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Sample records for model ncsm starting

  1. The No-Core Gamow Shell Model: Including the continuum in the NCSM

    CERN Document Server

    Barrett, B R; Michel, N; Płoszajczak, M

    2015-01-01

    We are witnessing an era of intense experimental efforts that will provide information about the properties of nuclei far from the line of stability, regarding resonant and scattering states as well as (weakly) bound states. This talk describes our formalism for including these necessary ingredients into the No-Core Shell Model by using the Gamow Shell Model approach. Applications of this new approach, known as the No-Core Gamow Shell Model, both to benchmark cases as well as to unstable nuclei will be given.

  2. Recent Developments in No-Core Shell-Model Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navratil, P; Quaglioni, S; Stetcu, I; Barrett, B R

    2009-03-20

    We present an overview of recent results and developments of the no-core shell model (NCSM), an ab initio approach to the nuclear many-body problem for light nuclei. In this aproach, we start from realistic two-nucleon or two- plus three-nucleon interactions. Many-body calculations are performed using a finite harmonic-oscillator (HO) basis. To facilitate convergence for realistic inter-nucleon interactions that generate strong short-range correlations, we derive effective interactions by unitary transformations that are tailored to the HO basis truncation. For soft realistic interactions this might not be necessary. If that is the case, the NCSM calculations are variational. In either case, the ab initio NCSM preserves translational invariance of the nuclear many-body problem. In this review, we, in particular, highlight results obtained with the chiral two- plus three-nucleon interactions. We discuss efforts to extend the applicability of the NCSM to heavier nuclei and larger model spaces using importance-truncation schemes and/or use of effective interactions with a core. We outline an extension of the ab initio NCSM to the description of nuclear reactions by the resonating group method technique. A future direction of the approach, the ab initio NCSM with continuum, which will provide a complete description of nuclei as open systems with coupling of bound and continuum states is given in the concluding part of the review.

  3. Modeling Start Curves of Bainite Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Bohemen, S.M.C.

    2009-01-01

    It is demonstrated that calculations with a physically based model give an accurate description of the start curve of bainite formation in a wide range of steels. The temperature dependence of the overall kinetics, which determines the characteristic C shape of the start curve, is controlled by both

  4. Early Start DENVER Model: A Meta - analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane P. Canoy

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Each child with Autism Spectrum Disorder has different symptoms, skills and types of impairment or disorder with other children. This is why the word “spectrum” is included in this disorder. Eapen, Crncec, and Walter, 2013 claimed that there was an emerging evidence that early interventions gives the greatest capacity of child’s development during their first years of life as “brain plasticity” are high during this period. With this, the only intervention program model for children as young as 18 months that has been validated in a randomized clinical trial is “Early Start Denver Model” (ESDM. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of the outcome of “Early Start Denver Model” (ESDM towards young children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. This study made use of meta-analysis method. In this study, the researcher utilized studies related to “Early Start Denver Model (ESDM” which is published in a refereed journal which are all available online. There were five studies included which totals 149 children exposed to ESDM. To examine the “pooled effects” of ESDM in a variety of outcomes, a meta-analytic procedure was performed after the extraction of data of the concrete outcomes. Comprehensive Meta Analysis Version 3.3.070 was used to analyze the data.  The effectiveness of the outcome of “Early Start Denver Model” towards young children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD highly depends on the intensity of intervention and the younger child age. This study would provide the basis in effectively implementing an early intervention to children with autism such as the “Early Start Denver Model” (ESDM that would show great outcome effects to those children that has “Autism Spectrum Disorder”.

  5. Ab Initio No-Core Shell Model Calculations Using Realistic Two- and Three-Body Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navratil, P; Ormand, W E; Forssen, C; Caurier, E

    2004-11-30

    There has been significant progress in the ab initio approaches to the structure of light nuclei. One such method is the ab initio no-core shell model (NCSM). Starting from realistic two- and three-nucleon interactions this method can predict low-lying levels in p-shell nuclei. In this contribution, we present a brief overview of the NCSM with examples of recent applications. We highlight our study of the parity inversion in {sup 11}Be, for which calculations were performed in basis spaces up to 9{Dirac_h}{Omega} (dimensions reaching 7 x 10{sup 8}). We also present our latest results for the p-shell nuclei using the Tucson-Melbourne TM three-nucleon interaction with several proposed parameter sets.

  6. Getting Started with Topic Modeling and MALLET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn Graham

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this lesson you will first learn what topic modeling is and why you might want to employ it in your research. You will then learn how to install and work with the MALLET natural language processing toolkit to do so. MALLET involves modifying an environment variable (essentially, setting up a short-cut so that your computer always knows where to find the MALLET program and working with the command line (ie, by typing in commands manually, rather than clicking on icons or menus. We will run the topic modeller on some example files, and look at the kinds of outputs that MALLET installed. This will give us a good idea of how it can be used on a corpus of texts to identify topics found in the documents without reading them individually.

  7. Infrared length scale and extrapolations for the no-core shell model

    CERN Document Server

    Wendt, K A; Papenbrock, T; Sääf, D

    2015-01-01

    We precisely determine the infrared (IR) length scale of the no-core shell model (NCSM). In the NCSM, the $A$-body Hilbert space is truncated by the total energy, and the IR length can be determined by equating the intrinsic kinetic energy of $A$ nucleons in the NCSM space to that of $A$ nucleons in a $3(A-1)$-dimensional hyper-radial well with a Dirichlet boundary condition for the hyper radius. We demonstrate that this procedure indeed yields a very precise IR length by performing large-scale NCSM calculations for $^{6}$Li. We apply our result and perform accurate IR extrapolations for bound states of $^{4}$He, $^{6}$He, $^{6}$Li, $^{7}$Li. We also attempt to extrapolate NCSM results for $^{10}$B and $^{16}$O with bare interactions from chiral effective field theory over tens of MeV.

  8. University Start-ups: A Better Business Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehn, J.; Webley, P. W.

    2015-12-01

    Many universities look to start-up companies as a way to attract faculty, supporting research and students as traditional federal sources become harder to come by. University affiliated start-up companies can apply for a broader suite of grants, as well as market their services to a broad customer base. Often university administrators see this as a potential panacea, but national statistics show this is not the case. Rarely do universities profit significantly from their start-ups. With a success rates of around 20%, most start-ups end up costing the university money as well as faculty-time. For the faculty, assuming they want to continue in academia, a start-up is often unattractive because it commonly leads out of academia. Running a successful business as well as maintaining a strong teaching and research load is almost impossible to do at the same time. Most business models and business professionals work outside of academia, and the models taught in business schools do not merge well in a university environment. To mitigate this a new business model is proposed where university start-ups are aligned with the academic and research missions of the university. A university start-up must work within the university, directly support research and students, and the work done maintaining the business be recognized as part of the faculty member's university obligations. This requires a complex conflict of interest management plan and for the companies to be non-profit in order to not jeopardize the university's status. This approach may not work well for all universities, but would be ideal for many to conserve resources and ensure a harmonious relationship with their start-ups and faculty.

  9. Modeling and cold start in alcohol-fueled engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markel, A.J.; Bailey, B.K.

    1998-05-01

    Neat alcohol fuels offer several benefits over conventional gasoline in automotive applications. However, their low vapor pressure and high heat of vaporization make it difficult to produce a flammable vapor composition from a neat alcohol fuel during a start under cold ambient conditions. Various methods have been introduced to compensate for this deficiency. In this study, the authors applied computer modeling and simulation to evaluate the potential of four cold-start technologies for engines fueled by near-neat alcohol. The four technologies were a rich combustor device, a partial oxidation reactor, a catalytic reformer, and an enhanced ignition system. The authors ranked the competing technologies by their ability to meet two primary criteria for cold starting an engine at {minus}25 deg C and also by several secondary parameters related to commercialization. Their analysis results suggest that of the four technologies evaluated, the enhanced ignition system is the best option for further development.

  10. Modeling and cold start in alcohol-fueled engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markel, A.J.; Bailey, B.K.

    1998-05-01

    Neat alcohol fuels offer several benefits over conventional gasoline in automotive applications. However, their low vapor pressure and high heat of vaporization make it difficult to produce a flammable vapor composition from a neat alcohol fuel during a start under cold ambient conditions. Various methods have been introduced to compensate for this deficiency. In this study, the authors applied computer modeling and simulation to evaluate the potential of four cold-start technologies for engines fueled by near-neat alcohol. The four technologies were a rich combustor device, a partial oxidation reactor, a catalytic reformer, and an enhanced ignition system. The authors ranked the competing technologies by their ability to meet two primary criteria for cold starting an engine at {minus}25 deg C and also by several secondary parameters related to commercialization. Their analysis results suggest that of the four technologies evaluated, the enhanced ignition system is the best option for further development.

  11. Start Talking Science: A model for STEM communication events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Christina; Start Talking Science Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Start Talking Science is an annual public event where STEM researchers present posters aimed at a non-technical audience. It was founded in 2013 by a coalition of science communication advocates with varying technical backgrounds from almost every major university in the Philadelphia area. Our mission is to increase public awareness of - and interest in - local cutting-edge STEM research while also strengthening the science communication skills of STEM researchers. All STEM researchers, including students and seasoned professionals, are invited to present their research; however they must participate in our review process which focuses on how to communicate their science to a general audience. Start Talking Science will be presented as a model for science communication events in other cities with details about the first three annual events and our review process. www.starttalkingscience.com

  12. Fresh Start: A Model for Success and Sustainable Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Susan; Kinchington, Francia

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the rationale and debate of the "Fresh Start" schools policy introduced by the New Labour Government in 1997 as a vehicle for improvement in schools that historically had been classified as "failing". Underpinning the policy is the assumption that Fresh Start can act as a catalytic agent of positive change to performance,…

  13. Light Nuclei in the Framework of the Symplectic No-Core Shell Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draayer, Jerry P.; Dytrych, Tomas; Sviratcheva, Kristina D.; Bahri, Chairul; /Louisiana State U.; Vary, James P.; /Iowa State U. /LLNL, Livermore /SLAC

    2007-04-02

    A symplectic no-core shell model (Sp-NCSM) is constructed with the goal of extending the ab-initio NCSM to include strongly deformed higher-oscillator-shell configurations and to reach heavier nuclei that cannot be studied currently because the spaces encountered are too large to handle, even with the best of modern-day computers. This goal is achieved by integrating two powerful concepts: the ab-initio NCSM with that of the Sp(3,R) {contains} SU(3) group-theoretical approach. The NCSM uses modern realistic nuclear interactions in model spaces that consists of many-body configurations up to a given number of {h_bar}{Upsilon} excitations together with modern high-performance parallel computing techniques. The symplectic theory extends this picture by recognizing that when deformed configurations dominate, which they often do, the model space can be better selected so less relevant low-lying {h_bar}{Upsilon} configurations yield to more relevant high-lying {h_bar}{Upsilon} configurations, ones that respect a near symplectic symmetry found in the Hamiltonian. Results from an application of the Sp-NCSM to light nuclei are compared with those for the NCSM and with experiment.

  14. Investigations about Starting Cracks in DC-Casting of 6063-Type Billets Part II: Modelling Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, E. K.; Schneider, W.

    Influence on starting crack tendency of varying a number of casting parameters has been studied by experiments, Part I (1), and by model calculations, Part II. Both studies point to starting block shape as a most important single factor in controlling starting cracks. By using the thermal model ALSIM-2 in analysing initial experimental results, the variable heat transfer towards the starting block was determined. This made possible a satisfactory model analysis of the starting phase and likewise the formulation of a useful cracking concept. Thus by using calculated and measured liquid pool depth curve in the starting phase of casting as a basis, an effective starting block shape was found. This new shape practically eliminates the starting crack problems in extrusion billets of the AA6063 type alloys.

  15. Modeling and Timing Simulation of Micro Turbine engine in Starting Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Libing; Gu, Feng; Zhang, Ying; He, Yuqing

    2016-11-01

    The stability of start-up process of turbine engine is the foundation of its operation. The process of starting performance optimization is very complex, and the experiment is dangerous, so it is very necessary to make the simulation study on the turbine engine starting process. In this paper, the mathematical model of turbine engine in starting process was established, according to the JetCat-P400 turbine engine starting process principle, using the experimental data of engine ground operation and the actuator voltage data. The simulation results showed the validity of the model.

  16. Getting Started and Working with Building Information Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dana K.

    2009-01-01

    This article will assume that one has heard of Building Information Modeling or BIM but has not developed a strategy as to how to get the most out of it. The National BIM Standard (NBIMS) has defined BIM as a digital representation of physical and functional characteristics of a facility. As such, it serves as a shared knowledge resource for…

  17. Starting Conditions for Hydrothermal Systems Underneath Martian Craters: Hydrocode Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierazzo, E.; Artemieva, N. A.; Ivanov, B. A.

    2004-01-01

    Mars is the most Earth-like of the Solar System s planets, and the first place to look for any sign of present or past extraterrestrial life. Its surface shows many features indicative of the presence of surface and sub-surface water, while impact cratering and volcanism have provided temporary and local surface heat sources throughout Mars geologic history. Impact craters are widely used ubiquitous indicators for the presence of sub-surface water or ice on Mars. In particular, the presence of significant amounts of ground ice or water would cause impact-induced hydrothermal alteration at Martian impact sites. The realization that hydrothermal systems are possible sites for the origin and early evolution of life on Earth has given rise to the hypothesis that hydrothermal systems may have had the same role on Mars. Rough estimates of the heat generated in impact events have been based on scaling relations, or thermal data based on terrestrial impacts on crystalline basements. Preliminary studies also suggest that melt sheets and target uplift are equally important heat sources for the development of a hydrothermal system, while its lifetime depends on the volume and cooling rate of the heat source, as well as the permeability of the host rocks. We present initial results of two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) simulations of impacts on Mars aimed at constraining the initial conditions for modeling the onset and evolution of a hydrothermal system on the red planet. Simulations of the early stages of impact cratering provide an estimate of the amount of shock melting and the pressure-temperature distribution in the target caused by various impacts on the Martian surface. Modeling of the late stage of crater collapse is necessary to characterize the final thermal state of the target, including crater uplift, and distribution of the heated target material (including the melt pool) and hot ejecta around the crater.

  18. A Physics-Based Starting Model for Gas Turbine Engines Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility of producing an integrated starting model for gas turbine engines using a new physics-based...

  19. Mathematical modeling and analysis of heat pipe start-up from the frozen state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, J.H.; Faghri, A. [Wright State Univ., Dayton, OH (United States); Chang, W.S.; Mahefkey, E.T. [Wright Research and Development Center, Wright-Patterson, OH (United States)

    1989-08-01

    The start-up process of a frozen heat pipe is described and a complete mathematical model for the start-up of the frozen heat pipe is developed based on the existing experimental data, which is simplified and solved numerically. The two-dimensional transient model for the wall and wick is coupled with the one-dimensional transient model for the vapor flow when vaporization and condensation occur at the interface. A parametric study is performed to examine the effect of the boundary specification at the surface of the outer wall on the successful start-up from the frozen state. For successful start-up, the boundary specification at the outer wall surface must melt the working substance in the condenser before dry-out takes place in the evaporator.

  20. Mathematical modeling and analysis of heat pipe start-up from the frozen state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, J. H.; Faghri, A.; Chang, W. S.; Mahefkey, E. T.

    1990-01-01

    The start-up process of a frozen heat pipe is described and a complete mathematical model for the start-up of the frozen heat pipe is developed based on the existing experimental data, which is simplified and solved numerically. The two-dimensional transient model for the wall and wick is coupled with the one-dimensional transient model for the vapor flow when vaporization and condensation occur at the interface. A parametric study is performed to examine the effect of the boundary specification at the surface of the outer wall on the successful start-up from the frozen state. For successful start-up, the boundary specification at the outer wall surface must melt the working substance in the condenser before dry-out takes place in the evaporator.

  1. Direct start - from model to demo vehicle; Der Direktstart - Vom Modell zum Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulzer, A.; Laubender, J.; Moessner, D.; Sieber, U. [Robert Bosch GmbH, Schwieberdingen (Germany); Lauff, U. [Etas GmbH (Germany)

    2006-09-15

    To start an engine with the use of nothing but combustion energy - the realization of this notion comprised the main theme of a project at the corporate sector research and advance engineering of Robert Bosch GmbH. With thermodynamic investigations as a starting point, Etas tools provided the power needed to demonstrate and analyse several different starting modes within a short period of time in a vehicle. (orig.)

  2. Preliminary investigation of flow dynamics during the start-up of a bulb turbine model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulaud, M.; Fraser, R.; Lemay, J.; Duquesne, P.; Aeschlimann, V.; Deschênes, C.

    2016-11-01

    Nowadays, the electricity network undergoes more perturbations due to the market demand. Additionally, an increase of the production from alternative resources such as wind or solar also induces important variations on the grid. Hydraulic power plants are used to respond quickly to these variations to stabilize the network. Hydraulic turbines have to face more frequent start-up and stop sequences that might shorten significantly their life time. In this context, an experimental analysis of start-up sequences has been conducted on the bulb turbine model of the BulbT project at the Hydraulic Machines Laboratory (LAMH) of Laval University. Maintaining a constant head, guide vanes are opened from 0 ° to 30 °. Three guide vanes opening speed have been chosen from 5 °/s to 20 °/s. Several repetitions were done for each guide vanes opening speed. During these sequences, synchronous time resolved measurements have been performed. Pressure signals were recorded at the runner inlet and outlet and along the draft tube. Also, 25 pressure measurements and strain measurements were obtained on the runner blades. Time resolved particle image velocimetry were used to evaluate flowrate during start-up for some repetitions. Torque fluctuations at shaft were also monitored. This paper presents the experimental set-up and start-up conditions chosen to simulate a prototype start-up. Transient flowrate methodology is explained and validation measurements are detailed. The preliminary results of global performances and runner pressure measurements are presented.

  3. Inverting reflections using full-waveform inversion with inaccurate starting models

    KAUST Repository

    AlTheyab, Abdullah

    2015-08-19

    We present a method for inverting seismic reflections using full-waveform inversion (FWI) with inaccurate starting models. For a layered medium, near-offset reflections (with zero angle of incidence) are unlikely to be cycle-skipped regardless of the low-wavenumber velocity error in the initial models. Therefore, we use them as a starting point for FWI, and the subsurface velocity model is then updated during the FWI iterations using reflection wavepaths from varying offsets that are not cycle-skipped. To enhance low-wavenumber updates and accelerate the convergence, we take several passes through the non-linear Gauss-Seidel iterations, where we invert traces from a narrow range of near offsets and finally end at the far offsets. Every pass is followed by applying smoothing to the cumulative slowness update. The smoothing is strong at the early stages and relaxed at later iterations to allow for a gradual reconstruction of the subsurface model in a multiscale manner. Applications to synthetic and field data, starting from inaccurate models, show significant low-wavenumber updates and flattening of common-image gathers after many iterations.

  4. Modeling Car-Following Dynamics During the Starting and Stopping Process Based on a Spring System Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王殿海; 杨少辉; 初连禹

    2004-01-01

    Car-following models describe how one vehicle follows the preceding vehicles. In order to better model and explain car-following dynamics, this paper categorizes the state of a traveling vehicle into three sub-processes: the starting (acceleration) process, the car-following process, and the stopping (deceleration) process. The starting process primarily involves vehicle acceleration behavior. The stopping process involves not only car-following behavior but also deceleration behavior. This paper regards both the stopping process and the starting process as spring systems. The car-following dynamics during the starting process and the stopping process is modeled in this paper. The parameters of the proposed models, which are represented in the form of trigonometric functions, possess explicit physical meaning and definitive ranges. We have calibrated the model of the starting process using data from the Traffic Engineering Handbook, and obtained reasonable results. Compared with traditional stimulus-response car-following models, this model can better explain traffic flow phenomena and driver behavior theory.

  5. Modeling the Financial Distress of Microenterprise StartUps Using Support Vector Machines: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Blanco-Oliver

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the leading role that micro-entrepreneurship plays in economic development, and the high failure rate of microenterprise start-ups in their early years, very few studies have designed financial distress models to detect the financial problems of micro-entrepreneurs. Moreover, due to a lack of research, nothing is known about whether non-financial information and nonparametric statistical techniques improve the predictive capacity of these models. Therefore, this paper provides an innovative financial distress model specifically designed for microenterprise startups via support vector machines (SVMs that employs financial, non-financial, and macroeconomic variables. Based on a sample of almost 5,500 micro- entrepreneurs from a Peruvian Microfinance Institution (MFI, our findings show that the introduction of non-financial information related to the zone in which the entrepreneurs live and situate their business, the duration of the MFI-entrepreneur relationship, the number of loans granted by the MFI in the last year, the loan destination, and the opinion of experts on the probability that microenterprise start-ups may experience financial problems, significantly increases the accuracy performance of our financial distress model. Furthermore, the results reveal that the models that use SVMs outperform those which employ traditional logistic regression (LR analysis.

  6. Adaptation to shift work: physiologically based modeling of the effects of lighting and shifts' start time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postnova, Svetlana; Robinson, Peter A; Postnov, Dmitry D

    2013-01-01

    Shift work has become an integral part of our life with almost 20% of the population being involved in different shift schedules in developed countries. However, the atypical work times, especially the night shifts, are associated with reduced quality and quantity of sleep that leads to increase of sleepiness often culminating in accidents. It has been demonstrated that shift workers' sleepiness can be improved by a proper scheduling of light exposure and optimizing shifts timing. Here, an integrated physiologically-based model of sleep-wake cycles is used to predict adaptation to shift work in different light conditions and for different shift start times for a schedule of four consecutive days of work. The integrated model combines a model of the ascending arousal system in the brain that controls the sleep-wake switch and a human circadian pacemaker model. To validate the application of the integrated model and demonstrate its utility, its dynamics are adjusted to achieve a fit to published experimental results showing adaptation of night shift workers (n = 8) in conditions of either bright or regular lighting. Further, the model is used to predict the shift workers' adaptation to the same shift schedule, but for conditions not considered in the experiment. The model demonstrates that the intensity of shift light can be reduced fourfold from that used in the experiment and still produce good adaptation to night work. The model predicts that sleepiness of the workers during night shifts on a protocol with either bright or regular lighting can be significantly improved by starting the shift earlier in the night, e.g.; at 21:00 instead of 00:00. Finally, the study predicts that people of the same chronotype, i.e. with identical sleep times in normal conditions, can have drastically different responses to shift work depending on their intrinsic circadian and homeostatic parameters.

  7. Adaptation to shift work: physiologically based modeling of the effects of lighting and shifts' start time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Postnova

    Full Text Available Shift work has become an integral part of our life with almost 20% of the population being involved in different shift schedules in developed countries. However, the atypical work times, especially the night shifts, are associated with reduced quality and quantity of sleep that leads to increase of sleepiness often culminating in accidents. It has been demonstrated that shift workers' sleepiness can be improved by a proper scheduling of light exposure and optimizing shifts timing. Here, an integrated physiologically-based model of sleep-wake cycles is used to predict adaptation to shift work in different light conditions and for different shift start times for a schedule of four consecutive days of work. The integrated model combines a model of the ascending arousal system in the brain that controls the sleep-wake switch and a human circadian pacemaker model. To validate the application of the integrated model and demonstrate its utility, its dynamics are adjusted to achieve a fit to published experimental results showing adaptation of night shift workers (n = 8 in conditions of either bright or regular lighting. Further, the model is used to predict the shift workers' adaptation to the same shift schedule, but for conditions not considered in the experiment. The model demonstrates that the intensity of shift light can be reduced fourfold from that used in the experiment and still produce good adaptation to night work. The model predicts that sleepiness of the workers during night shifts on a protocol with either bright or regular lighting can be significantly improved by starting the shift earlier in the night, e.g.; at 21:00 instead of 00:00. Finally, the study predicts that people of the same chronotype, i.e. with identical sleep times in normal conditions, can have drastically different responses to shift work depending on their intrinsic circadian and homeostatic parameters.

  8. A business process model as a starting point for tight cooperation among organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Mysliveček

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Outsourcing and other kinds of tight cooperation among organizations are more and more necessary for success on all markets (markets of high technology products are particularly influenced. Thus it is important for companies to be able to effectively set up all kinds of cooperation. A business process model (BPM is a suitable starting point for this future cooperation. In this paper the process of setting up such cooperation is outlined, as well as why it is important for business success. 

  9. Mathematical modelling of methanogenic reactor start-up: Importance of volatile fatty acids degrading population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabłoński, Sławomir J; Łukaszewicz, Marcin

    2014-12-01

    Development of balanced community of microorganisms is one of the obligatory for stable anaerobic digestion. Application of mathematical models might be helpful in development of reliable procedures during the process start-up period. Yet, the accuracy of forecast depends on the quality of input and parameters. In this study, the specific anaerobic activity (SAA) tests were applied in order to estimate microbial community structure. Obtained data was applied as input conditions for mathematical model of anaerobic digestion. The initial values of variables describing the amount of acetate and propionate utilizing microorganisms could be calculated on the basis of SAA results. The modelling based on those optimized variables could successfully reproduce the behavior of a real system during the continuous fermentation.

  10. Effect of slow-to-start in the extended BML model with four-directional traffic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuang, Hua [College of Physical Science and Technology, Guangxi Normal University, Guilin, 541004 (China); Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Zhang, Guo-Xin [College of Physical Science and Technology, Guangxi Normal University, Guilin, 541004 (China); Li, Xing-Li [School of Applied Science, Taiyuan University of Science and Technology, Taiyuan, 030024 (China); Lo, Siu-Ming, E-mail: bcsmli@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, an extended Biham–Middleton–Levine (BML) model is proposed to simulate complex characteristics of four-directional traffic flow by considering the effect of slow-to-start. The simulation results show that the system does not exhibit a sharp transition from moving phase to jamming phase, which is consistent with the results of the latest studies about the original BML model. Differently from the structure geometric patterns in previous studies, a new phase separation phenomenon, i.e., the coexistence of multiple free flow stripes and multi-local jams, can be observed. The formation mechanisms of typical dynamic patterns are also explored. Furthermore, a mean field analysis for the maximum velocity in the moving phase is obtained, which is in good accordance with simulation results. In addition, an interesting feature is found that this new coexistence phenomenon of two phases is determined only by the effect of slow-to-start and is completely independent of traffic light (only considering red light and green light) period.

  11. The Z-> gamma gamma,gg decays in the non-commutative standard model

    CERN Document Server

    Behr, W; Duplancic, G; Schupp, P; Trampetic, J; Wess, J

    2003-01-01

    On non-commutative spacetime, the standard model (SM) allows new, usually SM forbidden, triple gauge boson interactions to occur. In this letter we propose the SM strictly forbidden Z-> gamma gamma and Z->gg decay modes coming from the gauge sector of the non-commutative standard model (NCSM) as a place where non-commutativity could be experimentally discovered. (orig.)

  12. A NUMERICAL STUDY ON A SIMPLIFIED TAIL MODEL FOR TURNING FISH IN C-START

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yan; TONG Bing-gang

    2006-01-01

    Most freshwater fish are good at turning manoeuvres. A simulated fish tail model was numerically investigated and discussed in detail. This study deals with unsteady forces and moment exerted on the fish tail-fin in an initial sideways stroke and a subsequent return stroke motion, and visualizes the flow fields and vortex structures, in order to explore the flow control mechanism of the typical turning motion of fish. Further discussion on fluid dynamic consequences corresponding to two different bending forms of fish tail-fins in its C-start is given. The two-dimensional unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved with a developed pseudo-compressibility method to simulate the flow around the fish tail-fin. The computed results and the comparison with experiments indicate that (1) fish performs a turning motion of its body using the impulsive moment produced by the to-and-fro stroke, and each stage of the process exhibits its specific hydrodynamic characteristic, (2) fishes adopt two forms of tail-tip bend (single bend and double bend) to accomplish a C-start turning manoeuvre, in dependence of their physical situations and natural environments, (3) fish can control its turning motion by modulating some key kinematic parameters.

  13. Modeling of cold start processes and performance optimization for proton exchange membrane fuel cell stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yibo; Luo, Yueqi; Yu, Shuhai; Jiao, Kui

    2014-02-01

    In this study, a cold start model for proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stacks is developed, and a novel start-up method, variable heating and load control (VHLC), is proposed and evaluated. The main idea is to only apply load to the neighboring still-active cells, and to apply external heating to certain cells inside the stack simultaneously (load is not applied to the cells fully blocked by ice, although these cells can gain heat from neighboring cells). With the VHLC method, it is found that the stack voltage first increases, then decreases due to the full blockage of ice in some of the individual cells, and finally the dead cells are heated by the other active cells and activated again one by one. Based on this method, the external heating power and the stack self-heating ability are utilized more efficiently. With proper implementation of the VHLC method, it is demonstrated that the cold stat performance can be improved significantly, which is critically important for PEMFC in automotive applications.

  14. Exploring model based engineering for large telescopes: getting started with descriptive models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karban, R.; Zamparelli, M.; Bauvir, B.; Koehler, B.; Noethe, L.; Balestra, A.

    2008-07-01

    Large telescopes pose a continuous challenge to systems engineering due to their complexity in terms of requirements, operational modes, long duty lifetime, interfaces and number of components. A multitude of decisions must be taken throughout the life cycle of a new system, and a prime means of coping with complexity and uncertainty is using models as one decision aid. The potential of descriptive models based on the OMG Systems Modeling Language (OMG SysMLTM) is examined in different areas: building a comprehensive model serves as the basis for subsequent activities of soliciting and review for requirements, analysis and design alike. Furthermore a model is an effective communication instrument against misinterpretation pitfalls which are typical of cross disciplinary activities when using natural language only or free-format diagrams. Modeling the essential characteristics of the system, like interfaces, system structure and its behavior, are important system level issues which are addressed. Also shown is how to use a model as an analysis tool to describe the relationships among disturbances, opto-mechanical effects and control decisions and to refine the control use cases. Considerations on the scalability of the model structure and organization, its impact on the development process, the relation to document-centric structures, style and usage guidelines and the required tool chain are presented.

  15. A spatial kinetic model for simulating VVER-1000 start-up transient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashi, Samira [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moghaddam, Nader Maleki, E-mail: nader.moghaddam@gmail.com [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Physics, Amir Kabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahriari, Majid [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    Research highlights: > A spatial kinetic model of a VVER-1000 reactor core is presented. > The reactor power is tracked using the point kinetic equations from 100 W to 612 kW. > The lamped parameter approximation is used for solving the energy balance equations. > The value of reactivity related to feedback effects of core elements is calculated. > The main neutronic parameters during the transient are calculated. - Abstract: An accurate prediction of reactor core behavior in transients depends on how much it could be possible to exactly determine the thermal feedbacks of the core elements such as fuel, clad and coolant. In short time transients, results of these feedbacks directly affect the reactor power and determine the reactor response. Such transients are commonly happened during the start-up process which makes it necessary to carefully evaluate the detail of process. Hence this research evaluates a short time transient occurring during the start up of VVER-1000 reactor. The reactor power was tracked using the point kinetic equations from HZP state (100 W) to 612 kW. Final power (612 kW) was achieved by withdrawing control rods and resultant excess reactivity was set into dynamic equations to calculate the reactor power. Since reactivity is the most important part in the point kinetic equations, using a Lumped Parameter (LP) approximation, energy balance equations were solved in different zones of the core. After determining temperature and total reactivity related to feedbacks in each time step, the exact value of reactivity is obtained and is inserted into point kinetic equations. In reactor core each zone has a specific temperature and its corresponding thermal feedback. To decrease the effects of point kinetic approximations, these partial feedbacks in different zones are superposed to show an accurate model of reactor core dynamics. In this manner the reactor point kinetic can be extended to the whole reactor core which means 'Reactor spatial

  16. An EOQ inventory model for items with ramp type demand, three-parameter Weibull distribution deterioration and starting with shortage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Sanjay

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this present paper an inventory model is developed with ramp type demand, starting with shortage and three - parameter Weibull distribution deterioration. A brief analysis of the cost involved is carried out by an example.

  17. Hydrodynamics of C-Start Escape Responses of Fish as Studied with Simple Physical Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, William C; Wen, Li; Lauder, George V

    2015-10-01

    One of the most-studied unsteady locomotor behaviors exhibited by fishes is the c-start escape response. Although the kinematics of these responses have been studied extensively and two well-defined kinematic stages have been documented, only a few studies have focused on hydrodynamic patterns generated by fishes executing escape behaviors. Previous work has shown that escape responses by bluegill sunfish generate three distinct vortex rings, each with central orthogonal jet flows, and here we extend this conclusion to two other species: stickleback and mosquitofish. Jet #1 is formed by the tail during Stage 1, and moves in the same direction as Stage-2 movement of the fish, thereby reducing final escape-velocity but also rotating the fish. Jet #2, in contrast, moves approximately opposite to the final direction of the fish's motion and contains the bulk of the total fluid-momentum powering the escape response. Jet #3 forms during Stage 2 in the mid-body region and moves in a direction approximately perpendicular to jets 1 and 2, across the direction of movement of the body. In this study, we used a mechanical controller to impulsively move passively flexible plastic panels of three different stiffnesses in heave, pitch, and heave + pitch motions to study the effects of stiffness on unsteady hydrodynamics of escape. We were able to produce kinematics very similar to those of fish c-starts and also to reproduce the 3-jet hydrodynamic pattern of the c-start using a panel of medium flexural stiffness and the combined heave + pitch motion. This medium-stiffness panel matched the measured stiffness of the near-tail region of fish bodies. This motion also produced positive power when the panel straightened during stage 2 of the escape response. More flexible and stiffer panels resulted in non-biological kinematics and patterns of flow for all motions. The use of simple flexible models with a mechanical controller and program of fish-like motion is a promising approach

  18. A dynamic model of a vapor compression cycle with shut-down and start-up operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Bin; Alleyne, Andrew G. [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1206 West Green Street, MC-244, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    This paper presents an advanced switched modeling approach for vapor compression cycle (VCC) systems used in Air Conditioning and Refrigeration. Building upon recent work (), a complete dynamic VCC model is presented that is able to describe the severe transient behaviors in heat exchangers (condenser/evaporator), while maintaining the moving-boundary framework, under compressor shut-down and start-up operations. The heat exchanger models retain a constant structure, but accommodate different model representations. Novel switching schemes between different representations and pseudo-state variables are introduced to accommodate the transitions of dynamic states in heat exchangers while keeping track of the vapor and liquid refrigerant zones during the stop-start transients. Two model validation studies on an experimental system show that the complete dynamic model developed in Matlab/Simulink can well predict the system dynamics in shut-down and start-up transients. (author)

  19. The Starting Early Starting Smart Integrated Services Model: Improving Access to Behavioral Health Services in the Pediatric Health Care Setting for At-Risk Families with Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Connie E.; Mansoor, Elana; Hanson, K. Lori; Vogel, April L.; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Genatossio, Carolyn Seval; Windham, Amy; Bandstra, Emmalee S.

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the Starting Early Starting Smart (SESS) national initiative to integrate behavioral health services (parenting, mental health, and drug treatment) into the pediatric health care setting for families with young children. Data are presented from five pediatric care (PC) sites, drawing from families at risk due to demographic and…

  20. A Mathematical Model for the Starting Process of a Transonic Ludwieg Tube Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-06-01

    DC-TR-76-39 to achieve various start times can be determined. In addition, the sensitivity of the start time to the shape of the area-time curves... SGb ~9=SGA49·SEPS7 C E.2UA!.Ht.’LH . ..cJ1flJll~!L.. 8(14) ’" - 1.00 I CA14 _ ... _ .. _---SZ£~::;._LSilll!t. ... S4LP9 + SBETl4 ) .. 6(14

  1. Models of Emotion Skills and Social Competence in the Head Start Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spritz, Becky L.; Sandberg, Elisabeth Hollister; Maher, Edward; Zajdel, Ruth T.

    2010-01-01

    Research Findings: Fostering the social competence of at-risk preschoolers would be facilitated by knowing which of children's emotion skills are most salient to social outcomes. We examined the emotion skills and social competence of 44 children enrolled in a Head Start program. Emotion skills were examined in terms of children's emotional…

  2. A barrier for low frequency noise from starting aircraft: comparison between numerical and scale model results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosschaart, C.; Eisses, A.R.; Eerden, F.J.M. van der

    2010-01-01

    Amsterdam Airport Schiphol has organized a competition to design a noise mitigating measure along the 'Polderbaan' runway. Its main goal is to reduce the low frequency (LF) ground noise from starting aircraft. The winning concept is a flexible parabolic shaped noise barrier positioned relatively clo

  3. Parenting Classes, Parenting Behavior, and Child Cognitive Development in Early Head Start: A Longitudinal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Mido; Park, Boyoung; Kim, Sunha

    2009-01-01

    This study analyzed Early Head Start Research and Evaluation (EHSRE) study data, examining the effect of parenting classes on parenting behaviors and children's cognitive outcomes. The study analyzed three sets of dependent variables: parental language and cognitive stimulation, parent-child interactive activities, and the Bayley Mental…

  4. Early Start Denver Model - intervention for de helt små børn med autisme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brynskov, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) er en autismespecifik interventionsmetode, som er udviklet til helt små børn med autisme (0-4 år). Metoden fokuserer på at styrke den tidlige kontakt og barnets motivation, og den arbejder målrettet med de socio-kommunikative forløbere for sprog og med den tidlige...

  5. Evaluating Biosphere Model Estimates of the Start of the Vegetation Active Season in Boreal Forests by Satellite Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Böttcher

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the performance of the simulated start of the photosynthetically active season by a large-scale biosphere model in boreal forests in Finland with remote sensing observations. The start of season for two forest types, evergreen needle- and deciduous broad-leaf, was obtained for the period 2003–2011 from regional JSBACH (Jena Scheme for Biosphere–Atmosphere Hamburg runs, driven with climate variables from a regional climate model. The satellite-derived start of season was determined from daily Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS time series of Fractional Snow Cover and the Normalized Difference Water Index by applying methods that were targeted to the two forest types. The accuracy of the satellite-derived start of season in deciduous forest was assessed with bud break observations of birch and a root mean square error of seven days was obtained. The evaluation of JSBACH modelled start of season dates with satellite observations revealed high spatial correspondence. The bias was less than five days for both forest types but showed regional differences that need further consideration. The agreement with satellite observations was slightly better for the evergreen than for the deciduous forest. Nonetheless, comparison with gross primary production (GPP determined from CO2 flux measurements at two eddy covariance sites in evergreen forest revealed that the JSBACH-simulated GPP was higher in early spring and led to too-early simulated start of season dates. Photosynthetic activity recovers differently in evergreen and deciduous forests. While for the deciduous forest calibration of phenology alone could improve the performance of JSBACH, for the evergreen forest, changes such as seasonality of temperature response, would need to be introduced to the photosynthetic capacity to improve the temporal development of gross primary production.

  6. A Warm-Started Homogeneous and Self-Dual Interior-Point Method for Linear Economic Model Predictive Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokoler, Leo Emil; Skajaa, Anders; Frison, Gianluca

    2013-01-01

    algorithm in MATLAB and its performance is analyzed based on a smart grid power management case study. Closed loop simulations show that 1) our algorithm is significantly faster than state-of-the-art IPMs based on sparse linear algebra routines, and 2) warm-starting reduces the number of iterations......In this paper, we present a warm-started homogenous and self-dual interior-point method (IPM) for the linear programs arising in economic model predictive control (MPC) of linear systems. To exploit the structure in the optimization problems, our algorithm utilizes a Riccati iteration procedure...

  7. Multidimensional Modeling of Fuel Composition Effects on Combustion and Cold-starting in Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    equally important for both the gas and liquid phase. For the gas phase, a modified Redlich - Kwong equation of state is used (Prausnitz, [lo]). In the...residual fuel mass (case 9). Ignition started early but the combustion developed at a slower rate. Another application of an altered engine geometry...Power, Vol. 115, pp. 781-789,1993. 17. Kong, S.C., Han, Z., and Reitz, R.D., “The Development and Application of a Diesel Ignition and Combustion

  8. The simulation of start-up of natural circulation boiler based on the Astrom-Bell model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianyu; Zhao, Zhenning; Li, Yuanyuan; Zhu, Xianran

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a numerical investigation on the dynamic analysis of steam and water system of the natural circulation boiler SHL35.2.5/AI with the software MATLAB/SIMULINK. Based on the four-order Astrom-Bell model, a model applicable the specific boiler was established, casting light on the changes in parameters of designed, cold start and varying load condition. And a curve of cold start is obtained, which can be taken as reference for practical operation. In addition, in the condition of varying load, our model captured the phenomenon of false water level, and according analysis is made. Our study introduces a feasible method of simulation on the dynamic analysis of steam and water system on other boilers as well.

  9. Reducing Maladaptive Behaviors in Preschool-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Using the Early Start Denver Model

    OpenAIRE

    Fulton, Elizabeth,; Eapen, Valsamma; Črnčec, Rudi; Walter, Amelia; Rogers, Sally

    2014-01-01

    The presence of maladaptive behaviors in young people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can significantly limit engagement in treatment programs, as well as compromise future educational and vocational opportunities. This study aimed to explore whether the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) treatment approach reduced maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with ASD in a community-based long day care setting. The level of maladaptive behavior of 38 children with ASD was rated using an ...

  10. Reducing maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with Autism Spectrum Disorder using the Early Start Denver Model

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth eFulton; Valsamma eEapen; Rudi eČrnčec; Amelia eWalter; Sally eRogers

    2014-01-01

    The presence of maladaptive behaviors in young people with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) can significantly limit engagement in treatment programs, as well as compromise future educational and vocational opportunities. This study aimed to explore whether the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) treatment approach reduced maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with ASD in a community-based long day care setting. The level of maladaptive behavior of 38 children with ASD was rated using an ...

  11. Experimental investigations of transient pressure variations in a high head model Francis turbine during start-up and shutdown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TRIVEDI Chirag; CERVANTES Michel J.; GANDHI B. K.; OLE DAHLHAUG G

    2014-01-01

    Penetration of the power generated using wind and solar energy to electrical grid network causing several incidents of the grid tripping, power outage, and frequency drooping. This has increased restart (star-stop) cycles of the hydroelectric turbines significantly since grid connected hydroelectric turbines are widely used to manage critical conditions of the grid. Each cycle induces significant stresses due to unsteady pressure loading on the runner blades. The presented work investigates the pressure loading to a high head ( HP=377m, DP=1.78m) Francis turbine during start-stop. The measurements were carried out on a scaled model turbine ( HM =12.5m, DM =0.349m). Total four operating points were considered. At each operating point, three schemes of guide vanes opening and three schemes of guide vanes closing were investigated. The results show that total head variation is up to 9%during start-stop of the turbine. On the runner blade, the maximum pressure amplitudes are about 14 kPa and 16 kPa from the instantaneous mean value of 121 kPa during rapid start-up and shutdown, respectively, which are about 1.5 times larger than that of the slow start-up and shutdown. Moreover, the maximum pressure fluctuations are given at the blade trailing edge.

  12. Starting electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Brindley, Keith

    2005-01-01

    Starting Electronics is unrivalled as a highly practical introduction for hobbyists, students and technicians. Keith Brindley introduces readers to the functions of the main component types, their uses, and the basic principles of building and designing electronic circuits. Breadboard layouts make this very much a ready-to-run book for the experimenter; and the use of multimeter, but not oscilloscopes, puts this practical exploration of electronics within reach of every home enthusiast's pocket. The third edition has kept the simplicity and clarity of the original. New material

  13. 0-D modeling of SST-1 plasma break-down & start-up using ECRH assisted pre-ionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Aveg, E-mail: aveg@ipr.res.in; Pradhan, Subrata

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Steady state superconducting tokamak (SST-1). • Pre-ionization. • ECRH. • 0-D model. - Abstract: Electron cyclotron resonance (ECRH) assisted break-down and start-up is considered as useful tool towards the discharge initiation in superconducting tokamaks, where the vacuum vessels and the cryostats are usually electrically continuous with thick walls. ECH pre-ionizations are known to reduce the required central solenoid swing induced toroidal electric field, E significantly. The Steady state superconducting tokamak (SST-1, R = 1.1 m, a = 0.2 m) has achieved successful plasma break-down and subsequent current ramp-up with ECH pre-ionizations in both fundamental mode and second harmonic modes with E ∼ 0.35 V/m. This work has discussed an appropriate simulation model and validated its results with experiments for the ECRH assisted breakdown and start-up, for both 1st harmonic ordinary mode (O1) and 2nd harmonic extra-ordinary mode (X2), in SST-1 for hydrogen plasmas, where the loop voltage is limited to 0.35 V/m. The simulation model is a zero-dimensional (0-D) model. In this model five temporal equations are solved for spatially-uniform plasma. The primary findings of this investigation has been the determination of the threshold ECRH power for successful pre-ionization of plasma in SST-1 and validations of the results with experimental findings in SST-1.

  14. An Analysis of Starting Points for Setting Up a Model of a More Reliable Ship Propulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Martinović, Dragan; Tudor, Mato; Bernečić, Dean

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the important requirement for ship propulsion necessary for its immaculate operation, since any failure can endanger the ship and render it useless. Particular attention is given to the failure of auxiliary engines that can also seriously jeopardise the safety of the ship. Therefore the paper presents preliminary investigations for setting up models of reliable ship propulsion accounting for the failure of auxiliary engines. Models of most frequent implementations of e...

  15. Interoperability Matter: Levels of Data Sharing, Starting from a 3d Information Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasi, C.; Achille, C.

    2017-02-01

    Nowadays, the adoption of BIM processes in the AEC (Architecture, Engineering and Construction) industry means to be oriented towards synergistic workflows, based on informative instruments capable of realizing the virtual model of the building. The target of this article is to speak about the interoperability matter, approaching the subject through a theoretical part and also a practice example, in order to show how these notions are applicable in real situations. In particular, the case study analysed belongs to the Cultural Heritage field, where it is possible to find some difficulties - both in the modelling and sharing phases - due to the complexity of shapes and elements. Focusing on the interoperability between different software, the questions are: What and how many kind of information can I share? Given that this process leads also to a standardization of the modelled parts, is there the possibility of an accuracy loss?

  16. Community Dissemination of the Early Start Denver Model: Implications for Science and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vismara, Laurie A.; Young, Gregory S.; Rogers, Sally J.

    2013-01-01

    The growing number of Autism Spectrum Disorder cases exceeds the services available for these children. This increase challenges both researchers and service providers to develop systematic, effective dissemination strategies for transporting university research models to community early intervention (EI) programs. The current study developed an…

  17. Study of fuel control strategy based on an fuel behavior model for starting conditions; Nenryo kyodo model ni motozuita shidoji no nenryo hosei hosho ni tsuite no kosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Y.; Uchida, M.; Iwano, H.; Oba, H. [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    We have applied a fuel behavior model to a fuel injection system which we call SOFIS (Sophisticated and Optimized Fuel Injection System) so that we get air/fuel ratio control accuracy and good driveability. However the fuel behavior under starting conditions is still not clear. To meet low emission rules and to get better driveability under starting conditions, better air/fuel ratio control is necessary. Now we have understood the ignition timing, injection timing, and injection pulse width required in such conditions. In former days, we analyzed the state of the air/fuel mixture under cold conditions and made a new fuel behavior model which considered fuel loss such as hydrocarbons and dissolution into oil and so on. Al this time, we have applied this idea to starting. We confirm this new model offers improved air/fuel ratio control. 6 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. How Famine Started in Somalia: A Simple Model of Fresh Water Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, K. C.; Motesharrei, S.; Miralles-Wilhelm, F. R.; Kalnay, E.; Rivas, J.; Freshwater Modeling Team

    2011-12-01

    Water is the origin of life on our planet and therefore the most valued and essential natural resource for sustaining life on earth. Human uses of freshwater include not only drinking, washing, and other daily domestic activities, but also manufacturing, energy production, agriculture, aquaculture, etc. Though our planet is 97% water, only a minute portion of this is available as freshwater to be used for anthropogenic necessities and the rate at which the natural system can filter and replenish the freshwater supply cannot compete with the rate of demand. That is why special attention must be given to availability of freshwater at present time and in future. We constructed a fairly elementary model of the water cycle while we were working on a more sophisticated water model that includes several additional details. Upon introducing data from different regions of the world (including United States) into our simple model and running simulations, we can gain insight into the future of water sources and availability of freshwater. In particular, we are able to simulate how drought can result in famine, a catastrophe currently taking place in certain areas of Somalia.

  19. The PROMETHEUS bundled payment experiment: slow start shows problems in implementing new payment models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussey, Peter S; Ridgely, M Susan; Rosenthal, Meredith B

    2011-11-01

    Fee-for-service payment is blamed for many of the problems observed in the US health care system. One of the leading alternative payment models proposed in the Affordable Care Act of 2010 is bundled payment, which provides payment for all of the care a patient needs over the course of a defined clinical episode, instead of paying for each discrete service. We evaluated the initial "road test" of PROMETHEUS Payment, one of several bundled payment pilot projects. The project has faced substantial implementation challenges, and none of the three pilot sites had executed contracts or made bundled payments as of May 2011. The pilots have taken longer to set up than expected, primarily because of the complexity of the payment model and the fact that it builds on the existing fee-for-service payment system and other complexities of health care. Participants continue to see promise and value in the bundled payment model, but the pilot results suggest that the desired benefits of this and other payment reforms may take time and considerable effort to materialize.

  20. Functioning of the avalanche starting zones which undergo snow-transport by wind: Field observations and computer modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivardière, F.; Castelle, T.; Guyomarc'h, G.; Mérindol, L.; Buisson, L.

    1995-11-01

    For two years, three French and Swiss laboratories have been making field observations and measurements on two high altitude slopes in a Northern French Alps site. The aim of this work is to study the functioning of the avalanche sites which, in their starting zones, undergo snow-transport by wind. The experimental site is located in the French Alps, at 2,800 m, above Grenoble. It is an open area, equipped with an automatic meteorological station and an altitude laboratory. The two slopes that are studied face East. One of them is artificially released but the other has a natural avalanche activity. The investigations concern: -snow deposition in avalanche starting zones; -temporal evolution of the snowpack characteristics; -avalanche release. For the field observations and measurements, continuous recording of the meteorological conditions on the site, photogrammetrical techniques and two snow depth profiles, as well as stratigraphical snow profiles and video are used. The computer modeling is based on existing computer models developed by the CEMAGREF-Nivologie (ELSA) and the CEN/Météo-France (SAFRAN-CROCUS-MEPRA), which analyse the snowpack and its stability. The field observations and measurements aim at improving snow-transport by wind modeling modules, in order to improve their whole analysis.

  1. Starting over: applying new models that challenge existing paradigms in the scholarly publishing marketplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Scott

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Scholarly publishing has gone through turbulent times. Enormous growth in supply and expenditure has been followed – dramatically and unexpectedly – by severe contraction of budgets. The ‘creative destruction’ of the 2008 global financial crisis has produced new opportunities and forced legislators, administrators, academics and librarians to consider alternatives to traditional subscription models. This article presents a case study of one UK-based ‘gold’ publisher's attempts to create a viable, sustainable alternative, which aims to bring the same benefits of open access publishing to the social sciences and arts & humanities as have been proven to work in STM – so, providing insights into the strategic choices of product, scope and aims, pricing, marketing, etc. By the time of publication, 'Social Sciences Directory' will have published its first issue, and 'Humanities Directory' will be close to following suit.

  2. Venture financing of start-ups: A model of contract between VC fund and entrepreneur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osintsev Yury

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Venture capital has become one of the main sources of innovation in the modern, global economy. It is not just a substitute for bank loans: it has proven to be a more efficient way of financing projects at different stages. On one hand, venture financing allows for projects with higher risk, which leads to the possibility of higher returns on investment. On the other hand, venture investors who usually have managerial experience often participate in governing the business, which certainly adds value to the enterprise. In this paper we establish the model of contract between the venture capital fund and the entrepreneur, focusing on probably the most important issue of this contract: the shares of the parties in the business. The shares in the company determine the distribution of the joint surplus. The expected joint profits are not just exogenously specified in the contract but are dependent on the behavioral variables of both parties at the stage of fulfilling the contract. We call the behavioral variable of the entrepreneur ‘effort’ and the one of the venture fund ‘advice’. The probability of the project’s success, and hence the expected joint revenues, are increased by these two. However, both kinds of effort are costly to the respective parties that have made them. Based on this fact we can elaborate the profit functions of both sides of the contract. Our model can be considered as a basis for specifying contracts concerning venture financing. It can provide the logic for how the equilibrium shares of entrepreneur and venture fund are obtained.

  3. Effective Operators Within the Ab Initio No-Core Shell Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stetcu, I; Barrett, B R; Navratil, P; Vary, J P

    2004-11-30

    We implement an effective operator formalism for general one- and two-body operators, obtaining results consistent with the no-core shell model (NCSM) wave functions. The Argonne V8' nucleon-nucleon potential was used in order to obtain realistic wave functions for {sup 4}He, {sup 6}Li and {sup 12}C. In the NCSM formalism, we compute electromagnetic properties using the two-body cluster approximation for the effective operators and obtain results which are sensitive to the range of the bare operator. To illuminate the dependence on the range, we employ a Gaussian two-body operator of variable range, finding weak renormalization of long range operators (e.g., quadrupole) in a fixed model space. This is understood in terms of the two-body cluster approximation which accounts mainly for short-range correlations. Consequently, short range operators, such as the relative kinetic energy, will be well renormalized in the two-body cluster approximation.

  4. Reply to Comment on "Ab Initio Study of 40Ca with an Importance Truncated No-Core Shell Model"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, R; Navratil, P

    2008-01-04

    In their comment on our recent Letter [1] Dean et al. [2] criticize the calculations for the ground-state energy of {sup 40}Ca within the importance truncated no-core shell model (NCSM). In particular they address the role of configurations beyond the 3p3h level, which have not been included in the {sup 40}Ca calculations for large N{sub max} {h_bar}{Omega} model spaces. Before responding to this point, the following general statements are in order. For the atomic nucleus as a self-bound system, translational invariance is an important symmetry. The only possibility to preserve translational invariance when working with a Slater determinant basis is to use the harmonic oscillator (HO) basis in conjunction with a basis truncation according to the total HO excitation energy, i.e. N{sub max} {h_bar}{Omega}, as done in the ab initio NCSM. This is important not only for obtaining proper binding or excitation energies, but also for a correct extraction of physical wavefunctions. The spurious center-of-mass components can be exactly removed only if the HO basis and the N{sub max} {h_bar}{Omega} truncation are employed. The minimal violation of the translational invariance was one of the main motivations for developing the importance-truncation scheme introduced in the Letter. In this scheme, we start with the complete N{sub max} {h_bar}{Omega} HO basis space and select important configurations via perturbation theory. All symmetries are under control and our importance-truncated NCSM calculations are completely variational and provide an upper bound of the ground-state energy of the system. The restriction to the 3p3h level, made for computational reasons in the N{sub max} > 8 calculations for {sup 40}Ca, is not inherent to the importance truncation scheme. The explicit inclusion of 4p4h configurations--though computationally more demanding--is straight-forward, even for the largest N{sub max} {h_bar}{Omega} model spaces discussed. To demonstrate this fact we have

  5. Early diagnosis and Early Start Denver Model intervention in autism spectrum disorders delivered in an Italian Public Health System service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devescovi R

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Raffaella Devescovi,1 Lorenzo Monasta,2 Alice Mancini,3 Maura Bin,1 Valerio Vellante,1 Marco Carrozzi,1 Costanza Colombi4 1Division of Child Neurology and Psychiatry, 2Clinical Epidemiology and Public Health Research Unit, Institute for Maternal and Child Health – IRCCS “Burlo Garofolo”, Trieste, 3Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy; 4Department of Psychiatry, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI, USA Background: Early diagnosis combined with an early intervention program, such as the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM, can positively influence the early natural history of autism spectrum disorders. This study evaluated the effectiveness of an early ESDM-inspired intervention, in a small group of toddlers, delivered at low intensity by the Italian Public Health System.Methods: Twenty-one toddlers at risk for autism spectrum disorders, aged 20–36 months, received 3 hours/wk of one-to-one ESDM-inspired intervention by trained therapists, combined with parents’ and teachers’ active engagement in ecological implementation of treatment. The mean duration of treatment was 15 months. Cognitive and communication skills, as well as severity of autism symptoms, were assessed by using standardized measures at pre-intervention (Time 0 [T0]; mean age =27 months and post-intervention (Time 1 [T1]; mean age =42 months.Results: Children made statistically significant improvements in the language and cognitive domains, as demonstrated by a series of nonparametric Wilcoxon tests for paired data. Regarding severity of autism symptoms, younger age at diagnosis was positively associated with greater improvement at post-assessment.Conclusion: Our results are consistent with the literature that underlines the importance of early diagnosis and early intervention, since prompt diagnosis can reduce the severity of autism symptoms and improve cognitive and language skills in younger children

  6. A NUMERICAL AND ANALYTICAL STUDY ON A TAIL-FLAPPING MODEL FOR FISH FAST C-START

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Wenrong; YU Yongliang; TONG Binggang; LIU Hao

    2004-01-01

    The force production physics and the flow control mechanism of fish fast C-start are studied numerically and theoretically by using a tail-flapping model. The problem is simplified to a 2-D foil that rotates rapidly to and fro on one side about its fixed leading edge in water medium. The study involves the simulation of the flow by solving the two-dimensional unsteady incompressible NavierStokes equations and employing a theoretical analytic modeling approach. Firstly, reasonable thrust magnitude and its time history are obtained and checked by fitting predicted results coming from these two approaches. Next, the flow fields and vortex structures are given, and the propulsive mechanism is interpreted. The results show that the induction of vortex distributions near the trailing edge of the tail are important in the time-averaged thrust generation, though the added inertial effect plays an important role in producing an instant large thrust especially in the first stage. Furthermore, dynamic and energetic effects of some kinematic controlling factors are discussed. For enhancing the timeaveraged thrust but keeping a favorable ratio of it to time-averaged input power within the limitations of muscle ability, it is recommended to have a larger deflection amplitude in a limited time interval and with no time delay between the to-and-fro strokes.

  7. Modeling and fatigue assessment of weld start-end locations based on the effective notch stress approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malikoutsakis, M. [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Laboratory of Machine Elements Machine Design, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Savaidis, G.

    2011-04-15

    The present paper contains a methodology for modeling and life assessment of fatigue loaded welded components providing distinct weld start and end locations. The proposed methodology follows the IIW recommendation regarding modeling and finite element meshing of weld toe and root by means of an effective notch radius and uses the corresponding Woehler curve (FAT class) to assess the durability. Geometrical singularities and, therewith, numerical discontinuities, can be overcome especially when 3D weld root problems are treated. The fatigue life assessment is performed on the basis of normal stresses acting at the failure-critical weld toe and root locations. Comprehensive experimental database containing stress and fatigue life results derived from motor truck's hypoid rear axles providing complex 3D welds subject to vertical, longitudinal, and torsional loading is used to verify the calculation accuracy of the proposed methodology. The agreement between experimentally determined and calculated fatigue results is satisfactory. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Importance-truncated no-core shell model for fermionic many-body systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spies, Helena

    2017-03-15

    The exact solution of quantum mechanical many-body problems is only possible for few particles. Therefore, numerical methods were developed in the fields of quantum physics and quantum chemistry for larger particle numbers. Configuration Interaction (CI) methods or the No-Core Shell Model (NCSM) allow ab initio calculations for light and intermediate-mass nuclei, without resorting to phenomenology. An extension of the NCSM is the Importance-Truncated No-Core Shell Model, which uses an a priori selection of the most important basis states. The importance truncation was first developed and applied in quantum chemistry in the 1970s and latter successfully applied to models of light and intermediate mass nuclei. Other numerical methods for calculations for ultra-cold fermionic many-body systems are the Fixed-Node Diffusion Monte Carlo method (FN-DMC) and the stochastic variational approach with Correlated Gaussian basis functions (CG). There are also such method as the Coupled-Cluster method, Green's Function Monte Carlo (GFMC) method, et cetera, used for calculation of many-body systems. In this thesis, we adopt the IT-NCSM for the calculation of ultra-cold Fermi gases at unitarity. Ultracold gases are dilute, strongly correlated systems, in which the average interparticle distance is much larger than the range of the interaction. Therefore, the detailed radial dependence of the potential is not resolved, and the potential can be replaced by an effective contact interaction. At low energy, s-wave scattering dominates and the interaction can be described by the s-wave scattering length. If the scattering length is small and negative, Cooper-pairs are formed in the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) regime. If the scattering length is small and positive, these Cooper-pairs become strongly bound molecules in a Bose-Einstein-Condensate (BEC). In between (for large scattering lengths) is the unitary limit with universal properties. Calculations of the energy spectra

  9. An Application of the PMI Model at the Project Level: Evaluation of the ESEA Title IV C Fresh Start Minischool Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Patricia C.

    The Planning, Monitoring, and Implementation Model (PMI) was developed to provide a model for systematic evaluation of educational programs to determine their effectiveness in achieving goals and objectives. This paper demonstrates the applicability of the PMI model at the project level. Fresh Start Minischool at Ballou High School (District of…

  10. The start of the Sagittarius spiral arm (Sagittarius origin) and the start of the Norma spiral arm (Norma origin) - model-computed and observed arm tangents at galactic longitudes -20 degrees < l < +23 degrees

    CERN Document Server

    Vallee, Jacques P

    2016-01-01

    Here we fitted a 4-arm spiral structure to the more accurate data on global arm pitch angle and arm longitude tangents, to get the start of each spiral arm near the Galactic nucleus. We find that the tangent to the 'start of the Sagittarius' spiral arm (arm middle) is at l= -17 degrees +/- 0.5 degree, while the tangent to the 'start of the Norma' spiral arm (arm middle) is at l= +20 degrees +/- 0.5 degree. Earlier, we published a compilation of observations and analysis of the tangent to each spiral arm tracer, from longitudes +23 degrees to +340 degrees; here we cover the arm tracers in the remaining longitudes +340 degrees (=- 20 degrees) to +23 degrees. Our model arm tangents are confirmed through the recent observed masers data (at the arm's inner edge). Observed arm tracers in the inner Galaxy show an offset from the mid-arm; this was also found elsewhere in the Milky Way disk (Vallee 2014c). In addition, we collated the observed tangents to the so-called '3-kpc-arm' features; here they are found statist...

  11. Reducing maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with autism spectrum disorder using the early start denver model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Elizabeth; Eapen, Valsamma; Crnčec, Rudi; Walter, Amelia; Rogers, Sally

    2014-01-01

    The presence of maladaptive behaviors in young people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can significantly limit engagement in treatment programs, as well as compromise future educational and vocational opportunities. This study aimed to explore whether the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) treatment approach reduced maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with ASD in a community-based long day care setting. The level of maladaptive behavior of 38 children with ASD was rated using an observation-based measure on three occasions during the intervention: on entry, 12 weeks post-entry, and on exit (post-intervention) over an average treatment duration of 11.8 months. Significant reductions were found in children's maladaptive behaviors over the course of the intervention, with 68% of children showing a treatment response by 12 weeks and 79% on exit. This change was accompanied by improvement in children's overall developmental level as assessed by the Mullen scales of early learning, but not by significant changes on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II or Social Communication Questionnaire. Replication with a larger sample, control conditions, and additional measures of maladaptive behavior is necessary in order to determine the specific factors underlying these improvements; however, the findings of the present study suggest that the ESDM program may be effective in improving not only core developmental domains, but also decreasing maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with ASD.

  12. Reducing maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with Autism Spectrum Disorder using the Early Start Denver Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth eFulton

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The presence of maladaptive behaviors in young people with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD can significantly limit engagement in treatment programs, as well as compromise future educational and vocational opportunities. This study aimed to explore whether the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM treatment approach reduced maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with ASD in a community-based long day care setting. The level of maladaptive behavior of 38 children with ASD was rated using an observation based measure on three occasions during the intervention: on entry, 12 weeks post-entry, and on exit (post-intervention over an average treatment duration of 11.8 months. Significant reductions were found in children’s maladaptive behaviors over the course of the intervention, with 68% of children showing a treatment response by 12 weeks and 79% on exit. This change was accompanied by improvement in children’s overall developmental level as assessed by the Mullen Scales of Early Learning, but not by significant changes on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II or Social Communication Questionnaire. Replication with a larger sample, control conditions and additional measures of maladaptive behavior is necessary in order to determine the specific factors underlying these improvements; however, the findings of the present study suggest that the ESDM program may be effective in improving not only core developmental domains, but also decreasing maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children.

  13. Functional Role of the Front and Back Legs During a Track Start with Special Reference to an Inverted Pendulum Model in College Swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Yusuke; Ichikawa, Hiroshi; Nara, Rio; Baba, Yasuhiro; Shimoyama, Yoshimitsu; Kubo, Yasuyuki

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated factors that determine the velocity of the center of mass (CM) and flight distance from a track start to devise effective technical and physical training methods. Nine male and 5 female competitive swimmers participated in this study. Kinematics and ground reaction forces of the front and back legs were recorded using a video camera and force plates. The track start was modeled as an inverted pendulum system including a compliant leg, connecting the CM and front edge of the starting block. The increase in the horizontal velocity of the CM immediately after the start signal was closely correlated with the rotational component of the inverted pendulum. This rotational component at hands-off was significantly correlated with the average vertical force of the back plate from the start signal to hands-off (r = .967, P back foot-off to front foot-off (r = .783, P < .01). The results indicate that the legs on the starting block in the track start play a different role in the behavior of the inverted pendulum.

  14. Ab Initio Description of Open-Shell Nuclei: Merging No-Core Shell Model and In-Medium Similarity Renormalization Group

    CERN Document Server

    Gebrerufael, Eskendr; Hergert, Heiko; Roth, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We merge two successful ab initio nuclear-structure methods, the no-core shell model (NCSM) and the multi-reference in-medium similarity renormalization group (IM-SRG) to define a new many-body approach for the comprehensive description of ground and excited states of closed and open-shell nuclei. Building on the key advantages of the two methods---the decoupling of excitations at the many-body level in the IM-SRG and the access to arbitrary nuclei, eigenstates, and observables in the NCSM---their combination enables fully converged no-core calculations for an unprecedented range of nuclei and observables at moderate computational cost. We present applications in the carbon and oxygen isotopic chains, where conventional NCSM calculations are still feasible and provide an important benchmark. The efficiency and rapid convergence of the new approach make it ideally suited for ab initio studies of the complete spectroscopy of nuclei up into the medium-mass regime.

  15. Ab Initio Description of Open-Shell Nuclei: Merging No-Core Shell Model and In-Medium Similarity Renormalization Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebrerufael, Eskendr; Vobig, Klaus; Hergert, Heiko; Roth, Robert

    2017-04-14

    We merge two successful ab initio nuclear-structure methods, the no-core shell model (NCSM) and the multireference in-medium similarity renormalization group (IM-SRG) to define a new many-body approach for the comprehensive description of ground and excited states of closed and open-shell nuclei. Building on the key advantages of the two methods-the decoupling of excitations at the many-body level in the IM-SRG and the access to arbitrary nuclei, eigenstates, and observables in the NCSM-their combination enables fully converged no-core calculations for an unprecedented range of nuclei and observables at moderate computational cost. We present applications in the carbon and oxygen isotopic chains, where conventional NCSM calculations are still feasible and provide an important benchmark. The efficiency and rapid convergence of the new approach make it ideally suited for ab initio studies of the complete spectroscopy of nuclei up into the medium-mass regime.

  16. A model approach to project the start of egg laying of Great Tit ( Parus major L.) in response to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, Frank-M.; Blümel, Klaus; Scherbaum-Heberer, Carina; Koppmann-Rumpf, Bettina; Schmidt, Karl-Heinz

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to select a phenological model that is able to calculate the beginning of egg laying of Great Tit ( Parus major) for both current and future climate conditions. Four models (M1-M4) were optimised on long-term phenological observations from the Ecological Research Centre Schlüchtern (Hessen/Germany). Model M1 was a common thermal time model that accumulates growing degree days (GDD) on an optimised starting date t 1. Since egg laying of Great Tit is influenced not only by air temperature but also by photoperiod, model M1 was extended by a daylength term to give M2. The other two models, M3 and M4, correspond to M1 and M2, but t 1 was intentionally set to 1 January, in order to consider already rising temperatures at the beginning of the year. A comparison of the four models led to following results: model M1 had a relatively high root mean square error at verification (RMSEver) of more than 4 days and can be used only to calculate the start of egg laying for current climate conditions because of the relatively late starting date for GDD calculation. The model failed completely if the starting date was set to 1 January (M3). Consideration of a daylength term in models M2 and M4 improved the performance of both models strongly (RMSEver of only 3 days or less), increased the credibility of parameter estimation, and was a precondition to calculate reliable projections in the timing of egg laying in birds for the future. These results confirm that the start of egg laying of Great Tit is influenced not only by air temperature, but also by photoperiod. Although models M2 and M4 both provide comparably good results for current climate conditions, we recommend model M4-with a starting date of temperature accumulation on 1 January-for calculating possible future shifts in the commencement of egg laying. Our regional projections in the start of egg laying, based on five regional climate models (RCMs: REMO-UBA, ECHAM5-CLM, HadCM3-CLM, WETTREG-0

  17. A neuro-mechanical model explaining the physiological role of fast and slow muscle fibres at stop and start of stepping of an insect leg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Tibor Istvan; Grabowska, Martyna; Schmidt, Joachim; Büschges, Ansgar; Daun-Gruhn, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Stop and start of stepping are two basic actions of the musculo-skeletal system of a leg. Although they are basic phenomena, they require the coordinated activities of the leg muscles. However, little is known of the details of how these activities are generated by the interactions between the local neuronal networks controlling the fast and slow muscle fibres at the individual leg joints. In the present work, we aim at uncovering some of those details using a suitable neuro-mechanical model. It is an extension of the model in the accompanying paper and now includes all three antagonistic muscle pairs of the main joints of an insect leg, together with their dedicated neuronal control, as well as common inhibitory motoneurons and the residual stiffness of the slow muscles. This model enabled us to study putative processes of intra-leg coordination during stop and start of stepping. We also made use of the effects of sensory signals encoding the position and velocity of the leg joints. Where experimental observations are available, the corresponding simulation results are in good agreement with them. Our model makes detailed predictions as to the coordination processes of the individual muscle systems both at stop and start of stepping. In particular, it reveals a possible role of the slow muscle fibres at stop in accelerating the convergence of the leg to its steady-state position. These findings lend our model physiological relevance and can therefore be used to elucidate details of the stop and start of stepping in insects, and perhaps in other animals, too.

  18. A neuro-mechanical model explaining the physiological role of fast and slow muscle fibres at stop and start of stepping of an insect leg.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibor Istvan Toth

    Full Text Available Stop and start of stepping are two basic actions of the musculo-skeletal system of a leg. Although they are basic phenomena, they require the coordinated activities of the leg muscles. However, little is known of the details of how these activities are generated by the interactions between the local neuronal networks controlling the fast and slow muscle fibres at the individual leg joints. In the present work, we aim at uncovering some of those details using a suitable neuro-mechanical model. It is an extension of the model in the accompanying paper and now includes all three antagonistic muscle pairs of the main joints of an insect leg, together with their dedicated neuronal control, as well as common inhibitory motoneurons and the residual stiffness of the slow muscles. This model enabled us to study putative processes of intra-leg coordination during stop and start of stepping. We also made use of the effects of sensory signals encoding the position and velocity of the leg joints. Where experimental observations are available, the corresponding simulation results are in good agreement with them. Our model makes detailed predictions as to the coordination processes of the individual muscle systems both at stop and start of stepping. In particular, it reveals a possible role of the slow muscle fibres at stop in accelerating the convergence of the leg to its steady-state position. These findings lend our model physiological relevance and can therefore be used to elucidate details of the stop and start of stepping in insects, and perhaps in other animals, too.

  19. Starting with ABC and Finishing with XYZ: What Financial Reporting Model Best Fits a Faculty and Why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Prudence Jane

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at the range of financial reporting models available for use in the Australian higher education sector, the possible application of activity-based costing (ABC) in faculties and the eventual rejection of ABC in favour of a more qualitative model designed specifically for use in one institution, in a particular Faculty. The…

  20. Constructing a starting 3D shear velocity model with sharp interfaces for SEM-based upper mantle tomography in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calo, M.; Bodin, T.; Yuan, H.; Romanowicz, B. A.; Larmat, C. S.; Maceira, M.

    2013-12-01

    Seismic tomography is currently evolving towards 3D earth models that satisfy full seismic waveforms at increasingly high frequencies. This evolution is possible thanks to the advent of powerful numerical methods such as the Spectral Element Method (SEM) that allow accurate computation of the seismic wavefield in complex media, and the drastic increase of computational resources. However, the production of such models requires handling complex misfit functions with more than one local minimum. Standard linearized inversion methods (such as gradient methods) have two main drawbacks: 1) they produce solution models highly dependent on the starting model; 2) they do not provide a means of estimating true model uncertainties. However, these issues can be addressed with stochastic methods that can sample the space of possible solutions efficiently. Such methods are prohibitively challenging computationally in 3D, but increasingly accessible in 1D. In previous work (Yuan and Romanowicz, 2010; Yuan et al., 2011) we developed a continental scale anisotropic upper mantle model of north America based on a combination of long period seismic waveforms and SKS splitting measurements, showing the pervasive presence of layering of anisotropy in the cratonic lithosphere with significant variations in depth of the mid-lithospheric boundary. The radial anisotropy part of the model has been recently updated using the spectral element method for forward wavefield computations and waveform data from the latest deployments of USarray (Yuan and Romanowicz, 2013). However, the long period waveforms (periods > 40s) themselves only provide a relatively smooth view of the mantle if the starting model is smooth, and the mantle discontinuities necessary for geodynamical interpretation are not imaged. Increasing the frequency of the computations to constrain smaller scale features is possible, but challenging computationally, and at the risk of falling in local minima of the misfit function. In

  1. Starting physiology: bioelectrogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Vander

    2015-12-01

    From a Cartesian perspective of rational analysis, the electric potential difference across the cell membrane is one of the fundamental concepts for the study of physiology. Unfortunately, undergraduate students often struggle to understand the genesis of this energy gradient, which makes the teaching activity a hard task for the instructor. The topic of bioelectrogenesis encompasses multidisciplinary concepts, involves several mechanisms, and is a dynamic process, i.e., it never turns off during the lifetime of the cell. Therefore, to improve the transmission and acquisition of knowledge in this field, I present an alternative didactic model. The design of the model assumes that it is possible to build, in a series of sequential steps, an assembly of proteins within the membrane of an isolated cell in a simulated electrophysiology experiment. Initially, no proteins are inserted in the membrane and the cell is at a baseline energy state; the extracellular and intracellular fluids are at thermodynamic equilibrium. Students are guided through a sequence of four steps that add key membrane transport proteins to the model cell. The model is simple at the start and becomes progressively more complex, finally producing transmembrane chemical and electrical gradients. I believe that this didactic approach helps instructors with a more efficient tool for the teaching of the mechanisms of resting membrane potential while helping students avoid common difficulties that may be encountered when learning this topic.

  2. Xinjiang Dushanzi Project Started Construction Started Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Xinjiang Dushanzi petroleum refining and chemical integrated project,is the largest one so far in China, with a capacity of ten-million-ton petroleum refinery and onemillion-ton ethylene complex, directly under PetroChina Company Limited (PetroChina), was started construction along with laying a foundation on August 22, 2005.

  3. Effective Field Theory and the No-Core Shell Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stetcua I.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In finite model space suitable for many-body calculations via the no-core shell model (NCSM, I illustrate the direct application of the effective field theory (EFT principles to solving the many-body Schrödinger equation. Two different avenues for fixing the low-energy constants naturally arising in an EFT approach are discussed. I review results for both nuclear and trapped atomic systems, using effective theories formally similar, albeit describing different underlying physics.

  4. Modeling of Membrane-Electrode-Assembly Degradation in Proton-Exchange-Membrane Fuel Cells - Local H2 Starvation and Start-Stop Induced Carbon-Support Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Wenbin; Yu, Paul T.; Carter, Robert N.; Makharia, Rohit; Gasteiger, Hubert A.

    Carbon-support corrosion causes electrode structure damage and thus electrode degradation. This chapter discusses fundamental models developed to predict cathode carbon-support corrosion induced by local H2 starvation and start-stop in a proton-exchange-membrane (PEM) fuel cell. Kinetic models based on the balance of current among the various electrode reactions are illustrative, yielding much insight on the origin of carbon corrosion and its implications for future materials developments. They are particularly useful in assessing carbon corrosion rates at a quasi-steady-state when an H2-rich region serves as a power source that drives an H2-free region as a load. Coupled kinetic and transport models are essential in predicting when local H2 starvation occurs and how it affects the carbon corrosion rate. They are specifically needed to estimate length scales at which H2 will be depleted and time scales that are valuable for developing mitigation strategies. To predict carbon-support loss distributions over an entire active area, incorporating the electrode pseudo-capacitance appears necessary for situations with shorter residence times such as start-stop events. As carbon-support corrosion is observed under normal transient operations, further model improvement shall be focused on finding the carbon corrosion kinetics associated with voltage cycling and incorporating mechanisms that can quantify voltage decay with carbon-support loss.

  5. Modeling the Decay in AN Hbim Starting from 3d Point Clouds. a Followed Approach for Cultural Heritage Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiabrando, F.; Lo Turco, M.; Rinaudo, F.

    2017-08-01

    The recent trends in architectural data management imply the scientific and professional collaborations of several disciplines involved in the design, restoration and maintenance. It seems an achieved concept that, in the next future, all the information connected to new interventions or conservation activities on historical buildings will be managed by using a BIM platform. Nowadays the actual range or image based metric survey techniques (mainly produced by using Terrestrial Laser Scanner or photogrammetric platform today more based on projective geometry) allow to generate 3D point clouds, 3D models, orthophotos and other outputs with assessed accuracy. The subsequent conversion of 3D information into parametric components, especially in an historical environment, is not easy and has a lot of open issues. According to the actual BIM commercial software and to the embedded tools or plugin, the paper deals with the methodology followed for the realization of two parametric 3D models (Palazzo Sarmatoris and Smistamento RoundHouse, two historical building in the north-west part of Italy). The paper describes the proposed workflow according to the employed plug-in for automatic reconstruction and to the solution adopted for the well-known problems connected to the modeling phase such as the vaults realization or the 3D irregular surfaces modeling. Finally, the studied strategy for mapping the decay in a BIM environment and the connected results with the conclusions and future perspectives are critically discussed.

  6. MODELING THE DECAY IN AN HBIM STARTING FROM 3D POINT CLOUDS. A FOLLOWED APPROACH FOR CULTURAL HERITAGE KNOWLEDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Chiabrando

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The recent trends in architectural data management imply the scientific and professional collaborations of several disciplines involved in the design, restoration and maintenance. It seems an achieved concept that, in the next future, all the information connected to new interventions or conservation activities on historical buildings will be managed by using a BIM platform. Nowadays the actual range or image based metric survey techniques (mainly produced by using Terrestrial Laser Scanner or photogrammetric platform today more based on projective geometry allow to generate 3D point clouds, 3D models, orthophotos and other outputs with assessed accuracy. The subsequent conversion of 3D information into parametric components, especially in an historical environment, is not easy and has a lot of open issues. According to the actual BIM commercial software and to the embedded tools or plugin, the paper deals with the methodology followed for the realization of two parametric 3D models (Palazzo Sarmatoris and Smistamento RoundHouse, two historical building in the north-west part of Italy. The paper describes the proposed workflow according to the employed plug-in for automatic reconstruction and to the solution adopted for the well-known problems connected to the modeling phase such as the vaults realization or the 3D irregular surfaces modeling. Finally, the studied strategy for mapping the decay in a BIM environment and the connected results with the conclusions and future perspectives are critically discussed.

  7. The Industry 4.0 Journey: Start the Learning Journey with the Reference Architecture Model Industry 4.0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nardello, Marco; Møller, Charles; Gøtze, John

    2017-01-01

    The wave of the fourth industrial revolution (Industry 4.0) is breaking on manufacturing companies. In manufacturing, one of the buzzwords of the moment is "Smart production". Smart production involves manufacturing equipment with many sensors that can generate and transmit large amounts of data....... Model Industry 4.0 (RAMI4.0) standard for Smart production. The instantiation contributed to organizational learning in the laboratory by collecting and sharing up-to-date information concerning manufacturing equipment....

  8. Critical infrastructure protection decision support system decision model : overview and quick-start user's guide.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samsa, M.; Van Kuiken, J.; Jusko, M.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2008-12-01

    The Critical Infrastructure Protection Decision Support System Decision Model (CIPDSS-DM) is a useful tool for comparing the effectiveness of alternative risk-mitigation strategies on the basis of CIPDSS consequence scenarios. The model is designed to assist analysts and policy makers in evaluating and selecting the most effective risk-mitigation strategies, as affected by the importance assigned to various impact measures and the likelihood of an incident. A typical CIPDSS-DM decision map plots the relative preference of alternative risk-mitigation options versus the annual probability of an undesired incident occurring once during the protective life of the investment, assumed to be 20 years. The model also enables other types of comparisons, including a decision map that isolates a selected impact variable and displays the relative preference for the options of interest--parameterized on the basis of the contribution of the isolated variable to total impact, as well as the likelihood of the incident. Satisfaction/regret analysis further assists the analyst or policy maker in evaluating the confidence with which one option can be selected over another.

  9. Start-Up Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Verheul, Ingrid; Thurik, Roy

    2000-01-01

    textabstractFemale and male entrepreneurs differ in the way they finance their businesses. This can be attributed to the type of business and the type of management and experience (indirect effect). Female start-ups may also experience other barriers based upon discriminatory effects (direct effect). Whether gender has an impact on size and composition of start-up capital, is the subject of the present paper. To test for these direct and indirect effects data of 2000 Dutch starting entreprene...

  10. Analytical investigation of the boundary-triggered phase transition dynamics in a cellular automata model with a slow-to-start rule

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Ning; Ma Shou-Feng; Zhong Shi-Quan

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that there are three different jam phases in the cellular automata automaton model with a slow-to-start rule under open boundaries.In the present paper,the dynamics of each free-flow-jam phase transition is studied.By analysing the microscopic behaviour of the traffic flow,we obtain analytical results on the phase transition dynamics.Our results can describe the detailed time evolution of the system during phase transition,while they provide good approximation for the numerical simulation data.These findings can perfectly explain the microscopic mechanism and details of the boundary-triggered phase transition dynamics.

  11. A Neuro-Mechanical Model Explaining the Physiological Role of Fast and Slow Muscle Fibres at Stop and Start of Stepping of an Insect Leg

    OpenAIRE

    Tibor Istvan Toth; Martyna Grabowska; Joachim Schmidt; Ansgar Büschges; Silvia Daun-Gruhn

    2013-01-01

    Stop and start of stepping are two basic actions of the musculo-skeletal system of a leg. Although they are basic phenomena, they require the coordinated activities of the leg muscles. However, little is known of the details of how these activities are generated by the interactions between the local neuronal networks controlling the fast and slow muscle fibres at the individual leg joints. In the present work, we aim at uncovering some of those details using a suitable neuro-mechanical model....

  12. Impact of the health services utilization and improvement model (HUIM) on self efficacy and satisfaction among a head start population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tataw, David B; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate and report the impact of the Health Services Utilization Improvement Model (HUIM) on utilization and satisfaction with care, as well as knowledge regarding prevention, detection, and treatment of asthma, diabetes, tuberculosis, and child injury among low income health services consumers. HUIM outcomes data shows that the coupling of parental education and ecological factors (service linkage and provider orientation) impacts the health services utilization experience of low income consumers evidenced by improved self-efficacy (knowledge and voice), and satisfaction with care from a child's regular provider. Participation in HUIM activities also improved the low income consumer's knowledge of disease identification, self-care and prevention.

  13. FEMA DFIRM Station Start

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This table contains information about station starting locations. These locations indicate the reference point that was used as the origin for distance measurements...

  14. Early Head Start Evaluation

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Longitudinal information from an evaluation where children were randomly assigned to Early Head Start or community services as usual;direct assessments and...

  15. Head Start Impact Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Nationally representative, longitudinal information from an evaluation where children were randomly assigned to Head Start or community services as usual;direct...

  16. Getting started with Unity

    CERN Document Server

    Felicia, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Getting Started with Unity is written in an easy-to-follow tutorial format.""Getting Started with Unity"" is for[ 3D game developers[/color] who would like to learn how to use Unity3D and become familiar with its core features. This book is also suitable for intermediate users who would like to improve their skills. No prior knowledge of Unity3D is required.

  17. Psychiatric Advance Directives: Getting Started

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... More... Home Getting Started National Resource Center on Psychiatric Advance Directives - Getting Started Getting Started Psychiatric advance directives (PADs) are relatively new legal instruments ...

  18. Lean start-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Erik Stavnsager; Tanev, Stoyan

    2016-01-01

    The risk of launching new products and starting new firms is known to be extremely high. The Lean Start-up approach is a way of reducing these risks and enhancing the chances for success by validating the products and services in the market with customers before launching it in full scale. The main...... point is to develop a Minimum Viable Product that can be tested by potential customers and then pivot the idea if necessary around these customer evaluations. This iterative process goes through a number of stages with the purpose of validating the customers’ problems, the suggested solution...

  19. Induction motor starting current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arneaud, J.M.; Langman, R.A. [Tasmania Univ., Hobart, TAS (Australia)

    1995-12-31

    Large errors may occur if leakage path saturation is neglected when reduced-voltage test results are used to predict the direct-on-line starting current of induction motors. The results of applying three existing and two new methods for starting current prediction are compared with test data from 52 motors. A quantitative assessment is made of the probable reduction in error that would be achieved by increasing the number of available sets of reduced-voltage, locked rotor test results or by including slot design data. Guidelines are given for selecting an appropriate predictive method. (author). 4 tabs., 1 fig., 6 refs.

  20. No-Core Shell Model Calculations in Light Nuclei with Three-Nucleon Forces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, B R; Vary, J P; Nogga, A; Navratil, P; Ormand, W E

    2004-01-08

    The ab initio No-Core Shell Model (NCSM) has recently been expanded to include nucleon-nucleon (NN) and three-nucleon (3N) interactions at the three-body cluster level. Here it is used to predict binding energies and spectra of p-shell nuclei based on realistic NN and 3N interactions. It is shown that 3N force (3NF) properties can be studied in these nuclear systems. First results show that interactions based on chiral perturbation theory lead to a realistic description of {sup 6}Li.

  1. 基于EGARCH模型的远期开始期权定价%Forward-start options pricing based on EGARCH model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王献东

    2012-01-01

    By means of measure transformation and martingale method of option pricing, the pricing formulas of European forward-start options are obtained by the simple mathematical induction. Then the EGARCH model of the logarithm return volatilities is constructed by selecting the samples of real data of aerospace power stock (600343)' s daily transaction closing quotation price in 2010. The Eviews software is used to estimate the parameters and obtain the volatilities equation, The out-of-sample forecast of the volatilities is conducted, and the more reasonable options price than that based on historical volatilities is calculated. Finally, an example of numerical calculation of forward-start call options price is given.%文章利用测度变换和期权定价的鞅方法,经过简单的数学推导得出了欧式远期开始期权的定价公式.选取了航天动力(600343)股票2010年交易日收盘价格的实际数据为样本建立了股票对数收益波动率的EGARCH模型,利用Eviews软件进行参数估计得到了波动率的方程,并对波动率进行了样本外预测,从而可以计算出比基于历史波动率更合理的期权价格.最后给出了一个远期开始看涨期权价格数值计算的例子.

  2. ATLAS starts moving in

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The first large active detector component was lowered into the ATLAS cavern on 1 March. It consisted of the 8 modules forming the lower part of the central barrel of the tile hadronic calorimeter. The work of assembling the barrel, which comprises 64 modules, started the following day.

  3. A New Start

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Goodwill to the Islamic world and willingness to mend ties highlight Barack Obama’s new Middle East policy u.S. President Barack Obama started to implement his new Middle East policy soon after he assumed office. He paid a

  4. Getting started with UDOO

    CERN Document Server

    Palazzetti, Emanuele

    2015-01-01

    If you are an Android developer who wants to learn how to use UDOO to build Android applications that are capable of interacting with their surrounding environment, then this book is ideal for you. Learning UDOO is the next great step to start building your first real-world prototypes powered by the Android operating system.

  5. Start-Up Capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Verheul (Ingrid); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractFemale and male entrepreneurs differ in the way they finance their businesses. This can be attributed to the type of business and the type of management and experience (indirect effect). Female start-ups may also experience other barriers based upon discriminatory effects (direct

  6. Project Head Start: Models and Strategies for the Twenty-First Century. Garland Reference Library of Social Science. Source Books on Education, Volume 38.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Valora; Bailey, Ura Jean Oyemade

    Head Start, the nation's largest early childhood intervention, has enjoyed public and political support. The program has also been haunted by persistent questions about its role in communities, its sustainable impacts, and its quality. This book discusses the past, present, and future of Head Start in the hope of creating better partnerships…

  7. Getting started with JUCE

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, Martin

    2013-01-01

    his book is a fast-paced, practical guide full of step-by-step examples which are easy to follow and implement.This book is for programmers with a basic grasp of C++. The examples start at a basic level, making few assumptions beyond fundamental C++ concepts. Those without any experience with C++ should be able to follow and construct the examples, although you may need further support to understand the fundamental concepts.

  8. Getting started with Simulink

    CERN Document Server

    Zamboni, Luca

    2013-01-01

    This practical and easy-to-understand learning tutorial is one big exciting exercise for students and engineers that are always short on their schedules and want to regain some lost time with the help of Simulink.This book is aimed at students and engineers who need a quick start with Simulink. Though it's not required in order to understand how Simulink works, knowledge of physics will help the reader to understand the exercises described.

  9. Getting started with Hazelcast

    CERN Document Server

    Johns, Mat

    2013-01-01

    Written as a step-by-step guide, Getting Started with Hazelcast will teach you all you need to know to make your application data scalable.This book is a great introduction for Java developers, software architects, or developers looking to enable scalable and agile data within their applications. You should have programming knowledge of Java and a general familiarity with concepts like data caching and clustering.

  10. 孤独症婴幼儿早期介入丹佛干预模式%Early start denver model for young children with autism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐秀

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders(ASD) effect on children's physical and mental health has been paid more and more attention,and is widely recognized on the importance of early intervention for young children with ASD,effective intervention for the young children with ASD has become a hot pot in this field.This paper introduced the early start denver model,which was highly respected in early intervention for young children with ASD.%孤独症谱系障碍对儿童身心健康的影响越来越受到人们的关注,而对孤独症婴幼儿早期疗育的重要性也受到业内人士的广泛认同,研发针对婴幼儿孤独症的有效干预方案已成为本领域的热点,现就近年来受到业内人士广泛推崇、针对孤独症婴幼儿的早期介入丹佛干预模式作一介绍.

  11. Microscopic Shell Model Calculations for the Fluorine Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Bruce R.; Dikmen, Erdal; Maris, Pieter; Vary, James P.; Shirokov, Andrey M.

    2015-10-01

    Using a formalism based on the No Core Shell Model (NCSM), we have determined miscroscopically the core and single-particle energies and the effective two-body interactions that are the input to standard shell model (SSM) calculations. The basic idea is to perform a succession of a Okubo-Lee-Suzuki (OLS) transformation, a NCSM calculation, and a second OLS transformation to a further reduced space, such as the sd-shell, which allows the separation of the many-body matrix elements into an ``inert'' core part plus a few valence-nucleons calculation. In the present investigation we use this technique to calculate the properties of the nuclides in the Fluorine isotopic chain, using the JISP16 nucleon-nucleon interaction. The obtained SSM input, along with the results of the SSM calculations for the Fluorine isotopes, will be presented. This work supported in part by TUBITAK-BIDEB, the US DOE, the US NSF, NERSC, and the Russian Ministry of Education and Science.

  12. Getting Started with Netduino

    CERN Document Server

    Walker, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Start building electronics projects with Netduino, the popular open source hardware platform that's captured the imagination of makers and hobbyists worldwide. This easy-to-follow book provides the step-by-step guidance you need to experiment with Netduino and the .NET Micro Framework. Through a set of simple projects, you'll learn how to create electronic gadgets-including networked devices that communicate over TCP/IP. Along the way, hobbyists will pick up the basics of .NET programming, and programmers will discover how to work with electronics and microcontrollers. Follow the projects in

  13. Getting started with Arduino

    CERN Document Server

    Banzi, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Arduino is the open-source electronics prototyping platform that's taken the design and hobbyist world by storm. This thorough introduction, updated for Arduino 1.0, gives you lots of ideas for projects and helps you work with them right away. From getting organized to putting the final touches on your prototype, all the information you need is here! Inside, you'll learn about: Interaction design and physical computingThe Arduino hardware and software development environmentBasics of electricity and electronicsPrototyping on a solderless breadboardDrawing a schematic diagram Getting started

  14. Getting Started with Roo

    CERN Document Server

    Long, Josh

    2011-01-01

    Spring Roo goes a step beyond the Spring Framework by bringing true Rapid Application Development to Java-just as Grails has done with Groovy. This concise introduction shows you how to build applications with Roo, using the framework's shell as an intelligent and timesaving code-completion tool. It's an ideal RAD tool because Roo does much of the tedious code maintenance. You'll get started by building a simple customer relationship management application, complete with step-by-step instructions and code examples. Learn how to control any part of the application with Roo's opt-in feature, w

  15. En god start

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sievertsen, Hans Henrik

    I Danmark er det muligt at afvige fra reglen om, at barnet skal starte i skole det kalenderår, hvor barnet fylder 6 år. Det gør 10-15 procent af en årgang, mens 80-90 procent af børnene følger normen, og 2-3 procent starter i skole et år tidligere end normen, viser en analyse baseret på børn født i...

  16. Getting Started with Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Reas, Casey

    2010-01-01

    Learn computer programming the easy way with Processing, a simple language that lets you use code to create drawings, animation, and interactive graphics. Programming courses usually start with theory, but this book lets you jump right into creative and fun projects. It's ideal for anyone who wants to learn basic programming, and serves as a simple introduction to graphics for people with some programming skills. Written by the founders of Processing, this book takes you through the learning process one step at a time to help you grasp core programming concepts. You'll learn how to sketch wi

  17. The Use of Personality and the Five-Factor Model to Predict New Business Ventures from Outplacement to Start-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooten, Kevin C.; Timmerman, Thomas A.; Folger, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Personality traits of 145 downsized executives receiving outplacement services were examined using the 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire. The 51 who started new businesses were more likely to be emotionally stable, tough minded (less open to experience), and expedient (realistic). (SK)

  18. The Use of Personality and the Five-Factor Model to Predict New Business Ventures from Outplacement to Start-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooten, Kevin C.; Timmerman, Thomas A.; Folger, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Personality traits of 145 downsized executives receiving outplacement services were examined using the 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire. The 51 who started new businesses were more likely to be emotionally stable, tough minded (less open to experience), and expedient (realistic). (SK)

  19. Missouri: Early Head Start Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Missouri's Early Head Start/Child Care Partnership Project expands access to Early Head Start (EHS) services for children birth to age 3 by developing partnerships between federal Head Start, EHS contractors, and child care providers. Head Start and EHS contractors that participate in the initiative provide services through community child care…

  20. Modeling of the re-starting of waxy crude oil flows in pipelines; Modelisation du redemarrage des ecoulements de bruts paraffiniques dans les conduites petrolieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinay, G.

    2005-11-15

    Pipelining crude oils that contain large proportions of paraffins can cause many specific difficulties. These oils, known as waxy crude oils, usually exhibit high 'pour point', where this temperature is higher than the external temperature conditions surrounding the pipeline. During the shutdown, since the temperature decreases in the pipeline, the gel-like structure builds up and the main difficulty concerns the issue of restarting. This PhD attempts to improve waxy crude oil behaviour understanding thanks to experiment, modelling and numerical simulation in order to predict more accurately time and pressure required to restart the flow. Using various contributions to the literature, waxy crude oils are described as viscoplastic, thixotropic and compressible fluid. Strong temperature history dependence plays a prevailing role in the whole shutdown and restart process. Thus, waxy crude oils under flowing conditions correspond to the non-isothermal flow of a viscoplastic material with temperature-dependent rheological properties. Besides, the restart of a waxy crude oil is simulated by the isothermal transient flow of a weakly compressible thixotropic fluid in axisymmetric pipe geometry. We retain the Houska model to describe the thixotropic/viscoplastic feature of the fluid and compressibility is introduced in the continuity equation. The viscoplastic constitutive equation is involved using an augmented Lagrangian method and the resulting equivalent saddle-point problem is solved thanks to an Uzawa-like algorithm. Governing equations are discretized using a Finite Volume method and the convection terms are treated thanks to a TVD (Total Variation Diminishing) scheme. The Lagrangian functional technique usually used for incompressible viscoplastic flows, is adapted to compressible situations. Several numerical results attest the good convergence properties of the proposed transient algorithm. The non-isothermal results highlight the strong sensitivity of

  1. An impressive start

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    This has been an excellent week for the LHC, with a succession of fills rapidly increasing the number of proton bunches to 194 per beam. This has allowed the experiments to reach a peak luminosity of 2.5 × 1032 cm-2s-1, thereby surpassing the record for 2010 where we reached 2.0 × 1032 cm-2s-1. At the time of writing, the integrated luminosity delivered by the LHC in 2011 is around 28 inverse picobarns, which is already more than half of the total 2010 dataset.   These are impressive numbers, but what impresses me most is how quickly the LHC operators are now able to turn the machine around between fills, and how well LHC running has been incorporated into the overall operation of CERN’s accelerator complex. The flexibility of the LHC was illustrated on Thursday when we started a short phase of running at 1.38 TeV per beam, equivalent to the energy-per-nucleon of a lead-ion run. This lower energy data will be used by the experiments, in particular by ALICE, to compare...

  2. ATLAS starts moving in

    CERN Multimedia

    Della Mussia, S

    2004-01-01

    The first large active detector component was lowered into the ATLAS cavern on 1st March. It consisted of the 8 modules forming the lower part of the central barrel of the tile hadronic calorimeter. The work of assembling the barrel, which comprises 64 modules, started the following day. Two road trailers each with 64 wheels, positioned side by side. This was the solution chosen to transport the lower part of the central barrel of ATLAS' tile hadronic calorimeter from Building 185 to the PX16 shaft at Point 1 (see Figure 1). The transportation, and then the installation of the component in the experimental cavern, which took place over three days were, to say the least, rather spectacular. On 25 February, the component, consisting of eight 6-metre modules, was loaded on to the trailers. The segment of the barrel was transported on a steel support so that it wouldn't move an inch during the journey. On 26 February, once all the necessary safety checks had been carried out, the convoy was able to leave Buildi...

  3. LEP dismantling starts

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Since the end of November, various teams have been getting stuck into dismantling the LEP accelerator and its four experiments. After making the installations safe, the dismantling and removal of 40,000 tonnes of equipment is underway. Down in the tunnel, it is a solemn moment. It is 10 o'clock on 13 December and Daniel Regin, one of those heading the dismantling work, moves in on a magnet, armed with a hydraulic machine. Surrounded by teams gathered there for a course in dismantling, he makes the first cut into LEP. The great deconstruction has begun. In little over than a year, the accelerator will have been cleared away to make room for its successor, the LHC. The start of the operation goes back to 27 November. Because before setting about the machine with hydraulic shears and monkey wrenches, LEP had first to be made safe - it was important to make sure the machine could be taken apart without risk. All the SPS beam injection systems to LEP were cut off. The fluids used for cooling the magnets and superc...

  4. The Future Starts Now

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panza, Carol M.

    2012-01-01

    The fishbone diagram developed by Mariano Bernardez (2009a, 2009b) in the introductory article to this issue of "Performance Improvement Quarterly" depicts the origins and interrelationships of the models and approaches of many fields and researchers that have contributed to human performance technology (HPT) as it is used today. We can…

  5. Getting Started with TQM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeston, Kenneth R.

    1992-01-01

    Tired of disjointed programs and projects, the staff of Newtown (Connecticut) Public Schools developed their own Success-Oriented School Model, blending elements of Deming's 14 points with William Glasser's approach to quality. To obtain quality outcomes means stressing continuous improvement and staying close to the customer. (six references)…

  6. Physics of Tokamak Plasma Start-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Dennis

    2012-10-01

    This tutorial describes and reviews the state-of-art in tokamak plasma start-up and its importance to next step devices such as ITER, a Fusion Nuclear Science Facility and a Tokamak/ST demo. Tokamak plasma start-up includes breakdown of the initial gas, ramp-up of the plasma current to its final value and the control of plasma parameters during those phases. Tokamaks rely on an inductive component, typically a central solenoid, which has enabled attainment of high performance levels that has enabled the construction of the ITER device. Optimizing the inductive start-up phase continues to be an area of active research, especially in regards to achieving ITER scenarios. A new generation of superconducting tokamaks, EAST and KSTAR, experiments on DIII-D and operation with JET's ITER-like wall are contributing towards this effort. Inductive start-up relies on transformer action to generate a toroidal loop voltage and successful start-up is determined by gas breakdown, avalanche physics and plasma-wall interaction. The goal of achieving steady-sate tokamak operation has motivated interest in other methods for start-up that do not rely on the central solenoid. These include Coaxial Helicity Injection, outer poloidal field coil start-up, and point source helicity injection, which have achieved 200, 150 and 100 kA respectively of toroidal current on closed flux surfaces. Other methods including merging reconnection startup and Electron Bernstein Wave (EBW) plasma start-up are being studied on various devices. EBW start-up generates a directed electron channel due to wave particle interaction physics while the other methods mentioned rely on magnetic helicity injection and magnetic reconnection which are being modeled and understood using NIMROD code simulations.

  7. Marketing start- upů

    OpenAIRE

    Vatulya, Anna

    2012-01-01

    This diploma thesis is dedicated to marketing of start-ups and the most frequent mistakes they make in this field. The goal of this thesis is to propose recommendations for start-up founders which could help them avoid mistakes while building their business. The thesis is divided into three parts. The first part defines the concept of start-ups, explores their history and introduces the main issues start-ups have to deal with in the field of marketing. The second part contains interviews with...

  8. An investigation of ab initio shell-model interactions derived by no-core shell model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, XiaoBao; Dong, GuoXiang; Li, QingFeng; Shen, CaiWan; Yu, ShaoYing

    2016-09-01

    The microscopic shell-model effective interactions are mainly based on the many-body perturbation theory (MBPT), the first work of which can be traced to Brown and Kuo's first attempt in 1966, derived from the Hamada-Johnston nucleon-nucleon potential. However, the convergence of the MBPT is still unclear. On the other hand, ab initio theories, such as Green's function Monte Carlo (GFMC), no-core shell model (NCSM), and coupled-cluster theory with single and double excitations (CCSD), have made many progress in recent years. However, due to the increasing demanding of computing resources, these ab initio applications are usually limited to nuclei with mass up to A = 16. Recently, people have realized the ab initio construction of valence-space effective interactions, which is obtained through a second-time renormalization, or to be more exactly, projecting the full-manybody Hamiltonian into core, one-body, and two-body cluster parts. In this paper, we present the investigation of such ab initio shell-model interactions, by the recent derived sd-shell effective interactions based on effective J-matrix Inverse Scattering Potential (JISP) and chiral effective-field theory (EFT) through NCSM. In this work, we have seen the similarity between the ab initio shellmodel interactions and the interactions obtained by MBPT or by empirical fitting. Without the inclusion of three-body (3-bd) force, the ab initio shell-model interactions still share similar defects with the microscopic interactions by MBPT, i.e., T = 1 channel is more attractive while T = 0 channel is more repulsive than empirical interactions. The progress to include more many-body correlations and 3-bd force is still badly needed, to see whether such efforts of ab initio shell-model interactions can reach similar precision as the interactions fitted to experimental data.

  9. School Starting Age and Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landersø, Rasmus; Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Simonsen, Marianne

    This paper investigates the effects of school starting age on crime while relying on variation in school starting age induced by administrative rules; we exploit that Danish children typically start first grade in the calendar year they turn seven, which gives rise to a discontinuity in children’...... who benefit most from being old-for-grade are those with high latent abilities whereas those with low latent ability seem to be unaffected by being old-for-grade in school.......This paper investigates the effects of school starting age on crime while relying on variation in school starting age induced by administrative rules; we exploit that Danish children typically start first grade in the calendar year they turn seven, which gives rise to a discontinuity in children......’s school starting age. Analyses are carried out using register-based Danish data. We find that higher age at school start lowers the propensity to commit crime, but that this reduction is caused by incapacitation while human capital accumulation is unaffected. Importantly, we also find that the individuals...

  10. Kansas: Early Head Start Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Kansas Early Head Start (KEHS) provides comprehensive services following federal Head Start Program Performance Standards for pregnant women and eligible families with children from birth to age 4. KEHS was implemented in 1998 using Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) quality set-aside dollars augmented by a transfer of federal…

  11. The START III bargaining space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karas, T.H.

    1998-08-01

    The declining state of the Russian military and precarious Russian economic condition will give the US considerable advantages at the START III bargaining table. Taking the US-RF asymmetries into account, this paper discusses a menu of START III measures the US could ask for, and measures it could offer in return, in attempting to negotiate an equitable treaty. Measures the US might seek in a START III treaty include: further reductions in deployed strategic nuclear warheads, irreversibility of reductions through warhead dismantlement; beginning to bring theater nuclear weapons under mutual control, and increased transparency into the Russian nuclear weapons complex. The US may, however, wish to apply its bargaining advantages to attempting to achieve the first steps toward two long-range goals that would enhance US security: bringing theater nuclear weapons into the US-RF arms control arena, and increasing transparency into the Russian nuclear weapons complex. In exchange for measures relating to these objectives, the US might consider offering to Russia: Further strategic weapons reductions approaching levels at which the Russians believe they could maintain a degree of parity with the US; Measures to decrease the large disparities in potential deliver-system uploading capabilities that appear likely under current START II/START III scenarios; and Financial assistance in achieving START II/START III reductions as rapidly as is technically possible.

  12. The Start of a Tech Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyrli, Kurt O.

    2009-01-01

    We are at the start of a revolution in the use of computers, one that analysts predict will rival the development of the PC in its significance. Companies such as Google, HP, Amazon, Sun Microsystems, Sony, IBM, and Apple are orienting their entire business models toward this change, and software maker SAS has announced plans for a $70 million…

  13. Validation of a new mixed Bohm/gyro-Bohm model for electron and ion heat transport against ITER database, tore supra and start discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erba, M.; Aniel, T.; Basiuk, V.; Becoulet, A.; Litaudon, X

    1997-08-01

    A new model based on a combination of a Bohm-like term plus a gyro-Bohm-like term is proposed for the electron and ion heat diffusivity in the L-mode regime, which is the commonest regime of operation of Tokamaks. This model is derived using the dimensionless analysis technique taking into account the indications of scaling laws for the global confinement time and other experimental constraints on the diffusivity. The model has been successfully tested against data from several different experiments from the ITER database and the local Tore Supra data-base. Statistical analysis has shown it to perform better than purely Bohm or gyro-Bohm models and global scaling laws in the chosen dataset. (author) 36 refs.

  14. Graybox and adaptative dynamic neural network identification models to infer the steady state efficiency of solar thermal collectors starting from the transient condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberto, Baccoli; Ubaldo, Carlini; Stefano, Mariotti; Roberto, Innamorati; Elisa, Solinas; Paolo, Mura [Institute of Technical Physics of the University of Cagliari, via Marengo 1, 09123 Cagliari (Italy)

    2010-06-15

    This paper deals with the development of methods for non steady state test of solar thermal collectors. Our goal is to infer performances in steady-state conditions in terms of the efficiency curve when measures in transient conditions are the only ones available. We take into consideration the method of identification of a system in dynamic conditions by applying a Graybox Identification Model and a Dynamic Adaptative Linear Neural Network (ALNN) model. The study targets the solar collector with evacuated pipes, such as Dewar pipes. The mathematical description that supervises the functioning of the solar collector in transient conditions is developed using the equation of the energy balance, with the aim of determining the order and architecture of the two models. The input and output vectors of the two models are constructed, considering the measures of 4 days of solar radiation, flow mass, environment and heat-transfer fluid temperature in the inlet and outlet from the thermal solar collector. The efficiency curves derived from the two models are detected in correspondence to the test and validation points. The two synthetic simulated efficiency curves are compared with the actual efficiency curve certified by the Swiss Institute Solartechnik Puffung Forschung which tested the solar collector performance in steady-state conditions according to the UNI-EN 12975 standard. An acquisition set of measurements of only 4 days in the transient condition was enough to trace through a Graybox State Space Model the efficiency curve of the tested solar thermal collector, with a relative error of synthetic values with respect to efficiency certified by SPF, lower than 0.5%, while with the ALNN model the error is lower than 2.2% with respect to certified one. (author)

  15. Accountability Starts with the Superintendent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, Kenneth E.

    1973-01-01

    Describes how Lawndale District, near Los Angeles, developed a system of accountability starting with the superintendent. Describes the subgoals and objectives developed by the superintendent in cooperation with the Board of Trustees and members of the community. (JF)

  16. Montessori Head Start Implementation Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Alcillia; Kahn, David

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the use of the Montessori method in Head Start programs, focusing on educational environment, teacher training, parent involvement, and funding. Outlines the phased implementation of a Montessori program and provides a list of Montessori publications and organizations. (MDM)

  17. Simulation of a multi-spacecraft detected gradual SEP event by using a shock-and-particle model starting at 4 solar radii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Gasen, Rosa; Jacobs, Carla; Aran, Angels; Sanahuja, Blai; Poedts, Stefaan

    Particle intensity-time profiles of a gradual SEP event observed by spacecraft located a different heliolongitudes close to the ecliptic plane, even being at a similar distance from the Sun, have shown different shapes. To model this variability we present the simulation of an event observed by the Helios 1 and 2 and IMP8/ISEE-3 spacecraft. We have developed under the Solar Energetic Particle Event Modeling (SEPEM) project a new shock-and-particle model that combines a 2D MHD code (in the ecliptic plane) and a particle transport code. With this model we can track the traveling shock from 4 solar radii. This allows us to determine the injection rate of shock accelerated particles from close to the Sun, where the bulk of high energy particles often are accelerated. We have simulated the shock propagation by fitting the time of shock arrivals and jumps in plasma observed at each of the spacecraft and we have reproduced the proton intensities measured by these vantage observers. We draw conclusions on the influence of the relative position of the observer (with respect to the leading direction of the traveling shock), on the injection rate of shock-accelerated particles, and on the particles transport conditions found for each spacecraft. We also discuss the forecasting capability of the relation between the injection rate of shock accelerated particles and the jump in speed across the shock front that we have found in SEP events previously modeled.

  18. Construction of a full three-dimensional model of the transpeptidase domain of Streptococcus pneumoniae PBP2x starting from its Cα-atom coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hooft, Paul A. M.; Höltje, Hans-Dieter

    2000-11-01

    A new method is described for generating all-atom protein structures from Cα-atom information. The method, which combines both local structural trace alignments and comparative side chain modeling with ab initio side chain modeling, makes use of both the virtual-bond and the dipole-path methods. Provided that 3D structures of structurally and functionally related proteins exist, the method presented here is highly suitable for generating all-atom coordinates of partly solved, low-resolution crystal structures. Particularly the active site region can be modeled accurately with this procedure, which enables investigation of the binding modes of different classes of ligands with molecular dynamics simulations. The method is applied to the trace of Streptococcus pneumoniae, in order to construct an all-atom structure of the transpeptidase domain. Since after generation of full coordinates of the transpeptidase domain the structure had been solved to 2.4 Å resolution, new X-ray coordinates for the worst modeled loop (residues T370 to M386; 17 out of a total number of 351 residues constituting the transpeptidase domain) were incorporated, as kindly provided by Dr. Dideberg. The structure was relaxed with molecular dynamics simulations and simulated annealing methods. The RMS deviation between the 144 aligned Cα-atoms and the corresponding ones in the originally solved 3.5 Å resolution crystal structure was 0.98. The 351 Cα-atoms of the whole transpeptidase domain of the final model showed an RMS deviation of 1.58. The Ramachandran plot showed that 79.3% of the residues are in the most favored regions, with only 1.0% occurring in disallowed regions. The model presented here can be used to investigate the three-dimensional influences of mutations around the active site of PBP2 x.

  19. Impact of chronic Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura (ITP on health-related quality of life: a conceptual model starting with the patient perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George James N

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP, a condition characterized by autoimmune-mediated platelet destruction and suboptimal platelet production, is associated with symptoms such as bruising, epistaxis, menorrhagia, mucosal bleeding from the gastrointestinal and urinary tracts and, rarely central nervous system bleeding. The aim of this research is to develop a conceptual model to describe the impact of ITP and its treatment on patients' health-related quality of life (HRQoL. Methods A literature search and focus groups with adult ITP patients were conducted to identify areas of HRQoL affected by ITP. Published literature was reviewed to identify key HRQoL issues and existing questionnaires used to assess HRQoL. Focus group transcripts were reviewed, and common themes were extracted by grouping conceptual categories that described the impact on HRQoL. Results The literature synthesis and themes from the focus group data suggest that decreased platelet counts, disease symptoms, and treatment side effects influence multiple domains of HRQoL for ITP patients. Key areas affected by ITP and its treatments include emotional and functional health, work life, social and leisure activities, and reproductive health. Conclusion ITP affects various areas of HRQoL. This conceptual model will help inform the evaluation of therapeutic strategies for ITP.

  20. Strong-LAMP: A LAMP Assay for Strongyloides spp. Detection in Stool and Urine Samples. Towards the Diagnosis of Human Strongyloidiasis Starting from a Rodent Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandasegui, Javier; Bajo Santos, Cristina; López-Abán, Julio; Saugar, José María; Rodríguez, Esperanza; Vicente, Belén; Muro, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Background Strongyloides stercoralis, the chief causative agent of human strongyloidiasis, is a nematode globally distributed but mainly endemic in tropical and subtropical regions. Chronic infection is often clinically asymptomatic but it can result in severe hyperinfection syndrome or disseminated strongyloidiasis in immunocompromised patients. There is a great diversity of techniques used in diagnosing the disease, but definitive diagnosis is accomplished by parasitological examination of stool samples for morphological identification of parasite. Until now, no molecular method has been tested in urine samples as an alternative to stool samples for diagnosing strongyloidiasis. This study aimed to evaluate the use of a new molecular LAMP assay in a well-established Wistar rat experimental infection model using both stool and, for the first time, urine samples. The LAMP assay was also clinically evaluated in patients´ stool samples. Methodology/Principal Findings Stool and urine samples were obtained daily during a 28-day period from rats infected subcutaneously with different infective third-stage larvae doses of S. venezuelensis. The dynamics of parasite infection was determined by daily counting the number of eggs per gram of feces from day 1 to 28 post-infection. A set of primers for LAMP assay based on a DNA partial sequence in the 18S rRNA gene from S. venezuelensis was designed. The set up LAMP assay (namely, Strong-LAMP) allowed the sensitive detection of S. venezuelensis DNA in both stool and urine samples obtained from each infection group of rats and was also effective in S. stercoralis DNA amplification in patients´ stool samples with previously confirmed strongyloidiasis by parasitological and real-time PCR tests. Conclusions/Significance Our Strong-LAMP assay is an useful molecular tool in research of a strongyloidiasis experimental infection model in both stool and urine samples. After further validation, the Strong-LAMP could also be potentially

  1. Double Star Mission Starts Countdown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ As of July, scientists at the CAS Center for Space Science and Applied Research (CSSAR) have been busy modulating and testing the payloads that will be onboard a space exploration satellite, marking the start of the countdown for China's Double Star Project.

  2. Sulfur plant start-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, Hank; Grigson, Susan [Ortloff Engineers Ltd. (United States)

    2002-02-01

    The authors discuss an Ortloff sulfur plant design concept using the Claus reaction that differs from accepted 'industry practice': cold reactor bed start-up. The process is designed to eliminate catalyst sulfation, heat damage and furnace overheating in sulfur recovery units. (UK)

  3. Effective Interactions and Operators in Nuclei within the No-Core Shell Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, B; Navratil, P; Stetcu, I; Vary, J

    2005-09-14

    We review the application of effective operator formalism to the ab initio no core shell model (NCSM). For short-range operators, such as the nucleon-nucleon potential, the unitary-transformation method works extremely well at the two-body cluster approximation and good results are obtained for the binding energies and excitation spectra of light nuclei (A {<=} 16). However, for long-range operators, such as the radius or the quadrupole moment, performing this unitary transformation at the two-body cluster level, does not include the higher-order correlations needed to renormalize these long-range operators adequately. Usually, such correlations can be obtained either by increasing the order of the cluster approximation, or by increasing the model space. We will discuss the difficulties of these approaches as well as alternate possible solutions for including higher-order correlations in small model spaces.

  4. Biomechanics of the sprint start.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harland, M J; Steele, J R

    1997-01-01

    Many variables have been studied pertaining to the block sprint start. Research suggests that the adoption of a medium block spacing is preferred, with front and rear knee angles in the set position approximating 90 and 130 degrees, respectively, with the hips held moderately high. The sprinter must be capable of developing a high force rate combined with a high maximum force, especially in the horizontal direction. This ability to create high force underlies other important indicators of starting performance such as minimum block clearance time, maximum block leaving velocity and maximum block leaving acceleration. Once the sprinter has projected him/herself from the blocks at a low angle (40 to 45 degrees) relative to the ground, the following 2 post-block steps should occur with the total body centre of gravity ahead of the contacting foot at foot strike to minimise potential horizontal braking forces.

  5. Getting started with Twitter Flight

    CERN Document Server

    Hamshere, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Getting Started with Twitter Flight is written with the intention to educate the readers, helping them learn how to build modular powerful applications with Flight, Twitter's cutting-edge JavaScript framework.This book is for anyone with a foundation in JavaScript who wants to build web applications. Flight is quick and easy to learn, built on technologies you already understand such as the DOM, events, and jQuery.

  6. Getting started with Drupal commerce

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Richard

    2013-01-01

    A simple yet concise step-by-step tutorial that starts from scratch and builds up your knowledge with focused examples that will enable you to set up and run an e-commerce website.This book is for beginners and will take you through the installation and configuration of Drupal Commerce from scratch, but some familiarity with Drupal 7 will be an advantage. All examples are based on development on a local computer - you do not need a hosted Drupal environment.

  7. Abundances in Astrophysical Environments: Reaction Network Simulations with Reaction Rates from Many-nucleon Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amason, Charlee; Dreyfuss, Alison; Launey, Kristina; Draayer, Jerry

    2017-01-01

    We use the ab initio (first-principle) symmetry-adapted no-core shell model (SA-NCSM) to calculate reaction rates of significance to type I X-ray burst nucleosynthesis. We consider the 18O(p,γ)19F reaction, which may influence the production of fluorine, as well as the 16O(α,γ)20Ne reaction, which is key to understanding the production of heavier elements in the universe. Results are compared to those obtained in the no-core sympletic shell model (NCSpM) with a schematic interaction. We discuss how these reaction rates affect the relevant elemental abundances. We thank the NSF for supporting this work through the REU Site in Physics & Astronomy (NSF grant #1560212) at Louisiana State University. This work was also supported by the U.S. NSF (OCI-0904874, ACI -1516338) and the U.S. DOE (DE-SC0005248).

  8. Non-commutative standard model: model building

    CERN Document Server

    Chaichian, Masud; Presnajder, P

    2003-01-01

    A non-commutative version of the usual electro-weak theory is constructed. We discuss how to overcome the two major problems: (1) although we can have non-commutative U(n) (which we denote by U sub * (n)) gauge theory we cannot have non-commutative SU(n) and (2) the charges in non-commutative QED are quantized to just 0,+-1. We show how the latter problem with charge quantization, as well as with the gauge group, can be resolved by taking the U sub * (3) x U sub * (2) x U sub * (1) gauge group and reducing the extra U(1) factors in an appropriate way. Then we proceed with building the non-commutative version of the standard model by specifying the proper representations for the entire particle content of the theory, the gauge bosons, the fermions and Higgs. We also present the full action for the non-commutative standard model (NCSM). In addition, among several peculiar features of our model, we address the inherentCP violation and new neutrino interactions. (orig.)

  9. Study on the Effect Mechanism of Business Model Design on Start-ups' Performance%商业模式设计对新创企业绩效的影响机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张郑熠; 金珺; 陈俊滢; 郭敏

    2015-01-01

    The paper focuses on the relationship between the start-ups' model design and their performance. At the same time, the paper argues that situational factors such as environment munificence and absorption ability have a moderating effect on the relationship between business model design and performance. For this purpose, this study tests such relationship using the method of OLS on the basis of survey data from 115 start-ups questionnaires. Results show that novelty-centered business model design has positive effect on performance significantly, while the effect of efficiency-centered business model design on performance is not significant. In addition, environment munificence positively moderates the relationship between novelty-centered business model design and performance, and the absorptive capacity also positively moderates the relationship between novelty-centered business model design and performance.%本文聚焦于新创企业的商业模式设计同其绩效之间的关系,并考虑情境因素如环境友善性和吸收能力对商业模式设计与新创企业绩效关系的调节作用.为此,本研究在对 115 家新创企业问卷调查数据的基础上,采用OLS方法对相关关系进行了检验.结果表明,新创企业的新颖型商业模式设计正向影响企业绩效,而效率型商业模式设计的影响不显著,而且环境友善性正向调节新颖型商业模式设计与新创企业绩效的关系;吸收能力正向调节新颖型商业模式设计与新创企业绩效关系.

  10. Formula Feeding FAQs: Starting Solids and Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Year-Old Formula Feeding FAQs: Starting Solids and Milk KidsHealth > For Parents > Formula Feeding FAQs: Starting Solids ... When can I start giving my baby cow's milk? Before their first birthday, babies still need the ...

  11. New Start,New Opportunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Daniel Arbenz was bom and educated in Switzerland. In 1978, he entered the hotel indastry as a chef and worked his way up through all segments of the business. After graduating from the famous Swiss Hotel Management School in Luceme and obtaining management exposure in the finest hotels in Switzerland, he moved to Hong Kong in 1989, starting his career in Asia. Arbenz moved to Singapore, then to Bali, for Resort Hotels and has been with the Intercontinental Hotels Group for almost 10 years in general man...

  12. Getting Started with Hibernate 3

    CERN Document Server

    Elliott, James

    2008-01-01

    Hibernate has clearly arrived. Are you ready to benefit from its simple way of working with relational databases as Java objects? This PDF updates the introductory material from the award-winning Hibernate: A Developer's Notebook to teach you how to jump right in and get productive with the current release of Hibernate. You'll be walked through the ins and outs of setting up Hibernate and some related tools that make it easier to use--and that may give you new ideas about how to store information in your Java programs. In short, this PDF gives you exactly the information you need to start u

  13. Getting started With Amazon Redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Getting Started With Amazon Redshift is a step-by-step, practical guide to the world of Redshift. Learn to load, manage, and query data on Redshift.This book is for CIOs, enterprise architects, developers, and anyone else who needs to get familiar with RedShift. The CIO will gain an understanding of what their technical staff is working on; the technical implementation personnel will get an in-depth view of the technology, and what it will take to implement their own solutions.

  14. Getting started with electronic mail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Vuren, D D; Johnson, D E

    1985-01-01

    This paper gives suggestions to librarians on how to get started with electronic mail. It discusses the cost- and time-saving advantages of using electronic mail rather than TWX, United States mail, or telephones for communicating ILL requests and messages. For instance, preliminary cost data show that electronic mail is often half as expensive as TWX and costs no more than a 22 stamp. Key management concerns that must be considered when setting up electronic mail are discussed, including the need for subscribers to agree on one system. Also covered are the types of equipment that can be used with electronic mail, including print terminals. PMID:4027444

  15. The start of the harvest

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    The first major particle physics summer conference has just started this week in Grenoble. After the Quark-Matter conference, the Europhysics Conference on High-Energy Physics marks the start of a promising harvest for the LHC experiments.   For the first time, the collaborations will be presenting their latest results based on all luminosity taken until end of June, which will provide more precise measurements in many areas. Thanks to the excellent performance of the LHC, the experiments have already accumulated a substantial quantity of data allowing them to push back the known limits and refine measurements in many fields ranging from b physics to the search for the Higgs boson and for dark matter. At the time of writing, the LHC collaborations are about to present these new results in an energy range which has never previously been explored. I have congratulated all the teams involved in getting the LHC into operation in record time with great efficiency. Today I would like to acknowledge the...

  16. Numerical study of unsteady starting characteristics of a hypersonic inlet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Weixing; Guo Rongwei

    2013-01-01

    The impulse and self starting characteristics of a mixed-compression hypersonic inlet designed at Mach number of 6.5 are studied by applying the unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method.The full Navier-Stokes equations are solved with the assumption of viscous perfect gas model,and the shear-stress transport (SST) k-ω two-equation Reynolds averaged NavierStokes (RANS) model is used for turbulence modeling.Results indicate that during impulse starting,the flow field is divided into three zones with different aerodynamic parameters by primary shock and upstream-facing shock.The separation bubble on the shoulder of ramp undergoes a generating,growing,swallowing and disappearing process in sequence.But a separation bubble at the entrance of inlet exists until the freestream velocity is accelerated to the starting Mach number during self starting.The mass flux distribution of flow field is non-uniform because of the interaction between shock and boundary layer,so that the mass flow rate at throat is unsteady during impulse starting.The duration of impulse starting process increases almost linearly with the decrease of fleestream Mach number but rises abruptly when the freestream Mach number approaches the starting Mach number.The accelerating performance of booster almost has no influence on the self starting ability of hypersonic inlet.

  17. Ab Initio No Core Shell Model - Recent Results and Further Prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Vary, James P; Potter, Hugh; Caprio, Mark A; Smith, Robin; Binder, Sven; Calci, Angelo; Fischer, Sebastian; Langhammer, Joachim; Roth, Robert; Aktulga, Hasan Metin; Ng, Esmond; Yang, Chao; Oryspayev, Dossay; Sosonkina, Masha; Saule, Erik; Çatalyürek, Ümit

    2015-01-01

    There has been significant recent progress in solving the long-standing problems of how nuclear shell structure and collective motion emerge from underlying microscopic inter-nucleon interactions. We review a selection of recent significant results within the ab initio No Core Shell Model (NCSM) closely tied to three major factors enabling this progress: (1) improved nuclear interactions that accurately describe the experimental two-nucleon and three-nucleon interaction data; (2) advances in algorithms to simulate the quantum many-body problem with strong interactions; and (3) continued rapid development of high-performance computers now capable of performing $20 \\times 10^{15}$ floating point operations per second. We also comment on prospects for further developments.

  18. Electric dipole moment induced by CP-violating deformations in the noncommutative Standard Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Jian; Yan, Zhe-Hui; Guan, Rong-Hua; Wei, Xing-Ning

    2017-03-01

    The possibility to detect the noncommutative (NC) spacetime in the electric dipole moments (EDM) experiments is studied in the effective field theory of noncommutative Standard Model (NCSM) with many additional deformations. The EDM given by the previous literatures do not have any observable effect since they are spin-independent. In this work, it is found that three of the deformed terms provide extra sources of CP violation contributed to EDM. We show that these EDMs are sensitive to the spin and thus have potential to be measured in the highly precise experiments. In particular, the EDM induced by NC spacetime may not be parallel to the direction of spin, which demonstrates the intrinsic feature of NC field theory.

  19. 30 CFR 75.1913 - Starting aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Starting aids. 75.1913 Section 75.1913 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1913 Starting aids. (a) Volatile fuel starting aids shall be used in accordance with recommendations provided by the starting...

  20. Ingredients: where pet food starts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Angele

    2008-08-01

    Every clinician is asked "What should I feed my pet?" Understanding the ingredients in pet food is an important part of making the best recommendation. Pet food can be as simple as one ingredient or as complicated as containing more than 60 ingredients. Pet food and its ingredients are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration and state feed officials. Part of that regulation is the review and definition of ingredients. Existing ingredients change and new ingredients become available so the need for ingredient definitions grows. Ingredients for product formulations are chosen based on their nutrient content, digestibility, palatability, functionality, availability, and cost. As an example, a typical, nutritionally complete dry dog food with 42 ingredients is examined and the ingredients are discussed here. Safe, healthy pet food starts with safe ingredients sourced from well-monitored suppliers. The ultimate goal of both veterinarians and pet food manufacturers is the same--long healthy lives for dogs and cats.

  1. Economic evaluation of urgent-start peritoneal dialysis versus urgent-start hemodialysis in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Frank Xiaoqing; Ghaffari, Arshia; Dhatt, Harman; Kumar, Vijay; Balsera, Cristina; Wallace, Eric; Khairullah, Quresh; Lesher, Beth; Gao, Xin; Henderson, Heather; LaFleur, Paula; Delgado, Edna M; Alvarez, Melissa M; Hartley, Janett; McClernon, Marilyn; Walton, Surrey; Guest, Steven

    2014-12-01

    Patients presenting late in the course of kidney disease who require urgent initiation of dialysis have traditionally received temporary vascular catheters followed by hemodialysis. Recent changes in Medicare payment policy for dialysis in the USA incentivized the use of peritoneal dialysis (PD). Consequently, the use of more expeditious PD for late-presenting patients (urgent-start PD) has received new attention. Urgent-start PD has been shown to be safe and effective, and offers a mechanism for increasing PD utilization. However, there has been no assessment of the dialysis-related costs over the first 90 days of care. The objective of this study was to characterize the costs associated with urgent-start PD, urgent-start hemodialysis (HD), or a dual approach (urgent-start HD followed by urgent-start PD) over the first 90 days of treatment from a provider perspective. A survey of practitioners from 5 clinics known to use urgent-start PD was conducted to provide inputs for a cost model representing typical patients. Model inputs were obtained from the survey, literature review, and available cost data. Sensitivity analyses were also conducted. The estimated per patient cost over the first 90 days for urgent-start PD was $16,398. Dialysis access represented 15% of total costs, dialysis services 48%, and initial hospitalization 37%. For urgent-start HD, total per patient costs were $19,352, and dialysis access accounted for 27%, dialysis services 42%, and initial hospitalization 31%. The estimated cost for dual patients was $19,400. Urgent-start PD may offer a cost saving approach for the initiation of dialysis in eligible patients requiring an urgent-start to dialysis.

  2. Preschool Facilities - MDC_HeadStart

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — A label (point) feature class of Head Start / Early Head Start/ Delegate Agencies/ Child Care Partnership & Family Day Care Homes Programs location in Miami-Dade...

  3. Tingzikou key water control project started construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Tingzikou key water control project on Jialing River, one of 18 newly started key projects in 2009 for China's western part development program, formally started construction at the end of November last year.

  4. Revenue Maximizing Head Starts in Contests

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Jörg; Leininger, Wolfgang; Wasser, Cédric

    2014-01-01

    We characterize revenue maximizing head starts for all-pay auctions and lottery contests with many heterogeneous players. We show that under optimal head starts all-pay auctions revenue-dominate lottery contests for any degree of heterogeneity among players. Moreover, all-pay auctions with optimal head starts induce higher revenue than any multiplicatively biased all-pay auction or lottery contest. While head starts are more effective than multiplicative biases in all-pay auctions, they are l...

  5. Investigations about Starting Cracks in DC Casting of 6063 Type Billets. Part I: Experimental Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, W.; Jensen, E. K.

    Influence on starting crack tendency (hot cracks in billet center) of varying a number of casting parameters was studied by experiments (Part I) and by model calculations (Part II). Effects of varying the following factors were examined in detail: casting conditions, starting block material, insulating various parts of the starting block, starting block shape. Both experiments and calculations pointed to starting block shape as a most important single factor controlling starting cracks. By using the in experiments determined and calculated depth of the liquid sump as a criterion, a proper shape was found that practically eliminates the starting crack problems in billets of the AA 606 3 type alloys.

  6. The Real World Starts Here

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Kimberly A.

    2012-01-01

    The author, principal at North Point High School of Science, Technology and Industry in Charles County, Maryland, describes how the school merges traditional academic classes with cutting-edge career and technical education courses to prepare students for the real world. Realizing that its traditional "vo-tech" model was undersubscribed…

  7. Metadata Embeddings for User and Item Cold-start Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Kula, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    I present a hybrid matrix factorisation model representing users and items as linear combinations of their content features' latent factors. The model outperforms both collaborative and content-based models in cold-start or sparse interaction data scenarios (using both user and item metadata), and performs at least as well as a pure collaborative matrix factorisation model where interaction data is abundant. Additionally, feature embeddings produced by the model encode semantic information in...

  8. Start-ups, Venture Capitalists and the Capital Gains Tax

    OpenAIRE

    Keuschnigg, Christian; Nielsen, Søren Bo

    2004-01-01

    A model of start-up finance with double moral hazard is proposed. Entrepreneurs have ideas but lack their own resources as well as commercial experience. Venture capitalists provide start-up finance and managerial support. Both types of agents thus jointly contribute to the firm's success, but neither type's effort is verifiable. We find that the market equilibrium is biased towards inefficiently low venture capital support. In this situation, the capital gains tax is particularly harmful. Th...

  9. STUDY ON STARTING VELOCITY OF COHESIVE SEDIMENTATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, with the starting velocity experiments of natural cohesive sedimentation, the author proposes an assumption concerning the starting mechanism of cohesive sedimentation and gives a formula to determine the starting velocity of compact clay. It is pointed out that the fluctuating function of flow is a main factor for the starting of sedimentation. And the component and the structure of cohesive sedimentation are also the affecting factors for the starting. Consequently, the study shows that modern results of soil mechanics, clay mineralogy and fluid mechanics are helpful in the investigation of this kind of engineering problem.

  10. Cosmology from start to finish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L

    2006-04-27

    Cosmology is undergoing a revolution. With recent precise measurements of the cosmic microwave background radiation, large galaxy redshift surveys, better measurements of the expansion rate of the Universe and a host of other astrophysical observations, there is now a standard, highly constrained cosmological model. It is not a cosmology that was predicted. Unidentified dark particles dominate the matter content of our Universe, and mysteries surround the processes responsible for the accelerated expansion at its earliest moments (inflation?) and for its recent acceleration (dark energy?). New measurements must address the fundamental questions: what happened at the birth of the Universe, and what is its ultimate fate?

  11. Spreading continents kick-started plate tectonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Patrice F; Coltice, Nicolas; Flament, Nicolas

    2014-09-18

    Stresses acting on cold, thick and negatively buoyant oceanic lithosphere are thought to be crucial to the initiation of subduction and the operation of plate tectonics, which characterizes the present-day geodynamics of the Earth. Because the Earth's interior was hotter in the Archaean eon, the oceanic crust may have been thicker, thereby making the oceanic lithosphere more buoyant than at present, and whether subduction and plate tectonics occurred during this time is ambiguous, both in the geological record and in geodynamic models. Here we show that because the oceanic crust was thick and buoyant, early continents may have produced intra-lithospheric gravitational stresses large enough to drive their gravitational spreading, to initiate subduction at their margins and to trigger episodes of subduction. Our model predicts the co-occurrence of deep to progressively shallower mafic volcanics and arc magmatism within continents in a self-consistent geodynamic framework, explaining the enigmatic multimodal volcanism and tectonic record of Archaean cratons. Moreover, our model predicts a petrological stratification and tectonic structure of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle, two predictions that are consistent with xenolith and seismic studies, respectively, and consistent with the existence of a mid-lithospheric seismic discontinuity. The slow gravitational collapse of early continents could have kick-started transient episodes of plate tectonics until, as the Earth's interior cooled and oceanic lithosphere became heavier, plate tectonics became self-sustaining.

  12. OPTIMAL STARTING PRICE FOR EBAY-LIKE ONLINE AUCTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai YU; Shouyang WANG; Chuangyin DANG

    2006-01-01

    Reserve price auctions are one of hot research issues in traditional auction theory. Here we study the starting price in an online auction, the counterpart of the public reserve price in a traditional auction. By considering three features of eBay-like online auctions: stochastic entry of bidders (subject to Poisson process), insertion fee proportional to the starting price, and time discount, we have analyzed the properties of extremum points of the starting price for maximizing the seller's expected revenue,and found that, under certain conditions, the optimal starting price should be at the lowest allowable level, which is contrary to the results from the classic auction theory and finds its optimality in reality.We have also developed a general extended model of multistage auctions and carried out analysis on its properties. At last, some directions for further research are also put forward.

  13. Start-up Funding via Equity Crowdfunding in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angerer, Martin; Brem, Alexander; Kraus, Sascha

    2017-01-01

    Entrepreneurs often struggle to find sufficient funding for their start-ups. A relatively new way for companies to attract capital is via an internet platform, locating investors who in return receive something in return for their ventures. Equity crowdfunding is one of several types...... of crowdfunding, and is also known as crowdinvesting in the German-speaking realm. This article predominantly advances the scientific knowledge regarding the success factors of equity crowdfunding for German start-ups. The study conducted nine qualitative interviews with start-ups and crowdinvesting platforms....... Its first result is that German start-ups select crowdinvesting because (1) it is a funding opportunity and (2) it has an expected marketing effect. To organize the results of relevant success factors, the Crowdinvesting Success Model was designed by the researchers. This supports German entrepreneurs...

  14. Origin of irreversibility of cell cycle start in budding yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Charvin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Budding yeast cells irreversibly commit to a new division cycle at a regulatory transition called Start. This essential decision-making step involves the activation of the SBF/MBF transcription factors. SBF/MBF promote expression of the G1 cyclins encoded by CLN1 and CLN2. Cln1,2 can activate their own expression by inactivating the Whi5 repressor of SBF/MBF. The resulting transcriptional positive feedback provides an appealing, but as yet unproven, candidate for generating irreversibility of Start. Here, we investigate the logic of the Start regulatory module by quantitative single-cell time-lapse microscopy, using strains in which expression of key regulators is efficiently controlled by changes of inducers in a microfluidic chamber. We show that Start activation is ultrasensitive to G1 cyclin. In the absence of CLN1,2-dependent positive feedback, we observe that Start transit is reversible, due to reactivation of the Whi5 transcriptional repressor. Introduction of the positive feedback loop makes Whi5 inactivation and Start activation irreversible, which therefore guarantees unidirectional entry into S phase. A simple mathematical model to describe G1 cyclin turn on at Start, entirely constrained by empirically measured parameters, shows that the experimentally measured ultrasensitivity and transcriptional positive feedback are necessary and sufficient dynamical characteristics to make the Start transition a bistable and irreversible switch. Our study thus demonstrates that Start irreversibility is a property that arises from the architecture of the system (Whi5/SBF/Cln2 loop, rather than the consequence of the regulation of a single component (e.g., irreversible protein degradation.

  15. Origin of irreversibility of cell cycle start in budding yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charvin, Gilles; Oikonomou, Catherine; Siggia, Eric D; Cross, Frederick R

    2010-01-19

    Budding yeast cells irreversibly commit to a new division cycle at a regulatory transition called Start. This essential decision-making step involves the activation of the SBF/MBF transcription factors. SBF/MBF promote expression of the G1 cyclins encoded by CLN1 and CLN2. Cln1,2 can activate their own expression by inactivating the Whi5 repressor of SBF/MBF. The resulting transcriptional positive feedback provides an appealing, but as yet unproven, candidate for generating irreversibility of Start. Here, we investigate the logic of the Start regulatory module by quantitative single-cell time-lapse microscopy, using strains in which expression of key regulators is efficiently controlled by changes of inducers in a microfluidic chamber. We show that Start activation is ultrasensitive to G1 cyclin. In the absence of CLN1,2-dependent positive feedback, we observe that Start transit is reversible, due to reactivation of the Whi5 transcriptional repressor. Introduction of the positive feedback loop makes Whi5 inactivation and Start activation irreversible, which therefore guarantees unidirectional entry into S phase. A simple mathematical model to describe G1 cyclin turn on at Start, entirely constrained by empirically measured parameters, shows that the experimentally measured ultrasensitivity and transcriptional positive feedback are necessary and sufficient dynamical characteristics to make the Start transition a bistable and irreversible switch. Our study thus demonstrates that Start irreversibility is a property that arises from the architecture of the system (Whi5/SBF/Cln2 loop), rather than the consequence of the regulation of a single component (e.g., irreversible protein degradation).

  16. 76 FR 37174 - Capital Investment Program-New Starts and Small Starts Program Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... Federal Transit Administration Capital Investment Program--New Starts and Small Starts Program Funds... appropriated for the Capital Investments Grant Account, which includes the New Starts and Small Starts programs... Transportation's (DOT) Federal Transit Administration (FTA) announces the apportionment of the FY 2011...

  17. Observation of the Starting and Low Speed Behavior of Small Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikandar Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the starting behavior of small horizontal axis wind turbines at high angles of attack and low Reynolds number. The unfavorable relative wind direction during the starting time leads to low starting torque and more idling time. Wind turbine models of sizes less than 5 meters were simulated at wind speed range of 2 m/s to 5 m/s. Wind turbines were modeled in Pro/E and based on the optimized designs given by MATLAB codes. Wind turbine models were simulated in ADAMS for improving the starting behavior. The models with high starting torques and less idling times were selected. The starting behavior was successfully improved and the optimized wind turbine models were able to produce more starting torque even at wind speeds less than 5 m/s.

  18. Starting Time Calculation for Induction Motor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Garg

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This Paper Presents The Starting Time Calculation For A Squirrel Cage Induction Motor. The Importance Of Starting Time Lies In Determining The Duration Of Large Current, Which Flows During The Starting Of An Induction Motor. Normally, The Starting Current Of An Induction Motor Is Six To Eight Time Of Full Load Current. Plenty Of Methods Have Been Discovered To Start Motor In A Quick Time, But Due To Un-Economic Nature, Use Are Limited. Hence, For Large Motors Direct Online Starting Is Most Popular Amongst All Due To Its Economic And Feasible Nature. But Large Current With Dol Starting Results In A Heavy Potential Drop In The Power System. Thus, Special Care And Attention Is Required In Order To Design A Healthy System. A Very Simple Method To Calculate The Starting Time Of Motor Is Proposed In This Paper. Respective Simulation Study Has Been Carried Out Using Matlab 7.8.0 Environment, Which Demonstrates The Effectiveness Of The Starting Time Calculation.

  19. The Phenomenon of Business Start-Ups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Africa

    1990-01-01

    A study of four European countries (France, United Kingdom, Italy, and Spain) was conducted to gather data on the business start-up process and its impact on the generation of jobs, small business start-up support programs, training and counseling programs, and characteristics of successful business starters. (The original aim of the study was to…

  20. Start-up analysis for marketing strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, M J; Baloff, N

    1984-01-01

    The complex start-up effect on utilization of health care services is too often overlooked or underestimated by marketing planners, leading to a range of negative consequences for both the users of services and the provider organization. Start-up analysis allows accurate estimation of these utilization effects for coordinated strategic planning among marketing finance, and operations.

  1. Lean and global technology start-ups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanev, Stoyan; Rasmussen, Erik Stavnsager; Zijdemans, Erik

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the authors introduce the concept of Lean Global Start-up (LGS) as a way of emphasizing the impossibility for new technology start-ups to deal separately with business development, innovation and early internationalization. For a newly established technology firm the task of being...... of their products and the insights from business supporting organizations....

  2. Getting started with SBT for Scala

    CERN Document Server

    Saxena, Shiti

    2013-01-01

    A practical and fast-paced guide, Getting Started with SBT for Scala walks you through the setup of Scala projects in SBT with sample code for common as well as critical scenarios.Getting Started with SBT for Scala is for developers working on Scala projects who are interested in learning and utilizing Simple Build Tool to manage the build process.

  3. Assisted Workouts: Starting My Own Workout Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousminer, Douglas

    2003-01-01

    As an undergraduate student with cerebral palsy, I found it difficult to achieve my goal of starting a regular exercise program at my school, the University of Central Florida. However, when I started a program called Assisted Workouts in spring 2003. the struggle proved to be well worth it. The program is not only beneficial to me, but it has…

  4. Optimising Start-Up of a Crankshaft Press Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Skladchikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research is to decrease energy consumption as well as acceleration and heat time of the engine of main drive crankshaft press when starting it up. Modern crankshaft press designs include a flywheel connected to the engine by a belt drive. The flywheel performing a process operation spends the reserved kinetic energy. By virtue thereof it should possess the significant moment of inertia. It defines duration of acceleration process. High starting currents of engines lead to their vigorous heating and energy consumption at acceleration.The literature describes the way for eliminating these shortcomings, which is confined to the start-up of the asynchronous engine with a phase rotor when the circuit of each rotor phase includes an additional stepped resistance. However, there are no proved recommendations to specified resistance values and duration of engine acceleration at each step.Research used mathematical modeling and process optimization of three-stage acceleration of engine possessing a flywheel with the following optimization criteria: energy consumption at start-up, an equivalent (heating current of engine, acceleration time. Values of additional resistance and start-up time at each step are chosen to be parameters of optimization.Obtained results show, that optimization of drive start-up allows us to reduce time of acceleration from 27.3s up to 11.24s, energy consumption from 4405930 Joule up to 2538400 Joule, and an equivalent (heating current from 60.34 up to 14.01 А.As a result of research it is found, that a preferable start-up is the press drive start-up in modes with optimum time of flywheel acceleration and an optimum equivalent current, as the most efficient according to all optimization criteria.

  5. Start 2: Thinking one move ahead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, L.L.

    1991-11-01

    At their summit meeting in the spring of 1990, Presidents Bush and Gorbachev issued a joint statement expressing their intentions to continue the process of strategic arms control beyond the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START), which was eventually signed in July 1991, toward agreement on further reductions. They set general goals for negotiation of a follow-on treaty to START, which has been called START II. President Bush's historic speech on September 27, 1991, reinforced those goals and specified several actions the US would take. It is the purpose of this report to examine possible provisions of START II and the implications of those provisions for achievement of the goals set at the 1990 summit, for verifiability, and for US force planning. This look ahead will contribute to advance planning of appropriate negotiating positions, verification research and development (R D), and force modernization and restructuring. This report describes the goals for a START II treaty and possible means for achieving them. It postulates one set of provisions for such a treaty, while it examines force structures for the US that could result from adoption of a treaty with these provisions. The adequacy of methods for verifying START II are examined and the implications of a START II treaty are postulated.

  6. Start 2: Thinking one move ahead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, L.L.

    1991-11-01

    At their summit meeting in the spring of 1990, Presidents Bush and Gorbachev issued a joint statement expressing their intentions to continue the process of strategic arms control beyond the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START), which was eventually signed in July 1991, toward agreement on further reductions. They set general goals for negotiation of a follow-on treaty to START, which has been called START II. President Bush`s historic speech on September 27, 1991, reinforced those goals and specified several actions the US would take. It is the purpose of this report to examine possible provisions of START II and the implications of those provisions for achievement of the goals set at the 1990 summit, for verifiability, and for US force planning. This look ahead will contribute to advance planning of appropriate negotiating positions, verification research and development (R&D), and force modernization and restructuring. This report describes the goals for a START II treaty and possible means for achieving them. It postulates one set of provisions for such a treaty, while it examines force structures for the US that could result from adoption of a treaty with these provisions. The adequacy of methods for verifying START II are examined and the implications of a START II treaty are postulated.

  7. Start 2: Thinking one move ahead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, L.L.

    1991-11-01

    At their summit meeting in the spring of 1990, Presidents Bush and Gorbachev issued a joint statement expressing their intentions to continue the process of strategic arms control beyond the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START), which was eventually signed in July 1991, toward agreement on further reductions. They set general goals for negotiation of a follow-on treaty to START, which has been called START II. President Bush's historic speech on September 27, 1991, reinforced those goals and specified several actions the US would take. It is the purpose of this report to examine possible provisions of START II and the implications of those provisions for achievement of the goals set at the 1990 summit, for verifiability, and for US force planning. This look ahead will contribute to advance planning of appropriate negotiating positions, verification research and development (R D), and force modernization and restructuring. This report describes the goals for a START II treaty and possible means for achieving them. It postulates one set of provisions for such a treaty, while it examines force structures for the US that could result from adoption of a treaty with these provisions. The adequacy of methods for verifying START II are examined and the implications of a START II treaty are postulated.

  8. Predicting tree pollen season start dates using thermal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myszkowska, Dorota

    2014-01-01

    Thermal conditions at the beginning of the year determine the timing of pollen seasons of early flowering trees. The aims of this study were to quantify the relationship between the tree pollen season start dates and the thermal conditions just before the beginning of the season and to construct models predicting the start of the pollen season in a given year. The study was performed in Krakow (Southern Poland); the pollen data of Alnus, Corylus and Betula were obtained in 1991-2012 using a volumetric method. The relationship between the tree pollen season start, calculated by the cumulated pollen grain sum method, and a 5-day running means of maximum (for Alnus and Corylus) and mean (for Betula) daily temperature was found and used in the logistic regression models. The estimation of model parameters indicated their statistically significance for all studied taxa; the odds ratio was higher in models for Betula, comparing to Alnus and Corylus. The proposed model makes the accuracy of prediction in 83.58 % of cases for Alnus, in 84.29 % of cases for Corylus and in 90.41 % of cases for Betula. In years of model verification (2011 and 2012), the season start of Alnus and Corylus was predicted more precisely in 2011, while in case of Betula, the model predictions achieved 100 % of accuracy in both years. The correctness of prediction indicated that the data used for the model arrangement fitted the models well and stressed the high efficacy of model prediction estimated using the pollen data in 1991-2010.

  9. Empowerment Starts Here: Seven Principles to Empowering Urban Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Angela

    2011-01-01

    "Empowerment Starts Here" covers an experimental approach to social change within urban communities by way of seven distinct principles for student empowerment. Turning classroom methods into a school model, Preparatory School for Global Leadership was the first to experience student empowerment at a school-wide level. This book provides insight…

  10. Spousal Capital as a Resource for Couples Starting a Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzek, Amanda E.; Gudmunson, Clinton G.; Danes, Sharon M.

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study finds that spousal capital is an important resource for entrepreneurs starting a business because it has implications for business sustainability and couple relationship quality. Structural equation modeling supported a process whereby gender had an impact on spousal involvement in the business, which was positively…

  11. Begin and start: aspect and complement choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tünde Nagy

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper offers a semantic analysis of begin and start and their non-finite complementation: the to-infinitive and –ing constructions. The core idea of the paper is that the aspectual constructions ‘begin+ to infinitive’, ‘begin + ing’, ‘start+ to infinitive’, and ‘start+ ing’ have both a schematic and a prototypical meaning, and that the subtle differences between them are motivated by several factors, like viewing (perfectivity vs. imperfectivity, temporality (future orientation vs. ongoing reading dynamicity (graduality vs. abruptness, agentivity, etc.

  12. Starting Circuit For Erasable Programmable Logic Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Steven W.

    1990-01-01

    Voltage regulator bypassed to supply starting current. Starting or "pullup" circuit supplies large inrush of current required by erasable programmable logic device (EPLD) while being turned on. Operates only during such intervals of high demand for current and has little effect any other time. Performs needed bypass, acting as current-dependent shunt connecting battery or other source of power more nearly directly to EPLD. Input capacitor of regulator removed when starting circuit installed, reducing probability of damage to transistor in event of short circuit in or across load.

  13. Office of Head Start (OHS) Head Start Center Locations Search Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Office of Head Start (OHS) web based search tool for finding Head Start program office contact information. Searchable by location, grant number or center type....

  14. National Head Start Association Position Paper: A Vision for Head Start and State Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Joel; Allen, Ben

    Based on the view that coordinated efforts among Head Start programs, child care programs and other prekindergarten programs, and states can be enhanced without devolving Head Start and its high quality standards to the states, this position paper draws on a Bush Administration report and the Head Start Program Performance Standards to demonstrate…

  15. Automobile Starting and Lighting System Maintenance Training ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Automobile Starting and Lighting System Maintenance Training Manual for Effective Learning ... Journal Home > Vol 10, No 2 (2015) > ... College Minna and Automobile Supervisors in automobile companies in Minna to establish its reliability.

  16. Quit Smoking: 5 Steps to START

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Quit Smoking 5 Steps to START Past Issues / Winter 2011 ... a part of every successful plan to quit smoking: S et a quit date. T ell family, friends, ...

  17. Starting a Technology Camp for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litowitz, Len S.; Baylor, Steven C.

    1997-01-01

    Presents information for starting and maintaining a technology camp for students. Includes selecting topics, identifying participants, marketing, managing the camp, budgeting, and benefits to students and host institutions. (JOW)

  18. Head Start Program Information Report (HSPIR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Information about children enrolled in the Head Start program and information about their families. Data about the children include: age, type of program attended,...

  19. Corporate leadership and start-up entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Coulson-Thomas, Colin

    2016-01-01

    This article is based on a paper prepared by Colin Coulson-Thomas for the 2016 Dubai Global Convention on Leadership for Business Excellence. It examines the role of leadership in relation to start-up enterprises.

  20. Start small and build toward business intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Sean; Robertson, Brian

    2009-01-01

    To use business intelligence effectively, healthcare organizations should start small, align organizationally, and leverage success. Organizations should determine which measures they need and how to present them. Organizations should reinvest savings to continually improve.

  1. starting infants on antiretroviral therapy clinical: paediatrics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CHARACTERISTICS OF CHILDREN STARTING ART. A literature review of 30 ... Overall mortality during follow-up was mostly low, with a probability of ..... type 1 infection in children: a five-year prospective study in Rwanda. Pediatrics. 1999 ...

  2. COLLEGE STUDENTS' STARTING THEIR OWN UNDERTAKINGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    正Nowadays there are many college students who choose to start their own undertakings instead of finding a job after graduation.The government encourages this practice,and provides many preferential policies and facilitation measures for college students.This phenomenon has aroused great concern from the whole society. However,why do so many college students take the way of starting their own

  3. Stop and Restart Effects on Modern Vehicle Starting System Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windover, Paul R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Owens, Russell J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Levinson, Terry M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Laughlin, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gaines, Linda [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Many drivers of personal and commercial vehicles believe that turning the vehicle off and on frequently instead of idling will cause premature wear of the starter system (starter motor and starter battery). As a result, they are concerned that the replacement cost of the starter motor and/or battery due to increased manual engine cycling would be more than the cumulative cost of the fuel saved by not idling unnecessarily. A number of variables play a role in addressing this complex concern, including the number of starting cycles per day, the time between starting cycles, the intended design life of the starting system, the amount of fuel used to restart an engine, and the cumulative cost of the saved fuel. Qualitative and quantitative information from a variety of sources was used to develop a life-cycle economic model to evaluate the cost and quantify the realistic factors that are related to the permissible frequency of starter motor cycles for the average vehicle to economically minimize engine idle time. Annual cost savings can be calculated depending on shutdown duration and the number of shutdown cycles per day. Analysis shows that cost savings are realized by eliminating idling exceeding one minute by shutting down the engine and restarting it. For a typical motorist, the damage to starting system components resulting from additional daily start cycles will be negligible. Overall, it was found that starter life is mostly dependent on the total number of start cycles, while battery life is more dependent on ensuring a full charge between start events.

  4. Immediate start of hormonal contraceptives for contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Laureen M; Newmann, Sara J; Grimes, David A; Nanda, Kavita; Schulz, Kenneth F

    2012-12-12

    Health care providers often tell women to wait until the next menses to begin hormonal contraception. The intent is to avoid contraceptive use during an undetected pregnancy. An alternative is to start hormonal contraception immediately with back-up birth control for the first seven days. Immediate initiation was introduced with combined oral contraceptives (COCs), and has expanded to other hormonal contraceptives. At the time of the initial review, how immediate start compared to conventional menses-dependent start was unclear regarding effectiveness, continuation, and acceptability. The immediate-start approach may improve women's access to, and continuation of, hormonal contraception. This review examined randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of immediate-start hormonal contraception for differences in effectiveness, continuation, and acceptability. In August 2012, we searched MEDLINE, CENTRAL, POPLINE, LILACS, ClinicalTrials.gov, and ICTRP for trials of immediate-start hormonal contraceptives. We contacted researchers to find other studies. Earlier searches also included EMBASE. We included RCTs that compared immediate start to conventional start of hormonal contraception. Also included were trials that compared immediate start of different hormonal contraceptive methods with each other. Data were abstracted by two authors and entered into RevMan. The Peto odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated. Five studies were included. No new eligible studies have been found since the review was initially conducted. Method discontinuation was similar between groups in all trials. Bleeding patterns and side effects were similar in trials that compared immediate with conventional start. In a study of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), immediate start of DMPA showed fewer pregnancies than a 'bridge' method before DMPA (OR 0.36; 95% CI 0.16 to 0.84). Further, more women in the immediate-DMPA group were very satisfied versus those with a 'bridge

  5. A novel induction motor starting method using superconduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, F.B.B., E-mail: flaviobarcelos@ifes.edu.br [Ifes – Federal Institute of Espírito Santo, Dept. of Industrial Automation, Serra, ES 29173087 (Brazil); UFES – Federal University of Espírito Santo, Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Orlando, M.T.D. [UFES – Federal University of Espírito Santo, Dept. of Physics, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Fardin, J.F.; Simonetti, D.S. [UFES – Federal University of Espírito Santo, Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Baldan, C.A. [EEL/USP – Engineering School from Lorena/University of São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Alternative method for starting up induction motor. • Based on using a high-temperature superconductor. • A prototype of the limiter was constructed with a 2G-YBCO tape. • Prototype was tested with a 55-kW industrial induction motor in a 440-V/60-Hz. • Offers reduced current waveform distortion compared to the soft starter method. - Abstract: In this paper, an alternative method for starting up induction motors is proposed, taking into account experimental measurements. The new starting current limitation method is based on using a high-temperature superconductor. A prototype of the superconducting starting current limiter was constructed with a commercially available second-generation high-temperature superconductor YBCO tape, and this was tested with a 55-kW industrial induction motor in a 440-V/60-Hz three-phase power grid. Performance evaluations of the superconducting limiter method (applied to startup of the induction motor) were performed and were compared with a direct-on-line starter and an electronic soft starter. In addition, a computational model was developed and used for electromagnetic torque analysis of the system. As significant characteristics, our method offers the ability to limit the starting current of the induction motor with greater electromagnetic torque, reduced current waveform distortion and therefore lower harmonic pollution during startup when compared to the soft starter method.

  6. Why START. [Strategic Arms Reduction Talks treaty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendelsohn, J.

    1991-04-01

    Barring some major unexpected downturn in US-Soviet relations, it seems likely that the long-awaited Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START) treaty will be signed sometime in 1991. Under negotiation for the past nine years, public acceptance and Senate approval of a START treaty will be facilitated by the generally less confrontational East-West relationship which has evolved over that time, by the growing constraints on the US defense budget, and by the obvious merits of the treaty itself. Not only will the nearly complete START treaty be an extremely useful and powerful arms control agreement, it is also decidedly advantageous to US security interests. First and foremost, a START treaty will cap and reduce the steady buildup of nuclear weapons that has characterized the last 30 years of the US-Soviet strategic relationship. As a result of the basic outline originally agreed to at the Reykjavik summit, START will take a 25 to 35 percent bite out of existing nuclear arsenals, impose approximately a 50 percent cut in overall Soviet ballistic missile warheads and throw-weight (lifting power or payload capacity), and produce an exact 50 percent cut in Soviet SS-18 missiles.

  7. Starting a business through a franchise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravka Mahaček

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A business can be launched by establishing a new entity, purchasing an existing entity or through a franc - hise. There are certain prerequisites for starting a business, the most important ones being a quality idea and start-up capital. Potential start-up difficulties are inadequate financing, existing competition as well as the process of building your own market position. By purchasing an existing business some risks may be avoided and the opportunity for gaining profit may arise. Profitable operation is possible only if this business has up-to-date products and no outstanding liabilities. This paper discusses franchising business opportunities and the requisite investments and costs, which will bring success if they are accompanied by franchisee’s efforts. The paper aims to present the main characteristics of a franchise business, the necessary investment and the costs which arise in the process, as well as advantages, disadvantages and experiences with this kind of business

  8. Guidelines for starting today's private practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmitz ED

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. Starting a new practice may seem like a daunting task. The purpose of this article is to demystify the process of creating a new practice from the beginning. The cardinal rule is to keep costs low and not to outsource work that can easily be performed by any competent physician and staff. You do not need a manager, lawyer, business partner, coder or biller individually; you may be able to perform many of these services yourself. What you do need is a commitment to making your practice a success. Do not spend too much on your office space, furnishings or equipment. Start with the bare essentials. Immediately start applying to all insurance companies especially Medicare. Request an employer identification number. Set up a basic business banking account and submit the account number to the insurance companies you plan to work with. You can purchase an entire electronic healthcare record (EHR …

  9. Ruderal succession starting at different seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhard Bornkamm

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Succession experiments were carried out in 1 m2 sized plots on three different soils (S = sand. SCL = silty clayey loam, CL = clayey loam. Vegetation was allowed to grow for 9 years, starting at different dates between 18.06.1969 and 1.04.1971. The greatest part of the variation of floristic composition and cover was brought about by the different soils. Direct effects of the starting season were detected only in the first two years. On sand in the first year the winter annual Conyza canadensis was well developed on the plots that had started in spring, but was poorly developed on the summer and fall plots. In the second year it decreased in the spring plots but increased in the summer and fall plots. The same was true for the winter annual Sonchus asper on CL. On SCL, however., Senecio vulgaris, belonging to the therophyta epeteia (overwintering in summer habit, was well developed in both the spring and summer plots, and showed an increase towards the second year in the fall plots only. In the later years of the experiment plots that had been started early in the year mostly were dominated by Poa pratensis ssp. angustifolia (or Quercus rubra, whereas plots that had been started late in the year mostly were dominated by Solidagn canadensis together with Artemsia vulgaris. The analyses of the transition events between the (subdominant species showed a variety of replacement patterns, but no determinated series of species following each other. It remains, therefore, unclear in what manner the differentiation between the terminal dominants may be related to the starting season.

  10. Two-Man Bobsled Push Start Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes Alexandre Dias

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The importance of push start times on bobsled performance was evidenced by some studies, but at this moment there is no article to the authors’ knowledge that describes the bobsled push start. Thus, the objectives of this study were to describe the two-man bobsled push start, analyze the differences between teams, and estimate the most important variable analyzed. We hypothesized that the pilot and brakeman athletes’ movement patterns during a bobsled pushing start can be described. The images used in this study were obtained during the men’s two-man XIV World Championship of Bobsled (2004. Fifteen best teams participating in the championship were recorded, and four start runs for each team were analyzed. The videos were captured by two digital video cameras. The pilot athletes were analyzed during the moment that they touched the lateral push bar of the sled, and the brakemen were analyzed during the first take-off and first landing. The teams were pooled in three groups of five teams using the final ranking of pushing time. We concluded that there was a distinct pattern movement for pilots and brakemen. The initial position of the majority of the pilots was localized slightly behind the bar. After touching the lateral bar, the pilots remained in a semi-squat position, pushing the sled forward in a pattern of marching movement. All brakemen used the board attached to the track as a support for both feet at the start. The brakeman gave the greatest contribution to break the inertia of the sled. There was no significant difference of movement between the three groups analyzed for the pilot and the brakeman.

  11. Ab initio many-body calculations of the 4He photo-absorption cross section

    CERN Document Server

    Schuster, Micah D; Johnson, Calvin W; Jurgenson, Eric D; Navratil, Petr

    2013-01-01

    A major goal of nuclear theory is to make quantitative calculations of low-energy nuclear observables starting from microscopic internucleon forces. Computationally, this is complicated by the large model spaces needed to reach convergence in many-body approaches, such as the no-core shell model (NCSM). In recent years, the similarity renormalization group (SRG) has provided a powerful and versatile means to soften interactions for ab initio structure calculations, thus leading to convergence within smaller model spaces. Here we compute the 4He total photo absorption cross section and study, for the first time, the consistency of the SRG approach in a continuum observable.

  12. Getting started with Microsoft Lync server 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Volpe, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    This book has a practical approach with a lot of step-by-step guides and explanations as to where and why we're doing the various operations.Getting Started with Microsoft Lync Server 2013 is a starting point for system administrators, IT pros, unified communication technicians, and decision makers in companies or in the consultancy business. For people who have never managed Lync (or a U.C. product), the book will guide you through the basic concepts and mistakes. If you are already managing a Lync deployment you will find important explanations and ideas put together in a single text. If you

  13. Entrepreneur How to Start an Online Business

    CERN Document Server

    Tobin, Lucy

    2012-01-01

    The secrets of the UK’s biggest online entrepreneurs revealed   Thinking of starting a business? Already have a business online and looking to take it to the next level? The wonderful world wide web has made creating a start-up that much easier. Thousands of people are out there reaping the rewards the web can bring. If you want to join them, you’ve come to the right place.  Profiling today’s foremost web entrepreneurs, Lucy Tobin - who meets successful business founders every week writing an enterprise column for The Evening Standard – takes us throug

  14. Start-Up of the Colorectal Cancer Screening Demonstration Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy DeGroff, MPH

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionIn 2005, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention funded five sites to implement the Colorectal Cancer Screening Demonstration Program (CRCSDP. An evaluation is being conducted that includes a multiple case study. Case study results for the start-up period, the time between initial funding and screening initiation, provide details about the program models and start-up process and reveal important lessons learned.MethodsThe multiple case study includes all five CRCSDP sites, each representing a unique case. Data were collected from August 2005 through September 2006 from documents, observations, and more than 70 interviews with program staff and stakeholders.ResultsSites differed by geographic service area, screening modality selected, and service delivery structure. Program models were influenced by two factors: preexisting infrastructure and the need to adapt programs to fit local service delivery structures. Several sites modeled program components after their National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program. Medical advisory boards convened by all sites provided clinical support for developing program policies and quality assurance plans. Partnerships with comprehensive cancer control programs facilitated access to financial and in-kind resources.ConclusionThe program models developed by the CRCSDP sites offer a range of prototypes. Case study results suggest benefits in employing a multidisciplinary staff team, assembling a medical advisory board, collaborating with local partners, using preexisting resources, designing programs that are easily incorporated into existing service delivery systems, and planning for adequate start-up time.

  15. The Shared Supervision Model: "Let's Start at the Very Beginning. A Very Good Place to Start!"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberly, Jody L.; Joshi, Arti; Galen, Harlene

    2009-01-01

    Periodic reexamination of existing professional development school forms is good practice to ascertain whether goals are being met. Such an assessment was sparked by a request from a superintendent in a 14-year-old professional development school structure at a public college in the Northeast. This assessment revealed that although the…

  16. Systematic clustering of transcription start site landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Xiaobei; Valen, Eivind; Parker, Brian J;

    2011-01-01

    Genome-wide, high-throughput methods for transcription start site (TSS) detection have shown that most promoters have an array of neighboring TSSs where some are used more than others, forming a distribution of initiation propensities. TSS distributions (TSSDs) vary widely between promoters...

  17. Getting started with OrientDB

    CERN Document Server

    Tesoriero, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    A standard tutorial aimed at making you an OrientDB expert, through the use of practical examples, explained in a step-by-step format.Getting Started with OrientDB 1.3.0 is great for database designers, developers, and systems engineers. It is assumed that you are familiar with NoSQL concepts, Java, and networking principles.

  18. Single phase induction motor with starting performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popescu, M.; Demeter, E. [Research Institute for Electrical Machines, ICPE-ME, Bucharest (Romania); Navrapescu, V. [University `Politehnica` Bucharest, Electrical Engineering Faculty Splaiul Independentei, Bucharest (Romania)

    1997-12-31

    The paper presents problems related to a special type of single phase induction motor. The main novelty consists in the use of a conducting (aluminium casted) shell distributed on the periferic region of the rotor. As a result the starting performance, as well as the rated ones, is much improved in comparison with the conventional construction. (orig.) 4 refs.

  19. An Alternative Starting Point for Fraction Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortina, José Luis; Višnovská, Jana; Zúñiga, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the results of a study conducted for the purpose of assessing the viability of an alternative starting point for teaching fractions. The alternative is based on Freudenthal's insights about fraction as comparison. It involves portraying the entities that unit fractions quantify as always being apart from the reference unit, instead of…

  20. A strong start, a promising future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zihe Rao

    2011-01-01

    @@ Protein & Cell has made a very strong start in its first full year of publication, covering 12 monthly issues with a consistently high standard of content and production. Thanks to the contributors, editors, editorial board, editodal staff and publishers, both the scientific quality and the production quality of the journal have been outstanding.

  1. EU Emission Trading: Starting with Carbon Dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterdal, Morten; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2003-01-01

    The Commission of the European Union wants to start a limited emission trading scheme by 2005 within the Community to enable "learning-by-doing" prior to the Kyoto Protocol. This to accomplish the desired 8% target level for six different greenhouse gases. However, in the EU it is not clear whether...

  2. Addressing Tooth Decay in Head Start Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlden, Adam P.; Hill, Lawrence F.; Alles-White, Monica L.; Cottrell, Randall R.

    2012-01-01

    Tooth decay is the most prevalent chronic disease of childhood. Oral health education and dental services are crucial to reducing the number of children afflicted with dental cavities. Due to limited access to preventative care, Head Start children are particularly vulnerable to tooth decay. This article outlines practical implications of a…

  3. EU Emission Trading: Starting with Carbon Dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterdal, Morten; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2003-01-01

    The Commission of the European Union wants to start a limited emission trading scheme by 2005 within the Community to enable "learning-by-doing" prior to the Kyoto Protocol. This to accomplish the desired 8% target level for six different greenhouse gases. However, in the EU it is not clear wheth...

  4. Jinde Lead lead smelting project starts construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>On Dec.20,the lead smelting project of Jiangxi Jinde Lead started construction in Dexin as a technical renovation project on environmental treatment of Jiangxi Metallurgical Group.The project is the one with the largest investment of Provincial Metallurgical Group in non-ferrous

  5. The Prickly Politics of School Starting Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlstrom, Kyla L.

    1999-01-01

    Tinkering with school schedules to accommodate adolescents' sleep patterns is politically risky. A University of Minnesota study analyzing stakeholders' attitudes toward later high school starting times showed that changing a school's schedule provokes as emotional a reaction as that of closing a school or changing its attendance area. Open…

  6. School Start Time and Teen Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlstrom, Kyla L.

    2000-01-01

    Sleep studies have shown that teenagers' internal clocks are incompatible with most high schools' early hours. Research in two Minnesota districts indicates that later school starting times can benefit teens and everyone dealing with them. Student participation in sports and other afterschool activities remained high. (MLH)

  7. Effects of sled towing on sprint starts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottle, Casey A; Carlson, Lara A; Lawrence, Michael A

    2014-05-01

    Sled towing is a popular method of sprint training. Researchers have struggled to identify a loading scheme that is most appropriate to improve sprint performance in the acceleration phase. The purpose of this study was to determine if loads of 10% body weight (BWT) or 20% BWT produced significantly greater propulsive ground reaction force (GRF) impulse, peak propulsive GRF, or a greater propulsive rate of force development (RFD) than an unweighted sprint start. Seventeen healthy court and field athletes (10 men, 7 women; 20.9 ± 1.1 years) completed 5 starts of each condition (unweighted, 10% BWT, 20% BWT). Participants began each start in an upright staggered stance. Propulsive GRF impulse was greater in the 20% BWT condition than the unweighted condition in both limbs and greater in the 20% BWT condition than the 10% BWT condition in the front leg only, and vertical GRF impulse was greater in the 20% BWT than the unweighted condition. In summary, our results suggest that a 10% BWT load is not sufficient to increase propulsive GRF impulse. A loading scheme of 20% BWT is sufficient to increase propulsive GRF impulse. Coaches seeking to improve sprint starts may observe improvements using a load of 20% BWT during training while towing a sled.

  8. The Lean and Global Start-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanev, Stoyan; Rasmussen, Erik Stavnsager

    Ventures research and research with a focus on the Lean Start-up company. It is our intention in this paper to give a short presentation of the two research streams and show how they can be merged into one with a focus on newly established technology oriented firms that are lean and global from...

  9. Starting New Schools: Lessons for Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Wayne B.

    Arguments for beginning new schools as a robust alternative to the incremental improvement of existing schools are presented in this paper. The educational improvement approach of starting new schools or programs, rather than making incremental improvements or generating comprehensive change in existing schools, is advocated. Two major types of…

  10. Starting with "I": Personal Essays by Teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estepa, Andrea, Ed.; Kay, Philip, Ed.

    In personal essays, teenagers express their views on serious subjects like violence, racism, and teen parenting, and discuss common teen experiences like dating, getting a job, and starting college. This collection contains the following: (1) "Brotherly Love" (Jessica Vicuna); (2) "How To Survive Shopping with Mom" (Chris Kanarick); (3) "A…

  11. Construction of Shanghai Chemical Park Started

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yan

    2001-01-01

    @@ Shanghai Chemical Industrial Park started construction on January 6, 2001 with the first pile driven for the 200,000-ton phenol acetone plant of Gaoqiao Branch,Sinopec Ltd. This is one of the largest industrial investment projects of the city of the country as well as the city at the beginning of the new century.

  12. Addressing Tooth Decay in Head Start Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlden, Adam P.; Hill, Lawrence F.; Alles-White, Monica L.; Cottrell, Randall R.

    2012-01-01

    Tooth decay is the most prevalent chronic disease of childhood. Oral health education and dental services are crucial to reducing the number of children afflicted with dental cavities. Due to limited access to preventative care, Head Start children are particularly vulnerable to tooth decay. This article outlines practical implications of a…

  13. Getting started with Magento module development

    CERN Document Server

    Ajzele, Branko

    2013-01-01

    This project-based tutorial gives you a strong foundation and guides you through practical, real-world examples.This book contains valuable insights for both newbies and already established Magento developers. This book is targeted at new and intermediate PHP developers starting afresh with Magento module development.

  14. Philadelphia's Independence Starts Here: Disability Arts Festival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mimi Kenney

    2008-01-01

    In tribute to Philadelphia's world-changing past, Festival partners dubbed the month-long Disability Arts Festival "Independence Starts Here." Through it, they hoped to begin to change the future for over 675,000 people with disabilities in the area and their families. Led by Amaryllis Theatre Company, which now also serves as VSA arts…

  15. Start time delays in operating room: Different perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babita Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Healthcare expenditure is a serious concern, with escalating costs failing to meet the expectations of quality care. The treatment capacities are limited in a hospital setting and the operating rooms (ORs. Their optimal utilization is vital in efficient hospital management. Starting late means considerable wait time for staff, patients and waste of resources. We planned an audit to assess different perspectives of the residents in surgical specialities and anesthesia and OR staff nurses so as to know the causative factors of operative delay. This can help develop a practical model to decrease start time delays in operating room (ORs. Aims: An audit to assess different perspectives of the Operating room (OR staff with respect to the varied causative factors of operative delay in the OR. To aid in the development of a practical model to decrease start time delays in ORs and facilitate on-time starts at Jai Prakash Narayan Apex Trauma centre (JPNATC, All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS, New Delhi. Methods: We prepared a questionnaire seeking the five main reasons of delay as per their perspective. Results: The available data was analysed. Analysis of the data demonstrated the common causative factors in start time operative delays as: a lack of proper planning, deficiencies in team work, communication gap and limited availability of trained supporting staff. Conclusions: The preparation of the equipment and required material for the OR cases must be done well in advance. Utilization of newer technology enables timely booking and scheduling of cases. Improved inter-departmental coordination and compliance with preanesthetic instructions needs to be ensured. It is essential that the anesthesiologists perform their work promptly, well in time . and supervise the proceedings as the OR manager. This audit is a step forward in defining the need of effective OR planning for continuous quality improvement.

  16. Notes from 1999 on computational algorithm of the Local Wave-Vector (LWV) model for the dynamical evolution of the second-rank velocity correlation tensor starting from the mean-flow-coupled Navier-Stokes equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zemach, Charles [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kurien, Susan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-11-14

    These notes present an account of the Local Wave Vector (LWV) model of a turbulent flow defined throughout physical space. The previously-developed Local Wave Number (LWN) model is taken as a point of departure. Some general properties of turbulent fields and appropriate notation are given first. The LWV model is presently restricted to incompressible flows and the incompressibility assumption is introduced at an early point in the discussion. The assumption that the turbulence is homogeneous is also introduced early on. This assumption can be relaxed by generalizing the space diffusion terms of LWN, but the present discussion is focused on a modeling of homogeneous turbulence.

  17. Study of the starting pressure gradient in branching network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In order to increase the production of oil in low permeability reservoirs with high efficiency,it is necessary to fully understand the properties and special behaviors of the reservoirs and correctly describe the flow in the reservoirs.This paper applies the branching network mode to the study of the starting pressure gradient of nonlinear Newtonian fluid (Bingham fluid) in the reservoirs with low permeability based on the fact that the fractured network may exist in the reservoirs.The proposed model for starting pressure gradient is a function of yield stress,microstructural parameters of the network.The proposed model may have the potential in further exploiting the mechanisms of flow in porous media with fractured network.

  18. Our start-up could never have been successful

    OpenAIRE

    Bonger, S.

    2014-01-01

    In July 2013, TU Delft alumnus Jan van Kranendonk and his business partner Thomas de Leeuw decided to discontinue their start-up company Sunuru. The reason was that customers were not interested in their ingenious solar project. Van Kranendonk spoke about his failure during the Failcon event in Amsterdam, which is modelled after similar events in Silicon Valley. ‘Having your own company looks good on your CV.’

  19. ECommerce Strategy for Footwear Manufacturing Start-up

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzmanovic, Slobodan

    2010-01-01

    This paper defines and analyzes an eCommerce strategy for a footwear manufacturing start-up firm and assesses the financial impact this eCommerce strategy has in supporting the firm’s business model. The market analysis of the importance of eCommerce determined the online channel’s market share and influence on consumer purchasing decisions, while the industry analysis examined the competitive landscape and industry forces as drivers of forward integration from manufacturing to wholesale and ...

  20. A novel induction motor starting method using superconduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, F. B. B.; Orlando, M. T. D.; Fardin, J. F.; Simonetti, D. S.; Baldan, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, an alternative method for starting up induction motors is proposed, taking into account experimental measurements. The new starting current limitation method is based on using a high-temperature superconductor. A prototype of the superconducting starting current limiter was constructed with a commercially available second-generation high-temperature superconductor YBCO tape, and this was tested with a 55-kW industrial induction motor in a 440-V/60-Hz three-phase power grid. Performance evaluations of the superconducting limiter method (applied to startup of the induction motor) were performed and were compared with a direct-on-line starter and an electronic soft starter. In addition, a computational model was developed and used for electromagnetic torque analysis of the system. As significant characteristics, our method offers the ability to limit the starting current of the induction motor with greater electromagnetic torque, reduced current waveform distortion and therefore lower harmonic pollution during startup when compared to the soft starter method.

  1. Principios Multiculturales para los Programas Head Start (Multicultural Principles for Head Start Programs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Administration for Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS), Washington, DC. Head Start Bureau.

    This Spanish-language report outlines 10 multicultural principles for Head Start preschool programs and ancillary services. The report assets that Head Start programming should: (1) treat every child as an individual; (2) represent the cultural groups in the community; (3) emphasize accurate information about cultural groups and discard…

  2. The difference is in the start: impact of timing and start procedure on sprint running performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugen, Thomas A; Tønnessen, Espen; Seiler, Stephen K

    2012-02-01

    The difference is in the start: impact of timing and start procedure on sprint running performance. The purpose of this study was to compare different sprint start positions and to generate correction factors between popular timing triggering methods on 40-m/40-yd sprint time. Fourteen female athletes (17 ± 1 years), personal best 100 m: 13.26 (±0.68) seconds and 11 male athletes (20 ± 5 years), personal best 100 m: 11.58 (±0.74) seconds participated. They performed 2 series of 3 40-m sprints in randomized order: (a) start from the block, measured by means of Brower audio sensor (BAS) and Dartfish video timing (DVT), (b) 3-point start, measured by using hand release pod (HR) and DVT, and (c) standing start, triggered by both photocell across starting line (SFC), and foot release (FR) plus DVT. Video analysis was performed by 2 independent observers and averaged. Simultaneous measurements at national athletics competitions demonstrated that DVT and BAS were equivalent to Omega Timing within the limits of precision of video timing (±0.01 seconds). Hand and floor timer triggering showed small but significant biases compared with movement captured from video (0.02-0.04 seconds), presumably because of sensitivity of pressure thresholds. Coefficient of variation for test-retest timing using different starting positions ranged from 0.7 to 1.0%. Compared with block starts reacting to gunfire, HR, SFC, and FR starts yielded 0.17 ± 0.09, 0.27 ± 0.12, and 0.69 ± 0.11 second faster times, respectively, over 40 m (all p sprint performances.

  3. Impact of chemical plant start-up emissions on ambient ozone concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Sijie; Wang, Sujing; Xu, Qiang; Ho, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    Flare emissions, especially start-up flare emissions, during chemical plant operations generate large amounts of ozone precursors that may cause highly localized and transient ground-level ozone increment. Such an adverse ozone impact could be aggravated by the synergies of multiple plant start-ups in an industrial zone. In this paper, a systematic study on ozone increment superposition due to chemical plant start-up emissions has been performed. It employs dynamic flaring profiles of two olefin plants' start-ups to investigate the superposition of the regional 1-hr ozone increment. It also summaries the superposition trend by manipulating the starting time (00:00-10:00) of plant start-up operations and the plant distance (4-32 km). The study indicates that the ozone increment induced by simultaneous start-up emissions from multiple chemical plants generally does not follow the linear superposition of the ozone increment induced by individual plant start-ups. Meanwhile, the trend of such nonlinear superposition related to the temporal (starting time and operating hours of plant start-ups) and spatial (plant distance) factors is also disclosed. This paper couples dynamic simulations of chemical plant start-up operations with air-quality modeling and statistical methods to examine the regional ozone impact. It could be helpful for technical decision support for cost-effective air-quality and industrial flare emission controls.

  4. Gas emission problems in starting the workings and controlling measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunz, E. [Deutsche Montan Technologie GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    When a working is being started and especially if the face advances very quickly from the beginning, there may occur sudden releases of large gas amounts from the roof as well as from the floor. Apparently, this risk arises quite frequently if there are extremely solid rock layers of only few-meter thickness (up to 10 m) between the working seam and a gaseous seam within the area of gas emission. In the Ruhr deposit these layers consist of sandy shale and sandstones. Consequently, it is necessary to know the rock sequence and its mechanical characteristics in roof and floor for the early detection of gas outbursts. If a longwall is planned in a rock formation of this kind one has to prepare a preventive drilling scheme for the starting front and gas drainage should start already before the winning work. Experience in one working has shown that even in the immediate starting phase large gas amounts can be released and drained respectively. Models were built that represented different rock sequences and it was possible to simulate the processes that occured when the area of gas emissions was opening during the start of a working for these rock sequences. According to that one has to expect even an obstruction of gas emission under certain conditions. Additionally, such an obstruction of gas emission can be detected early, too, with the continuous calculation of the accumulated gas make which should be carried out from the first day of winning work. Normally, there is a continuously even increase. If the accumulated gas make levels off or even decreases, this is a clear sign for problems in the steady opening of the gas emission zone. 1 ref., 8 figs.

  5. Getting started with nopCommerce

    CERN Document Server

    Atkinson, Brandon

    2013-01-01

    A friendly, tutorial style book, which will help you learn your way through creating a live storefront with nopCommerce in a step-by-step manner.Getting Started with nopCommerce is for anyone who wants to sell products online using nopCommerce. If you are a non-technical person and are discouraged by the complexity of this powerful e-commerce application, then this book is for you.

  6. New Start of “Psychological Thought”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislava Stoyanova

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The history and the mission of Psychological Thought are presented. The scientific journal “Psychological Thought” started its existence as an idea of the colleagues at the Department of Psychology at South-West University “Neofit Rilski” in 2006. Seven print issues were published from 2006 to 2009 (2 issues per year. Each issue included average ten articles published in Bulgarian or in English.

  7. Getting started with MariaDB

    CERN Document Server

    Bartholomew, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    A practical, hands-on, beginner-friendly guide to installing and using MariaDB.Getting Started with MariaDB is for anyone who wants to learn more about databases in general or MariaDB in particular. No prior database experience is required. It is assumed that you have basic knowledge of software installation, editing files with a text editor, and using the command line and terminal.

  8. Starting and developing a surveying business

    CERN Document Server

    Imber, Austen

    2013-01-01

    Starting and Developing a Surveying Business shows how surveyors can develop their own successful small business. For surveyors thinking of taking this step, guidance is provided on the pros and cons which will help the right decision to be made, and the key factors which help see the business through its early stages. For surveyors already running their own small business, consideration is given to factors which will help profitability and growth potential.

  9. New START: The Contentious Road to Ratification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Zolotukhina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Senate ratification of the New START treaty re-established effective bilateral inspection and monitoring of American and Russian nuclear holdings and has the potential to further enhance U.S.-Russian cooperation on key issues, including containing the Iranian nuclear program, and further reductions in the two countries' arsenals. Although the accord was widely heralded as a foreign policy success of the Obama administration, the contentious Senate ratification may impede future progress on arms control.

  10. Effect of design variables on starting torque of single phase flux-reversal machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Sung Hong; Kim, Tae Heoung; Jang, Ki-Bong; Choi, Seung-Kil; Oh, Won Seok; Lee, Ju

    2006-04-01

    This article introduces a single phase flux-reversal machine (FRM) and presents the design method to improve its starting torque. The effects of the design parameters on the characteristic and starting torque are analyzed by the finite element method. The design variables considered are tapered airgap, stepped airgap, slotted teeth, and asymmetric PM width. As a result, we can find the best model in producing starting torque of a single phase 2/3 FRM.

  11. 创业企业社会网络演化过程中试错行为的结构方程模型%Research on the SQE Model of the Try and Error Behaviors During the Course of Start up Enterprises Social Network Evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄耀杰; 王敏

    2012-01-01

    This paper points out that the try and error behaviors during the course of start-up enterprises' social network e-volution have the characteristics of trigging, locking in, learning and adaptation, displays the external appearance of the 4 characteristics during the course of start up enterprises' social network evolution, builds up the SQE model of try and error behaviors, and makes the conclusions that the characteristics of trigging, learning and locking in are positive to the adaptation of the try and error of start up enterprises' social network evolution.%创业企业社会网络演化过程中的试错行为具有触发性、学习性、锁定性和适应性,并且这4种特性的外在表现各不相同.通过构建试错行为的结构方程模型,发现创业企业社会网络演化试错的触发性、学习性和锁定性与适应性呈正相关,创业企业社会网络演化试错的触发性和锁定性与学习性呈正相关.

  12. submitter Starting Manufacture of the ITER Central Solenoid

    CERN Document Server

    Libeyre, P; Dolgetta, N; Gaxiola, E; Jong, C; Lyraud, C; Mitchell, N; Journeaux, J Y; Vollmann, T; Evans, D; Sgobba, S; Langeslag, S; Reiersen, W; Martovetsky, N; Everitt, D; Hatfield, D; Rosenblad, P; Litherland, S; Freudenberg, K; Myatt, L; Smith, J; Brazelton, C; Abbott, R; Daubert, J; Rackers, K; Nentwich, T

    2016-01-01

    The central solenoid (CS) is a key component of the ITER magnet system to provide the magnetic flux swing required to drive induced plasma current up to 15 MA. The manufacture of its different subcomponents has now started, following completion of the design analyses and achievement of the qualification of the manufacturing procedures. A comprehensive set of analyses has been produced to demonstrate that the CS final design meets all requirements. This includes in particular structural analyses carried out with different finite-element models and addressing normal and fault conditions. Following the Final Design Review, held in November 2013, and the subsequent design modifications, the analyses were updated for consistency with the final design details and provide evidence that the Magnet Structural Design Criteria are fully met. Before starting any manufacturing activity of a CS component, a corresponding dedicated qualification program has been carried out. This includes manufacture of mockups using the re...

  13. 76 FR 50813 - Major Capital Investment Projects; Guidance on News Starts/Small Starts Policies and Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-16

    ... Federal Transit Administration Major Capital Investment Projects; Guidance on News Starts/Small Starts... policy guidance on the New and Small Starts capital project review and evaluation process and criteria...) published by FTA in June 2010, which sought public comment on the New Starts and Small Starts project...

  14. The Fragile Success of Team Start-ups

    OpenAIRE

    Stam, Erik; Schutjens, Veronique

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the benefits and pitfalls of starting a firm with an entrepreneurial team, drawing on a longitudinal empirical analysis of the life course of 90 team start-ups and 1196 solo start-ups in the Netherlands. In the first three years of their existence, team start-ups perform better than solo start-ups on several success indicators. However, after this start phase, entrepreneurial teams face particular problems in realizing further growth. These team-specific bottlenecks can...

  15. Strong Start Wraparound: Addressing the Complex Needs of Mothers in Early Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teel, M. Kay

    2014-01-01

    The Strong Start Study tested an innovative, High-Fidelity Wraparound intervention with families in early recovery from substance use. The Strong Start Wraparound model addressed the complex needs of pregnant and parenting women who were in early recovery to increase the protective factors of parental resilience, social connections, concrete…

  16. Getting started with FortiGate

    CERN Document Server

    Fabbri, Rosato

    2013-01-01

    This book is a step-by-step tutorial that will teach you everything you need to know about the deployment and management of FortiGate, including high availability, complex routing, various kinds of VPN working, user authentication, security rules and controls on applications, and mail and Internet access.This book is intended for network administrators, security managers, and IT pros. It is a great starting point if you have to administer or configure a FortiGate unit, especially if you have no previous experience. For people that have never managed a FortiGate unit, the book helpfully walks t

  17. Getting started with ownCloud

    CERN Document Server

    Patawari, Aditya

    2013-01-01

    This is a standard, precise, and short tutorial for setting up ownCloud and includes advanced topics like encryption, user management, and server security. This ownCloud book would be an ideal starting point for anyone who wants to store their data and also share it.This book is for first time users as well as administrators who are interested or responsible for managing an ownCloud instance. You do not need any prior experience with any of the technology, including Linux/Windows, Apache/IIS, SQLite/MySQL, or even PHP. It is a beginner-friendly book, written with a first time user in mind.

  18. Start your own information marketing business

    CERN Document Server

    Skrob, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Breaking down the information marketing world from A to Z, the undisputed info marketing expert offers professional strategies to set up a successful information marketing business. These businesses are easy to start, can be run from home, don't require any employees, need little cash outlay, can be run part-time, and can produce millions of dollars a year. Readers learn everything they need to jump into this lucrative field, creating an entirely new business that gives them added income or replaces their current salary entirely.

  19. China Starts Its Lunar Exploration Prbgram

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RenShufang

    2004-01-01

    Why China Starts Lunar Exploration Program.Lunar exploration is always a subject of great interest, for the earth's I nearest neighbour probably holds the key to humanity's future subsistence and development. The unique mineral and energy resources on the moon are important supplement and reserve to the Earth resources, which will generate farreaching influence on the sustainable development of human society. The helium-3 resource unique to lunar soil is a clean, efficient, safe and cheap new-type nuclear fusion fuel, and it will help change the energy structure of human society.

  20. How To Start a Prep Physics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Jesse D.

    1998-04-01

    At City College, we follow our mother institution, the University of California at Berkeley, in that we require high school physics as a prerequisite for general college physics and then provide a one-semester prep physics course as an alternative to meet this prerequisite. Many people have asked me how they can start such a course. In traveling about on my sabbatical, doing Physics Of Magic (1) at various schools, I have observed how various schools implement this prerequisite course. I will discuss my observations.

  1. Opening the insider's eye: starting action research

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses the topic of getting started on a process of action research (AR). I hope that the paper encourages a few teachers to begin classroom investigations, because it is important for the TESOL and TEFL profession that we have more teacher-researchers. Only if we establish action research as a more attractive aspect of teaching can we avoid the almost complete separation between research on the one hand and practice on the other (Wallace 1991, p. 10). This gap between theory an...

  2. Robotics: Hephaestus is Starting all Over Again

    OpenAIRE

    Laumond, Jean-Paul

    2015-01-01

    Hephaestus is starting all over again with new Pandoras. They are no longer of clay, but mecatronic. And they are animated. The roboticist keeps on asking the question of autonomy: what adaptability can we hope to give these new machines? The analogy between humans and machines has to be made; it cannot be avoided. In the end, does Hephaestus have the keys to knowledge? With his machines that adapt, that “decide” on their actions, what can he tell us about our own “functioning”? The question ...

  3. From Jam to Start-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bering Kjæhr, Emil; Lyngbye Hvid Jensen, Jane; Schoenau-Fog, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Production workshops such as game jams are popular ways of letting participants acquire hands-on knowledge and experience in producing an artifact or game prototype in a very limited timespan. Some of the games made at these production workshops are later published with great success, and create...... the foundation for new start-up companies. There are, however, an even larger group of very creative and innovative games and artifacts with great potential that go unpublished. This potentially leads to a loss of entrepreneurial opportunities and ultimately the jobs and careers such games could have fostered...

  4. Take Control of Getting Started with Dreamweaver

    CERN Document Server

    Keller, Arnie

    2009-01-01

    Learn fundamental Web design principles and become comfortable working in Dreamweaver's complex interface! Dreamweaver 8 is a great Web design tool for pros, but newcomers may be overwhelmed by its interface or want to know more about how to work creatively and intelligently in the program. Help is at hand in Take Control of Getting Started with Dreamweaver, which offers a detailed tutorial for making your first site in Dreamweaver. Author Arnie Keller, who teaches Web design at the University of Victoria, shows you how to style type the smart way with CSS, create a sophisticated page layout

  5. Getting started with Zurb Foundation 4

    CERN Document Server

    Patterson, Andrew D

    2013-01-01

    The book starts with the basics of Foundation and helps you build your skills as you advance from installation to design, configuration, and customization with examples at every step.This book will be of great benefit to web architects, designers, and builders. While it helps to be a programmer, it isn't necessary for this book. You should be familiar with the basic principles of responsive web design and have a desire to create a professional website that looks great on both mobile devices and regular displays.

  6. Getting started in 3D with Maya

    CERN Document Server

    Watkins, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Deliver professional-level 3D content in no time with this comprehensive guide to 3D animation with Maya. With over 12 years of training experience, plus several award winning students under his belt, author Adam Watkins is the ideal mentor to get you up to speed with 3D in Maya. Using a structured and pragmatic approach Getting Started in 3D with Maya begins with basic theory of fundamental techniques, then builds on this knowledge using practical examples and projects to put your new skills to the test. Prepared so that you can learn in an organic fashion, each chapter builds on the know

  7. Getting started with the Lazarus IDE

    CERN Document Server

    Person, Roderick

    2013-01-01

    This book is written in a simple, easy-to-understand format with lots of screenshots and step-by-step explanations.This book is geared toward developers that have a familiarity with Delphi or Free Pascal and would like to start using the open source Lazarus Integrated Development Environment. You should have knowledge of creating a console and GUI applications as well as creating basic components. Example source code and projects are provided to help learn the differences between Delphi and Lazarus projects.

  8. New certification process starts. Pt. 2. Application of Building Information Modeling (BIM) for the certification according to DGNB; Zertifizierungsprozess auf ''neuen Beinen''. T. 2. Anwendung von Building Informationen (BIM) zur Zertifizierung nach DGNB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Essig, Bernd [SCHOLZE Consulting GmbH, Leinfelden-Echterdingen (Germany). Geschaeftsbereich Ingenieur-Beratungsleistungen in Facility-, Informations-, Qualitaets-, Nachhaltigkeitsmanagement und Energieberatung; Ernst, Tatjana [SCHOLZE Consulting GmbH, Leinfelden-Echterdingen (Germany)

    2013-04-01

    The overall life cycle plays a significant role in the certification by German Sustainable Building Council (Stuttgart, Federal Republic of Germany). In order that certification becomes much more than only a documentation, comprehensive data are requested already in an early phase of planning. Early investigations of alternatives may have a significant influence on the life cycle of a building. But, from where do the auditors achieve these amounts of data without overcharging the partners involved in the planning process with questions. The Building Information Modelling contributes to the development of the future enhancement of process quality by an innovative information management.

  9. Starting of the steam generator of a fossil fuel power plant, using predictive control based in a neuronal model; Arranque del generador de vapor de una central termoelectrica, usando control predictivo basado en un modelo neuronal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallardo Dominguez, Tonatiuh

    2004-09-15

    In this thesis work it is presented the design and implementation of a simulator of total scope of a predictive controller based in the neuronal model of the temperature in two stages of the heating of the steam generator of a fossil fuel power plant. An implemented control scheme is detailed, as well as the methodology for the identification of a neuronal model utilized for the control. Finally the results of the implementation in the simulator located at the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) are shown to be satisfactory. This control structure is not applied directly in closed circuit, but provides the value of the control actions to a human operator. [Spanish] En este trabajo de tesis se presenta el diseno e implementacion, en un simulador de alcance total, de un controlador predictivo basado en un modelo neuronal para el control de la temperatura en dos etapas del calentamiento del generador de vapor de una central termoelectrica. Se detalla el esquema de control implementado, asi como la metodologia de identificacion de un modelo neuronal utilizado para la sintesis del control. Finalmente se muestran los resultados de la implementacion en el simulador que se encuentra en el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE); dichos resultados fueron satisfactorios. Esta estructura de control no se aplica directamente en lazo cerrado, sino que provee el valor de las acciones de control a un operador humano.

  10. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) regulation by hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF1A) starts and peaks during endometrial breakdown, not repair, in a mouse menstrual-like model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xihua; Liu, Jianbing; He, Bin; Li, Yunfeng; Liu, Shuyan; Wu, Bin; Wang, Shufang; Zhang, Shucheng; Xu, Xiangbo; Wang, Jiedong

    2015-09-01

    How is vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression regulated by hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF1A) during menstruation? After progesterone (P4) withdrawal, HIF1A was activated and it directly up-regulated VEGF mRNA expression and this regulation was the highest during endometrium breakdown in the mouse menstrual-like model. VEGF, an important angiogenic factor, is known to be essential for endometrial repair, particularly in angiogenesis and re-epithelialization. However, its upstream regulation has not been fully clarified. HIF1 is the first transcription factor response to hypoxia and is closely associated with angiogenesis; it is also an upstream regulator of VEGF mRNA. We investigated the changes in the expression of HIF1A and VEGF after P4 withdrawal and after HIF1A inhibition. The total number of mice used was 62. The treatment duration in the mouse menstrual-like model was 8 days. The mouse menstrual-like model and mouse and human decidual endometrial stromal cells were established to mimic menstruation. Protein and mRNA expressions of HIF1A and VEGF were investigated by immunohistochemistry, Western blot and quantitative PCR. The direct interaction between HIF1A and the Vegf promoter was also investigated by chromatin immunoprecipitation. HIF1A inhibition in vivo and in vitro was achieved by administration of an HIF1A inhibitor and by siRNA knockdown, respectively. HIF1A was translocated to the nucleus from 8 to 16 h after P4 withdrawal, while VEGF mRNA expression was the highest at 12 h. HIF1A directly bound to Vegf promoter during endometrial breakdown, which peaked at 12 h. HIF1A inhibition suppressed VEGF mRNA and protein expression in the mouse menstrual-like model and decidualized stromal cells. Inhibition of HIF1A also suppressed endometrial breakdown. Although HIF1A regulation of VEGF mRNA was confirmed in the mouse menstrual-like model and decidual endometrium stromal cells, the functional regulation of VEGF protein was not further

  11. LHC Report: Rocky re-start

    CERN Multimedia

    Barbara Holzer for the LHC Team

    2012-01-01

    A rocky re-start with beam followed a successful machine development period and the first technical stop of 2012. Today, Friday 11 May, the machine began running again with 1380 bunches.   A short, two-day machine development period was successfully completed on 21-22 April. It focused on topics relevant for the 2012 physics beam operation. This was then followed by a five-day technical stop, the first of the year. The technical stop finished on time on Friday 26 April. The re-start with beam was somewhat tortuous and hampered by an unlucky succession of technical faults leading to extended periods of downtime. The planned intensity increase was put on hold for three days with the machine operating with 1092 bunches and a moderate bunch intensity of 1.3x1011 protons. This delivered a reasonable peak luminosity of 3.6x1033 cm-2s-1 to ATLAS and CMS. Higher than usual beam losses were observed in the ramp and squeeze, and time was required to investigate the causes and to implement mitigati...

  12. Giving start-ups a helping hand

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The French-Swiss foundation for research and technology (FFSRT) joined forces with CERN to organise an information day on setting up new businesses, at the Globe of Science and Innovation. The participants heard talks by entrepreneurs who started out at CERN, sharing their experiences and difficulties.CERN is a hot-bed of high-tech skills and know-how, and the Organization works actively to transfer this expertise to society. Some such innovations can lead to new business start-ups, but it can be extremely difficult to obtain the information and support you need to find your way through the inevitable administrative labyrinth. By opening its doors to the Fondation franco-suisse pour la recherche et la technologie (FFSRT) and hosting this "Entrepreneurial Day" on 7 March, CERN has clearly flagged its desire to assist budding entrepreneurs. The day was jointly kicked off by Olga Hooft, General Manager of the FFSRT, and Maximilian Metzger, CERN’s Se...

  13. ORGANIZING THE MUSIC CLASSES IN STARTING SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Tagiltseva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the issue of children preparation for school in so called starting schools. In author’s opinion, the arts disciplines such as music, drawing and choreography can develop the aesthetic sense, moral qualities, more optimistic world outlook and respectful  attitude; the child develops creative skills and beauty perception both in fine arts and wild life.The author looks at the problems of planning and organizing the music training of preschool children, the different requirements for and concepts of the preschool and primary school normative documents being analyzed. The paper substantiates the effectiveness of poly-artistic and activity approaches to the split-level teaching, in particular – the method of projecting the familiar actions onto some sort of artistic activities. Based on the succession of preschool and primary school training, the author specifies the goals of music classes in starting schools, and outlines the most relevant game activities of role plays, didactic plays and contests.The paper is addressed to preschool and primary school teachers, music teachers, as well as methodologists and researchers dealing with preschool teaching. 

  14. Bauxite slurry pipeline: start up operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othon, Otilio; Babosa, Eder; Edvan, Francisco; Brittes, Geraldo; Melo, Gerson; Janir, Joao; Favacho, Orlando; Leao, Marcos; Farias, Obadias [Vale, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Goncalves, Nilton [Anglo Ferrous Brazil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The mine of Miltonia is located in Paragominas-PA, in the north of Brazil. Bauxite slurry pipeline starts at the Mine of Miltonia and finishes in the draining installation of Alunorte refinery at the port of Barcarena-PA, located approximately 244km away from the mine. The pipeline runs over seven cities and passes below four great rivers stream beds. The system was designed for an underground 24 inches OD steel pipe to carry 9.9 million dry metric tonnes per annum (dMTAs) of 50.5% solid concentration bauxite slurry, using only one pumping station. The system is composed by four storage tanks and six piston diaphragm pumps, supplying a flow of 1680 m3/h. There is a cathodic protection system along the pipeline extension to prevent external corrosion and five pressure monitoring stations to control hydraulic conditions, there is also a fiber optic cable interconnection between pump station and terminal station. Pipeline Systems Incorporated (PSI) was the designer and followed the commissioning program of the start up operations. This paper will describe the beginning of the pipeline operations, technical aspects of the project, the operational experiences acquired in these two years, the faced problems and also the future planning. (author)

  15. Development of a geometric models visualizer generated starting from the GeeWiz module; Desarrollo de un visualizador de modelos geometricos, generados a partir del modulo GeeWiz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esquivel E, J.; Ramirez S, J. R., E-mail: jaime.esquivel@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2012-10-15

    The present work shows an advance of the development of an application that allows visualizing geometric modules in 3 D, of constituent elements of the reactor core. The idea of generating a visualizer for the geometries, goes back to the use of the GeeWiz module, of the Scale 6.0 code. The module allows developing, in a graphic way the geometries of the components to analyze, such as fuel rods, fuel assemblies, containers among others. The GeeWiz module, allows the criticality analysis of this elements, based on the fingering Keno-V.a and/or Keno-Vi. This way, GeeWiz generates a file that details the built geometry of the elements, this file acts as entrance to execute Keno-V.a or Keno-Vi. This entrance file is used in the developed visualizer, to show the geometric constitution of the modeling components. (Author)

  16. Bootstrap finance: the art of start-ups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhide, A

    1992-01-01

    Entrepreneurship is more popular than ever: courses are full, policymakers emphasize new ventures, managers yearn to go off on their own. Would-be founders often misplace their energies, however. Believing in a "big money" model of entrepreneurship, they spend a lot of time trying to attract investors instead of using wits and hustle to get their ideas off the ground. A study of 100 of the 1989 Inc. "500" list of fastest growing U.S. start-ups attests to the value of bootstrapping. In fact, what it takes to start a business often conflicts with what venture capitalists require. Investors prefer solid plans, well-defined markets, and track records. Entrepreneurs are heavy on energy and enthusiasm but may be short on credentials. They thrive in rapidly changing environments where uncertain prospects may scare off established companies. Rolling with the punches is often more important than formal plans. Striving to adhere to investors' criteria can diminish the flexibility--the try-it, fix-it approach--an entrepreneur needs to make a new venture work. Seven principles are basic for successful start-ups: get operational fast; look for quick break-even, cash-generating projects; offer high-value products or services that can sustain direct personal selling; don't try to hire the crack team; keep growth in check; focus on cash; and cultivate banks early. Growth and change are the start-up's natural environment. But change is also the reward for success: just as ventures grow, their founders usually have to take a fresh look at everything again: roles, organization, even the very policies that got the business up and running.

  17. Biomechanical analysis of different starting strategies utilized during cross-country skiing starts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltmann, Victor Wennemar; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Pelttari, Pasi; Mikkola, Jussi; Häkkinen, Keijo; Ohtonen, Olli; Linnamo, Vesa

    2016-11-01

    The present study was designed to analyse and compare the kinetics and kinematics associated with three different starting strategies during classic cross-country ski racing. Inside a ski tunnel, 12 elite male skiers performed three sets of three 38 m starts. Each set included one start using: double poling only (DP), diagonal stride only (DIA) and freely chosen (FREE) (i.e. where subjects used the strategy or combination of strategies they felt was fastest) in random order. The first 18 m was performed on a series of force plates that measured horizontal and vertical forces followed by 20 m of a standard snow track. Additionally, cycle characteristics and joint angles were measured. DIA and FREE were faster over 38 m than DP (P skied faster when using only DIA for the entire 38 m. Furthermore, the sum duration and frequency of propulsive contacts over the first 18 m was less in DP than DIA and FREE (P < .01). In conclusion, differences between the starting strategies examined was especially pronounced during the initial cycles. Transition from DIA to DP during the start also slowed the skiers, but optimal timing for such a transition was not elucidated.

  18. Intersubjectivity as a Logical Starting Point to Build College Students’ Management Model%以主体间性为逻辑起点构建大学生管理模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张跃聪

    2013-01-01

    Subjectivity,inter-subjectivity,intersubjectivity as a kind of humanism philosophy view of the world,the human way of life in the real world has made a different interpretation,universal,had a profound impact on college students’ management. In today’s world is a kind of harmony,equality,and people are in the relationship,they connect with each other in communication practice,interdependence and common development, show the intersubjectivity;and subjectivity,the inter-subjectivity and attention of the college student management is in trouble,therefore,to the intersubjectivity is a college student management model to construct the logical choice inevitably.%主体性、主体际性、主体间性作为一种人学理念的世界观,对现实世界中人的生存方式作出了不同解读,具有普遍意义,对大学生管理产生了深远的影响。当今世界人与人是一种和谐、平等、共在的关系,他们在交往实践中相互联系、相互依存、共同发展,表现出主体间性;而主体性、主体际性及其关照下的大学生管理却陷入重重困境,因此,走向主体间性是大学生管理模式建构必然的逻辑选择。

  19. Genomic and chromatin signals underlying transcription start-site selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valen, Eivind; Sandelin, Albin Gustav

    2011-01-01

    A central question in cellular biology is how the cell regulates transcription and discerns when and where to initiate it. Locating transcription start sites (TSSs), the signals that specify them, and ultimately elucidating the mechanisms of regulated initiation has therefore been a recurrent theme......; the field is now faced with the daunting challenge of translating these descriptive maps into quantitative and predictive models describing the underlying biology. We review here the genomic and chromatin features that underlie TSS selection and usage, focusing on the differences between the major classes...

  20. 46 CFR 112.50-3 - Hydraulic starting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydraulic starting. 112.50-3 Section 112.50-3 Shipping... POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Diesel and Gas Turbine Engine Driven Generator Sets § 112.50-3 Hydraulic starting. A hydraulic starting system must meet the following: (a) The hydraulic starting system must be...

  1. Start-up Strategy for Continuous Bioreactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. da Costa

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - The start-up of continuous bioreactors is solved as an optimal control problem. The choice of the dilution rate as the control variable reduces the dimension of the system by making the use of the global balance equation unnecessary for the solution of the optimization problem. Therefore, for systems described by four or less mass balance equations, it is always possible to obtain an analytical expression for the singular arc as a function of only the state variables. The steady state conditions are shown to satisfy the singular arc expression and, based on this knowledge, a feeding strategy is proposed which leads the reactor from an initial state to the steady state of maximum productivity

  2. The UK sugar tax - a healthy start?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C M

    2016-07-22

    The unexpected announcement by the UK Chancellor of the Exchequer of a levy on sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) on the 16 March 2016, should be welcomed by all health professionals. This population based, structural intervention sends a strong message that there is no place for carbonated drinks, neither sugared nor sugar-free, in a healthy diet and the proposed levy has the potential to contribute to both general and dental health. The sugar content of drinks exempt from the proposed sugar levy will still cause tooth decay. Improving the proposed tax could involve a change to a scaled volumetric tax of added sugar with a lower exemption threshold. External influences such as the Common Agricultural Policy and the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership may negate the benefits of the sugar levy unless it is improved. However, the proposed UK sugar tax should be considered as a start in improving the nation's diet.

  3. Starting point anchoring effects in choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladenburg, Jacob; Olsen, Søren Bøye

    Anchoring is acknowledged as a potential source of considerable bias in Dichotomous Choice Contingent Valuation studies. Recently, another stated preference method known as Choice Experiments has gained in popularity as well as the number of applied studies. However, as the elicitation...... of preferences in Choice Experiments resembles the Dichotomous Choice format, there is reason to suspect that Choice Experiments are equally vulnerable to anchoring bias. Employing different sets of price levels in a so-called Instruction Choice Set presented prior to the actual choice sets, the present study...... finds that preferences elicited by Choice Experiments can be subject to starting point anchoring bias. Different price levels provoked significantly different distributions of choice in two otherwise identical choice set designs. On a more specific level, the results indicate that the anchoring...

  4. Starting point anchoring effects in choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladenburg, Jacob; Olsen, Søren Bøye

    of preferences in Choice Experiments resembles the Dichotomous Choice format, there is reason to suspect that Choice Experiments are equally vulnerable to anchoring bias. Employing different sets of price levels in a so-called Instruction Choice Set presented prior to the actual choice sets, the present study......Anchoring is acknowledged as a potential source of considerable bias in Dichotomous Choice Contingent Valuation studies. Recently, another stated preference method known as Choice Experiments has gained in popularity as well as the number of applied studies. However, as the elicitation...... finds that preferences elicited by Choice Experiments can be subject to starting point anchoring bias. Different price levels provoked significantly different distributions of choice in two otherwise identical choice set designs. On a more specific level, the results indicate that the anchoring...

  5. Getting started with LevelDB

    CERN Document Server

    Dent, Andy

    2013-01-01

    The book is a concise guide for using LevelDB. It explains database concepts and the use of C++, ranging from the basics all the way to high level topics in an easy to follow, step-by-step format.The book is meant for developers who want an embedded database for their applications. Experienced programmers can pick up on the sophisticated data mapping patterns and tuning tips.Getting Started with LevelDB requires a minimal background in programming in C++ or Objective-C for OS/X or iOS and familiarity with XCode. Therefore it teaches enough C++ to use LevelDB without presuming any C++ knowledge

  6. Re-starting an Arnoldi iteration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehoucq, R.B. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The Arnoldi iteration is an efficient procedure for approximating a subset of the eigensystem of a large sparse n x n matrix A. The iteration produces a partial orthogonal reduction of A into an upper Hessenberg matrix H{sub m} of order m. The eigenvalues of this small matrix H{sub m} are used to approximate a subset of the eigenvalues of the large matrix A. The eigenvalues of H{sub m} improve as estimates to those of A as m increases. Unfortunately, so does the cost and storage of the reduction. The idea of re-starting the Arnoldi iteration is motivated by the prohibitive cost associated with building a large factorization.

  7. When to start: not so fast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundgren J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available It remains controversial whether and, if so, the extent to which antiretroviral therapy (ART results in net benefit if used by HIV-positive persons with a high CD4 count, particularly those with early HIV infection. This controversy is primarily reflecting lack of solid evidence from randomized controlled trials. Currently published trials have compared early ART with initiation of ART below currently globally accepted thresholds for initiation (i.e. CD4 count at 350 cells/µL and, hence, are unable to inform this discussion. Analyses on large observational studies that have attempted to address this question have shown inconsistent results; therefore, those results are considered low-quality evidence, as per the GRADE criteria used by, for example, WHO when formulating guidelines. In resource-constrained regions, not even observational data are available to inform this question. The START study is underway to answer this question. Data remain blinded, but START may show net harm from early use of ART; such a result would severely undermine use of ART as prevention in early HIV infection. Prescription of any type of medicine is guided by the principle of “do no harm” – that is, “the doctor should not prescribe medications unless s/he knows that the treatment is unlikely to be harmful.” Hence, the balance of risk/benefit to individuals versus prevention benefit is important to accurately determine, and current guidelines of generally initiating ART once the patient develops HIV-related symptoms or the CD4 count drops to levels around 350 cells/µL should be adhered to until further evidence has emerged.

  8. Photoemission starting of induction rf-driven multicusp ion sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickard, D. S.; Leung, K. N.; Perkins, L. T.; Ponce, D. M.; Young, A. T.

    1996-02-01

    It has been demonstrated that pulsed and continuous wave, rf-driven hydrogen discharges can be started with photoemission. The extracted H- current from a photoemission-started plasma has been investigated and does not differ significantly from that of a filament-started plasma. The minimum pressure for photoemissive starting was found to be higher than that of filament starting, 17 mTorr compared to 7 mTorr, respectively, in this particular configuration.

  9. Development Trajectory of an Innovation-Based Environmental Technology Start-Up

    OpenAIRE

    Saukkonen, Juha; Vänttinen, Kari

    2016-01-01

    This research paper focuses on the growth models of new business ventures and their applicability to a specific type of start-up, environmental technology–based growth company via a case study. Start-ups companies are a focal point of interest of this decade. Start-ups develop products and services in conditions of market and technological uncertainty and competitive volatility. Due to their crucial role in the net job creation there is a growing need and interest to understand, model and dev...

  10. Starting-point bias and respondent uncertainty in dichotomous choice contingent valuation surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Flachaire, Emmanuel; Hollard, Guillaume

    2007-01-01

    International audience; In this article, we develop a dichotomous choice model with follow-up questions that describes the willingness to pay being uncertain in an interval. The initial response is subject to starting point bias. Our model provides an alternative interpretation of the starting point bias in the dichotomous choice valuation surveys. Using the Exxon Valdez survey, we show that, when uncertain, individuals tend to answer "yes".

  11. Extended Deterrence, Nuclear Proliferation, and START III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speed, R.D.

    2000-06-20

    Early in the Cold War, the United States adopted a policy of ''extended nuclear deterrence'' to protect its allies by threatening a nuclear strike against any state that attacks these allies. This threat can (in principle) be used to try to deter an enemy attack using conventional weapons or one using nuclear, chemical, or biological weapons. The credibility of a nuclear threat has long been subject to debate and is dependent on many complex geopolitical factors, not the least of which is the military capabilities of the opposing sides. The ending of the Cold War has led to a significant decrease in the number of strategic nuclear weapons deployed by the United States and Russia. START II, which was recently ratified by the Russian Duma, will (if implemented) reduce the number deployed strategic nuclear weapons on each side to 3500, compared to a level of over 11,000 at the end of the Cold War in 1991. The tentative limit established by Presidents Clinton and Yeltsin for START III would reduce the strategic force level to 2000-2500. However, the Russians (along with a number of arms control advocates) now argue that the level should be reduced even further--to 1500 warheads or less. The conventional view is that ''deep cuts'' in nuclear weapons are necessary to discourage nuclear proliferation. Thus, as part of the bargain to get the non-nuclear states to agree to the renewal of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, the United States pledged to work towards greater reductions in strategic forces. Without movement in the direction of deep cuts, it is thought by many analysts that some countries may decide to build their own nuclear weapons. Indeed, this was part of the rationale India used to justify its own nuclear weapons program. However, there is also some concern that deep cuts (to 1500 or lower) in the U.S. strategic nuclear arsenal could have the opposite effect. The fear is that such cuts might undermine extended

  12. False Belief, Emotion Understanding, and Social Skills among Head Start and Non-Head Start Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimer, Amy A.; Guajardo, Nicole R.

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigated relationships among false belief, emotion understanding, and social skills with 60 3- to 5-year-olds (29 boys, 31 girls) from Head Start and two other preschools. Children completed language, false belief, and emotion understanding measures; parents and teachers evaluated children's social skills. Children's false…

  13. National Head Start Association Position Paper: Why Conservatives Should Support Head Start.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Ben; Greene, Sarah; McGrady, Michael; Boel, Bridget; Ryan, Joel; Whitehead, Diane; Smith, Angela; Kane, Elizabeth; Qualls, Brocklin; Wahid, Kahree

    Head Start is a comprehensive federal preschool program, serving children prenatal through age 5 and their families with the overall goal of increasing the school readiness of young children in low-income families. Noting that the program has typically garnered strong support from political liberals and moderates, this position paper of the…

  14. Start-up analysis for automotive PEM fuel cell systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Francesco, M.; Arato, E.

    The development of fuel cell cars can play an important role in resolving transport problems, due to the high environmental compatibility and high efficiency of this kind of vehicle. Among the different types of fuel cells, proton-exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are considered the best solution for automotive applications at the moment. In this work, constructive criteria are discussed with the aim of obtaining a power generation module adaptable to a wide range of cars. A particular problem in accomplishing the overall project is represented by the definition of the compressor system for air feeding. In this work, the design approach to the problem will be delineated: some options are reviewed and the best solution is analysed. The transient response of the system (fuel cell and compressor) is investigated in order to optimise the start-up running through a model of a fuel cell stack and a compressor simulation. The model and its results are proposed as a work procedure to solve the problem, by varying external conditions: in fact, to perform the system start-up under stable conditions, the air relative humidity and temperature must be maintained in a proper range of values. The approach here presented has been utilised for the definition of the characteristics of the power module and layout of a middle-size hybrid city bus in the framework of a project promoted by the European Union.

  15. Effect of starting stance on initial sprint performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, John B; Green, Jonathon P; Levin, Gregory T; Brughelli, Matt E; Frost, David M

    2007-08-01

    The effect of different starting stances from a standing position on short sprint times and the subsequent variability in times was investigated in this study. A dual-beam timing light system was used to measure 5- and 10-m times for 3 different standing starts commonly found in the sporting environment: parallel (feet parallel to the start line), split (lead left foot on start line, right leg back), and false (initial parallel start, right leg drops back to split start when movement initiated). The parallel start was found to be significantly (alpha men and women. The split and false start seem to offer the best option as a movement strategy for minimizing short-distance sprint times. However, the benefits of these 2 starts are less clear if total movement time is the variable of interest.

  16. Rehabilitation starts in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozeboom, Nathan; Parenteau, Kathy; Carratturo, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Each year between 10 000 and 12 000 spinal cord injuries occur in the United States. Once injured, many of these patients will receive a portion of their care in an intensive care unit (ICU), where their treatment will begin. Harborview Medical Center in Seattle, Washington, provides comprehensive care to approximately 60 to 70 cervical spinal cord injuries each year. Because of many factors such as hemodynamic instability, pulmonary complications, and risk of infection, patients with cervical spinal cord injuries can spend up to 2 or more weeks in the ICU before they transfer to a rehabilitation unit. To achieve optimal outcomes, it is imperative that members of the interdisciplinary team work together in a consistent, goal-oriented, collaborative manner. This team includes physicians, nurses, respiratory therapists, physical and occupational therapists, speech pathologists, dieticians, and rehabilitation psychologists. An individual plan is developed for each patient and rehabilitation starts in the ICU as soon as the patient is medically stable. This article will highlight the management strategies used in the neuroscience ICU at Harborview Medical Center and will include a case study as an example of the typical experience for our patients with high cervical cord injury.

  17. [The difficult start of nephrology in Rome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagli, V; Cinotti, G A

    2009-01-01

    Nephrology in Rome began in the 1960s with the arrival of Ernico Fiaschi in the wake of Cataldo Cassano at the Institute of Medical Pathology (later on Clinica Medica II). A group of doctors interested in nephrology was set up, with among them Giulio A. Cinotti, who was to become full professor of nephrology at the University of Rome ''La Sapienza'' in 1980. By the end of the 1960s, the renal transplant activity had become an important asset at the Institute of Surgical Pathology (later on Clinica Chirurgica II) thanks to Paride Stefanini. A chair of surgical nephrology was instituted at the Urology Clinics of Ulrico Bracci; the chair was first held by Nicola Cerulli, who developed an intensive hemodialysis program. Around the same time, the Center for the Research and Treatment of Arterial Hypertension and Kidney Diseases became operational at the hospitals of Rome (under the responsibility of Vito Cagli at the Policlinico Umberto I), while a nephrology and dialysis unit, directed by Giancarlo Ruggieri, was set up at the San Giacomo Hospital. Many nephrology-related ''cultural'' activities started to be undertaken thanks to the ''Gruppo Laziale di Nefrologia Medica e Chirurgica'' founded by Drs Cagli, Cerulli, and Cinotti. Two national congresses were organized by Giulio Cinotti in 1979 (Fiuggi) and 1992 (Rome).

  18. Impulsively started, steady and pulsated annular inflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Raouf, Emad; Sharif, Muhammad A. R.; Baker, John

    2017-04-01

    A computational investigation was carried out on low Reynolds number laminar inflow starting annular jets using multiple blocking ratios and atmospheric ambient conditions. The jet exit velocity conditions are imposed as steady, unit pulsed, and sinusoidal pulsed while the jet surroundings and the far-field jet inlet upstream conditions are left atmospheric. The reason is to examine the flow behavior in and around the jet inlet under these conditions. The pulsation mode behavior is analyzed based on the resultant of the momentum and pressure forces at the entry of the annulus, the circulation and vortex formation, and the propulsion efficiency of the inflow jets. The results show that under certain conditions, the net force of inflow jets (sinusoidal pulsed jets in particular) could point opposite to the flow direction due to the adverse pressure drops in the flow. The propulsion efficiency is also found to increase with pulsation frequency and the sinusoidal pulsed inflow jets are more efficient than the unit pulsed inflow jets. In addition, steady inflow jets did not trigger the formation of vortices, while unit and sinusoidal pulsed inflow jets triggered the formation of vortices under a certain range of frequencies.

  19. Parameters matching requirements for diesel free piston linear alternator start-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-xiao Li

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available It is important to identify the relationship between the starting requirements and the structure parameters of the diesel free piston linear alternator on the structural design stage. In this article, the forces applied on the moving part during the starting process are analyzed, and an oscillation model is established. The numerical simulation results of the oscillation model are presented, and the energy-transfer mechanism is analyzed. Then, the oscillation model is simplified by utilizing the energy balance theory. Expressions of the achieved starting frequency and required starting force are derived and the effects of different design variables on them are investigated. The results show that the achieved compression ratio is determined by the energy balance between the friction consumption and the energy supplied by the starting force. The starting frequency achieved and starting force required are associated with the cylinder bore, the moving mass, and effective stroke of the engine, which can be applied to the matching design and optimization of the prototype.

  20. An experimental study of starting plumes over area sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedl, M.J.; Haertel, C.; Fannelop, T.K. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zuerich (Switzerland). Inst. of Fluid Dynamics

    1999-12-01

    Experiments have been performed to study the dynamics of plumes which develop, if buoyant fluid enters a homogeneous, unstratified environment through a source of finite width. The experiments were conducted in a cubic tank of salt water with 0.8 m side length into which dyes fresh water was released at a constant volume-flow rate through a circular felt at the bottom. The governing non-dimensional parameter of the flow, namely the ratio of inflow velocity to buoyancy velocity, was varied over more than two orders of magnitude in the experiments. The flow is shown to pass through two distinct phases, and a new integral model is presented which describes the flow in the early stage. For later times and at larger distances from the source, the flow is found to be well described by Turner's model for starting plumes from point sources.

  1. How Very Massive Metal Free Stars Start Cosmological Reionization

    CERN Document Server

    Wise, John H

    2007-01-01

    (Abridged) Using ab initio cosmological Eulerian adaptive mesh refinement radiation hydrodynamical calculations, we discuss how very massive stars start the process of cosmological reionization. The models include non-equilibrium primordial gas chemistry and cooling processes and accurate radiation transport in the Case B approximation using adaptively ray traced photon packages, retaining the time derivative in the transport equation. Supernova feedback is modeled by thermal explosions triggered at parsec scales. All calculations resolve the local Jeans length by at least 16 grid cells at all times and as such cover a spatial dynamic range of ~10^6. These first sources of reionization are highly intermittent and anisotropic and first photoionize the small scales voids surrounding the halos they form in, rather than the dense filaments they are embedded in. As the merging objects form larger, dwarf sized galaxies, the escape fraction of UV radiation decreases and the HII regions only break out on some sides o...

  2. A New Soft Starting Method for Wound-Rotor Induction Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifian, Mohammad Bagher Bannae; Feyzi, Mohammad Reza; Sabahi, Mehran; Farrokhifar, Meysam

    2011-01-01

    Starting of a three-phase Induction motor using a starter rheostat in rotor circuit has some disadvantages. A new method for starting of a three-phase motor by using a parallel combination of resistors, self-inductors and capacitors in rotor circuit is proposed in this paper. The proposed method ensures the soft and higher starting torque as well as limited starting current as compared to shorted rotor method. The characteristic curves for both methods (shorted rotor and rotor with added elements) are provided. The mathematical model based on the steady-state equivalent circuit of the induction motor is expanded in frequency domain and the required computer program is prepared using an optimization method. The values for added elements to rotor circuit are calculated in such a way that minimum starting time considering current and torque limitations are achieved.

  3. Risk factors for treatment-limiting toxicities in patients starting nevirapine-containing antiretroviral therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesselring, Anouk M; Wit, Ferdinand W; Sabin, Caroline A;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This collaboration of seven observational clinical cohorts investigated risk factors for treatment-limiting toxicities in both antiretroviral-naive and experienced patients starting nevirapine-based combination antiretroviral therapy (NVPc). METHODS: Patients starting NVPc after 1...... to treatment-limiting toxicities and/or patient/physician choice (TOXPC, n = 10,186). Patients were classified according to prior antiretroviral treatment experience and CD4 cell count/viral load at start NVPc. Models were stratified by cohort and adjusted for age, sex, nadir CD4 cell count, calendar year...... of starting NVPc and mode of transmission. RESULTS: Median time from starting NVPc to TOXPC and HSR were 162 days [interquartile range (IQR) 31-737] and 30 days (IQR 17-60), respectively. In adjusted Cox analyses, compared to naive patients with a low CD4 cell count, treatment-experienced patients with high...

  4. Study on Undertaking-starting of New Generation Migrant Workers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuang; LU; Wanzhao; LIU

    2014-01-01

    New generation migrant workers have become mainstay of China’s migrant workers and also major builders of China’s urbanization process. Compared with last generation migrant workers,new generation migrant workers have greater awareness of starting an undertaking. In the new trend,undertaking-starting is inevitable for new generation migrant workers. This study analyzed problems encountered by new generation migrant workers in the course of starting an undertaking. It reached conclusions that competent authorities should set up support mechanism in undertaking-starting training,undertaking-starting fund,service platform,and preferential policies,to encourage and support new generation migrant workers to start an undertaking.

  5. Arginine requirement of starting broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuca, M; Jensen, L S

    1990-08-01

    Three experiments were conducted to estimate the arginine requirement of male broiler chicks from 0 to 3 wk of age. The experiments were conducted in battery brooders with wires floors, and the birds received water and feed ad libitum. In the first experiment, chicks were fed a diet based on corn, soybean meal, casein, and corn-gluten meal containing 3,200 kcal ME per kg and either 20 or 23% crude protein. Regression analysis indicated an arginine requirement of 1.22% for maximum growth rate and feed efficiency with the 20% protein diet. For chicks fed the 23% protein diet, neither growth rate nor feed efficiency was significantly different among the diets containing arginine ranging from 1.13 to 1.43%. In the second experiment, a basal diet was used containing 17.5% casein and 22.5% protein with arginine ranging from 1.03 to 1.43%. An arginine requirement of 1.18% for maximum body weight gain was estimated by regression analysis, but no significant response to arginine above the basal level was observed for feed efficiency. Performance of chicks fed the basal diet was somewhat reduced because of a difficulty with adherence of feed to the beaks. In a third experiment, three basal diets containing 21, 22, or 23% protein were formulated from practical ingredients without use of casein. The requirement for maximum growth rate and feed efficiency was estimated to be 1.24 to 1.28% for the three diets. The results of these investigations indicate that the arginine requirement for starting chicks suggested by the National Research Council in 1984 of 1.44% in diets containing 3,200 kcal ME per kg is too high for practical diets. The data presented here support an arginine requirement of 1.25%.

  6. Starting up microbial enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegert, Michael; Sitte, Jana; Galushko, Alexander; Krüger, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This chapter gives the reader a practical introduction into microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) including the microbial production of natural gas from oil. Decision makers who consider the use of one of these technologies are provided with the required scientific background as well as with practical advice for upgrading an existing laboratory in order to conduct microbiological experiments. We believe that the conversion of residual oil into natural gas (methane) and the in situ production of biosurfactants are the most promising approaches for MEOR and therefore focus on these topics. Moreover, we give an introduction to the microbiology of oilfields and demonstrate that in situ microorganisms as well as injected cultures can help displace unrecoverable oil in place (OIP). After an initial research phase, the enhanced oil recovery (EOR) manager must decide whether MEOR would be economical. MEOR generally improves oil production but the increment may not justify the investment. Therefore, we provide a brief economical assessment at the end of this chapter. We describe the necessary state-of-the-art scientific equipment to guide EOR managers towards an appropriate MEOR strategy. Because it is inevitable to characterize the microbial community of an oilfield that should be treated using MEOR techniques, we describe three complementary start-up approaches. These are: (i) culturing methods, (ii) the characterization of microbial communities and possible bio-geochemical pathways by using molecular biology methods, and (iii) interfacial tension measurements. In conclusion, we hope that this chapter will facilitate a decision on whether to launch MEOR activities. We also provide an update on relevant literature for experienced MEOR researchers and oilfield operators. Microbiologists will learn about basic principles of interface physics needed to study the impact of microorganisms living on oil droplets. Last but not least, students and technicians trying to understand

  7. Abscisic Acid Signal off the STARTing Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Archana Joshi-Saha; Christiane Valon; Jeffrey Leung

    2011-01-01

    The year 2009 marked a real turnaround in our understanding of the mode ot abscisJc acid(ABA)action. Nearly 25 years had elapsed since the first biochemical detection of ABA-binding proteins in the plasmalemma of Vicia guard cells was reported. This recent-and laudable-achievement is owed largely to the discovery of the soluble ABA receptors whose major interacting proteins happen to be some of the most well-established components of earliest steps in ABA signaling. These soluble receptors, with the double name of PYRABACTIN RESISTANCE (PYR)or REGULATORY COM-PONENT OF ABA RECEPTOR (RCAR), are a family of Arabidopsis proteins of about 150-200 amino acids that share a con-served START domain. The ABA signal transduction circuitry under non-stress conditions is muted by the ciade A protein phosphatases 2C (PP2C)(notably HAB1, ABI1, and ABI2). During the initial steps of ABA signaling, the binding of the hor-mone to the receptor induces a conformational change in the latter that allows it to sequester the PP2Cs. This excludes them from the negative regulation of the downstream ABA-activated kinases (OST1/SnRK2.6/SRK2E, SnRK2.2, and SnRK2.3), thus unleashing the pathway by freeing them to phosphorylate downstream targets that now include several b-ZIP transcription factors, ion channels (SLAC1, KAT1), and a NADPH oxidase (AtrbohF). The discovery of this family of soluble receptors and the rich insight already gained from structural studies of their complexes with different isoforms of ABA, PP2C, and the synthetic agonist pyrabactin lay the foundation towards rational design of chemical switches that can bolster drought hardiness in plants.

  8. The effect of ego depletion on sprint start reaction time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, Chris; Bertrams, Alex

    2014-10-01

    In the current study, we consider that optimal sprint start performance requires the self-control of responses. Therefore, start performance should depend on athletes' self-control strength. We assumed that momentary depletion of self-control strength (ego depletion) would either speed up or slow down the initiation of a sprint start, where an initiation that was sped up would carry the increased risk of a false start. Applying a mixed between- (depletion vs. nondepletion) and within- (before vs. after manipulation of depletion) subjects design, we tested the start reaction times of 37 sport students. We found that participants' start reaction times decelerated after finishing a depleting task, whereas it remained constant in the nondepletion condition. These results indicate that sprint start performance can be impaired by unrelated preceding actions that lower momentary self-control strength. We discuss practical implications in terms of optimizing sprint starts and related overall sprint performance.

  9. Your Starting Guide To Childhood Apraxia of Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... posters Books & Cards Jewelry & Accessories Video & Music Stay Connected Get Apraxia Kids News Notifications Home Family Start Guide Introduction Your Starting Guide To Childhood Apraxia of Speech If you are new to the diagnosis of ...

  10. Hot-start Giant Planets Form with Radiative Interiors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berardo, David; Cumming, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    In the hot-start core accretion formation model for gas giants, the interior of a planet is usually assumed to be fully convective. By calculating the detailed internal evolution of a planet assuming hot-start outer boundary conditions, we show that such a planet will in fact form with a radially increasing internal entropy profile, so that its interior will be radiative instead of convective. For a hot outer boundary, there is a minimum value for the entropy of the internal adiabat S min below which the accreting envelope does not match smoothly onto the interior, but instead deposits high entropy material onto the growing interior. One implication of this would be to at least temporarily halt the mixing of heavy elements within the planet, which are deposited by planetesimals accreted during formation. The compositional gradient this would impose could subsequently disrupt convection during post-accretion cooling, which would alter the observed cooling curve of the planet. However, even with a homogeneous composition, for which convection develops as the planet cools, the difference in cooling timescale will change the inferred mass of directly imaged gas giants.

  11. Starting a business as a nurse consultant: practical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, E M

    2000-03-01

    Nursing experience translates well to self employment in the occupational and environmental health field. However, nurses must conduct a self assessment to determine whether owning a business is a good fit for their personality and work style. Exploring which services to offer is the next step in starting a business and consists of determining not only which service to offer (e.g., writing policies or protocols, providing clinical services) but also which type of consultation model to use (i.e., purchase of expertise, doctor/client, process consultation). Every business must have a plan. A business plan is essential to starting a business. It solidifies the entrepreneur's focus, lays the foundation for the business, provides a tool for evaluating success, and is a strong tool for soliciting financial support. The name of the business is an important consideration because it is often the first contact the customers have with the occupational health nurse consultant. The name must be descriptive, appropriate, and memorable.

  12. Tokamak Start-up under Assistance of RF Waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方瑜德

    2004-01-01

    To improve the start-up behavior of tokamak discharges and realize the low loop voltage start-up is required by performance of large scale, full superconductor tokamaks. In recent years, some kinds of RF wave have been used to assist the start-up and some exciting results have been gained. This paper introduce the investigation on both in physical principle and experimental research of the start-up process, in which high frequency RF waves were used to assist it.

  13. Pakistan/USAID to start CSM project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Pakistan, with the assistance of funds for the US Agency for International Development (USAID), is about to start its novel approach to contraceptive social marketing (CSM). This new effort suggests a marked policy shift on the part of the Pakistan government toward intensifying its family planning activities. The program will be government-operated and supported by AID over the next 5 years with $20 million, more than double the cost of similar CSM projects elswhere. Distribution of a condom on a pilot project basis is expected to begin by December 1984. Sales of a low-dose oral contraceptive (OC) could begin in test market areas by mid-1985, with national launching of both products tentatively scheduled for January 1986. The Pakistan/USAID agreement represents the 1st time since the formation of India's Nirodh project in the late 1960s that a CSM program is being established without the involvement of either an international social marketing contractor or a country's family planning association. The Pakistan CSM program will be managed by a policy board composed of representatives from the government's Ministries of Planning, Health and Education; a resident advisor from USAID; and a local company responsible for product marketing and distribution. The approach has received a skeptical response among international social marketing experts about the program's chances for success. Their doubts extend to 2 other aspects of the proposed design: an official of the Ministry of Planning's Population and Welfare Division expects the CSM program to generate sufficient revenues to cover all operating costs following the 5-year subsidy period, while also providing attractive profit margins for the marketing/distribution company; and the government prohibits mass media advertising of contraceptives. According to AID, the issue of mass media contraceptive advertising has not yet been resolved, and a national survey will be conducted to determine what communication needs are

  14. Mortality According to CD4 Count at Start of Combination Antiretroviral Therapy Among HIV-infected Patients Followed for up to 15 Years After Start of Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Margaret T; Vehreschild, Jorg-Janne; Trickey, Adam

    2016-01-01

    -2001], and AIDS and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA at baseline) mortality rate ratios (MRRs) by CD4 count at start of ART (0-49, 50-99, 100-199, 200-349, 350-499, ≥500 cells/µL) overall and separately according to time since start of ART. RESULTS: A total of 6344 of 37 496 patients died during 359 219......BACKGROUND: CD4 count at start of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) is strongly associated with short-term survival, but its association with longer-term survival is less well characterized. METHODS: We estimated mortality rates (MRs) by time since start of ART (...-4.9, 5-9.9, and ≥10 years) among patients from 18 European and North American cohorts who started ART during 1996-2001. Piecewise exponential models stratified by cohort were used to estimate crude and adjusted (for sex, age, transmission risk, period of starting ART [1996-1997, 1998-1999, 2000...

  15. Enhancing Early Childhood Outcomes: Connecting Child Welfare and Head Start

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrae, Julie S.; Brown, Samantha M.; Yang, Jessica; Groneman, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Head Start is a preschool program for families with low incomes and nearly 85% of child welfare-involved families are low-income, yet little is known about Head Start and child welfare collaboration. This study uses data from 28 Head Start directors to describe collaboration facilitators and barriers, and collaborative mechanisms in place. The…

  16. Parental Involvement Routines and Former Head Start Children's Literacy Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, Meghan Kicklighter; Neuharth-Pritchett, Stacey; Wright, David W.; Wallinga, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between parental involvement routines and former Head Start children's literacy outcomes. Former Head Start children (n = 3, 808) from the National Head Start/Public School Transition Demonstration Research Project comprised the sample. Family routines and literacy outcomes in kindergarten were examined,…

  17. Personal and Public Start Pages in a library setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kieft-Wondergem, Dorine

    2009-01-01

    Personal and Public Start Pages are web-based resources. With these kind of tools it is possible to make your own free start page. A Start Page allows you to put all your web resources into one page, including blogs, email, podcasts, RSSfeeds. It is possible to share the content of the page with oth

  18. Personal and Public Start Pages in a library setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kieft-Wondergem, Dorine

    Personal and Public Start Pages are web-based resources. With these kind of tools it is possible to make your own free start page. A Start Page allows you to put all your web resources into one page, including blogs, email, podcasts, RSSfeeds. It is possible to share the content of the page with

  19. 76 FR 17736 - Major Capital Investment Program-New Starts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-30

    ... discretionary selection of projects for funding using unallocated Major Capital Investment (New Starts) program... Federal Transit Administration Major Capital Investment Program--New Starts AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of discretionary selection of New Starts projects for Funding. SUMMARY...

  20. Getting started in ZBrush an introduction to digital sculpting and illustration

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Getting Started in ZBrush is a gentle introduction to ZBrush, today's premier digital sculpting program. Beginning with the fundamentals of digital sculpting as well as a thorough introduction to the user interface, Getting Started in ZBrush will have you creating a variety of professional-level 3D models in no-time. More than just another button-pushing manual, this comprehensive guide is packed with start-to-finish projects that ease you into the workflow of the program, while at the same time providing tips and tricks that will allow you to achieve certain tasks much more quickly. After pro

  1. Predicting mortality in patients with diabetes starting dialysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merel van Diepen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While some prediction models have been developed for diabetic populations, prediction rules for mortality in diabetic dialysis patients are still lacking. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify predictors for 1-year mortality in diabetic dialysis patients and use these results to develop a prediction model. METHODS: Data were used from the Netherlands Cooperative Study on the Adequacy of Dialysis (NECOSAD, a multicenter, prospective cohort study in which incident patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD were monitored until transplantation or death. For the present analysis, patients with DM at baseline were included. A prediction algorithm for 1-year all-cause mortality was developed through multivariate logistic regression. Candidate predictors were selected based on literature and clinical expertise. The final model was constructed through backward selection. The model's predictive performance, measured by calibration and discrimination, was assessed and internally validated through bootstrapping. RESULTS: A total of 394 patients were available for statistical analysis; 82 (21% patients died within one year after baseline (3 months after starting dialysis therapy. The final prediction model contained seven predictors; age, smoking, history of macrovascular complications, duration of diabetes mellitus, Karnofsky scale, serum albumin and hemoglobin level. Predictive performance was good, as shown by the c-statistic of 0.810. Internal validation showed a slightly lower, but still adequate performance. Sensitivity analyses showed stability of results. CONCLUSIONS: A prediction model containing seven predictors has been identified in order to predict 1-year mortality for diabetic incident dialysis patients. Predictive performance of the model was good. Before implementing the model in clinical practice, for example for counseling patients regarding their prognosis, external validation is necessary.

  2. The Entrepreneur's Mode of Entry: Business Takeover or New Venture Start?

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    We analyse the decision to become an entrepreneur by either taking over an established business or starting a new venture from scratch. A model is developed which predicts how several individual- and firm-specific characteristics influence entrepreneurs' entry mode. The new venture creation mode is associated with higher levels of schooling and wealth, whereas managerial experience, new venture start-up capital requirements and risk promote the takeover mode. Entrepreneurs whose parents run a...

  3. START-UP AND GROWTH OF IMMIGRANT SMALL BUSINESSES: THE IMPACT OF SOCIAL AND HUMAN CAPITAL

    OpenAIRE

    JENNIFER M. SEQUEIRA; Abdul A Rasheed

    2006-01-01

    Networks, and their resulting social capital, can be key determinants of successful business start-up for immigrant entrepreneurs. Historically, immigrants have settled in communities characterized by networks that consist of strong ties. Network theory suggests that in addition to strong ties, success also requires the development of weak ties. In this paper, we develop a model of the relationships between strong and weak ties, and the likelihood of a business start-up and its subsequent gro...

  4. Cooperation between large companies and start-ups: the access to drive disruptive innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Bruse, Florian; Böhmer, Annette Isabel; Lindemann, Udo

    2016-01-01

    According to Christopher Clayton’s Innovator’s Dilemma large corporations face a threat of disruptive innovation. By use of products and services with a moderate amount of new technologies, new business models can be created, which later on oust established companies. Particularly start-ups seem to be more prone to drive disruptive innovations than large corporations. This paper illustrates the need for cooperation between large companies and start-ups in order to pursue disruptive innovation...

  5. START-UP AND GROWTH OF IMMIGRANT SMALL BUSINESSES: THE IMPACT OF SOCIAL AND HUMAN CAPITAL

    OpenAIRE

    JENNIFER M. SEQUEIRA; Abdul A Rasheed

    2006-01-01

    Networks, and their resulting social capital, can be key determinants of successful business start-up for immigrant entrepreneurs. Historically, immigrants have settled in communities characterized by networks that consist of strong ties. Network theory suggests that in addition to strong ties, success also requires the development of weak ties. In this paper, we develop a model of the relationships between strong and weak ties, and the likelihood of a business start-up and its subsequent gro...

  6. Starting of HPS lamps driven by electronic ballast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟强; 王卫; 徐殿国

    2001-01-01

    A complete research of two different starting techniques for HPS lamps driven by electronic ballast is presented while a traditional starting technique based on the series resonant theory which is used widely for fluorescent lamps starting is analyzed in detail. An improved nth harmonic resonant technique is also simulated. Furthermore, a novel starting technique based on a pulse ransformer is proposed, which still offer the automatic switch-off capability. The differences between two starting techniques are explained. The experimental results from a lab prototype are used to verify the design.

  7. Photoemission starting of induction rf-driven multicusp ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickard, D.S.; Leung, K.N.; Perkins, L.T.; Ponce, D.M.; Young, A.T. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    1996-02-01

    It has been demonstrated that pulsed and continuous wave, rf-driven hydrogen discharges can be started with photoemission. The extracted H{sup {minus}} current from a photoemission-started plasma has been investigated and does not differ significantly from that of a filament-started plasma. The minimum pressure for photoemissive starting was found to be higher than that of filament starting, 17 mTorr compared to 7 mTorr, respectively, in this particular configuration. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  8. Genomic and chromatin signals underlying transcription start-site selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valen, Eivind; Sandelin, Albin

    2011-11-01

    A central question in cellular biology is how the cell regulates transcription and discerns when and where to initiate it. Locating transcription start sites (TSSs), the signals that specify them, and ultimately elucidating the mechanisms of regulated initiation has therefore been a recurrent theme. In recent years substantial progress has been made towards this goal, spurred by the possibility of applying genome-wide, sequencing-based analysis. We now have a large collection of high-resolution datasets identifying locations of TSSs, protein-DNA interactions, and chromatin features over whole genomes; the field is now faced with the daunting challenge of translating these descriptive maps into quantitative and predictive models describing the underlying biology. We review here the genomic and chromatin features that underlie TSS selection and usage, focusing on the differences between the major classes of core promoters. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Hypersonic Intake Starting Characteristics–A CFD Validation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumyajit Saha

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Numerical simulation of hypersonic intake starting characteristics is presented. Three dimensional RANS equations are solved alongwith SST turbulence model using commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD software. Wall pressure distribution and intake performance parameters are found to match well with experimental data for different free stream Mach number in the range of 3-8. The unstarting of the intake is traced from the sudden drop of mass capture ratio. Wall condition (adiabatic or isothermal is seen to have pronounced effect in estimating the performance parameters in the intake. The computed unstarting Mach number is seen to be higher for adiabatic condition compared to isothermal condition. For unstarting case, large separation bubble is seen near the entrance of the intake, which is responsible for expulsion of the shock system out of the intake.Defence Science Journal, 2012, 62(1, pp.147-152, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.62.1340

  10. Marketing plan for business start-up

    OpenAIRE

    Kaisar, Jabed

    2016-01-01

    The marketing plan for the startup company concentrates on the affordable and effective marketing strategies for the new company with the limited budget for marketing. In this thesis, the shoe company named Jalkani is selected as the case study for the marketing plan. In the age of Internet, the marketing becomes more complex with the combination of the traditional advertising (paid advertisements in newspapers, billboard, or television) and the model digital marketing. The costs for each ...

  11. Give Your Child a Head Start = Dele a Su Hijo la Ventaja Educativa Inicial de Head Start.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Administration for Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS), Washington, DC. Head Start Bureau.

    This pamphlet, in English- and Spanish-language versions, offers information to parents on the functioning and benefits of Head Start, a federal program for preschool children from low-income families. The pamphlet's sections answer the following questions: (1) "What Is Head Start?" (2) "What Can the Head Start Program Offer to Your…

  12. Getting Started with WAsP 9

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Heathfield, D.N.; Myllerup, Lisbeth;

    The Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program (WAsP) is a PC-program for horizontal and vertical extrapolation of wind data. The program contains a complete set of models to calculate the effects on the wind of sheltering obstacles, surface roughness changes and terrain height variations....... The analysis part consists of a transformation of an observed wind climate (speed and direction distributions) to a wind atlas data set. The wind atlas data set can subsequently be applied for estimation of the wind climate and wind power potential, as well as for siting of specific wind turbines. The WAsP 9...

  13. Impedance estimation of photovoltaic modules for inverter start-up analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PALLAVI BHARADWAJ; ABHIJIT KULKARNI; VINOD JOHN

    2017-08-01

    Starting-up of photovoltaic (PV) inverters involves pre-charging of the input dc bus capacitance. Ideally, direct pre-charging of this capacitance from the PV modules is possible as the PV modules are current limited. Practically, the parasitic elements of the system such as the PV module capacitance, effective wire inductance and resistance determine the start-up transient. The start-up transient is also affected by the contactor connecting the PV modules to the inverter input dc bus. In this work, the start-up current and voltages are measured experimentally for different parallel and series connections of the PV modules. These measurements are used to estimate the stray elements, namely the PV module capacitance, effective inductance and resistance.The estimation is based on a linear small-signal model of the start-up conditions. The effect of different connections of the PV modules and the effect of varying irradiation on the scaling of the values of the stray elements are quantified. The System model is further refined by inclusion of connecting cable capacitance and contactor resistance. Dynamics of the resulting fifth-order model are seen to be consistent with those of the simplified third-order model. The analysis of this paper can be used to estimate the expected peak inrush current in PV inverters. It can also be used to arrive at a detailed modelling of PV modules to evaluate the transient behaviour.

  14. Why does salt start to move?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltham, David

    1997-12-01

    This paper concerns mechanisms of salt (and ductile shale) movement. It investigates salt flow due to differential loading, folding of the overburden during compression and drag by a moving overburden. The approach is to compare the salt flux caused by these processes to that generated by buoyancy. It is demonstrated that overburden folding and drag by the overburden can, under commonly encountered conditions, result in greater amounts of salt movement than that produced by buoyancy or differential loading. These conclusions apply during the early stages of salt anticline, salt pillow and salt roller formation but not during the later stages of salt diapir and salt wall growth when buoyancy dominates. The quantitative significance of these alternatives to buoyancy is determined by considering an elastic plate overlying a viscous fluid. This is the simplest mathematical model that can reproduce the processes considered. The model shows that: (1) Under certain conditions, these mechanisms produce more salt movement than buoyancy. Differential loading dominates when the surface slopes become more than a small fraction of the slope of the salt top. Overburden buckling dominates if the in-plane stress exceeds a critical value. Drag dominates when the salt layer is thinner than a few hundred metres. (2) The strength of the overburden inhibits formation of salt diapirs, even those due to buoyancy, on wavelengths less than about 12 km.

  15. The start of systems biology in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obolenskaya M. Yu.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The first laboratory of Systems Biology in Ukraine (IMBIG NASU represents a track record of its scientific results. They include the pioneered development of a web-based tool for genome-wide surveys of eukaryotic promoters for the presence of transcription factors binding sites (COTRASIF; the deciphered mechanisms of the fine-tuned and balanced response of primary hepatocytes to interferon alpha levels recorded after partial hepatectomy; the elaboration of a novel method of gene regulatory network inference compatible with GRID environment and the development of a stoichiometric model of folate-related one carbon unit metabolism in human placenta and its application for the characteristics of the system’s behavior as a whole at different human pathologies.

  16. Failure prediction of government funded start-up firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Lukason

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to create a prediction model that would forecast the bankruptcy of government funded start-up firms (GFSUs. Also, the financial development patterns of GFSUs are outlined. The dataset consists of 417 Estonian GFSUs, of which 75 have bankrupted before becoming five years old and 312 have survived for five years. Six financial ratios have been calculated for one (t+1 and two (t+2 years after firms have become active. Weighted logistic regression analysis is applied to create the bankruptcy prediction models and consecutive factor and cluster analyses are applied to outline the financial patterns. Bankruptcy prediction models obtain average classification accuracies, namely 63.8% for t+1 and 67.8% for t+2. The bankrupt firms are distinguished with a higher accuracy than the survived firms, with liquidity and equity ratios being the useful predictors of bankruptcy. Five financial patterns are detected for GFSUs, but bankrupt GFSUs do not follow any distinct patterns that would be characteristic only to them.

  17. Home Literacy Environment and Head Start Children's Language Development: The Role of Approaches to Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined whether approaches to learning moderate the association between home literacy environment and English receptive vocabulary development. The Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (2003 cohort) was used for analysis. Latent growth curve modeling was utilized to test a quadratic model of English…

  18. Systems Consultation and Head Start: An Alternative to Traditional Family Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Teresa

    1999-01-01

    Describes a multidimensional model for providing comprehensive mental health consultation to Head Start programs. Explores the skills necessary for marriage and family therapists to work effectively as systems consultants. Recommendations are made for applying the model in both university and private settings. (Author/MKA)

  19. Synchronous Switching of Non-Line-Start Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines From Inverter to Grid Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ni, Ronggang; Xu, Dianguo; Wang, Gaolin

    2016-01-01

    the application field. The system electromechanical model during switching is deduced and analyzed numerically to verify the stability under grid drive. For the control strategy, model-based sliding-mode observer is adopted during soft start for low-cost position sensorless drive, and two digital phase lock loops...

  20. Head Start: A True Start to Getting Ahead: A Literature Review of the Head Start Program as a Primary Poverty Prevention Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith, LaPorsche C.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The federal Head Start Program plays a vital role in increasing the likelihood that under-privileged children will become academically successful in school, attend college, and become successful citizens. Yet, Head Start continuously struggles to retain its funding and is challenged in its goal of assisting low income children. A review of the literature on Head Start and related early childhood education longitudinal studies will attest to the importance of this program as a primary prevention strategy to reduce poverty, raise public awareness of its benefits, and support the efforts of its advocates to retain and expand its funding at local and federal levels.

  1. VISTA: Pioneering New Survey Telescope Starts Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    A new telescope - VISTA (the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy) - has just started work at ESO's Paranal Observatory and has made its first release of pictures. VISTA is a survey telescope working at infrared wavelengths and is the world's largest telescope dedicated to mapping the sky. Its large mirror, wide field of view and very sensitive detectors will reveal a completely new view of the southern sky. Spectacular new images of the Flame Nebula, the centre of our Milky Way galaxy and the Fornax Galaxy Cluster show that it is working extremely well. VISTA is the latest telescope to be added to ESO's Paranal Observatory in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile. It is housed on the peak adjacent to the one hosting the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) and shares the same exceptional observing conditions. VISTA's main mirror is 4.1 metres across and is the most highly curved mirror of this size and quality ever made - its deviations from a perfect surface are less than a few thousandths of the thickness of a human hair - and its construction and polishing presented formidable challenges. VISTA was conceived and developed by a consortium of 18 universities in the United Kingdom [1] led by Queen Mary, University of London and became an in-kind contribution to ESO as part of the UK's accession agreement. The telescope design and construction were project-managed by the Science and Technology Facilities Council's UK Astronomy Technology Centre (STFC, UK ATC). Provisional acceptance of VISTA was formally granted by ESO at a ceremony at ESO's Headquarters in Garching, Germany, attended by representatives of Queen Mary, University of London and STFC, on 10 December 2009 and the telescope will now be operated by ESO. "VISTA is a unique addition to ESO's observatory on Cerro Paranal. It will play a pioneering role in surveying the southern sky at infrared wavelengths and will find many interesting targets for further study by the Very Large Telescope, ALMA and

  2. Optimization on start-up process of high-pressure rotor for large power steam turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Qiu-Wan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper combines thermal-structure coupling technique and pattern search optimization algorithm to establish an optimization system for the start-up process of a turbine unit. Firstly, a finite element model for thermal-structure coupling calculation is established to accurately analyze the transient temperature field and thermal stress field, which can obtain the thermal stress distribution during start-up process. Afterwards, a program of optimization on rotor start-up process is exploited to improve the time allocation in each operating stage of start-up process, which minimizes the maximum equivalent stress of rotor. The maximum equivalent stress has reduced 25.7% after the optimization, which reveals obvious effect.

  3. Morning employees are perceived as better employees: employees' start times influence supervisor performance ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yam, Kai Chi; Fehr, Ryan; Barnes, Christopher M

    2014-11-01

    In this research, we draw from the stereotyping literature to suggest that supervisor ratings of job performance are affected by employees' start times-the time of day they first arrive at work. Even when accounting for total work hours, objective job performance, and employees' self-ratings of conscientiousness, we find that a later start time leads supervisors to perceive employees as less conscientious. These perceptions in turn cause supervisors to rate employees as lower performers. In addition, we show that supervisor chronotype acts as a boundary condition of the mediated model. Supervisors who prefer eveningness (i.e., owls) are less likely to hold negative stereotypes of employees with late start times than supervisors who prefer morningness (i.e., larks). Taken together, our results suggest that supervisor ratings of job performance are susceptible to stereotypic beliefs based on employees' start times. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Getting started in mapping-by-sequencing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Héctor Candela; Rubén Casanova-Sáez; José Luis Micol

    2015-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies al ow the cost-effective sequencing of whole genomes and have expanded the scope of genomics to novel applications, such as the genome-wide characterization of intraspecific polymorphisms and the rapid mapping and identification of point mutations. Next-generation sequencing platforms, such as the Il umina HiSeq2000 platform, are now commercial y available at affordable prices and routinely produce an enormous amount of sequence data, but their wide use is often hindered by a lack of knowledge on how to manipulate and process the information produced. In this review, we focus on the strategies that are available to geneticists who wish to incorporate these novel approaches into their research but who are not familiar with the necessary bioinformatic concepts and computational tools. In particular, we comprehensively summarize case studies where the use of NGS technologies has led to the identification of point mutations, a strategy that has been dubbed“mapping-by-sequencing”, and review examples from plants and other model species such as Caenorhabditis elegans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Drosophila mela-nogaster. As these technologies are becoming cheaper and more powerful, their use is also expanding to al ow mutation identification in species with larger genomes, such as many crop plants.

  5. Analysis gets on the starting Grid

    CERN Multimedia

    Roger Jones

    It is vital for ATLAS to have a functioning distributed analysis system to analyse its data. There are three major Grid deployments in ATLAS (Enabling Grids for E-sciencE, EGEE; the US Open Science Grid, OSG; and the Nordic DataGrid Facility, NGDF), and our data and jobs need to work across all of them, as well as on local machines and batch systems. Users must also be able to locate the data they want and register new small datasets so they can be used later. ATLAS has a suite of products to meet these needs, and a series of Distributed Analysis tutorials are training an increasing number of brave early adopters to use the system. Real users are vital to make sure that the tools are fit for their purpose and to refine our computing model. One such tutorial happened on the 1st and 2nd February at the National eScience Centre in Edinburgh, UK, sponsored by the GridPP Collaboration. The first day introduced an international set of tutees to the basic tools for Grid-based distributed analysis. The architecture...

  6. Getting started in mapping-by-sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candela, Héctor; Casanova-Sáez, Rubén; Micol, José Luis

    2015-07-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies allow the cost-effective sequencing of whole genomes and have expanded the scope of genomics to novel applications, such as the genome-wide characterization of intraspecific polymorphisms and the rapid mapping and identification of point mutations. Next-generation sequencing platforms, such as the Illumina HiSeq2000 platform, are now commercially available at affordable prices and routinely produce an enormous amount of sequence data, but their wide use is often hindered by a lack of knowledge on how to manipulate and process the information produced. In this review, we focus on the strategies that are available to geneticists who wish to incorporate these novel approaches into their research but who are not familiar with the necessary bioinformatic concepts and computational tools. In particular, we comprehensively summarize case studies where the use of NGS technologies has led to the identification of point mutations, a strategy that has been dubbed "mapping-by-sequencing", and review examples from plants and other model species such as Caenorhabditis elegans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Drosophila melanogaster. As these technologies are becoming cheaper and more powerful, their use is also expanding to allow mutation identification in species with larger genomes, such as many crop plants. © 2014 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  7. Monitoring start of season in Alaska with GLOBE, AVHRR, and MODIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, Jessica; Dubayah, Ralph; Sparrow, Elena; Levine, Elissa

    2008-03-01

    This work evaluates whether continuity between Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) is achievable for monitoring phenological changes in Alaska. This work also evaluates whether NDVI can detect changes in start of the growing season (SOS) in this region. Six quadratic regression models with NDVI as a function of accumulated growing degree days (AGDD) were developed from 2001 through 2004 AVHRR and MODIS NDVI data sets for urban, mixed, and forested land covers. Model parameters determined NDVI values for start of the observational period as well as peak and length of the growing season. NDVI values for start of the growing season were determined from the model equations and field observations of SOS made by GLOBE students and researchers at University of Alaska Fairbanks. AGDD was computed from daily air temperature. AVHRR and MODIS models were significantly different from one another with differences in the start of the observational season as well as start, peak, and length of the growing season. Furthermore, AGDD for SOS was significantly lower during the 1990s than the 1980s. NDVI values at SOS did not detect this change. There are limitations with using NDVI to monitor phenological changes in these regions because of snow, the large extent of conifers, and clouds, which restrict the composite period. In addition, differing processing and spectral characteristics restrict continuity between AVHRR and MODIS NDVI data sets.

  8. Stop making plans; start making decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankins, Michael C; Steele, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Many executives have grown skeptical of strategic planning. Is it any wonder? Despite all the time and energy that go into it, strategic planning most often acts as a barrier to good decision making and does little to influence strategy. Strategic planning fails because of two factors: It typically occurs annually, and it focuses on individual business units. As such, the process is completely at odds with the way executives actually make important strategy decisions, which are neither constrained by the calendar nor defined by unit boundaries. Thus, according to a survey of 156 large companies, senior executives often make strategic decisions outside the planning process, in an ad hoc fashion and without rigorous analysis or productive debate. But companies can fix the process if they attack its root problems. A few forward-looking firms have thrown out their calendar-driven, business-unit-focused planning procedures and replaced them with continuous, issues-focused decision making. In doing so, they rely on several basic principles: They separate, but integrate, decision making and plan making. They focus on a few key themes. And they structure strategy reviews to produce real decisions. When companies change the timing and focus of strategic planning, they also change the nature of senior management's discussions about strategy--from "review and approve" to "debate and decide," in which top executives actively think through every major decision and its implications for the company's performance and value. The authors have found that these companies make more than twice as many important strategic decisions per year as companies that follow the traditional planning model.

  9. Implementing shared governance: a false start.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibberd, J M; Storoz, C E; Andrews, H A

    1992-03-01

    A case study of the implementation of shared governance in a large teaching hospital in Western Canada has been presented. The project was placed in jeopardy due to two major contingencies: turnover in the chief nursing executive position, and a sudden reduction in the operating budget of the nursing division necessitating significant layoffs. Other factors that threatened the survival of shared governance included lack of systematic, long-range planning; the number and diversity of major changes introduced concurrently in the nursing division; and insufficient support systems to sustain organizational change. In particular, some senior and first-line managers could not adapt to or accept the radical philosophical change and so they were unable to empower their staff and to provide the necessary reinforcement needed to ensure the success of shared governance. This combination of these factors contributed to the loss of momentum in the implementation of shared governance. Lowered morale in the wake of layoffs, together with union grievances, and lack of clarity of the role to be played by union representatives in shared governance produced conflict and confrontation within the nursing division and between union and management. Despite the difficulties encountered, there remains optimism and commitment to the challenge of making shared governance succeed. As this article goes to press, remarkable strides have been made in addressing the described issues. A task force composed primarily of staff nurses has developed a "customized" model of governance that meets the needs of the hospital and deals with the identified flaws of the first implementation attempt. The organization is optimistic that by taking time to develop a solid foundation for the proposed change and tending carefully to the details of decision-making processes, an effective structure to support the professional role of the nursing staff will be a reality.

  10. How do you design a good study start for blended and distance learning courses?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Inger-Marie F.; Hansen, Pernille Stenkil; Kjær, Christopher

    One of the challenges in blended and distance learning is that students engage too late or not at all in the online activities. The cause might be technical problems that are discovered too late or students feeling unsafe and insecure about what is going to happen online and what role...... they are to play. Effective study start for blended and distance learning This contribution accounts for the study start model used at blended and distance learning courses at the University of Southern Denmark and present the results from student evaluations. The study start model focuses on the creation...... of a safe, virtual learning environment, and activities are designed to facilitate interaction and active learning online. For this purpose, Gilly Salmon’s five-stage model and e-tivities concept are used. Specific activities are designed so that students get clear and precise instructions on the topic...

  11. How do you design a good study start for blended and distance learning courses?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Inger-Marie F.; Hansen, Pernille Stenkil; Kjær, Christopher

    One of the challenges in blended and distance learning is that students engage too late or not at all in the online activities. The cause might be technical problems that are discovered too late or students feeling unsafe and insecure about what is going to happen online and what role...... they are to play. Effective study start for blended and distance learning A study start model used at blended and distance learning courses at the University of Southern Denmark was presented. The study start model focuses on the creation of a safe, virtual learning environment, and activities are designed...... to facilitate interaction and active learning online. For this purpose, Gilly Salmon’s five-stage model and e-tivities concept are used. Specific activities are designed so that students get clear and precise instructions on the topic and how and when to contribute and interact. Furthermore, the learning goals...

  12. Quantifying heat requirements for SAGD start up phase: steam injection and electrical heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moini, Behdad; Edmunds, Neil [Laricina Energy Ltd. (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In the heavy oil industry, thermal recovery methods such as steam assisted gravitydrainage (SAGD) are often used to enhance oil recovery. The SAGD process employs two horizontal wells stacked on top of each other, the top one being the steam injection well and the lower one the production well. For this process to perform as planned, start up has to be carried out in an effective manner to reach the required temperature. This paper aimed at defining a method to calculate the heat flux required inside the wellbore to obtain a certain temperature outside the liner. A model was developed and then applied to different scenarios. Results showed that the model can predict the heat requirements for the start up phase of a SAGD well pair in a simple manner. The model developed herein enables operators to assess the heat requirements of the start up phase and thus to design steam capacity adequately.

  13. CONSERVATION AREA START-UPS: COMBINING THEORY AND PRACTICE

    OpenAIRE

    NORMAN S. WRIGHT; JEFF CANEEN; NATHAN ALEXANDER; ANDREW GOMEZ

    2010-01-01

    Business start-ups by indigenous people in wildlife conservation areas are prone to failure. Funding issues have been identified as a contributing cause of the disappointing results. A great deal has been written about capital structure both in the start-up literature and the corporate literature, but the applicability of this research to small, indigenous start-ups in and around conservation areas is lacking. Although current practice dictates a reliance on equity, we apply the relevant corp...

  14. Study on Undertaking-starting of New Generation Migrant Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Chuang; Liu, Wanzhao

    2014-01-01

    New generation migrant workers have become mainstay of China’s migrant workers and also major builders of China’s urbanization process. Compared with last generation migrant workers, new generation migrant workers have greater awareness of starting an undertaking. In the new trend, undertaking-starting is inevitable for new generation migrant workers. This study analyzed problems encountered by new generation migrant workers in the course of starting an undertaking. It reached conclusions...

  15. MICRO ENGINE START PERFORMANCE RESEARCH FOR RACING CAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Vrublevskiy

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A methodology of modernization of the single-cylinder engine start by replacing the standard system by an electric starter is presented. Based on the calculated and experimental studies there have been provided the start-up characteristics of a single-cylinder engine. The measures to reduce the start-up time of the engine during the race in the Shell – EcoMarathon are offered.

  16. Dynamic usage of transcription start sites within core promoters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawaji, Hideya; Frith, Martin C; Katayama, Shintaro

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mammalian promoters do not initiate transcription at single, well defined base pairs, but rather at multiple, alternative start sites spread across a region. We previously characterized the static structures of transcription start site usage within promoters at the base pair level......, based on large-scale sequencing of transcript 5' ends. RESULTS: In the present study we begin to explore the internal dynamics of mammalian promoters, and demonstrate that start site selection within many mouse core promoters varies among tissues. We also show that this dynamic usage of start sites...

  17. 21 CFR 26.11 - Start of operational period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS... Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.11 Start of...

  18. Product innovation and commercialization in lean global start-ups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanev, Stoyan; Rasmussen, Erik Stavnsager; Zijdemans, Erik

    2015-01-01

    The paper examines the distinctive characteristics of product innovation and commercialization in Lean Global Start-up (LGS) – new technology firms which have adopted a lean and global path from or near to their inception. It suggests an uncertainty vs risk framework which allows integrating two...... research streams – Born Global (BG) firms and lean start-ups. In addition to its integrative theoretical value, the paper offers insights for lean start-up managers dealing with the challenges of a global start....

  19. Sino-German research on rural development starts in Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ A Sino-German project entitled Rural Development by Land Use Diversification: Stakeholder- based Strategies and Integrative Technologies for Agricultural Landscapes in Mountainous Southwest China started recently.

  20. School Starting Age and the Crime-Age Profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landersø, Rasmus; Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Simonsen, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    to a discontinuity in school starting age for children born around New Year. Our analysis speaks against a simple invariant crime-age profile as is popular in criminology: we find that higher school starting age lowers the propensity to commit crime at young ages. We also find effects on the number of crimes......This paper uses register-based data to investigate the effects of school starting age on crime. Through this, we provide insights into the determinants of crime-age profiles. We exploit that Danish children typically start first grade in the calendar year they turn seven, which gives rise...

  1. Biomechanical analysis of the swim-start: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vantorre, Julien; Chollet, Didier; Seifert, Ludovic

    2014-05-01

    This review updates the swim-start state of the art from a biomechanical standpoint. We review the contribution of the swim-start to overall swimming performance, the effects of various swim-start strategies, and skill effects across the range of swim-start strategies identified in the literature. The main objective is to determine the techniques to focus on in swimming training in the contemporary context of the sport. The phases leading to key temporal events of the swim-start, like water entry, require adaptations to the swimmer's chosen technique over the course of a performance; we thus define the swim-start as the moment when preparation for take-off begins to the moment when the swimming pattern begins. A secondary objective is to determine the role of adaptive variability as it emerges during the swim-start. Variability is contextualized as having a functional role and operating across multiple levels of analysis: inter-subject (expert versus non-expert), inter-trial or intra-subject (through repetitions of the same movement), and inter-preference (preferred versus non-preferred technique). Regarding skill effects, we assume that swim-start expertise is distinct from swim stroke expertise. Highly skilled swim-starts are distinguished in terms of several factors: reaction time from the start signal to the impulse on the block, including the control and regulation of foot force and foot orientation during take-off; appropriate amount of glide time before leg kicking commences; effective transition from leg kicking to break-out of full swimming with arm stroking; overall maximal leg and arm propulsion and minimal water resistance; and minimized energy expenditure through streamlined body position. Swimmers who are less expert at the swim-start spend more time in this phase and would benefit from training designed to reduce: (i) the time between reaction to the start signal and impulse on the block, and (ii) the time in transition (i.e., between gliding and leg

  2. Response Time Comparisons among Four Base Running Starting Techniques in Slow Pitch Softball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Richard G.; Brown, Rodney L.

    1981-01-01

    Response times among four starting techniques (cross-over step, jab step, standing sprinter's start, and momentum start) were compared. The results suggest that the momentum start was the fastest starting technique for optimum speed in running bases. (FG)

  3. Social capital of venture capitalists and start-up funding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.T. Alexy (Oliver); J.H. Block (Jörn); P.G. Sandner (Philipp); A.L.J. Ter Wal (Anne)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractHow does the social capital of venture capitalists (VCs) affect the funding of start-ups? By building on the rich social capital literature, we hypothesize a positive effect of VCs' social capital, derived from past syndication, on the amount of money that start-ups receive. Specifically

  4. 10 CFR 36.15 - Start of construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... work, purchase of a site, site surveys or soil testing, site preparation, site excavation, construction... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Start of construction. 36.15 Section 36.15 Energy NUCLEAR... Requirements § 36.15 Start of construction. The applicant may not begin construction of a new irradiator prior...

  5. 40 CFR 86.236-94 - Engine starting and restarting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine starting and restarting. 86.236-94 Section 86.236-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.236-94 Engine starting...

  6. Starting an Actuarial Science Major at a Liberal Arts College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    The article provides details of the process of starting an actuarial science major at a small, liberal arts college. Some critique of the major is included, as well as some challenges that may be faced by others wanting to start such a major at their institution.

  7. Caregivers' attitudes regarding portion size served to Head Start children

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to identify caregivers' attitudes regarding amounts and types of foods served to Head Start preschoolers using qualitative methods. Researchers conducted 8 focus groups (4 African American; 4 Hispanic) with 33 African American and 29 Hispanic Head Start caregivers. Mode...

  8. Supporting Early Childhood Environmental Education through the Natural Start Alliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrick, Christy; Braus, Judy

    2013-01-01

    The Natural Start Alliance is a new initiative of the North American Association for Environmental Education. Natural Start was created to support and expand early childhood environmental education (ECEE) by creating a network of organizations, educators, parents, and others who care about using environmental education to support young children's…

  9. Starting an Actuarial Science Major at a Liberal Arts College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    The article provides details of the process of starting an actuarial science major at a small, liberal arts college. Some critique of the major is included, as well as some challenges that may be faced by others wanting to start such a major at their institution.

  10. Starting Time and School Life: Reflections from Educators and Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubow, Particia K; Wahlstrom, Kyla L.; Bemis, Amy E.

    1999-01-01

    Using teacher surveys and focus groups, a University of Minnesota study examined the effects of changing school starting times on school operations at all levels and on the community. The least desirable start time was 9:40 a.m. at middle schools. Later schedules benefited high school students. No one schedule can accommodate everyone. (MLH)

  11. How Does Personal Bankruptcy Law Affect Start-ups?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cerqueiro, G.M.; Penas, M.F.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the effect of changes in U.S. state personal exemptions on the financing structure and performance of a representative sample of start-ups. An increase in the amount of borrower’s personal wealth protected in bankruptcy reduces the availability of bank credit to all start-ups. Owners of u

  12. Start-up Costs, Taxes and Innovative Entrepreneurship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Darnihamedani (Pourya); J.H. Block (Jörn); S.J.A. Hessels (Jolanda); A. Simonyan (Aram)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Prior research suggests that start-up costs and taxes negatively influence entry into entrepreneurship. Yet, no distinction is made regarding the type of entrepreneurship, particularly innovative versus non-innovative entrepreneurship. Start-up costs, being one-off

  13. The Automatic Start Method of Application Program Using API

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces on a method about the au-tomactic start of application program. Through defining Registryby API function, the automatic start of specified application pro-gram is fulfilled when Windows98 is taking action. It gives facil-ities to many computer application works.

  14. Early versus Late Start in Foreign Language Education: Documenting Achievements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Rocio; Pessoa, Silvia

    2005-01-01

    This study compares 27 sixth grade students who have been learning Spanish since kindergarten with 5 who have had Spanish for only 1 year using a battery of Spanish oral and written tests. The students who started early out performed the new students in listening, speaking, and writing Spanish. Those who started early also displayed a positive…

  15. African American Preschool Children's Physical Activity Levels in Head Start

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bo; Reinhart-Lee, Tamara; Janisse, Heather; Brogan, Kathryn; Danford, Cynthia; Jen, K-L. C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the physical activity levels of urban inner city preschoolers while attending Head Start, the federally funded preschool program for children from low-income families. Participants were 158 African American children. Their physical activity during Head Start days was measured using programmed RT-3…

  16. Summary of Head Start Provisions on Homelessness and Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association for the Education of Homeless Children and Youth, 2008

    2008-01-01

    On Wednesday, December 12, President Bush signed the "Improving Head Start for School Readiness Act of 2007" into law. The legislation reauthorizes the Head Start Act and contains numerous provisions on homelessness and foster care. A summary of those provisions is provided in this paper.

  17. Dynamic Analysis and Control of an Automatic Transmission for Start-Stop Function and Efficiency Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An electric oil pump (EOP was integrated into the hydraulic system and an automatic transmission (AT mechanical oil pump (MOP was downsized. These processes were performed to combine a start-stop function with the AT and further improve the transmission efficiency. Furthermore, this study established a dynamics model of power loss and leakage of an 8-speed AT; a flow-based control algorithm of the EOP was then developed to realize the start-stop function and support the MOP to meet the flow requirement of the system. Based on a driving simulation method, sizes of the MOP and EOP that ensured optimal fuel economy were selected. A control strategy for the starting clutch was also developed to minimize the starting delay of the test vehicle. A test environment on a rig and prototype vehicle was established to verify the feasibility of the proposed control strategies. The test results indicated that the transmission functioned favorably with the novel two-pump system presented, and a quick and smooth starting performance was achieved when the engine was restarted. The findings in this study are extremely valuable for forward designs of an AT for realizing start-stop function and improving efficiency.

  18. Theoretical analysis of start-up power in helium pulsating heat pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Monan; Huang, Rongjin; Xu, Dong; Li, Laifeng

    2017-02-01

    An analytical model for one-turn helium pulsating heat pipes (PHPs) with single liquid slug and vapor plug is established in present study. When an additional heat power takes place in the evaporating section, temperature and pressure will increase. The pressure wave travels through vapor and liquid phases at different speed, producing a pressure difference in the system, which acts as an exciting force to start up the oscillating motion. Results show that the start-up power of helium PHP is related to the filling ratio. The start-up power increases with the filling ration. However, there exist an upper limit. Furthermore, the start-up power also depends on the inclination angle of PHP. When the inclination angle increases, the heat input needed to start up the oscillating motion decreases. But for one-turn helium PHP, it can not be started up when the inclination angle is up to 90°, equalling to horizontal position,. While the inclination angle ranges between 0° (vertical position) and 75°, it can operate successfully.

  19. Modelo matemático para la caracterización del envejecimiento del acero 12Cr1MoV superenvejecido a partir del efecto Barkhausen // Mathematical model to characterize the ageing on over aged 12Cr1MoV steel starting from Barkhausen effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank de los Reyes‐Rodríguez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se desarrolla, a partir del efecto Barkhausen, un modelo matemático que permitecaracterizar el grado de envejecimiento del acero 12Cr1MoV empleado en las Líneas Principales deVapor (LPV de las Centrales Termoeléctricas de Cuba. El modelo parte de las ecuaciones del modelo deBertotti sobre la variación del flujo magnético en el tiempo, con el cual se obtienen expresionesmatemáticas que correlacionan el voltaje inducido en la bobina, conocido como ruido magnéticoBarkhausen (RMB, con el tamaño del grano y de los carburos que son, entre otros, parámetrosmicroestructurales que definen el grado de envejecimiento del acero estudiado, el modelo desarrolladodescribe una disminución y un aumento del voltaje de la señal con el incremento del tamaño de grano ycarburos respectivamente para un mismo valor del campo aplicado, este resultado permite corroborar lasmediciones que se desarrollen del mencionado efecto en aplicaciones prácticas.Palabras claves: ensayos no destructivos, ruido magnético Barkhausen, envejecimiento en aceros.____________________________________________________________________AbstractIn this work, a mathematical model to characterize the ageing degree on 12Cr1MoV steel used on mainsteam pipes from power plants is developed. This model start from Bertotti´s model about the variation ofmagnetic flux with the time, obtaining different mathematics expressions which relate the induced voltageon the coil and known as Magnetic Barkhausen Noise (MBN with grain and carbides size, whichconstitute, among others parameters, one that can be used to evaluate the ageing process on theanalyzed steel, with the developed model a decreasing and increasing later of voltage with the increasingof grain and carbide size respectively for the same magnetic field applied is verified, with this result it ispossible to corroborate the magnetic measurements which be developed using MBN on practiceapplications.Key words: non

  20. From BookStart to BookSmart : about the importance of an early start with parent-child reading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, Heleen van den

    2015-01-01

    BookStart has been developed to enhance parent-child verbal interactions in early childhood by promoting book sharing. Parents receive a voucher for a baby book and free access to baby books in the library. In a large-scale research, we found that if parents complied with the BookStart suggestion to

  1. From BookStart to BookSmart : about the importance of an early start with parent-child reading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, Heleen van den

    2015-01-01

    BookStart has been developed to enhance parent-child verbal interactions in early childhood by promoting book sharing. Parents receive a voucher for a baby book and free access to baby books in the library. In a large-scale research, we found that if parents complied with the BookStart suggestion to

  2. The Effects of Smart Start Child Care on Kindergarten Entry Skills. FPG-UNC Smart Start Evaluation Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Donna; Bernier, Kathleen; Taylor, Karen; Maxwell, Kelly

    Helping families access affordable, quality child care has been the primary focus for the Orange County, North Carolina Smart Start Partnership for Young Children. This study investigated the effects of Smart Start efforts on children's skills at kindergarten entry. Kindergarten teachers rated the cognitive, language and social skills of 39…

  3. Interaction of two-dimensional impulsively started airfoils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Fu-bing; ZENG Nian-dong; ZHANG Liang; WU De-ming

    2004-01-01

    Continuous vorticity panels were used to model general unsteady inviscid, incompressible, two-dimensional flows. The geometry of thc airfoil was approximated by series of short straight segments having endpoints that lie on the actual surface. A piecewise linear, continuous distribution of vorticity over the airfoil surface was used to generate disturbance flow. The no-penetration condition was imposed at the midpoint of each segment and at discrete times. The wake was simulated by a system of point vortices, which moved at local fluid velocity. At each time step, a new wake panel with uniform vorticity distribution was attached to the trailing edge, and the condition of constant circulation around the airfoil and wake was imposed. A new expression for Kutta condition was developed to study the interference effect between two impulsively started NACA0012 airfoils. The tandem arrangement was found to be the most effective to enhance the lift of the rear airfoil. The interference effect between tidal turbine blades was shown clearly.

  4. The entrepreneur's mode of entry: business takeover or new venture start?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parker, S.C.; van Praag, M.

    2012-01-01

    We extend the well-known occupational choice model of entrepreneurship by analyzing the mode of entry. Individuals can become entrepreneurs by taking over established businesses or starting up new ventures from scratch. We argue that the new venture creation mode is associated with higher levels of

  5. LightCDD: a lightweight capability-driven development method for start-ups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koç, Hasan; Ruiz Carmona, L.M.; Espana Cubillo, S.

    2016-01-01

    Novice innovators and entrepreneurs face the risk of designing naive business models. In fact, lack of realism and failing to envision contextual constraints is one of the main threats to start-up success. Both the literature and the responses we gathered from experts in incubation confirm this prob

  6. Better Outcomes for All: Promoting Partnerships between Head Start and State Pre-K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebbins, Helene; Scott, L. Carol

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines how Head Start and state pre-kindergarten programs can work together to better serve young children and their families. It focuses on two of the several models of early childhood education, acknowledging that these programs are just one piece of a fully integrated system of early care and education for children from birth until…

  7. The Impact of Domestic Drivers and Barriers on the Entrepreneurial Start-up Decision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubberink, R.J.B.; Blok, V.; Ophem, van J.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the impact of the family network on the start-up decision byidentifying domestic drivers and barriers to entrepreneurship. For this, we used anadjusted model of work-family conflict theory, with special attention to the family lifecycle stages. In order to identify the drivers an

  8. Improving NPT safeguards. Particularly at the natural uranium starting point

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harry, J. [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN), Petten (Netherlands); Klerk, P. de [Ministry of Foreign Affairs, The Hague (Netherlands)

    1996-03-01

    According to the Non Proliferation Treaty (NPT) all nuclear material is subject to safeguards, but according to INFCIRC/153 the full range of safeguards is only applied beyond the `starting point of safeguards`, that is: The point at which nuclear material has reached a composition and purity suitable for fuel fabrication or enrichment. This paper addresses the two questions: (a) is the starting point adequately defined, and (b) what mesures could be applied to nuclear material before the starting point? Those questions have been asked before, some of the answers in this paper are new. (orig.).

  9. Sprint Start Kinetics of Amputee and Non-Amputee Sprinters

    OpenAIRE

    Willwacher, Steffen; Herrmann, Volker; Heinrich, Kai; Funken, Johannes; Strutzenberger, Gerda; Goldmann, Jan-Peter; Braunstein, Björn; Brazil, Adam; Irwin, Gareth; Potthast, Wolfgang; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between the forces applied to the starting blocks and the start performances (SPs) of amputee sprinters (ASs) and non-amputee sprinters (NASs). SPs of 154 male and female NASs (100-m personal records [PRs], 9.58–14.00 s) and 7 male ASs (3 unilateral above knee, 3 unilateral below knee, 1 bilateral below knee; 100 m PRs, 11.70–12.70 s) with running specific prostheses (RSPs) were analysed during full-effort sprint starts using instrumen...

  10. University Knowledge Spillovers & Regional Start-up Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellerstedt, Karin; Wennberg, Karl; Frederiksen, Lars

    2014-01-01

    on entrepreneurship, we develop a theoretical framework which captures how both supply- and demand-side factors mold the regional bedrock for start-ups in knowledge-intensive industries. Using multilevel data of all knowledge-intensive start-ups across 286 Swedish municipalities between 1994 and 2002 we demonstrate...... demand-side and supply-side context than is the case for high-tech start-ups in general. Our study contributes to the growing stream of research that explains entrepreneurial activity as shaped by contextual factors, most notably academic institutions, such as universities that contribute to knowledge...

  11. Start-up business plan: organic food restaurant in Bilbao

    OpenAIRE

    Sharafutdinova, Alisa

    2016-01-01

    My thesis is a start-up business plan for a restaurant in Bilbao, Spain. This product-oriented thesis is a part of the Hospitality Management program of Haaga-Helia UAS. The purpose of this work is to build a theoretical framework about successful business plan writing and follow it up by writing a start-up business plan according to the studied theory. A business plan is a first important step for starting a business and the practice of writing it will be beneficial while helping me to ...

  12. A new highly segmented start counter for the CLAS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharabian, Y.G. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Battaglieri, M. [INFN Sezione di Genova, 16146 Genova (Italy); Burkert, V.D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); DeVita, R. [INFN Sezione di Genova, 16146 Genova (Italy); Elouadrhiri, L. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Guo, L. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Kashy, D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Kubarovsky, V. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180 and Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Mutchler, G.S. [T.W. Bonner Nuclear Laboratory, Rice University, Houton, TX 77251-1892 (United States)]. E-mail: mutchler@rice.edu; Ostrick, M. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Ripani, M. [INFN Sezione di Genova, 16146 Genova (Italy); Rossi, P. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Rottura, A. [INFN Sezione di Genova, 16146 Genova (Italy); Pasyuk, E. [Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, 85287-1504 (United States); Weygand, D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The design, construction and performance of a highly segmented Start Counter are described. The Start Counter is an integral part of the trigger used in photon beam running with CLAS in Hall B at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF). The Start Counter is constructed of 24 2.2-mm-thick single-ended scintillation paddles, forming a hermetic hexagon around the target region. This device measures the interaction time of the incoming photon in the target by detecting the outgoing particles. The counter provides complex trigger topologies, shows good efficiency and achieved a time resolution of 350 ps.

  13. Start-up business plan: organic food restaurant in Bilbao

    OpenAIRE

    Sharafutdinova, Alisa

    2016-01-01

    My thesis is a start-up business plan for a restaurant in Bilbao, Spain. This product-oriented thesis is a part of the Hospitality Management program of Haaga-Helia UAS. The purpose of this work is to build a theoretical framework about successful business plan writing and follow it up by writing a start-up business plan according to the studied theory. A business plan is a first important step for starting a business and the practice of writing it will be beneficial while helping me to ...

  14. How Very Massive Metal-Free Stars Start Cosmological Reionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, John H.; Abel, Tom

    2008-01-01

    The initial conditions and relevant physics for the formation of the earliest galaxies are well specified in the concordance cosmology. Using ab initio cosmological Eulerian adaptive mesh refinement radiation hydrodynamical calculations, we discuss how very massive stars start the process of cosmological reionization. The models include nonequilibrium primordial gas chemistry and cooling processes and accurate radiation transport in the case B approximation using adaptively ray-traced photon packages, retaining the time derivative in the transport equation. Supernova feedback is modeled by thermal explosions triggered at parsec scales. All calculations resolve the local Jeans length by at least 16 grid cells at all times and as such cover a spatial dynamic range of approx.10(exp 6). These first sources of reionization are highly intermittent and anisotropic and first photoionize the small-scale voids surrounding the halos they form in, rather than the dense filaments they are embedded in. As the merging objects form larger, dwarf-sized galaxies, the escape fraction of UV radiation decreases and the H II regions only break out on some sides of the galaxies, making them even more anisotropic. In three cases, SN blast waves induce star formation in overdense regions that were formed earlier from ionization front instabilities. These stars form tens of parsecs away from the center of their parent DM halo. Approximately five ionizing photons are needed per sustained ionization when star formation in 10(exp 6) stellar Mass halos is dominant in the calculation. As the halos become larger than approx.10(exp 7) Stellar Mass, the ionizing photon escape fraction decreases, which in turn increases the number of photons per ionization to 15-50, in calculations with stellar feedback only. Radiative feedback decreases clumping factors by 25% when compared to simulations without star formation and increases the average temperature of ionized gas to values between 3000 and 10,000 K.

  15. How Very Massive Metal Free Stars Start Cosmological Reionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, John H.; Abel, Tom

    2007-11-07

    The initial conditions and relevant physics for the formation of the earliest galaxies are well specified in the concordance cosmology. Using ab initio cosmological Eulerian adaptive mesh refinement radiation hydrodynamical calculations, we discuss how very massive stars start the process of cosmological reionization. The models include non-equilibrium primordial gas chemistry and cooling processes and accurate radiation transport in the Case B approximation using adaptively ray traced photon packages, retaining the time derivative in the transport equation. Supernova feedback is modeled by thermal explosions triggered at parsec scales. All calculations resolve the local Jeans length by at least 16 grid cells at all times and as such cover a spatial dynamic range of {approx}10{sup 6}. These first sources of reionization are highly intermittent and anisotropic and first photoionize the small scales voids surrounding the halos they form in, rather than the dense filaments they are! embedded in. As the merging objects form larger, dwarf sized galaxies, the escape fraction of UV radiation decreases and the H II regions only break out on some sides of the galaxies making them even more anisotropic. In three cases, SN blast waves induce star formation in overdense regions that were formed earlier from ionization front instabilities. These stars form tens of parsecs away from the center of their parent DM halo. Approximately 5 ionizing photons are needed per sustained ionization when star formation in 10{sup 6} M{sub {circle_dot}} halos are dominant in the calculation. As the halos become larger than {approx}10{sup 7} M{sub {circle_dot}}, the ionizing photon escape fraction decreases, which in turn increases the number of photons per ionization to 15--50, in calculations with stellar feedback only. Supernova feedback in these more massive halos creates a more diffuse medium, allowing the stellar radiation to escape more easily and maintaining the ratio of 5 ionizing

  16. The start-up analysis of a PEM fuel cell system in vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabbani, Raja Abid; Rokni, Masoud; Hosseinzadeh, Elham;

    2014-01-01

    results for start-up scenario are presented. It is shown that system stability is influenced by slow thermal management controls. High loads at start-up affect voltage and system efficiency adversely. Cathode inlet water levels are found to be adequate for humidification of recirculated fuel stream......Addressing large load fluctuation in automotive applications, dynamic analysis of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell system is conducted here. Operations of a comprehensive system-level control-oriented fuel cell model with all necessary auxiliary components are demonstrated and simulation...

  17. Unsteady Viscous Flow Past an Impulsively Started Porous Vertical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... Past an Impulsively Started Porous Vertical Surface with Variable Viscosity Fluid in the Presence of Viscous Dissipation: BSRM Approach.

  18. A demonstration project for smart grid started in Tianjin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    On April 7, the construction of 110-kV Hechanglu intelligent substation in Tianjin Binhai New Area was started, inaugurating the comprehensive demonstration project for smart grid in Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-City.

  19. CERN confirms goal of 2007 start-up for LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Speaking at the 131st session of CERN Council on 17 December 2004, the Director-General, Robert Aymar, confirmed that the top priority is to maintain the goal of starting up the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in 2007.

  20. Participatory Savings And Borrowing For Start-Up And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Agriculture and Social Research (JASR) ... Participatory Savings And Borrowing For Start-Up And Recapitalization Needs: Farmers ... be considered for more loans whenever they meet up with the conditions for such new contracts.

  1. CERN confident of LHC start-up in 2007

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "Delegates attending the 140th meeting of CERN Council heard a confident report from the Laboratory about the scheduled start-up of the world's highest energy particle accelerator, the Large Hadron Collier (LHC), in 2007." (1 page)

  2. Opioid Dependence Can Start in Just a Few Days

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164133.html Opioid Dependence Can Start in Just a Few Days Prescribing ... less may help patients avoid the dangers of dependence and addiction, a new study suggests. Among patients ...

  3. Low Starting Electron Beam Current in Degenerate Band Edge Oscillators

    CERN Document Server

    Othman, Mohamed A K; Figotin, Alexander; Capolino, Filippo

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new principle of operation in vacuum electron-beam-based oscillators that leads to a low beam current for starting oscillations. The principle is based on super synchronous operation of an electron beam interacting with four degenerate electromagnetic modes in a slow-wave structure (SWS). The four mode super synchronous regime is associated with a very special degeneracy condition in the dispersion diagram of a cold periodic SWS called degenerate band edge (DBE). This regime features a giant group delay in the finitelength SWS and low starting-oscillation beam current. The starting beam current is at least an order of magnitude smaller compared to a conventional backward wave oscillator (BWO) of the same length. As a representative example we consider a SWS conceived by a periodically-loaded metallic waveguide supporting a DBE, and investigate starting-oscillation conditions using Pierce theory generalized to coupled transmission lines (CTL). The proposed super synchronism regime can be straightf...

  4. Renewable energy power generation projects started construction in Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    On March 19, the construction of a 10-MW photovoltaic power plant and a 1 000-kW new type geothermal power generation project were started by Guodian Longyuan Group in Yanbajing Town, Dangxiong County of Tibet.

  5. Office of Head Start (OHS) Program Fact Sheet

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Office of Head Start (OHS) Program Fact Sheet provides information on demographics, state allocations, program statistics, and program enrollment history.

  6. Start-up Funding via Equity Crowdfunding in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angerer, Martin; Brem, Alexander; Kraus, Sascha

    2017-01-01

    Entrepreneurs often struggle to find sufficient funding for their start-ups. A relatively new way for companies to attract capital is via an internet platform, locating investors who in return receive something in return for their ventures. Equity crowdfunding is one of several types of crowdfund......Entrepreneurs often struggle to find sufficient funding for their start-ups. A relatively new way for companies to attract capital is via an internet platform, locating investors who in return receive something in return for their ventures. Equity crowdfunding is one of several types...... of crowdfunding, and is also known as crowdinvesting in the German-speaking realm. This article predominantly advances the scientific knowledge regarding the success factors of equity crowdfunding for German start-ups. The study conducted nine qualitative interviews with start-ups and crowdinvesting platforms...

  7. Dialysis access, infections, and hospitalisations in unplanned dialysis start patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machowska, Anna; Alscher, Mark Dominik; Vanga, Satyanarayana Reddy

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Unplanned dialysis start (UPS) associates with worse clinical outcomes, higher utilisation of healthcare resources, lower chances to select dialysis modality and UPS patients typically commenced in-centre haemodialysis (HD) with central venous catheter (CVC). We evaluated patient ou...

  8. Path to Smoking Addiction Starts at Very Young Ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PATH TO TOBACCO ADDICTION STARTS AT VERY YOUNG AGES Lifetime smoking and other tobacco use almost always ... turns into a strong addiction—well before the age of 18—that can overpower the most well- ...

  9. Wearable Sensors May Spot Illness Before Symptoms Start

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163021.html Wearable Sensors May Spot Illness Before Symptoms Start New technology ... 12, 2017 THURSDAY, Jan. 12, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Wearable sensors to track things such as heart rate, activity ...

  10. What to Start: Selecting a First HIV Regimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV Treatment What to Start: Choosing an HIV Regimen (Last updated 2/24/2016; last reviewed 2/24/ ... of HIV medicines used to treat HIV infection. HIV treatment (also called antiretroviral therapy or ART) begins with ...

  11. Spring 
start-up for the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    A new schedule for the commissioning of the LHC was presented to the Council at its Session in June. The start-up of the accelerator is scheduled for May 2008, to allow all technical problems to be resolved.

  12. Influence of Induction Machine and Mechanism Parameters on Starting Transient Processes in Case of Constant Load Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitar Spirov

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Two-phase induction machine dynamic model in a coordinate system which rotates at synchronous speed and one-mass dynamic model of mechanism driven in relative units describing transient processes when starting an induction machine in case of constant load conditions are developed.The influence of equivalent circuit parameters of induction machine and mechanism parameters on impact currents and torques and starting time of common used induction machines is studied by means of design of experiment method.

  13. An Ultra Low Noise Self-Starting Pulse Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasri, J.; Bilenca, A.; Dahan, D.;

    2002-01-01

    We describe a self-starting optical pulse source generating 10 GHz, 15 ps pulses with an average jitter of 43 fs and a o.15% amplitude noise over a frequency range of 500 Hz - 1 MHz.......We describe a self-starting optical pulse source generating 10 GHz, 15 ps pulses with an average jitter of 43 fs and a o.15% amplitude noise over a frequency range of 500 Hz - 1 MHz....

  14. Application of STOPP and START criteria: interrater reliability among pharmacists.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, Cristin

    2009-07-01

    Inappropriate prescribing is a well-documented problem in older people. The new screening tools, STOPP (Screening Tool of Older Peoples\\' Prescriptions) and START (Screening Tool to Alert doctors to Right Treatment) have been formulated to identify potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) and potential errors of omissions (PEOs) in older patients. Consistent, reliable application of STOPP and START is essential for the screening tools to be used effectively by pharmacists.

  15. Later Start Time for Teens Improves Grades, Mood, and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlstrom, Kyla L.

    2017-01-01

    A recent study by the University of Minnesota looked at eight high schools across the U.S. that chose later start times, from 8:00 a.m. to 8:55 a.m. The study found significant decreases in absences and tardiness as well as greater academic benefits for schools with the latest start times. Among the 9,395 students in the study, those who slept…

  16. Later Start Time for Teens Improves Grades, Mood, and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlstrom, Kyla L.

    2017-01-01

    A recent study by the University of Minnesota looked at eight high schools across the U.S. that chose later start times, from 8:00 a.m. to 8:55 a.m. The study found significant decreases in absences and tardiness as well as greater academic benefits for schools with the latest start times. Among the 9,395 students in the study, those who slept…

  17. Subsidizing Start-Ups: Policy Targeting and Policy Effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Kösters, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Start-up subsidies are a frequently employed policy instrument, the use of which is justified by alleged market failure resulting from positive external effects and capital market imperfections. This article investigates whether the allocation of subsidies reflects a policy focus on addressing these market failure occurrences. However, using survey data from the East German state of Thuringia, logistic regressions reveal a rather random subsidization of start-ups. Furthermore, propensity scor...

  18. Start-up Costs, Taxes and Innovative Entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Darnihamedani, Pourya; Block, Jörn; Hessels, Jolanda; Simonyan, Aram

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Prior research suggests that start-up costs and taxes negatively influence entry into entrepreneurship. Yet, no distinction is made regarding the type of entrepreneurship, particularly innovative versus non-innovative entrepreneurship. Start-up costs, being one-off costs, may reduce the entry of entrepreneurs whose ideas are not very promising, thus increasing the proportion of innovative entrepreneurs. Taxes, being recurring costs, may reduce the “prize” of innov...

  19. A fast-start pacing strategy speeds pulmonary oxygen uptake kinetics and improves supramaximal running performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Turnes

    Full Text Available The focus of the present study was to investigate the effects of a fast-start pacing strategy on running performance and pulmonary oxygen uptake (VO2 kinetics at the upper boundary of the severe-intensity domain. Eleven active male participants (28±10 years, 70±5 kg, 176±6 cm, 57±4 mL/kg/min visited the laboratory for a series of tests that were performed until exhaustion: 1 an incremental test; 2 three laboratory test sessions performed at 95, 100 and 110% of the maximal aerobic speed; 3 two to four constant speed tests for the determination of the highest constant speed (HS that still allowed achieving maximal oxygen uptake; and 4 an exercise based on the HS using a higher initial speed followed by a subsequent decrease. To predict equalized performance values for the constant pace, the relationship between time and distance/speed through log-log modelling was used. When a fast-start was utilized, subjects were able to cover a greater distance in a performance of similar duration in comparison with a constant-pace performance (constant pace: 670 m±22%; fast-start: 683 m±22%; P = 0.029; subjects also demonstrated a higher exercise tolerance at a similar average speed when compared with constant-pace performance (constant pace: 114 s±30%; fast-start: 125 s±26%; P = 0.037. Moreover, the mean VO2 response time was reduced after a fast start (constant pace: 22.2 s±28%; fast-start: 19.3 s±29%; P = 0.025. In conclusion, middle-distance running performances with a duration of 2-3 min are improved and VO2 response time is faster when a fast-start is adopted.

  20. In-Game Heart Rate Responses Among Professional Baseball Starting Pitchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, David J; Paxson, Jeffrey L; Caplinger, Roger A; Seligman, Joshua R; Davis, Nicholas A; Flees, Robert J; Ebersole, Kyle T

    2017-01-01

    Cornell, DJ, Paxson, JL, Caplinger, RA, Seligman, JR, Davis, NA, Flees, RJ, and Ebersole, KT. In-game heart rate responses among professional baseball starting pitchers. J Strength Cond Res 31(1): 24-29, 2017-The purpose of the current study was to characterize the in-game heart rate (HR) responses of baseball pitching. In-game HR was recorded from 16 professional baseball starting pitchers (mean ± SD, age = 22.1 ± 1.3 years; height = 187.9 ± 4.4 cm; weight = 90.5 ± 9.5 kg) for a total of 682 innings (home = 381, away = 301). All analyzed HR data were then normalized to each pitcher's age-predicted maximal HR (%HRmax). The group mean ± SD in-game %HRmax among all pitchers was 84.8 ± 3.9%, suggesting that baseball pitching is predominantly an anaerobic task. A split-plot mixed-model repeated measures analysis of variance identified a significant interaction effect between inning and game location (p = 0.042). Follow-up simple effects indicated that the in-game %HRmax was significantly different across innings, but only during home starts (p game %HRmax during home starts were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher in the first and second innings than in all other innings. In addition, follow-up simple effects indicated that the in-game %HRmax was significantly (p = 0.017) higher during home starts than away starts in the first inning (87.3 ± 3.6% vs. 85.8 vs. 3.8%, respectively). Thus, it is possible that inning-dependent psychological factors may have contributed to the observed changes in in-game physiological intensity across innings and that these factors are specific to game location. Consequently, strength and conditioning practitioners should prescribe high-intensity exercises when developing conditioning programs for professional baseball starting pitchers.

  1. The Backstroke Swimming Start: State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Jesus Karla

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available As sprint swimming events can be decided by margins as small as .01 s, thus, an effective start is essential. This study reviews and discusses the ‘state of the art’ literature regarding backstroke start biomechanics from 23 documents. These included two swimming specific publications, eight peer-reviewed journal articles, three from the Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming Congress series, eight from the International Society of Biomechanics in Sports Conference Proceedings, one from a Biomechanics Congress and one academic (PhD thesis. The studies had diverse aims, including swimmers’ proficiency levels and data collection settings. There was no single consensus for defining phase descriptions; and kinematics, kinetics and EMG approaches were implemented in laboratory settings. However, researchers face great challenges in improving methods of quantifying valid, reliable and accurate data between laboratory and competition conditions. For example, starting time was defined from the starting signal to distances as disparate as ~5 m to 22.86 m in several studies. Due to recent rule changes, some of the research outcomes now refer to obsolete backstroke start techniques, and only a few studies considered the actual international rules. This literature review indicated that further research is required, in both laboratory and competition settings focusing on the combined influences of the current rules and block configuration on backstroke starting performances

  2. A Novel method of Starting Induction Motor - A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R L Chakrasali

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Polyphase induction motor, when started from rest with full voltage impressed, the starting current is 5 to 8 or more times the rated current. The large line current drawn by such a motor is objectionable because of the possible sharp drop in voltage of the supply circuit and undesired effects upon other connected loads/devices. Accordingly it is customary to start such motors at reduced voltage by using auto transformers, star delta starters etc. This paper deals with a new approach to start poly phase induction motors without using any primary voltage compensators thereby limiting the inrush of starting current. The rotor of the motor is driven at suitable speed in the specified direction of rotation by using crank driving mechanism. Then te rated voltage is applied to the motor. This is enunciated using a case study on a 3- phase, 5hp, NGEF make motor with oscillographic records obtained from the experimentation and is compared with the various starting techniques. Keywords: Induction motor, starter, inrush current, voltage dip, new approach

  3. Learning relay start strategies in swimming: What feedback is best?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Sebastian; Braun, Claudia; Kibele, Armin

    2017-04-01

    In the past, studies and book recommendations on relay starts in swimming have been predominantly focused on the change-over time (COT) as a performance criterion. Aside from the circular backswing start with parallel foot placement, few studies have analysed differences in the take-off movement including step approaches as well. Although trends could be identified, the results remained still somewhat inconclusive. In contrast, no study has examined as has examined whether a reduction of COT in between wall contact of the income swimmer and the take-off of the outgoing swimmer is an optimal relay start strategy, as advocated by various swimming experts. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare two different relay start strategies: offensive strategy minimizing COT and conservative strategy to maximize horizontal peak force (HPF). In this regard, a learning intervention with 24 elite-level swimmers (12 females, 12 male) was conducted to compare both strategies regarding relay start time, HPF and COT. Subjects were randomly assigned to two feedback groups: COT versus HPF at take-off. The results of this study showed a clear advantage for HPF feedback for relay start performance measured by wall contact of the incoming swimmer and head passage at 7.5 m of the outgoing swimmer. In addition, similar reductions in COTs were found in both training groups. In conclusion, swimmers should focus on force production rather than minimizing COT. For the latter, deteriorating consequences for force production must be considered.

  4. Different Starting Distances Affect 5-m Sprint Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Stefan; Hoffmann, Marian; Kurz, Gunther; Neumann, Rainer; Woll, Alexander; Haertel, Sascha

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the effect of different starting distances on 5-m sprint time and the accuracy of the initial timing gate. A single-beam timing gate system (1 m high) was used to measure 5-m sprint time in 13 male sports students. Each subject performed 3 valid trials for 3 starting distances: 0.3, 0.5, and 1.0 m from the initial timing lights, respectively. A high-speed video camera was used to track a reflective marker placed on the subjects' hip within a field of view around the initial timing gate. Accuracy of the initial timing gate was defined as the time between the initial timing light trigger and passing of the reflective marker by the initial timing gate. Sprint times were significantly faster for the 1.0-m starting distance (0.98 ± 0.06 seconds) than for the 0.5-m (1.05 ± 0.07 seconds) and the 0.3-m (1.09 ± 0.08 seconds) starting distances (p sprint times but not the accuracy of the initial timing gate. Researchers and coaches should consider the effect of starting distance on 5-m sprint time and ensure consistent testing protocols. Based on the results of this study, we recommend a starting distance of 0.3 m that should be used for all sprint performance tests.

  5. Starting lithium prophylaxis early v. late in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vradi, Eleni; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2014-09-01

    No study has investigated when preventive treatment with lithium should be initiated in bipolar disorder. To compare response rates among patients with bipolar disorder starting treatment with lithium early v. late. Nationwide registers were used to identify all patients with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder in psychiatric hospital settings who were prescribed lithium during the period 1995-2012 in Denmark (n = 4714). Lithium responders were defined as patients who, following a stabilisation lithium start-up period of 6 months, continued lithium monotherapy without being admitted to hospital. Early v. late intervention was defined in two ways: (a) start of lithium following first contact; and (b) start of lithium following a diagnosis of a single manic/mixed episode. Regardless of the definition used, patients who started lithium early had significantly decreased rates of non-response to lithium compared with the rate for patients starting lithium later (adjusted analyses: first v. later contact: Pbipolar disorder: Plithium treatment early following first psychiatric contact or a single manic/mixed episode is associated with increased probability of lithium response. Royal College of Psychiatrists.

  6. A biomechanical analysis of four sprint start positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schot, P K; Knutzen, K M

    1992-06-01

    The sprint starts of 12 skilled collegiate sprinter/hurdlers were filmed for four different sprint start conditions. Ground reaction forces were collected for the first step out of the blocks and velocities through a 2-m speed trap immediately following the first support phase were recorded. The subjects employed their preferred right-left leg placement in the blocks, while the anterior-posterior spacing of the front block with respect to the starting line and the amount of forward lean in the set position were varied. Four positions were constructed that accounted for anthropometric differences. The four positions consisted of combinations of two arm orientations (forward lean and perpendicular to ground) and two front block to starting line distances (bunched and elongated). Kinematic data were reduced to provide center of mass position and velocity measures and analyzed for critical periods throughout the starting action. Selected critical events from the first step kinetic records were also analyzed. The results indicated that the elongated starting positions resulted in greater horizontal displacement, greater propelling impulse, increased first step toe-off velocity, and greater average velocity through a 2-m speed trap. Arm orientation effects were less well defined. Forward lean tended to result in greater vertical velocity at block clearance and horizontal velocity at first step toe-off, whereas perpendicular arm positioning resulted in greater 2-m speed trap velocity.

  7. Start-up performance of parabolic trough concentrating solar power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferruzza, Davide; Topel, Monika; Basaran, Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    Concentrating solar power plants, even though they can be integrated with thermal energy storage, are still subjected to cyclic start-up and shut-downs. As a consequence, in order to maximize their profitability and performance, the flexibility with respect to transient operations is essential....... In this regard, two of the key components identified are the steam generation system and steam turbine. In general it is desirable to have fast ramp-up rates during the start-up of a power plant. However ramp-up rates are limited by, among other things, thermal stresses, which if high enough can compromise...... generator to determine the optimal ramp rates. This paper presents a methodology to account for thermal stresses limitations during the power plant start up, aiming at identifying which components limit the ramp rates. A detailed dynamic model of a parabolic trough power plant was developed and integrated...

  8. An analysis of reactivity prediction during the reactor start-up process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajgl, Josef [CEZ a.s., Dukovany (Czech Republic); Krysl, Vaclav; Svarny, Jiri [SKODA JS a.s., Plzen (Czech Republic)

    2015-09-15

    The different VVER-440 core fuel loadings subcriticality evaluations are performed during the start-up process by boron dilution or control assembly withdrawn by macrocode MOBY-DICK calculations. The dynamic reactivity and quasicritical reactivity are compared and sensitivity of reactivity prediction at the low boundary of start-up interval (ρ = -0,01) has been provided on the basis of different modelling of ionization chamber (IC) response calculation. Special attention is paid to the impact of power distribution and spontaneous fission distribution form factor on IC response correction during control assembly movement. Precision and robustness of different corrections of IC signal processing in real core start-up processed IC signals was evaluated.

  9. PLANING AND STARTING EXPERIENCE OF UNDERGROUND EXPLOITATION OF DIMENSION STONE IN ISTRIA (CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Cotman

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available After investigation and designing started underground exploitation of dimension stone in Istria (Croatia. On this way parallel with economical reasons, the most part of very aggressive environmental requirements will he solved. The results of numerical modeling, for design purposes, are present. New numerical models and results, with corrected dimensions of rooms and pillars, are described. Obtained, technical and economical results of experimental underground exploitation are encouraging (the paper is published in Croatian.

  10. Influence of starting powder milling on magnetic properties of Mn-Zn ferrite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miodrag M. Milutinov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the influence of additional sieving and milling of starting industrial Mn-Zn powders on magnetic properties was investigated. The starting powder was milled for 60 minutes, followed by sieving through 325 and 400 meshes. The starting and milled powders were used to fabricate toroid shaped samples sintered at 1200°C for 2 hours. Structural parameters of the fabricated samples were analysed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Complex permeability, core loss density, and hysteresis were measured using the modified watt-meter method. The complex permeability and hysteresis loop were modelled with a new model proposed in the paper. The core loss density was modelled with the Steinmetz empirical equation. The experimental results and calculations show the significance of the additional milling and sieving process on magnetic properties of Mn-Zn ferrite in the frequency range 0.1-10MHz. These processes increase the relative permeability about 3 times and decrease the core loss 4 times by milling of the starting powder.

  11. Operative Start Time Does Not Affect Post-Operative Infection Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidry, Christopher A; Davies, Stephen W; Willis, Rhett N; Dietch, Zachary C; Shah, Puja M; Sawyer, Robert G

    2016-10-01

    Surgical care is delivered 24 h a day at most institutions. Alarmingly, some authors have found that certain operative start times are associated with greater morbidity and mortality rates. This effect has been noted in both the public and private sector. Although some of these differences may be related to process, they may also be caused by the human circadian rhythm and corresponding changes in host defenses. We hypothesized that the time of day of an operation would impact the frequency of certain post-operative outcomes significantly. Cases at a single tertiary-care center reported to the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program over a 10-year period were identified. Operative start times were divided into six-hour blocks, with 6 am to noon serving as the reference. Standard univariable techniques were applied. Multivariable logistic regression with mixed effects modeling then was used to determine the relation between operative start times and infectious outcomes, controlling for surgeon clustering. Statistical significance was set at p pm; 14.8% from 6 pm to midnight; and 14.4% from midnight to 6 am; p < 0.001). On multivariable analysis, operative start time was not associated with the risk of post-operative infection, even when emergency cases were considered independently. Our data suggest that operative start times have no correlation with post-operative infectious complications. Further work is required to identify the source of the time-dependent outcome variability observed in previous studies.

  12. Changing Incidence and Risk Factors for Kaposi Sarcoma by Time Since Starting Antiretroviral Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wyss, Natascha; Zwahlen, Marcel; Bohlius, Julia

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND:  Kaposi sarcoma (KS) remains a frequent cancer in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients starting combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). We examined incidence rates and risk factors for developing KS in different periods after starting cART in patients from European...... observational HIV cohorts. METHODS:  We included HIV-positive adults starting cART after 1 January 1996. We analyzed incidence rates and risk factors for developing KS up to 90 and 180 days and 1, 2, 5, and 8 years after cART start and fitted univariable and multivariable Cox regression models. RESULTS:  We...... included 109 461 patients from 21 prospective clinical cohorts in Europe with 916 incident KS cases. The incidence rate per 100 000 person-years was highest 6 months after starting cART, at 953 (95% confidence interval, 866-1048), declining to 82 (68-100) after 5-8 years. In multivariable analyses adjusted...

  13. [Potentially inappropriate prescribing in older Spanish population according to STOPP/START criteria (STARTREC study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Esteve, Inés; Marsal-Mora, Josep Ramón; Galindo-Ortego, Gisela; Galván-Santiago, Leonardo; Serrano-Godoy, Marcos; Ribes-Murillo, Esther; Real-Gatius, Jordi

    2017-03-01

    Rational prescribing in older people is a priority for health care organizations. The STOPP/START screening tool has been developed to identify potentially inappropriate prescribing (PIP) in individuals. In a primary care setting, STOPP/START can estimate PIP prevalence and related factors at population level. The aim of this study is to measure the prevalence rates of PPI in elderly population using clinical and prescription claim databases. Cross-sectional population study. Primary Care, Lleida Health Region, Spain. 45.408 patients 70 years old and over, attended in the primary health care centers at least once the last year. 43 STOPP and 12 START criteria are applied to their 2012 clinical and prescription records. Logistic regression models are adjusted to determine PIP association with several factors. 45,408 patients are included. The mean age is 79.7 years, 58% being female. The overall prevalence of PPI is 58.1%. According to STOPP, the most common drugs identified are benzodiazepines, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and proton pump inhibitors; according to START, osteoporosis treatments, antiplatelet agents, statins, metformin and beta blockers. PIP increases with age and polypharmacy and it is higher in long-term care facilities residents and patients receiving home health care. In our Health Region, at least 50% of the population aged 70 or older has one or more PIP, according to STOPP/START criteria. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Bilingual Children’s Language Abilities and Early Reading Outcomes in Head Start and Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Carol Scheffner; Lawrence, Frank R.; Miccio, Adele W.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between Head Start children’s receptive language development and their kindergarten reading outcomes. Method Eighty-eight bilingual children who were eligible to attend Head Start for 2 years participated in the study. Growth curve models were used to examine the relationship between children’s language abilities during 2 years in Head Start and end-of-kindergarten reading outcomes. Results The results revealed that children’s English and Spanish receptive language abilities increased during Head Start, and children’s early reading abilities in English were within the typical range of monolingual norms at the end of kindergarten. Children’s early reading abilities in Spanish were nearly 1 SD below the test mean or lower. The results also showed that children’s growth in their English and Spanish language abilities during Head Start predicted their early reading abilities in English and Spanish. Implications The findings imply that preschool programs are needed that target children’s growth in language and not their performance measured at a particular point in time. Also, the results demonstrate the importance of early and regular evaluation of bilingual children’s development in both languages in order to monitor children’s growth in their two languages. PMID:17625050

  15. Bilingual children's language abilities and early reading outcomes in Head Start and kindergarten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Carol Scheffner; Lawrence, Frank R; Miccio, Adele W

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between Head Start children's receptive language development and their kindergarten reading outcomes. Eighty-eight bilingual children who were eligible to attend Head Start for 2 years participated in the study. Growth curve models were used to examine the relationship between children's language abilities during 2 years in Head Start and end-of-kindergarten reading outcomes. The results revealed that children's English and Spanish receptive language abilities increased during Head Start, and children's early reading abilities in English were within the typical range of monolingual norms at the end of kindergarten. Children's early reading abilities in Spanish were nearly 1 SD below the test mean or lower. The results also showed that children's growth in their English and Spanish language abilities during Head Start predicted their early reading abilities in English and Spanish. The findings imply that preschool programs are needed that target children's growth in language and not their performance measured at a particular point in time. Also, the results demonstrate the importance of early and regular evaluation of bilingual children's development in both languages in order to monitor children's growth in their two languages.

  16. Heritability and factors associated with number of harness race starts in the Spanish Trotter horse population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé, M; Valera, M; Gómez, M D; Sölkner, J; Molina, A; Mészáros, G

    2017-05-01

    Longevity/durability is a relevant trait in racehorses. Genetic analysis and knowledge of factors that influence number of harness race starts would be advantageous for both horse welfare and the equine industry. To perform a genetic analysis on harness racing using number of races as a measure of longevity/durability and to identify factors associated with career length in Spanish Trotter Horses (STH). Longitudinal study. Performance data (n = 331,970) on the STH population for harness racing at national level between 1990 and 2014 were used. A grouped data model was fitted to assess factors influencing the risk of ending harness racing career and to estimate the heritability and breeding values for total number of harness races starts as an indicator of horses' longevity and durability. The model included sex, age at first race and first start earnings as time-independent effects, and the calendar year, driver, trainer, racetrack category and season of competition as time-dependent effects. Across the whole dataset, the average number of harness races horses achieved in Spain was 54.7 races, and this was associated with the horses' sex, age at first race and first start earnings, calendar year, driver, racetrack category, and season. The heritability estimated (0.17 ± 0.01) for number of harness race starts indicates that a beneficial response to direct genetic selection can be expected. Data on horses' health status were not available. Horses' total number of harness race starts is a promising tool for genetic analysis and the evaluation of racing longevity and durability. The estimated heritability provides evidence to support the application of genetic selection of total career number of races to improve longevity/durability of STH. © 2016 EVJ Ltd.

  17. Later School Start Times: What Informs Parent Support or Opposition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunietz, Galit Levi; Matos-Moreno, Amilcar; Singer, Dianne C; Davis, Matthew M; O'Brien, Louise M; Chervin, Ronald D

    2017-07-15

    To investigate parental knowledge about adolescent sleep needs, and other beliefs that may inform their support for or objection to later school start times. In 2014, we conducted a cross-sectional, Internet-based survey of a nationally representative sample of parents as part of the C.S. Mott Children's Hospital National Poll on Children's Health. Parents with teens aged 13-17 years reported their children's sleep patterns and school schedules, and whether the parents supported later school start times (8:30 am or later). Responses associated with parental support of later school start times were examined with logistic regression analysis. Overall, 88% of parents reported school start times before 8:30 am, and served as the analysis sample (n = 554). In this group, 51% expressed support for later school start times. Support was associated with current school start times before 7:30 am (odds ratio [OR] = 3.1 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2, 8.4]); parental opinion that their teen's current school start time was "too early" (OR = 3.8 [1.8, 7.8]); and agreement with American Academy of Pediatrics recommendations about school start times (OR = 4.7 [2.2, 10.1]). Support also was associated with anticipation of improved school performance (OR = 3.0 [1.5, 5.9]) or increased sleep duration (OR = 4.0 [1.8, 8.9]) with later school start times. Conversely, parents who anticipated too little time for after-school activities (OR = 0.5 [0.3, 0.9]) and need for different transportation plans (OR = 0.5 [0.2, 0.9]) were often less supportive. Parental education about healthy sleep needs and anticipated health benefits may increase their support for later school start times. Educational efforts should also publicize the positive experiences of communities that have made this transition, with regard to limited adverse effect on after-school activity schedules and transportation.

  18. TrustRank: a Cold-Start tolerant recommender system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Haitao; Gong, Zhiguo; Zhang, Nan; Zhao, Wei; Guo, Jingzhi

    2015-02-01

    The explosive growth of the World Wide Web leads to the fast advancing development of e-commerce techniques. Recommender systems, which use personalised information filtering techniques to generate a set of items suitable to a given user, have received considerable attention. User- and item-based algorithms are two popular techniques for the design of recommender systems. These two algorithms are known to have Cold-Start problems, i.e., they are unable to effectively handle Cold-Start users who have an extremely limited number of purchase records. In this paper, we develop TrustRank, a novel recommender system which handles the Cold-Start problem by leveraging the user-trust networks which are commonly available for e-commerce applications. A user-trust network is formed by friendships or trust relationships that users specify among them. While it is straightforward to conjecture that a user-trust network is helpful for improving the accuracy of recommendations, a key challenge for using user-trust network to facilitate Cold-Start users is that these users also tend to have a very limited number of trust relationships. To address this challenge, we propose a pre-processing propagation of the Cold-Start users' trust network. In particular, by applying the personalised PageRank algorithm, we expand the friends of a given user to include others with similar purchase records to his/her original friends. To make this propagation algorithm scalable to a large amount of users, as required by real-world recommender systems, we devise an iterative computation algorithm of the original personalised TrustRank which can incrementally compute trust vectors for Cold-Start users. We conduct extensive experiments to demonstrate the consistently improvement provided by our proposed algorithm over the existing recommender algorithms on the accuracy of recommendations for Cold-Start users.

  19. Cold-start emissions of modern passenger cars at different low ambient temperatures and their evolution over vehicle legislation categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weilenmann, Martin; Favez, Jean-Yves; Alvarez, Robert

    The emissions of modern gasoline and diesel passenger cars are reduced by catalysts except in cold-starting. Since catalysts require a certain temperature (typically above 300 °C) to work to full efficiency, emissions are significantly higher during the warm-up phase of the car. The duration of this period and the emissions produced depend on the ambient temperature as well as on the initial temperature of the car's propulsion systems. The additional emissions during a warm-up phase, known as "cold-start extra emissions" (CSEEs) for emission inventory modelling, are mostly assessed by emission measurements at an ambient temperature of 23 °C. However, in many European countries average ambient temperatures are below 23 °C. This necessitates emission measurements at lower temperatures in order to model and assess cold-start emissions for real-world temperature conditions. This paper investigates the influence of regulated pollutants and CO 2 emissions of recent gasoline and diesel car models (Euro-4 legislation) at different ambient temperatures, 23, -7 and -20 °C. We present a survey and model of the evolution of cold-start emissions as a function of different car generations (pre-Euro-1 to Euro-4 legislations). In addition the contribution of CSEEs to total fleet running emissions is shown to highlight their increasing importance. For gasoline cars, it turns out that in average real-world driving the majority of the CO (carbon monoxide) and HC (hydrocarbon) total emissions are due to cold-start extra emissions. Moreover, the cold-start emissions increase considerably at lower ambient temperatures. In contrast, cold-start emissions of diesel cars are significantly lower than those of gasoline cars. Furthermore, the transition from Euro-3 to Euro-4 gasoline vehicles shows a trend for a smaller decline for cold-start extra emissions than for legislative limits. Particle and NO x emission of cold-starts are less significant.

  20. Sprint starts and the minimum auditory reaction time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pain, Matthew T G; Hibbs, Angela

    2007-01-01

    The simple auditory reaction time is one of the fastest reaction times and is thought to be rarely less than 100 ms. The current false start criterion in a sprint used by the International Association of Athletics Federations is based on this assumed auditory reaction time of 100 ms. However, there is evidence, both anecdotal and from reflex research, that simple auditory reaction times of less than 100 ms can be achieved. Reaction time in nine athletes performing sprint starts in four conditions was measured using starting blocks instrumented with piezoelectric force transducers in each footplate that were synchronized with the starting signal. Only three conditions were used to calculate reaction times. The pre-motor and pseudo-motor time for two athletes were also measured across 13 muscles using surface electromyography (EMG) synchronized with the rest of the system. Five of the athletes had mean reaction times of less than 100 ms in at least one condition and 20% of all starts in the first two conditions had a reaction time of less than 100 ms. The results demonstrate that the neuromuscular-physiological component of simple auditory reaction times can be under 85 ms and that EMG latencies can be under 60 ms.

  1. Users contributions to an architectural project at the start up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iara Sousa Castro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Changes to architectural projects can be seen as an ongoing process from design concept to use. This paper analyses a particular phase of an architectural project, the start-up, which is characterized by the initial occupation of a workplace by users and the start-up of services. This paper aims to show that the experiences in this phase are unique and may make specific contributions to the design process. Analysis during the start-up phase may reveal experiences and users'needs that have not been met by designers, as well as inadequacies in the newly built space. This paper presents the results of a case study carried out in a sector of a hospital dedicated to patients with HIV. The analysis of the start-up of this newly constructed centre was performed using two methodologies: Post-Occupancy Evaluation and Ergonomic Work Analysis. The results suggest that ergonomic interventions in projects should encompass the start-up phase.

  2. The Rationality and Irrationality of Financing Green Start-Ups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Bergset

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Green start-ups contribute towards a transition to a more sustainable economy by developing sustainable and environmentally friendly innovation and bringing it to the market. Due to specific product/service characteristics, entrepreneurial motivation and company strategies that might differ from that of other start-ups, these companies might struggle even more than usual with access to finance in the early stages. This conceptual paper seeks to explain these challenges through the theoretical lenses of entrepreneurial finance and behavioural finance. While entrepreneurial finance theory contributes to a partial understanding of green start-up finance, behavioural finance is able to solve a remaining explanatory deficit produced by entrepreneurial finance theory. Although some behavioural finance theorists are suggesting that the current understanding of economic rationality underlying behavioural finance research is inadequate, most scholars have not yet challenged these assumptions, which constrict a comprehensive and realistic description of the reality of entrepreneurial finance in green start-ups. The aim of the paper is thus, first, to explore the specifics of entrepreneurial finance in green start-ups and, second, to demonstrate the need for a more up-to-date conception of rationality in behavioural finance theory in order to enable realistic empirical research in this field.

  3. Electrical start-up for diesel fuel processing in a fuel-cell-based auxiliary power unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsun, Remzi Can; Krupp, Carsten; Tschauder, Andreas; Peters, Ralf; Stolten, Detlef

    2016-01-01

    As auxiliary power units in trucks and aircraft, fuel cell systems with a diesel and kerosene reforming capacity offer the dual benefit of reduced emissions and fuel consumption. In order to be commercially viable, these systems require a quick start-up time with low energy input. In pursuit of this end, this paper reports an electrical start-up strategy for diesel fuel processing. A transient computational fluid dynamics model is developed to optimize the start-up procedure of the fuel processor in the 28 kWth power class. The temperature trend observed in the experiments is reproducible to a high degree of accuracy using a dual-cell approach in ANSYS Fluent. Starting from a basic strategy, different options are considered for accelerating system start-up. The start-up time is reduced from 22 min in the basic case to 9.5 min, at an energy consumption of 0.4 kW h. Furthermore, an electrical wire is installed in the reformer to test the steam generation during start-up. The experimental results reveal that the generation of steam at 450 °C is possible within seconds after water addition to the reformer. As a result, the fuel processor can be started in autothermal reformer mode using the electrical concept developed in this work.

  4. Start-Up Processes’ Efficiency of Turbine Jet Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankowski Antoni

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents diagnoses of example start-up processes of drive units built in military aircraft operated in the Dęblin's “School of Eaglets” during the flight. The significance of this process is very important, especially from the point of view of flight safety, especially as it concerns the training aircraft, on which officer cadets-candidates for pilots are trained. The diagnosis of the start-up process was conducted using data from on-board flight recorders recorded during a flight training, whose aim was an emergency launch of particular drive units, and with the help of the so-called phase mapping of the selected operating parameters of the particular flight drive systems. The standard diagram of typical start-up systems was shown, while presenting their base subassemblies. At the end, the obtained results and the main problems that need intervention were commented, as well as further preventive activities were proposed.

  5. Starting age and other influential factors: Insights from learner interviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Muñoz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study uses oral interviews with foreign language learners in search of influential factors in their language learning histories. The sample for the study was drawn from a larger sample of intermediate/advanced learners of English as a foreign language with a minimum of 10 years of exposure/instruction. The sample includes 6 early learners (range of starting age: 3.2-6.5 and 6 late learners (starting age: 11+. Half of them in each group were among those with the highest scores on two English language tests in the larger sample and half among those with the lowest scores on those same tests. A qualitative analysis of the interviews of these learners yields insights into their experience of foreign language learning and the role played in it by starting age and other significant factors, such as motivation and intensive contact with the language.

  6. Early start of CAPD with the Seldinger technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banli, Oktay; Altun, Hasan; Oztemel, Aysegul

    2005-01-01

    The ideal method for inserting continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (PD) catheters remains debatable. Minimally invasive techniques are becoming more popular. The routine recommendation for starting PD is 4 - 6 weeks after catheter insertion. We planned a prospective study to evaluate whether this waiting period is necessary. From January 2003 to July 2004, 42 double-cuff Tenckhoff CAPD catheters were inserted into 41 patients. Percutaneous technique was used and PD was started on the sixth day. Only 2 pericatheter leakages (4.8%) were detected. This procedure is comparatively safe, simple, and less costly than surgical and peritoneoscopic placement. The rate of early pericatheter leakage may be lowered with this technique and PD may be started earlier.

  7. GABA transporter 1 transcriptional starting site exhibiting tissue specific difference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    GABA transporter 1(GAT1)takes important roles in multiple physiological processes through the uptake and release of GABA,but the regulation of GAT1 gene expression in different tissues is rarely known.To address the question,first,5' Rapid amplification of cDNA end(RACE)was used to determine GAT1 transcriptional starting sites in neonatal mouse cerebral cortex and intestine,adult mouse brain and adult rat testis.The products of 5'RACE were confirmed by DNA sequencing.We found that the transcript of GAT1 in neonatal mouse cerebral cortex and adult mouse brain starts at the same site(inside of exon 1),while in mouse intestine,GAT1 starts transcription in intron 1,and in rat testis,the transcript of GAT1 has an additional untranslation exon to the 5' direction.

  8. Starting lithium prophylaxis early v. late in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vradi, Eleni; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: No study has investigated when preventive treatment with lithium should be initiated in bipolar disorder. AIMS: To compare response rates among patients with bipolar disorder starting treatment with lithium early v. late. METHOD: Nationwide registers were used to identify all patients...... with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder in psychiatric hospital settings who were prescribed lithium during the period 1995-2012 in Denmark (n = 4714). Lithium responders were defined as patients who, following a stabilisation lithium start-up period of 6 months, continued lithium monotherapy without being admitted......-response to lithium compared with the rate for patients starting lithium later (adjusted analyses: first v. later contact: Pbipolar disorder: Plithium treatment early...

  9. A novel approach to delayed-start analyses for demonstrating disease-modifying effects in Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Liu-Seifert

    Full Text Available One method for demonstrating disease modification is a delayed-start design, consisting of a placebo-controlled period followed by a delayed-start period wherein all patients receive active treatment. To address methodological issues in previous delayed-start approaches, we propose a new method that is robust across conditions of drug effect, discontinuation rates, and missing data mechanisms. We propose a modeling approach and test procedure to test the hypothesis of noninferiority, comparing the treatment difference at the end of the delayed-start period with that at the end of the placebo-controlled period. We conducted simulations to identify the optimal noninferiority testing procedure to ensure the method was robust across scenarios and assumptions, and to evaluate the appropriate modeling approach for analyzing the delayed-start period. We then applied this methodology to Phase 3 solanezumab clinical trial data for mild Alzheimer's disease patients. Simulation results showed a testing procedure using a proportional noninferiority margin was robust for detecting disease-modifying effects; conditions of high and moderate discontinuations; and with various missing data mechanisms. Using all data from all randomized patients in a single model over both the placebo-controlled and delayed-start study periods demonstrated good statistical performance. In analysis of solanezumab data using this methodology, the noninferiority criterion was met, indicating the treatment difference at the end of the placebo-controlled studies was preserved at the end of the delayed-start period within a pre-defined margin. The proposed noninferiority method for delayed-start analysis controls Type I error rate well and addresses many challenges posed by previous approaches. Delayed-start studies employing the proposed analysis approach could be used to provide evidence of a disease-modifying effect. This method has been communicated with FDA and has been

  10. Sprint Start Kinetics of Amputee and Non-Amputee Sprinters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willwacher, Steffen; Herrmann, Volker; Heinrich, Kai; Funken, Johannes; Strutzenberger, Gerda; Goldmann, Jan-Peter; Braunstein, Björn; Brazil, Adam; Irwin, Gareth; Potthast, Wolfgang; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between the forces applied to the starting blocks and the start performances (SPs) of amputee sprinters (ASs) and non-amputee sprinters (NASs). SPs of 154 male and female NASs (100-m personal records [PRs], 9.58-14.00 s) and 7 male ASs (3 unilateral above knee, 3 unilateral below knee, 1 bilateral below knee; 100 m PRs, 11.70-12.70 s) with running specific prostheses (RSPs) were analysed during full-effort sprint starts using instrumented starting blocks that measured the applied forces in 3D. Using the NAS dataset and a combination of factor analysis and multiple regression techniques, we explored the relationship between force characteristics and SP (quantified by normalized average horizontal block power). Start kinetics were subsequently compared between ASs and NASs who were matched based on their absolute 100 m PR and their 100 m PR relative to the world record in their starting class. In NASs, 86% of the variance in SP was shared with five latent factors on which measured parameters related to force application to the rear and front blocks and the respective push-off directions in the sagittal plane of motion were loaded. Mediolateral force application had little influence on SP. The SP of ASs was significantly reduced compared to that of NASs matched on the basis of relative 100-m PR (-33.8%; d = 2.11, p < 0.001), while a non-significant performance reduction was observed when absolute 100-m PRs were used (-17.7%; d = 0.79, p = 0.09). These results are at least partially explained by the fact that force application to the rear block was clearly impaired in the affected legs of ASs.

  11. Female Hires and the Success of Start-up Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Andrea Maria; Zulehner, Christine

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the relationship between females among the first hires of start-up companies and business success. Our results show that firms with female first hires have a higher share of female workers at the end of the first year after entry. Further, we find that firms with female first hires are more successful and stay longer in the market. We conclude that our results support the hypothesis that gender-diversity in leading positions is an advantage for start-up firms.

  12. Cold-start characteristics of polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishler, Jeff [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wang, Yun [UNIV. CAL. RIVERSIDE; Mishler, Jeff [UNIV. CAL. RIVERSIDE; Mukherjee, Partha P [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the electrochemical reaction kinetics, species transport, and solid water dynamics in a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) during cold start. A simplitied analysis is developed to enable the evaluation of the impact of ice volume fraction on cell performance during coldstart. Supporting neutron imaging data are also provided to reveal the real-time water evolution. Temperature-dependent voltage changes due to the reaction kinetics and ohmic loss are also analyzed based on the ionic conductivity of the membrane at subfreezing temperature. The analysis is valuable for the fundamental study of PEFC cold-start.

  13. Financement et gouvernance des start-ups en equitycrowdfunding

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Par rapport aux modes de financement traditionnels, l’equitycrowdfunding (ECF) introduit deux nouveaux acteurs : la plateforme et la foule. Cet article étudie leurs rôles et leurs spécificités dans le processus de financement et dans le design de la gouvernance de la start-up. Ce nouveau système est totalement ouvert, composé d’un très grand nombre de participants hétérogènes qui apportent des ressources financières mais aussi et surtout un retour à la start-up sur leur perception du projet. ...

  14. Do you start writing in Japanese or in English?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanikawa, Kiyotaka

    2004-12-01

    The author sent via e-mail the question as in the title to the TENNET members of the Astronomical Society of Japan. Two hundred members among one thousand replied. It turned out that more than 70% of the members start writing in English and 15% fix initially the framework of the paper in Japanese and then start writing in English. The author reproduces comments attached to the replies, and then discuss the meaning of the result and consider the role of learning foreign languages in promoting the skill in one's native language.

  15. Getting started with SQL Server 2012 cube development

    CERN Document Server

    Lidberg, Simon

    2013-01-01

    As a practical tutorial for Analysis Services, get started with developing cubes. ""Getting Started with SQL Server 2012 Cube Development"" walks you through the basics, working with SSAS to build cubes and get them up and running.Written for SQL Server developers who have not previously worked with Analysis Services. It is assumed that you have experience with relational databases, but no prior knowledge of cube development is required. You need SQL Server 2012 in order to follow along with the exercises in this book.

  16. The start up as a phase of architectural design process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Iara Sousa; Lima, Francisco de Paula Antunes; Duarte, Francisco José de Castro Moura

    2012-01-01

    Alterations made in the architectural design can be considered as a continuous process, from its conception to the moment a built environment is already in use. This article focuses on the "moving phase", which is the initial moment of the environment occupation and the start-up of services. It aims to show that the continuity of ergonomics interventions during the "moving phase" or start up may reveal the built environment inadequacies; clearly showing needs not met by the design and allowing making instant decisions to solve non-foreseen problems. The results have revealed some lessons experienced by users during a critical stage not usually included in the design process.

  17. Start Later, Sleep Later: School Start Times and Adolescent Sleep in Homeschool vs. Public/Private School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, Lisa J.; Shaheed, Keisha; Ambler, Devon

    2014-01-01

    Homeschool students provide a naturalistic comparison group for later/flexible school start times. This study compared sleep patterns and sleep hygiene for homeschool students and public/private school students (grades 6-12). Public/private school students (n=245) and homeschool students (n=162) completed a survey about sleep patterns and sleep hygiene. Significant school group differences were found for weekday bedtime, wake time, and total sleep time, with homeschool students waking later and obtaining more sleep. Homeschool students had later school start times, waking at the same time that public/private school students were starting school. Public/private school students had poorer sleep hygiene practices, reporting more homework and use of technology in the hour before bed. Regardless of school type, technology in the bedroom was associated with shorter sleep duration. Later school start times may be a potential countermeasure for insufficient sleep in adolescents. Future studies should further examine the relationship between school start times and daytime outcomes, including academic performance, mood, and health. PMID:25315902

  18. Start Later, Sleep Later: School Start Times and Adolescent Sleep in Homeschool Versus Public/Private School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, Lisa J; Shaheed, Keisha; Ambler, Devon

    2016-01-01

    Homeschooled students provide a naturalistic comparison group for later/flexible school start times. This study compared sleep patterns and sleep hygiene for homeschooled students and public/private school students (grades 6-12). Public/private school students (n = 245) and homeschooled students (n = 162) completed a survey about sleep patterns and sleep hygiene. Significant school group differences were found for weekday bedtime, wake time, and total sleep time, with homeschooled students waking later and obtaining more sleep. Homeschooled students had later school start times, waking at the same time that public/private school students were starting school. Public/private school students had poorer sleep hygiene practices, reporting more homework and use of technology in the hour before bed. Regardless of school type, technology in the bedroom was associated with shorter sleep duration. Later school start times may be a potential countermeasure for insufficient sleep in adolescents. Future studies should further examine the relationship between school start times and daytime outcomes, including academic performance, mood, and health.

  19. Back to the future: community involvement in the Healthy Start Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, E M; Devaney, B; McCormick, M; Raykovich, K T

    1998-04-01

    This article discusses how community involvement is incorporated into Healthy Start, a major initiative to reduce infant mortality in selected communities with disproportionately high levels of infant mortality. Based on site visits to each of the fifteen original Healthy Start project areas, we discovered that two main community involvement strategies were used: a service consortium model and a community empowerment model. In the service consortium model, the community is involved primarily through a consortium of local providers, other professionals, and some governmental representatives who help to plan services. The community empowerment model involves the community by engaging neighborhood-based groups, contracting with community-based organizations, employing community residents as lay workers in the Healthy Start program, and creating other economic development initiatives. Important lessons drawn from this study are that the purpose and commitment to community involvement is not always clear; that it is difficult to involve community residents; that efforts to involve the community are extremely labor intensive; that given monetary incentives, it is easier to involve community providers than residents; that community involvement may conflict with efficient program operations; that increased community involvement may create program goals that differ from the program's original goals; and that community involvement may slow program development.

  20. Getting started with HTML5 WebSocket programming

    CERN Document Server

    Pterneas, Vangos

    2013-01-01

    Getting Started with HTML5 Websocket Programming takes a tutorial-based approach.This book is for anyone who wants to build high-performance, true, real-time web applications. Being familiar with frontend web development (HTML / XHTML, JavaScript) would be ideal.

  1. "Set the Pace": Nutrition Education DVD for Head Start Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedze, Pascasie; Orr, Robin A.; Chapman-Novakofski, Karen; Donovan, Sharon M.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood overweight remains a major public health problem and innovative nutrition education programs are still needed. Thus, the "Set the Pace" is a nutrition education DVD for Head Start parents which provides visual nutrition education and physical activities to incorporate in their daily routines. (Contains 1 table.)

  2. Onderzoek naar ‘Lissers’ bij hyacint van start

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeburg, P.J.M.; Kock, de M.; Vink, P.; Korsuize, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    Het verschijnsel ‘Lissers’ veroorzaakt al enkele jaren achtereen schade in de broei bij hyacint. Oorzaak is een fytoplasma, dat vroeger slechts incidenteel voor kwam. Hierdoor is nog weinig bekend over beschermende maatregelen. PPO start daarom onderzoek naar de bestrijding van de overbrenger (dwerg

  3. Our start-up could never have been successful

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonger, S.

    2014-01-01

    In July 2013, TU Delft alumnus Jan van Kranendonk and his business partner Thomas de Leeuw decided to discontinue their start-up company Sunuru. The reason was that customers were not interested in their ingenious solar project. Van Kranendonk spoke about his failure during the Failcon event in Amst

  4. Developing games for health behavior change: Getting started

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many investigators are considering developing video games for health (video-G4Hs) but have questions about how to get started. This report provides guidance for investigators considering a G4H as a behavioral intervention procedure from a team of experienced G4H developers. Thirteen commonly asked q...

  5. Steps to Successful Professional Development in Head Start

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivette, Carol M.; Raab, Melinda; Dunst, Carl J.

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the implications of utilizing coaching-mentoring strategies with Head Start teachers identified from the results of a study which used an evidence-based approach to professional development. Early childhood and coaching practices that formed the basis of the study are explained. Implications from the study results regarding…

  6. CERN confident of LHC start-up in 2007

    CERN Multimedia

    Vanden Broeck, Renilde

    2007-01-01

    "Delegates attending the 140th meeting of CERN Council today heard a confident report from the Laboratory about the scheduled start-up of the world's highest energy particle accelerator, the Large Hadron Collier (LHC) in 2007. (1/2 page)

  7. CERN confident of LHC start-up in 2007

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "Delegates attending the 140th meeting of CERN Council today heard a confident report from the Laboratory about the scheduled start-up of the world's highest energy particle accelerator, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in 2007." (1/2 page)

  8. 30 CFR 57.7054 - Starting or moving drill equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Starting or moving drill equipment. 57.7054 Section 57.7054 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  9. Start-Up Rhetoric in Eight Speeches of Barack Obama

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Daniel C.; Kowal, Sabine; Sabin, Edward J.; Lamia, John F.; Dannevik, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Our purpose in the following was to investigate the start-up rhetoric employed by U.S. President Barack Obama in his speeches. The initial 5 min from eight of his speeches from May to September of 2009 were selected for their variety of setting, audience, theme, and purpose. It was generally hypothesized that Barack Obama, widely recognized for…

  10. Characteristics Contributing to High-Technology Start-Up Success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goslin, L.; Brown, W.; Palm, T.

    1993-01-01

    that the professional venture-capital-funded start-up firm will generally reflect the practices of perceptive management regarding: style, team approach, structure of the firm, market definition, culture, vision, and a formal strategy. Nevertheless, there are some questions about differences those characteristics...

  11. Hydrodynamic Analysis of C-start in Crucian Carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Jing; Xiezhen Yin; Xiyun Lu

    2004-01-01

    The kinematics of turning maneuvers of startled Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus) are presented. All escape responses observed are C-type fast-starts. The position of the center of mass and the moment of inertia of the fish are calculated.The results show that the position of the center of mass is always at 35 % of the length of the fish from the head and the position of the center of mass and moment of inertia can be considered unchanged during C-start of Crucian Carp. Hydrodynamic analysis of the C-start is given based on the kinematics data from our experiments. The C-start consists of three stages. In stage 1, the tail fin of fish rapidly flaps in one direction, and a large moment acts on the fish's body, which rotates around the center of mass with an angular acceleration. In stage 2, the tail fin flaps more slowly in the opposite direction at slower speed, the fish's body rotates around the center of mass with angular deceleration and the center of mass of the fish moves along an arc. In stage 3, the moment approximately equals zero, the fish's body stops rotating and the center of mass the moves along a straight line.

  12. Spirit Lake Sioux Children Start School at 6 Weeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellow Bird, Doreen

    1998-01-01

    Describes the Early Head Start program, which provides children ages six-weeks to three-years old and their families, with special attention to promote personal growth and educational success. The parents of program participants are also provided with educational opportunities to improve the quality of family life. Studies indicate that the Early…

  13. Evaluating effectiveness of project start-ups: an exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halman, J.I.M.; Burger, G.T.N.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper an exploratory study is reported about the effectiveness of project start-up (PSU) practices within a world-scale operating, high technology innovating and manufacturing company. The emphasis is on the focal position of both project owner and project manager. To uncover potential diffe

  14. Social Capital in Knowledge Intensive Start-Ups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle; Madsen, Henning

    This paper addresses social capital in biotechnology, medico and information communication start-ups using both quantitative and qualitative data. It shows that founding teams are primarily composed of 'trusted alters' and that networking patterns are highly influenced by the entrepreneur...

  15. The Third Phase Engineering of Baotou Yunsheng Started

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The third phase engineering of Baotou Yunsheng Strong MagneticMaterials Co., Ltd started in Baotou Raotou Rare Earth Hi-Tech Zone in August. After the completion of the construction, the production line can produce 1,500 tons of high performance NdFeB magnets per annum.

  16. Characteristics Contributing to High-Technology Start-Up Success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goslin, L.; Brown, W.; Palm, T.

    1993-01-01

    The factors contributing to the success of high technology start-up firms have received much discussion in current business literature. The discussion of the characteristics of success has been based on increasing substantiation by empirical research. The available information suggests that the p...

  17. Developmental Computer Awareness: Responses of Head Start and Kindergarten Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galen, Harlene; And Others

    Kindergarten experimental group subjects and Head Start children received classroom instruction about and "hands-on" experiences with computers, while a kindergarten control group received the "hands-on" experiences only. During an initial classroom instructional phase, a mini-unit was employed to introduce 10 computer terms to…

  18. Oral desensitization to milk: how to choose the starting dose!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Francesca; Pucci, Neri; Rossi, Maria Elisabetta; de Martino, Maurizio; Azzari, Chiara; Novembre, Elio

    2010-01-01

    Mori F, Pucci N, Rossi ME, de Martino M, Azzari C, Novembre E. Oral desensitization to milk: how to choose the starting dose! Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2010: 21: e450–e453. © 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S A renewed interest in oral desensitization as treatment for food allergy has been observed in the last few years. We studied a novel method based on the end point skin prick test procedure to establish the starting dose for oral desensitization in a group of 30 children higly allergic to milk. The results (in terms of reactions to the first dose administered) were compared with a group of 20 children allergic to milk as well. Such control group started to swallow the same dose of 0.015 mg/ml of milk. None reacted to the first dose when administered according to the end point skin prick test. On the other side, ten out of 20 children (50%) from the control group showed mild allergic reactions to the first dose of milk. In conclusion the end point skin prick test procedure results safe and easy to be performed in each single child in order to find out the starting dose for oral desensitization to milk, also by taking into account the individual variability. PMID:19624618

  19. A burner for plasma-coal starting of a boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peregudov, V. S.

    2008-04-01

    Advanced schemes of a plasma-coal burner with single-and two-stage chambers for thermochemical preparation of fuel are described. The factors causing it becoming contaminated with slag during oil-free starting of a boiler are considered, and methods for preventing this phenomenon are pointed out.

  20. A burner for plasma-coal starting of a boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V.S. Peregudov [Kutateladze Institute of Thermal Physics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2008-04-15

    Advanced schemes of a plasma-coal burner with single-and two-stage chambers for thermochemical preparation of fuel are described. The factors causing it becoming contaminated with slag during oil-free starting of a boiler are considered, and methods for preventing this phenomenon are pointed out.

  1. Solenoid-free plasma start-up in spherical tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, R.; Shevchenko, V. F.

    2014-10-01

    The central solenoid is an intrinsic part of all present-day tokamaks and most spherical tokamaks. The spherical torus (ST) confinement concept is projected to operate at high toroidal beta and at a high fraction of the non-inductive bootstrap current as required for an efficient reactor system. The use of a conventional solenoid in a ST-based fusion nuclear facility is generally believed to not be a possibility. Solenoid-free plasma start-up is therefore an area of extensive worldwide research activity. Solenoid-free plasma start-up is also relevant to steady-state tokamak operation, as the central transformer coil of a conventional aspect ratio tokamak reactor would be located in a high radiation environment but would be needed only during the initial discharge initiation and current ramp-up phases. Solenoid-free operation also provides greater flexibility in the selection of the aspect ratio and simplifies the reactor design. Plasma start-up methods based on induction from external poloidal field coils, helicity injection and radio frequency current drive have all made substantial progress towards meeting this important need for the ST. Some of these systems will now undergo the final stages of test in a new generation of large STs, which are scheduled to begin operations during the next two years. This paper reviews research to date on methods for inducing the initial start-up current in STs without reliance on the conventional central solenoid.

  2. "Set the Pace": Nutrition Education DVD for Head Start Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedze, Pascasie; Orr, Robin A.; Chapman-Novakofski, Karen; Donovan, Sharon M.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood overweight remains a major public health problem and innovative nutrition education programs are still needed. Thus, the "Set the Pace" is a nutrition education DVD for Head Start parents which provides visual nutrition education and physical activities to incorporate in their daily routines. (Contains 1 table.)

  3. Training Manual for Local Head Start Staff. Part IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Carol; And Others

    This manual is the fourth in a set of training manuals for Head Start staff. It contains descriptions of workshop modules on the topics of (1) language development in children, (2) creativity in children, (3) the Individualized Education Program (IEP), (4) building self-esteem in families, (5) family development, (6) effective communication, and…

  4. Delayed High School Starting Times. Information Capsule. Volume 0908

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazer, Christie

    2009-01-01

    Educators around the nation are considering pushing high school starting times back until later in the morning, based on evidence suggesting that amount of sleep and circadian rhythms play a part in adolescents' academic performance. While research confirms that adolescents do not get enough sleep and that insufficient sleep can negatively…

  5. University Knowledge Spillovers & Regional Start-up Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellerstedt, Karin; Wennberg, Karl; Frederiksen, Lars

    2014-01-01

    This chapter investigates how regional start-up rates in the knowledge-intensive services and high-tech industries are influenced by knowledge spillovers from both universities and firm-based R&D activities. Integrating insights from economic geography and organizational ecology into the literatu...

  6. Start-up of a drinking water biofilter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsay, Loren; Søborg, Ditte; Breda, Inês Lousinha Ribeiro

    When virgin filter media is placed in drinking water biofilters, a start-up period of some months typically ensues. During this period, the necessary inorganic coating and bacterial community are established on the filter medium, after which the treated water complies with drinking water criteria...

  7. Spanish Instruction in Head Start and Dual Language Learners' Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miler, Elizabeth B.

    2016-01-01

    Prior research suggests that Spanish-speaking Dual Language Learners (DLLs)--young children who must master two languages simultaneously, their home language and English (Espinosa, 2013)--differentially benefit from quality Early Childhood Education (ECE), and in particular from Head Start, compared with children of other subgroups and…

  8. 46 CFR 112.50-5 - Electric starting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electric starting. 112.50-5 Section 112.50-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Diesel and Gas Turbine Engine Driven Generator Sets § 112.50-5 Electric...

  9. Evaluating effectiveness of project start-ups: an exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halman, Johannes I.M.; Burger, G.T.N.

    In this paper an exploratory study is reported about the effectiveness of project start-up (PSU) practices within a world-scale operating, high technology innovating and manufacturing company. The emphasis is on the focal position of both project owner and project manager. To uncover potential

  10. Why Head Start Avoided the Reagan Budget Ax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Dennis T.

    Research findings on and program design features of Project Head Start have apparently influenced the Reagan administration's decision to continue the funding of the program. Research appears to indicate that the intervention program has a lasting impact on participants. Additionally, researchers have demonstrated that program benefits can…

  11. Peer Effects on Head Start Children's Preschool Competency

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, Dawn; Hanish, Laura D.; Martin, Carol Lynn; Fabes, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    The goals of this study were to investigate whether young children attending Head Start (N = 292; M[subscript age] = 4.3 years) selected peers based on their preschool competency and whether children's levels of preschool competency were influenced by their peers' levels of preschool competency. Children's peer interaction partners were…

  12. Comparative structural analysis of lipid binding START domains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Gerd Thorsell

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR protein related lipid transfer (START domains are small globular modules that form a cavity where lipids and lipid hormones bind. These domains can transport ligands to facilitate lipid exchange between biological membranes, and they have been postulated to modulate the activity of other domains of the protein in response to ligand binding. More than a dozen human genes encode START domains, and several of them are implicated in a disease. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report crystal structures of the human STARD1, STARD5, STARD13 and STARD14 lipid transfer domains. These represent four of the six functional classes of START domains. SIGNIFICANCE: Sequence alignments based on these and previously reported crystal structures define the structural determinants of human START domains, both those related to structural framework and those involved in ligand specificity. ENHANCED VERSION: This article can also be viewed as an enhanced version in which the text of the article is integrated with interactive 3D representations and animated transitions. Please note that a web plugin is required to access this enhanced functionality. Instructions for the installation and use of the web plugin are available in Text S1.

  13. EDUCATIONAL DESIGN RESEARCH IN MOZAMBIQUE : STARTING MATHEMATICS FROM AUTHENTIC RESOURCES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Pauline; Devesse, Tiago G.; Rassul, Assane; Novotna, J; Moraova, H; Kratka, M; Stehlikova, N

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a research on learner-centred instruction in Mozambique, Africa. A starting point was the use of real-life resources, such as traditional art craft objects and authentic newspaper clippings. The study used a method which is termed 'design research'. This method aligns theory w

  14. Educational Design Research in Mozambique : Starting Mathematics from Authentic Resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Pauline; Devesse, Tiago G.; Rassul, Assane; Novotna, J; Moraova, H; Kratka, M; Stehlikova, N

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a research on learner-centred instruction in Mozambique, Africa. A starting point was the use of real-life resources, such as traditional art craft objects and authentic newspaper clippings. The study used a method which is termed 'design research'. This method aligns theory w

  15. Social Capital in Knowledge Intensive Start-Ups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle; Madsen, Henning

    This paper addresses social capital in biotechnology, medico and information communication start-ups using both quantitative and qualitative data. It shows that founding teams are primarily composed of 'trusted alters' and that networking patterns are highly influenced by the entrepreneur...

  16. 5 CFR 9901.352 - Setting an employee's starting pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Setting an employee's starting pay. 9901.352 Section 9901.352 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT AND...., availability of candidates and labor market rates); (2) Specialized skills, knowledge, and/or education...

  17. Dampak Mentoring Pada Keberhasilan Start-Up Business: Studi Kasus Pada Start-Up Business di Indonesia [Mentoring the Impact of Success of a Start-Up Business: A Case Study of a Start-Up Business in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Yanita Setyawati

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship is a highly developed science today, as well as in the world of education in Indonesia. Teaching entrepreneurship at the university level, especially at some universities in Surabaya, the second largest city in Indonesia, shows the positive impact that there were 74.03% of start-up businesses that survived and thrived in 2014. Based on the previous observation, some business start-ups are accompanied by a mentor. Mentoring is a process of forming and maintaining lasting relationships that develop intensively among seniors with juniors. The mentoring function includes career and psychosocial functions. The main purpose of this research is to study the relationship between mentoring and the success of a start-up business. This study is a quantitative descriptive study using a random sampling method to obtain 100 samples. The tool used to collect data was a questionnaire. The methodology used to analyze the quantitative description to test the hypothesis. The results of this study indicate that mentoring influences the success of a start-up business that was owned by university students in Surabaya, Indonesia by 32% and 78% was influenced by other variables.

  18. Beta: An Experiment in Funded Undergraduate Start-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Paul; Forbes-Simpson, Kellie; Maas, Gideon; Newbery, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on an evaluation of a funded undergraduate project designed to enable student business start-up. The programme, entitled "Beta", provides undergraduate students with £1,500 of seed-corn funding. The key objective of the project is for the participants to exit it with a viable and legal business entity through which…

  19. Parents' Role in the Early Head Start Children's Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griswold, Cecelia Smalls

    2014-01-01

    The development of language during a child's early years has been linked to parental involvement. While Early Head Start (EHS) researchers have theorized that parental involvement is an important factor in language development, there has been little research on how parents view their roles in the language development process. The purpose of this…

  20. Eleven Tribes Jump START Clean Energy Projects, Summer 2012 (Newsletter)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-06-01

    This newsletter describes key activities of the DOE Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs for Summer 2012. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs (DOE-IE) has selected 11 Tribes - five in Alaska and six in the contiguous United States - to receive on-the-ground technical support for community-based energy efficiency and renewable energy projects as part of DOE-IE's Strategic Technical Assistance Response Team (START) Program. START finalists were selected based on the clarity of their requests for technical assistance and the ability of START to successfully work with their projects or community. Technical experts from DOE and its National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) will work directly with community-based project teams to analyze local energy issues and assist the Tribes in moving their projects forward. In Alaska, the effort will be bolstered by DOE-IE's partnership with the Denali Commission, which will provide additional assistance and expertise, as well as funding to fuel the Alaska START initiative.