Schjøtt, Jan

    2016-05-01

    Clinical decision support provided by drug information centers is an intervention that can ensure rational drug therapy for pregnant women. We have examined whether physicians' teratogenic risk perceptions and confidence in prescribing drugs to pregnant women is altered after advice from the Norwegian drug information centers, Regional Medicines and Pharmacovigilance Centres i Norway (RELIS). Physicians who consulted RELIS for advice on patient-specific drug use in pregnancy from November 2013 to April 2014 completed questionnaires before and after receiving the advice. A scale from 1 to 7 was used to rate confidence in prescribing and perception of teratogenic risk. The lower part of the scale represented a low perception of teratogenic risk and a high confidence in prescribing a drug in pregnancy. The data were analyzed using a mixed linear model. A total of 45 physicians participated in the study and they assessed 64 drugs or categories of drugs. Advice from RELIS increased confidence in prescribing, with a statistically significant mean change on the scale from 4.1 to 2.9. The assessment of teratogenic risk was reduced after advice from RELIS, with a mean change from 3.2 to 2.5, though this was not significant. A subgroup of 26 physicians completed questionnaires both before and after advice from RELIS and assessed a total of 32 drugs or categories of drugs. In 94% of these assessments, advice from RELIS altered the physician's confidence in prescribing. Perception of teratogenic risk was altered in 78% of the assessments. Our results show that physicians' perception of teratogenic risk and confidence in prescribing drugs to pregnant women is influenced by advice from Norwegian drug information centers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Variability of the geothermal gradient across two differently aged magma-rich continental rifted margins of the Atlantic Ocean: the Southwest African and the Norwegian margins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Gholamrezaie

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the shallow thermal field differences for two differently aged passive continental margins by analyzing regional variations in geothermal gradient and exploring the controlling factors for these variations. Hence, we analyzed two previously published 3-D conductive and lithospheric-scale thermal models of the Southwest African and the Norwegian passive margins. These 3-D models differentiate various sedimentary, crustal, and mantle units and integrate different geophysical data such as seismic observations and the gravity field. We extracted the temperature–depth distributions in 1 km intervals down to 6 km below the upper thermal boundary condition. The geothermal gradient was then calculated for these intervals between the upper thermal boundary condition and the respective depth levels (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 km below the upper thermal boundary condition. According to our results, the geothermal gradient decreases with increasing depth and shows varying lateral trends and values for these two different margins. We compare the 3-D geological structural models and the geothermal gradient variations for both thermal models and show how radiogenic heat production, sediment insulating effect, and thermal lithosphere–asthenosphere boundary (LAB depth influence the shallow thermal field pattern. The results indicate an ongoing process of oceanic mantle cooling at the young Norwegian margin compared with the old SW African passive margin that seems to be thermally equilibrated in the present day.

  7. The Personality Inventory for DSM-5 Short Form (PID-5-SF): psychometric properties and association with big five traits and pathological beliefs in a Norwegian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thimm, Jens C; Jordan, Stian; Bach, Bo

    2016-12-07

    With the publication of the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), an alternative model for personality disorders based on personality dysfunction and pathological personality traits was introduced. The Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) is a 220-item self-report inventory designed to assess the personality traits of this model. Recently, a short 100-item version of the PID-5 (PID-5-SF) has been developed. The aim of this study was to investigate the score reliability and structure of the Norwegian PID-5-SF. Further, criterion validity with the five factor model of personality (FFM) and pathological personality beliefs was examined. A derivation sample of university students (N = 503) completed the PID-5, the Big Five Inventory (BFI), and the Personality Beliefs Questionnaire - Short Form (PBQ-SF), whereas a replication sample of 127 students completed the PID-5-SF along with the aforementioned measures. The short PID-5 showed overall good score reliability and structural validity. The associations with FFM traits and pathological personality beliefs were conceptually coherent and similar for the two forms of the PID-5. The results suggest that the Norwegian PID-5 short form is a reliable and efficient measure of the trait criterion of the alternative model for personality disorders in DSM-5.

  8. Variability of the geothermal gradient across two differently aged magma-rich continental rifted margins of the Atlantic Ocean: the Southwest African and the Norwegian margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholamrezaie, Ershad; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena; Sippel, Judith; Strecker, Manfred R.

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the shallow thermal field differences for two differently aged passive continental margins by analyzing regional variations in geothermal gradient and exploring the controlling factors for these variations. Hence, we analyzed two previously published 3-D conductive and lithospheric-scale thermal models of the Southwest African and the Norwegian passive margins. These 3-D models differentiate various sedimentary, crustal, and mantle units and integrate different geophysical data such as seismic observations and the gravity field. We extracted the temperature-depth distributions in 1 km intervals down to 6 km below the upper thermal boundary condition. The geothermal gradient was then calculated for these intervals between the upper thermal boundary condition and the respective depth levels (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 km below the upper thermal boundary condition). According to our results, the geothermal gradient decreases with increasing depth and shows varying lateral trends and values for these two different margins. We compare the 3-D geological structural models and the geothermal gradient variations for both thermal models and show how radiogenic heat production, sediment insulating effect, and thermal lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) depth influence the shallow thermal field pattern. The results indicate an ongoing process of oceanic mantle cooling at the young Norwegian margin compared with the old SW African passive margin that seems to be thermally equilibrated in the present day.

  9. Research program on climatic and environmental problems. Summary of Norwegian climatic and ozone layer research in the last decade and important research tasks in the future; Forskningsprogram om klima- og ozonspoersmaal. Oppsummering av norsk klima- og ozonlagsforskning de siste ti aarene og viktige forskningsoppgaver i framtiden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlin, Elin [ed.

    1999-04-01

    This report includes 44 abstracts, 21 lectures and 23 posters from a workshop arranged by the Norwegian Research Council, the Steering Group for the Norwegian research programme for changes in climate and ozone layer. The topics dealt with are: Results from the research, the greenhouse effect and its influence on the climate of today, the interactions between ocean and climate, pollution influence on ozone layer changes, the UV radiation effects and their influence on the environment, climatic modelling and forecasting, ecological problems related to climatic and environmental changes, the climatic influences of human energy utilisation and suggestions for future research.

  10. The liberalization of the Norwegian energy market - consequences for the international exchange of electric power. Die Liberalisierung des norwegischen Energiemarktes. Konsequenzen fuer den internationalen Stromaustausch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiedswang, R G [Statnett SF, Oslo (Norway)

    1993-10-01

    The Norwegian electric power market was deregulated according to the resolutions passed by the Norwegian Parliament. A new energy law was passed after the Norwegian power systems had been made accessible to third parties. The Norwegian government was given a share in power plant and main system operation through foundation of the Norwegian Energy Corporation and the Norwegian Power Grid Company. The transmission tariffs were adapted to the competing sales of electric power. The Samkjoringen utilities fused with the Norwegian Power Grid Company. The deregulation coincided with an energy surplus period. The energy export should have been liberalized before or simultaneously with the internal liberalization, and certain interim regulations could have been established to facilitate the process of liberalization. (orig.)

  11. Changes and Challenges in Music Education: Reflections on a Norwegian Arts-in-Education Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophersen, Catharina

    2015-01-01

    With a recent research study on a Norwegian arts-in-education programme "The Cultural Rucksack" as its starting point, this article addresses policy changes in the fields of culture and education and possible implications these could have on music education in schools. Familiar debates on the quality of education and the political…

  12. Modernising Education: New Public Management Reform in the Norwegian Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Jorunn; Skedsmo, Guri

    2013-01-01

    Since the end of the 1980s, the Norwegian education system has gone through major reform, influenced largely by new managerialist ideas. Strategies to renew the public sector were promoted as the new public management (NPM). This paper investigates the way ideas connected to NPM reforms have been introduced and interpreted in the Norwegian…

  13. On risk assessment in the petroleum activities on the Norwegian and UK continental shelves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avena, Terje; Pitblado, Robin

    1998-01-01

    This article discusses some key principles and tools of safety management, with focus on risk analyses, risk interpretation, risk acceptance criteria and risk communication, as well as emergency preparedness. The starting point for the discussion is the experience from the activity on the Norwegian and UK continental shelves, and the implementation of new safety regulations in particular

  14. Norwegian work on establishing a combined storage and disposal facility for low and intermediate level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International Atomic Energy Agency WATRP Review Team.

    1995-12-01

    The IAEA has, through its Waste Management Assessment and Technical Review Programme (WATRP), evaluated policies and facilities related to management of radioactive waste in Norway. It is concluded that the Himdalen site, in combination with the chosen engineering concept, can be suitable for the storage and disposal of the relatively small amounts of Norwegian low and intermediate level waste

  15. Communication about Contraception and Knowledge of Oral Contraceptives amongst Norwegian High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Thomas; Skjeldestad, Finn Egil

    2003-01-01

    Examines communication about contraception and specific knowledge of oral contraceptives (OCs) in a sample of Norwegian high school students. More females than males discussed contraception at least monthly. Discussions were predominantly held with peers and not adults. Females were far more knowledgeable about OCs than males. The most significant…

  16. Principal Self-Efficacy and Work Engagement: Assessing a Norwegian Principal Self-Efficacy Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federici, Roger A.; Skaalvik, Einar M.

    2011-01-01

    One purpose of the present study was to develop and test the factor structure of a multidimensional and hierarchical Norwegian Principal Self-Efficacy Scale (NPSES). Another purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between principal self-efficacy and work engagement. Principal self-efficacy was measured by the 22-item NPSES. Work…

  17. Radioactivity in Norwegian Waters: Distribution in seawater and sediments, and uptake in marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heldal, Hilde Elise

    2001-01-01

    Prior to the detonation of the first thermonuclear bomb, small amounts of radioactivity, for example in mineral water, were considered to be health enriching. Negative experiences related to thermonuclear bombs and several nuclear accidents have, however, changed people's attitude towards radioactivity during the past 40-50 years. Today, there is a common concern for regular and potential accidental releases of radioactivity from sources such as Sellafield. Although this is important, incorrect assessments of the effects of these releases (e.g. created by uncritical journalism) have the potential to harm the country's fisheries and economy. Therefore, it is of major importance to document up-to-date levels of radioactive contamination of the marine environment, and be able to place these into the proper perspectives. The main topics of the thesis may be summarised as follows: (1) Distribution of Caesium-137, Plutonium-238, Plutonium-239,240 and Americium-241 in sediments with emphasis on the Spitsbergen-Bear Island area, (2) Uptake of Caesium-137 in phytoplankton representative for the Barents and Norwegian Seas phytoplankton communities (laboratory experiments), (3) Bioaccumulation of Caesium-137 in food webs in the Barents and Norwegian Seas, (4) Geographical variations of Caesium-137 in harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) along the Norwegian coast, (5) Transport times for Technetium-99 from Sellafield to various locations along the Norwegian coast and the Arctic Ocean

  18. The performance of the Norwegian carbon dioxide, capture and storage innovation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alphen, K. van; Ruijven, Jochem van; Kasa, Sjur; Hekkert, M.P.; Turkenburg, W.C.

    2009-01-01

    In order to take up Norway's twin challenge of reducing CO2 emissions, while meeting its growing energy demand with domestic resources, the deployment of carbon capture and storage (CCS) plays an important role in Norwegian energy policies. This study uses the Functions of Innovation Systems

  19. Radiation and other risk issues in Norwegian newspapers ten years after Chernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Aa.; Reitan, J.B.; Toennesen, A.; Waldahl, R.

    1997-09-01

    Content analysis of risk articles has been performed in 1996 for five Norwegian newspapers four weeks before and four weeks after the 10th anniversary of the Chernobyl accident in 1986. The main focus has been on radiation and/or nuclear risks. The report is part of an international project on risk perception and communication. 94 refs.

  20. Radioactivity in Norwegian Waters: Distribution in seawater and sediments, and uptake in marine organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heldal, Hilde Elise

    2001-07-01

    Prior to the detonation of the first thermonuclear bomb, small amounts of radioactivity, for example in mineral water, were considered to be health enriching. Negative experiences related to thermonuclear bombs and several nuclear accidents have, however, changed people's attitude towards radioactivity during the past 40-50 years. Today, there is a common concern for regular and potential accidental releases of radioactivity from sources such as Sellafield. Although this is important, incorrect assessments of the effects of these releases (e.g. created by uncritical journalism) have the potential to harm the country's fisheries and economy. Therefore, it is of major importance to document up-to-date levels of radioactive contamination of the marine environment, and be able to place these into the proper perspectives. The main topics of the thesis may be summarised as follows: (1) Distribution of Caesium-137, Plutonium-238, Plutonium-239,240 and Americium-241 in sediments with emphasis on the Spitsbergen-Bear Island area, (2) Uptake of Caesium-137 in phytoplankton representative for the Barents and Norwegian Seas phytoplankton communities (laboratory experiments), (3) Bioaccumulation of Caesium-137 in food webs in the Barents and Norwegian Seas, (4) Geographical variations of Caesium-137 in harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) along the Norwegian coast, (5) Transport times for Technetium-99 from Sellafield to various locations along the Norwegian coast and the Arctic Ocean.

  1. "I Am Not Angry in the Kindergarten!" Interruptive Anger as Democratic Participation in Norwegian Kindergartens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindheim, Liv Torunn

    2014-01-01

    This article calls into question the idyllic picture of Norwegian kindergartens where harmonious and joyful interaction is the preferred and normal way to participate. If taking children's right to democratic participation and freedom of expression seriously, anger can also be seen as a legitimate way of participating. Conflicts of interest,…

  2. Radioactivity in Norwegian Waters: Distribution in seawater and sediments, and uptake in marine organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heldal, Hilde Elise

    2001-07-01

    Prior to the detonation of the first thermonuclear bomb, small amounts of radioactivity, for example in mineral water, were considered to be health enriching. Negative experiences related to thermonuclear bombs and several nuclear accidents have, however, changed people's attitude towards radioactivity during the past 40-50 years. Today, there is a common concern for regular and potential accidental releases of radioactivity from sources such as Sellafield. Although this is important, incorrect assessments of the effects of these releases (e.g. created by uncritical journalism) have the potential to harm the country's fisheries and economy. Therefore, it is of major importance to document up-to-date levels of radioactive contamination of the marine environment, and be able to place these into the proper perspectives. The main topics of the thesis may be summarised as follows: (1) Distribution of Caesium-137, Plutonium-238, Plutonium-239,240 and Americium-241 in sediments with emphasis on the Spitsbergen-Bear Island area, (2) Uptake of Caesium-137 in phytoplankton representative for the Barents and Norwegian Seas phytoplankton communities (laboratory experiments), (3) Bioaccumulation of Caesium-137 in food webs in the Barents and Norwegian Seas, (4) Geographical variations of Caesium-137 in harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) along the Norwegian coast, (5) Transport times for Technetium-99 from Sellafield to various locations along the Norwegian coast and the Arctic Ocean.

  3. Incidence and prevalence of cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis in a Norwegian community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Plessen, C; Grinde, O; Gulsvik, A

    2003-01-01

    This study assesses the incidence and prevalence of cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis (CFA) in a well-defined and stable Norwegian population of 250,000 inhabitants during a period of 15 years. We conducted a file survey of all patients (n = 376) aged 16 years or older with a clinician's diagnosis...

  4. Comparability of the Social Skills Improvement System to the Social Skills Rating System: A Norwegian Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamst-Klaussen, Thor; Rasmussen, Lene-Mari P.; Svartdal, Frode; Strømgren, Børge

    2016-01-01

    The Social Skills Improvement System-Rating Scales (SSIS-RS) is a multi-informant instrument assessing social skills and problem behavior in children and adolescents. It is a revised version of the Social Skills Rating System (SSRS). A Norwegian translation of the SSRS has been validated, but this has not yet been done for the Norwegian…

  5. Permeability, compressibility and porosity of Jurassic shale from the Norwegian-Danish Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbia, Ernest Ncha; Fabricius, Ida Lykke; Krogsbøll, Anette

    2014-01-01

    The Fjerritslev Formation in the Norwegian-Danish Basin forms the main seal to Upper Triassic-Lower Jurassic sandstone reservoirs. In order to estimate the sealing potential and rock properties, samples from the deep wells Vedsted-1 in Jylland, and Stenlille-2 and Stenlille-5 on Sjael-land, were ...

  6. "Friendship in All Directions": Norwegian Children with Physical Disabilities Experiencing Friendship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbjornslett, Mona; Engelsrud, Gunn H.; Helseth, Solvi

    2012-01-01

    This article examines how Norwegian children with physical disabilities experience friendship during the transition between primary and secondary school. The research was based on 38 life mode interviews with 15 children. Two themes were explored: (1) different kinds of friends: friends with disabilities, friends without disabilities and…

  7. Potential and barrier study. Energy efficiency of Norwegian homes; Potensial- og barrierestudie. Energieffektivisering av norske boliger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Enova has identified potentials and barriers for energy efficiency in Norwegian buildings. This report summarizes the results of this work. Efficient energy in buildings is important to ensure that future economic activity and growth can occur in a way that reduces the possibilities for an environmentally and economically sound development. (eb)

  8. Intelligence Test Scores and Birth Order among Young Norwegian Men (Conscripts) Analyzed within and between Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerkedal, Tor; Kristensen, Petter; Skjeret, Geir A.; Brevik, John I.

    2007-01-01

    The present paper reports the results of a within and between family analysis of the relation between birth order and intelligence. The material comprises more than a quarter of a million test scores for intellectual performance of Norwegian male conscripts recorded during 1984-2004. Conscripts, mostly 18-19 years of age, were born to women for…

  9. Educational Attainment of 25 Year Old Norwegians According to Birth Order and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Petter; Bjerkedal, Tor

    2010-01-01

    This register-based longitudinal study of 392 969 Norwegians examined associations between birth order, gender and educational attainment at age 25 years within families (fixed effects regression) and between families (ordinary OLS regression). Data were retrieved from national registers for births of mothers with single births only and a first…

  10. Logic of Accounting: The Case of Reporting Previous Options in Norwegian Activation Encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solberg, Janne

    2017-01-01

    The article deals with the enactment of client resistance in Norwegian vocational rehabilitation encounters. More specific, a practice here called "reporting previous options" is analyzed by using the resources of ethnomethodological conversation analysis (CA) in five instances as doing some sort of accounting. In response to the…

  11. A Delphi study on research priorities in radiation therapy: The Norwegian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egestad, H.; Halkett, G.K.B.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Although radiation therapists (RTs) need to engage more in research to establish an evidence base for their daily practice the majority conduct little research themselves. This project is the second stage of a Delphi process aimed at determining research priorities in radiation therapy in Norway. The aim of this article is to prioritize the research areas radiation therapists in Norway think are most important in their own profession. Methods: A questionnaire was administered using responses to a previous questionnaire, which identified the research interests of Norwegian RTs. The survey was sent to all Norwegian departments of radiation oncology, and RTs were asked to form interest groups to discuss and prioritize the research areas. Results: There was a 70% response rate, seven of 10 departments participated. The highest ranked research categories were imaging in radiation therapy and radiation therapist education. Seven of the top ten ranked research areas were in these categories. Conclusion: Prioritization of research areas and categories provides a useful list of future research for Norwegian RTs, which will enable them to decide whether their research ideas are a high priority, and spend less time deciding on a relevant research topic that needs investigation in their own workplaces. - Highlights: • Norwegian RTs prioritize research about performing their professional practice. • Main points of research interests are about new techniques and competence. • The top ten are about treatment plan, doses, safety and relationship with patients. • Prioritization of research areas provides a useful list of future research.

  12. The degree of verb movement in embedded clauses in three varieties of Norwegian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Bentzen

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The position of the verb(s in embedded non-V2 contexts varies in Norwegian dialects. In Eastern Norwegian (EastN, all verbs have to follow all adverbs in non-V2 contexts. In Tromsø Northern Norwegian (TrNN main verbs and non-finite auxiliaries have to follow all adverbs, but finite auxiliaries may precede adverbs they take scope over. In Regional Northern Norwegian (ReNN all finite verbs (main/auxiliary may precede all adverbs, and non-finite auxiliaries may precede adverbs they take scope over. These data are accounted for within a remnant movement approach. The variation between the three dialects is argued to follow from differences in how selectional features on auxiliaries and T are checked. It is suggested that auxiliaries are associated with a pair of functional projections (so-called lifters: a VP lifter below and an AdvP lifter above. An auxiliary with these lifters ‘sinks’ below adverbs it takes scope over. Overt feature checking (through adjacency occurs when the lifters are present; covert feature checking occurs when the lifters are absent. In EastN, overt feature checking, and the lifters, is obligatory for all auxiliaries; in TrNN this is obligatory for non-finite auxiliaries but optional for finite auxiliaries; in ReNN this is optional for all auxiliaries.

  13. 3S2: Behavioral Response Studies of Cetaceans to Navy Sonar Signals in Norwegian Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Sonar Signals in Norwegian Waters Peter L. Tyack University of St Andrews School of Biology Scottish Oceans Institute East Sands St Andrews...with a tagged minke whale. Data in the top 4 panels were derived from observations from the trackboat (‘ MOB ’). Note the strong change in diving

  14. Prestige-Seeking small states: Danish and Norwegian military contributions to U.S.-led Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Peter Viggo; Ringsmose, Jens; Saxi, Håkon Lunde

    2018-01-01

    In this article we broaden the conventional understanding of prestige and show that prestige-seeking played a major role in the Danish and Norwegian decisions to provide military support to post-Cold War US-led wars. Both countries made costly military contributions in the hope of increasing thei...

  15. Change in psychotropic drug use in Norwegian nursing homes between 2004 and 2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selbæk, G; Janus, S I M; Bergh, S; Engedal, K; Ruths, S; Helvik, A S; Šaltyte Benth, J; Zuidema, S U

    BACKGROUND: We aimed to assess whether there were any changes in the use of psychotropic drugs in Norwegian nursing homes between 2004 and 2011. Also, we investigated whether the predictors of use of specific psychotropic drug groups have changed. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of two

  16. What Characterizes the Algebraic Competence of Norwegian Upper Secondary School Students? Evidence from TIMSS Advanced

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Ida Friestad

    2015-01-01

    Algebra is the fundamental language of mathematics, and a profound understanding of school algebra is an important prerequisite for further studies in mathematical sciences. The aim of this study is to characterize the algebraic competence of the Norwegian upper secondary school students participating in Trends in International Mathematics and…

  17. Included as Excluded and Excluded as Included: Minority Language Pupils in Norwegian Inclusion Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilt, Line Torbjørnsen

    2015-01-01

    This article offers an analysis of four Norwegian policy documents on inclusion of minority language pupils. The main concepts of this policy will be reconstructed and re-described, applying Niklas Luhmann's systems theory at different levels of the analysis. Luhmann's theory about society as a conglomerate of self-referential social systems…

  18. The distribution of artificial radionuclides in the waters of the Norwegian-Greenland Sea in 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wedekind, C.; Gabriel, H.; Goroncy, I.; Framcke, G.

    1997-01-01

    In the summer of 1985, sea water samples were taken to determine 3 H, 90 Sr, 134 Cs, 137 Cs and transuranics within a grid of 165 stations including 16 depth series down to the seafloor, covering all ice-free areas. The distribution of the activity concentrations and the nuclide ratios reveal the contamination pathway into the surface and deeper layers of the Norwegian-Greenland Sea from nuclear weapon fallout and civil nuclear technology. Moreover, the investigations show that: (1) a yearly discharge of 1 TBq (10 12 Bq) 90 Sr into the Irish Sea (English Channel) is diluted on its way to the southern Norwegian Sea, raising the concentration by about 0.04 m Bql -1 ; (2) the drift time to this sea area is around 4 years; (3) about 40% of the 137 Cs discharged does not reach the Norwegian Sea and (4) a further 30% leaves the Norwegian-Greenland Sea via the North Cape and flows into the Barents Sea. Investigations into the vertical distribution and stratification of the radioactivity indicate the time scale on which the radionuclides travel to the deeper layers. (author)

  19. Norwegian Salmon Goes to Market: The Case of the Austevoll Seafood Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phyne, John; Hovgaard, Gestur; Hansen, Gard

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of the globalisation of the farmed salmon commodity chain upon farmed salmon production in the western Norwegian municipality of Austevoll. On the basis of field research conducted in 2002 and 2003, we conclude that salmon farming in Austevoll has responded to the challenges of "buyer-driven" food chains by…

  20. Radiation and other risk issues in Norwegian newspapers ten years after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Aa.; Reitan, J.B.; Toennesen, A.; Waldahl, R.

    1997-09-01

    Content analysis of risk articles has been performed in 1996 for five Norwegian newspapers four weeks before and four weeks after the 10th anniversary of the Chernobyl accident in 1986. The main focus has been on radiation and/or nuclear risks. The report is part of an international project on risk perception and communication. 94 refs