WorldWideScience

Sample records for model mixing ratios

  1. Application of a mixing-ratios based formulation to model mixing-driven dissolution experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadagnini, Alberto; Sanchez-Vila, Xavier; Saaltink, Maarten W.; Bussini, Michele; Berkowitz, Brian

    2009-05-01

    We address the question of how one can combine theoretical and numerical modeling approaches with limited measurements from laboratory flow cell experiments to realistically quantify salient features of complex mixing-driven multicomponent reactive transport problems in porous media. Flow cells are commonly used to examine processes affecting reactive transport through porous media, under controlled conditions. An advantage of flow cells is their suitability for relatively fast and reliable experiments, although measuring spatial distributions of a state variable within the cell is often difficult. In general, fluid is sampled only at the flow cell outlet, and concentration measurements are usually interpreted in terms of integrated reaction rates. In reactive transport problems, however, the spatial distribution of the reaction rates within the cell might be more important than the bulk integrated value. Recent advances in theoretical and numerical modeling of complex reactive transport problems [De Simoni M, Carrera J, Sanchez-Vila X, Guadagnini A. A procedure for the solution of multicomponent reactive transport problems. Water Resour Res 2005;41:W11410. doi: 10.1029/2005WR004056, De Simoni M, Sanchez-Vila X, Carrera J, Saaltink MW. A mixing ratios-based formulation for multicomponent reactive transport. Water Resour Res 2007;43:W07419. doi: 10.1029/2006WR005256] result in a methodology conducive to a simple exact expression for the space-time distribution of reaction rates in the presence of homogeneous or heterogeneous reactions in chemical equilibrium. The key points of the methodology are that a general reactive transport problem, involving a relatively high number of chemical species, can be formulated in terms of a set of decoupled partial differential equations, and the amount of reactants evolving into products depends on the rate at which solutions mix. The main objective of the current study is to show how this methodology can be used in conjunction

  2. Biases in modeled surface snow BC mixing ratios in prescribed aerosol climate model runs

    OpenAIRE

    Doherty, S. J.; C. M. Bitz; M. G. Flanner

    2014-01-01

    A series of recent studies have used prescribed aerosol deposition flux fields in climate model runs to assess forcing by black carbon in snow. In these studies, the prescribed mass deposition flux of BC to surface snow is decoupled from the mass deposition flux of snow water to the surface. Here we use a series of offline calculations to show that this approach results, on average, in a~factor of about 1.5–2.5 high bias in annual-mean surface snow BC mixing ratios in three ...

  3. Finite mixture models for the computation of isotope ratios in mixed isotopic samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffler, Daniel; Laaha, Gregor; Leisch, Friedrich; Kappel, Stefanie; Prohaska, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Finite mixture models have been used for more than 100 years, but have seen a real boost in popularity over the last two decades due to the tremendous increase in available computing power. The areas of application of mixture models range from biology and medicine to physics, economics and marketing. These models can be applied to data where observations originate from various groups and where group affiliations are not known, as is the case for multiple isotope ratios present in mixed isotopic samples. Recently, the potential of finite mixture models for the computation of 235U/238U isotope ratios from transient signals measured in individual (sub-)µm-sized particles by laser ablation - multi-collector - inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-MC-ICPMS) was demonstrated by Kappel et al. [1]. The particles, which were deposited on the same substrate, were certified with respect to their isotopic compositions. Here, we focus on the statistical model and its application to isotope data in ecogeochemistry. Commonly applied evaluation approaches for mixed isotopic samples are time-consuming and are dependent on the judgement of the analyst. Thus, isotopic compositions may be overlooked due to the presence of more dominant constituents. Evaluation using finite mixture models can be accomplished unsupervised and automatically. The models try to fit several linear models (regression lines) to subgroups of data taking the respective slope as estimation for the isotope ratio. The finite mixture models are parameterised by: • The number of different ratios. • Number of points belonging to each ratio-group. • The ratios (i.e. slopes) of each group. Fitting of the parameters is done by maximising the log-likelihood function using an iterative expectation-maximisation (EM) algorithm. In each iteration step, groups of size smaller than a control parameter are dropped; thereby the number of different ratios is determined. The analyst only influences some control

  4. Historical support for a mixed law Lanchestrian Attrition Model: Helmbold's ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, D.S. III; Kruse, K.L.

    1989-11-01

    This is the first in a series of reports on the breakthrough research in historical validation of attrition in conflict. Significant defense policy decisions, including weapons acquisition and arms reduction, are based in part on models of conflict. Most of these models are driven their attrition algorithms, usually forms of the Lanchester square and linear laws. None of these algorithms have been validated. Helmbold defined the activity ratio'' to be the ratio of the Lanchester coefficients in the pair of differential equations of the Lanchester square law of attrition. He derived an equivalence between this ratio and a ratio containing the initial and ending force sizes, herein called the Helmbold ratio, and demonstrated a relationship between the Helmbold ratio and the initial force ratio in a large number of historical battles. This paper reexamines the implications of this relationship and concludes that its existence, rather than being supportive of the Lanchester square law, is supportive of a mixed law lying between the Lanchester linear law and a Lanchester logarithmic law. It is shown that the Helmbold relationship can discriminate between several attrition formulations; however, while this is a necessary condition, it is not sufficient to conclude that data fitting the relationship were caused by a given attrition formulation. The conclusion is that the data are not fine enough to determine the differential form of the attrition equations but do lead to a statistical statement about the outcomes of battles. 8 refs., 51 figs., 8 tabs.

  5. Carbon Monoxide Mixing Ratio System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory — The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Carbon Monoxide (CO) system provides high-precision atmospheric concentration measurements of CO mixing ratio (ppbv dry air) every 10...

  6. Modelling lactation curve for milk fat to protein ratio in Iranian buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) using non-linear mixed models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossein-Zadeh, Navid Ghavi

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare seven non-linear mathematical models (Brody, Wood, Dhanoa, Sikka, Nelder, Rook and Dijkstra) to examine their efficiency in describing the lactation curves for milk fat to protein ratio (FPR) in Iranian buffaloes. Data were 43 818 test-day records for FPR from the first three lactations of Iranian buffaloes which were collected on 523 dairy herds in the period from 1996 to 2012 by the Animal Breeding Center of Iran. Each model was fitted to monthly FPR records of buffaloes using the non-linear mixed model procedure (PROC NLMIXED) in SAS and the parameters were estimated. The models were tested for goodness of fit using Akaike's information criterion (AIC), Bayesian information criterion (BIC) and log maximum likelihood (-2 Log L). The Nelder and Sikka mixed models provided the best fit of lactation curve for FPR in the first and second lactations of Iranian buffaloes, respectively. However, Wood, Dhanoa and Sikka mixed models provided the best fit of lactation curve for FPR in the third parity buffaloes. Evaluation of first, second and third lactation features showed that all models, except for Dijkstra model in the third lactation, under-predicted test time at which daily FPR was minimum. On the other hand, minimum FPR was over-predicted by all equations. Evaluation of the different models used in this study indicated that non-linear mixed models were sufficient for fitting test-day FPR records of Iranian buffaloes.

  7. Biases in modeled surface snow BC mixing ratios in prescribed-aerosol climate model runs

    OpenAIRE

    Doherty, S. J.; C. M. Bitz; M. G. Flanner

    2014-01-01

    Black carbon (BC) in snow lowers its albedo, increasing the absorption of sunlight, leading to positive radiative forcing, climate warming and earlier snowmelt. A series of recent studies have used prescribed-aerosol deposition flux fields in climate model runs to assess the forcing by black carbon in snow. In these studies, the prescribed mass deposition flux of BC to surface snow is decoupled from the mass deposition flux of snow water to the surface. Here we compare progn...

  8. Multilevel Nonlinear Mixed-Effect Crown Ratio Models for Individual Trees of Mongolian Oak (Quercus mongolica) in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Liyong; Zhang, Huiru; Lu, Jun; Zang, Hao; Lou, Minghua; Wang, Guangxing

    2015-01-01

    In this study, an individual tree crown ratio (CR) model was developed with a data set from a total of 3134 Mongolian oak (Quercus mongolica) trees within 112 sample plots allocated in Wangqing Forest Bureau of northeast China. Because of high correlation among the observations taken from the same sampling plots, the random effects at levels of both blocks defined as stands that have different site conditions and plots were taken into account to develop a nested two-level nonlinear mixed-effect model. Various stand and tree characteristics were assessed to explore their contributions to improvement of model prediction. Diameter at breast height, plot dominant tree height and plot dominant tree diameter were found to be significant predictors. Exponential model with plot dominant tree height as a predictor had a stronger ability to account for the heteroskedasticity. When random effects were modeled at block level alone, the correlations among the residuals remained significant. These correlations were successfully reduced when random effects were modeled at both block and plot levels. The random effects from the interaction of blocks and sample plots on tree CR were substantially large. The model that took into account both the block effect and the interaction of blocks and sample plots had higher prediction accuracy than the one with the block effect and population average considered alone. Introducing stand density into the model through dummy variables could further improve its prediction. This implied that the developed method for developing tree CR models of Mongolian oak is promising and can be applied to similar studies for other tree species.

  9. Quantitative Reconstruction of Sulfur Deposition Using a Mixing Model Based on Sulfur Isotope Ratios in Tree Rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Takuya; Tayasu, Ichiro; Takenaka, Chisato

    2015-11-01

    Quantification of sulfur (S) deposition is critical to deciphering the environmental archive of S in terrestrial ecosystems. Here we propose a mixing model that quantifies S deposition based on the S isotope ratio (δS) in tree rings. We collected samples from Japanese cedar ( D. Don) stumps from two sites: one near Yokkaichi City (YOK), which is well known for having the heaviest S air pollution in the world, and one at Inabu-cho (INA) in central Japan, which has been much less affected by air pollution. The δS profiles at both sites are consistent with S air pollution and contributions of anthropogenic S. The minimum value in YOK is lower than the δS values of anthropogenic S or any other possible source. Because the δS in the tree rings is affected by fractionation in the forest ecosystems, we used a mixing model to account for the isotope effects and to distinguish the sources of S. Based on the model results, we infer that the peak of S emissions at YOK occurred sometime between the late 1960s and early 1970s (489 mmol m yr). This estimated value is comparable with the highest reported values in Europe. This is the first quantitative estimate of anthropogenic input of S in forest systems based on δS in tree rings. Our results suggest that tree ring data can be used when monitoring stations of atmospheric S are lacking and that estimates of S deposition using δS in tree rings will advance our understanding of the local-scale S dynamics and the effect of human activities on it.

  10. MARKETING MIX BY BED OCCUPANCY RATIO (BOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Muhith

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bed Occupancy Ratio (BOR in RSI Arafah Mojosari during the last three years are at under ideal rate and the lowest of the three existing hospitals in the area of Mojosari. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship marketing mix with Bed Occupancy Ratio in RSI Arafah Mojosari. Methods: This research uses analytic methods with crossectional approach. Variables in the study is marketing mix and Bed Occupancy Ratio (BOR. The population in this study were all patients hospitalized in the RSI Arafah Mojosari. Samples amounted 44 respondents taken by the Stratified random sampling technique. Data were collected using the questionnaire and analyzed using Fisher's Exact test. Result: The results obtained more than 50% of respondents (59.1% rate well against the marketing mix is developed by the hospital management and the majority of respondents (79.5% are in the treatment room that has a number BOR is not ideal. Fisher Exact test test results obtained probabililty value=0.02<0.05 so that H0 is rejected, which means there is a relationship marketing mix with the Bed Occupancy Ratio in RSI Arafah Mojosari. Discussion: Hospitals which able to develop the marketing mix very well, can attract consumers to use inpatient services at the hospital, with that BOR value will increase as the increased use of inpatient services. Hospital management must be able to formulate a good marketing mix strategy that hospital marketing objectives can be achieved. Conformity between service quality and service rates must be addressed, otherwise it extent of media promotions can attract patients to inpatient services.

  11. Mixing properties of coaxial jets with large velocity ratios and large inverse density ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander Schumaker, S.; Driscoll, James F.

    2012-05-01

    An experimental study was conducted to better understand the mixing properties of coaxial jets as several parameters were systematically varied, including the velocity ratio, density ratio, and the Reynolds number. Diameters of the inner and outer jet were also varied. Coaxial jets are commonly used to mix fluids due to the simplicity of their geometry and the rapid mixing that they provide. A measure of the overall mixing efficiency is the stoichiometric mixing length (Ls), which is the distance along the jet centerline where the two fluids have mixed to some desired concentration, which was selected to be the stoichiometric concentration for H2/O2 and CH4/O2 in this case. For 56 cases, the profiles of mean mixture fraction, rms mixture fraction fluctuations (unmixedness), and Ls were measured using acetone planar laser induced fluorescence diagnostics. Results were compared to three mixing models. The entrainment model of Villermaux and Rehab showed good agreement with the data, indicating that the proper non-dimensional scaling parameter is the momentum flux ratio M. The work extends the existing database of coaxial jet scalar mixing properties because it considers the specific regime of large values of both the velocity ratio and the inverse density ratio, which is the regime in which rocket injectors operate. Also the work focuses on the mixing up to Ls where previous work focused on the mixing up to the end of the inner core. The Reynolds numbers achieved for a number of cases were considerably larger than previous gas mixing studies, which insures that the jet exit boundary conditions are fully turbulent.

  12. 混合线性模型中方差比的置信区间%Exact Confidence Intervals for a Variance Ratio in Mixed Linear Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新民; 李国英

    2004-01-01

    本文利用信仰推断给出了求混合线性模型中方差比的置信区间的方法,结果表明所得区间估计具有不变性.另外,本文给出了两种求区间估计的近似方法.%In this paper, a new method is provided to construct exact confidence intervals for a variance ratio in the unbalanced mixed linear model via fiducial inference. It is shown that the resulted confidence intervals are invariant. Moreover, two approximate procedures are presented, which are very easy to compute.

  13. Modelling regional scale surface fluxes, meteorology and CO2 mixing ratios for the Cabauw tower in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolk, L. F.; Peters, W.; Meesters, A. G. C. A.; Groenendijk, M.; Vermeulen, A. T.; Steeneveld, G. J.; Dolman, A. J.

    2009-01-01

    We simulated meteorology and atmospheric CO2 transport over the Netherlands with the mesoscale model RAMS-Leaf3 coupled to the biospheric CO2 flux model 5PM. The results were compared with meteorological and CO2 observations, with emphasis on the tall tower of Cabauw. An analysis of the coupled exch

  14. Continuous measurements of methane mixing ratios from ice cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Stowasser

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a new, field-deployable technique for continuous, high-resolution measurements of methane mixing ratios from ice cores. The technique is based on a continuous flow analysis system, where ice core samples cut along the long axis of an ice core are melted continuously. The past atmospheric air contained in the ice is separated from the melt water stream via a system for continuous gas extraction. The extracted gas is dehumidified and then analyzed by a Wavelength Scanned-Cavity Ring Down Spectrometer for methane mixing ratios. We assess the performance of the new measurement technique in terms of precision (±0.8 ppbv, 1σ, accuracy (±8 ppbv, temporal (ca. 100 s, and spatial resolution (ca. 5 cm. Using a firn air transport model, we compare the resolution of the measurement technique to the resolution of the atmospheric methane signal as preserved in ice cores in Greenland. We conclude that our measurement technique can resolve all climatically relevant variations as preserved in the ice down to an ice depth of at least 1980 m (66 000 yr before present in the North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling ice core. Furthermore, we describe the modifications, which are necessary to make a commercially available spectrometer suitable for continuous methane mixing ratio measurements from ice cores.

  15. Continuous measurements of methane mixing ratios from ice cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Stowasser

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a new, field-deployable technique for continuous, high-resolution measurements of methane mixing ratios from ice cores. The technique is based on a continuous flow analysis system, where ice core samples cut along the long axis of an ice core are melted continuously. The past atmospheric air contained in the ice is separated from the melt water stream via a system for continuous gas extraction. The extracted gas is dehumidified and then analyzed by a Wavelength Scanned-Cavity Ring Down Spectrometer for methane mixing ratios. We assess the performance of the new measurement technique in terms of precision (±0.8 ppbv, 1 σ, accuracy (±8 ppbv, temporal (ca. 100 s and spatial resolution (ca. 6 cm. Using a firn air transport model, we compare the resolution of the measurement technique to the resolution of the atmospheric methane signal as preserved in ice cores in Greenland. We conclude that our measurement technique can resolve all climatically relevant variations as preserved in the ice down to an ice depth of at least 1980 m (66 000 yr before present in the North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling ice core. Furthermore, we describe the modifications which are necessary to make a commercially available spectrometer suitable for continuous methane mixing ratio measurements from ice cores.

  16. Passive scalar mixing: Analytic study of time scale ratio, variance, and mix rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristorcelli, J. R.

    2006-07-01

    Some very reasonable approximations, consistent with numerical and experimental evidence, were applied to the skewness and palinstrophy coefficients in the dissipation equations to produce a simple closed moment model for mixing. Such a model, first suggested on the grounds of a Taylor microscale self-similarity of the scalar field, was studied numerically by Gonzalez and Fall ["The approach to self-preservation of scalar fluctuation decay in isotropic turbulence," Phys. Fluids 10, 654 (1998)]. Here, in a somewhat old fashioned and physically meaningful style, analytic solutions to the four coupled nonlinear moment equations for mixing by decaying and forced stationary turbulence, are given. Analytic expressions for the variance ⟨c2⟩, the mixing rate ɛc, and the time scale ratio r(t ) are derived and compared in different mixing situations. The solutions show the sensitive dependence on the initial relative length ratio as studied experimentally by Warhaft and Lumley ["An experimental study of the decay of temperature fluctuations in grid-generated turbulence," J. Fluid Mech. 88, 659 (1978)], and simulated by Eswaran and Pope ["Direct numerical simulation of the turbulent mixing of a passive scalar," Phys. Fluids 31, 506 (1988)]. The length scale ratio saturation effect predicted by Durbin ["Analysis of the decay of temperature fluctuations in isotropic turbulence," Phys. Fluids 25, 1328 (1982)], resolving the apparent contradiction with the results of Sreenivasan, Tavoularis, and Corrsin ["Temperature fluctuations and scales in grid generated turbulence," J. Fluid Mech. 100, 597 (1980)] is predicted. For stationary turbulence the solutions indicate, in contradistinction to the power law "stirring" result predicted by a stochastic Lagrangian analysis, that the mixing is asymptotically exponential as shown in the phenomenological analysis of Corrsin ["The isotropic turbulent mixer," AIChE J. 10, 870 (1964)]. That the time scale ratio solution also depends on

  17. Heterotrophs are key contributors to nitrous oxide production in mixed liquor under low C-to-N ratios during nitrification - batch experiments and modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domingo Felez, Carlos; Pellicer i Nàcher, Carles; Petersen, Morten S.

    2017-01-01

    , rigorous experimental design for calibration of autotrophic N2O production from mixed cultures is essential. The proposed N2O production pathways were examined using five alternative process models confronted with experimental data inferred. Individually, the autotrophic and heterotrophic denitrification...... model structures have been proposed without consensus calibration procedures. Here, we present a new experimental design that was used to calibrate AOB-driven N2O dynamics of a mixed culture. Even though AOB activity was favoured with respect to HB, oxygen uptake rates indicated HB activity. Hence...

  18. ADVANCED MIXING MODELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S; Richard Dimenna, R; David Tamburello, D

    2008-11-13

    The process of recovering the waste in storage tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) typically requires mixing the contents of the tank with one to four dual-nozzle jet mixers located within the tank. The typical criteria to establish a mixed condition in a tank are based on the number of pumps in operation and the time duration of operation. To ensure that a mixed condition is achieved, operating times are set conservatively long. This approach results in high operational costs because of the long mixing times and high maintenance and repair costs for the same reason. A significant reduction in both of these costs might be realized by reducing the required mixing time based on calculating a reliable indicator of mixing with a suitably validated computer code. The work described in this report establishes the basis for further development of the theory leading to the identified mixing indicators, the benchmark analyses demonstrating their consistency with widely accepted correlations, and the application of those indicators to SRS waste tanks to provide a better, physically based estimate of the required mixing time. Waste storage tanks at SRS contain settled sludge which varies in height from zero to 10 ft. The sludge has been characterized and modeled as micron-sized solids, typically 1 to 5 microns, at weight fractions as high as 20 to 30 wt%, specific gravities to 1.4, and viscosities up to 64 cp during motion. The sludge is suspended and mixed through the use of submersible slurry jet pumps. To suspend settled sludge, water is added to the tank as a slurry medium and stirred with the jet pump. Although there is considerable technical literature on mixing and solid suspension in agitated tanks, very little literature has been published on jet mixing in a large-scale tank. If shorter mixing times can be shown to support Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) or other feed requirements, longer pump lifetimes can be achieved with associated operational cost and

  19. Mixing ratios of carbon monoxide in the troposphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novelli, P.C.; Steele, L.P. (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (United States)); Tans, P.P. (NOAA, Boulder, CO (United States))

    1992-12-20

    Carbon monoxide (CO) mixing ratios were measured in air samples collected weekly at eight locations. The air was collected as part of the CMDL/NOAA cooperative flask sampling program (Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory, formerly Geophysical Monitoring for Climatic Change, Air Resources Laboratory/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) at Point Barrow, Alaska, Niwot Ridge, Colorado, Mauna Loa and Cape Kumakahi, Hawaii, Guam, Marianas Islands, Christmas Island, Ascension Island and American Samoa. Half-liter or 3-L glass flasks fitted with glass piston stopcocks holding teflon O rings were used for sample collection. CO levels were determined within several weeks of collection using gas chromatography followed by mercuric oxide reduction detection, and mixing ratios were referenced against the CMDL/NOAA carbon monoxide standard scale. During the period of study (mid-1988 through December 1990) CO levels were greatest in the high latitudes of the northern hemisphere (mean mixing ratio from January 1989 to December 1990 at Point Barrow was approximately 154 ppb) and decreased towards the south (mean mixing ratio at Samoa over a similar period was 65 ppb). Mixing ratios varied seasonally, the amplitude of the seasonal cycle was greatest in the north and decreased to the south. Carbon monoxide levels were affected by both local and regional scale processes. The difference in CO levels between northern and southern latitudes also varied seasonally. The greatest difference in CO mixing ratios between Barrow and Samoa was observed during the northern winter (about 150 ppb). The smallest difference, 40 ppb, occurred during the austral winter. The annually averaged CO difference between 71[degrees]N and 14[degrees]S was approximately 90 ppb in both 1989 and 1990; the annually averaged interhemispheric gradient from 71[degrees]N to 41[degrees]S is estimated as approximately 95 ppb. 66 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. ADVANCED MIXING MODELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S; Dimenna, R; Tamburello, D

    2011-02-14

    height from zero to 10 ft. The sludge has been characterized and modeled as micron-sized solids, typically 1 to 5 microns, at weight fractions as high as 20 to 30 wt%, specific gravities to 1.4, and viscosities up to 64 cp during motion. The sludge is suspended and mixed through the use of submersible slurry jet pumps. To suspend settled sludge, water is added to the tank as a slurry medium and stirred with the jet pump. Although there is considerable technical literature on mixing and solid suspension in agitated tanks, very little literature has been published on jet mixing in a large-scale tank. One of the main objectives in the waste processing is to provide feed of a uniform slurry composition at a certain weight percentage (e.g. typically {approx}13 wt% at SRS) over an extended period of time. In preparation of the sludge for slurrying, several important questions have been raised with regard to sludge suspension and mixing of the solid suspension in the bulk of the tank: (1) How much time is required to prepare a slurry with a uniform solid composition? (2) How long will it take to suspend and mix the sludge for uniform composition in any particular waste tank? (3) What are good mixing indicators to answer the questions concerning sludge mixing stated above in a general fashion applicable to any waste tank/slurry pump geometry and fluid/sludge combination?

  1. Mixed additive models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Francisco; Covas, Ricardo

    2016-06-01

    We consider mixed models y =∑i =0 w Xiβi with V (y )=∑i =1 w θiMi Where Mi=XiXi⊤ , i = 1, . . ., w, and µ = X0β0. For these we will estimate the variance components θ1, . . ., θw, aswell estimable vectors through the decomposition of the initial model into sub-models y(h), h ∈ Γ, with V (y (h ))=γ (h )Ig (h )h ∈Γ . Moreover we will consider L extensions of these models, i.e., y˚=Ly+ɛ, where L=D (1n1, . . ., 1nw) and ɛ, independent of y, has null mean vector and variance covariance matrix θw+1Iw, where w =∑i =1 n wi .

  2. DYNAMIC TEACHING RATIO PEDAGOGIC MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jiaying

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines an innovative pedagogic model, Dynamic Teaching Ratio (DTR Pedagogic Model, for learning design and teaching strategy aimed at the postsecondary technical education. The model draws on the theory of differential learning, which is widely recognized as an important tool for engaging students and addressing the individual needs of all students. The DTR model caters to the different abilities, interest or learning needs of students and provides different learning approaches based on a student’s learning ability. The model aims to improve students’ academic performance through increasing the lecturer-to-student ratio in the classroom setting. An experimental case study on the model was conducted and the outcome was favourable. Hence, a large-scale implementation was carried out upon the successful trial run. The paper discusses the methodology of the model and its application through the case study and the large-scale implementation.

  3. The Additive Hazard Mixing Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping LI; Xiao-liang LING

    2012-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the aging and dependence properties in the additive hazard mixing models including some stochastic comparisons.Further,some useful bounds of reliability functions in additive hazard mixing models are obtained.

  4. Linear theory of the response of Na mixing ratio to gravity waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jiyao; JI Qiao; WU Mingliang

    2003-01-01

    The influence of gravity waves on the sodium layer is studied by using a linear photochemical-dynamical coupling gravity wave model. The model includes the background photochemistry and the photochemical reactions in the sodium layer. The amplitude and phase difference of the response of sodium mixing ratio to gravity waves are calculated. The results indicate that the lower part of sodium layer is the most sensitive region responding to gravity waves. The perturbation of sodium mixing ratio is in phase with temperature in the lower part of the layer. However, it is out of phase with temperature fluctuation in the upper part.

  5. Generalized, Linear, and Mixed Models

    CERN Document Server

    McCulloch, Charles E; Neuhaus, John M

    2011-01-01

    An accessible and self-contained introduction to statistical models-now in a modernized new editionGeneralized, Linear, and Mixed Models, Second Edition provides an up-to-date treatment of the essential techniques for developing and applying a wide variety of statistical models. The book presents thorough and unified coverage of the theory behind generalized, linear, and mixed models and highlights their similarities and differences in various construction, application, and computational aspects.A clear introduction to the basic ideas of fixed effects models, random effects models, and mixed m

  6. Changes in monoterpene mixing ratios during summer storms in rural New Hampshire (USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. B. Haase

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Monoterpenes are an important class of biogenic hydrocarbons that influence ambient air quality and are a principle source of secondary organic aerosol (SOA. Emitted from vegetation, monoterpenes are a product of photosynthesis and act as a response to a variety of environmental factors. Most parameterizations of monoterpene emissions are based on clear weather models that do not take into account episodic conditions that can drastically change production and release rates into the atmosphere. Here, the monoterpene dataset from the rural Thompson Farm measurement site in Durham, New Hampshire is examined in the context of a set of known severe storm events. While some storm systems had a negligible influence on ambient monoterpene mixing ratios, the average storm event increased mixing ratios by 0.59 ± 0.21 ppbv, a factor of 93% above pre-storm levels. In some events, mixing ratios reached the 10's of ppbv range and persisted overnight. These mixing ratios correspond to increases in the monoterpene emission rate, ranging from 120 to 1240 g km−2 h−1 compared to an estimated clear weather rate of 116 to 193 g km−2 h−1. Considering the regularity of storm events over most forested areas, this could be an important factor to consider when modeling global monoterpene emissions and their resulting influence on the formation of organic aerosols.

  7. Changes in monoterpene mixing ratios during summer storms in rural New Hampshire (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, K.B.; Jordan, C.; Mentis, E.; Cottrell, L.; Mayne, H.R.; Talbot, R.; Sive, B.C.

    2011-01-01

    Monoterpenes are an important class of biogenic hydrocarbons that influence ambient air quality and are a principle source of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Emitted from vegetation, monoterpenes are a product of photosynthesis and act as a response to a variety of environmental factors. Most parameterizations of monoterpene emissions are based on clear weather models that do not take into account episodic conditions that can drastically change production and release rates into the atmosphere. Here, the ongoing monoterpene dataset from the rural Thompson Farm measurement site in Durham, New Hampshire is examined in the context of a set of known severe storm events. While some storm systems had a negligible influence on ambient monoterpene mixing ratios, the average storm event increased mixing ratios by 0.59 ?? 0.21 ppbv, a factor of 93 % above pre-storm levels. In some events, mixing ratios reached the 10's of ppbv range and persisted overnight. These mixing ratios correspond to increases in the monoterpene emission rate, ranging from 120 to 1240 g km-2 h -1 compared to an estimated clear weather rate of 116 to 193 g km-2 h-1. Considering the regularity of storm events over most forested areas, this could be an important factor to consider when modeling global monoterpene emissions and their resulting influence on the formation of organic aerosols. ?? 2011 Author(s).

  8. Combining tower mixing ratio and community model data to estimate regional-scale net ecosystem carbon exchange by boundary layer inversion over four flux towers in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Xuerui; Lai, Chun-Ta; Hollinger, David Y.; Schauer, Andrew J.; Xiao, Jingfeng; Munger, J. William; Owensby, Clenton; Ehleringer, James R.

    2011-09-01

    We evaluated an idealized boundary layer (BL) model with simple parameterizations using vertical transport information from community model outputs (NCAR/NCEP Reanalysis and ECMWF Interim Analysis) to estimate regional-scale net CO2 fluxes from 2002 to 2007 at three forest and one grassland flux sites in the United States. The BL modeling approach builds on a mixed-layer model to infer monthly average net CO2 fluxes using high-precision mixing ratio measurements taken on flux towers. We compared BL model net ecosystem exchange (NEE) with estimates from two independent approaches. First, we compared modeled NEE with tower eddy covariance measurements. The second approach (EC-MOD) was a data-driven method that upscaled EC fluxes from towers to regions using MODIS data streams. Comparisons between modeled CO2 and tower NEE fluxes showed that modeled regional CO2 fluxes displayed interannual and intra-annual variations similar to the tower NEE fluxes at the Rannells Prairie and Wind River Forest sites, but model predictions were frequently different from NEE observations at the Harvard Forest and Howland Forest sites. At the Howland Forest site, modeled CO2 fluxes showed a lag in the onset of growing season uptake by 2 months behind that of tower measurements. At the Harvard Forest site, modeled CO2 fluxes agreed with the timing of growing season uptake but underestimated the magnitude of observed NEE seasonal fluctuation. This modeling inconsistency among sites can be partially attributed to the likely misrepresentation of atmospheric transport and/or CO2 gradients between ABL and the free troposphere in the idealized BL model. EC-MOD fluxes showed that spatial heterogeneity in land use and cover very likely explained the majority of the data-model inconsistency. We show a site-dependent atmospheric rectifier effect that appears to have had the largest impact on ABL CO2 inversion in the North American Great Plains. We conclude that a systematic BL modeling approach

  9. Relating masses and mixing angles. A model-independent model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollik, Wolfgang Gregor [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Saldana-Salazar, Ulises Jesus [CINVESTAV (Mexico)

    2016-07-01

    In general, mixing angles and fermion masses are seen to be independent parameters of the Standard Model. However, exploiting the observed hierarchy in the masses, it is viable to construct the mixing matrices for both quarks and leptons in terms of the corresponding mass ratios only. A closer view on the symmetry properties leads to potential realizations of that approach in extensions of the Standard Model. We discuss the application in the context of flavored multi-Higgs models.

  10. Discriminative Mixed-Membership Models

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Although mixed-membership models have achieved great success in unsupervised learning, they have not been widely applied to classification problems. In this paper,...

  11. Golden ratio lepton mixing and nonzero reactor angle with $A_5$

    CERN Document Server

    Varzielas, I de Medeiros

    2013-01-01

    We furnish a supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model with a flavour discrete symmetry $A_5$ under which the lepton fields transform as an irreducible triplet. Additional (`flavon') superfields are used to break $A_5$ into a $\\mathbb{Z}_2 \\times \\mathbb{Z}_2$ subgroup in the charged-lepton sector and another $\\mathbb{Z}_2$ subgroup in the neutrino sector. The first column of the resulting lepton mixing matrix is predicted and has entries which are related to the golden ratio. Using the observed $\\theta_{13}$ as input, our model predicts a solar mixing angle $\\theta_{12}$ in very good agreement with experiment; it also predicts a correlation between the atmospheric mixing angle $\\theta_{23}$ and the $CP$-violating Dirac phase $\\delta$.

  12. A ratio model of perceptual transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasi, M

    1999-12-01

    A ratio model of the achromatic transparency of a phenomenal surface on a bipartite background is proposed. The model asserts that transparency corresponds to the evaluation of the ratio of the lightness difference inside the transparent surface to the difference in reference lightness inside the background. It applies to both balanced and unbalanced transparency. The ratio model was compared experimentally with the previous perceptual model of achromatic transparency proposed by Metelli. Each model was tested by comparing the rated with the predicted transparency. Analysis shows that the ratio model provides better predictions of transparency than those provided by Metelli's model.

  13. Improved testing inference in mixed linear models

    CERN Document Server

    Melo, Tatiane F N; Cribari-Neto, Francisco; 10.1016/j.csda.2008.12.007

    2011-01-01

    Mixed linear models are commonly used in repeated measures studies. They account for the dependence amongst observations obtained from the same experimental unit. Oftentimes, the number of observations is small, and it is thus important to use inference strategies that incorporate small sample corrections. In this paper, we develop modified versions of the likelihood ratio test for fixed effects inference in mixed linear models. In particular, we derive a Bartlett correction to such a test and also to a test obtained from a modified profile likelihood function. Our results generalize those in Zucker et al. (Journal of the Royal Statistical Society B, 2000, 62, 827-838) by allowing the parameter of interest to be vector-valued. Additionally, our Bartlett corrections allow for random effects nonlinear covariance matrix structure. We report numerical evidence which shows that the proposed tests display superior finite sample behavior relative to the standard likelihood ratio test. An application is also presente...

  14. A mixed relaxed clock model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Over recent years, several alternative relaxed clock models have been proposed in the context of Bayesian dating. These models fall in two distinct categories: uncorrelated and autocorrelated across branches. The choice between these two classes of relaxed clocks is still an open question. More fundamentally, the true process of rate variation may have both long-term trends and short-term fluctuations, suggesting that more sophisticated clock models unfolding over multiple time scales should ultimately be developed. Here, a mixed relaxed clock model is introduced, which can be mechanistically interpreted as a rate variation process undergoing short-term fluctuations on the top of Brownian long-term trends. Statistically, this mixed clock represents an alternative solution to the problem of choosing between autocorrelated and uncorrelated relaxed clocks, by proposing instead to combine their respective merits. Fitting this model on a dataset of 105 placental mammals, using both node-dating and tip-dating approaches, suggests that the two pure clocks, Brownian and white noise, are rejected in favour of a mixed model with approximately equal contributions for its uncorrelated and autocorrelated components. The tip-dating analysis is particularly sensitive to the choice of the relaxed clock model. In this context, the classical pure Brownian relaxed clock appears to be overly rigid, leading to biases in divergence time estimation. By contrast, the use of a mixed clock leads to more recent and more reasonable estimates for the crown ages of placental orders and superorders. Altogether, the mixed clock introduced here represents a first step towards empirically more adequate models of the patterns of rate variation across phylogenetic trees. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Dating species divergences using rocks and clocks’. PMID:27325829

  15. Effects of specimen size and mix ratio on the nickel migration behavior of landfill waste mixed mortar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, M Aminul

    2017-04-01

    Landfill solid waste management system poses the potential source of silent wide-spread heavy metals like nickel poisoning in the entire ecosystem of nearby environment. Nickel containing demolish solid wastes are disposed at landfill zones to a great extent from where nickel migrate into the food chain through the surface water body as well as groundwater. Consequently, nickel exposure may cause different environmental problems. From this sense, it may be an attractive proposal to recycle the waste as a sustainable product. Herein is presented a long-term feasibility study on potential leaching behavioral pattern of nickel from different sizes and mixes based solidified landfill waste mixed mortar block. The calculated results revealed the larger sizes block entrapped more nickel content than the smaller in relation to the available for leaching. Moreover, the specimen bearing the higher amount of waste resulted the significant nickel immobilization within the crystalline structure. The study observed the fixation results 97.72%-99.35%, 97.08%-99.11%, 96.19%-98.58% and 95.86%-91.6% under the stabilizing agent to fine aggregate mixing combination 1:1, 1:1.5, 1:2 and 1:2.5 respectively where 30% of the total volume of fine aggregate was replaced by landfill waste. Although, mechanical strength test of all surrogate waste forms was also conducted that showed acceptable performance for land disposal, the current research pointing out that constructed green products were non-hazardous except the specimens having mixture ratio 1:2.5 because nickel ion release mechanism was observed under this ratio by surface decay or physical erosion of the monolithic matrices. Furthermore, semi-empirical based dominant leaching mechanism models were justified against the goodness of fit statistical parameters for interpreting the experimental observations of nickel transport profile where the adopted models possessed strong potential for predicting Ni content with high accuracy.

  16. Kriging with mixed effects models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Pollice

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the effectiveness of the use of mixed effects models for estimation and prediction purposes in spatial statistics for continuous data is reviewed in the classical and Bayesian frameworks. A case study on agricultural data is also provided.

  17. Bayesian stable isotope mixing models

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this paper we review recent advances in Stable Isotope Mixing Models (SIMMs) and place them into an over-arching Bayesian statistical framework which allows for several useful extensions. SIMMs are used to quantify the proportional contributions of various sources to a mixtur...

  18. Corporate prediction models, ratios or regression analysis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijnen, E.J.; Wijn, M.F.C.M.

    1994-01-01

    The models developed in the literature with respect to the prediction of a company s failure are based on ratios. It has been shown before that these models should be rejected on theoretical grounds. Our study of industrial companies in the Netherlands shows that the ratios which are used in

  19. Linear mixed models in sensometrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuznetsova, Alexandra

    quality of decision making in Danish as well as international food companies and other companies using the same methods. The two open-source R packages lmerTest and SensMixed implement and support the methodological developments in the research papers as well as the ANOVA modelling part of the Consumer......Today’s companies and researchers gather large amounts of data of different kind. In consumer studies the objective is the collection of the data to better understand consumer acceptance of products. In such studies a number of persons (generally not trained) are selected in order to score products......, texture, sound - depending on the aim of a study. It is a common approach in both studies to consider persons coming from a larger population, which, from the statistical perspective, leads to the use of mixed effects models, where consumers/assessors enter as random effects (Lawless and Heymann, 1997...

  20. The role of grain-size ratio in the mobility of mixed granular beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudt, Franziska; Mullarney, Julia C.; Pilditch, Conrad A.; Huhn, Katrin

    2017-02-01

    The main goal of the study was to understand the effects of grain-size distribution on the stability of beds in the sand-silt range, which is a critical subject for the understanding of geomorphological processes in aquatic environments. Although theoretical models can explain the mobilization of a mixed bed, there is a clear lack in knowledge regarding the stabilizing effect of non-cohesive fine material. To connect existing findings, we analysed bed stability in relation to grain-size distribution in laboratory experiments. Erosion experiments in an annular flume were conducted using beds of different size compositions of spherical glass beads, i.e. a) the grain-size ratio RD = D50,coarse/D50,fine (the relative size of coarse and fine grains; D50 = 39-367 μm) and b) the amount of fines. Several glass-bead combinations with unimodal and bimodal grain-size distributions (RD = 3.9, 5.8, and 9.4) and varying fine fractions (10-40% dry weight) were subjected to increasing flow speeds (0.01-0.19 m s-1). Using acoustic Doppler velocimetry (ADV) and optical backscatter, the flow profile in the vicinity of the bed surface, the changes in bed morphology, and the suspended sediment concentration (SSC) were measured. A new method was developed to evaluate the bed-level changes detected by the ADV as a proxy for the bed mobility. We found different modes of bed mobility depending on the grain-size ratio. For low grain-size ratios, an increase in the fine fraction (to 40%) led to increased bed-level changes during the experiment and the mobilization of the mixed bed at the highest flow speed. For high ratios an increase in fine fraction (to 40%) led to a decrease of bed-level changes and the beds remained stable, i.e. no bed forms developed even at the highest flow speed. Therefore, increasing the amount of fine particles can lead to different modes of behaviour depending on the grain-size ratio. For a bimodal sediment bed with spherical grains under unidirectional flow

  1. Mixed Effects Models for Complex Data

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Lang

    2009-01-01

    Presenting effective approaches to address missing data, measurement errors, censoring, and outliers in longitudinal data, this book covers linear, nonlinear, generalized linear, nonparametric, and semiparametric mixed effects models. It links each mixed effects model with the corresponding class of regression model for cross-sectional data and discusses computational strategies for likelihood estimations of mixed effects models. The author briefly describes generalized estimating equations methods and Bayesian mixed effects models and explains how to implement standard models using R and S-Pl

  2. Quark Mixing and Preon Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senju, H.

    1991-07-01

    Inspired by unique features of the preon-subpreon model, we propose a new scheme for quark mixing. In our scheme, the mass relations m_{d} << m_{s} << m_{b} and m_{u} << m_{c} << m_{t} are naturally understood. The resultant CKM matrix has very nice properties. The fact that |V_{us}| and |V_{cd}| are remarkably large compared with other off-diagonal elements is naturally understood. |V_{cb}| =~ |V_{ts}| is predicted and their small values are explained. |V_{ub}| and |V_{td}| are predicted to be much smaller than |V_{cb}|. The parametrization invariant measure of CP violation, J, is predicted to be |V_{ud}| |V_{ub}| |V_{td}| sin phi. The mass relations and mixings of q', q'', l_{s} and leptons are also discussed.

  3. Aviation NOx-induced CH4 effect: Fixed mixing ratio boundary conditions versus flux boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodayari, Arezoo; Olsen, Seth C.; Wuebbles, Donald J.; Phoenix, Daniel B.

    2015-07-01

    Atmospheric chemistry-climate models are often used to calculate the effect of aviation NOx emissions on atmospheric ozone (O3) and methane (CH4). Due to the long (∼10 yr) atmospheric lifetime of methane, model simulations must be run for long time periods, typically for more than 40 simulation years, to reach steady-state if using CH4 emission fluxes. Because of the computational expense of such long runs, studies have traditionally used specified CH4 mixing ratio lower boundary conditions (BCs) and then applied a simple parameterization based on the change in CH4 lifetime between the control and NOx-perturbed simulations to estimate the change in CH4 concentration induced by NOx emissions. In this parameterization a feedback factor (typically a value of 1.4) is used to account for the feedback of CH4 concentrations on its lifetime. Modeling studies comparing simulations using CH4 surface fluxes and fixed mixing ratio BCs are used to examine the validity of this parameterization. The latest version of the Community Earth System Model (CESM), with the CAM5 atmospheric model, was used for this study. Aviation NOx emissions for 2006 were obtained from the AEDT (Aviation Environmental Design Tool) global commercial aircraft emissions. Results show a 31.4 ppb change in CH4 concentration when estimated using the parameterization and a 1.4 feedback factor, and a 28.9 ppb change when the concentration was directly calculated in the CH4 flux simulations. The model calculated value for CH4 feedback on its own lifetime agrees well with the 1.4 feedback factor. Systematic comparisons between the separate runs indicated that the parameterization technique overestimates the CH4 concentration by 8.6%. Therefore, it is concluded that the estimation technique is good to within ∼10% and decreases the computational requirements in our simulations by nearly a factor of 8.

  4. On the graphical extraction of multipole mixing ratios of nuclear transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezynkina, K.; Lopez-Martens, A.; Hauschild, K.

    2017-02-01

    We propose a novel graphical method for determining the mixing ratios δ and their associated uncertainties for mixed nuclear transitions. It incorporates the uncertainties on both the measured and the theoretical conversion coefficients. The accuracy of the method has been studied by deriving the corresponding probability density function. The domains of applicability of the method are carefully defined.

  5. Online technique for isotope and mixing ratios of CH4, N2O, Xe and mixing ratios of organic trace gases on a single ice core sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Schmitt

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Polar ice cores enclosing trace gas species offer a unique archive to study changes in the past atmosphere and in terrestrial/marine source regions. Here we present a new online technique for ice core and air samples to measure a suite of isotope ratios and mixing ratios of trace gas species on a single small sample. Isotope ratios are determined on methane, nitrous oxide and xenon with reproducibilities for ice core samples of 0.15‰ for δ13C-CH4, 0.22‰ for δ15N-N2O, 0.34 ‰ for δ18O-N2O, and 0.05‰ for δ136Xe. Mixing ratios are determined on methane, nitrous oxide, xenon, ethane, propane, methyl chloride and dichloro-difluoromethane with reproducibilities of 7 ppb for CH4, 3 ppb for N2O, 50 ppt for 136Xe, 70 ppt for C2H6, 70 ppt for C3H8, 20 ppt for CH3Cl, and 2 ppt for CCl2F2. The system consists of a vacuum extraction device, a preconcentration unit and a gas chromatograph coupled to an isotope ratio mass spectrometer. CH4 is combusted to CO2 prior to detection while we bypassed the oven for all other species. The highly automated system uses only ~160 g ice, equivalent to ~16 mL air, which is less than previous methods. This large suite of parameters on a single ice sample is new and helpful to study phase relationships of parameters which are usually not measured together. A multi-parameter dataset is also key to understand in situ production processes of organic species in the ice, a critical issue observable in many organic trace gases. Novel is the determination of xenon isotope ratios using doubly charged Xe ions. The attained precision for δ136Xe is suitable to correct the isotopic ratios and mixing ratios for gravitational firn effects, with the benefit that this information is derived from the same sample. Lastly, anomalies in the Xe mixing ratio, δXe/air, can be used to detect melt layers.

  6. Econometric models for predicting confusion crop ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umberger, D. E.; Proctor, M. H.; Clark, J. E.; Eisgruber, L. M.; Braschler, C. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    Results for both the United States and Canada show that econometric models can provide estimates of confusion crop ratios that are more accurate than historical ratios. Whether these models can support the LACIE 90/90 accuracy criterion is uncertain. In the United States, experimenting with additional model formulations could provide improved methods models in some CRD's, particularly in winter wheat. Improved models may also be possible for the Canadian CD's. The more aggressive province/state models outperformed individual CD/CRD models. This result was expected partly because acreage statistics are based on sampling procedures, and the sampling precision declines from the province/state to the CD/CRD level. Declining sampling precision and the need to substitute province/state data for the CD/CRD data introduced measurement error into the CD/CRD models.

  7. MHD Turbulent Mixing Layers: Equilibrium Cooling Models

    CERN Document Server

    Esquivel, A; Cho, J; Lazarian, A; Leitner, S N

    2006-01-01

    We present models of turbulent mixing at the boundaries between hot (T~10^{6-7} K) and warm material (T~10^4 K) in the interstellar medium, using a three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamical code, with radiative cooling. The source of turbulence in our simulations is a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, produced by shear between the two media. We found, that because the growth rate of the large scale modes in the instability is rather slow, it takes a significant amount of time (~1 Myr) for turbulence to produce effective mixing. We find that the total column densities of the highly ionized species (C IV, N V, and O VI) per interface (assuming ionization equilibrium) are similar to previous steady-state non-equilibrium ionization models, but grow slowly from log N ~10^{11} to a few 10^{12} cm^{-2} as the interface evolves. However, the column density ratios can differ significantly from previous estimates, with an order of magnitude variation in N(C IV)/N(O VI) as the mixing develops.

  8. On the cross-sensitivity between water vapor mixing ratio and stable isotope measurements of in-situ analyzers

    KAUST Repository

    Parkes, Stephen

    2015-04-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing amount of water vapor stable isotope data collected using in-situ instrumentation. A number of papers have characterized the performance of these in-situ analyzers and suggested methods for calibrating raw measurements. The cross-sensitivity of the isotopic measurements on the mixing ratio has been shown to be a major uncertainty and a variety of techniques have been suggested to characterize this inaccuracy. However, most of these are based on relating isotopic ratios to water vapor mixing ratios from in-situ analyzers when the mixing ratio is varied and the isotopic composition kept constant. An additional correction for the span of the isotopic ratio scale is then applied by measuring different isotopic standards. Here we argue that the water vapor cross-sensitivity arises from different instrument responses (span and offset) of the parent H2O isotope and the heavier isotopes, rather than spectral overlap that could cause a true variation in the isotopic ratio with mixing ratio. This is especially relevant for commercial laser optical instruments where absorption lines are well resolved. Thus, the cross-sensitivity determined using more conventional techniques is dependent on the isotopic ratio of the standard used for the characterization, although errors are expected to be small. Consequently, the cross-sensitivity should be determined by characterizing the span and zero offset of each isotope mixing ratio. In fact, this technique makes the span correction for the isotopic ratio redundant. In this work we model the impact of changes in the span and offset of the heavy and light isotopes and illustrate the impact on the cross-sensitivity of the isotopic ratios on water vapor. This clearly shows the importance of determining the zero offset for the two isotopes. The cross-sensitivity of the isotopic ratios on water vapor is then characterized by determining the instrument response for the individual isotopes for a

  9. A model of quark and lepton mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Stephen F. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton,Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-22

    We propose a model of quark and lepton mixing based on the tetrahedral A{sub 4} family symmetry with quark-lepton unification via the tetra-colour Pati-Salam gauge group SU(4){sub PS}, together with SU(2){sub L}×U(1){sub R}. The “tetra-model” solves many of the flavour puzzles and remarkably gives ten predictions at leading order, including all six PMNS parameters. The Cabibbo angle is approximately given by θ{sub C}≈1/4, due to the tetra-vacuum alignment (1,4,2), providing the Cabibbo connection between quark and lepton mixing. Higher order corrections are responsible for the smaller quark mixing angles and CP violation and provide corrections to the Cabibbo and lepton mixing angles and phases. The tetra-model involves an SO(10)-like pattern of Dirac and heavy right-handed neutrino masses, with the strong up-type quark mass hierarchy cancelling in the see-saw mechanism, leading to a normal hierarchy of neutrino masses with an atmospheric angle in the first octant, θ{sub 23}{sup l}=40{sup ∘}±1{sup ∘}, a solar angle θ{sub 12}{sup l}=34{sup ∘}±1{sup ∘}, a reactor angle θ{sub 13}{sup l}=9.0{sup ∘}±0.5{sup ∘}, depending on the ratio of neutrino masses m{sub 2}/m{sub 3}, and a Dirac CP violating oscillation phase δ{sup l}=260{sup ∘}±5{sup ∘}.

  10. Mixed models for predictive modeling in actuarial science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonio, K.; Zhang, Y.

    2012-01-01

    We start with a general discussion of mixed (also called multilevel) models and continue with illustrating specific (actuarial) applications of this type of models. Technical details on (linear, generalized, non-linear) mixed models follow: model assumptions, specifications, estimation techniques

  11. Viability of exact tri-bimaximal, golden-ratio and bimaximal mixing patterns and renormalization-group running effects

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jue

    2016-01-01

    In light of the latest neutrino oscillation data, we examine whether the leptonic flavor mixing matrix can take on an exact form of tri-bimaximal (TBM), golden-ratio (GR) or bimaximal (BM) mixing pattern at a superhigh-energy scale, where such a mixing pattern could be realized by a flavor symmetry, and become compatible with experimental data at the low-energy scale. Within the framework of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM), the only hope for realizing such a possibility is to count on the corrections from the renomalization-group (RG) running. In this work we focus on these radiative corrections, and fully explore the allowed parameter space for each of these mixing patterns. We find that when the upper bound on the sum of neutrino masses $\\Sigma^{}_\

  12. Mixed-mode modelling mixing methodologies for organisational intervention

    CERN Document Server

    Clarke, Steve; Lehaney, Brian

    2001-01-01

    The 1980s and 1990s have seen a growing interest in research and practice in the use of methodologies within problem contexts characterised by a primary focus on technology, human issues, or power. During the last five to ten years, this has given rise to challenges regarding the ability of a single methodology to address all such contexts, and the consequent development of approaches which aim to mix methodologies within a single problem situation. This has been particularly so where the situation has called for a mix of technological (the so-called 'hard') and human­ centred (so-called 'soft') methods. The approach developed has been termed mixed-mode modelling. The area of mixed-mode modelling is relatively new, with the phrase being coined approximately four years ago by Brian Lehaney in a keynote paper published at the 1996 Annual Conference of the UK Operational Research Society. Mixed-mode modelling, as suggested above, is a new way of considering problem situations faced by organisations. Traditional...

  13. Nonlinear trading models through Sharpe Ratio maximization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choey, M; Weigend, A S

    1997-08-01

    While many trading strategies are based on price prediction, traders in financial markets are typically interested in optimizing risk-adjusted performance such as the Sharpe Ratio, rather than the price predictions themselves. This paper introduces an approach which generates a nonlinear strategy that explicitly maximizes the Sharpe Ratio. It is expressed as a neural network model whose output is the position size between a risky and a risk-free asset. The iterative parameter update rules are derived and compared to alternative approaches. The resulting trading strategy is evaluated and analyzed on both computer-generated data and real world data (DAX, the daily German equity index). Trading based on Sharpe Ratio maximization compares favorably to both profit optimization and probability matching (through cross-entropy optimization). The results show that the goal of optimizing out-of-sample risk-adjusted profit can indeed be achieved with this nonlinear approach.

  14. A Mathematical Calculation Model Using Biomarkers to Quantitatively Determine the Relative Source Proportion of Mixed Oils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    It is difficult to identify the source(s) of mixed oils from multiple source rocks, and in particular the relative contribution of each source rock. Artificial mixing experiments using typical crude oils and ratios of different biomarkers show that the relative contribution changes are non-linear when two oils with different concentrations of biomarkers mix with each other. This may result in an incorrect conclusion if ratios of biomarkers and a simple binary linear equation are used to calculate the contribution proportion of each end-member to the mixed oil. The changes of biomarker ratios with the mixing proportion of end-member oils in the trinal mixing model are more complex than in the binary mixing model. When four or more oils mix, the contribution proportion of each end-member oil to the mixed oil cannot be calculated using biomarker ratios and a simple formula. Artificial mixing experiments on typical oils reveal that the absolute concentrations of biomarkers in the mixed oil cause a linear change with mixing proportion of each end-member. Mathematical inferences verify such linear changes. Some of the mathematical calculation methods using the absolute concentrations or ratios of biomarkers to quantitatively determine the proportion of each end-member in the mixed oils are deduced from the results of artificial experiments and by theoretical inference. Ratio of two biomarker compounds changes as a hyperbola with the mixing proportion in the binary mixing model,as a hyperboloid in the trinal mixing model, and as a hypersurface when mixing more than three endmembers. The mixing proportion of each end-member can be quantitatively determined with these mathematical models, using the absolute concentrations and the ratios of biomarkers. The mathematical calculation model is more economical, convenient, accurate and reliable than conventional artificial mixing methods.

  15. Background NO/sub x/ mixing ratios in air masses over the North Atlantic ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helas, G.; Warneck, P.

    1981-08-20

    A chemiluminescence analyzer was used to measure NO/sub x/ mixing ratios at the west coast of Ireland. Two measurement modes allowed the determination of NO and NO/sub x/ = NO+NO/sub 2/. In a third mode using a molybdenum converter, higher signals were observed than was in the second mode indicating that nitrogen compounds other than NO+NO/sub 2/ are registered. They are denoted 'excess NO/sub x/'. The average NO/sub 2/ mixing ratio for a week period was 101 +- 87 pptv. In pure marine air masses identified by means of trajectory calculations, the NO/sub 2/ mixing ratios were lower and exhibited in addition a diurnal variation with nighttime values of 37 +- 6 pptv and average values of 87 +- 47 pptv. Possible origins of the diurnal variation are discussed. For such conditions, the NO mixing ratio generally was unmeasurably small, certainly less than 10 pptv. The excess NO/sub x/ is also higher during the day compared with nighttime values of about 70 pptv. Further studies are required to identify the compounds involved.

  16. Mixed models in cerebral ischemia study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Henrique Dal Molin Ribeiro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The data modeling from longitudinal studies stands out in the current scientific scenario, especially in the areas of health and biological sciences, which induces a correlation between measurements for the same observed unit. Thus, the modeling of the intra-individual dependency is required through the choice of a covariance structure that is able to receive and accommodate the sample variability. However, the lack of methodology for correlated data analysis may result in an increased occurrence of type I or type II errors and underestimate/overestimate the standard errors of the model estimates. In the present study, a Gaussian mixed model was adopted for the variable response latency of an experiment investigating the memory deficits in animals subjected to cerebral ischemia when treated with fish oil (FO. The model parameters estimation was based on maximum likelihood methods. Based on the restricted likelihood ratio test and information criteria, the autoregressive covariance matrix was adopted for errors. The diagnostic analyses for the model were satisfactory, since basic assumptions and results obtained corroborate with biological evidence; that is, the effectiveness of the FO treatment to alleviate the cognitive effects caused by cerebral ischemia was found.

  17. Pressure ratio effects on self-similar scalar mixing of high-pressure turbulent jets in a pressurized volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Adam; Pickett, Lyle; Frank, Jonathan

    2014-11-01

    Many real world combustion devices model fuel scalar mixing by assuming the self-similar argument established in atmospheric free jets. This allows simple prediction of the mean and rms fuel scalar fields to describe the mixing. This approach has been adopted in super critical liquid injections found in diesel engines where the liquid behaves as a dense fluid. The effect of pressure ratio (injection to ambient) when the ambient is greater than atmospheric pressure, upon the self-similar collapse has not been well characterized, particularly the effect upon mixing constants, jet spreading rates, and virtual origins. Changes in these self-similar parameters control the reproduction of the scalar mixing statistics. This experiment investigates the steady state mixing of high pressure ethylene jets in a pressurized pure nitrogen environment for various pressure ratios and jet orifice diameters. Quantitative laser Rayleigh scattering imaging was performed utilizing a calibration procedure to account for the pressure effects upon scattering interference within the high-pressure vessel.

  18. Composite model with large mixing of neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Haba, N

    1999-01-01

    We suggest a simple composite model that induces the large flavor mixing of neutrino in the supersymmetric theory. This model has only one hyper-color in addition to the standard gauge group, which makes composite states of preons. In this model, {\\bf 10} and {\\bf 1} representations in SU(5) grand unified theory are composite states and produce the mass hierarchy. This explains why the large mixing is realized in the lepton sector, while the small mixing is realized in the quark sector. This model can naturally solve the atmospheric neutrino problem. We can also solve the solar neutrino problem by improving the model.

  19. Linear mixed models for longitudinal data

    CERN Document Server

    Molenberghs, Geert

    2000-01-01

    This paperback edition is a reprint of the 2000 edition. This book provides a comprehensive treatment of linear mixed models for continuous longitudinal data. Next to model formulation, this edition puts major emphasis on exploratory data analysis for all aspects of the model, such as the marginal model, subject-specific profiles, and residual covariance structure. Further, model diagnostics and missing data receive extensive treatment. Sensitivity analysis for incomplete data is given a prominent place. Several variations to the conventional linear mixed model are discussed (a heterogeity model, conditional linear mixed models). This book will be of interest to applied statisticians and biomedical researchers in industry, public health organizations, contract research organizations, and academia. The book is explanatory rather than mathematically rigorous. Most analyses were done with the MIXED procedure of the SAS software package, and many of its features are clearly elucidated. However, some other commerc...

  20. Atmospheric mixing ratios of methyl ethyl ketone (2-butanone) in tropical, boreal, temperate and marine environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yáñez-Serrano, A. M.; Nölscher, A. C.; Bourtsoukidis, E.; Derstroff, B.; Zannoni, N.; Gros, V.; Lanza, M.; Brito, J.; Noe, S. M.; House, E.; Hewitt, C. N.; Langford, B.; Nemitz, E.; Behrendt, T.; Williams, J.; Artaxo, P.; Andreae, M. O.; Kesselmeier, J.

    2016-09-01

    Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) enters the atmosphere following direct emission from vegetation and anthropogenic activities, as well as being produced by the gas-phase oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as n-butane. This study presents the first overview of ambient MEK measurements at six different locations, characteristic of forested, urban and marine environments. In order to understand better the occurrence and behaviour of MEK in the atmosphere, we analyse diel cycles of MEK mixing ratios, vertical profiles, ecosystem flux data, and HYSPLIT back trajectories, and compare with co-measured VOCs. MEK measurements were primarily conducted with proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) instruments. Results from the sites under biogenic influence demonstrate that vegetation is an important source of MEK. The diel cycle of MEK follows that of ambient temperature and the forest structure plays an important role in air mixing. At such sites, a high correlation of MEK with acetone was observed (e.g. r2 = 0.96 for the SMEAR Estonia site in a remote hemiboreal forest in Tartumaa, Estonia, and r2 = 0.89 at the ATTO pristine tropical rainforest site in central Amazonia). Under polluted conditions, we observed strongly enhanced MEK mixing ratios. Overall, the MEK mixing ratios and flux data presented here indicate that both biogenic and anthropogenic sources contribute to its occurrence in the global atmosphere.

  1. A Model of Quark and Lepton Mixing and Mass Hierarchy

    CERN Document Server

    Barr, S M

    2015-01-01

    It is shown that an idea proposed in 1996 that relates in a qualitatively correct way the inter-family mass hierarchies of the up quarks, down quarks, charged leptons, and neutrinos, can be combined with a predictive scheme recently proposed for relating quark mixing and neutrino mixing. In the resulting model, the entire flavor structure of the quarks and leptons is expressible in terms of two "master matrices": a diagonal matrix that gives the inter-family mass ratios, and an off-diagonal matrix that controls all flavor mixing.

  2. Quantifying uncertainty in stable isotope mixing models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Paul; Syme, James; Heikoop, Jeffrey; Fessenden-Rahn, Julianna; Perkins, George; Newman, Brent; Chrystal, Abbey E.; Hagerty, Shannon B.

    2015-05-01

    Mixing models are powerful tools for identifying biogeochemical sources and determining mixing fractions in a sample. However, identification of actual source contributors is often not simple, and source compositions typically vary or even overlap, significantly increasing model uncertainty in calculated mixing fractions. This study compares three probabilistic methods, Stable Isotope Analysis in R (SIAR), a pure Monte Carlo technique (PMC), and Stable Isotope Reference Source (SIRS) mixing model, a new technique that estimates mixing in systems with more than three sources and/or uncertain source compositions. In this paper, we use nitrate stable isotope examples (δ15N and δ18O) but all methods tested are applicable to other tracers. In Phase I of a three-phase blind test, we compared methods for a set of six-source nitrate problems. PMC was unable to find solutions for two of the target water samples. The Bayesian method, SIAR, experienced anchoring problems, and SIRS calculated mixing fractions that most closely approximated the known mixing fractions. For that reason, SIRS was the only approach used in the next phase of testing. In Phase II, the problem was broadened where any subset of the six sources could be a possible solution to the mixing problem. Results showed a high rate of Type I errors where solutions included sources that were not contributing to the sample. In Phase III some sources were eliminated based on assumed site knowledge and assumed nitrate concentrations, substantially reduced mixing fraction uncertainties and lowered the Type I error rate. These results demonstrate that valuable insights into stable isotope mixing problems result from probabilistic mixing model approaches like SIRS. The results also emphasize the importance of identifying a minimal set of potential sources and quantifying uncertainties in source isotopic composition as well as demonstrating the value of additional information in reducing the uncertainty in calculated

  3. Constitutive mixed mode model for cracks in concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, J.S.; Poulsen, P.N.; Olesen, J.F.;

    2013-01-01

    The scope of the paper is to set up a constitutive mixed mode model for cracks in concrete. The model is formulated at macro level and includes the most important micro scale effects. An associated plasticity model inspired by the modified Cam clay model is established. The hardening parameters...... is determined from the topographic information and the constitutive model is thereby purely mechanically based. Using the actual topographic description the model is validated against experimental results for mixed mode crack openings....... are based on the standard Mode I tensile softening response and the response for Mode I crushing. The roughness of the crack is included through a topographic description of the crack surface. The constitutive behavior is based on the integration of local contributions. The local mixed mode ratio...

  4. Background NO/x/ mixing ratios in air masses over the North Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helas, G.; Warneck, P.

    1981-08-01

    Measurements of nitrogen oxide concentrations in clean air masses over the North Atlantic Ocean are reported. The measurements were performed on the west coast of Ireland using the NO-O3 chemiluminescence technique with NO2 reduced to NO by chemical converters. The average NO2 mixing ratio for a three-week period is found to be 101 + or 87 pptv, with significantly lower values in pure marine air masses. A diurnal variation is also observed in the marine air, with nighttime values of 37 + or - 6 pptv and average values of 87 + or - 47 pptv. Under such conditions, the NO mixing ratio was immeasurably small, while the excess NO(x), i.e. other nitrogen oxides, is also found to be higher during the day compared to nighttime values of about 70 pptv.

  5. Effects of different mixing ratios on emissions from passenger cars fueled with methanol/gasoline blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hong; Ge, Yunshan; Tan, Jianwei; Yin, Hang; Guo, Jiadong; Zhao, Wei; Dai, Peipei

    2011-01-01

    Regulated and unregulated emissions from four passenger cars fueled with methanol/gasoline blends at different mixing ratios (M15, M20, M30, M50, M85 and M100) were tested over the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were sampled by Tenax TA and analyzed by thermal desorption-gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (TD-GC/MS). Carbonyls were trapped on dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) cartridges and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that total emissions of VOCs and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, p, m, o-xylene) from all vehicles fueled with methanol/gasoline blends were lower than those from vehicles fueled with only gasoline. Compared to the baseline, the use of M85 decreased BTEX emissions by 97.4%, while the use of M15 decreased it by 19.7%. At low-to-middle mixing ratios (M15, M20, M30 and M50), formaldehyde emissions showed a slight increase while those of high mixing ratios (M85 and M100) were three times compared with the baseline gasoline only. When the vehicles were retrofitted with new three-way catalytic converters (TWC), emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), total hydrocarbon (THC), and nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) were decreased by 24%-50%, 10%-35%, and 24%-58% respectively, compared with the cars using the original equipment manufacture (OEM) TWC. Using the new TWC, emissions of formaldehyde and BTEX were decreased, while those of other carbonyl increased. It is necessary that vehicles fueled with methanol/gasoline blends be retrofitted with a new TWC. In addition, the specific reactivity of emissions of vehicles fueled with M15 and retrofitted with the new TWC was reduced from 4.51 to 4.08 compared to the baseline vehicle. This indicates that the use of methanol/gasoline blend at a low mixing ratio may have lower effect on environment than gasoline.

  6. Lagrangian mixing in an axisymmetric hurricane model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Rutherford

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the extension of established Lagrangian mixing measures to make them applicable to data extracted from a 2-D axisymmetric hurricane simulation. Because of the non-steady and unbounded characteristics of the simulation, the previous measures are extended to a moving frame approach to create time-dependent mixing rates that are dependent upon the initial time of particle integration, and are computed for nonlocal regions. The global measures of mixing derived from finite-time Lyapunov exponents, relative dispersion, and a measured mixing rate are applied to distinct regions representing different characteristic feautures within the model. It is shown that these time-dependent mixing rates exhibit correlations with maximal tangential winds during a quasi-steady state, establishing a connection between mixing and hurricane intensity.

  7. Parameterizing radiative transfer to convert MAX-DOAS dSCDs into near-surface box-averaged mixing ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sinreich

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel parameterization method to convert multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS differential slant column densities (dSCDs into near-surface box-averaged volume mixing ratios. The approach is applicable inside the planetary boundary layer under conditions with significant aerosol load, and builds on the increased sensitivity of MAX-DOAS near the instrument altitude. It parameterizes radiative transfer model calculations and significantly reduces the computational effort, while retrieving ~ 1 degree of freedom. The biggest benefit of this method is that the retrieval of an aerosol profile, which usually is necessary for deriving a trace gas concentration from MAX-DOAS dSCDs, is not needed. The method is applied to NO2 MAX-DOAS dSCDs recorded during the Mexico City Metropolitan Area 2006 (MCMA-2006 measurement campaign. The retrieved volume mixing ratios of two elevation angles (1° and 3° are compared to volume mixing ratios measured by two long-path (LP-DOAS instruments located at the same site. Measurements are found to agree well during times when vertical mixing is expected to be strong. However, inhomogeneities in the air mass above Mexico City can be detected by exploiting the different horizontal and vertical dimensions probed by the MAX-DOAS and LP-DOAS instruments. In particular, a vertical gradient in NO2 close to the ground can be observed in the afternoon, and is attributed to reduced mixing coupled with near-surface emission inside street canyons. The existence of a vertical gradient in the lower 250 m during parts of the day shows the general challenge of sampling the boundary layer in a representative way, and emphasizes the need of vertically resolved measurements.

  8. Mixing Characteristics and Bubble Behavior in an Airlift Internal Loop Reactor with Low Aspect Ratio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟鹏; 雍玉梅; 张广积; 杨超; 毛在砂

    2014-01-01

    The present study summarizes the results of macro-and micro-mixing characteristics in an airlift inter-nal loop reactor with low aspect ratio (H/D≤5) using the electrolytic tracer response technique and the method of parallel competing reactions respectively. The micro-mixing has never been investigated in airlift loop reactors. The dual-tip electrical conductivity probe technique is used for measurement of local bubble behavior in the reactor. The effects of several operating parameters and geometric variables are investigated. It is found that the increase in su-perficial gas velocity corresponds to the increase in energy input, liquid circulation velocity and shear rate, decreas-ing the macro-mixing time and segregation index. Moreover, it is shown that top clearance and draft diameter affect flow resistance. However, the bubble redistribution with a screen mesh on the perforated plate distributor for macro-mixing is insignificant. The top region with a high energy dissipation rate is a suitable location for feeding reactants. The analysis of present experimental data provides a valuable insight into the interaction between gas and liquid phases for mixing and improves the understanding of intrinsic roles of hydrodynamics upon the reactor de-sign and operating parameter selection.

  9. Effect of different ratios of cow manure and corn straw on the mixed anaerobic fermentation rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongshan JIANG

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effect of the different ratios on the anaerobic fermentation rate is investigated, and the rate-limiting factors are preliminarily determined, at mesophilic (38±1℃ condition, with anaerobic granular sludge as inoculums, different ratios of cow manure and corn straw are used as substrate for mixed anaerobic fermentation. By measuring daily biogas production, the concentrations of CH4 and CO2 in the marsh gas, TC, the concentration of VFAs and pH value, The results show that under the mixture ratio of 2∶1, the hydrolysis rate constants, cumulative biogas yield and biodegradability CH4 reach their high limits, which are 0.043 7 d-1, 271.93 mL/g and 71.59%, respectively. Moreover, it is found that the concentration of acetic acid is proportional to the amount of cow manure at the beginning (the first day of mixed fermentation, and the concentration of propionicacid is proportional to the amount of corn straw in medium fermentation stage (the fifth day. In addition, rate-limiting step of biogas production is related to the ratio of cow manure and corn in fermentation material. With the increasing of corn straw proportion, on the 1st day, it tends to hydrolysis acidogenesis; from the 2th day to 15th day, it tends to hydrogen-production acetogenisis; and from the 16th day to 30th day, it is hydrolysis acidogenesis. The paper focuses on the relationship between the ratio of cow manure and corn straw and the rate-limiting step for biogas production, which could provide a theoretical and experimental support for improving the efficiency of biogas production in mixed fermentation.

  10. Study of CFU for individual microorganisms in mixed cultures with a known ratio using MBRT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandy, Subir Kumar; Venkatesh, Kv

    2014-01-01

    Determination of metabolically active cell count is an important step in designing, operating and controlling fermentation processes. It's particularly relevant in processes involving mixed cultures, where multiple species contribute to the total growth. The motivation for the current study is to develop a methodology to estimate metabolically active cell counts for the individual species in a mixed culture with approximate equal numbers. Further, the methodology should indicate the presence of a contaminant in short time periods since in the agar plate methods used frequently it takes about 24 h. We present a methodology based on the rate of Methylene blue (MB) reduction to evaluate total count of metabolically active cells. The standard curve relating the slope of MB reduction and CFU of the individual species could be used to measure the metabolic activity of each species in the mixed culture. The slope of MB reduction could also be used to obtain the growth rate of individual species in a mixed culture and that of the total cell count. These measurements were achieved in less than 6 minutes during the growth of the cells. Evaluating the metabolic activity of individual species in a mixed culture is tedious, difficult and time consuming. The Methylene Blue dye Reduction Test (MBRT) presented here is capable of quickly estimating colony forming units (CFU) of individual species in a mixed culture if the ratio of the numbers of cells is known. The method was used to dynamically detect the occurrence of a contaminating microorganism during fermentation. The protocol developed here can be adapted to applications in processes involving mixed cultures.

  11. Statistical Tests for Mixed Linear Models

    CERN Document Server

    Khuri, André I; Sinha, Bimal K

    2011-01-01

    An advanced discussion of linear models with mixed or random effects. In recent years a breakthrough has occurred in our ability to draw inferences from exact and optimum tests of variance component models, generating much research activity that relies on linear models with mixed and random effects. This volume covers the most important research of the past decade as well as the latest developments in hypothesis testing. It compiles all currently available results in the area of exact and optimum tests for variance component models and offers the only comprehensive treatment for these models a

  12. Multivariate generalized linear mixed models using R

    CERN Document Server

    Berridge, Damon Mark

    2011-01-01

    Multivariate Generalized Linear Mixed Models Using R presents robust and methodologically sound models for analyzing large and complex data sets, enabling readers to answer increasingly complex research questions. The book applies the principles of modeling to longitudinal data from panel and related studies via the Sabre software package in R. A Unified Framework for a Broad Class of Models The authors first discuss members of the family of generalized linear models, gradually adding complexity to the modeling framework by incorporating random effects. After reviewing the generalized linear model notation, they illustrate a range of random effects models, including three-level, multivariate, endpoint, event history, and state dependence models. They estimate the multivariate generalized linear mixed models (MGLMMs) using either standard or adaptive Gaussian quadrature. The authors also compare two-level fixed and random effects linear models. The appendices contain additional information on quadrature, model...

  13. Flavor Mixing Phenomenology in Supersymmetric Models

    CERN Document Server

    Rehman, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the flavor mixing effects in supersymmetric models on electroweak precision observables, Higgs boson mass predictions, B-physics observables, quark flavor violating Higgs decays, lepton flavor violating charged lepton decays and lepton flavor violating Higgs decays. The flavor mixing effects are studied in model independent way i.e. by putting off-diagonal entries in the sfermion mass matrix by hand as well as in the minimal flavor violating constrained MSSM, where mixing can originate from CKM matrix in the case of squarks and from PMNS matrix in the case of sleptons. We found that flavor mixing can have large impact to some observables, enabling us to put new constraints on parameter space in supersymmetric models.

  14. The influence of velocity and density ratio on the dynamics of spatially developing mixing layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strykowski, P. J.; Niccum, D. L.

    1992-04-01

    The dynamics of countercurrent mixing is examined in the shear layer of an axisymmetric jet. Experiments were designed to establish conditions of absolute instability in a spatially developing shear layer and to document how the instability influences the jet development. By applying suction around the jet periphery, shear-layer velocity ratios R greater than 1 could be studied. Here, R=(U1-U2)/(U1+U2), where U1 is the velocity of the forward jet stream and U2 is the velocity of the counterflowing stream created by suction. The density ratio S=ρ1/ρ2 of the mixing layer was also varied to determine the stability boundary in the S-R plane. The density of the forward stream ρ1 was increased by adding sulfur hexafluoride to the air jet, which provided density ratios between 1 and 5.1. Hot-wire anemometry and flow visualization revealed that a global transition occurs when conditions of absolute instability are established in the jet shear layers. One consequence of this transition is an abrupt decrease in the jet spread rate. The experimentally determined transition between globally stable and globally unstable flow regimes in the S-R plane agrees quite well with predictions of the convective/absolute instability boundary based on the linear stability theory [Pavithran and Redekopp, Phys. Fluids A 1, 1736 (1989)].

  15. Mixing Characteristics of Coaxial Injectors at High Gas to Liquid Momentum Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strakey, P. A.; Talley, D. G.; Hutt, J. J.

    1999-01-01

    A study of the spray of a swirl coaxial gas-liquid injector operating at high gas to liquid momentum ratios is reported. Mixing and droplet size characteristics of the swirl injector are also compared to a shear coaxial injector, currently being used in the Space Shuttle Main Engine fuel preburner. The injectors were tested at elevated chamber pressures using water as a LOX simulant and nitrogen and helium as gaseous hydrogen simulants. The elevated chamber pressure allowed for matching of several of the preburner injector conditions including; gas to liquid momentum ratio, density ratio and Mach number. Diagnostic techniques used to characterize the spray included; strobe back-light imaging, laser sheet spray imaging, mechanical patternation, and a phase Doppler interferometry. Results thus far indicate that the radial spreading of the swirl coaxial spray is much less than was reported in previous studies of swirl injectors operating at atmospheric back-pressure. The swirl coaxial spray does, however, exhibit a smaller overall droplet size which may be interpreted as an increase in local mixing.

  16. Asymptotic solution of the turbulent mixing layer for velocity ratio close to unity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuera, F. J.; Jimenez, J.; Linan, A.

    1996-01-01

    The equations describing the first two terms of an asymptotic expansion of the solution of the planar turbulent mixing layer for values of the velocity ratio close to one are obtained. The first term of this expansion is the solution of the well-known time-evolving problem and the second, which includes the effects of the increase of the turbulence scales in the stream-wise direction, obeys a linear system of equations. Numerical solutions of these equations for a two-dimensional reacting mixing layer show that the correction to the time-evolving solution may explain the asymmetry of the entrainment and the differences in product generation observed in flip experiments.

  17. Scotogenic model for co-bimaximal mixing

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, P M; Jurciukonis, D; Lavoura, L

    2016-01-01

    We present a scotogenic model, \\textit{i.e.}\\ a one-loop neutrino mass model with dark right-handed neutrino gauge singlets and one inert dark scalar gauge doublet $\\eta$, which has symmetries that lead to co-bimaximal mixing, \\textit{i.e.}\\ to an atmospheric mixing angle $\\theta_{23} = 45^\\circ$ and to a $CP$-violating phase $\\delta = \\pm \\pi/2$, while the mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ remains arbitrary. The symmetries consist of softly broken lepton numbers $L_\\alpha$ ($\\alpha = e,\\mu,\\tau$), a non-standard $CP$ symmetry, and three $Z_2$ symmetries. We indicate two possibilities for extending the model to the quark sector. Since the model has, besides $\\eta$, three scalar gauge doublets, we perform a thorough discussion of its scalar sector. We demonstrate that it can accommodate a Standard Model-like scalar with mass $125\\, \\mathrm{GeV}$, with all the other charged and neutral scalars having much higher masses.

  18. Direct isotope ratio analysis of individual uranium-plutonium mixed particles with various U/Pu ratios by thermal ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Daisuke; Esaka, Fumitaka; Miyamoto, Yutaka; Magara, Masaaki

    2015-02-01

    Uranium and plutonium isotope ratios in individual uranium-plutonium (U-Pu) mixed particles with various U/Pu atomic ratios were analyzed without prior chemical separation by thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). Prior to measurement, micron-sized particles with U/Pu ratios of 1, 5, 10, 18, and 70 were produced from uranium and plutonium certified reference materials. In the TIMS analysis, the peaks of americium, plutonium, and uranium ion signals were successfully separated by continuously increasing the evaporation filament current. Consequently, the uranium and plutonium isotope ratios, except the (238)Pu/(239)Pu ratio, were successfully determined for the particles at all U/Pu ratios. This indicates that TIMS direct analysis allows for the measurement of individual U-Pu mixed particles without prior chemical separation.

  19. Comparison of N2O5 mixing ratios during NO3Comp 2007 in SAPHIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. W. Rollins

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available N2O5 detection in the atmosphere has been accomplished using techniques which have been developed during the last decade. Most techniques use a heated inlet to thermally decompose N2O5 to NO3, which can be detected by either cavity based absorption at 662 nm or by laser-induced fluorescence. In summer 2007, a large set of instruments, which were capable of measuring NO3 mixing ratios, were simultaneously deployed in the atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR in Jülich, Germany. Some of these instruments measured N2O5 mixing ratios either simultaneously or alternatively. Experiments focussed on the investigation of potential interferences from e.g. water vapor or aerosol and on the investigation of the oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds by NO3. The comparison of N2O5 mixing ratios shows an excellent agreement between measurements of instruments applying different techniques (3 cavity ring-down (CRDS instruments, 2 laser-induced fluorescence (LIF instruments. Data sets are highly correlated as indicated by the square of the linear correlation coefficients, R2, which values are larger than 0.96 for the entire data sets. N2O5 mixing ratios well agree within the combined accuracy of measurements. Slopes of the linear regression range between 0.87 and 1.26 and intercepts are negligible. The most critical aspect of N2O5 measurements by cavity ring-down instruments is the determination of the inlet and filter transmission efficiency. Measurements here show that the N2O5 inlet transmission efficiency can decrease in the presence of high aerosol loads, and that frequent filter/inlet changing is necessary to quantitatively sample N2O5 in some environments. The analysis of data also demonstrates that a general correction for degrading filter transmission is not applicable for all conditions encountered during this campaign. Besides the effect of a gradual degradation of the inlet transmission efficiency aerosol exposure, no other interference

  20. Testing temperature on interfacial shear strength measurements of epoxy resins at different mixing ratios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Helga Nørgaard; Thomason, James L.; Minty, Ross;

    2015-01-01

    The interfacial properties as Interfacial Shear Stress (IFSS) in fibre reinforced polymers are essential for further understanding of the mechanical properties of the composite. In this work a single fibre testing method is used in combination with an epoxy matrix made from Araldite 506 epoxy resin...... and triethylenetetramine (TETA) hardener. The IFSS was measured by a microbond test developed for a Thermal Mechanical Analyzer. The preliminary results indicate that IFSS has an inverse dependency of both testing temperature and the mixing ratio of hardener and epoxy resin. Especially interesting was the decreasing...

  1. Boundary Layer CO2 mixing ratio measurements by an airborne pulsed IPDA lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, A. K.; Mao, J.; Abshire, J. B.; Allan, G. R.

    2014-12-01

    Since the primary signature of CO2 fluxes at the surface occurs in the planetary boundary layer (PBL), remote sensing measurements of CO2 that can resolve the CO2 absorption in the PBL separate from the total column are more sensitive to fluxes than those that can only measure a total column. The NASA Goddard CO2 sounder is a pulsed, range-resolved lidar that samples multiple (presently 30) wavelengths across the 1572.335 nm CO2 absorption line. The range resolution and line shape measurement enable CO2 mixing ratio measurements to be made in two or more altitude layers including the PBL via lidar cloud-slicing and multi-layer retrievals techniques. The pulsed lidar approach allows range-resolved backscatter of scattering from ground and cloud tops. Post flight data analysis can be used split the vertical CO2 column into layers (lidar cloud-slicing) and solve for the CO2 mixing ratio in each layer. We have demonstrated lidar cloud slicing with lidar measurements from a flight over Iowa, USA in August 2011 during the corn-growing season, remotely measuring a ≈15 ppm drawdown in the PBL CO2. We will present results using an improved lidar cloud slicing retrieval algorithm as well as preliminary measurements from the upcoming ASCENDS 2014 flight campaign. The CO2 absorption line is also more pressure broadened at lower altitudes. Analyzing the line shape also allows solving for some vertical resolution in the CO2 distribution. By allowing the retrieval process to independently vary the column concentrations in two or more altitude layers, one can perform a best-fit retrieval to obtain the CO2 mixing ratios in each of the layers. Analysis of airborne lidar measurements (in 2011) over Iowa, USA and Four Corners, New Mexico, USA show that for altitudes above 8 km, the CO2 sounder can detect and measure enhanced or diminished CO2 mixing ratios in the PBL even in the absence of clouds. We will present these results as well as preliminary measurements from the upcoming

  2. Comparison of N2O5 mixing ratios during NO3Comp 2007 in SAPHIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, H.; Simpson, W. R.; Apodaca, R. L.; Brauers, T.; Cohen, R. C.; Crowley, J. N.; Dorn, H.-P.; Dubé, W. P.; Fry, J. L.; Häseler, R.; Kajii, Y.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Labazan, I.; Matsumoto, J.; Mentel, T. F.; Nakashima, Y.; Rohrer, F.; Rollins, A. W.; Schuster, G.; Tillmann, R.; Wahner, A.; Wooldridge, P. J.; Brown, S. S.

    2012-11-01

    N2O5 detection in the atmosphere has been accomplished using techniques which have been developed during the last decade. Most techniques use a heated inlet to thermally decompose N2O5 to NO3, which can be detected by either cavity based absorption at 662 nm or by laser-induced fluorescence. In summer 2007, a large set of instruments, which were capable of measuring NO3 mixing ratios, were simultaneously deployed in the atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR in Jülich, Germany. Some of these instruments measured N2O5 mixing ratios either simultaneously or alternatively. Experiments focused on the investigation of potential interferences from, e.g., water vapour or aerosol and on the investigation of the oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds by NO3. The comparison of N2O5 mixing ratios shows an excellent agreement between measurements of instruments applying different techniques (3 cavity ring-down (CRDS) instruments, 2 laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) instruments). Datasets are highly correlated as indicated by the square of the linear correlation coefficients, R2, which values were larger than 0.96 for the entire datasets. N2O5 mixing ratios well agree within the combined accuracy of measurements. Slopes of the linear regression range between 0.87 and 1.26 and intercepts are negligible. The most critical aspect of N2O5 measurements by cavity ring-down instruments is the determination of the inlet and filter transmission efficiency. Measurements here show that the N2O5 inlet transmission efficiency can decrease in the presence of high aerosol loads, and that frequent filter/inlet changing is necessary to quantitatively sample N2O5 in some environments. The analysis of data also demonstrates that a general correction for degrading filter transmission is not applicable for all conditions encountered during this campaign. Besides the effect of a gradual degradation of the inlet transmission efficiency aerosol exposure, no other interference for N2O5

  3. Mixed models theory and applications with R

    CERN Document Server

    Demidenko, Eugene

    2013-01-01

    Mixed modeling is one of the most promising and exciting areas of statistical analysis, enabling the analysis of nontraditional, clustered data that may come in the form of shapes or images. This book provides in-depth mathematical coverage of mixed models' statistical properties and numerical algorithms, as well as applications such as the analysis of tumor regrowth, shape, and image. The new edition includes significant updating, over 300 exercises, stimulating chapter projects and model simulations, inclusion of R subroutines, and a revised text format. The target audience continues to be g

  4. Parametric experimental studies on mixing characteristics within a low area ratio rectangular supersonic gaseous ejector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthick, S. K.; Rao, Srisha M. V.; Jagadeesh, G.; Reddy, K. P. J.

    2016-07-01

    We use the rectangular gaseous supersonic ejector as a platform to study the mixing characteristics of a confined supersonic jet. The entrainment ratio (ER) of the ejector, the non-mixed length (LNM), and potential core length (LPC) of the primary supersonic jet are measures to characterize mixing within the supersonic ejector. Experiments are carried out on a low area ratio rectangular supersonic ejector with air as the working fluid in both primary and secondary flows. The design Mach number of the nozzle (MPD = 1.5-3.0) and primary flow stagnation pressure (Pop = 4.89-9.89 bars) are the parameters that are varied during experimentation. Wall static pressure measurements are carried out to understand the performance of the ejector as well as to estimate the LNM (the spatial resolution is limited by the placement of pressure transducers). Well-resolved flow images (with a spatial resolution of 50 μm/pixel and temporal resolution of 1.25 ms) obtained through Planar Laser Mie Scattering (PLMS) show the flow dynamics within the ejector with clarity. The primary flow and secondary flow are seeded separately with acetone that makes the LNM and LPC clearly visible in the flow images. These parameters are extracted from the flow images using in-house image processing routines. A significant development in this work is the definition of new scaling parameters within the ejector. LNM, non-dimensionalized with respect to the fully expanded jet height hJ, is found to be a linear function of the Mach number ratio (Mach number ratio is defined as the ratio of design Mach number (MPD) and fully expanded Mach number (MPJ) of the primary jet). This definition also provides a clear demarcation of under-expanded and over-expanded regimes of operation according to [MPD/MPJ] > 1 and [MPD/MPJ] < 1, respectively. It is observed that the ER increased in over-expanded mode (to 120%) and decreased in under-expanded mode (to 68%). Similarly, LNM decreased (to 21.8%) in over-expanded mode

  5. Regional and hemispheric influences on measured spring peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) mixing ratios at the Auchencorth UK EMEP supersite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malley, Christopher S.; Cape, J. Neil; Jones, Matthew R.; Leeson, Sarah R.; Coyle, Mhairi; Braban, Christine F.; Heal, Mathew R.; Twigg, Marsailidh M.

    2016-06-01

    This work presents 15-min averaged measurements of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) obtained during spring 2014 (24/04/2014 - 06/05/2014) at the Auchencorth UK EMEP supersite (southeast Scotland). The aim of this analysis was to investigate the conditions producing the distribution of PAN mixing ratios at the supersite in spring 2014. Air mass back trajectories showed the majority of air masses to have spent substantial time over the UK, continental Europe or Scandinavia prior to arrival at Auchencorth. The median and 95th percentile PAN mixing ratios observed were 0.46 ppb and 1.03 ppb, respectively. The median mixing ratio was elevated compared with previous PAN measurements during springtime (April-May) in southeast Scotland (corresponding median mixing ratios April-May 1994-1998: 0.1-0.3 ppb), which is hypothesised to be due to conditions conducive to regional (European) photochemical PAN production. Additionally, PAN mixing ratios during regionally influenced conditions (0.4-1.5 ppb) were substantially more elevated from hemispheric background mixing ratios (0.4-0.6 ppb) than for ozone (O3, regional: 10-45 ppb, hemispheric: 30-40 ppb). PAN and O3 both impact upon vegetation and human health and it is necessary to understand the extent to which hemispheric and regional processes contribute to their abundances in different locations. Regional processes can both increase and decrease PAN and O3 mixing ratios compared to imported hemispheric background mixing ratios. This study concludes that during the measurement period in spring 2014 at the Auchencorth supersite, regional PAN and O3 modifying processes enhanced PAN mixing ratios more than for O3.

  6. Modeling of Salt Solubilities in Mixed Solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiavone-Filho, O.; Rasmussen, Peter

    2000-01-01

    A method to correlate and predict salt solubilities in mixed solvents using a UNIQUAC+Debye-Huckel model is developed. The UNIQUAC equation is applied in a form with temperature-dependent parameters. The Debye-Huckel model is extended to mixed solvents by properly evaluating the dielectric...... constants and the liquid densities of the solvent media. To normalize the activity coefficients, the symmetric convention is adopted. Thermochemical properties of the salt are used to estimate the solubility product. It is shown that the proposed procedure can describe with good accuracy a series of salt...

  7. Modeling of Salt Solubilities in Mixed Solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiavone-Filho, O.; Rasmussen, Peter

    2000-01-01

    A method to correlate and predict salt solubilities in mixed solvents using a UNIQUAC+Debye-Huckel model is developed. The UNIQUAC equation is applied in a form with temperature-dependent parameters. The Debye-Huckel model is extended to mixed solvents by properly evaluating the dielectric...... constants and the liquid densities of the solvent media. To normalize the activity coefficients, the symmetric convention is adopted. Thermochemical properties of the salt are used to estimate the solubility product. It is shown that the proposed procedure can describe with good accuracy a series of salt...

  8. DIFFUSION MODEL OF CREAMY- AND VEGETABLE SPREADS MIXING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Ostrikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary .A mathematical model of the process of mixing cream- and vegetable spread was developed. In modeling the diffusion understanding of the nature of the process were used, allowing escape from the apparatus geometry. After turning on the mixer the mixing process begins. Its duration can be determined by the behavior of the tracer particles introduced into the agitated medium in a predetermined quantity through the free liquid surface within a short period of time. If tracer particles have the same density with the surrounding bulk liquid phase, then the path of movement of the particles and the fluid are identical. The degree of homogeneity of the composition can be stirred calculated by the coefficient of variation, which is identified by the local concentrations of tracer particles in the volume of stirred medium. The task of a one-dimensional particle transport in the plane layer of the mixed liquid is solved for their calculation. The calculated ratios obtained allow us to calculate the particle concentration at any point in the volume being mixed at random times. Based on the experiment effective mixing coefficients are identified and relations for their assessment, depending on the Reynolds number of the mixer in the range studied variations of process are offered. Using the time dependence of the variation coefficient characterizing the homogenity of the system being mixed, it is possible to determine the duration of mixing to obtain the product with the desired uniformity and homogeneity of the product under the definition of a predetermined duration of the mixing process. The variation coefficient %, indicating a sufficiently good uniformity of the spread composition was found for the spread №1, being mixed with a stirrer rotating at a speed of n=150 rev / min, and the dimensionless length of the process Fo =0,0935 for obtaining estimated relations. Using the proposed calculation algorithm one can estimate the homogeneity of the

  9. Cohesive mixed mode fracture modelling and experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walter, Rasmus; Olesen, John Forbes

    2008-01-01

    A nonlinear mixed mode model originally developed by Wernersson [Wernersson H. Fracture characterization of wood adhesive joints. Report TVSM-1006, Lund University, Division of Structural Mechanics; 1994], based on nonlinear fracture mechanics, is discussed and applied to model interfacial cracking...... in a steel–concrete interface. The model is based on the principles of Hillerborgs fictitious crack model, however, the Mode I softening description is modified taking into account the influence of shear. The model couples normal and shear stresses for a given combination of Mode I and II fracture...... curves, which may be interpreted using the nonlinear mixed mode model. The interpretation of test results is carried out in a two step inverse analysis applying numerical optimization tools. It is demonstrated how to perform the inverse analysis, which couples the assumed individual experimental load...

  10. Mean ocean temperature change over the last glacial transition based on atmospheric changes in heavy noble mixing ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereiter, Bernhard; Severinghaus, Jeff; Shackleton, Sarah; Baggenstos, Daniel; Kawamura, Kenji

    2016-04-01

    On paleo-climatic timescales heavy noble gases (Krypton and Xenon) are passively cycled through the atmosphere-ocean system without seeing any significant sink or source. Since the solubility in water of each gas species is characterized by a specific temperature dependency, mixing ratios in the atmosphere change with changing ocean temperatures. In this study, we use this fact to reconstruct mean global ocean temperatures (MOT) over the course of the last glacial transition based on measurements of trapped air in the WAIS Divide ice core. We analyzed 70 ice samples with a recently developed method which determines the isotopic ratios of N2, Ar, Kr (and in some cases also of Xe, though with less precision) and the elemental ratios of Kr/N2, Xe/N2 and Xe/Kr. We use the isotope ratios to correct the elemental ratios for gravitational enrichment in the firn column. The corrected elemental ratios are then used in a simple box model to reconstruct MOT. The three elemental ratio pairs are first interpreted as independent measures of MOT and then combined to a single "best-estimate" MOT record with an average uncertainty of 0.27°C. We find a clear link to Antarctic temperatures and a LGM-Holocene change in MOT of 2.4°C. This value is in good agreement with results from marine sediment cores (which, however, have an uncertainty of 1°C). Our record provides an unprecedented constrain on ocean heat uptake over the last glacial transition and therefore gives new insights in the mechanisms underlying long term ocean heat fluxes. To our knowledge, this is the first time that MOT has been reconstructed in such great detail.

  11. Effect of mixing ratio of food waste and rice husk co-digestion and substrate to inoculum ratio on biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Muhammad Rizwan; Zeshan; Yousaf, Sohail; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Visvanathan, Chettiyappan

    2015-08-01

    Aim of this study was to find out suitable mixing ratio of food waste and rice husk for their co-digestion in order to overcome VFA accumulation in digestion of food waste alone. Four mixing ratios of food waste and rice husk with C/N ratios of 20, 25, 30 and 35 were subjected to a lab scale anaerobic batch experiment under mesophilic conditions. Highest specific biogas yield of 584L/kgVS was obtained from feedstock with C/N ratio of 20. Biogas yield decreased with decrease in food waste proportion. Further, fresh cow dung was used as inoculum to investigate optimum S/I ratio with the selected feedstock. In experiment 2, feedstock with C/N ratio 20 was subjected to anaerobic digestion at five S/I ratios of 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0. Specific biogas yield of 557L/kgVS was obtained at S/I ratio of 0.25. However, VFA accumulation occurred at higher S/I ratios due to higher organic loadings.

  12. Correlating oxygen vacancies and phase ratio/interface with efficient photocatalytic activity in mixed phase TiO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Ranjana [Solar Energy Material Laboratory, Department of Energy, Tezpur University, Tezpur, Assam (India); Samdarshi, S.K., E-mail: drsksamdarshi@rediffmail.com [Centre for Energy Engineering, Central University of Jharkhand, Ranchi, Jharkhand (India)

    2015-04-25

    Graphical abstract: The correlation of interfacial behavior and oxygen vacancies in mixed phase titania nanoparticles on their performance as photocatalyst has been investigated to explain the impact of photoactivity under UV and visible irradiation compared to pristine counterparts. The defects at the junction effectively reduce the band gap as well decrease the carrier recombination to enhance the photocatalytic activity. - Highlights: • Pristine and mixed phases (A/R ratio) TiO{sub 2} synthesized by sol gel route. • Photoactivity variation has been correlated with the changes in the phase ratio. • Enhanced UV and visible activity attributable to oxygen vacancy present at the interface. • Role of A/R ratio and oxygen vacancy in the photoactivity of mixed TiO{sub 2} depicted through a model. - Abstract: The photocatalytic activity is a result of the synergy of a succession of phenomena-photogeneration, separation, and participation of the charge carriers in redox reaction at the catalyst surface. While the extent of photogeneration is assessable in terms of absorption spectrum (band gap), the redox reaction can be correlated to specific surface area. However the respective change in the photocatalytic activity has not been rationally and consistently correlated with the above mentioned parameters. A satisfactory explanation of suppression of recombination based on separation of carriers due to differential mobility/diffusivity in the material phase(s) and/or intrinsic potential barrier exists but its correlation with common identifiable parameter/characteristics is still elusive. This paper attempts to address this issue by correlating the carrier separation with the phase ratio (phase interface) in mixed phase titania and generalizing it with the presence of oxygen vacancy at the phase interface. It essentially appears to complete the quest for identifiable parameters in the sequence of phenomena, which endow a photocatalyst with an efficient activity

  13. Anaerobic co-digestion of kitchen waste and pig manure with different mixing ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hailin; Duan, Na; Lin, Cong; Li, Xue; Zhong, Mingzhu

    2015-07-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of kitchen waste (KW) and pig manure (PM) with seven different PM to KW total solids (TS) ratios of 1:0, 5:1, 3:1, 1:1, 1:3, 1:5 and 0:1 was conducted at mesophilic temperature (35 ± 1 °C) to investigate the feasibility and process performance. The co-digestion of PM and KW was found to be an available way to enhance methane production compared with solo-digestion of PM or KW. The ratio of PM to KW of 1:1 got the highest biodegradability (BDA) of 85.03% and a methane yield of 409.5 mL/gVS. For the co-digestion of KW and PM, there was no obvious inhibition of ammonia nitrogen because it was in an acceptable range from 1380 mg/L to 2020 mg/L in the whole process. However, severe methane inhibition and long lag phase due to the accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) was observed while the KW content was over 50%, and in the lag phase, propionic acid and butyric acid made up the major constituents of the total VFAs. The technical digestion time (T80: the time it takes to produce 80% of the digester's maximum gas production) of the above 7 ratios was 15, 21, 22, 27, 49, 62 and 61 days, respectively. In this study, a mixing ratio of 1:1 for PM and KW was found to maximize BDA and methane yield, provided a short digestion time and stable digestion performance and was therefore recommended for further study and engineering application.

  14. Meteorological factors affecting lower tropospheric ozone mixing ratios in Bangkok, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjai, S.; Buntoung, S.; Nunez, M.; Chiwpreecha, K.; Pattarapanitchai, S.

    2016-09-01

    This paper examines the influence of meteorological conditions in ozone mixing ratio measured at the Thai Meteorological Department (TMD) in Bangkok, Thailand. In addition to surface wind speed and direction, surface ozone concentrations, ozonesondes and CALIPSO Lidar images were collected during the study period extending from 01/01/2014 to 30/04/2015. Surface ozone concentrations show a strong seasonality, with maximum in the dry months of December to April and minimum during the wet southwest (SW) monsoon period extending from May to October. High ozone concentrations are related to biomass burning in the northeast highland regions of the country and neighboring Myanmar and southern China. These precursors travel in a southerly direction towards Bangkok in a well-defined aerosol layer which may be at ground level or at elevated heights. The growth of the daytime mixed layer scavenges some of the upper level aerosols, although local maxima in ozone concentrations at 1-2 km are a frequent feature at Bangkok. There is an evidence of fumigation in the Gulf of Thailand and a return flow via the southerly sea breezes.

  15. A conceptual framework to quantify the influence of convective boundary layer development on carbon dioxide mixing ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pino

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Interpretation of observed diurnal carbon dioxide (CO2 mixing ratios near the surface requires knowledge of the local dynamics of the planetary boundary layer. In this paper, we quantify the relationship between the boundary layer dynamics and the CO2 budget in convective conditions through a newly derived set of analytical equations. From these equations, we are able to quantify how uncertainties in boundary layer dynamical variables or in the morning CO2 distribution in the mixed-layer or in the free atmosphere influence the bulk CO2 mixing ratio.

    We find that the largest uncertainty incurred on the mid-day CO2 mixing ratio comes from the prescribed early morning CO2 mixing ratios in the stable boundary layer, and in the free atmosphere. Errors in these values influence CO2 mixing ratios inversely proportional to the boundary layer depth (h, just like uncertainties in the assumed initial boundary layer depth and surface CO2 flux. The influence of uncertainties in the boundary layer depth itself are one order of magnitude smaller. If we "invert" the problem and calculate CO2 surface exchange from observed or simulated CO2 mixing ratios, the sensitivities to errors in boundary layer dynamics also invert: they become linearly proportional to the boundary layer depth.

    We demonstrate these relations for a typical well characterized situation at the Cabauw tower in the Netherlands, and conclude that knowledge of the temperature and carbon dioxide vertical profiles in the early morning are of vital importance to correctly interpret observed CO2 mixing ratios during midday.

  16. A conceptual framework to quantify the influence of convective boundary layer development on carbon dioxide mixing ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino, D.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.; Peters, W.; Schröter, J.; van Heerwaarden, C. C.; Krol, M. C.

    2012-03-01

    Interpretation of observed diurnal carbon dioxide (CO2) mixing ratios near the surface requires knowledge of the local dynamics of the planetary boundary layer. In this paper, we study the relationship between the boundary layer dynamics and the CO2 budget in convective conditions through a newly derived set of analytical equations. From these equations, we are able to quantify how uncertainties in boundary layer dynamical variables or in the morning CO2 distribution in the mixed-layer or in the free atmosphere (FA) influence the bulk CO2 mixing ratio. We find that the largest uncertainty incurred on the mid-day CO2 mixing ratio comes from the prescribed early morning CO2 mixing ratios in the stable boundary layer, and in the free atmosphere. Errors in these values influence CO2 mixing ratios inversely proportional to the boundary layer depth (h), just like uncertainties in the assumed initial boundary layer depth and surface CO2 flux. The influence of uncertainties in the boundary layer depth itself is one order of magnitude smaller. If we "invert" the problem and calculate CO2 surface exchange from observed or simulated CO2 mixing ratios, the sensitivities to errors in boundary layer dynamics also invert: they become linearly proportional to the boundary layer depth. We demonstrate these relations for a typical well characterized situation at the Cabauw site in The Netherlands, and conclude that knowledge of the temperature and carbon dioxide profiles of the atmosphere in the early morning are of vital importance to correctly interpret observed CO2 mixing ratios during midday.

  17. Multivariate Generalized Linear Mixed Models Using R

    CERN Document Server

    Berridge, Damon M

    2011-01-01

    To provide researchers with the ability to analyze large and complex data sets using robust models, this book presents a unified framework for a broad class of models that can be applied using a dedicated R package (Sabre). The first five chapters cover the analysis of multilevel models using univariate generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs). The next few chapters extend to multivariate GLMMs and the last chapters address more specialized topics, such as parallel computing for large-scale analyses. Each chapter includes many real-world examples implemented using Sabre as well as exercises and

  18. Characterization of amorphous hydrogenated carbon films deposited by MFPUMST at different ratios of mixed gases

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Haiyang Dai; Changyong Zhan; Hui Jiang; Ningkang Huang

    2012-12-01

    Amorphous hydrogenated carbon films (-C:H) on -type (100) silicon wafers were prepared with a middle frequency pulsed unbalanced magnetron sputtering technique (MFPUMST) at different ratios of methane–argon gases. The band characteristics, mechanical properties as well as refractive index were measured by Raman spectra, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), nano-indentation tests and spectroscopic ellipsometry. It is found that the 3 fraction increases with increasing Ar concentration in the range of 17–50%, and then decreases when Ar concentration exceeds 50%. The nano-indentation tests reveal that nano-hardness and elastic modulus of the films increase with increasing Ar concentration in the range of 17–50%, while decreases with increasing Ar concentration from 50% to 86%. The variations in the nano-hardness and the elastic modulus could be interpreted due to different 3 fractions in the prepared -C:H films. The variation of refractive index with wavelength have the same tendency for the -C:H films prepared at different Ar concentrations, they decrease with increasing wavelength from 600 to 1700 nm. For certain wavelengths within 600–1700 nm, refractive index has the highest value at the Ar concentration of 50%, and it is smaller at the Ar concentration of 86% than at 17%. The results given above indicate that ratio of mixed gases has a strong influence on bonding configuration and properties of -C:H films during deposition. The related mechanism is discussed in this paper.

  19. Configuration mixing calculations in soluble models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambiaggio, M. C.; Plastino, A.; Szybisz, L.; Miller, H. G.

    1983-07-01

    Configuration mixing calculations have been performed in two quasi-spin models using basis states which are solutions of a particular set of Hartree-Fock equations. Each of these solutions, even those which do not correspond to the global minimum, is found to contain interesting physical information. Relatively good agreement with the exact lowest-lying states has been obtained. In particular, one obtains a better approximation to the ground state than that provided by Hartree-Fock.

  20. CFD Modeling of Mixed-Phase Icing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lifen; Liu, Zhenxia; Zhang, Fei

    2016-12-01

    Ice crystal ingestion at high altitude has been reported to be a threat for safe operation of aero-engine in recently. Ice crystals do not accrete on external surface because of cold environment. But when they enter the core flow of aero-engine, ice crystals melt partially into droplets due to higher temperature. Air-droplets-ice crystal is the mixed-phase, which will give rise to ice accretion on static and rotating components in compressor. Subsequently, compressor surge and engine shutdowns may occur. To provide a numerical tool to analyze this in detail, a numerical method was developed in this study. The mixed phase flow was solved using Eulerian-Lagrangian method. The dispersed phase was represented by one-way coupling. A thermodynamic model that considers mass and energy balance with ice crystals and droplets was presented as well. The icing code was implemented by the user-defined function of Fluent. The method of ice accretion under mixed-phase conditions was validated by comparing the results simulated on a cylinder with experimental data derived from literature. The predicted ice shape and mass agree with these data, thereby confirming the validity of the numerical method developed in this research for mixed-phase conditions.

  1. Neutrino Mixing Discriminates Geo-reactor Models

    CERN Document Server

    Dye, S T

    2009-01-01

    Geo-reactor models suggest the existence of natural nuclear reactors at different deep-earth locations with loosely defined output power. Reactor fission products undergo beta decay with the emission of electron antineutrinos, which routinely escape the earth. Neutrino mixing distorts the energy spectrum of the electron antineutrinos. Characteristics of the distorted spectrum observed at the earth's surface could specify the location of a geo-reactor, discriminating the models and facilitating more precise power measurement. The existence of a geo-reactor with known position could enable a precision measurement of the neutrino oscillation parameter delta-mass-squared.

  2. O/M RATIO MEASUREMENT IN PURE AND MIXED OXIDE FULES - WHERE ARE WE NOW?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. RUBIN; ET AL

    2000-12-01

    The oxygen-to-metal (O/M) ratio is one of the most critical parameters of nuclear fuel fabrication, and its measurement is closely monitored for manufacturing process control and to ensure the service behavior of the final product. Thermogravimetry is the most widely used method, the procedure for which has remained largely unchanged since its development some thirty years ago. It was not clear to us, however, that this method is still the optimum one in light of advances in instrumentation, and in the current regulatory environment, particularly with regard to waste management and disposal. As part of the MOX fuel fabrication program at Los Alamos, we conducted a comprehensive review of methods for O/M measurements in UO{sub 2}, PuO{sub 2} and mixed oxide fuels for thermal reactors. A concerted effort was made to access information not available in the open literature. We identified approximately thirty five experimental methods that (a) have been developed with the intent of measuring O/M, (b) provided O/M indirectly by suitable reduction of the measured data, or (c) could provide O/M data with suitable data reduction or when combined with other methods. We will discuss the relative strengths and weaknesses of these methods in their application to current routine and small-lot production environment.

  3. On-line determination of ammonia at low pptv mixing ratios in the CLOUD chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Bianchi, F; Mathot, S; Baltensperger, U

    2012-01-01

    A new instrument for the on-line determination of ammonia was developed. Since ammonia is a rather sticky compound, sampling losses were minimised with a new sam- pling device where the ammonia was transferred to the liq- uid phase only 5 mm after the inlet tip. The liquid phase was then analyzed by long pathlength absorption spectrophotom- etry using the Berthelot reaction with phenol and hypochlo- rite as reagents. The measurements were made during the CLOUD3 campaign at CERN where the influence of ammo- nia on the nucleation rate was studied. At stable conditions the detection limit reached with this instrument was 35 pptv (air flow rate of 2 l min − 1 , liquid flow rate of 0.3 ml min − 1 ), although occasionally the instrument was affected by back- ground problems. The range of mixing ratios during this campaign was varied from the background contamination ( < 35 pptv) up to around 2 ppbv. The measured ammonia concentration was correlated with the rate of ammonia in- jected into the chamber, but wi...

  4. Mobile lidar system for measurement of water vapor mixing ratio and ozone number density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, D.

    1988-01-01

    The Water Vapor Lidar was modified and extended to make differential absorption measurements of ozone. Water vapor measurements make use of a weak molecular scattering process known as Raman scattering. It is characterized by a shift in wavelength of the scattered beam of light relative to the incident one. Some of the energy of the incident photon is converted to vibrational or rotational energy within the molecule leaving the scattered photon shifted to a slightly longer wavelength. When performing water vapor measurements, profiles are acquired of water vapor mixing ratio from near the ground to beyond 7 km every 2 minutes. By forming a color composite image of the individual profiles, the spatial and temporal evolution of water vapor is visible with vertical resolution of 75 to 150m and temporal resolution of 2 minutes. The ozone lidar is intended for use as a cross calibration facility for other stationary ozone lidar systems. The ozone measurement employs the technique known as differential absorption. The backscattered laser radiation from two different wavelengths is measured. Successful measurements of 308 nm returns were made from 80 km with an averaging period of 6 hours. Using these data and a standard atmosphere density curve, an ozone number density profile was made which agrees very well with the standard ozone curve between 20 and 40 km.

  5. Simultaneous Engineering of the Substrate Temperature and Mixing Ratio to Improve the Performance of Organic Photovoltaic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyung-Jun; Roh, Jeongkyun; Lee, Changhee

    2016-05-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of the donor/acceptor mixing ratio and the substrate temperature (T(SUB)) during the co-deposition process on the performance of bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic cells. We found that the ratio of dispersed donor islands (less than 10 nm), which hinders charge carrier transport, increased as the donor concentration (C(D)) increased in the film processed at room temperature. By contrast, the donor cluster (larger than 10 nm), providing percolation paths for the carriers, was enlarged in the film containing a high C(D) fabricated at high T(SUB) (70 degrees C). This enhanced phase separation in the mixed layer led to an improved fill factor and a decreased activation energy of the short-circuit current (J(SC)). Therefore, we demonstrated a 23% improvement in the device performance by employing an elevated T(SUB) and optimized mixing ratio in comparison with the device fabricated at room temperature.

  6. Toward Better Modeling of Supercritical Turbulent Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selle, Laurent; Okongo'o, Nora; Bellan, Josette; Harstad, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    study was done as part of an effort to develop computational models representing turbulent mixing under thermodynamic supercritical (here, high pressure) conditions. The question was whether the large-eddy simulation (LES) approach, developed previously for atmospheric-pressure compressible-perfect-gas and incompressible flows, can be extended to real-gas non-ideal (including supercritical) fluid mixtures. [In LES, the governing equations are approximated such that the flow field is spatially filtered and subgrid-scale (SGS) phenomena are represented by models.] The study included analyses of results from direct numerical simulation (DNS) of several such mixing layers based on the Navier-Stokes, total-energy, and conservation- of-chemical-species governing equations. Comparison of LES and DNS results revealed the need to augment the atmospheric- pressure LES equations with additional SGS momentum and energy terms. These new terms are the direct result of high-density-gradient-magnitude regions found in the DNS and observed experimentally under fully turbulent flow conditions. A model has been derived for the new term in the momentum equation and was found to perform well at small filter size but to deteriorate with increasing filter size. Several alternative models were derived for the new SGS term in the energy equation that would need further investigations to determine if they are too computationally intensive in LES.

  7. Introduction to mixed modelling beyond regression and analysis of variance

    CERN Document Server

    Galwey, N W

    2007-01-01

    Mixed modelling is one of the most promising and exciting areas of statistical analysis, enabling more powerful interpretation of data through the recognition of random effects. However, many perceive mixed modelling as an intimidating and specialized technique.

  8. Novel nanofiltration membrane with low concentration of polyvinylchloride: Investigation of solvents’ mixing ratio effect (Dimethyl acetamide/Tetrahydrofuran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bagheripour

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the current research polyvinylchloride (PVC nanofiltration membrane was prepared using Dimethyl acetamide (DMAC/Tetrahydrofuran (THF as solvents via the phase inversion method. The effect of solvents’ mixing ratio (DMAC to THF in the casting solution and also phase separation time in coagulation bath on membrane flux and selectivity were studied. The membrane tensile strength measurement and scanning electron microscope (SEM analysis were also carried out in membrane characterization. The highest membrane selectivity and flux were found at (85:15 solvents’ mixing ratio (DMAC to THF.

  9. Water diffusion in bicelles and the mixed bicelle model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soong, Ronald; Macdonald, Peter M

    2009-01-06

    To test a prediction of the mixed bicelle model, stimulated echo (STE) pulsed field gradient (PFG) (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements of water diffusion between and across bicellar lamellae were performed in positively and negatively magnetically aligned bicelles, composed of mixtures of DHPC (1,2-dihexanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) and DMPC (1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine), as a function of temperature and of the proportion of added short-chain lipid DHPC. (31)P NMR spectra obtained for each situation confirmed that the DHPC undergoes fast exchange between curved and planar regions as per the mixed bicelle model and permitted an estimate of the proportion of the two DHPC populations. Water diffusion across the bicellar lamellae was shown to scale directly with q*, the fraction of edge versus planar phospholipid, rather than simply the ratio q, the global fraction of long-chain to short-chain phospholipid. Geometric modeling of the dependence of water diffusion on q* suggested an upper limit of 400 A for the size of DHPC-rich toroidal perforations within the bicelle lamellae. These findings constitute an independent confirmation of the mixed bicelle model in which DHPC is not confined to edge regions but enjoys, instead, a finite miscibility with DMPC.

  10. Mixing parameterizations in ocean climate modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshonkin, S. N.; Gusev, A. V.; Zalesny, V. B.; Byshev, V. I.

    2016-03-01

    Results of numerical experiments with an eddy-permitting ocean circulation model on the simulation of the climatic variability of the North Atlantic and the Arctic Ocean are analyzed. We compare the ocean simulation quality with using different subgrid mixing parameterizations. The circulation model is found to be sensitive to a mixing parametrization. The computation of viscosity and diffusivity coefficients by an original splitting algorithm of the evolution equations for turbulence characteristics is found to be as efficient as traditional Monin-Obukhov parameterizations. At the same time, however, the variability of ocean climate characteristics is simulated more adequately. The simulation of salinity fields in the entire study region improves most significantly. Turbulent processes have a large effect on the circulation in the long-term through changes in the density fields. The velocity fields in the Gulf Stream and in the entire North Atlantic Subpolar Cyclonic Gyre are reproduced more realistically. The surface level height in the Arctic Basin is simulated more faithfully, marking the Beaufort Gyre better. The use of the Prandtl number as a function of the Richardson number improves the quality of ocean modeling.

  11. Mixing parametrizations for ocean climate modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, Anatoly; Moshonkin, Sergey; Diansky, Nikolay; Zalesny, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    The algorithm is presented of splitting the total evolutionary equations for the turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) and turbulence dissipation frequency (TDF), which is used to parameterize the viscosity and diffusion coefficients in ocean circulation models. The turbulence model equations are split into the stages of transport-diffusion and generation-dissipation. For the generation-dissipation stage, the following schemes are implemented: the explicit-implicit numerical scheme, analytical solution and the asymptotic behavior of the analytical solutions. The experiments were performed with different mixing parameterizations for the modelling of Arctic and the Atlantic climate decadal variability with the eddy-permitting circulation model INMOM (Institute of Numerical Mathematics Ocean Model) using vertical grid refinement in the zone of fully developed turbulence. The proposed model with the split equations for turbulence characteristics is similar to the contemporary differential turbulence models, concerning the physical formulations. At the same time, its algorithm has high enough computational efficiency. Parameterizations with using the split turbulence model make it possible to obtain more adequate structure of temperature and salinity at decadal timescales, compared to the simpler Pacanowski-Philander (PP) turbulence parameterization. Parameterizations with using analytical solution or numerical scheme at the generation-dissipation step of the turbulence model leads to better representation of ocean climate than the faster parameterization using the asymptotic behavior of the analytical solution. At the same time, the computational efficiency left almost unchanged relative to the simple PP parameterization. Usage of PP parametrization in the circulation model leads to realistic simulation of density and circulation with violation of T,S-relationships. This error is majorly avoided with using the proposed parameterizations containing the split turbulence model

  12. O/M ratio measurement in pure and mixed oxide fuels - where are we now?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, J.; Chidester, K.; Thompson, M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The scale-down in the US and Russian nuclear weapons stockpiles has produced a surplus of weapons grade plutonium and highly enriched uranium. The incorporation into mixed-oxide fuel (MOX) is one of the currently favored routes for surplus weapons-grade plutonium. The use of MOX as a nuclear reactor fuel is well established, particularly in Europe and Japan but not in the US. The primary purpose of this investigation was to evaluate existing analytical techniques for their applicability to O/M (oxygen-to-metal ratio) measurements of MOX derived from excess weapons plutonium. The second objective of this investigation was to bring up-to-date the literature on O/M measurement methods, which has not been undertaken in over 20 years. There are several classification schemes that can be used to organize O/M measurement methods. The most popular schemes are based on (a) whether the analysis is performed in solution (wet chemical) or on solid material (dry), and (b) whether the concentration of major constituents are analyzed directly (direct) or are inferred (indirect). Solid state coulometric titration is currently used extensively in studies of phase equilibria, defect chemistry, thermochemical measurement of oxides, including ferrites. Regardless of which indirect method is used (solid state coulometric titration or thermogravimetry), a primary, direct method will also be required for the establishment of the MO{sub 2} reference state, determination of method bias, and periodic calibration. It was recommended that the following direct method be adapted for this purpose: oxygen measurement by inert gas fusion/carbon reduction, and total U, Pu by controlled potential coulometry. In a table are listed the experimental values of accuracy for about 30 O/M methods. (A.C.)

  13. Uncertainty analysis of projections of ozone-depleting substances: mixing ratios, EESC, ODPs, and GWPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J. M. Velders

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The rates at which ozone depleting substances (ODSs are removed from the atmosphere, that is, their lifetimes, are key factors for determining the rate of ozone layer recovery in the coming decades. We present here a comprehensive uncertainty analysis of future mixing ratios of ODSs, levels of equivalent effective stratospheric chlorine (EESC, ozone depletion potentials, and global warming potentials, using, among other information, the 2013 WCRP/SPARC assessment of lifetimes of ODSs and their uncertainties. The year EESC returns to pre-1980 levels, a metric commonly used to indicate a level of recovery from ODS-induced ozone depletion, is 2048 for mid-latitudes based on the lifetimes from the SPARC assessment, which is about 2 yr later than based on the lifetimes from the WMO assessment of 2011. However, the uncertainty in this return to 1980 levels is much larger than the 2 yr change. The year EESC returns to pre-1980 levels ranges from 2039 to 2064 (95% confidence interval for mid-latitudes and 2061 to 2105 for the Antarctic spring. The primary contribution to these ranges comes from the uncertainty in the lifetimes. The earlier years of the return estimates are comparable to a hypothetical scenario in which emissions of ODSs cease in 2014. The later end of the range corresponds to a scenario containing an additional emission of about 7 Mt CFC-11-eq in 2015, which is the same as about 2 times the cumulative anthropogenic emissions of all ODSs from 2014 to 2050, or about 12 times the cumulative HCFC emissions from 2014 to 2050.

  14. CO2 column-averaged volume mixing ratio derived over Tsukuba from measurements by commercial airlines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Matsueda

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Column-averaged volume mixing ratios of carbon dioxide (XCO2 during the period from January 2007 to May 2008 over Tsukuba, Japan, were derived by using CO2 concentration data observed by Japan Airlines Corporation (JAL commercial airliners, based on the assumption that CO2 profiles over Tsukuba and Narita were the same. CO2 profile data for 493 flights on clear-sky days were analysed in order to calculate XCO2 with an ancillary dataset: Tsukuba observational data (by rawinsonde and a meteorological tower or global meteorological data (NCEP and CIRA-86. The amplitude of seasonal variation of XCO2 (Tsukuba observational from the Tsukuba observational data was determined by least-squares fit using a harmonic function to roughly evaluate the seasonal variation over Tsukuba. The highest and lowest values of the obtained fitted curve in 2007 for XCO2 (Tsukuba observational were 386.4 and 381.7 ppm in May and September, respectively. The dependence of XCO2 on the type of ancillary dataset was evaluated. The average difference between XCO2 (global from global climatological data and XCO2 (Tsukuba observational, i.e., the bias of XCO2 (global based on XCO2 (Tsukuba observational, was found to be -0.621 ppm with a standard deviation of 0.682 ppm. The uncertainty of XCO2 (global based on XCO2 (Tsukuba observational was estimated to be 0.922 ppm. This small uncertainty suggests that the present method of XCO2 calculation using data from airliners and global climatological data can be applied to the validation of GOSAT products for XCO2 over airports worldwide.

  15. Neutral B-meson mixing from three-flavor lattice QCD: Determination of the SU(3)-breaking ratio \\xi

    CERN Document Server

    Bazavov, A; Bouchard, C M; DeTar, C; Di Pierro, M; El-Khadra, A X; Evans, R T; Freeland, E D; Gamiz, E; Gottlieb, Steven; Heller, U M; Hetrick, J E; Jain, R; Kronfeld, A S; Laiho, J; Levkova, L; Mackenzie, P B; Neil, E T; Oktay, M B; Simone, J N; Sugar, R; Toussaint, D; Van de Water, R S

    2012-01-01

    We study SU(3)-breaking effects in the neutral B_d-\\bar B_d and B_s-\\bar B_s systems with unquenched N_f=2+1 lattice QCD. We calculate the relevant matrix elements on the MILC collaboration's gauge configurations with asqtad-improved staggered sea quarks. For the valence light-quarks (u, d, and s) we use the asqtad action, while for b quarks we use the Fermilab action. We obtain \\xi=f_{B_s}\\sqrt{B_{B_s}}/f_{B_d}\\sqrt{B_{B_d}}=1.268+-0.063. We also present results for the ratio of bag parameters B_{B_s}/B_{B_d} and the ratio of CKM matrix elements |V_{td}|/|V_{ts}|. Although we focus on the calculation of \\xi, the strategy and techniques described here will be employed in future extended studies of the B mixing parameters \\Delta M_{d,s} and \\Delta\\Gamma_{d,s} in the Standard Model and beyond.

  16. Mixed Models: Combining Incompatible Scalar Models in Any Spacetime Dimension

    CERN Document Server

    Klauder, John R

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, covariant scalar field theory models are either super renormalizable, strictly renormalizable, or nonrenormalizable. The goal of `Mixed Models' is to make sense of sums of these distinct examples, e.g., $g\\varphi^4_3+g'\\varphi^6_3+g''\\varphi^8_3$, which includes an example of each kind for spacetime dimension $n=3$. We show how the several interactions such mixed models have may be turned on and off in any order without any difficulties. Analogous results are shown for $g\\varphi^4_n+g'\\varphi^{138}_n$, etc., for all $n\\ge3$. Different categories hold for $n=2$ such as, e.g., ${g P(\\varphi)_2+g' N\\!P}(\\varphi)_2$, that involve polynomial ($P$) and suitable nonpolynomial ($N\\!P$) interactions, etc. Analogous situations for $n=1$ (time alone) offer simple `toy' examples of how such mixed models may be constructed.

  17. Extinction ratio improvement by pump-modulated four-wave mixing in a dispersion-flattened nonlinear photonic crystal fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, K K; Shu, C; Lin, Chinlon; Bjarklev, A

    2005-10-31

    We demonstrate extinction ratio improvement by using pump-modulated four-wave mixing in a dispersion-flattened nonlinear photonic crystal fiber. A 6-dB improvement in the extinction ratio of a degraded return-to-zero signal has been achieved. A power penalty improvement of 3 dB at 10(-9) bit-error-rate level is obtained in the 10 Gb/s bit-error-rate measurements.

  18. Forecasting Exchange Rates with Mixed Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Maria Badea

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Gaining accuracy in exchange rate forecasting applications provides true benefits for financial activities. Supported today by the advancements in computing power, machine learning techniques provide good alternatives to traditional time series estimation methods. Very approached in time series forecasting are Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs which offer robust results and allow a flexible data manipulation. When integrating both, the “white-box” feature of conventional methods and the complexity of machine learning techniques, forecasting models perform even better in terms of generated errors. In this study, input variables (independent variables are selected using an ARIMA technique and are further employed in differently configured multilayered feed-forward neural networks using Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (BFGS optimization algorithm to perform predictions on EUR/RON and CHF/RON exchange rates. Results in terms of mean squared error highlight good results when using mixed models.

  19. A detailed aerosol mixing state model for investigating interactions between mixing state, semivolatile partitioning, and coagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method for describing externally mixed particles, the Detailed Aerosol Mixing State (DAMS representation, is presented in this study. This novel method classifies aerosols by both composition and size, using a user-specified mixing criterion to define boundaries between compositional populations. Interactions between aerosol mixing state, semivolatile partitioning, and coagulation are investigated with a Lagrangian box model that incorporates the DAMS approach. Model results predict that mixing state affects the amount and types of semivolatile organics that partition to available aerosol phases, causing external mixtures to produce a more size-varying composition than internal mixtures. Both coagulation and condensation contribute to the mixing of emitted particles, producing a collection of multiple compositionally distinct aerosol populations that exists somewhere between the extremes of a strictly external or internal mixture. The selection of mixing criteria has a significant impact on the size and type of individual populations that compose the modeled aerosol mixture.

  20. Nonequilibrium antiferromagnetic mixed-spin Ising model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, Mauricio; Figueiredo, Wagner

    2002-09-01

    We studied an antiferromagnetic mixed-spin Ising model on the square lattice subject to two competing stochastic processes. The model system consists of two interpenetrating sublattices of spins sigma=1/2 and S=1, and we take only nearest neighbor interactions between pairs of spins. The system is in contact with a heat bath at temperature T, and the exchange of energy with the heat bath occurs via one-spin flip (Glauber dynamics). Besides, the system interacts with an external agency of energy, which supplies energy to it whenever two nearest neighboring spins are simultaneously flipped. By employing Monte Carlo simulations and a dynamical pair approximation, we found the phase diagram for the stationary states of the model in the plane temperature T versus the competition parameter between one- and two-spin flips p. We observed the appearance of three distinct phases, that are separated by continuous transition lines. We also determined the static critical exponents along these lines and we showed that this nonequilibrium model belongs to the universality class of the two-dimensional equilibrium Ising model.

  1. Vertical mixing in atmospheric tracer transport models: error characterization and propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gerbig

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Imperfect representation of vertical mixing near the surface in atmospheric transport models leads to uncertainties in modelled tracer mixing ratios. When using the atmosphere as an integrator to derive surface-atmosphere exchange from mixing ratio observations made in the atmospheric boundary layer, this uncertainty has to be quantified and taken into account. A comparison between radiosonde-derived mixing heights and mixing heights derived from ECMWF meteorological data during May–June 2005 in Europe revealed random discrepancies of about 40% for the daytime with insignificant bias errors, and much larger values approaching 100% for nocturnal mixing layers with bias errors also exceeding 50%. The Stochastic Time Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT model was used to propagate this uncertainty into CO2 mixing ratio uncertainties, accounting for spatial and temporal error covariance. Average values of 3 ppm were found for the 2 month period, indicating that this represents a large fraction of the overall uncertainty. A pseudo data experiment shows that the error propagation with STILT avoids biases in flux retrievals when applied in inversions. The results indicate that flux inversions employing transport models based on current generation meteorological products have misrepresented an important part of the model error structure likely leading to biases in the estimated mean and uncertainties. We strongly recommend including the solution presented in this work: better, higher resolution atmospheric models, a proper description of correlated random errors, and a modification of the overall sampling strategy.

  2. A study on the composting of the brewery and night soil mixed sludge (1) : Influence of mixing ratio and agitation period in composting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong-Hyuk [Chonnam National University, Kwangju (Korea); Kim, Dong-Soo [Health and Environment Institute of Kwangju, Kwangju (Korea)

    1999-10-31

    Night soil and brewery sludges usually contain a high concentration of organic matters. A composting study using reactors was carried out for the recycle of brewery wastewater sludge and night soil treatment sludge, which have been landfilled. A good composting process was obtained with a sludge mixing ratio of 1:1 and initial pH had no effect on temperature increase related to microbial activity. The initial C/N ratio of approximately 15 decreased to 13 without the increase in pH. It was found that agitation of one time a week provided the most effective composting process. (author). 15 refs., 3 tabs., 8 figs.

  3. First stars IX -Mixing in extremely metal-poor giants. Variation of the 12C/13C, [Na/Mg] and [Al/Mg] ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Spite, M; Hill, V; Spite, F; François, P; Plez, B; Bonifacio, P; Molaro, P; Depagne, E; Andersen, J; Barbuy, B; Beers, T C; Nordström, B; Primas, F

    2006-01-01

    Extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars preserve a fossil record of the composition of the ISM when the Galaxy formed. It is crucial, however, to verify whether internal mixing has modified their surface. We aim to understand the CNO abundance variations found in some, but not all EMP field giants analysed earlier. Mixing beyond the first dredge-up of standard models is required, and its origin needs clarification.The 12C/13C ratio is the most robust diagnostic of deep mixing, because it is insensitive to the adopted stellar parameters and should be uniformly high in near-primordial gas. We have measured 12C and 13C abundances in 35 EMP giants from high-quality VLT/UVES spectra. Correlations with other abundance data are used to study the depth of mixing.The 12C/13C ratio is found to correlate with [C/Fe] (and Li/H), and clearly anti-correlate with [N/Fe]. Evidence for such deep mixing is observed in giants above log L/Lsolar = 2.6, brighter than in less metal-poor stars, but matching the bump in the luminosity func...

  4. Estimation of surface nitrogen dioxide mixing ratio using the OMI NO2 tropospheric column data measured in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daewon; Lee, Hanlim; Hong, Hyunkee; Park, Junsung

    2017-04-01

    We, for the first time, estimated daily and monthly surface nitrogen dioxide (NO2) volume mixing ratio (VMR) using three empirical models (Model-1, Model-2, and Model-3) with NO2 tropospheric vertical column density (OMI-Trop NO2 VCD) data obtained from Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) in four metropolitan cities: Daejeon, Gwangju, Gyeonggi, and Seoul in South Korea for the period between 2006 and 2014. The performance of those empirical linear models was evaluated via comparison with the surface NO2 VMR data obtained from in-situ measurements(in-situ NO2 VMR) for the two years validation period. Model-1 is a linear regression equation between OMI-Trop NO2 VCD and in-situ NO2 VMR, whereas Model-2 is a linear regression equation which incorporate boundary layer height (BLH) obtained from Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). Model-3 is a multiple linear regression equation. The monthly mean surface NO2 VMRs estimated by Model-2 showed good agreements with those of in-situ measurements. We found that correlation coefficients (R) between the estimated monthly mean surface NO2 VMRs from Model-2 and in-situ NO2 VMRs range from 0.70 to 0.82. The best correlation (R = 0.82) was found in Gwangju, while the poorest correlation (R = 0.70) was found in the western part of Seoul. In terms of the daily NO2 estimation, the highest correlations were found between the daily surface NO2 VMRs estimated by Model-3 and in-situ NO2 VMRs (0.62 < R < 0.90). The best correlation (R = 0.90) was found in the western part of Seoul, while the poorest correlation (R = 0.62) was found in Gwangju. We also discussed the performance of these empirical models for surface NO2 VMR estimation with respect to other statistical data such as root mean square error, mean bias, mean absolute error, and percent difference. This present study shows a possibility of estimating surface NO2 VMR using the satellite measurement.

  5. Estimation of growth parameters using a nonlinear mixed Gompertz model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z; Zuidhof, M J

    2004-06-01

    In order to maximize the utility of simulation models for decision making, accurate estimation of growth parameters and associated variances is crucial. A mixed Gompertz growth model was used to account for between-bird variation and heterogeneous variance. The mixed model had several advantages over the fixed effects model. The mixed model partitioned BW variation into between- and within-bird variation, and the covariance structure assumed with the random effect accounted for part of the BW correlation across ages in the same individual. The amount of residual variance decreased by over 55% with the mixed model. The mixed model reduced estimation biases that resulted from selective sampling. For analysis of longitudinal growth data, the mixed effects growth model is recommended.

  6. Observations of Atmospheric Methane and Carbon Dioxide Mixing Ratios: Tall-Tower or Mountain-Top Stations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamberger, Ines; Oney, Brian; Brunner, Dominik; Henne, Stephan; Leuenberger, Markus; Buchmann, Nina; Eugster, Werner

    2017-02-01

    Mountain-top observations of greenhouse gas mixing ratios may be an alternative to tall-tower measurements for regional scale source and sink estimation. To investigate the equivalence or limitations of a mountain-top site as compared to a tall-tower site, we used the unique opportunity of comparing in situ measurements of methane (CH4 ) and carbon dioxide (CO2 ) mixing ratios at a mountain top (986 m above sea level, a.s.l.) with measurements from a nearby (distance 28.4 km) tall tower, sampled at almost the same elevation (1009 m a.s.l.). Special attention was given to, (i) how local wind statistics and greenhouse gas sources and sinks at the mountain top influence the observations, and (ii) whether mountain-top observations can be used as for those from a tall tower for constraining regional greenhouse gas emissions. Wind statistics at the mountain-top site are clearly more influenced by local flow systems than those at the tall-tower site. Differences in temporal patterns of the greenhouse gas mixing ratios observed at the two sites are mostly related to the influence of local sources and sinks at the mountain-top site. Major influences of local sources can be removed by applying a statistical filter (5{th} percentile) or a filter that removes periods with unfavourable flow conditions. In the best case, the bias in mixing ratios between the mountain-top and the tall-tower sites after the application of the wind filter was {-}0.0005± 0.0010 ppm for methane (September, 0000-0400 UTC) and 0.11± 0.18 ppm for CO2 (February, 1200-1600 UTC). Temporal fluctuations of atmospheric CH4 and CO2 mixing ratios at both stations also showed good agreement (apart from CO2 during summertime) as determined by moving bi-weekly Pearson correlation coefficients (up to 0.96 for CO2 and 0.97 for CH4 ). When only comparing mixing ratios minimally influenced by local sources (low bias and high correlation coefficients), our measurements indicate that mountain-top observations are

  7. Parameterization retrieval of trace gas volume mixing ratios from Airborne MAX-DOAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dix, Barbara; Koenig, Theodore K.; Volkamer, Rainer

    2016-11-01

    We present a parameterization retrieval of volume mixing ratios (VMRs) from differential slant column density (dSCD) measurements by Airborne Multi-AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (AMAX-DOAS). The method makes use of the fact that horizontally recorded limb spectra (elevation angle 0°) are strongly sensitive to the atmospheric layer at instrument altitude. These limb spectra are analyzed using reference spectra that largely cancel out column contributions from above and below the instrument, so that the resulting limb dSCDs, i.e., the column integrated concentration with respect to a reference spectrum, are almost exclusively sensitive to the atmospheric layers around instrument altitude. The conversion of limb dSCDs into VMRs is then realized by calculating box air mass factors (Box-AMFs) for a Rayleigh atmosphere and applying a scaling factor constrained by O4 dSCDs to account for aerosol extinction. An iterative VMR retrieval scheme corrects for trace gas profile shape effects. Benefits of this method are (1) a fast conversion that only requires the computation of Box-AMFs in a Rayleigh atmosphere; (2) neither local aerosol extinction nor the slant column density in the DOAS reference (SCDref) needs to be known; and (3) VMRs can be retrieved for every measurement point along a flight track, thus increasing statistics and adding flexibility to capture concentration gradients. Sensitivity studies are performed for bromine monoxide (BrO), iodine monoxide (IO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), using (1) simulated dSCD data for different trace gas and aerosol profiles and (2) field measurements from the Tropical Ocean tRoposphere Exchange of Reactive halogen species and Oxygenated VOC (TORERO) field experiment. For simulated data in a Rayleigh atmosphere, the agreement between the VMR from the parameterization method (VMRpara) and the true VMR (VMRtrue) is excellent for all trace gases. Offsets, slopes and R2 values for the linear fit of VMRpara over

  8. Cabibbo Mixing in Superstring Derived Standard--like Models

    CERN Document Server

    Faraggi, A E; Faraggi, Alon E.; Halyo, Edi

    1993-01-01

    We examine the problem of generation mixing in realistic superstring derived standard--like models, constructed in the free fermionic formulation. We study the possible sources of family mixing in these models . In a specific model we estimate the Cabibbo angle. We argue that a Cabibbo angle of the correct order of magnitude can be obtained in these models.

  9. On Local Homogeneity and Stochastically Ordered Mixed Rasch Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreiner, Svend; Hansen, Mogens; Hansen, Carsten Rosenberg

    2006-01-01

    Mixed Rasch models add latent classes to conventional Rasch models, assuming that the Rasch model applies within each class and that relative difficulties of items are different in two or more latent classes. This article considers a family of stochastically ordered mixed Rasch models, with ordinal latent classes characterized by increasing total…

  10. POSSIBILISTIC SHARPE RATIO BASED NOVICE PORTFOLIO SELECTION MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupak Bhattacharyya

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the concept of possibilistic risk aversion to propose a new approach for portfolio selection in fuzzy environment. Using possibility theory, the possibilistic mean, variance, standard deviation and risk premium of a fuzzy number are established. Possibilistic Sharpe ratio is defined as the ratio of possibilistic risk premium and possibilistic standard deviation of a portfolio. The Sharpe ratio is a measure of the performance of the portfolio compared to the risk taken. The higher the Sharpe ratio, the better the performance of the portfolio is and the greater the profits of taking risk. New models of fuzzy portfolio selection considering the possibilistic Sharpe ratio, return and skewness of the portfolio are considered. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method is illustrated by numerical example extracted from Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE, India and is solved by multiple objective genetic algorithm (MOGA.

  11. Blind channel identication of nonlinear folding mixing model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Yong; Xu Shangzhi; Ye Zhongfu

    2006-01-01

    Signals from multi-sensor systems are often mixtures of (statistically) independent sources by unknown mixing method. Blind source separation(BSS) and independent component analysis(ICA) are the methods to identify/recover the channels and the sources. BSS/ICA of nonlinear mixing models are difficult problems. For instance, the post-nonlinear model has been studied by several authors. It is noticed that in most cases, the proposed models are always with an invertible mixing. According to this fact there is an interesting question: how about the situation of the non-invertible non-linear mixing in BSS or ICA? A new simple non-linear mixing model is proposed with a kind of non-invertible mixing, the folding mixing, and method to identify its channel, blindly.

  12. Atmospheric carbon diooxide mixing ratios from the NOAA Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory cooperative flask sampling network, 1967-1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conway, T.J.; Tans, P.P. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO (United States); BBoden, T.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-02-01

    This data report documents monthly atmospheric CO{sub 2} mixing ratios and measurements obtained by analyzing individual flask air samples for the NOAA/CMDL global cooperative flask sampling network. Measurements include land-based sampling sites and shipboard measurements covering 14 latitude bands in the Pacific Ocean and South China Sea. Analysis of the NOAA/CMDL flask CO{sub 2} database shows a long-term increase in atmospheric CO{sub 2} mixing ratios since the late 1960s. This report describes how the samples are collected and analyzed and how the data are processed, defines limitations, and restrictions of the data, describes the contents and format of the data files, and provides tabular listings of the monthly carbon dioxide records.

  13. Airborne Laser Absorption Spectrometer Measurements of CO2 Column Mixing Ratios: Source and Sink Detection in the Atmospheric Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menzies Robert T.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The JPL airborne Laser Absorption Spectrometer instrument has been flown several times in the 2007-2011 time frame for the purpose of measuring CO2 mixing ratios in the lower atmosphere. The four most recent flight campaigns were on the NASA DC-8 research aircraft, in support of the NASA ASCENDS (Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons mission formulation studies. This instrument operates in the 2.05-μm spectral region. The Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA method is used to retrieve weighted CO2 column mixing ratios. We present key features of the CO2LAS signal processing, data analysis, and the calibration/validation methodology. Results from flights in various U.S. locations during the past three years include observed mid-day CO2 drawdown in the Midwest, also cases of point-source and regional plume detection that enable the calculation of emission rates.

  14. Airborne Laser Absorption Spectrometer Measurements of CO2 Column Mixing Ratios: Source and Sink Detection in the Atmospheric Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, Robert T.; Spiers, Gary D.; Jacob, Joseph C.

    2016-06-01

    The JPL airborne Laser Absorption Spectrometer instrument has been flown several times in the 2007-2011 time frame for the purpose of measuring CO2 mixing ratios in the lower atmosphere. The four most recent flight campaigns were on the NASA DC-8 research aircraft, in support of the NASA ASCENDS (Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons) mission formulation studies. This instrument operates in the 2.05-μm spectral region. The Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) method is used to retrieve weighted CO2 column mixing ratios. We present key features of the CO2LAS signal processing, data analysis, and the calibration/validation methodology. Results from flights in various U.S. locations during the past three years include observed mid-day CO2 drawdown in the Midwest, also cases of point-source and regional plume detection that enable the calculation of emission rates.

  15. Methods for Retrievals of CO2 Mixing Ratios from JPL Laser Absorption Spectrometer Flights During a Summer 2011 Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, Robert T.; Spiers, Gary D.; Jacob, Joseph C.

    2013-01-01

    The JPL airborne Laser Absorption Spectrometer instrument has been flown several times in the 2007-2011 time frame for the purpose of measuring CO2 mixing ratios in the lower atmosphere. This instrument employs CW laser transmitters and coherent detection receivers in the 2.05- micro m spectral region. The Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) method is used to retrieve weighted CO2 column mixing ratios. We present key features of the evolving LAS signal processing and data analysis algorithms and the calibration/validation methodology. Results from 2011 flights in various U.S. locations include observed mid-day CO2 drawdown in the Midwest and high spatial resolution plume detection during a leg downwind of the Four Corners power plant in New Mexico.

  16. Comparing Water Vapor Mixing Ratio Profiles and Cloud Vertical Structure from Multiwavelength Raman Lidar Retrievals and Radiosounding Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Costa-Surós Montserrat; Stachlewska Iwona S.; Markowicz Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    A study of comparison of water vapor mixing ratio profiles, relative humidity profiles, and cloud vertical structures using two different instruments, a multiwavelength Aerosol-Depolarization-Raman lidar and radiosoundings, is presented. The observations were taken by the lidar located in Warsaw center and the radiosoundings located about 30km to the North in Legionowo (Poland). We compared the ground-based remote sensing technology with in-situ method in order to improve knowledge about wate...

  17. A comparison of surface NO2 mixing ratios and total column observations at a South African site

    OpenAIRE

    Josipovic, Micky; Burger, Roelof P.; Thompson, Anne M.; Beukes, Johan P.; Zyl, Pieter G.; Venter, Andrew D.; Jaars, Kerneels; Laakso, Lauri

    2014-01-01

    The total column density nitrogen dioxide (NO2) retrievals collated by a ground-based sun-tracking spectrometer (Pandora/GSFC) and the satellite-borne (Aura) Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) were compared to the volume mixing ratios measured by a ground-based gas-analyser at Welgegund, North-West University (NWU) atmospheric monitoring station (Potchefstroom, South Africa). An assessment of the comparability between columnar and surface NO2 measurements was performed. The c...

  18. Retrieval of water vapor mixing ratio from a multiple channel Raman-scatter lidar using an optimal estimation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sica, R J; Haefele, A

    2016-02-01

    Lidar measurements of the atmospheric water vapor mixing ratio provide an excellent complement to radiosoundings and passive, ground-based remote sensors. Lidars are now routinely used that can make high spatial-temporal resolution measurements of water vapor from the surface to the stratosphere. Many of these systems can operate during the day and night, with operation only limited by clouds thick enough to significantly attenuate the laser beam. To enhance the value of these measurements for weather and climate studies, this paper presents an optimal estimation method (OEM) to retrieve the water vapor mixing ratio, aerosol optical depth profile, Ångstrom exponent, lidar constants, detector dead times, and measurement backgrounds from multichannel vibrational Raman-scatter lidars. The OEM retrieval provides the systematic uncertainties due to the overlap function, calibration factor, air density and Rayleigh-scatter cross sections, in addition to the random uncertainties of the retrieval due to measurement noise. The OEM also gives the vertical resolution of the retrieval as a function of height, as well as the height to which the contribution of the a priori is small. The OEM is applied to measurements made by the Meteoswiss Raman Lidar for Meteorological Observations (RALMO) in the day and night for clear and cloudy conditions. The retrieved water vapor mixing ratio is in excellent agreement with both the traditional lidar retrieval method and coincident radiosoundings.

  19. 3D Property Modeling of Void Ratio by Cokriging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Lingqing; Pan Mao; Cheng Qiuming

    2008-01-01

    Void ratio measures compactness of ground soil in geotechnical engineering. When samples are collected in certain area for mapping void ratios, other relevant types of properties such as water content may be also analyzed. To map the spatial distribution of void ratio in the area based on these types of point, observation data interpolation is often needed. Owing to the variance of sampling density along the horizontal and vertical directions, special consideration is required to handle anisotropy of estimator. 3D property modeling aims at predicting the overall distribution of property values from limited samples, and geostatistical method can he employed naturally here because they help to minimize the mean square error of estimation. To construct 3D property model of void ratio, cokriging was used considering its mutual correlation with water content, which is another important soil parameter. Moreover, K-D tree was adopted to organize the samples to accelerate neighbor query in 3D space during the above modeling process. At last, spatial configuration of void ratio distribution in an engineering body was modeled through 3D visualization, which provides important information for civil engineering purpose.

  20. Nonlinearity detection in hyperspectral images using a polynomial post-nonlinear mixing model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Yoann; Dobigeon, Nicolas; Tourneret, Jean-Yves

    2013-04-01

    This paper studies a nonlinear mixing model for hyperspectral image unmixing and nonlinearity detection. The proposed model assumes that the pixel reflectances are nonlinear functions of pure spectral components contaminated by an additive white Gaussian noise. These nonlinear functions are approximated by polynomials leading to a polynomial post-nonlinear mixing model. We have shown in a previous paper that the parameters involved in the resulting model can be estimated using least squares methods. A generalized likelihood ratio test based on the estimator of the nonlinearity parameter is proposed to decide whether a pixel of the image results from the commonly used linear mixing model or from a more general nonlinear mixing model. To compute the test statistic associated with the nonlinearity detection, we propose to approximate the variance of the estimated nonlinearity parameter by its constrained Cramér-Rao bound. The performance of the detection strategy is evaluated via simulations conducted on synthetic and real data. More precisely, synthetic data have been generated according to the standard linear mixing model and three nonlinear models from the literature. The real data investigated in this study are extracted from the Cuprite image, which shows that some minerals seem to be nonlinearly mixed in this image. Finally, it is interesting to note that the estimated abundance maps obtained with the post-nonlinear mixing model are in good agreement with results obtained in previous studies.

  1. Nonlinear Mixed-Effects Models for Repairable Systems Reliability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Fu-rong; JIANG Zhi-bin; KUO Way; Suk Joo BAE

    2007-01-01

    Mixed-effects models, also called random-effects models, are a regression type of analysis which enables the analyst to not only describe the trend over time within each subject, but also to describe the variation among different subjects. Nonlinear mixed-effects models provide a powerful and flexible tool for handling the unbalanced count data. In this paper, nonlinear mixed-effects models are used to analyze the failure data from a repairable system with multiple copies. By using this type of models, statistical inferences about the population and all copies can be made when accounting for copy-to-copy variance. Results of fitting nonlinear mixed-effects models to nine failure-data sets show that the nonlinear mixed-effects models provide a useful tool for analyzing the failure data from multi-copy repairable systems.

  2. Stability of earthquake clustering models: Criticality and branching ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Jiancang; Werner, Maximilian J.; Harte, David S.

    2013-12-01

    We study the stability conditions of a class of branching processes prominent in the analysis and modeling of seismicity. This class includes the epidemic-type aftershock sequence (ETAS) model as a special case, but more generally comprises models in which the magnitude distribution of direct offspring depends on the magnitude of the progenitor, such as the branching aftershock sequence (BASS) model and another recently proposed branching model based on a dynamic scaling hypothesis. These stability conditions are closely related to the concepts of the criticality parameter and the branching ratio. The criticality parameter summarizes the asymptotic behavior of the population after sufficiently many generations, determined by the maximum eigenvalue of the transition equations. The branching ratio is defined by the proportion of triggered events in all the events. Based on the results for the generalized case, we show that the branching ratio of the ETAS model is identical to its criticality parameter because its magnitude density is separable from the full intensity. More generally, however, these two values differ and thus place separate conditions on model stability. As an illustration of the difference and of the importance of the stability conditions, we employ a version of the BASS model, reformulated to ensure the possibility of stationarity. In addition, we analyze the magnitude distributions of successive generations of the BASS model via analytical and numerical methods, and find that the compound density differs substantially from a Gutenberg-Richter distribution, unless the process is essentially subcritical (branching ratio less than 1) or the magnitude dependence between the parent event and the direct offspring is weak.

  3. Stability of earthquake clustering models: criticality and branching ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Jiancang; Werner, Maximilian J; Harte, David S

    2013-12-01

    We study the stability conditions of a class of branching processes prominent in the analysis and modeling of seismicity. This class includes the epidemic-type aftershock sequence (ETAS) model as a special case, but more generally comprises models in which the magnitude distribution of direct offspring depends on the magnitude of the progenitor, such as the branching aftershock sequence (BASS) model and another recently proposed branching model based on a dynamic scaling hypothesis. These stability conditions are closely related to the concepts of the criticality parameter and the branching ratio. The criticality parameter summarizes the asymptotic behavior of the population after sufficiently many generations, determined by the maximum eigenvalue of the transition equations. The branching ratio is defined by the proportion of triggered events in all the events. Based on the results for the generalized case, we show that the branching ratio of the ETAS model is identical to its criticality parameter because its magnitude density is separable from the full intensity. More generally, however, these two values differ and thus place separate conditions on model stability. As an illustration of the difference and of the importance of the stability conditions, we employ a version of the BASS model, reformulated to ensure the possibility of stationarity. In addition, we analyze the magnitude distributions of successive generations of the BASS model via analytical and numerical methods, and find that the compound density differs substantially from a Gutenberg-Richter distribution, unless the process is essentially subcritical (branching ratio less than 1) or the magnitude dependence between the parent event and the direct offspring is weak.

  4. Inference of ICF implosion core mix using experimental data and theoretical mix modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherrill, Leslie Welser [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Haynes, Donald A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cooley, James H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sherrill, Manolo E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mancini, Roberto C [UNR; Tommasini, Riccardo [LLNL; Golovkin, Igor E [PRISM COMP. SCIENCES; Haan, Steven W [LLNL

    2009-01-01

    The mixing between fuel and shell materials in Inertial Confinement Fusion (lCF) implosion cores is a current topic of interest. The goal of this work was to design direct-drive ICF experiments which have varying levels of mix, and subsequently to extract information on mixing directly from the experimental data using spectroscopic techniques. The experimental design was accomplished using hydrodynamic simulations in conjunction with Haan's saturation model, which was used to predict the mix levels of candidate experimental configurations. These theoretical predictions were then compared to the mixing information which was extracted from the experimental data, and it was found that Haan's mix model predicted trends in the width of the mix layer as a function of initial shell thickness. These results contribute to an assessment of the range of validity and predictive capability of the Haan saturation model, as well as increasing confidence in the methods used to extract mixing information from experimental data.

  5. Particle multiplicities and particle ratios in excluded volume model

    CERN Document Server

    Mishra, M

    2008-01-01

    One of the most surprising results is to find that a consistent description of all the experimental results on particle multiplicities and particle ratios obtained from the lowest AGS to the highest RHIC energies is possible within the framework of a thermal statistical model. We propose here a thermodynamically consistent excluded-volume model involving an interacting multi-component hadron gas. We find that the energy dependence of the total multiplicities of strange and non-strange hadrons obtained in this model agrees closely with the experimental results. It indicates that the freeze out volume of the fireball is uniformly the same for all the particles. We have also compared the variation of the particle ratios such as $/, /, K^{-}/K^{+}, \\bar{p}/p, \\bar{\\Lambda}/\\Lambda, \\bar{\\Xi}/\\Xi, \\bar{\\Omega}/\\Omega, /, /, /$ and $/$ with respect to the center-of-mass energy as predicted by our model with the recent experimental data.

  6. A Note on the Identifiability of Generalized Linear Mixed Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Labouriau, Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    I present here a simple proof that, under general regularity conditions, the standard parametrization of generalized linear mixed model is identifiable. The proof is based on the assumptions of generalized linear mixed models on the first and second order moments and some general mild regularity ...... conditions, and, therefore, is extensible to quasi-likelihood based generalized linear models. In particular, binomial and Poisson mixed models with dispersion parameter are identifiable when equipped with the standard parametrization......I present here a simple proof that, under general regularity conditions, the standard parametrization of generalized linear mixed model is identifiable. The proof is based on the assumptions of generalized linear mixed models on the first and second order moments and some general mild regularity...

  7. Simulation Modeling and Analysis of Operator-Machine Ratio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Based on a simulation model of a semiconductor manufacturer, operator-machine ratio (OMR) analysis is made using work study and time study. Through sensitivity analysis, it is found that labor utilization decreases with the increase of lot size.Meanwhile, it is able to identify that the OMR for this company should be improved from 1∶3 to 1∶5. An application result shows that the proposed model can effectively improve the OMR by 33%.

  8. The influence of ionic strength and mixing ratio on the colloidal stability of PDAC/PSS polyelectrolyte complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanpu; Yildirim, Erol; Antila, Hanne S; Valenzuela, Luis D; Sammalkorpi, Maria; Lutkenhaus, Jodie L

    2015-10-01

    Polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) form by mixing polycation and polyanion solutions together, and have been explored for a variety of applications. One challenge for PEC processing and application is that under certain conditions the as-formed PECs aggregate and precipitate out of suspension over the course of minutes to days. This aggregation is governed by several factors such as electrostatic repulsion, van der Waals attractions, and hydrophobic interactions. In this work, we explore the boundary between colloidally stable and unstable complexes as it is influenced by polycation/polyanion mixing ratio and ionic strength. The polymers examined are poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDAC) and poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS). Physical properties such as turbidity, hydrodynamic size, and zeta potential are investigated upon complex formation. We also perform detailed molecular dynamics simulations to examine the structure and effective charge distribution of the PECs at varying mixing ratios and salt concentrations to support the experimental findings. The results suggest that the colloidally stable/unstable boundary possibly marks the screening effects from added salt, resulting in weakly charged complexes that aggregate. At higher salt concentrations, the complexes initially form and then gradually dissolve into solution.

  9. Acid rock drainage passive remediation: Potential use of alkaline clay, optimal mixing ratio and long-term impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, Fernando; Wen, Yipei; Perone, Hanna; Xu, Yi; Liang, Xu

    2017-01-15

    Acid rock drainage (ARD) is one of the most adverse environmental problems of the mining industry. Surface and ground water affected by this pollution are characterized by their acidity and the high content of sulfates and metals/metalloids. In this study, alkaline clay (AC), an industrial waste with a high alkalinity, which is utilized in the alumina refining process, was used as the remediation material to inhibit pyrite oxidation in waste coal piles. Through a series of laboratory experiments (static and kinetic), complemented with field measurements and geochemical modeling, three important issues associated with this passive and sustainable ARD remediation method were investigated: 1) the potential use of alkaline clay as an ARD remediation material, 2) the adequate alkaline clay/coal refuse mixing ratio (AC/CR) to ensure pH values close to neutral conditions, and, 3) the implications for long-term performance, in terms of the trends of the main parameters involved in this process such as pH, concentrations of sulfate, iron and other dissolved contaminants. Both field measurements and the samples used for the experiments came from a local waste coal site. Through the analysis of the field measurements and the outcome of the laboratory experiments, AC proved to be an effective remediation material for ARD. Compared to those found in mine tailings, the concentrations of contaminants such as iron, manganese or sulfate were significantly reduced with this remediation approach. Moreover, results suggest a reliable long-term stability of the remediation (i.e. neutral pH conditions are maintained), thus enhancing the generation of iron precipitates that could produce pyrite grain coating. These processes also made the amended layer less porous, thus increased water retention and hindered oxygen diffusion.

  10. Metabolic modelling of polyhydroxyalkanoate copolymers production by mixed microbial cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reis Maria AM

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper presents a metabolic model describing the production of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA copolymers in mixed microbial cultures, using mixtures of acetic and propionic acid as carbon source material. Material and energetic balances were established on the basis of previously elucidated metabolic pathways. Equations were derived for the theoretical yields for cell growth and PHA production on mixtures of acetic and propionic acid as functions of the oxidative phosphorylation efficiency, P/O ratio. The oxidative phosphorylation efficiency was estimated from rate measurements, which in turn allowed the estimation of the theoretical yield coefficients. Results The model was validated with experimental data collected in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR operated under varying feeding conditions: feeding of acetic and propionic acid separately (control experiments, and the feeding of acetic and propionic acid simultaneously. Two different feast and famine culture enrichment strategies were studied: (i either with acetate or (ii with propionate as carbon source material. Metabolic flux analysis (MFA was performed for the different feeding conditions and culture enrichment strategies. Flux balance analysis (FBA was used to calculate optimal feeding scenarios for high quality PHA polymers production, where it was found that a suitable polymer would be obtained when acetate is fed in excess and the feeding rate of propionate is limited to ~0.17 C-mol/(C-mol.h. The results were compared with published pure culture metabolic studies. Conclusion Acetate was more conducive toward the enrichment of a microbial culture with higher PHA storage fluxes and yields as compared to propionate. The P/O ratio was not only influenced by the selected microbial culture, but also by the carbon substrate fed to each culture, where higher P/O ratio values were consistently observed for acetate than propionate. MFA studies suggest that when mixtures of

  11. Modeling Dynamic Effects of the Marketing Mix on Market Shares

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Fok (Dennis); R. Paap (Richard); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractTo comprehend the competitive structure of a market, it is important to understand the short-run and long-run effects of the marketing mix on market shares. A useful model to link market shares with marketing-mix variables, like price and promotion, is the market share attraction model.

  12. Modeling Dynamic Effects of the Marketing Mix on Market Shares

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Fok (Dennis); R. Paap (Richard); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractTo comprehend the competitive structure of a market, it is important to understand the short-run and long-run effects of the marketing mix on market shares. A useful model to link market shares with marketing-mix variables, like price and promotion, is the market share attraction model.

  13. Pricing Model of Multiattribute Derivatives Based on Mixed Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    By Analyzing the behavior and character of derivative security, the authorsestablished a pricing model of multiattribute derivative security whose underlying asset pricingprocess is a mixed process, and obtained a new model for option pricing of multiattribute derivatives based on mixed process, and improved some original results.

  14. The effect of mixing ratio on co-pyrolysis of lignite and rapeseed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onay, O [Anadolu Univ., Eskisehir (Turkey). Porsuk Vocational School; Usta, C.; Kockar, O.M. [Anadolu Univ., Eskisehir (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    This study was conducted to determine the influence of lignite on the yield and chemical structure of bio-oil produced from rapeseed using a fast pyrolysis technique. The rapeseed and lignite mixtures were pyrolyzed in a fixed bed reactor. Heating rates and temperatures were controlled by a PID controller. Char yield after pyrolysis was determined from the overall weight losses of the reactor tube, while the liquid phase was collected in a glass liner. Experiments were conducted using a range of blending ratios. While final pyrolysis temperatures were set at 550 degrees C. An elemental analyzer was used to characterize the rapeseed and pyrolysis bio-oils. Fourier transform infrared analysis (FTIR) was used to conduct functional group compositional analyses. The study showed that conversion degree increased with temperature increases. Yields of both conversion and oil increased with biomass concentration. However, distribution between conversion and oil was influenced by the blending ratio. A maximum yield of oil was obtained with a 5 per cent blending ratio of lignite. It was concluded that the co-pyrolysis of rapeseed and coal at a temperature of 550 degrees C increases production by more than 11 per cent. 14 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs.

  15. Models of neutrino mass, mixing and CP violation

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Stephen F.

    2015-12-01

    In this topical review we argue that neutrino mass and mixing data motivates extending the Standard Model (SM) to include a non-Abelian discrete flavour symmetry in order to accurately predict the large leptonic mixing angles and {C}{P} violation. We begin with an overview of the SM puzzles, followed by a description of some classic lepton mixing patterns. Lepton mixing may be regarded as a deviation from tri-bimaximal mixing, with charged lepton corrections leading to solar mixing sum rules, or tri-maximal lepton mixing leading to atmospheric mixing rules. We survey neutrino mass models, using a roadmap based on the open questions in neutrino physics. We then focus on the seesaw mechanism with right-handed neutrinos, where sequential dominance (SD) can account for large lepton mixing angles and {C}{P} violation, with precise predictions emerging from constrained SD (CSD). We define the flavour problem and discuss progress towards a theory of favour using GUTs and discrete family symmetry. We classify models as direct, semidirect or indirect, according to the relation between the Klein symmetry of the mass matrices and the discrete family symmetry, in all cases focussing on spontaneous {C}{P} violation. Finally we give two examples of realistic and highly predictive indirect models with CSD, namely an A to Z of flavour with Pati-Salam and a fairly complete A 4 × SU(5) SUSY GUT of flavour, where both models have interesting implications for leptogenesis.

  16. Molecular Thermodynamic Modeling of Mixed Solvent Solubility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Martin Dela; Abildskov, Jens; O’Connell, John P.

    2010-01-01

    A method based on statistical mechanical fluctuation solution theory for composition derivatives of activity coefficients is employed for estimating dilute solubilities of 11 solid pharmaceutical solutes in nearly 70 mixed aqueous and nonaqueous solvent systems. The solvent mixtures range from...... nearly ideal to strongly nonideal. The database covers a temperature range from 293 to 323 K. Comparisons with available data and other existing solubility methods show that the method successfully describes a variety of observed mixed solvent solubility behaviors using solute−solvent parameters from...

  17. Experimental study on prediction model for maximum rebound ratio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI Wei-dong; TENG Jun; A.HEFNY; ZHAO Jian; GUAN Jiong

    2007-01-01

    The proposed prediction model for estimating the maximum rebound ratio was applied to a field explosion test, Mandai test in Singapore.The estimated possible maximum Deak particle velocities(PPVs)were compared with the field records.Three of the four available field-recorded PPVs lie exactly below the estimated possible maximum values as expected.while the fourth available field-recorded PPV lies close to and a bit higher than the estimated maximum possible PPV The comparison results show that the predicted PPVs from the proposed prediction model for the maximum rebound ratio match the field.recorded PPVs better than those from two empirical formulae.The very good agreement between the estimated and field-recorded values validates the proposed prediction model for estimating PPV in a rock mass with a set of ipints due to application of a two dimensional compressional wave at the boundary of a tunnel or a borehole.

  18. TESTS FOR VARIANCE COMPONENTS IN VARYING COEFFICIENT MIXED MODELS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zaixing Li; Yuedong Wang; Ping Wu; Wangli Xu; Lixing Zhu

    2012-01-01

    .... To address the question of whether a varying coefficient mixed model can be reduced to a simpler varying coefficient model, we develop one-sided tests for the null hypothesis that all the variance components are zero...

  19. A multifluid mix model with material strength effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, C. H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Scannapieco, A. J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-04-23

    We present a new multifluid mix model. Its features include material strength effects and pressure and temperature nonequilibrium between mixing materials. It is applicable to both interpenetration and demixing of immiscible fluids and diffusion of miscible fluids. The presented model exhibits the appropriate smooth transition in mathematical form as the mixture evolves from multiphase to molecular mixing, extending its applicability to the intermediate stages in which both types of mixing are present. Virtual mass force and momentum exchange have been generalized for heterogeneous multimaterial mixtures. The compression work has been extended so that the resulting species energy equations are consistent with the pressure force and material strength.

  20. Experimental testing and modeling analysis of solute mixing at water distribution pipe junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yu; Jeffrey Yang, Y; Jiang, Lijie; Yu, Tingchao; Shen, Cheng

    2014-06-01

    Flow dynamics at a pipe junction controls particle trajectories, solute mixing and concentrations in downstream pipes. The effect can lead to different outcomes of water quality modeling and, hence, drinking water management in a distribution network. Here we have investigated solute mixing behavior in pipe junctions of five hydraulic types, for which flow distribution factors and analytical equations for network modeling are proposed. First, based on experiments, the degree of mixing at a cross is found to be a function of flow momentum ratio that defines a junction flow distribution pattern and the degree of departure from complete mixing. Corresponding analytical solutions are also validated using computational-fluid-dynamics (CFD) simulations. Second, the analytical mixing model is further extended to double-Tee junctions. Correspondingly the flow distribution factor is modified to account for hydraulic departure from a cross configuration. For a double-Tee(A) junction, CFD simulations show that the solute mixing depends on flow momentum ratio and connection pipe length, whereas the mixing at double-Tee(B) is well represented by two independent single-Tee junctions with a potential water stagnation zone in between. Notably, double-Tee junctions differ significantly from a cross in solute mixing and transport. However, it is noted that these pipe connections are widely, but incorrectly, simplified as cross junctions of assumed complete solute mixing in network skeletonization and water quality modeling. For the studied pipe junction types, analytical solutions are proposed to characterize the incomplete mixing and hence may allow better water quality simulation in a distribution network. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Temperatures and CH4 mixing ratios near the homopause of the 8 μm north polar hot spot of Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Joon; Geballe, Thomas R.; Greathouse, Thomas K.; Yung, Yuk L.; Miller, Steve; Orton, G. S.; Minh, Y. C.

    2017-01-01

    We have derived homopause temperatures of 180-250 K for the 8-μm north-polar hot spot (8NPHS) of Jupiter by fitting CH4 emission models to 3 and 8 μm spectra of the 8NPHS obtained 24 days apart in 2013. From the fits, we find that CH4 mixing ratios at the 8NPHS are consistent with those reported by Kim et al. (2014) in equatorial regions. We propose possible mechanisms to account for the temperature of the 8NPHS homopause, which is relatively cool compared with the temperatures of other auroral regions, including locally-fixed and transient but energetic auroral particle precipitation.

  2. Linear models for sound from supersonic reacting mixing layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chary, P. Shivakanth; Samanta, Arnab

    2016-12-01

    We perform a linearized reduced-order modeling of the aeroacoustic sound sources in supersonic reacting mixing layers to explore their sensitivities to some of the flow parameters in radiating sound. Specifically, we investigate the role of outer modes as the effective flow compressibility is raised, when some of these are expected to dominate over the traditional Kelvin-Helmholtz (K-H) -type central mode. Although the outer modes are known to be of lesser importance in the near-field mixing, how these radiate to the far-field is uncertain, on which we focus. On keeping the flow compressibility fixed, the outer modes are realized via biasing the respective mean densities of the fast (oxidizer) or slow (fuel) side. Here the mean flows are laminar solutions of two-dimensional compressible boundary layers with an imposed composite (turbulent) spreading rate, which we show to significantly alter the growth of instability waves by saturating them earlier, similar to in nonlinear calculations, achieved here via solving the linear parabolized stability equations. As the flow parameters are varied, instability of the slow modes is shown to be more sensitive to heat release, potentially exceeding equivalent central modes, as these modes yield relatively compact sound sources with lesser spreading of the mixing layer, when compared to the corresponding fast modes. In contrast, the radiated sound seems to be relatively unaffected when the mixture equivalence ratio is varied, except for a lean mixture which is shown to yield a pronounced effect on the slow mode radiation by reducing its modal growth.

  3. Modeling a Rain-Induced Mixed Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    te -)-A-- e e -2)- . (7) ’&Z AZ Az D Using the exponential relations with trigonometry , equation (7) becomes, Ok n) 3 (I- cos2ikAz)+ D (1- cos ikAz...completely unknown because there are no prior studies which predict what portion of total energy may go into subsurface mixing. The biggest obstacle

  4. Models of Neutrino Mass, Mixing and CP Violation

    CERN Document Server

    King, Stephen F

    2015-01-01

    In this topical review we argue that neutrino mass and mixing data motivates extending the Standard Model to include a non-Abelian discrete flavour symmetry in order to accurately predict the large leptonic mixing angles and CP violation. We begin with an overview of the Standard Model puzzles, followed by a description of some classic lepton mixing patterns. Lepton mixing may be regarded as a deviation from tri-bimaximal mixing, with charged lepton corrections leading to solar mixing sum rules, or tri-maximal lepton mixing leading to atmospheric mixing rules. We survey neutrino mass models, using a roadmap based on the open questions in neutrino physics. We then focus on the seesaw mechanism with right-handed neutrinos, where sequential dominance (SD) can account for large lepton mixing angles and CP violation, with precise predictions emerging from constrained SD (CSD). We define the flavour problem and discuss progress towards a theory of flavour using GUTs and discrete family symmetry. We classify models ...

  5. A MIXED LUBRICATION MODEL MODIFIED BY SURFACES' FRACTAL CHARACTERISTICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟凡明; 张有云

    2003-01-01

    Fractal characteristics are introduced into solving lubrication problems. Based on the analysis of the relationship between roughness and engineering surfaces' fractal characteristics and by introducing fractal parameters into the mixed lubrication equation, the relationship between flow factors and fractal dimensions is analyzed. The results show that the pressure flow factors' values increase, while the shear flow factor decreases, with the increasing length to width ratio of a representative asperity γ at the same fractal dimension. It can be also found that these factors experience more irregular and significant variations and show the higher resolution and the local optimal and the worst fractal dimensions, by a fractal dimension D, compared with the oil film thickness to roughness ratio h/Rq. As an example of application of the model to solve the lubrication of the piston skirt in an engine, the frictional force and the load capacity of the oil film in a cylinder were analyzed. The results reveal that the oil film frictional force and the load capacity fluctuate with increasing fractal dimension, showing big values at the small D and smaller ones and slightly variable in the range of bigger one, at the same crank angle.

  6. Modeling the adsorption of mixed gases based on pure gas adsorption properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzabar, N.; Holland, H. J.; Vermeer, C. H.; ter Brake, H. J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Sorption-based Joule-Thomson (JT) cryocoolers usually operate with pure gases. A sorption-based compressor has many benefits; however, it is limited by the pressure ratios it can provide. Using a mixed-refrigerant (MR) instead of a pure refrigerant in JT cryocoolers allows working at much lower pressure ratios. Therefore, it is attractive using MRs in sorption- based cryocoolers in order to reduce one of its main limitations. The adsorption of mixed gases is usually investigated under steady-state conditions, mainly for storage and separation processes. However, the process in a sorption compressor goes through various temperatures, pressures and adsorption concentrations; therefore, it differs from the common mixed gases adsorption applications. In order to simulate the sorption process in a compressor a numerical analysis for mixed gases is developed, based on pure gas adsorption characteristics. The pure gas adsorption properties have been measured for four gases (nitrogen, methane, ethane, and propane) with Norit-RB2 activated carbon. A single adsorption model is desired to describe the adsorption of all four gases. This model is further developed to a mixed-gas adsorption model. In future work more adsorbents will be tested using these four gases and the adsorption model will be verified against experimental results of mixed-gas adsorption measurements.

  7. Mark-specific hazard ratio model with missing multivariate marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juraska, Michal; Gilbert, Peter B

    2016-10-01

    An objective of randomized placebo-controlled preventive HIV vaccine efficacy (VE) trials is to assess the relationship between vaccine effects to prevent HIV acquisition and continuous genetic distances of the exposing HIVs to multiple HIV strains represented in the vaccine. The set of genetic distances, only observed in failures, is collectively termed the 'mark.' The objective has motivated a recent study of a multivariate mark-specific hazard ratio model in the competing risks failure time analysis framework. Marks of interest, however, are commonly subject to substantial missingness, largely due to rapid post-acquisition viral evolution. In this article, we investigate the mark-specific hazard ratio model with missing multivariate marks and develop two inferential procedures based on (i) inverse probability weighting (IPW) of the complete cases, and (ii) augmentation of the IPW estimating functions by leveraging auxiliary data predictive of the mark. Asymptotic properties and finite-sample performance of the inferential procedures are presented. This research also provides general inferential methods for semiparametric density ratio/biased sampling models with missing data. We apply the developed procedures to data from the HVTN 502 'Step' HIV VE trial.

  8. An Investigation of Item Fit Statistics for Mixed IRT Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, Kyong Hee

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate procedures for assessing model fit of IRT models for mixed format data. In this study, various IRT model combinations were fitted to data containing both dichotomous and polytomous item responses, and the suitability of the chosen model mixtures was evaluated based on a number of model fit procedures.…

  9. Modeling of Mixed Decision Making Process

    OpenAIRE

    yahia, Nesrine Ben; Bellamine, Narjès; Ghezala, Henda Ben

    2012-01-01

    Decision making whenever and wherever it is happened is key to organizations success. In order to make correct decision, individuals, teams and organizations need both knowledge management (to manage content) and collaboration (to manage group processes) to make that more effective and efficient. In this paper, we explain the knowledge management and collaboration convergence. Then, we propose a formal description of mixed and multimodal decision making (MDM) process where decision may be mad...

  10. Modeling of Mixed Decision Making Process

    OpenAIRE

    Yahia, Nesrine Ben; Bellamine, Narjès; Ghezala, Henda Ben

    2012-01-01

    Decision making whenever and wherever it is happened is key to organizations success. In order to make correct decision, individuals, teams and organizations need both knowledge management (to manage content) and collaboration (to manage group processes) to make that more effective and efficient. In this paper, we explain the knowledge management and collaboration convergence. Then, we propose a formal description of mixed and multimodal decision making (MDM) process where decision may be mad...

  11. Lagrangian Mixing in an Axisymmetric Hurricane Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    important role for intensification. The proposed mechanisms are either direct and mechanical or indirect and thermodynamic. Direct and mechanical...2001), and Green et al. (2006), and applied in a study of Koh and Legras (2002) to the strato - spheric polar vortex. Relative dispersion was studied...winds delayed 4 minutes for the BL inflow, with linear best fit and norm of residuals. nent role for mixing in the region, which is related to hurri

  12. On the coalescence-dispersion modeling of turbulent molecular mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givi, Peyman; Kosaly, George

    1987-01-01

    The general coalescence-dispersion (C/D) closure provides phenomenological modeling of turbulent molecular mixing. The models of Curl and Dopazo and O'Brien appear as two limiting C/D models that bracket the range of results one can obtain by various models. This finding is used to investigate the sensitivtiy of the results to the choice of the model. Inert scalar mixing is found to be less model-sensitive than mixing accompanied by chemical reaction. Infinitely fast chemistry approximation is used to relate the C/D approach to Toor's earlier results. Pure mixing and infinite rate chemistry calculations are compared to study further a recent result of Hsieh and O'Brien who found that higher concentration moments are not sensitive to chemistry.

  13. An Empirical Jet-Surface Interaction Noise Model with Temperature and Nozzle Aspect Ratio Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Cliff

    2015-01-01

    An empirical model for jet-surface interaction (JSI) noise produced by a round jet near a flat plate is described and the resulting model evaluated. The model covers unheated and hot jet conditions (1 less than or equal to jet total temperature ratio less than or equal to 2.7) in the subsonic range (0.5 less than or equal to M(sub a) less than or equal to 0.9), surface lengths 0.6 less than or equal to (axial distance from jet exit to surface trailing edge (inches)/nozzle exit diameter) less than or equal to 10, and surface standoff distances (0 less than or equal to (radial distance from jet lipline to surface (inches)/axial distance from jet exit to surface trailing edge (inches)) less than or equal to 1) using only second-order polynomials to provide predictable behavior. The JSI noise model is combined with an existing jet mixing noise model to produce exhaust noise predictions. Fit quality metrics and comparisons to between the predicted and experimental data indicate that the model is suitable for many system level studies. A first-order correction to the JSI source model that accounts for the effect of nozzle aspect ratio is also explored. This correction is based on changes to the potential core length and frequency scaling associated with rectangular nozzles up to 8:1 aspect ratio. However, more work is needed to refine these findings into a formal model.

  14. Mixing characteristics of a moderate aspect ratio screeching supersonic rectangular jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentich, Griffin; Upadhyay, Puja; Kumar, Rajan

    2016-05-01

    Flow field characteristics of a moderate aspect ratio supersonic rectangular jet were examined at two overexpanded, a perfectly expanded, and an underexpanded jet conditions. The underexpanded and one overexpanded operating condition were of maximum screech, while the second overexpanded condition was of minimum screech intensity. Streamwise particle image velocimetry was performed along both major and minor axes of the jet and the measurements were made up to 30 nozzle heights, h, where h is the small dimension of the nozzle. Select cross planes were examined using stereoscopic particle image velocimetry to investigate the jet development and the role streamwise vortices play in jet spreading at each operating condition. The results show that streamwise vortices present at the nozzle corners along with vortices excited by screech tones play a major role in the jet evolution. All cases except for the perfectly expanded operating condition exhibited axis switching at streamwise locations ranging from 11 to 16 nozzle heights downstream of the exit. The overexpanded condition of maximum screech showed the most upstream switch over, while the underexpanded case showed the farthest downstream. Both of the maximum screeching cases developed into a diamond cross-sectional profile far downstream of the exit, while the ideally expanded case maintained a rectangular shape. The overexpanded minimum screeching case eventually decayed into an oblong profile.

  15. Nonlinear diffusion model for Rayleigh-Taylor mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boffetta, G; De Lillo, F; Musacchio, S

    2010-01-22

    The complex evolution of turbulent mixing in Rayleigh-Taylor convection is studied in terms of eddy diffusivity models for the mean temperature profile. It is found that a nonlinear model, derived within the general framework of Prandtl mixing theory, reproduces accurately the evolution of turbulent profiles obtained from numerical simulations. Our model allows us to give very precise predictions for the turbulent heat flux and for the Nusselt number in the ultimate state regime of thermal convection.

  16. Nonlinear diffusion model for Rayleigh-Taylor mixing

    CERN Document Server

    Boffetta, G; Musacchio, S

    2010-01-01

    The complex evolution of turbulent mixing in Rayleigh-Taylor convection is studied in terms of eddy diffusiviy models for the mean temperature profile. It is found that a non-linear model, derived within the general framework of Prandtl mixing theory, reproduces accurately the evolution of turbulent profiles obtained from numerical simulations. Our model allows to give very precise predictions for the turbulent heat flux and for the Nusselt number in the ultimate state regime of thermal convection.

  17. Discrete Flavor Symmetries and Models of Neutrino Mixing

    CERN Document Server

    Altarelli, Guido

    2010-01-01

    We review the application of non abelian discrete groups to the theory of neutrino masses and mixing, which is strongly suggested by the agreement of the Tri-Bimaximal mixing pattern with experiment. After summarizing the motivation and the formalism, we discuss specific models, based on A4, S4 and other finite groups, and their phenomenological implications, including lepton flavor violating processes, leptogenesis and the extension to quarks. In alternative to Tri-Bimaximal mixing the application of discrete flavor symmetries to quark-lepton complementarity and Bimaximal Mixing is also considered.

  18. Kinetic mixing effect in the 3 -3 -1 -1 model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, P. V.; Si, D. T.

    2016-06-01

    We show that the mixing effect of the neutral gauge bosons in the 3 -3 -1 -1 model comes from two sources. The first one is due to the 3 -3 -1 -1 gauge symmetry breaking as usual, whereas the second one results from the kinetic mixing between the gauge bosons of U (1 )X and U (1 )N groups, which are used to determine the electric charge and baryon minus lepton numbers, respectively. Such mixings modify the ρ -parameter and the known couplings of Z with fermions. The constraints that arise from flavor-changing neutral currents due to the gauge boson mixings and nonuniversal fermion generations are also given.

  19. Perturbative estimates of lepton mixing angles in unified models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antusch, Stefan [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Muenchen (Germany)], E-mail: antusch@mppmu.mpg.de; King, Stephen F. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Malinsky, Michal [Department of Theoretical Physics, School of Engineering Sciences, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) - AlbaNova University Center, Roslagstullsbacken 21, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-10-11

    Many unified models predict two large neutrino mixing angles, with the charged lepton mixing angles being small and quark-like, and the neutrino masses being hierarchical. Assuming this, we present simple approximate analytic formulae giving the lepton mixing angles in terms of the underlying high energy neutrino mixing angles together with small perturbations due to both charged lepton corrections and renormalisation group (RG) effects, including also the effects of third family canonical normalization (CN). We apply the perturbative formulae to the ubiquitous case of tri-bimaximal neutrino mixing at the unification scale, in order to predict the theoretical corrections to mixing angle predictions and sum rule relations, and give a general discussion of all limiting cases. We also discuss the implications for the sum rule relations of the measurement of a non-zero reactor angle, as hinted at by recent experimental measurements.

  20. Effect of mixing geopolymer and peat on bearing capacity in Ogan Komering Ilir (OKI) by California bearing ratio (CBR) test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raharja, Danang S.; Hadiwardoyo, Sigit P.; Rahayu, Wiwik; Zain, Nasuhi

    2017-06-01

    Geopolymer is binder material that consists of solid material and the activator solution. Geopolymer material has successfully replaced cement in the manufacture of concrete with aluminosilicate bonding system. Geopolymer concrete has properties similar to cement concrete with high compressive strength, low shrinkage value, relatively low creep value, as well as acid-resistant. Based on these, the addition of polymers in peat soils is expected to improve the bearing capacity of peat soils. A study on the influence of geopolymer addition in peat soils was done by comparing before and after the peat soil was mixed with geopolymer using CBR (California Bearing Ratio) test in unsoaked and soaked conditions. 10% mixture content of the peat dry was used, weighted with a variety of curing time 4 hours, 5 days, and 10 days. There were two methods of mixing: first, peat was mixed with fly ash geopolymer activators and mixed solution (waterglass, NaOH, water), and second, peat was mixed with fly ash and mixed geopolymer (waterglass, NaOH, water, fly ash). Changes were observed in specific gravity, dry density, acidity (pH), and the microscopic structure with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Curing time did not significantly affect the CBR value. It even shows a tendency to decline with longer curing time. The first type mixture obtained CBR value of: 5.4% for 4 hours curing, 4.6% for 5 days curing and 3.6% for 10 days curing. The second type mixture obtained CBR value of: 6.1% for 4 hours curing, 5.2% for 5 days curing and 5.2% for 10 days curing. Furthermore, the specific gravity value, dry density, pH near neutral and swelling percentage increased. From both variants, the second type mixture shows better results than the first type mixture. The results of SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) show the structure of the peat which became denser with the fly ash particles filling the peat microporous. Also, the reaction of fly ash with geopolymer is indicated by the solid

  1. CREDO-MIX - DIGITAL MODEL PROJECT

    OpenAIRE

    Белятинський, А. О.; Національний авіаційний університет; Чичикало, Л. Г.; Національний авіаційний університет; Резнік, О. М.; Національний авіаційний університет

    2013-01-01

    System CREDO-MIX which is intended for the decision of problems of designing of general plans of the enterprises, transport constructions, inhabited and civil objects is considered. Рассмотрена система CREDO_MIX, которая предназначена для решения задач проектирования генеральных планов предприятий, транспортных сооружений и жилищно-гражданских объектов. Розглянуто систему CREDO_MIX, яка призначена для вирішення завдань проектування генеральних планів підприємств, транспортних споруд і ж...

  2. Mixed finite elements for global tide models

    CERN Document Server

    Cotter, Colin J

    2014-01-01

    We study mixed finite element methods for the linearized rotating shallow water equations with linear drag and forcing terms. By means of a strong energy estimate for an equivalent second-order formulation for the linearized momentum, we prove long-time stability of the system without energy accumulation -- the geotryptic state. A priori error estimates for the linearized momentum and free surface elevation are given in $L^2$ as well as for the time derivative and divergence of the linearized momentum. Numerical results confirm the theoretical results regarding both energy damping and convergence rates.

  3. Shell model of optimal passive-scalar mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Christopher; Doering, Charles

    2015-11-01

    Optimal mixing is significant to process engineering within industries such as food, chemical, pharmaceutical, and petrochemical. An important question in this field is ``How should one stir to create a homogeneous mixture while being energetically efficient?'' To answer this question, we consider an initially unmixed scalar field representing some concentration within a fluid on a periodic domain. This passive-scalar field is advected by the velocity field, our control variable, constrained by a physical quantity such as energy or enstrophy. We consider two objectives: local-in-time (LIT) optimization (what will maximize the mixing rate now?) and global-in-time (GIT) optimization (what will maximize mixing at the end time?). Throughout this work we use the H-1 mix-norm to measure mixing. To gain a better understanding, we provide a simplified mixing model by using a shell model of passive-scalar advection. LIT optimization in this shell model gives perfect mixing in finite time for the energy-constrained case and exponential decay to the perfect-mixed state for the enstrophy-constrained case. Although we only enforce that the time-average energy (or enstrophy) equals a chosen value in GIT optimization, interestingly, the optimal control keeps this value constant over time.

  4. Profile construction in experimental choice designs for mixed logit models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandor, Z; Wedel, M

    2002-01-01

    A computationally attractive model for the analysis of conjoint choice experiments is the mixed multinomial logit model, a multinomial logit model in which it is assumed that the coefficients follow a (normal) distribution across subjects. This model offers the advantage over the standard

  5. Mixing model with multi-particle interactions for Lagrangian simulations of turbulent mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, T.; Nagata, K.

    2016-08-01

    We report on the numerical study of the mixing volume model (MVM) for molecular diffusion in Lagrangian simulations of turbulent mixing problems. The MVM is based on the multi-particle interaction in a finite volume (mixing volume). A priori test of the MVM, based on the direct numerical simulations of planar jets, is conducted in the turbulent region and the interfacial layer between the turbulent and non-turbulent fluids. The results show that the MVM predicts well the mean effects of the molecular diffusion under various numerical and flow parameters. The number of the mixing particles should be large for predicting a value of the molecular diffusion term positively correlated to the exact value. The size of the mixing volume relative to the Kolmogorov scale η is important in the performance of the MVM. The scalar transfer across the turbulent/non-turbulent interface is well captured by the MVM especially with the small mixing volume. Furthermore, the MVM with multiple mixing particles is tested in the hybrid implicit large-eddy-simulation/Lagrangian-particle-simulation (LES-LPS) of the planar jet with the characteristic length of the mixing volume of O(100η). Despite the large mixing volume, the MVM works well and decays the scalar variance in a rate close to the reference LES. The statistics in the LPS are very robust to the number of the particles used in the simulations and the computational grid size of the LES. Both in the turbulent core region and the intermittent region, the LPS predicts a scalar field well correlated to the LES.

  6. [Study of the effect of light source stability on the signal to noise ratio in degenerate four wave mixing experiment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Bo; Chen, De-Ying; Fan, Rong-Wei; Xia, Yuan-Qin

    2010-02-01

    The effects of the stability of dye laser on the signal to noise ratio in degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM) were first investigated in iodine vapor using forward geometries. Frequency-doubled outputs from a multi-mode Nd : YAG laser pumped dye laser with laser dye PM580 dissolved in ethanol was used. With the help of forward compensated beam-split technique and imaging detecting system, the saturation intensity of DFWM spectrum in the iodine vapor at 5 554.013 nm was first measured to be 290 microJ under the condition of atmospheric pressure and room temperature. The features of the dye laser such as wavelength ranges, beam quality and energy conversion efficiency decreased gradually with increasing pumping service use, pulse number and intensity. Additionally, with the comparison of the stable and unstable dye laser output, it was found that the instability of dye laser output had greatly influenced the DFWM signal and decreased the signal to background noise ratio. Shot to shot jitter and the broadening in the output frequency leads to an effective broadening of the recorded spectrum and loss of the DFWM signal to noise ratio under the same pumping intensity at different time. The study is of importance to the detection of trace atom, molecule and radical in combustion diagnosis.

  7. Fluctuation dissipation ratio in the one dimensional kinetic Ising model

    OpenAIRE

    Lippiello, E.; Zannetti, M.

    2000-01-01

    The exact relation between the response function $R(t,t^{\\prime})$ and the two time correlation function $C(t,t^{\\prime})$ is derived analytically in the one dimensional kinetic Ising model subjected to a temperature quench. The fluctuation dissipation ratio $X(t,t^{\\prime})$ is found to depend on time through $C(t,t^{\\prime})$ in the time region where scaling $C(t,t^{\\prime}) = f(t/t^{\\prime})$ holds. The crossover from the nontrivial form $X(C(t,t^{\\prime}))$ to $X(t,t^{\\prime}) \\equiv 1$ t...

  8. Maximum likelihood estimation for semiparametric density ratio model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Guoqing; Ning, Jing; Qin, Jing

    2012-06-27

    In the statistical literature, the conditional density model specification is commonly used to study regression effects. One attractive model is the semiparametric density ratio model, under which the conditional density function is the product of an unknown baseline density function and a known parametric function containing the covariate information. This model has a natural connection with generalized linear models and is closely related to biased sampling problems. Despite the attractive features and importance of this model, most existing methods are too restrictive since they are based on multi-sample data or conditional likelihood functions. The conditional likelihood approach can eliminate the unknown baseline density but cannot estimate it. We propose efficient estimation procedures based on the nonparametric likelihood. The nonparametric likelihood approach allows for general forms of covariates and estimates the regression parameters and the baseline density simultaneously. Therefore, the nonparametric likelihood approach is more versatile than the conditional likelihood approach especially when estimation of the conditional mean or other quantities of the outcome is of interest. We show that the nonparametric maximum likelihood estimators are consistent, asymptotically normal, and asymptotically efficient. Simulation studies demonstrate that the proposed methods perform well in practical settings. A real example is used for illustration.

  9. Class B Fire-Extinguishing Performance Evaluation of a Compressed Air Foam System at Different Air-to-Aqueous Foam Solution Mixing Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Ho Rie

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to evaluate the fire-extinguishing performance of a compressed air foam system at different mixing ratios of pressurized air. In this system, compressed air is injected into an aqueous solution of foam and then discharged. The experimental device uses an exclusive fire-extinguishing technology with compressed air foam that is produced based on the Canada National Laboratory and UL (Underwriters Laboratories 162 standards, with a 20-unit oil fire model (Class B applied as the fire extinguisher. Compressed air is injected through the air mixture, and results with different air-to-aqueous solution foam ratios of 1:4, 1:7, and 1:10 are studied. In addition, comparison experiments between synthetic surfactant foam and a foam type which forms an aqueous film are carried out at an air-to-aqueous solution foam ratio of 1:4. From the experimental results, at identical discharging flows, it was found that the fire-extinguishing effect of the aqueous film-forming foam is greatest at an air-to-aqueous solution foam ratio of 1:7 and weakest at 1:10. Moreover, the fire-extinguishing effect of the aqueous film-forming foam in the comparison experiments between the aqueous film-forming foam and the synthetic surfactant foam is greatest.

  10. Digital Waveguides versus Finite Difference Structures: Equivalence and Mixed Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karjalainen Matti

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Digital waveguides and finite difference time domain schemes have been used in physical modeling of spatially distributed systems. Both of them are known to provide exact modeling of ideal one-dimensional (1D band-limited wave propagation, and both of them can be composed to approximate two-dimensional (2D and three-dimensional (3D mesh structures. Their equal capabilities in physical modeling have been shown for special cases and have been assumed to cover generalized cases as well. The ability to form mixed models by joining substructures of both classes through converter elements has been proposed recently. In this paper, we formulate a general digital signal processing (DSP-oriented framework where the functional equivalence of these two approaches is systematically elaborated and the conditions of building mixed models are studied. An example of mixed modeling of a 2D waveguide is presented.

  11. Model for Estimation Urban Transportation Supply-Demand Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoqun Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper establishes an estimation model of urban transportation supply-demand ratio (TSDR to quantitatively describe the conditions of an urban transport system and to support a theoretical basis for transport policy-making. This TSDR estimation model is supported by the system dynamic principle and the VENSIM (an application that simulates the real system. It was accomplished by long-term observation of eight cities’ transport conditions and by analyzing the estimated results of TSDR from fifteen sets of refined data. The estimated results indicate that an urban TSDR can be classified into four grades representing four transport conditions: “scarce supply,” “short supply,” “supply-demand balance,” and “excess supply.” These results imply that transport policies or measures can be quantified to facilitate the process of ordering and screening them.

  12. Nickel, manganese and copper removal by a mixed consortium of sulfate reducing bacteria at a high COD/sulfate ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, L P; Costa, P F; Bertolino, S M; Silva, J C C; Guerra-Sá, R; Leão, V A; Teixeira, M C

    2014-08-01

    The use of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in passive treatments of acidic effluents containing heavy metals has become an attractive alternative biotechnology. Treatment efficiency may be linked with the effluent conditions (pH and metal concentration) and also to the amount and nature of the organic substrate. Variations on organic substrate and sulfate ratios clearly interfere with the biological removal of this ion by mixed cultures of SRB. This study aimed to cultivate a mixed culture of SRB using different lactate concentrations at pH 7.0 in the presence of Ni, Mn and Cu. The highest sulfate removal efficiency obtained was 98 %, at a COD/sulfate ratio of 2.0. The organic acid analyses indicated an acetate accumulation as a consequence of lactate degradation. Different concentrations of metals were added to the system at neutral pH conditions. Cell proliferation and sulfate consumption in the presence of nickel (4, 20 and 50 mg l(-1)), manganese (1.5, 10 and 25 mg l(-1)) and copper (1.5, 10 and 25 mg l(-1)) were measured. The presence of metals interfered in the sulfate biological removal however the concentration of sulfide produced was high enough to remove over 90 % of the metals in the environment. The molecular characterization of the bacterial consortium based on dsrB gene sequencing indicated the presence of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, Desulfomonas pigra and Desulfobulbus sp. The results here presented indicate that this SRB culture may be employed for mine effluent bioremediation due to its potential for removing sulfate and metals, simultaneously.

  13. Meteorological controls on the diurnal variability of carbon monoxide mixing ratio at a mountaintop monitoring site in the Appalachian Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temple R. Lee

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The variability of trace gases such as carbon monoxide (CO at surface monitoring stations is affected by meteorological forcings that are particularly complicated over mountainous terrain. A detailed understanding of the impact of meteorological forcings on trace gas variability is challenging, but is vital to distinguish trace gas measurements affected by local pollutant sources from measurements representative of background mixing ratios. In the present study, we investigate the meteorological and CO characteristics at Pinnacles (38.61 N, 78.35 W, 1017 m above mean sea level, a mountaintop monitoring site in northwestern Virginia, USA, in the Appalachian Mountains, from 2009 to 2012, and focus on understanding the dominant meteorological forcings affecting the CO variability on diurnal timescales. The annual mean diurnal CO cycle shows a minimum in the morning between 0700 and 0900 LST and a maximum in the late afternoon between 1600 and 2000 LST, with a mean (median daily CO amplitude of 39.2±23.7 ppb (33.2 ppb. CO amplitudes show large day-to-day variability. The largest CO amplitudes, in which CO mixing ratios can change >100 ppb in <3 h, occur in the presence of synoptic disturbances. Under fair weather conditions, local- to regional-scale transport processes are found to be more important drivers of the diurnal CO variability. On fair weather days with northwesterly winds, boundary layer dilution causes a daytime CO decrease, resembling the variability observed atop tall towers in flat terrain. Fair weather days with a wind shift from the northwest to the south are characterised by an afternoon CO increase and resemble the variability observed at mountaintops influenced by the vertical transport of polluted air from adjacent valleys.

  14. Mixing Model Performance in Non-Premixed Turbulent Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Stephen B.; Ren, Zhuyin

    2002-11-01

    In order to shed light on their qualitative and quantitative performance, three different turbulent mixing models are studied in application to non-premixed turbulent combustion. In previous works, PDF model calculations with detailed kinetics have been shown to agree well with experimental data for non-premixed piloted jet flames. The calculations from two different groups using different descriptions of the chemistry and turbulent mixing are capable of producing the correct levels of local extinction and reignition. The success of these calculations raises several questions, since it is not clear that the mixing models used contain an adequate description of the processes involved. To address these questions, three mixing models (IEM, modified Curl and EMST) are applied to a partially-stirred reactor burning hydrogen in air. The parameters varied are the residence time and the mixing time scale. For small relative values of the mixing time scale (approaching the perfectly-stirred limit) the models yield the same extinction behavior. But for larger values, the behavior is distictly different, with EMST being must resistant to extinction.

  15. A Comparison of Item Fit Statistics for Mixed IRT Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, Kyong Hee; Lee, Won-Chan; Dunbar, Stephen B.

    2010-01-01

    In this study we examined procedures for assessing model-data fit of item response theory (IRT) models for mixed format data. The model fit indices used in this study include PARSCALE's G[superscript 2], Orlando and Thissen's S-X[superscript 2] and S-G[superscript 2], and Stone's chi[superscript 2*] and G[superscript 2*]. To investigate the…

  16. Modeling Recycling Asphalt Pavement Processing Technologies in Asphalt Mixing Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Simonas Tamaliūnas; Henrikas Sivilevičius

    2011-01-01

    The article presents reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) processing technologies and equipment models used in the asphalt mixing plant (AMP). The schematic model indicating all possible ways to process RAP in AMP is shown. The model calculating the needed temperature of mineral materials used for heating RAP is given and an example of such calculation is provided.Article in Lithuanian

  17. Modeling Recycling Asphalt Pavement Processing Technologies in Asphalt Mixing Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simonas Tamaliūnas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP processing technologies and equipment models used in the asphalt mixing plant (AMP. The schematic model indicating all possible ways to process RAP in AMP is shown. The model calculating the needed temperature of mineral materials used for heating RAP is given and an example of such calculation is provided.Article in Lithuanian

  18. Measurement of glass transition temperature, residual heat of reaction and mixing ratio of epoxy resins using near infrared spectroscopy: a preliminary study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houmøller, Lars Plejdrup; Laursen, Peter Clemen

    2003-01-01

    variables, using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) as the reference method. The epoxy under study was a commercial system consisting of the resin, trimethylolpropanetriglycidylether, and the hardener, 3-aminomethyl-3,5,5,-trimethylcyclohexylamine. Using samples cured under different conditions......As a measure of the degree of curing of epoxy resins, the glass transition temperature, Tg, and the residual heat of reaction, DeltaHr, are often used. In this study, near infrared spectroscopy and multivariate calibration (partial least squares regression (PLSR)) have been used to monitor the two......, calibrations resulted in root mean square errors of cross-validation (RMSECV) of 18 J/g for DeltaHr (range for Hr: 6.1-231.3 J/g) and 7.2ºC for Tg (range for Tg: 41.5-98.8ºC). Also, a PLSR model for mixing ratio of hardener and resin was obtained, resulting in a RMSECV of 0.0040 (range for mixing ratio: 0.180-0.380)...

  19. Markov and mixed models with applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Stig Bousgaard

    This thesis deals with mathematical and statistical models with focus on applications in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modelling. These models are today an important aspect of the drug development in the pharmaceutical industry and continued research in statistical methodology within...... as a deterministic mean value using ordinary differential equations to which a random error is added. This thesis explores methods based on stochastic differential equations (SDEs) to extend the models to more adequately describe both true random biological variations and also variations due to unknown...... the individual in almost any thinkable way. This project focuses on measuring the eects on sleep in both humans and animals. The sleep process is usually analyzed by categorizing small time segments into a number of sleep states and this can be modelled using a Markov process. For this purpose new methods...

  20. Modeling of finite aspect ratio effects on current drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, J.C.; Phillips, C.K. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab., NJ (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Most 2D RF modeling codes use a parameterization of current drive efficiencies to calculate fast wave driven currents. This parameterization assumes a uniform diffusion coefficient and requires a priori knowledge of the wave polarizations. These difficulties may be avoided by a direct calculation of the quasilinear diffusion coefficient from the Kennel-Englemann form with the field polarizations calculated by a full wave code. This eliminates the need to use the approximation inherent in the parameterization. Current profiles are then calculated using the adjoint formulation. This approach has been implemented in the FISIC code. The accuracy of the parameterization of the current drive efficiency, {eta}, is judged by a comparison with a direct calculation: where {chi} is the adjoint function, {epsilon} is the kinetic energy, and {rvec {Gamma}} is the quasilinear flux. It is shown that for large aspect ratio devices ({epsilon} {r_arrow} 0), the parameterization is nearly identical to the direct calculation. As the aspect ratio approaches unity, visible differences between the two calculations appear.

  1. A Mixed Effects Randomized Item Response Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, J.-P.; Wyrick, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    The randomized response technique ensures that individual item responses, denoted as true item responses, are randomized before observing them and so-called randomized item responses are observed. A relationship is specified between randomized item response data and true item response data. True item response data are modeled with a (non)linear…

  2. Effects of strain rate, mixing ratio, and stress-strain definition on the mechanical behavior of the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) material as related to its biological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanafer, Khalil; Duprey, Ambroise; Schlicht, Marty; Berguer, Ramon

    2009-04-01

    Tensile tests on Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) materials were conducted to illustrate the effects of mixing ratio, definition of the stress-strain curve, and the strain rate on the elastic modulus and stress-strain curve. PDMS specimens were prepared according to the ASTM standards for elastic materials. Our results indicate that the physiological elastic modulus depends strongly on the definition of the stress-strain curve, mixing ratio, and the strain rate. For various mixing ratios and strain rates, true stress-strain definition results in higher stress and elastic modulus compared with engineering stress-strain and true stress-engineering strain definitions. The elastic modulus increases as the mixing ratio increases up-to 9:1 ratio after which the elastic modulus begins to decrease even as the mixing ratio continues to increase. The results presented in this study will be helpful to assist the design of in vitro experiments to mimic blood flow in arteries and to understand the complex interaction between blood flow and the walls of arteries using PDMS elastomer.

  3. Linear mixed models a practical guide using statistical software

    CERN Document Server

    West, Brady T; Galecki, Andrzej T

    2006-01-01

    Simplifying the often confusing array of software programs for fitting linear mixed models (LMMs), Linear Mixed Models: A Practical Guide Using Statistical Software provides a basic introduction to primary concepts, notation, software implementation, model interpretation, and visualization of clustered and longitudinal data. This easy-to-navigate reference details the use of procedures for fitting LMMs in five popular statistical software packages: SAS, SPSS, Stata, R/S-plus, and HLM. The authors introduce basic theoretical concepts, present a heuristic approach to fitting LMMs based on bo

  4. Multivariate Survival Mixed Models for Genetic Analysis of Longevity Traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pimentel Maia, Rafael; Madsen, Per; Labouriau, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    A class of multivariate mixed survival models for continuous and discrete time with a complex covariance structure is introduced in a context of quantitative genetic applications. The methods introduced can be used in many applications in quantitative genetics although the discussion presented...... concentrates on longevity studies. The framework presented allows to combine models based on continuous time with models based on discrete time in a joint analysis. The continuous time models are approximations of the frailty model in which the hazard function will be assumed to be piece-wise constant....... The discrete time models used are multivariate variants of the discrete relative risk models. These models allow for regular parametric likelihood-based inference by exploring a coincidence of their likelihood functions and the likelihood functions of suitably defined multivariate generalized linear mixed...

  5. Multivariate Survival Mixed Models for Genetic Analysis of Longevity Traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pimentel Maia, Rafael; Madsen, Per; Labouriau, Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    A class of multivariate mixed survival models for continuous and discrete time with a complex covariance structure is introduced in a context of quantitative genetic applications. The methods introduced can be used in many applications in quantitative genetics although the discussion presented...... concentrates on longevity studies. The framework presented allows to combine models based on continuous time with models based on discrete time in a joint analysis. The continuous time models are approximations of the frailty model in which the hazard function will be assumed to be piece-wise constant....... The discrete time models used are multivariate variants of the discrete relative risk models. These models allow for regular parametric likelihood-based inference by exploring a coincidence of their likelihood functions and the likelihood functions of suitably defined multivariate generalized linear mixed...

  6. Teaching Service Modelling to a Mixed Class: An Integrated Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jeremiah D.; Purvis, Martin K.

    2015-01-01

    Service modelling has become an increasingly important area in today's telecommunications and information systems practice. We have adapted a Network Design course in order to teach service modelling to a mixed class of both the telecommunication engineering and information systems backgrounds. An integrated approach engaging mathematics teaching…

  7. Teaching the Mixed Model Design: A Flowchart to Facilitate Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Jamie D.

    2005-01-01

    The Mixed Model (MM) design, sometimes known as a Split-Plot design, is very popular in educational research. This model can be used to examine the effects of several independent variables on a dependent variable and it offers a more powerful alternative to the completely randomized design. The MM design considers both a between-subjects factor,…

  8. Analyzing Mixed-Dyadic Data Using Structural Equation Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peugh, James L.; DiLillo, David; Panuzio, Jillian

    2013-01-01

    Mixed-dyadic data, collected from distinguishable (nonexchangeable) or indistinguishable (exchangeable) dyads, require statistical analysis techniques that model the variation within dyads and between dyads appropriately. The purpose of this article is to provide a tutorial for performing structural equation modeling analyses of cross-sectional…

  9. Wax Precipitation Modeled with Many Mixed Solid Phases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heidemann, Robert A.; Madsen, Jesper; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2005-01-01

    The behavior of the Coutinho UNIQUAC model for solid wax phases has been examined. The model can produce as many mixed solid phases as the number of waxy components. In binary mixtures, the solid rich in the lighter component contains little of the heavier component but the second phase shows sub...

  10. [Branch growth of Korean pine plantation based on nonlinear mixed model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Hong; Li, Feng-Ri; Jia, Wei-Wei; Dong, Li-Hu

    2013-07-01

    Based on the branch analysis data from 36 sample trees in a Korean pine plantation in Mengjiagang Forest Farm of Heilongjiang Province, Northeast China, and by using Mitcherlich and Richards equations as the models of branch diameter and branch length growth, respectively, the effects of sampling plot and sample tree were investigated, and the nonlinear mixed models of branch diameter and branch length growth were established by the PROC NLMIXED procedure of SAS software. The evaluation statistics such as Akaike information criterion (AIC), Bayesian information criterion (BIC), -2Log likelihood, and likelihood ratio test (LRT) were used to compare the prediction precisions of the models. When considering plot effect, and taking alpha1 and alpha3 and beta1 and beta3 as the random parameters, respectively, the models of branch diameter and branch length growth had the best performance. When considering tree effect, and taking alpha2 and alpha3 and beta2 and beta3 as the random parameters, respectively, the models of branch diameter and branch length growth had the best performance. The nonlinear mixed model could not only reflect the mean variation of branch growth, but also show the differences among the individual trees. No matter considering plot effect or tree effect, the fitting precision of the nonlinear mixed model was better than that of the ordinary regression analysis model. Moreover, the fitting precision of the nonlinear mixed model was better when considering tree effect than considering plot effect.

  11. Mixing and Transport in the Small Intestine: A Lattice-Boltzmann Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banco, Gino; Brasseur, James; Wang, Yanxing; Aliani, Amit; Webb, Andrew

    2007-11-01

    The two primary functions of the small intestine are absorption of nutrients into the blood stream and transport of material along the gut for eventual evacuation. The primary transport mechanism is peristalsis. The time scales for absorption, however, rely on mixing and transport of molecules between the bulk flow and epithelial surface. Two basic motions contribute to mixing: peristalsis and repetitive segmental contraction of short segments of the gut. In this study we evaluate the relative roles of peristalsis vs. segmental contraction on the degree of mixing and time scales of nutrient transport to the epithelium using a two-dimensional model of flow and mixing in the small intestine. The model uses the lattice-Boltzmann framework with second-order moving boundary conditions and passive scalar (Sc = 10). Segmental and peristaltic contractions were parameterized using magnetic resonance imaging data from rat models. The Reynolds numbers (1.9), segment lengths (33 mm), max radii (2.75 mm) and occlusion ratios (0.33) were matched for direct comparison. Mixing is quantified by the rate of dispersion of scalar from an initial concentration in the center of the segment. We find that radial mixing is more rapid with segmental than peristaltic motion, that radial dispersion is much more rapid than axial, and that axial is comparable between the motions.

  12. Likelihood ratio model for classification of forensic evidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zadora, G., E-mail: gzadora@ies.krakow.pl [Institute of Forensic Research, Westerplatte 9, 31-033 Krakow (Poland); Neocleous, T., E-mail: tereza@stats.gla.ac.uk [University of Glasgow, Department of Statistics, 15 University Gardens, Glasgow G12 8QW (United Kingdom)

    2009-05-29

    One of the problems of analysis of forensic evidence such as glass fragments, is the determination of their use-type category, e.g. does a glass fragment originate from an unknown window or container? Very small glass fragments arise during various accidents and criminal offences, and could be carried on the clothes, shoes and hair of participants. It is therefore necessary to obtain information on their physicochemical composition in order to solve the classification problem. Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with an Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer and the Glass Refractive Index Measurement method are routinely used in many forensic institutes for the investigation of glass. A natural form of glass evidence evaluation for forensic purposes is the likelihood ratio-LR = p(E|H{sub 1})/p(E|H{sub 2}). The main aim of this paper was to study the performance of LR models for glass object classification which considered one or two sources of data variability, i.e. between-glass-object variability and(or) within-glass-object variability. Within the proposed model a multivariate kernel density approach was adopted for modelling the between-object distribution and a multivariate normal distribution was adopted for modelling within-object distributions. Moreover, a graphical method of estimating the dependence structure was employed to reduce the highly multivariate problem to several lower-dimensional problems. The performed analysis showed that the best likelihood model was the one which allows to include information about between and within-object variability, and with variables derived from elemental compositions measured by SEM-EDX, and refractive values determined before (RI{sub b}) and after (RI{sub a}) the annealing process, in the form of dRI = log{sub 10}|RI{sub a} - RI{sub b}|. This model gave better results than the model with only between-object variability considered. In addition, when dRI and variables derived from elemental compositions were used, this

  13. An Interface Stretching-Diffusion Model for Mixing-Limited Reactions During Convective Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, J. J.; Dentz, M.; Cabeza, Y.; Carrera, J.

    2014-12-01

    We study the behavior of mixing-limited dissolution reactions under the unstable flow conditions caused by a Rayleigh-Bénard convective instability in a two fluids system. The reactions produce a dissolution pattern that follows the ascending fluids's interface where the largest concentration gradients and maximum mixing are found. Contrary to other chemical systems, the mixing history engraved by the dissolution does not map out the fingering geometry of the unstable flow. The temporal scaling of the mixing Χ and the reaction rate r are explained by a stretching-diffusion model of the interface between the fluids. The model accurately reproduces the three observed regimes: a diffusive regime at which Χ, r ~ t-1/2; a convective regime of at which the interface contracts to the Batchelor scale resulting in a constant Χf and r independent of the Rayleigh number; and an attenuated convection regime in which Χ and r decay faster than diffusion as t-3/2 and t-1, respectevely, because of the decompression of the interface and weakened reactions caused by the accumulation of dissolved fluid below the interface.

  14. Effects of mixing in threshold models of social behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Akhmetzhanov, Andrei R; Dushoff, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    We consider the dynamics of an extension of the influential Granovetter model of social behavior, where individuals are affected by their personal preferences and observation of the neighbors' behavior. Individuals are arranged in a network (usually, the square lattice) and each has a state and a fixed threshold for behavior changes. We simulate the system asynchronously either by picking a random individual and either update its state or exchange it with another randomly chosen individual (mixing). We describe the dynamics analytically in the fast-mixing limit by using the mean-field approximation and investigate it mainly numerically in case of a finite mixing. We show that the dynamics converge to a manifold in state space, which determines the possible equilibria, and show how to estimate the projection of manifold by using simulated trajectories, emitted from different initial points. We show that the effects of considering the network can be decomposed into finite-neighborhood effects, and finite-mixing...

  15. Discrete symmetries and model-independent patterns of lepton mixing

    CERN Document Server

    Hernandez, D

    2012-01-01

    In the context of discrete flavor symmetries, we elaborate a method that allows one to obtain relations between the mixing parameters in a model-independent way. Under very general conditions, we show that flavor groups of the von Dyck type, that are not necessarily finite, determine the absolute values of the entries of one column of the mixing matrix. We apply our formalism to finite subgroups of the infinite von Dyck groups, such as the modular groups, and find cases that yield an excellent agreement with the best fit values for the mixing angles. We explore the Klein group as the residual symmetry of the neutrino sector and explain the permutation property that appears between the elements of the mixing matrix in this case.

  16. Discrete symmetries and model-independent patterns of lepton mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, D.; Smirnov, A. Yu.

    2013-03-01

    In the context of discrete flavor symmetries, we elaborate a method that allows one to obtain relations between the mixing parameters in a model-independent way. Under very general conditions, we show that flavor groups of the von Dyck type, that are not necessarily finite, determine the absolute values of the entries of one column of the mixing matrix. We apply our formalism to finite subgroups of the infinite von Dyck groups, such as the modular groups, and find cases that yield an excellent agreement with the best fit values for the mixing angles. We explore the Klein group as the residual symmetry of the neutrino sector and explain the permutation property that appears between the elements of the mixing matrix in this case.

  17. Isotopic Ratios in Titan's Methane: Measurements and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, C. A.; Temelso, B.; Vinatier, S.; Teanby, N. A.; Bezard, B.; Achterberg, R. K.; Mandt, K. E.; Sherrill, C. D.; Irwin, P. G.; Jennings, D. E.; Romani, P. N.; Coustenis, A.; Flasar, F. M.

    2012-01-01

    The existence of methane in Titan's atmosphere (approx. 6% level at the surface) presents a unique enigma, as photochemical models predict that the current inventory will be entirely depleted by photochemistry in a timescale of approx 20 Myr. In this paper, we examine the clues available from isotopic ratios (C-12/C-13 and D/H) in Titan's methane as to the past atmosphere history of this species. We first analyze recent infrared spectra of CH4 collected by the Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer, measuring simultaneously for the first time the abundances of all three detected minor isotopologues: (13)CH4, (12)CH3D, and (13)CH3D. From these we compute estimates of C-12/C-13 = 86.5 +/- 8.2 and D/H = (1.59 +/- 0.33) x 10(exp -4) , in agreement with recent results from the Huygens GCMS and Cassini INMS instruments. We also use the transition state theory to estimate the fractionation that occurs in carbon and hydrogen during a critical reaction that plays a key role in the chemical depletion of Titan's methane: CH4 + C2H yields CH3 + C2H2. Using these new measurements and predictions we proceed to model the time evolution of C-12/C-13 and D/H in Titan's methane under several prototypical replenishment scenarios. In our Model 1 (no resupply of CH4), we find that the present-day C-12/C-13 implies that the CH4 entered the atmosphere 60-1600 Myr ago if methane is depleted by chemistry and photolysis alone, but much more recently-most likely less than 10 Myr ago-if hydrodynamic escape is also occurring. On the other hand, if methane has been continuously supplied at the replenishment rate then the isotopic ratios provide no constraints, and likewise for the case where atmospheric methane is increasing, We conclude by discussing how these findings may be combined with other evidence to constrain the overall history of the atmospheric methane.

  18. Plant lighting system with five wavelength-band light-emitting diodes providing photon flux density and mixing ratio control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yano Akira

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant growth and development depend on the availability of light. Lighting systems therefore play crucial roles in plant studies. Recent advancements of light-emitting diode (LED technologies provide abundant opportunities to study various plant light responses. The LED merits include solidity, longevity, small element volume, radiant flux controllability, and monochromaticity. To apply these merits in plant light response studies, a lighting system must provide precisely controlled light spectra that are useful for inducing various plant responses. Results We have developed a plant lighting system that irradiated a 0.18 m2 area with a highly uniform distribution of photon flux density (PFD. The average photosynthetic PFD (PPFD in the irradiated area was 438 micro-mol m–2 s–1 (coefficient of variation 9.6%, which is appropriate for growing leafy vegetables. The irradiated light includes violet, blue, orange-red, red, and far-red wavelength bands created by LEDs of five types. The PFD and mixing ratio of the five wavelength-band lights are controllable using a computer and drive circuits. The phototropic response of oat coleoptiles was investigated to evaluate plant sensitivity to the light control quality of the lighting system. Oat coleoptiles irradiated for 23 h with a uniformly distributed spectral PFD (SPFD of 1 micro-mol m–2 s–1 nm–1 at every peak wavelength (405, 460, 630, 660, and 735 nm grew almost straight upwards. When they were irradiated with an SPFD gradient of blue light (460 nm peak wavelength, the coleoptiles showed a phototropic curvature in the direction of the greater SPFD of blue light. The greater SPFD gradient induced the greater curvature of coleoptiles. The relation between the phototropic curvature (deg and the blue-light SPFD gradient (micro-mol m–2 s–1 nm–1 m–1 was 2 deg per 1 micro-mol m–2 s–1 nm–1 m–1. Conclusions The plant lighting system, with a computer with a

  19. Metapopulation epidemic models with heterogeneous mixing and travel behaviour

    CERN Document Server

    Apolloni, Andrea; Ramasco, Jose' J; Jensen, Pablo; Colizza, Vittoria

    2014-01-01

    The complex interplay between population movements in space and non-homogeneous mixing patterns have so far hindered the fundamental understanding of the conditions for spatial invasion through a general theoretical framework. To address this issue, we present an analytical modelling approach taking into account such interplay under general conditions of mobility and interactions, in the simplifying assumption of two population classes. We describe a spatially structured population with non-homogeneous mixing and travel behaviour through a multi-host stochastic epidemic metapopulation model. Different population partitions, mixing patterns and mobility structures are considered, along with a specific application for the study of the role of age partition in the early spread of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza. We provide a complete mathematical formulation of the model and derive a semi-analytical expression of the threshold condition for global invasion of an emerging infectious disease in the metapopulation...

  20. Fermion masses and mixing in $\\Delta(27)$ flavour model

    CERN Document Server

    Abbas, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    An extension of the Standard Model (SM) based on the non-Abelian discrete group $\\Delta(27)$ is considered. The $\\Delta(27)$ flavour symmetry is spontaneously broken only by gauge singlet scalar fields, therefore our model is free from any flavour changing neural current. We show that the model accounts simultaneously for the observed quark and lepton masses and their mixing. In the quark sector, we find that the up quark mass matrix is flavour diagonal and the Cabbibo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) mixing matrix arises from down quarks. In the lepton sector, we show that the charged lepton mass matrix is almost diagonal. We also adopt type-I seesaw mechanism to generate neutrino masses. A deviated mixing matrix from tri-bimaximal Maki-Nakagawa-Sakata (MNS), with $\\sin\\theta_{13} \\sim 0.13$ and $\\sin^2 \\theta_{23} \\sim 0.41$, is naturally produced.

  1. Error characterization of CO2 vertical mixing in the atmospheric transport model WRF-VPRM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Karstens

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the dominant uncertainties in inverse estimates of regional CO2 surface-atmosphere fluxes is related to model errors in vertical transport within the planetary boundary layer (PBL. In this study we present the results from a synthetic experiment using the atmospheric model WRF-VPRM to realistically simulate transport of CO2 for large parts of the European continent at 10 km spatial resolution. To elucidate the impact of vertical mixing error on modeled CO2 mixing ratios we simulated a month during the growing season (August 2006 with different commonly used parameterizations of the PBL (Mellor-Yamada-Janjić (MYJ and Yonsei-University (YSU scheme. To isolate the effect of transport errors we prescribed the same CO2 surface fluxes for both simulations. Differences in simulated CO2 mixing ratios (model bias were on the order of 3 ppm during daytime with larger values at night. We present a simple method to reduce this bias by 70–80% when the true height of the mixed layer is known.

  2. Empirical likelihood ratio tests for multivariate regression models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Jianhong; ZHU Lixing

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes some diagnostic tools for checking the adequacy of multivariate regression models including classical regression and time series autoregression. In statistical inference, the empirical likelihood ratio method has been well known to be a powerful tool for constructing test and confidence region. For model checking, however, the naive empirical likelihood (EL) based tests are not of Wilks' phenomenon. Hence, we make use of bias correction to construct the EL-based score tests and derive a nonparametric version of Wilks' theorem. Moreover, by the advantages of both the EL and score test method, the EL-based score tests share many desirable features as follows: They are self-scale invariant and can detect the alternatives that converge to the null at rate n-1/2, the possibly fastest rate for lack-of-fit testing; they involve weight functions, which provides us with the flexibility to choose scores for improving power performance, especially under directional alternatives. Furthermore, when the alternatives are not directional, we construct asymptotically distribution-free maximin tests for a large class of possible alternatives. A simulation study is carried out and an application for a real dataset is analyzed.

  3. Expansion of Collisional Radiative Model for Helium line ratio spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinquegrani, David; Cooper, Chris; Forest, Cary; Milhone, Jason; Munoz-Borges, Jorge; Schmitz, Oliver; Unterberg, Ezekial

    2015-11-01

    Helium line ratio spectroscopy is a powerful technique of active plasma edge spectroscopy. It enables reconstruction of plasma edge parameters like electron density and temperature by use of suitable Collisional Radiative Models (CRM). An established approach is successful at moderate plasma densities (~1018m-3 range) and temperature (30-300eV), taking recombination and charge exchange to be negligible. The goal of this work is to experimentally explore limitations of this approach to CRM. For basic validation the Madison Plasma Dynamo eXperiment (MPDX) will be used. MPDX offers a very uniform plasma and spherical symmetry at low temperature (5-20 eV) and low density (1016 -1017m-3) . Initial data from MPDX shows a deviation in CRM results when compared to Langmuir probe data. This discrepancy points to the importance of recombination effects. The validated model is applied to first time measurement of electron density and temperature in front of an ICRH antenna at the TEXTOR tokamak. These measurements are important to understand RF coupling and PMI physics at the antenna limiters. Work supported in part by start up funds of the Department of Engineering Physics at the UW - Madison, USA and NSF CAREER award PHY-1455210.

  4. Constrained variability of modeled T:ET ratio across biomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatichi, Simone; Pappas, Christoforos

    2017-07-01

    A large variability (35-90%) in the ratio of transpiration to total evapotranspiration (referred here as T:ET) across biomes or even at the global scale has been documented by a number of studies carried out with different methodologies. Previous empirical results also suggest that T:ET does not covary with mean precipitation and has a positive dependence on leaf area index (LAI). Here we use a mechanistic ecohydrological model, with a refined process-based description of evaporation from the soil surface, to investigate the variability of T:ET across biomes. Numerical results reveal a more constrained range and higher mean of T:ET (70 ± 9%, mean ± standard deviation) when compared to observation-based estimates. T:ET is confirmed to be independent from mean precipitation, while it is found to be correlated with LAI seasonally but uncorrelated across multiple sites. Larger LAI increases evaporation from interception but diminishes ground evaporation with the two effects largely compensating each other. These results offer mechanistic model-based evidence to the ongoing research about the patterns of T:ET and the factors influencing its magnitude across biomes.

  5. Mixed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pau Baya

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Remenat (Catalan (Mixed, "revoltillo" (Scrambled in Spanish, is a dish which, in Catalunya, consists of a beaten egg cooked with vegetables or other ingredients, normally prawns or asparagus. It is delicious. Scrambled refers to the action of mixing the beaten egg with other ingredients in a pan, normally using a wooden spoon Thought is frequently an amalgam of past ideas put through a spinner and rhythmically shaken around like a cocktail until a uniform and dense paste is made. This malleable product, rather like a cake mixture can be deformed pulling it out, rolling it around, adapting its shape to the commands of one’s hands or the tool which is being used on it. In the piece Mixed, the contortion of the wood seeks to reproduce the plasticity of this slow heavy movement. Each piece lays itself on the next piece consecutively like a tongue of incandescent lava slowly advancing but with unstoppable inertia.

  6. Oxygen reduction kinetics on mixed conducting SOFC model cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, F.S.

    2006-07-01

    The kinetics of the oxygen reduction reaction at the surface of mixed conducting solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cathodes is one of the main limiting factors to the performance of these promising systems. For ''realistic'' porous electrodes, however, it is usually very difficult to separate the influence of different resistive processes. Therefore, a suitable, geometrically well-defined model system was used in this work to enable an unambiguous distinction of individual electrochemical processes by means of impedance spectroscopy. The electrochemical measurements were performed on dense thin film microelectrodes, prepared by PLD and photolithography, of mixed conducting perovskite-type materials. The first part of the thesis consists of an extensive impedance spectroscopic investigation of La0.6Sr0.4Co0.8Fe0.2O3 (LSCF) microelectrodes. An equivalent circuit was identified that describes the electrochemical properties of the model electrodes appropriately and enables an unambiguous interpretation of the measured impedance spectra. Hence, the dependencies of individual electrochemical processes such as the surface exchange reaction on a wide range of experimental parameters including temperature, dc bias and oxygen partial pressure could be studied. As a result, a comprehensive set of experimental data has been obtained, which was previously not available for a mixed conducting model system. In the course of the experiments on the dc bias dependence of the electrochemical processes a new and surprising effect was discovered: It could be shown that a short but strong dc polarisation of a LSCF microelectrode at high temperature improves its electrochemical performance with respect to the oxygen reduction reaction drastically. The electrochemical resistance associated with the oxygen surface exchange reaction, initially the dominant contribution to the total electrode resistance, can be reduced by two orders of magnitude. This &apos

  7. Technology Learning Ratios in Global Energy Models; Ratios de Aprendizaje Tecnologico en Modelos Energeticos Globales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varela, M.

    2001-07-01

    The process of introduction of a new technology supposes that while its production and utilisation increases, also its operation improves and its investment costs and production decreases. The accumulation of experience and learning of a new technology increase in parallel with the increase of its market share. This process is represented by the technological learning curves and the energy sector is not detached from this process of substitution of old technologies by new ones. The present paper carries out a brief revision of the main energy models that include the technology dynamics (learning). The energy scenarios, developed by global energy models, assume that the characteristics of the technologies are variables with time. But this tend is incorporated in a exogenous way in these energy models, that is to say, it is only a time function. This practice is applied to the cost indicators of the technology such as the specific investment costs or to the efficiency of the energy technologies. In the last years, the new concept of endogenous technological learning has been integrated within these global energy models. This paper examines the concept of technological learning in global energy models. It also analyses the technological dynamics of the energy systems including the endogenous modelling of the process of technological progress. Finally, it makes a comparison of several of the most used global energy models (MARKAL, MESSAGE and ERIS) and, more concretely, about the use these models make of the concept of technological learning. (Author) 17 refs.

  8. Computer modeling of ORNL storage tank sludge mobilization and mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terrones, G.; Eyler, L.L.

    1993-09-01

    This report presents and analyzes the results of the computer modeling of mixing and mobilization of sludge in horizontal, cylindrical storage tanks using submerged liquid jets. The computer modeling uses the TEMPEST computational fluid dynamics computer program. The horizontal, cylindrical storage tank configuration is similar to the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST) at Oak Ridge National (ORNL). The MVST tank contents exhibit non-homogeneous, non-Newtonian rheology characteristics. The eventual goals of the simulations are to determine under what conditions sludge mobilization using submerged liquid jets is feasible in tanks of this configuration, and to estimate mixing times required to approach homogeneity of the contents of the tanks.

  9. The Parisi formula for mixed p-spin models

    CERN Document Server

    Panchenko, Dmitry

    2011-01-01

    The Parisi formula for the free energy in the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick and mixed p-spin models for even p \\geq 2 was proved in the seminal work of Michel Talagrand, [24]. In this paper we prove the Parisi formula for general mixed p-spin models which also include p-spin interactions for odd p. Most of the ideas used in the paper are well known and can now be combined following a recent proof of the Parisi ultrametricity conjecture in [17].

  10. PON and WiMAX Convergence Network Planning Based on Mixed Integer Programming Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lv Miao; Chen Xue

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes the characteristics of PON and WiMAX convergence network planning.Based on user coverage ratio,WiMAX channel allocation,cell radius,carrier-to-noise ratio threshold,and bandwidth constraint,we propose a mixed integer programming model solved by a Branch-Band and Heuristic Search method.Finally,the simulation result is given and analyzed.The planning method based on a mixed integer programming model can save 20 percentage of the overall planning cost,compared with the greedy algorithm.The relationship between the convergence network planning cost and frequency usage is also analyzed.The optimized planning result with the lowest cost can be acquired through the best frequency usage.

  11. Error Propagation in Equations for Geochemical Modeling of Radiogenic Isotopes in Two-Component Mixing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Surendra P Verma

    2000-03-01

    This paper presents error propagation equations for modeling of radiogenic isotopes during mixing of two components or end-members. These equations can be used to estimate errors on an isotopic ratio in the mixture of two components, as a function of the analytical errors or the total errors of geological field sampling and analytical errors. Two typical cases (``Small errors'' and ``Large errors'') are illustrated for mixing of Sr isotopes. Similar examples can be formulated for the other radiogenic isotopic ratios. Actual isotopic data for sediment and basalt samples from the Cocos plate are also included to further illustrate the use of these equations. The isotopic compositions of the predicted mixtures can be used to constrain the origin of magmas in the central part of the Mexican Volcanic Belt. These examples show the need of high quality experimental data for them to be useful in geochemical modeling of magmatic processes.

  12. Critical experiments with mixed plutonium-uranium nitrate solutions having Pu:(Pu + U) ratios greater than 0.5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Primm, R.T. III [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Lloyd, R.C.; Clayton, E.D. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1986-04-01

    A series of critical experiments was conducted with mixed plutonium-uranium nitrate solutions having Pu:(Pu+U) ratios >0.5. Three geometries and four conditions of reflection were examined. The plutonium concentrations ranged from 170 to 350 g/L. The value of k-effective for each experiment was calculated using the KENO-IV code and 27-group cross sections derived from the Evaluated Nuclear Data File B--version IV (ENDF/B-IV). The mean value for the set of 26 experiments was 1.003, with a minimum value of 0.987 and a maximum of 1.022. The spread in the distribution of calculated k-effectives is believed to be the result of uncertainties in analytical chemistry measurements. No correlation between condition of reflection and calculated k-effective was found. An allowable multiplication factor to be used in the evaluation of reprocessing equipment at conditions that have been investigated was calculated to be 0.945.

  13. SCIAMACHY observed changes in the column mixing ratio of methane over the Indian region and a comparison with global scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, M.; Nair, Prabha R.

    2017-10-01

    The trends in the column averaged mixing ratio of methane (XCH4) over the Indian region during 2003-2009 periods were studied using the SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY) observations. Considering the sensor degradation, the trends were analyzed for 2003 to 2005 and 2006 to 2009 separately. Over India, the trend in XCH4 varied from 5.2 to 7.6 ppb per year after 2005, exhibiting a 2-4 fold increase compared to 2003-2005. While the increase over Northern parts of India is attributed to increasing CH4 emissions from rice cultivation and livestock population, those over Southern regions are due to increased oil and gas mining activities. A comparison of these trends with those over most of the hotspot regions over the globe revealed that those regions exhibited higher growth rates of XCH4 compared to Indian regions during 2006-2009. The seasonal patterns of XCH4 and near-surface CH4 at selected global network stations were also examined in detail. This analysis revealed hemispheric difference and varying seasonal patterns suggesting the inhomogeneous vertical distribution of CH4. The observed differences in the seasonal patterns of near-surface CH4 and XCH4 suggest that the surface emissions need not replicate at higher altitudes due to long-range transport, the boundary layer meteorology and lifetime of CH4 in the atmosphere.

  14. POSSIBILISTIC SHARPE RATIO BASED NOVICE PORTFOLIO SELECTION MODELS

    OpenAIRE

    Rupak Bhattacharyya

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses the concept of possibilistic risk aversion to propose a new approach for portfolio selection in fuzzy environment. Using possibility theory, the possibilistic mean, variance, standard deviation and risk premium of a fuzzy number are established. Possibilistic Sharpe ratio is defined as the ratio of possibilistic risk premium and possibilistic standard deviation of a portfolio. The Sharpe ratio is a measure of the performance of the portfolio compared to the risk...

  15. A system dynamics model to determine products mix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahtab Hajghasem

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an implementation of system dynamics model to determine appropriate product mix by considering various factors such as labor, materials, overhead, etc. for an Iranian producer of cosmetic and sanitary products. The proposed model of this paper considers three hypotheses including the relationship between product mix and profitability, optimum production capacity and having minimum amount of storage to take advantage of low cost production. The implementation of system dynamics on VENSIM software package has confirmed all three hypotheses of the survey and suggested that in order to reach better mix product, it is necessary to reach optimum production planning, take advantage of all available production capacities and use inventory management techniques.

  16. The Capra Research Program for Modelling Extreme Mass Ratio Inspirals

    CERN Document Server

    Thornburg, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Suppose a small compact object (black hole or neutron star) of mass $m$ orbits a large black hole of mass $M \\gg m$. This system emits gravitational waves (GWs) that have a radiation-reaction effect on the particle's motion. EMRIs (extreme--mass-ratio inspirals) of this type will be important GW sources for LISA; LISA's data analysis will require highly accurate EMRI GW templates. In this article I outline the "Capra" research program to try to model EMRIs and calculate their GWs \\textit{ab initio}, assuming only that $m \\ll M$ and that the Einstein equations hold. Here we treat the EMRI spacetime as a perturbation of the large black hole's "background" (Schwarzschild or Kerr) spacetime and use the methods of black-hole perturbation theory, expanding in the small parameter $m/M$. The small body's motion can be described either as the result of a radiation-reaction "self-force" acting in the background spacetime or as geodesic motion in a perturbed spacetime. Several different lines of reasoning lead to the (s...

  17. Inversion of tropospheric profiles of aerosol extinction and HCHO and NO2 mixing ratios from MAX-DOAS observations in Milano during the summer of 2003 and comparison with independent data sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Platt

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We present aerosol and trace gas profiles derived from MAX-DOAS observations. Our inversion scheme is based on simple profile parameterisations used as input for an atmospheric radiative transfer model (forward model. From a least squares fit of the forward model to the MAX-DOAS measurements, two profile parameters are retrieved including integrated quantities (aerosol optical depth or trace gas vertical column density, and parameters describing the height and shape of the respective profiles. From these results, the aerosol extinction and trace gas mixing ratios can also be calculated. We apply the profile inversion to MAX-DOAS observations during a measurement campaign in Milano, Italy, September 2003, which allowed simultaneous observations from three telescopes (directed to north, west, south. Profile inversions for aerosols and trace gases were possible on 23 days. Especially in the middle of the campaign (17–20 September 2003, enhanced values of aerosol optical depth and NO2 and HCHO mixing ratios were found. The retrieved layer heights were typically similar for HCHO and aerosols. For NO2, lower layer heights were found, which increased during the day. The MAX-DOAS inversion results are compared to independent measurements: (1 aerosol optical depth measured at an AERONET station at Ispra; (2 near-surface NO2 and HCHO (formaldehyde mixing ratios measured by long path DOAS and Hantzsch instruments at Bresso; (3 vertical profiles of HCHO and aerosols measured by an ultra light aircraft. Depending on the viewing direction, the aerosol optical depths from MAX-DOAS are either smaller or larger than those from AERONET observations. Similar comparison results are found for the MAX-DOAS NO2 mixing ratios versus long path DOAS measurements. In contrast, the MAX-DOAS HCHO mixing ratios are generally higher than those from long path DOAS or Hantzsch instruments. The comparison of the HCHO and aerosol profiles from the aircraft showed reasonable

  18. Inversion of tropospheric profiles of aerosol extinction and HCHO and NO2 mixing ratios from MAX-DOAS observations in Milano during the summer of 2003 and comparison with independent data sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Li

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We present aerosol and trace gas profiles derived from MAX-DOAS observations. Our inversion scheme is based on simple profile parameterisations used as input for an atmospheric radiative transfer model (forward model. From a least squares fit of the forward model to the MAX-DOAS measurements, two profile parameters are retrieved including integrated quantities (aerosol optical depth or trace gas vertical column density, and parameters describing the height and shape of the respective profiles. From these results, the aerosol extinction and trace gas mixing ratios can also be calculated. We apply the profile inversion to MAX-DOAS observations during a measurement campaign in Milano, Italy, September 2003, which allowed simultaneous observations from three telescopes (directed to north, west, south. Profile inversions for aerosols and trace gases were possible on 23 days. Especially in the middle of the campaign (17–20 September 2003, enhanced values of aerosol optical depth and NO2 and HCHO mixing ratios were found. The retrieved layer heights were typically similar for HCHO and aerosols. For NO2, lower layer heights were found, which increased during the day. The MAX-DOAS inversion results are compared to independent measurements: (1 aerosol optical depth measured at an AERONET station at Ispra; (2 near-surface NO2 and HCHO (formaldehyde mixing ratios measured by long path DOAS and Hantzsch instruments at Bresso; (3 vertical profiles of HCHO and aerosols measured by an ultra light aircraft. Depending on the viewing direction, the aerosol optical depths from MAX-DOAS are either smaller or larger than those from AERONET observations. Similar comparison results are found for the MAX-DOAS NO2 mixing ratios versus long path DOAS measurements. In contrast, the MAX-DOAS HCHO mixing ratios are generally higher than those from long path DOAS or Hantzsch instruments. The comparison of the HCHO and aerosol profiles from the aircraft showed reasonable

  19. modelling of far modelling of far-field mixing o field mixing o ambient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Moreover, the study by [19] carried out economic analysis and ... of assimilative capacity in optimal flow pollution control and concluded by drawing attention to the need to include ... support and the theory of mixing of the pollutants in the near ...

  20. The Worm Process for the Ising Model is Rapidly Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collevecchio, Andrea; Garoni, Timothy M.; Hyndman, Timothy; Tokarev, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    We prove rapid mixing of the worm process for the zero-field ferromagnetic Ising model, on all finite connected graphs, and at all temperatures. As a corollary, we obtain a fully-polynomial randomized approximation scheme for the Ising susceptibility, and for a certain restriction of the two-point correlation function.

  1. The 4s web-marketing mix model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Constantinides, Efthymios

    2002-01-01

    This paper reviews the criticism on the 4Ps Marketing Mix framework, the most popular tool of traditional marketing management, and categorizes the main objections of using the model as the foundation of physical marketing. It argues that applying the traditional approach, based on the 4Ps paradigm,

  2. The 4s web-marketing mix model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Constantinides, Efthymios

    2002-01-01

    This paper reviews the criticism on the 4Ps Marketing Mix framework, the most popular tool of traditional marketing management, and categorizes the main objections of using the model as the foundation of physical marketing. It argues that applying the traditional approach, based on the 4Ps paradigm,

  3. Development of stable isotope mixing models in ecology - Fremantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    More than 40 years ago, stable isotope analysis methods used in geochemistry began to be applied to ecological studies. One common application is using mathematical mixing models to sort out the proportional contributions of various sources to a mixture. Examples include contri...

  4. Development of stable isotope mixing models in ecology - Dublin

    Science.gov (United States)

    More than 40 years ago, stable isotope analysis methods used in geochemistry began to be applied to ecological studies. One common application is using mathematical mixing models to sort out the proportional contributions of various sources to a mixture. Examples include contri...

  5. Historical development of stable isotope mixing models in ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    More than 40 years ago, stable isotope analysis methods used in geochemistry began to be applied to ecological studies. One common application is using mathematical mixing models to sort out the proportional contributions of various sources to a mixture. Examples include contri...

  6. Development of stable isotope mixing models in ecology - Sydney

    Science.gov (United States)

    More than 40 years ago, stable isotope analysis methods used in geochemistry began to be applied to ecological studies. One common application is using mathematical mixing models to sort out the proportional contributions of various sources to a mixture. Examples include contri...

  7. Development of stable isotope mixing models in ecology - Perth

    Science.gov (United States)

    More than 40 years ago, stable isotope analysis methods used in geochemistry began to be applied to ecological studies. One common application is using mathematical mixing models to sort out the proportional contributions of various sources to a mixture. Examples include contri...

  8. Sensitivity Analysis of Mixed Models for Incomplete Longitudinal Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shu; Blozis, Shelley A.

    2011-01-01

    Mixed models are used for the analysis of data measured over time to study population-level change and individual differences in change characteristics. Linear and nonlinear functions may be used to describe a longitudinal response, individuals need not be observed at the same time points, and missing data, assumed to be missing at random (MAR),…

  9. Longitudinal mixed-effects models for latent cognitive function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hout, van den Ardo; Fox, Jean-Paul; Muniz-Terrera, Graciela

    2015-01-01

    A mixed-effects regression model with a bent-cable change-point predictor is formulated to describe potential decline of cognitive function over time in the older population. For the individual trajectories, cognitive function is considered to be a latent variable measured through an item response t

  10. COMBINING SOURCES IN STABLE ISOTOPE MIXING MODELS: ALTERNATIVE METHODS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stable isotope mixing models are often used to quantify source contributions to a mixture. Examples include pollution source identification; trophic web studies; analysis of water sources for soils, plants, or water bodies; and many others. A common problem is having too many s...

  11. Mixed Higher Order Variational Model for Image Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel mixed higher order regularizer involving the first and second degree image derivatives is proposed in this paper. Using spectral decomposition, we reformulate the new regularizer as a weighted L1-L2 mixed norm of image derivatives. Due to the equivalent formulation of the proposed regularizer, an efficient fast projected gradient algorithm combined with monotone fast iterative shrinkage thresholding, called, FPG-MFISTA, is designed to solve the resulting variational image recovery problems under majorization-minimization framework. Finally, we demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed regularization scheme by the experimental comparisons with total variation (TV scheme, nonlocal TV scheme, and current second degree methods. Specifically, the proposed approach achieves better results than related state-of-the-art methods in terms of peak signal to ratio (PSNR and restoration quality.

  12. Practical likelihood analysis for spatial generalized linear mixed models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonat, W. H.; Ribeiro, Paulo Justiniano

    2016-01-01

    We investigate an algorithm for maximum likelihood estimation of spatial generalized linear mixed models based on the Laplace approximation. We compare our algorithm with a set of alternative approaches for two datasets from the literature. The Rhizoctonia root rot and the Rongelap are, respectiv......We investigate an algorithm for maximum likelihood estimation of spatial generalized linear mixed models based on the Laplace approximation. We compare our algorithm with a set of alternative approaches for two datasets from the literature. The Rhizoctonia root rot and the Rongelap are...... of Laplace approximation include the computation of the maximized log-likelihood value, which can be used for model selection and tests, and the possibility to obtain realistic confidence intervals for model parameters based on profile likelihoods. The Laplace approximation also avoids the tuning...

  13. Low-order models of biogenic ocean mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabiri, J. O.; Rosinelli, D.; Koumoutsakos, P.

    2009-12-01

    Biogenic ocean mixing, the process whereby swimming animals may affect ocean circulation, has primarily been studied using order-of-magnitude theoretical estimates and a small number of field observations. We describe numerical simulations of arrays of simplified animal shapes migrating in inviscid fluid and at finite Reynolds numbers. The effect of density stratification is modeled in the fluid dynamic equations of motion by a buoyancy acceleration term, which arises due to perturbations to the density field by the migrating bodies. The effects of fluid viscosity, body spacing, and array configuration are investigated to identify scenarios in which a meaningful contribution to ocean mixing by swimming animals is plausible.

  14. Dynamic Behaviors of Mix-game Model and Its Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gou, C

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes a modification to Minority Game (MG) by adding some agents who play majority game into MG. So it is referred to as Mix-game. Through simulations, this paper finds out that the fluctuations of local volatilities change a lot by adding some agents who play majority game into MG, but the stylized features of MG do not change obviously except agents with memory length 1 and2. This paper also uses mix-game to model Shanghai stock market and to do prediction about Shanghai index.

  15. Quark mixing in the discrete dark matter model

    CERN Document Server

    Toorop, Reinier de Adelhart; Morisi, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    We consider a model in which dark matter is stable as it is charged under a Z2 symmetry that is residual after an A4 flavour symmetry is broken. We consider the possibility to generate the quark masses by charging the quarks appropriately under A4. We find that it is possible to generate the CKM mixing matrix by an interplay of renormalisable and dimension-six operators. In this set-up, we predict the third neutrino mixing angle to be large and the dark matter relic density to be in the correct range. However, low energy observables - in particular meson-antimeson oscillations - strongly limit the available parameter space.

  16. Limits on Log Odds Ratios for Unidimensional Item Response Theory Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberman, Shelby J.; Holland, Paul W.; Sinharay, Sandip

    2007-01-01

    Bounds are established for log odds ratios (log cross-product ratios) involving pairs of items for item response models. First, expressions for bounds on log odds ratios are provided for one-dimensional item response models in general. Then, explicit bounds are obtained for the Rasch model and the two-parameter logistic (2PL) model. Results are…

  17. Modeling condensation with a noncondensable gas for mixed convection flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yehong

    2007-05-01

    This research theoretically developed a novel mixed convection model for condensation with a noncondensable gas. The model developed herein is comprised of three components: a convection regime map; a mixed convection correlation; and a generalized diffusion layer model. These components were developed in a way to be consistent with the three-level methodology in MELCOR. The overall mixed convection model was implemented into MELCOR and satisfactorily validated with data covering a wide variety of test conditions. In the development of the convection regime map, two analyses with approximations of the local similarity method were performed to solve the multi-component two-phase boundary layer equations. The first analysis studied effects of the bulk velocity on a basic natural convection condensation process and setup conditions to distinguish natural convection from mixed convection. It was found that the superimposed velocity increases condensation heat transfer by sweeping away the noncondensable gas accumulated at the condensation boundary. The second analysis studied effects of the buoyancy force on a basic forced convection condensation process and setup conditions to distinguish forced convection from mixed convection. It was found that the superimposed buoyancy force increases condensation heat transfer by thinning the liquid film thickness and creating a steeper noncondensable gas concentration profile near the condensation interface. In the development of the mixed convection correlation accounting for suction effects, numerical data were obtained from boundary layer analysis for the three convection regimes and used to fit a curve for the Nusselt number of the mixed convection regime as a function of the Nusselt numbers of the natural and forced convection regimes. In the development of the generalized diffusion layer model, the driving potential for mass transfer was expressed as the temperature difference between the bulk and the liquid-gas interface

  18. Fluctuations in a mixed IS-LM business cycle model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamad Talibi Alaoui

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, we extend a delayed IS-LM business cycle model by introducing an additional advance (anticipated capital stock in the investment function. The resulting model is represented in terms of mixed differential equations. For the deviating argument $au$ (advance and delay being a bifurcation parameter we investigate the local stability and the local Hopf bifurcation. Also some numerical simulations are given to support the theoretical analysis.

  19. Plasma interfacial mixing layers: Comparisons of fluid and kinetic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vold, Erik; Yin, Lin; Taitano, William; Albright, B. J.; Chacon, Luis; Simakov, Andrei; Molvig, Kim

    2016-10-01

    We examine plasma transport across an initial discontinuity between two species by comparing fluid and kinetic models. The fluid model employs a kinetic theory approximation for plasma transport in the limit of small Knudsen number. The kinetic simulations include explicit particle-in-cell simulations (VPIC) and a new implicit Vlasov-Fokker-Planck code, iFP. The two kinetic methods are shown to be in close agreement for many aspects of the mixing dynamics at early times (to several hundred collision times). The fluid model captures some of the earliest time dynamic behavior seen in the kinetic results, and also generally agrees with iFP at late times when the total pressure gradient relaxes and the species transport is dominated by slow diffusive processes. The results show three distinct phases of the mixing: a pressure discontinuity forms across the initial interface (on times of a few collisions), the pressure perturbations propagate away from the interfacial mixing region (on time scales of an acoustic transit) and at late times the pressure relaxes in the mix region leaving a non-zero center of mass flow velocity. The center of mass velocity associated with the outward propagating pressure waves is required to conserve momentum in the rest frame. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. DOE by the LANS, LLC, Los Alamos National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25396. Funding provided by the Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Program.

  20. Simple mixing model for pressurized thermal shock applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chexal, B.; Chao, J.; Nickell, R.; Griesbach, T. (Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (USA))

    1983-02-01

    The phenomenon of fluid/thermal mixing in the cold leg and downcomer of a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) has been a critical issue related to the concern of pressurized thermal shock. The question of imperfect mixing arises when the possibility of cold emergency core cooling water contacting the vessel wall during an overcooling transient could produce thermal stresses large enough to initiate a flaw in a radiation embrittled vessel wall. The temperature of the fluid in contact with the vessel wall is crucial to a determination of vessel integrity since temperature affects both the stresses and the material toughness of the vessel material. A simple mixing model is described which was developed as part of the EPRI pressurized thermal shock program for evaluation of reactor vessel integrity.

  1. Dynamic behaviours of mix-game model and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gou Cheng-Ling

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a minority game (MG) is modified by adding into it some agents who play a majority game. Such a game is referred to as a mix-game. The highlight of this model is that the two groups of agents in the mix-game have different bounded abilities to deal with historical information and to count their own performance. Through simulations,it is found that the local volatilities change a lot by adding some agents who play the majority game into the MG,and the change of local volatilities greatly depends on different combinations of historical memories of the two groups.Furthermore, the analyses of the underlying mechanisms for this finding are made. The applications of mix-game mode are also given as an example.

  2. Upscaling of Mixing Processes using a Spatial Markov Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolster, Diogo; Sund, Nicole; Porta, Giovanni

    2016-11-01

    The Spatial Markov model is a model that has been used to successfully upscale transport behavior across a broad range of spatially heterogeneous flows, with most examples to date coming from applications relating to porous media. In its most common current forms the model predicts spatially averaged concentrations. However, many processes, including for example chemical reactions, require an adequate understanding of mixing below the averaging scale, which means that knowledge of subscale fluctuations, or closures that adequately describe them, are needed. Here we present a framework, consistent with the Spatial Markov modeling framework, that enables us to do this. We apply and present it as applied to a simple example, a spatially periodic flow at low Reynolds number. We demonstrate that our upscaled model can successfully predict mixing by comparing results from direct numerical simulations to predictions with our upscaled model. To this end we focus on predicting two common metrics of mixing: the dilution index and the scalar dissipation. For both metrics our upscaled predictions very closely match observed values from the DNS. This material is based upon work supported by NSF Grants EAR-1351625 and EAR-1417264.

  3. Handbook of mixed membership models and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Airoldi, Edoardo M; Erosheva, Elena A; Fienberg, Stephen E

    2014-01-01

    In response to scientific needs for more diverse and structured explanations of statistical data, researchers have discovered how to model individual data points as belonging to multiple groups. Handbook of Mixed Membership Models and Their Applications shows you how to use these flexible modeling tools to uncover hidden patterns in modern high-dimensional multivariate data. It explores the use of the models in various application settings, including survey data, population genetics, text analysis, image processing and annotation, and molecular biology.Through examples using real data sets, yo

  4. Bayesian Option Pricing Using Mixed Normal Heteroskedasticity Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rombouts, Jeroen V.K.; Stentoft, Lars Peter

    While stochastic volatility models improve on the option pricing error when compared to the Black-Scholes-Merton model, mispricings remain. This paper uses mixed normal heteroskedasticity models to price options. Our model allows for significant negative skewness and time varying higher order...... moments of the risk neutral distribution. Parameter inference using Gibbs sampling is explained and we detail how to compute risk neutral predictive densities taking into account parameter uncertainty. When forecasting out-of-sample options on the S&P 500 index, substantial improvements are found compared...

  5. Glueball-Quarkonium Mixing in the Quark and Chromon Model

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Pengming; Xie, Ju-Jun; Yoon, J H; Cho, Y M

    2016-01-01

    The Abelian decomposition of QCD which decomposes the gluons to the color neutral binding gluons (the neurons) and the colored valence gluons (the chromons) gauge independently naturally generalizes the quark model to the quark and chromon model which can play the central role in hadron spectroscopy. We discuss how the quark and chromon model describes the glueballs and the glueball-quarkonium mixing in QCD. We present the numerical analysis of glueball-quarkonium mixing in $0^{++}$, $2^{++}$, and $0^{-+}$ sectors below 2 GeV, and show that in the $0^{++}$ sector $f_0(500)$ and $f_0(1500)$, in the $2^{++}$ sector $f_2(1950)$, and in the $0^{-+}$ sector $\\eta(1405)$ and $\\eta(1475)$ could be identified as predominantly the glueball states. We discuss the physical implications of our result.

  6. Comparison of mixed layer models predictions with experimental data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faggian, P.; Riva, G.M. [CISE Spa, Divisione Ambiente, Segrate (Italy); Brusasca, G. [ENEL Spa, CRAM, Milano (Italy)

    1997-10-01

    The temporal evolution of the PBL vertical structure for a North Italian rural site, situated within relatively large agricultural fields and almost flat terrain, has been investigated during the period 22-28 June 1993 by experimental and modellistic point of view. In particular, the results about a sunny day (June 22) and a cloudy day (June 25) are presented in this paper. Three schemes to estimate mixing layer depth have been compared, i.e. Holzworth (1967), Carson (1973) and Gryning-Batchvarova models (1990), which use standard meteorological observations. To estimate their degree of accuracy, model outputs were analyzed considering radio-sounding meteorological profiles and stability atmospheric classification criteria. Besides, the mixed layer depths prediction were compared with the estimated values obtained by a simple box model, whose input requires hourly measures of air concentrations and ground flux of {sup 222}Rn. (LN)

  7. Modelling the development of mixing height in near equatorial region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samah, A.A. [Univ. of Malaya, Air Pollution Research Unit, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    1997-10-01

    Most current air pollution models were developed for mid-latitude conditions and as such many of the empirical parameters used were based on observations taken in the mid-latitude boundary layer which is physically different from that of the equatorial boundary layer. In the equatorial boundary layer the Coriolis parameter f is small or zero and moisture plays a more important role in the control of stability and the surface energy balance. Therefore air pollution models such as the OMLMULTI or the ADMS which were basically developed for mid-latitude conditions must be applied with some caution and would need some adaptation to properly simulate the properties of equatorial boundary layer. This work elucidates some of the problems of modelling the evolution of mixing height in the equatorial region. The mixing height estimates were compared with routine observations taken during a severe air pollution episodes in Malaysia. (au)

  8. Numerical modeling of two-phase binary fluid mixing using mixed finite elements

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Shuyu

    2012-07-27

    Diffusion coefficients of dense gases in liquids can be measured by considering two-phase binary nonequilibrium fluid mixing in a closed cell with a fixed volume. This process is based on convection and diffusion in each phase. Numerical simulation of the mixing often requires accurate algorithms. In this paper, we design two efficient numerical methods for simulating the mixing of two-phase binary fluids in one-dimensional, highly permeable media. Mathematical model for isothermal compositional two-phase flow in porous media is established based on Darcy\\'s law, material balance, local thermodynamic equilibrium for the phases, and diffusion across the phases. The time-lag and operator-splitting techniques are used to decompose each convection-diffusion equation into two steps: diffusion step and convection step. The Mixed finite element (MFE) method is used for diffusion equation because it can achieve a high-order and stable approximation of both the scalar variable and the diffusive fluxes across grid-cell interfaces. We employ the characteristic finite element method with moving mesh to track the liquid-gas interface. Based on the above schemes, we propose two methods: single-domain and two-domain methods. The main difference between two methods is that the two-domain method utilizes the assumption of sharp interface between two fluid phases, while the single-domain method allows fractional saturation level. Two-domain method treats the gas domain and the liquid domain separately. Because liquid-gas interface moves with time, the two-domain method needs work with a moving mesh. On the other hand, the single-domain method allows the use of a fixed mesh. We derive the formulas to compute the diffusive flux for MFE in both methods. The single-domain method is extended to multiple dimensions. Numerical results indicate that both methods can accurately describe the evolution of the pressure and liquid level. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  9. Empirical Likelihood for Mixed-effects Error-in-variables Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu-hua Chen; Ping-shou Zhong; Heng-jian Cui

    2009-01-01

    This paper mainly introduces the method of empirical likelihood and its applications on two dif-ferent models.We discuss the empirical likelihood inference on fixed-effect parameter in mixed-effects model with error-in-variables.We first consider a linear mixed-effects model with measurement errors in both fixed and random effects.We construct the empirical likelihood confidence regions for the fixed-effects parameters and the mean parameters of random-effects.The limiting distribution of the empirical log likelihood ratio at the true parameter is χ2p+q,where p,q are dimension of fixed and random effects respectively.Then we discuss empirical likelihood inference in a semi-linear error-in-variable mixed-effects model.Under certain conditions,it is shown that the empirical log likelihood ratio at the true parameter also converges to χ2p+q.Simulations illustrate that the proposed confidence region has a coverage probability more closer to the nominal level than normal approximation based confidence region.

  10. Modelling transverse turbulent mixing in a shallow flow by using an eddy viscosity approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualtieri, C.

    2009-04-01

    The mixing of contaminants in streams and rivers is a significant problem in environmental fluid mechanics and rivers engineering since to understand the impact and the fate of pollutants in these water bodies is a primary goal of water quality management. Since most rivers have a high aspect ratio, that is the width to depth ratio, discharged pollutants become vertically mixed within a short distance from the source and vertical mixing is only important in the so-called near-field. As a rule of thumb, neutrally buoyant solute becomes fully mixed vertically within 50-75 depths from the source. Notably, vertical mixing analysis relies on well-known theoretical basis, that is Prandtl mixing length model, which assumes the hypothesis of plane turbulent shear flow and provides theoretical predictions of the vertical turbulent diffusivity which closely match experimental results. In the mid-field, the vertical concentration gradients are negligible and both subsequent transverse and longitudinal changes of the depth-averaged concentrations of the pollutants should be addressed. In the literature, for the application of one-dimensional water quality models the majority of research efforts were devoted to estimate the rate of longitudinal mixing of a contaminant, that is the development of a plume resulting from a temporally varying pollutant source once it has become cross-sectionally well-mixed, in the far-field. Although transverse mixing is a significant process in river engineering when dealing with the discharge of pollutants from point sources or the mixing of tributary inflows, no theoretical basis exists for the prediction of its rate, which is indeed based upon the results of experimental works carried on in laboratory channels or in streams and rivers. Turbulence models based on the eddy viscosity approach, such as the k-ɛ model, k-? and their variation are the most widely used turbulence models and this is largely due to their ease in implementation

  11. Assessing correlation of clustered mixed outcomes from a multivariate generalized linear mixed model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsiang-Chun; Wehrly, Thomas E

    2015-02-20

    The classic concordance correlation coefficient measures the agreement between two variables. In recent studies, concordance correlation coefficients have been generalized to deal with responses from a distribution from the exponential family using the univariate generalized linear mixed model. Multivariate data arise when responses on the same unit are measured repeatedly by several methods. The relationship among these responses is often of interest. In clustered mixed data, the correlation could be present between repeated measurements either within the same observer or between different methods on the same subjects. Indices for measuring such association are needed. This study proposes a series of indices, namely, intra-correlation, inter-correlation, and total correlation coefficients to measure the correlation under various circumstances in a multivariate generalized linear model, especially for joint modeling of clustered count and continuous outcomes. The proposed indices are natural extensions of the concordance correlation coefficient. We demonstrate the methodology with simulation studies. A case example of osteoarthritis study is provided to illustrate the use of these proposed indices. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Renormalisation Group Corrections to the Littlest Seesaw Model and Maximal Atmospheric Mixing

    CERN Document Server

    King, Stephen F; Zhou, Shun

    2016-01-01

    The Littlest Seesaw (LS) model involves two right-handed neutrinos and a very constrained Dirac neutrino mass matrix, involving one texture zero and two independent Dirac masses, leading to a highly predictive scheme in which all neutrino masses and the entire PMNS matrix is successfully predicted in terms of just two real parameters. We calculate the renormalisation group (RG) corrections to the LS predictions, with and without supersymmetry, including also the threshold effects induced by the decoupling of heavy Majorana neutrinos both analytically and numerically. We find that the predictions for neutrino mixing angles and mass ratios are rather stable under RG corrections. For example we find that the LS model with RG corrections predicts close to maximal atmospheric mixing, $\\theta_{23}=45^\\circ \\pm 1^\\circ$, in most considered cases, in tension with the latest NOvA results. The techniques used here apply to other seesaw models with a strong normal mass hierarchy.

  13. Renormalisation group corrections to the littlest seesaw model and maximal atmospheric mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Stephen F. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton,SO17 1BJ Southampton (United Kingdom); Zhang, Jue [Center for High Energy Physics, Peking University,Beijing 100871 (China); Zhou, Shun [Center for High Energy Physics, Peking University,Beijing 100871 (China); Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100049 (China)

    2016-12-06

    The Littlest Seesaw (LS) model involves two right-handed neutrinos and a very constrained Dirac neutrino mass matrix, involving one texture zero and two independent Dirac masses, leading to a highly predictive scheme in which all neutrino masses and the entire PMNS matrix is successfully predicted in terms of just two real parameters. We calculate the renormalisation group (RG) corrections to the LS predictions, with and without supersymmetry, including also the threshold effects induced by the decoupling of heavy Majorana neutrinos both analytically and numerically. We find that the predictions for neutrino mixing angles and mass ratios are rather stable under RG corrections. For example we find that the LS model with RG corrections predicts close to maximal atmospheric mixing, θ{sub 23}=45{sup ∘}±1{sup ∘}, in most considered cases, in tension with the latest NOvA results. The techniques used here apply to other seesaw models with a strong normal mass hierarchy.

  14. A marketing mix model for a complex and turbulent environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Mason

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper is based on the proposition that the choice of marketing tactics is determined, or at least significantly influenced, by the nature of the company’s external environment. It aims to illustrate the type of marketing mix tactics that are suggested for a complex and turbulent environment when marketing and the environment are viewed through a chaos and complexity theory lens. Design/Methodology/Approach: Since chaos and complexity theories are proposed as a good means of understanding the dynamics of complex and turbulent markets, a comprehensive review and analysis of literature on the marketing mix and marketing tactics from a chaos and complexity viewpoint was conducted. From this literature review, a marketing mix model was conceptualised.Findings: A marketing mix model considered appropriate for success in complex and turbulent environments was developed. In such environments, the literature suggests destabilising marketing activities are more effective, whereas stabilising type activities are more effective in simple, stable environments. Therefore the model proposes predominantly destabilising type tactics as appropriate for a complex and turbulent environment such as is currently being experienced in South Africa. Implications: This paper is of benefit to marketers by emphasising a new way to consider the future marketing activities of their companies. How this model can assist marketers and suggestions for research to develop and apply this model are provided. It is hoped that the model suggested will form the basis of empirical research to test its applicability in the turbulent South African environment. Originality/Value: Since businesses and markets are complex adaptive systems, using complexity theory to understand how to cope in complex, turbulent environments is necessary, but has not been widely researched. In fact, most chaos and complexity theory work in marketing has concentrated on marketing strategy, with

  15. MEASUREMENT AND INTERPRETATION OF ISOPRENE FLUXES AND ISOPRENE, METHACROLEIN, AND METHYL VINYL KETONE MIXING RATIOS AT THE PROPHET SITE DURING THE 1998 INTENSIVE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mixing ratios of isoprene, methyl vinyl ketone (MVK), and methacrolein (MACR) were determined continuously during an 8-day period in the summer of 1998 at a rural forested site located within the University of Michigan Biological Station (UMBS). The measurements were obtained as ...

  16. All-optical wavelength multicasting with extinction ratio enhancement using pump-modulated four-wave mixing in a dispersion-flattened nonlinear photonic crystal fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chow, K.K.; Shu, Chester; Lin, Chinlon;

    2006-01-01

    All optical wavelength multicasting at 4 x 10 Gb/s with extinction ratio enhancement has been demonstrated based on pump-modulated four-wave mixing in a nonlinear photonic crystal fiber. We show that the input signal wavelength can simultaneously convert to four different wavelengths, with a power...

  17. A single gas chromatograph for accurate atmospheric mixing ratio measurements of CO2, CH4, N2O, SF6 and CO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laan, S.; Neubert, R. E. M.; Meijer, H. A. J.; Simpson, W.R.

    2009-01-01

    We present an adapted gas chromatograph capable of measuring simultaneously and semi-continuously the atmospheric mixing ratios of the greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, N2O and SF6 and the trace gas CO with high precision and long-term stability. The novelty of our design is that all species are measured

  18. A single gas chromatograph for accurate atmospheric mixing ratio measurements of CO2, CH4, N2O, SF6 and CO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laan, S.; Neubert, R. E. M.; Meijer, H. A. J.; Simpson, W.R.

    2009-01-01

    We present an adapted gas chromatograph capable of measuring simultaneously and semi-continuously the atmospheric mixing ratios of the greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, N2O and SF6 and the trace gas CO with high precision and long-term stability. The novelty of our design is that all species are measured w

  19. Improved estimation of sediment source contributions by concentration-dependent Bayesian isotopic mixing model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram Upadhayay, Hari; Bodé, Samuel; Griepentrog, Marco; Bajracharya, Roshan Man; Blake, Will; Cornelis, Wim; Boeckx, Pascal

    2017-04-01

    The implementation of compound-specific stable isotope (CSSI) analyses of biotracers (e.g. fatty acids, FAs) as constraints on sediment-source contributions has become increasingly relevant to understand the origin of sediments in catchments. The CSSI fingerprinting of sediment utilizes CSSI signature of biotracer as input in an isotopic mixing model (IMM) to apportion source soil contributions. So far source studies relied on the linear mixing assumptions of CSSI signature of sources to the sediment without accounting for potential effects of source biotracer concentration. Here we evaluated the effect of FAs concentration in sources on the accuracy of source contribution estimations in artificial soil mixture of three well-separated land use sources. Soil samples from land use sources were mixed to create three groups of artificial mixture with known source contributions. Sources and artificial mixture were analysed for δ13C of FAs using gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The source contributions to the mixture were estimated using with and without concentration-dependent MixSIAR, a Bayesian isotopic mixing model. The concentration-dependent MixSIAR provided the closest estimates to the known artificial mixture source contributions (mean absolute error, MAE = 10.9%, and standard error, SE = 1.4%). In contrast, the concentration-independent MixSIAR with post mixing correction of tracer proportions based on aggregated concentration of FAs of sources biased the source contributions (MAE = 22.0%, SE = 3.4%). This study highlights the importance of accounting the potential effect of a source FA concentration for isotopic mixing in sediments that adds realisms to mixing model and allows more accurate estimates of contributions of sources to the mixture. The potential influence of FA concentration on CSSI signature of sediments is an important underlying factor that determines whether the isotopic signature of a given source is observable

  20. Fermion Masses and Mixing in General Warped Extra Dimensional Models

    CERN Document Server

    Frank, Mariana; Pourtolami, Nima; Toharia, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    We analyze fermion masses and mixing in a general warped extra dimensional model, where all the Standard Model (SM) fields, including the Higgs, are allowed to propagate in the bulk. In this context, a slightly broken flavor symmetry imposed universally on all fermion fields, without distinction, can generate the full flavor structure of the SM, including quarks, charged leptons and neutrinos. For quarks and charged leptons, the exponential sensitivity of their wave-functions to small flavor breaking effects yield naturally hierarchical masses and mixing as it is usual in warped models with fermions in the bulk. In the neutrino sector, the exponential wave-function factors can be flavor-blind and thus insensitive to the small flavor symmetry breaking effects, directly linking their masses and mixing angles to the flavor symmetric structure of the 5D neutrino Yukawa couplings. The Higgs must be localized in the bulk and the model is naturally more successful in generalized warped scenarios where the metric bac...

  1. Fermion masses and mixing in general warped extra dimensional models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Mariana; Hamzaoui, Cherif; Pourtolami, Nima; Toharia, Manuel

    2015-06-01

    We analyze fermion masses and mixing in a general warped extra dimensional model, where all the Standard Model (SM) fields, including the Higgs, are allowed to propagate in the bulk. In this context, a slightly broken flavor symmetry imposed universally on all fermion fields, without distinction, can generate the full flavor structure of the SM, including quarks, charged leptons and neutrinos. For quarks and charged leptons, the exponential sensitivity of their wave functions to small flavor breaking effects yield hierarchical masses and mixing as it is usual in warped models with fermions in the bulk. In the neutrino sector, the exponential wave-function factors can be flavor blind and thus insensitive to the small flavor symmetry breaking effects, directly linking their masses and mixing angles to the flavor symmetric structure of the five-dimensional neutrino Yukawa couplings. The Higgs must be localized in the bulk and the model is more successful in generalized warped scenarios where the metric background solution is different than five-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS5 ). We study these features in two simple frameworks, flavor complimentarity and flavor democracy, which provide specific predictions and correlations between quarks and leptons, testable as more precise data in the neutrino sector becomes available.

  2. Estimation of Radius Ratio in a Fin Using Inverse CFD Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjan Das

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    This article deals with the retrieval of parameters such as the radius-ratio in a rectangular fin using an inverse CFD model involving a mixed boundary condition. At first, the temperature field is obtained from a forward problem using the finite difference method (FDM in which the inner and outer radii or the radius-ratio is assumed to be known. Next, by an inverse approach using the FDM in conjunction with the genetic algorithm (GA, the inner and outer radii or the radius-ratio is retrieved. To accomplish the task, an objective function represented by the sum of square of the error between the guessed and the exact/measured temperature fields is minimized. Apart from demonstrating the suitability of the FDM

  3. A mixed model reduction method for preserving selected physical information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Zheng, Gangtie

    2017-03-01

    A new model reduction method in the frequency domain is presented. By mixedly using the model reduction techniques from both the time domain and the frequency domain, the dynamic model is condensed to selected physical coordinates, and the contribution of slave degrees of freedom is taken as a modification to the model in the form of effective modal mass of virtually constrained modes. The reduced model can preserve the physical information related to the selected physical coordinates such as physical parameters and physical space positions of corresponding structure components. For the cases of non-classical damping, the method is extended to the model reduction in the state space but still only contains the selected physical coordinates. Numerical results are presented to validate the method and show the effectiveness of the model reduction.

  4. Mixed-Membership Stochastic Block-Models for Transactional Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Shafiei, Mahdi

    2010-01-01

    Transactional network data can be thought of as a list of one-to-many communications(e.g., email) between nodes in a social network. Most social network models convert this type of data into binary relations between pairs of nodes. We develop a latent mixed membership model capable of modeling richer forms of transactional network data, including relations between more than two nodes. The model can cluster nodes and predict transactions. The block-model nature of the model implies that groups can be characterized in very general ways. This flexible notion of group structure enables discovery of rich structure in transactional networks. Estimation and inference are accomplished via a variational EM algorithm. Simulations indicate that the learning algorithm can recover the correct generative model. Interesting structure is discovered in the Enron email dataset and another dataset extracted from the Reddit website. Analysis of the Reddit data is facilitated by a novel performance measure for comparing two soft ...

  5. Renormalisation running of masses and mixings in UED models

    CERN Document Server

    Cornell, A S; Liu, Lu-Xin; Tarhini, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    We review the Universal Extra-Dimensional Model compactified on a S1/Z2 orbifold, and the renormalisation group evolution of quark and lepton masses, mixing angles and phases both in the UED extension of the Standard Model and of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model. We consider two typical scenarios: all matter fields propagating in the bulk, and matter fields constrained to the brane. The resulting renormalisation group evolution equations in these scenarios are compared with the existing results in the literature, together with their implications.

  6. Modelling of the Self Sum-Frequency-Mixing Laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xue-Yuan; LUO Zun-Du; HUANG Yi-Dong

    2001-01-01

    A theoretical model of the self sum-frequency-mixing (SFM) laser generated by a single crystal is proposed, in which spatial distribution of the pump and circulating fundamental lasers with arbitrary beam waists are taken into account. The model is then applied to two kinds of crystals of current interest, Nd:YAl3(BO3)4 and Nd:Ca4 GdO(BO3 )a. Numerical analyses of the self-SFM laser properties predict and confirm some experimental results. The model proposed is not limited to self-SFM lasers and may be applied to general analyses of the fundamental or nonlinear laser generation with Gaussian beams.

  7. A Non-Fickian Mixing Model for Stratified Turbulent Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    Berselli et al., 2011) and in ocean models ( Marques and Özgökmen, 2012). Our approach in Özgökmen et al. (2012) is perhaps the first truly multi-scale...Transport in Star Eddies: Star eddies have been observed from MODIS SST images in both the summer 2011 and winter 2012 LatMix cruises. I have...published, refereed]. Marques , G.M. and T.M. Özgökmen: On modeling the turbulent exchange in buoyancy-driven fronts. Ocean Modelling [submitted

  8. The treatment of mixing in core helium burning models - II. Constraints from cluster star counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantino, Thomas; Campbell, Simon W.; Lattanzio, John C.; van Duijneveldt, Adam

    2016-03-01

    The treatment of convective boundaries during core helium burning is a fundamental problem in stellar evolution calculations. In the first paper of this series, we showed that new asteroseismic observations of these stars imply they have either very large convective cores or semiconvection/partially mixed zones that trap g modes. We probe this mixing by inferring the relative lifetimes of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and horizontal branch (HB) from R2, the observed ratio of these stars in recent HST photometry of 48 Galactic globular clusters. Our new determinations of R2 are more self-consistent than those of previous studies and our overall calculation of R2 = 0.117 ± 0.005 is the most statistically robust now available. We also establish that the luminosity difference between the HB and the AGB clump is Δ log {L}_HB^AGB = 0.455 ± 0.012. Our results accord with earlier findings that standard models predict a lower R2 than is observed. We demonstrate that the dominant sources of uncertainty in models are the prescription for mixing and the stochastic effects that can result from its numerical treatment. The luminosity probability density functions that we derive from observations feature a sharp peak near the AGB clump. This constitutes a strong new argument against core breathing pulses, which broaden the predicted width of the peak. We conclude that the two mixing schemes that can match the asteroseismology are capable of matching globular cluster observations, but only if (i) core breathing pulses are avoided in models with a semiconvection/partially mixed zone, or (ii) that models with large convective cores have a particular depth of mixing beneath the Schwarzschild boundary during subsequent early-AGB `gravonuclear' convection.

  9. Analysis of mixed model in gear transmission based on ADAMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiufeng; Wang, Yabin

    2012-09-01

    The traditional method of mechanical gear driving simulation includes gear pair method and solid to solid contact method. The former has higher solving efficiency but lower results accuracy; the latter usually obtains higher precision of results while the calculation process is complex, also it is not easy to converge. Currently, most of the researches are focused on the description of geometric models and the definition of boundary conditions. However, none of them can solve the problems fundamentally. To improve the simulation efficiency while ensure the results with high accuracy, a mixed model method which uses gear tooth profiles to take the place of the solid gear to simulate gear movement is presented under these circumstances. In the process of modeling, build the solid models of the mechanism in the SolidWorks firstly; Then collect the point coordinates of outline curves of the gear using SolidWorks API and create fit curves in Adams based on the point coordinates; Next, adjust the position of those fitting curves according to the position of the contact area; Finally, define the loading conditions, boundary conditions and simulation parameters. The method provides gear shape information by tooth profile curves; simulates the mesh process through tooth profile curve to curve contact and offer mass as well as inertia data via solid gear models. This simulation process combines the two models to complete the gear driving analysis. In order to verify the validity of the method presented, both theoretical derivation and numerical simulation on a runaway escapement are conducted. The results show that the computational efficiency of the mixed model method is 1.4 times over the traditional method which contains solid to solid contact. Meanwhile, the simulation results are more closely to theoretical calculations. Consequently, mixed model method has a high application value regarding to the study of the dynamics of gear mechanism.

  10. Maximal atmospheric neutrino mixing in an SU(5) model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimus, W.; Lavoura, L.

    2003-05-01

    We show that maximal atmospheric and large solar neutrino mixing can be implemented in SU(5) gauge theories, by making use of the U(1) F symmetry associated with a suitably defined family number F, together with a Z2 symmetry which does not commute with F. U(1) F is softly broken by the mass terms of the right-handed neutrino singlets, which are responsible for the seesaw mechanism; in additio n, U(1) F is also spontaneously broken at the electroweak scale. In our scenario, lepton mixing stems exclusively from the right-handed-neutrino Majorana mass matrix, whereas the CKM matrix originates solely in the up-type-quark sector. We show that, despite the non-supersymmetric character of our model, unification of the gauge couplings can be achieved at a scale 1016 GeV particula r solution to this problem which yields results almost identical to the ones of the minimal supersymmetric standard model.

  11. Observations of molecular hydrogen mixing ratio and stable isotopic composition at the Cabauw tall tower in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batenburg, A. M.; Popa, M. E.; Vermeulen, A. T.; van den Bulk, W. C. M.; Jongejan, P. A. C.; Fisher, R. E.; Lowry, D.; Nisbet, E. G.; Röckmann, T.

    2016-12-01

    Measurements of the stable isotopic composition (δD(H2) or δD) of atmospheric molecular hydrogen (H2) are a useful addition to mixing ratio (χ(H2)) measurements for understanding the atmospheric H2 cycle. δD datasets published so far consist mostly of observations at background locations. We complement these with observations from the Cabauw tall tower at the CESAR site, situated in a densely populated region of the Netherlands. Our measurements show a large anthropogenic influence on the local H2 cycle, with frequently occurring pollution events that are characterized by χ(H2) values that reach up to ≈1 ppm and low δD values. An isotopic source signature analysis yields an apparent source signature below -400‰, which is much more D-depleted than the fossil fuel combustion source signature commonly used in H2 budget studies. Two diurnal cycles that were sampled at a suburban site near London also show a more D-depleted source signature (≈-340‰), though not as extremely depleted as at Cabauw. The source signature of the Northwest European vehicle fleet may have shifted to somewhat lower values due to changes in vehicle technology and driving conditions. Even so, the surprisingly depleted apparent source signature at Cabauw requires additional explanation; microbial H2 production seems the most likely cause. The Cabauw tower site also allowed us to sample vertical profiles. We found no decrease in χ(H2) at lower sampling levels (20 and 60 m) with respect to higher sampling levels (120 and 200 m). There was a significant shift to lower median δD values at the lower levels. This confirms the limited role of soil uptake around Cabauw, and again points to microbial H2 production during an extended growing season, as well as to possible differences in average fossil fuel combustion source signature between the different footprint areas of the sampling levels. So, although knowledge of the background cycle of H2 has improved over the last decade, surprising

  12. Shell Model Depiction of Isospin Mixing in sd Shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, Yi Hua; Smirnova, Nadya A. [CENBG (CNRS/IN2P3 - Universite Bordeaux 1) Chemin du Solarium, 33175 Gradignan (France); Caurier, Etienne [IPHC, IN2P3-CNRS et Universite Louis Pasteur, 67037 Strasbourg (France)

    2011-11-30

    We constructed a new empirical isospin-symmetry breaking (ISB) Hamiltonian in the sd(1s{sub 1/2}, 0d{sub 5/2} and 0d{sub 3/2}) shell-model space. In this contribution, we present its application to two important case studies: (i){beta}-delayed proton emission from {sup 22}Al and (ii) isospin-mixing correction to superallowed 0{sup +}{yields}0{sup +}{beta}-decay ft-values.

  13. The 4s web-marketing mix model

    OpenAIRE

    Constantinides, Efthymios

    2002-01-01

    This paper reviews the criticism on the 4Ps Marketing Mix framework, the most popular tool of traditional marketing management, and categorizes the main objections of using the model as the foundation of physical marketing. It argues that applying the traditional approach, based on the 4Ps paradigm, is also a poor choice in the case of virtual marketing and identifies two main limitations of the framework in online environments: the drastically diminished role of the Ps and the lack of any st...

  14. Eigenstates and eigenergies of seven bosonic modes mixing models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹志明; 李伟斌; 杨文星

    2005-01-01

    We present the explicit analytical results of all the eigenstates and eigenvalues by using a parameter λ without the assumption of Bethe ansatz for three different kinds of seven bosonic modes mixing models. It is shown that the parameter is determined by the roots of a simple polynomial. Besides, we also accurately obtain the explicit analytical expressions of infinite eigenstates and energies without any unknown parameter.

  15. Car Delay Model near Bus Stops with Mixed Traffic Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Xiaobao; Huan Mei; Gao Ziyou

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a model for estimating car delays at bus stops under mixed traffic using probability theory and queuing theory. The roadway is divided to serve motorized and nonmotorized traffic streams. Bus stops are located on the nonmotorized lanes. When buses dwell at the stop, they block the bicycles. Thus, two conflict points between car stream and other traffic stream are identified. The first conflict point occurs as bicycles merge to the motorized lane to avoid waiting behind the...

  16. Higgs-radion mixing in stabilized brane world models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boos, Edward E.; Bunichev, Viacheslav E.; Perfilov, Maxim A.; Smolyakov, Mikhail N.; Volobuev, Igor P.

    2015-11-01

    We consider a quartic interaction of the Higgs and Goldberger-Wise fields, which connects the mechanism of the extra dimension size stabilization with spontaneous symmetry breaking on our brane and gives rise to a coupling of the Higgs field to the radion and its KK tower. We estimate a possible influence of this coupling on the Higgs-radion mixing and study restrictions on model parameters from the LHC data.

  17. The Capra Research Program for Modelling Extreme Mass Ratio Inspirals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornburg, Jonathan

    2011-02-01

    Suppose a small compact object (black hole or neutron star) of mass m orbits a large black hole of mass M ≫ m. This system emits gravitational waves (GWs) that have a radiation-reaction effect on the particle's motion. EMRIs (extreme-mass-ratio inspirals) of this type will be important GW sources for LISA. To fully analyze these GWs, and to detect weaker sources also present in the LISA data stream, will require highly accurate EMRI GW templates. In this article I outline the ``Capra'' research program to try to model EMRIs and calculate their GWs ab initio, assuming only that m ≪ M and that the Einstein equations hold. Because m ≪ M the timescale for the particle's orbit to shrink is too long for a practical direct numerical integration of the Einstein equations, and because this orbit may be deep in the large black hole's strong-field region, a post-Newtonian approximation would be inaccurate. Instead, we treat the EMRI spacetime as a perturbation of the large black hole's ``background'' (Schwarzschild or Kerr) spacetime and use the methods of black-hole perturbation theory, expanding in the small parameter m/M. The particle's motion can be described either as the result of a radiation-reaction ``self-force'' acting in the background spacetime or as geodesic motion in a perturbed spacetime. Several different lines of reasoning lead to the (same) basic O(m/M) ``MiSaTaQuWa'' equations of motion for the particle. In particular, the MiSaTaQuWa equations can be derived by modelling the particle as either a point particle or a small Schwarzschild black hole. The latter is conceptually elegant, but the former is technically much simpler and (surprisingly for a nonlinear field theory such as general relativity) still yields correct results. Modelling the small body as a point particle, its own field is singular along the particle worldline, so it's difficult to formulate a meaningful ``perturbation'' theory or equations of motion there. Detweiler and Whiting found

  18. Inter-annual and seasonal variations in transport to a measuring site in western Siberia, and their impact on the observed atmospheric CO{sub 2} mixing ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eneroth, Kristina

    2002-05-01

    Inter-annual and seasonal variations in atmospheric transport to a CO{sub 2} measuring site in western Siberia were studied using three-dimensional trajectories. We identified large differences in transport between summer and winter, but also some differences between the years. Cluster analysis was applied to the trajectory data to determine to what degree different atmospheric flow patterns influence the variability of the atmospheric CO{sub 2} mixing ratio. The observed CO{sub 2} mixing ratio was also compared to observed CO{sub 2} surface fluxes to study the impact of local sources and sinks. It was found that during July the correlation between atmospheric transport from distant source regions and CO{sub 2} mixing ratios was poor. Furthermore the correlation was also weak between the CO{sub 2} mixing ratio and the local eddy flux measurements. We conclude that the short-term variability in atmospheric CO{sub 2} during summer probably is dominated by larger scale (tens up to one hundred kilometers) CO{sub 2} surface fluxes and local meteorology. The weaker biogenic CO{sub 2} fluxes during winter, resulted in CO{sub 2} mixing ratios more clearly influenced by long-range transport Of CO{sub 2}. However, the highest atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations were not observed in connection with westerly winds representing transport of polluted air from Europe, but during periods with stagnant flow conditions. It was conjected that these high CO{sub 2} mixing ratios were due to respired CO{sub 2} trapped and accumulated in the lower parts of the planetary boundary layer. The mean duration for the identified flow patterns was in the order of two days, with a maximum duration of a week. This means that to have a chance to detect variations in CO{sub 2} mixing ratio due to air mass changes the sampling frequency (e.g. flask samples and flight measurements) must be at least every other day. Our results show that the atmospheric transport varies with season, year and altitude

  19. Effects of mixing in threshold models of social behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmetzhanov, Andrei R.; Worden, Lee; Dushoff, Jonathan

    2013-07-01

    We consider the dynamics of an extension of the influential Granovetter model of social behavior, where individuals are affected by their personal preferences and observation of the neighbors’ behavior. Individuals are arranged in a network (usually the square lattice), and each has a state and a fixed threshold for behavior changes. We simulate the system asynchronously by picking a random individual and we either update its state or exchange it with another randomly chosen individual (mixing). We describe the dynamics analytically in the fast-mixing limit by using the mean-field approximation and investigate it mainly numerically in the case of finite mixing. We show that the dynamics converge to a manifold in state space, which determines the possible equilibria, and show how to estimate the projection of this manifold by using simulated trajectories, emitted from different initial points. We show that the effects of considering the network can be decomposed into finite-neighborhood effects, and finite-mixing-rate effects, which have qualitatively similar effects. Both of these effects increase the tendency of the system to move from a less-desired equilibrium to the “ground state.” Our findings can be used to probe shifts in behavioral norms and have implications for the role of information flow in determining when social norms that have become unpopular in particular communities (such as foot binding or female genital cutting) persist or vanish.

  20. Nested by design: model fitting and interpretation in a mixed model era

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schielzeth, Holger; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Freckleton, Robert

    2013-01-01

    ...‐effects models offer a powerful framework to do so. Nested effects can usually be fitted using the syntax for crossed effects in mixed models, provided that the coding reflects implicit nesting...

  1. Mixed-Symmetry Shell-Model Calculations in Nuclear Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Gueorguiev, V G

    2010-01-01

    We consider a novel approach to the nuclear shell model. The one-dimensional harmonic oscillator in a box is used to introduce the concept of an oblique-basis shell-model theory. By implementing the Lanczos method for diagonalization of large matrices, and the Cholesky algorithm for solving generalized eigenvalue problems, the method is applied to nuclei. The mixed-symmetry basis combines traditional spherical shell-model states with SU(3) collective configurations. We test the validity of this mixed-symmetry scheme on 24Mg and 44Ti. Results for 24Mg, obtained using the Wilthental USD intersection in a space that spans less than 10% of the full-space, reproduce the binding energy within 2% as well as an accurate reproduction of the low-energy spectrum and the structure of the states - 90% overlap with the exact eigenstates. In contrast, for an m-scheme calculation, one needs about 60% of the full space to obtain compatible results. Calculations for 44Ti support the mixed-mode scheme although the pure SU(3) ca...

  2. Study on system dynamics of evolutionary mix-game models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Chengling; Guo, Xiaoqian; Chen, Fang

    2008-11-01

    Mix-game model is ameliorated from an agent-based MG model, which is used to simulate the real financial market. Different from MG, there are two groups of agents in Mix-game: Group 1 plays a majority game and Group 2 plays a minority game. These two groups of agents have different bounded abilities to deal with historical information and to count their own performance. In this paper, we modify Mix-game model by assigning the evolution abilities to agents: if the winning rates of agents are smaller than a threshold, they will copy the best strategies the other agent has; and agents will repeat such evolution at certain time intervals. Through simulations this paper finds: (1) the average winning rates of agents in Group 1 and the mean volatilities increase with the increases of the thresholds of Group 1; (2) the average winning rates of both groups decrease but the mean volatilities of system increase with the increase of the thresholds of Group 2; (3) the thresholds of Group 2 have greater impact on system dynamics than the thresholds of Group 1; (4) the characteristics of system dynamics under different time intervals of strategy change are similar to each other qualitatively, but they are different quantitatively; (5) As the time interval of strategy change increases from 1 to 20, the system behaves more and more stable and the performances of agents in both groups become better also.

  3. Efficient estimation of moments in linear mixed models

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Ping; Zhu, Li-Xing; 10.3150/10-BEJ330

    2012-01-01

    In the linear random effects model, when distributional assumptions such as normality of the error variables cannot be justified, moments may serve as alternatives to describe relevant distributions in neighborhoods of their means. Generally, estimators may be obtained as solutions of estimating equations. It turns out that there may be several equations, each of them leading to consistent estimators, in which case finding the efficient estimator becomes a crucial problem. In this paper, we systematically study estimation of moments of the errors and random effects in linear mixed models.

  4. Teaching Service Modelling to a Mixed Class: An Integrated Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremiah D. DENG

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Service modelling has become an increasingly important area in today's telecommunications and information systems practice. We have adapted a Network Design course in order to teach service modelling to a mixed class of both the telecommunication engineering and information systems backgrounds. An integrated approach engaging mathematics teaching with strategies such as problem-solving, visualization, and the use of examples and simulations, has been developed. From assessment on student learning outcomes, it is indicated that the proposed course delivery approach succeeded in bringing out comparable and satisfactory performance from students of different educational backgrounds.

  5. A new estimate of the parameters in linear mixed models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王松桂; 尹素菊

    2002-01-01

    In linear mixed models, there are two kinds of unknown parameters: one is the fixed effect, theother is the variance component. In this paper, new estimates of these parameters, called the spectral decom-position estimates, are proposed, Some important statistical properties of the new estimates are established,in particular the linearity of the estimates of the fixed effects with many statistical optimalities. A new methodis applied to two important models which are used in economics, finance, and mechanical fields. All estimatesobtained have good statistical and practical meaning.

  6. An A4 x Z4 model for neutrino mixing

    CERN Document Server

    BenTov, Yoni; Zee, A

    2012-01-01

    The A4 x U(1) flavor model of He, Keum, and Volkas is extended to provide a minimal modification to tribimaximal mixing that accommodates a nonzero reactor angle theta13 ~ 0.1. The sequestering problem is circumvented by forbidding superheavy scales and large coupling constants which would otherwise generate sizable RG flows. The model is compatible with (but does not require) a stable or metastable dark matter candidate in the form of a complex scalar field with unit charge under a discrete subgroup Z4 of the U(1) flavor symmetry.

  7. Current Status of cosmological models with mixed dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Mikheeva, E V

    2000-01-01

    An analysis of cosmological mixed dark matter models in spatially flat Friedmann Universe with zero $\\Lambda$-term is presented. We argue that the introduction of cosmic gravity waves helps to satisfy observational constraints. The analysis of models is based on the confrontation with the mass function of clusters of galaxies and the CMB anisotropy. The implication of Press-Schechter formalism allowed to constrain $\\sigma_8=0.52 \\pm 0.01$. This normalisation of the spectrum of density perturbations has been used to calculate numerically the value of the large scale CMB anisotropy and the relative contribution of cosmological gravitational waves, T/S. We found that increasing $\\Omega_\

  8. A Gaussian Mixed Model for Learning Discrete Bayesian Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balov, Nikolay

    2011-02-01

    In this paper we address the problem of learning discrete Bayesian networks from noisy data. Considered is a graphical model based on mixture of Gaussian distributions with categorical mixing structure coming from a discrete Bayesian network. The network learning is formulated as a Maximum Likelihood estimation problem and performed by employing an EM algorithm. The proposed approach is relevant to a variety of statistical problems for which Bayesian network models are suitable - from simple regression analysis to learning gene/protein regulatory networks from microarray data.

  9. Mixed Portmanteau Test for Diagnostic Checking of Time Series Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohail Chand

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Model criticism is an important stage of model building and thus goodness of fit tests provides a set of tools for diagnostic checking of the fitted model. Several tests are suggested in literature for diagnostic checking. These tests use autocorrelation or partial autocorrelation in the residuals to criticize the adequacy of fitted model. The main idea underlying these portmanteau tests is to identify if there is any dependence structure which is yet unexplained by the fitted model. In this paper, we suggest mixed portmanteau tests based on autocorrelation and partial autocorrelation functions of the residuals. We derived the asymptotic distribution of the mixture test and studied its size and power using Monte Carlo simulations.

  10. Prospects of ratio and differential ({\\delta}) ratio based measurement-models: a case study for IRMS evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Datta, B P

    2015-01-01

    The suitability of a mathematical-model Y = f({Xi}) in serving a purpose whatsoever (should be preset by the function f specific input-to-output variation-rates, i.e.) can be judged beforehand. We thus evaluate here the two apparently similar models: YA = fA(SRi,WRi) = (SRi/WRi) and: YD = fd(SRi,WRi) = ([SRi,WRi] - 1) = (YA - 1), with SRi and WRi representing certain measurable-variables (e.g. the sample S and the working-lab-reference W specific ith-isotopic-abundance-ratios, respectively, for a case as the isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS)). The idea is to ascertain whether fD should represent a better model than fA, specifically, for the well-known IRMS evaluation. The study clarifies that fA and fD should really represent different model-families. For example, the possible variation, eA, of an absolute estimate as the yA (and/ or the risk of running a machine on the basis of the measurement-model fA) should be dictated by the possible Ri-measurement-variations (u_S and u_W) only: eA = (u_S + u_W); i....

  11. Lattice Boltzmann modeling of multiphase flows at large density ratio with an improved pseudopotential model

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Q; Li, X J

    2012-01-01

    Owing to its conceptual simplicity and computational efficiency, the pseudopotential multiphase lattice Boltzmann (LB) model has attracted significant attention since its emergence. In this work, we aim to extend the pseudopotential LB model to the simulations of multiphase flows at large density ratio and relatively high Reynolds number. First, based on our recent work [Li et al., Phys. Rev. E. 86, 016709 (2012)], an improved forcing scheme is proposed for the multiple-relaxation-time (MRT) pseudopotential LB model in order to achieve thermodynamic consistency and large density ratio in the model. Next, through investigating the effects of the parameter a in the Carnahan-Starling equation of state, we find that, as compared with a = 1, a = 0.25 is capable of greatly reducing the magnitude of the spurious currents at large density ratio. Furthermore, it is found that a lower liquid viscosity can be gained in the pseudopotential LB model by increasing the kinematic viscosity ratio between the vapor and liquid ...

  12. The Dependence of Global Ocean Modeling on Background Diapycnal Mixing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zengan Deng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Argo-derived background diapycnal mixing (BDM proposed by Deng et al. (in publish is introduced to and applied in Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM. Sensitive experiments are carried out using HYCOM to detect the responses of ocean surface temperature and Meridional Overturning Circulation (MOC to BDM in a global context. Preliminary results show that utilizing a constant BDM, with the same order of magnitude as the realistic one, may cause significant deviation in temperature and MOC. It is found that the dependence of surface temperature and MOC on BDM is prominent. Surface temperature is decreased with the increase of BDM, because diapycnal mixing can promote the deep cold water return to the upper ocean. Comparing to the control run, more striking MOC changes can be caused by the larger variation in BDM.

  13. Detecting the violation of variance homogeneity in mixed models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xicheng; Li, Jialiang; Wong, Weng Kee; Fu, Bo

    2016-12-01

    Mixed-effects models are increasingly used in many areas of applied science. Despite their popularity, there is virtually no systematic approach for examining the homogeneity of the random-effects covariance structure commonly assumed for such models. We propose two tests for evaluating the homogeneity of the covariance structure assumption across subjects: one is based on the covariance matrices computed from the fitted model and the other is based on the empirical variation computed from the estimated random effects. We used simulation studies to compare performances of the two tests for detecting violations of the homogeneity assumption in the mixed-effects models and showed that they were able to identify abnormal clusters of subjects with dissimilar random-effects covariance structures; in particular, their removal from the fitted model might change the signs and the magnitudes of important predictors in the analysis. In a case study, we applied our proposed tests to a longitudinal cohort study of rheumatoid arthritis patients and compared their abilities to ascertain whether the assumption of covariance homogeneity for subject-specific random effects holds. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Mixing height computation from a numerical weather prediction model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jericevic, A. [Croatian Meteorological and Hydrological Service, Zagreb (Croatia); Grisogono, B. [Univ. of Zagreb, Zagreb (Croatia). Andrija Mohorovicic Geophysical Inst., Faculty of Science

    2004-07-01

    Dispersion models require hourly values of the mixing height, H, that indicates the existence of turbulent mixing. The aim of this study was to investigate a model ability and characteristics in the prediction of H. The ALADIN, limited area numerical weather prediction (NWP) model for short-range 48-hour forecasts was used. The bulk Richardson number (R{sub iB}) method was applied to determine the height of the atmospheric boundary layer at one grid point nearest to Zagreb, Croatia. This specific location was selected because there were available radio soundings and the verification of the model could be done. Critical value of bulk Richardson number R{sub iBc}=0.3 was used. The values of H, modelled and measured, for 219 days at 12 UTC are compared, and the correlation coefficient of 0.62 is obtained. This indicates that ALADIN can be used for the calculation of H in the convective boundary layer. For the stable boundary layer (SBL), the model underestimated H systematically. Results showed that R{sub iBc} evidently increases with the increase of stability. Decoupling from the surface in the very SBL was detected, which is a consequence of the flow ease resulting in R{sub iB} becoming very large. Verification of the practical usage of the R{sub iB} method for H calculations from NWP model was performed. The necessity for including other stability parameters (e.g., surface roughness length) was evidenced. Since ALADIN model is in operational use in many European countries, this study would help the others in pre-processing NWP data for input to dispersion models. (orig.)

  15. Box-Cox Mixed Logit Model for Travel Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orro, Alfonso; Novales, Margarita; Benitez, Francisco G.

    2010-09-01

    To represent the behavior of travelers when they are deciding how they are going to get to their destination, discrete choice models, based on the random utility theory, have become one of the most widely used tools. The field in which these models were developed was halfway between econometrics and transport engineering, although the latter now constitutes one of their principal areas of application. In the transport field, they have mainly been applied to mode choice, but also to the selection of destination, route, and other important decisions such as the vehicle ownership. In usual practice, the most frequently employed discrete choice models implement a fixed coefficient utility function that is linear in the parameters. The principal aim of this paper is to present the viability of specifying utility functions with random coefficients that are nonlinear in the parameters, in applications of discrete choice models to transport. Nonlinear specifications in the parameters were present in discrete choice theory at its outset, although they have seldom been used in practice until recently. The specification of random coefficients, however, began with the probit and the hedonic models in the 1970s, and, after a period of apparent little practical interest, has burgeoned into a field of intense activity in recent years with the new generation of mixed logit models. In this communication, we present a Box-Cox mixed logit model, original of the authors. It includes the estimation of the Box-Cox exponents in addition to the parameters of the random coefficients distribution. Probability of choose an alternative is an integral that will be calculated by simulation. The estimation of the model is carried out by maximizing the simulated log-likelihood of a sample of observed individual choices between alternatives. The differences between the predictions yielded by models that are inconsistent with real behavior have been studied with simulation experiments.

  16. Estimates of free-tropospheric NO2 and HCHO mixing ratios derived from high-altitude mountain MAX-DOAS observations in the mid-latitudes and tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, S. F.; Richter, A.; Wittrock, F.; Burrows, J. P.

    2015-11-01

    In this study, mixing ratios of NO2 (XNO2) and HCHO (XHCHO) in the free troposphere are derived from two Multi-AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) data sets collected at Zugspitze (2650 m a.s.l., Germany) and Pico Espejo (4765 m a.s.l., Venezuela). The estimation of NO2 and HCHO mixing ratios is based on the modified geometrical approach, which assumes a single-scattering geometry and a scattering point altitude close to the instrument. Firstly, the horizontal optical path length (hOPL) is obtained from O4 differential slant column densities (DSCDs) in the horizontal (0°) and vertical (90°) viewing directions. Secondly, XNO2 and XHCHO are estimated from the NO2 and HCHO DSCDs at the 0 and 90° viewing directions and averaged along the obtained hOPLs. As the MAX-DOAS instrument was performing measurements in the ultraviolet region, wavelength ranges of 346-372 and 338-357 nm are selected for the DOAS analysis to retrieve NO2 and HCHO DSCDs, respectively. In order to compare the measured O4 DSCDs and moreover to perform some sensitivity tests, the radiative transfer model SCIATRAN with adapted altitude settings for mountainous terrain is operated to simulate synthetic spectra, on which the DOAS analysis is also applied. The overall agreement between measured and synthetic O4 DSCDs is better for the higher Pico Espejo station than for Zugspitze. Further sensitivity analysis shows that a change in surface albedo (from 0.05 to 0.7) can influence the O4 DSCDs, with a larger absolute difference observed for the horizontal viewing direction. Consequently, the hOPL can vary by about 5 % throughout the season, for example when winter snow cover fully disappears in summer. Typical values of hOPLs during clear sky conditions are 19 km (14 km) at Zugspitze and 34 km (26.5 km) at Pico Espejo when using the 346-372 nm (338-357 nm) fitting window. The estimated monthly values of XNO2 (XHCHO), averaged over these hOPLs during clear sky conditions, are in

  17. Estimates of free-tropospheric NO2 and HCHO mixing ratios derived from high-altitude mountain MAX-DOAS observations at midlatitudes and in the tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, Stefan F.; Richter, Andreas; Wittrock, Folkard; Burrows, John P.

    2016-03-01

    In this study, mixing ratios of NO2 (XNO2) and HCHO (XHCHO) in the free troposphere are derived from two multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) data sets collected at Zugspitze (2650 m a.s.l., Germany) and Pico Espejo (4765 m a.s.l., Venezuela). The estimation of NO2 and HCHO mixing ratios is based on the modified geometrical approach, which assumes a single-scattering geometry and a scattering point altitude close to the instrument altitude. Firstly, the horizontal optical path length (hOPL) is obtained from O4 differential slant column densities (DSCDs) in the horizontal (0°) and vertical (90°) viewing directions. Secondly, XNO2 and XHCHO are estimated from the NO2 and HCHO DSCDs at the 0° and 90° viewing directions and averaged along the obtained hOPLs. As the MAX-DOAS instrument was performing measurements in the ultraviolet region, wavelength ranges of 346-372 and 338-357 nm are selected for the DOAS analysis to retrieve NO2 and HCHO DSCDs, respectively. In order to compare the measured O4 DSCDs and moreover to perform some sensitivity tests, the radiative transfer model SCIATRAN with adapted altitude settings for mountainous terrain is operated to simulate synthetic spectra, on which the DOAS analysis is also applied. The overall agreement between measured and synthetic O4 DSCDs is better for the higher Pico Espejo station than for Zugspitze. Further sensitivity analysis shows that a change in surface albedo (from 0.05 to 0.7) can influence the O4 DSCDs, with a larger absolute difference observed for the horizontal viewing direction. Consequently, the hOPL can vary by about 5 % throughout the season, for example when winter snow cover fully disappears in summer. Typical values of hOPLs during clear-sky conditions are 19 km (14 km) at Zugspitze and 34 km (26.5 km) at Pico Espejo when using the 346-372 (338-357 nm) fitting window. The estimated monthly values of XNO2 (XHCHO), averaged over these hOPLs during clear-sky conditions

  18. Mare basalt genesis - Modeling trace elements and isotopic ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, A. B.

    1985-11-01

    Various types of mare basalt data have been synthesized, leading to the production of an internally consistent model of the mare basalt source region and mare basalt genesis. The model accounts for the mineralogical, major oxide, compatible siderophile trace element, incompatible trace element, and isotopic characteristics of most of the mare basalt units and of all the pyroclastic glass units for which reliable data are available. Initial tests of the model show that it also reproduces the mineralogy and incompatible trace element characteristics of the complementary highland anorthosite suite of rocks and, in a general way, those of the lunar granite suite of rocks.

  19. Relationship Between Column-Density and Surface Mixing Ratio: Statistical Analysis of O3 and NO2 Data from the July 2011 Maryland DISCOVER-AQ Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Clare; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Crawford, James H.; Lamsol, Lok; Krotkov, Nickolay; Herman, Jay; Weinheimer, Andrew; Chen, Gao; Liu, Xiong; Szykman, James; hide

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the ability of column (or partial column) information to represent surface air quality, results of linear regression analyses between surface mixing ratio data and column abundances for O3 and NO2 are presented for the July 2011 Maryland deployment of the DISCOVER-AQ mission. Data collected by the P-3B aircraft, ground-based Pandora spectrometers, Aura/OMI satellite instrument, and simulations for July 2011 from the CMAQ air quality model during this deployment provide a large and varied data set, allowing this problem to be approached from multiple perspectives. O3 columns typically exhibited a statistically significant and high degree of correlation with surface data (R(sup 2) > 0.64) in the P- 3B data set, a moderate degree of correlation (0.16 < R(sup 2) < 0.64) in the CMAQ data set, and a low degree of correlation (R(sup 2) < 0.16) in the Pandora and OMI data sets. NO2 columns typically exhibited a low to moderate degree of correlation with surface data in each data set. The results of linear regression analyses for O3 exhibited smaller errors relative to the observations than NO2 regressions. These results suggest that O3 partial column observations from future satellite instruments with sufficient sensitivity to the lower troposphere can be meaningful for surface air quality analysis.

  20. Linear mixed models a practical guide using statistical software

    CERN Document Server

    West, Brady T; Galecki, Andrzej T

    2014-01-01

    Highly recommended by JASA, Technometrics, and other journals, the first edition of this bestseller showed how to easily perform complex linear mixed model (LMM) analyses via a variety of software programs. Linear Mixed Models: A Practical Guide Using Statistical Software, Second Edition continues to lead readers step by step through the process of fitting LMMs. This second edition covers additional topics on the application of LMMs that are valuable for data analysts in all fields. It also updates the case studies using the latest versions of the software procedures and provides up-to-date information on the options and features of the software procedures available for fitting LMMs in SAS, SPSS, Stata, R/S-plus, and HLM.New to the Second Edition A new chapter on models with crossed random effects that uses a case study to illustrate software procedures capable of fitting these models Power analysis methods for longitudinal and clustered study designs, including software options for power analyses and suggest...

  1. Mixed-model Regression for Variable-star Photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dose, Eric

    2016-05-01

    Mixed-model regression, a recent advance from social-science statistics, applies directly to reducing one night's photometric raw data, especially for variable stars in fields with multiple comparison stars. One regression model per filter/passband yields any or all of: transform values, extinction values, nightly zero-points, rapid zero-point fluctuations ("cirrus effect"), ensemble comparisons, vignette and gradient removal arising from incomplete flat-correction, check-star and target-star magnitudes, and specific indications of unusually large catalog magnitude errors. When images from several different fields of view are included, the models improve without complicating the calculations. The mixed-model approach is generally robust to outliers and missing data points, and it directly yields 14 diagnostic plots, used to monitor data set quality and/or residual systematic errors - these diagnostic plots may in fact turn out to be the prime advantage of this approach. Also presented is initial work on a split-annulus approach to sky background estimation, intended to address the sensitivity of photometric observations to noise within the sky-background annulus.

  2. Mixing Study in an Unbaffled Stirred Precipitator Using LES Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murielle Bertrand

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the CFD modelling of a reactor operating in the nuclear industry using LES approach. The reactor consists of an unbaffled stirred tank reactor in which plutonium precipitation reactions are carried out. The flow generated in such a precipitator is complex and there is very little information available in the literature about unbaffled reactors stirred with magnetic rod. That is why a hydrodynamic modelling has been developed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD in order to get accurate description of mixing phenomena inside the precipitator and therefore to be able to predict the solid particle properties. Due to the strong turbulence anisotropy, the turbulence transport simulation is achieved by a large eddy simulation (LES approach which gives unsteady solutions. The numerical simulations are performed in 3D using the Trio_U code developed at the Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique. The predictive performances of the modelling are analysed through a mixing phenomena study. Both experimental and numerical studies are performed. This work shows how hydrodynamics inside the reactor can have a noticeable effect on the precipitate properties and how LES modelling is a very effective tool for the process control.

  3. Modelling rainfall amounts using mixed-gamma model for Kuantan district

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Roslinazairimah; Moslim, Nor Hafizah

    2017-05-01

    An efficient design of flood mitigation and construction of crop growth models depend upon good understanding of the rainfall process and characteristics. Gamma distribution is usually used to model nonzero rainfall amounts. In this study, the mixed-gamma model is applied to accommodate both zero and nonzero rainfall amounts. The mixed-gamma model presented is for the independent case. The formulae of mean and variance are derived for the sum of two and three independent mixed-gamma variables, respectively. Firstly, the gamma distribution is used to model the nonzero rainfall amounts and the parameters of the distribution (shape and scale) are estimated using the maximum likelihood estimation method. Then, the mixed-gamma model is defined for both zero and nonzero rainfall amounts simultaneously. The formulae of mean and variance for the sum of two and three independent mixed-gamma variables derived are tested using the monthly rainfall amounts from rainfall stations within Kuantan district in Pahang Malaysia. Based on the Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness of fit test, the results demonstrate that the descriptive statistics of the observed sum of rainfall amounts is not significantly different at 5% significance level from the generated sum of independent mixed-gamma variables. The methodology and formulae demonstrated can be applied to find the sum of more than three independent mixed-gamma variables.

  4. Effect of methanol ratio in mixed solvents on optical properties and wettability of ZnO films by cathodic electrodeposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Miao; Xu, Kai; Jiang, Xishun; Yang, Lei; He, Gang; Song, Xueping [School of Physics and Material Science, Anhui University, Hefei 230601 (China); Sun, Zhaoqi, E-mail: szq@ahu.edu.cn [School of Physics and Material Science, Anhui University, Hefei 230601 (China); Lv, Jianguo, E-mail: lvjg1@163.com [School of Electronic and Information Engineering, Hefei Normal University, Hefei 230601 (China)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • Different surface morphologies of ZnO films were prepared by cathodic electrodeposition. • The surface morphologies are controlled through add different ratio methanol to electrolyte. • The morphology changes from nanorods with hexagonal structure to net-like nanostructure. • The wettability of films shows obvious change with increasing methanol ratio. • The maximum light-induced CA change has been observed with the methanol ratio of 0.8. - Abstract: ZnO thin films were prepared in the electrolyte with different methanol ratio by cathodic electrodeposition method. Microstructure, surface morphology, optical properties and wettability of the thin films were investigated by X-ray diffractometer, field-emission scanning electron microscope, ultraviolet–visible spectroscope, fluorescence spectrometer and water contact angle apparatus. Increase of methanol ratio in the solvents may restrain the (0 0 2) plane preferential orientation in some extent. Change of current density curves with the ratio of methanol in the solution play a vital role on electrochemical reaction kinetics, microstructure and/or surface morphology of ZnO thin films. With the methanol ratio increase from 0 to 0.8, the surface morphology changes from nanorods to net-like nanostructure. The adsorbed NO{sub 3}{sup −} ions on the polar planes hinder the crystal growth along the c-axis and redirect the growth direction along the nonpolar planes. The maximum and minimum band gaps have been obtained in the ZnO thin films with the methanol ratio of 0.4 and 0.6, respectively. Change of contact angle before UV irradiation may be related to surface morphology and oxygen vacancies. The maximum light-induced water contact angle change has been observed in the sample with the methanol ratio of 0.8. The results may be attributed to the higher surface roughness and net-like morphology.

  5. The Influences of Mg2+ , Ca2+ and Mg2+/Ca2+ Ratio in Mixed Seawater on the Emergence Rate of Penaeus japonicus Postlarva

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    臧维玲; 戴习林; 江敏; 姚庆祯; 蔡云龙; 罗春芳; 徐桂荣; 丁福江

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports the approprite ranges of Mg2+ , Ca2 + and their ratio Mg2 +/Ca2 + inmixed seawater for rearing of Penaeus japonicus larvae. The ranges for the above three indices are1150- 1450 mg/L, 360- 440 mg/L and 2.8 - 3.4, respectively. The proper sahnity range ofmixed seawater is 22.1 - 33.8 obtained by mixing estuarine water and concentrated seawater.

  6. Tropospheric mixing ratios of NO and NOy obtained during TROPOZ II in the latitude region 67 deg N-56 deg S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrer, F.; Bruening, D.; Ehhalt, D.H. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Atmosphaerische Chemie

    1997-12-31

    Tropospheric mixing ratios of NO and NOy were measured along the flight track of the TROPOZ II aircraft campaign. These measurements cover regions along the east coast of North America, the Pacific and Atlantic coast of South America and the Atlantic coast of North Africa and Europe. The meteorological conditions are close to the climatological mean: westerly winds at high and mid latitudes, variable and weak winds at low latitudes. (author) 2 refs.

  7. Linking effort and fishing mortality in a mixed fisheries model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, Thomas Talund; Hoff, Ayoe; Frost, Hans Staby

    2012-01-01

    in fish stocks has led to overcapacity in many fisheries, leading to incentives for overfishing. Recent research has shown that the allocation of effort among fleets can play an important role in mitigating overfishing when the targeting covers a range of species (multi-species—i.e., so-called mixed...... fisheries), while simultaneously optimising the overall economic performance of the fleets. The so-called FcubEcon model, in particular, has elucidated both the biologically and economically optimal method for allocating catches—and thus effort—between fishing fleets, while ensuring that the quotas...

  8. ROBUST ESTIMATION IN PARTIAL LINEAR MIXED MODEL FOR LONGITUDINAL DATA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin Guoyou; Zhu Zhongyi

    2008-01-01

    In this article, robust generalized estimating equation for the analysis of par- tial linear mixed model for longitudinal data is used. The authors approximate the non- parametric function by a regression spline. Under some regular conditions, the asymptotic properties of the estimators are obtained. To avoid the computation of high-dimensional integral, a robust Monte Carlo Newton-Raphson algorithm is used. Some simulations are carried out to study the performance of the proposed robust estimators. In addition, the authors also study the robustness and the efficiency of the proposed estimators by simulation. Finally, two real longitudinal data sets are analyzed.

  9. Delta-tilde interpretation of standard linear mixed model results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brockhoff, Per Bruun; Amorim, Isabel de Sousa; Kuznetsova, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    effects relative to the residual error and to choose the proper effect size measure. For multi-attribute bar plots of F-statistics this amounts, in balanced settings, to a simple transformation of the bar heights to get them transformed into depicting what can be seen as approximately the average pairwise...... for factors with differences in number of levels. For mixed models, where in general the relevant error terms for the fixed effects are not the pure residual error, it is suggested to base the d-prime-like interpretation on the residual error. The methods are illustrated on a multifactorial sensory profile...... inherently challenging effect size measure estimates in ANOVA settings....

  10. A model for imperfect mixing in a CSTR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Eli, Kedma; Noyes, Richard M.

    1986-09-01

    When a chemical reaction is carried out in a continuously stirred tank reactor, the behavior may be significantly affected by the efficiency with which the entering chemicals are mixed with the main contents of the reactor. We have developed a model for this effect which assumes that a feed of premixed chemicals remains for a while in totally segregated packets before they are rapidly and perfectly mixed with the rest of the system. The time of this initial segregation is affected by the efficiency of stirring in the reactor. The model has been tested by computations on a mechanism developed by Roelofs et al. for a reaction which would oscillate even in a closed system. It has also been tested by computations on the rapid autocatalytic oxidation of cerous ion by bromate in the presence of a small amount of bromide. The results are qualitatively consistent with effects observed experimentally and in computations with other models including a somewhat similar one by Kumpinsky and Epstein. More quantitative tests should recognize the difference whether two streams of chemicals enter the reactor independently or are premixed before they do so.

  11. Modeling of speed distribution for mixed bicycle traffic flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Xu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Speed is a fundamental measure of traffic performance for highway systems. There were lots of results for the speed characteristics of motorized vehicles. In this article, we studied the speed distribution for mixed bicycle traffic which was ignored in the past. Field speed data were collected from Hangzhou, China, under different survey sites, traffic conditions, and percentages of electric bicycle. The statistics results of field data show that the total mean speed of electric bicycles is 17.09 km/h, 3.63 km/h faster and 27.0% higher than that of regular bicycles. Normal, log-normal, gamma, and Weibull distribution models were used for testing speed data. The results of goodness-of-fit hypothesis tests imply that the log-normal and Weibull model can fit the field data very well. Then, the relationships between mean speed and electric bicycle proportions were proposed using linear regression models, and the mean speed for purely electric bicycles or regular bicycles can be obtained. The findings of this article will provide effective help for the safety and traffic management of mixed bicycle traffic.

  12. REGRESSION ANALYSIS OF PRODUCTIVITY USING MIXED EFFECT MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siana Halim

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Production plants of a company are located in several areas that spread across Middle and East Java. As the production process employs mostly manpower, we suspected that each location has different characteristics affecting the productivity. Thus, the production data may have a spatial and hierarchical structure. For fitting a linear regression using the ordinary techniques, we are required to make some assumptions about the nature of the residuals i.e. independent, identically and normally distributed. However, these assumptions were rarely fulfilled especially for data that have a spatial and hierarchical structure. We worked out the problem using mixed effect model. This paper discusses the model construction of productivity and several characteristics in the production line by taking location as a random effect. The simple model with high utility that satisfies the necessary regression assumptions was built using a free statistic software R version 2.6.1.

  13. Integrable mixing of A_{n-1} type vertex models

    CERN Document Server

    Grillo, S

    2002-01-01

    Given a family of monodromy matrices {T_u; u=1,...,K} corresponding to integrable anisotropic vertex models of A_{n_u-1}-type, we build up a related mixed vertex model by means of gluing the lattices on which they are defined, in such a way that integrability property is preserved. Algebraically, the gluing process is implemented through one dimensional representations of rectangular matrix algebras A(R_p,R_q), where R_n indicates the R-matrix associated to the standard Hopf algebra deformation of the simple Lie algebra A_{n-1}. We show that algebraic Bethe ansatz can be applied, and the resulting nested equations are identical to the ones corresponding to an A_{n-1} quasi- periodic model with n=min{n_u; u=1,...,K}.

  14. GA Based Clustering of Mixed Data Type of Attributes (Numeric, Categorical, Ordinal, Binary and Ratio-Scaled)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rohit Rastogi; Pinki Mondal; Kritika Agarwal; Rachit Gupta;

    2015-01-01

    .... Data mining and data clustering, the prominent field of today it is a highly desirable task to apply unsupervised classification analysis on high volume of data sets with combined ordinal, ratio...

  15. Continuous anaerobic co-digestion of Ulva biomass and cheese whey at varying substrate mixing ratios: Different responses in two reactors with different operating regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Heejung; Kim, Jaai; Lee, Changsoo

    2016-12-01

    The feasibility of co-digestion of Ulva with whey was investigated at varying substrate mixing ratios in two continuous reactors run with increasing and decreasing proportions of Ulva, respectively. Co-digestion with whey proved beneficial to the biomethanation of Ulva, with the methane yield being greater by up to 1.6-fold in co-digestion phases than in the Ulva mono-digestion phases. The experimental reactors responded differently, in terms of process performance and community structure, to the changes in the substrate mixing ratio. This can be attributed to the different operating regimes between two reactors, which may have caused the microbial communities to develop in different ways to acclimate. Methanosaeta-related populations were the predominant methanogens responsible for the production of methane regardless of different substrate mixing ratios in both reactors. Considering the methane recovery and the Ulva treatment capacity, the optimal fraction of Ulva in the substrate mixture is suggested to be 50-75%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A model composition for Mars derived from the oxygen isotopic ratios of martian/SNC meteorites. [Abstract only

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, J. S.

    1994-01-01

    Oxygen is the most abundant element in most meteorites, yet the ratios of its isotopes are seldom used to constrain the compositional history of achondrites. The two major achondrite groups have O isotope signatures that differ from any plausible chondritic precursors and lie between the ordinary and carbonaceous chondrite domains. If the assumption is made that the present global sampling of chondritic meteorites reflects the variability of O reservoirs at the time of planetessimal/planet aggregation in the early nebula, then the O in these groups must reflect mixing between known chondritic reservoirs. This approach, in combination with constraints based on Fe-Mn-Mg systematics, has been used previously to model the composition of the basaltic achondrite parent body (BAP) and provides a model precursor composition that is generally consistent with previous eucrite parent body (EPB) estimates. The same approach is applied to Mars exploiting the assumption that the SNC and related meteorites sample the martian lithosphere. Model planet and planetesimal compositions can be derived by mixing of known chondritic components using O isotope ratios as the fundamental compositional constraint. The major- and minor-element composition for Mars derived here and that derived previously for the basaltic achondrite parent body are, in many respects, compatible with model compositions generated using completely independent constraints. The role of volatile elements and alkalis in particular remains a major difficulty in applying such models.

  17. The investigations of changes in mineral-organic and carbon-phosphate ratios in the mixed saliva by synchrotron infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seredin, Pavel; Goloshchapov, Dmitry; Kashkarov, Vladimir; Ippolitov, Yuri; Bambery, Keith

    The objective of this study was to investigate the efficiency of the saturation of mixed saliva by mineral complexes and groups necessary for the remineralisation of tooth enamel using exogenous and endogenous methods of caries prevention. Using IR spectroscopy and high-intensity synchrotron radiation, changes in the composition of the human mixed saliva were identified when exogenous and endogenous methods of caries prevention are employed. Based on the calculations of mineral/organic and carbon/phosphate ratios, changes in the composition of the human mixed saliva depending on a certain type of prevention were identified. It is shown that the use of a toothpaste (exogenous prevention) alone based on a multi-mineral complex including calcium glycerophosphate provides only a short-term effect of saturating the oral cavity with mineral complexes and groups. Rinsing of the oral cavity with water following the preventive use of a toothpaste completely removes the effect of the saturation of the mixed saliva with mineral groups and complexes. The use of tablets of a multi-mineral complex with calcium glycerophosphate (endogenous prevention) in combination with exogenous prevention causes an average increase of ∼10% in the content of mineral groups and complexes in the mixed saliva and allows long-term saturation of the oral fluid by them. This method outperforms the exogenous one owing to a long-term effect of optimal concentrations of endogenous and biologically available derivatives of phosphates on the enamel surface.

  18. Mixing height derived from the DMI-HIRLAM NWP model, and used for ETEX dispersion modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, J.H.; Rasmussen, A. [Danish Meteorological Inst., Copenhagen (Denmark)

    1997-10-01

    For atmospheric dispersion modelling it is of great significance to estimate the mixing height well. Mesoscale and long-range diffusion models using output from numerical weather prediction (NWP) models may well use NWP model profiles of wind, temperature and humidity in computation of the mixing height. This is dynamically consistent, and enables calculation of the mixing height for predicted states of the atmosphere. In autumn 1994, the European Tracer Experiment (ETEX) was carried out with the objective to validate atmospheric dispersion models. The Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI) participates in the model evaluations with the Danish Emergency Response Model of the Atmosphere (DERMA) using NWP model data from the DMI version of the High Resolution Limited Area Model (HIRLAM) as well as from the global model of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF). In DERMA, calculation of mixing heights are performed based on a bulk Richardson number approach. Comparing with tracer gas measurements for the first ETEX experiment, a sensitivity study is performed for DERMA. Using DMI-HIRLAM data, the study shows that optimum values of the critical bulk Richardson number in the range 0.15-0.35 are adequate. These results are in agreement with recent mixing height verification studies against radiosonde data. The fairly large range of adequate critical values is a signature of the robustness of the method. Direct verification results against observed missing heights from operational radio-sondes released under the ETEX plume are presented. (au) 10 refs.

  19. Level 2 processing for the imaging Fourier transform spectrometer GLORIA: derivation and validation of temperature and trace gas volume mixing ratios from calibrated dynamics mode spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ungermann

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Gimballed Limb Observer for Radiance Imaging of the Atmosphere (GLORIA is an airborne infrared limb imager combining a two-dimensional infrared detector with a Fourier transform spectrometer. It was operated aboard the new German Gulfstream G550 High Altitude LOng Range (HALO research aircraft during the Transport And Composition in the upper Troposphere/lowermost Stratosphere (TACTS and Earth System Model Validation (ESMVAL campaigns in summer 2012. This paper describes the retrieval of temperature and trace gas (H2O, O3, HNO3 volume mixing ratios from GLORIA dynamics mode spectra that are spectrally sampled every 0.625 cm−1. A total of 26 integrated spectral windows are employed in a joint fit to retrieve seven targets using consecutively a fast and an accurate tabulated radiative transfer model. Typical diagnostic quantities are provided including effects of uncertainties in the calibration and horizontal resolution along the line of sight. Simultaneous in situ observations by the Basic Halo Measurement and Sensor System (BAHAMAS, the Fast In-situ Stratospheric Hygrometer (FISH, an ozone detector named Fairo, and the Atmospheric chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (AIMS allow a validation of retrieved values for three flights in the upper troposphere/lowermost stratosphere region spanning polar and sub-tropical latitudes. A high correlation is achieved between the remote sensing and the in situ trace gas data, and discrepancies can to a large extent be attributed to differences in the probed air masses caused by different sampling characteristics of the instruments. This 1-D processing of GLORIA dynamics mode spectra provides the basis for future tomographic inversions from circular and linear flight paths to better understand selected dynamical processes of the upper troposphere and lowermost stratosphere.

  20. Contrasting winter and summer VOC mixing ratios at a forest site in the Western Mediterranean Basin: the effect of local biogenic emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seco, R.; Peñuelas, J.; Filella, I.; Llusià, J.; Molowny-Horas, R.; Schallhart, S.; Metzger, A.; Müller, M.; Hansel, A.

    2011-12-01

    Atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are involved in ozone and aerosol generation, thus having implications for air quality and climate. VOCs and their emissions by vegetation also have important ecological roles as they can protect plants from stresses and act as communication cues between plants and between plants and animals. In spite of these key environmental and biological roles, the reports on seasonal and daily VOC mixing ratios in the literature for Mediterranean natural environments are scarce. We conducted seasonal (winter and summer) measurements of VOC mixing ratios in an elevated (720 m a.s.l.) holm oak Mediterranean forest site near the metropolitan area of Barcelona (NE Iberian Peninsula). Methanol was the most abundant compound among all the VOCs measured in both seasons. While aromatic VOCs showed almost no seasonal variability, short-chain oxygenated VOCs presented higher mixing ratios in summer, presumably due to greater emission by vegetation and increased photochemistry, both enhanced by the high temperatures and solar radiation in summer. Isoprenoid VOCs showed the biggest seasonal change in mixing ratios: they increased by one order of magnitude in summer, as a result of the vegetation's greater physiological activity and emission rates. The maximum diurnal concentrations of ozone increased in summer too, most likely due to more intense photochemical activity and the higher levels of VOCs in the air. The daily variation of VOC mixing ratios was mainly governed by the wind regime of the mountain, as the majority of the VOC species analyzed followed a very similar diel cycle. Mountain and sea breezes that develop after sunrise advect polluted air masses to the mountain. These polluted air masses had previously passed over the urban and industrial areas surrounding the Barcelona metropolitan area, where they were enriched in NOx and in VOCs of biotic and abiotic origin. Moreover, these polluted air masses receive additional biogenic

  1. Contrasting winter and summer VOC mixing ratios at a forest site in the Western Mediterranean Basin: the effect of local biogenic emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Seco

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs are involved in ozone and aerosol generation, thus having implications for air quality and climate. VOCs and their emissions by vegetation also have important ecological roles as they can protect plants from stresses and act as communication cues between plants and between plants and animals. In spite of these key environmental and biological roles, the reports on seasonal and daily VOC mixing ratios in the literature for Mediterranean natural environments are scarce.

    We conducted seasonal (winter and summer measurements of VOC mixing ratios in an elevated (720 m a.s.l. holm oak Mediterranean forest site near the metropolitan area of Barcelona (NE Iberian Peninsula. Methanol was the most abundant compound among all the VOCs measured in both seasons. While aromatic VOCs showed almost no seasonal variability, short-chain oxygenated VOCs presented higher mixing ratios in summer, presumably due to greater emission by vegetation and increased photochemistry, both enhanced by the high temperatures and solar radiation in summer. Isoprenoid VOCs showed the biggest seasonal change in mixing ratios: they increased by one order of magnitude in summer, as a result of the vegetation's greater physiological activity and emission rates. The maximum diurnal concentrations of ozone increased in summer too, most likely due to more intense photochemical activity and the higher levels of VOCs in the air.

    The daily variation of VOC mixing ratios was mainly governed by the wind regime of the mountain, as the majority of the VOC species analyzed followed a very similar diel cycle. Mountain and sea breezes that develop after sunrise advect polluted air masses to the mountain. These polluted air masses had previously passed over the urban and industrial areas surrounding the Barcelona metropolitan area, where they were enriched in NOx and in VOCs of biotic and abiotic origin. Moreover, these

  2. System dynamics of behaviour-evolutionary mix-game models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Cheng-Ling; Gao, Jie-Ping; Chen, Fang

    2010-11-01

    In real financial markets there are two kinds of traders: one is fundamentalist, and the other is a trend-follower. The mix-game model is proposed to mimic such phenomena. In a mix-game model there are two groups of agents: Group 1 plays the majority game and Group 2 plays the minority game. In this paper, we investigate such a case that some traders in real financial markets could change their investment behaviours by assigning the evolutionary abilities to agents: if the winning rates of agents are smaller than a threshold, they will join the other group; and agents will repeat such an evolution at certain time intervals. Through the simulations, we obtain the following findings: (i) the volatilities of systems increase with the increase of the number of agents in Group 1 and the times of behavioural changes of all agents; (ii) the performances of agents in both groups and the stabilities of systems become better if all agents take more time to observe their new investment behaviours; (iii) there are two-phase zones of market and non-market and two-phase zones of evolution and non-evolution; (iv) parameter configurations located within the cross areas between the zones of markets and the zones of evolution are suited for simulating the financial markets.

  3. System dynamics of behaviour-evolutionary mix-game models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gou Cheng-Ling; Gao Jie-Ping; Chen Fang

    2010-01-01

    In real financial markets there are two kinds of traders:one is fundamentalist,and the other is a trend-follower.The mix-game model is proposed to mimic such phenomena.In a mix-game model there are two groups of agents:Group 1 plays the majority game and Group 2 plays the minority game.In this paper,we investigate such a case that some traders in real financial markets could change their investment behaviours by assigning the evolutionary abilities to agents:if the winning rates of agents are smaller than a threshold,they will join the other group;and agents will repeat such an evolution at certain time intervals.Through the simulations,we obtain the following findings:(i) the volatilities of systems increase with the increase of the number of agents in Group 1 and the times of behavioural changes of all agents;(ii) the performances of agents in both groups and the stabilities of systems become better if all agents take more time to observe their new investment behaviours;(iii) there are two-phase zones of market and non-market and two-phase zones of evolution and non-evolution;(iv) parameter configurations located within the cross areas between the zones of markets and the zones of evolution are suited for simulating the financial markets.

  4. A modified EM algorithm for estimation in generalized mixed models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, B M

    1996-12-01

    Application of the EM algorithm for estimation in the generalized mixed model has been largely unsuccessful because the E-step cannot be determined in most instances. The E-step computes the conditional expectation of the complete data log-likelihood and when the random effect distribution is normal, this expectation remains an intractable integral. The problem can be approached by numerical or analytic approximations; however, the computational burden imposed by numerical integration methods and the absence of an accurate analytic approximation have limited the use of the EM algorithm. In this paper, Laplace's method is adapted for analytic approximation within the E-step. The proposed algorithm is computationally straightforward and retains much of the conceptual simplicity of the conventional EM algorithm, although the usual convergence properties are not guaranteed. The proposed algorithm accommodates multiple random factors and random effect distributions besides the normal, e.g., the log-gamma distribution. Parameter estimates obtained for several data sets and through simulation show that this modified EM algorithm compares favorably with other generalized mixed model methods.

  5. Effect of fuel-to-nitrate ratio on the powder characteristics of nanosized CeO{sub 2} synthesized by mixed fuel combustion method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palneedi, Haribabu; Mangam, Venu; Das, Siddhartha [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Das, Karabi, E-mail: karabi@metal.iitkgp.ernet.in [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India)

    2011-10-13

    Highlights: > Preparation of nanosized ceria powder by mixed fuel combustion synthesis. > Effect of variation of fuel-to-nitrate ratio on the powder characteristics. > Correlation between the results of XRD, Raman spectroscopy, and BET surface analysis. - Abstract: Synthesis of nanocrystalline ceria powders is carried out through the mixed fuel combustion approach by using different combinations of glycine and citric acid. The powders obtained with different fuel-to-nitrate (F/N) ratios are characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), BET surface area analysis, and Raman spectroscopy. TGA and FTIR spectroscopy studies have revealed the presence of carbonaceous species and residual volatiles in the combustion synthesized ceria powders. It is observed that the variation of fuel-to-nitrate ratio has a profound influence on the carbonaceous residues from combustion, crystallite size (11-44 nm), surface area (9-39 m{sup 2}/g) and morphology of the resultant powders. The Raman spectroscopy results on the variation of particle size with F/N ratio are consistent with the conclusions made from X-ray line broadening and BET surface area analysis.

  6. Goodness-of-fit tests in mixed models

    KAUST Repository

    Claeskens, Gerda

    2009-05-12

    Mixed models, with both random and fixed effects, are most often estimated on the assumption that the random effects are normally distributed. In this paper we propose several formal tests of the hypothesis that the random effects and/or errors are normally distributed. Most of the proposed methods can be extended to generalized linear models where tests for non-normal distributions are of interest. Our tests are nonparametric in the sense that they are designed to detect virtually any alternative to normality. In case of rejection of the null hypothesis, the nonparametric estimation method that is used to construct a test provides an estimator of the alternative distribution. © 2009 Sociedad de Estadística e Investigación Operativa.

  7. A mixing evolution model for bidirectional microblog user networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wei-Guo; Liu, Yun

    2015-08-01

    Microblogs have been widely used as a new form of online social networking. Based on the user profile data collected from Sina Weibo, we find that the number of microblog user bidirectional friends approximately corresponds with the lognormal distribution. We then build two microblog user networks with real bidirectional relationships, both of which have not only small-world and scale-free but also some special properties, such as double power-law degree distribution, disassortative network, hierarchical and rich-club structure. Moreover, by detecting the community structures of the two real networks, we find both of their community scales follow an exponential distribution. Based on the empirical analysis, we present a novel evolution network model with mixed connection rules, including lognormal fitness preferential and random attachment, nearest neighbor interconnected in the same community, and global random associations in different communities. The simulation results show that our model is consistent with real network in many topology features.

  8. Modeling and Reconstruction of Mixed Functional and Molecular Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional medical imaging promises powerful tools for the visualization and elucidation of important disease-causing biological processes in living tissue. Recent research aims to dissect the distribution or expression of multiple biomarkers associated with disease progression or response, where the signals often represent a composite of more than one distinct source independent of spatial resolution. Formulating the task as a blind source separation or composite signal factorization problem, we report here a statistically principled method for modeling and reconstruction of mixed functional or molecular patterns. The computational algorithm is based on a latent variable model whose parameters are estimated using clustered component analysis. We demonstrate the principle and performance of the approaches on the breast cancer data sets acquired by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.

  9. Characteristics of the mixing volume model with the interactions among spatially distributed particles for Lagrangian simulations of turbulent mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Tomoaki; Nagata, Koji

    2016-11-01

    The mixing volume model (MVM), which is a mixing model for molecular diffusion in Lagrangian simulations of turbulent mixing problems, is proposed based on the interactions among spatially distributed particles in a finite volume. The mixing timescale in the MVM is derived by comparison between the model and the subgrid scale scalar variance equation. A-priori test of the MVM is conducted based on the direct numerical simulations of planar jets. The MVM is shown to predict well the mean effects of the molecular diffusion under various conditions. However, a predicted value of the molecular diffusion term is positively correlated to the exact value in the DNS only when the number of the mixing particles is larger than two. Furthermore, the MVM is tested in the hybrid implicit large-eddy-simulation/Lagrangian-particle-simulation (ILES/LPS). The ILES/LPS with the present mixing model predicts well the decay of the scalar variance in planar jets. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Nos. 25289030 and 16K18013. The numerical simulations presented in this manuscript were carried out on the high performance computing system (NEC SX-ACE) in the Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology.

  10. A phase mixing model for the frequency-doubling illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielaard, James; Smith, R Theodore

    2013-10-01

    We introduce a temporal phase mixing model for a description of the frequency-doubling illusion (FDI). The model is generic in the sense that it can be set to refer to retinal ganglion cells, lateral geniculate cells, as well as simple cells in the primary visual cortex (V1). Model parameters, however, strongly suggest that the FDI originates in the cortex. The model shows how noise in the response phases of cells in V1, or in further processing of these phases, easily produces observed behavior of FDI onset as a function of spatiotemporal frequencies. It also shows how this noise can accommodate physiologically plausible spatial delays in comparing neural signals over a distance. The model offers an explanation for the disappearance of the FDI at sufficiently high spatial frequencies via increasingly correlated coding of neighboring grating stripes. Further, when the FDI is equated to vanishing perceptual discrimination between asynchronous contrast-reversal gratings, the model proposes the possibility that the FDI shows a resonance behavior at sufficiently high spatial frequencies, by which it is alternately perceived and not perceived in sequential temporal frequency bands.

  11. Atmospheric carbon tetrachloride in rural background and industry surrounded urban areas in Northern Iberian Peninsula: Mixing ratios, trends, and potential sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Blas, Maite; Uria-Tellaetxe, Iratxe; Gomez, Maria Carmen; Navazo, Marino; Alonso, Lucio; García, Jose Antonio; Durana, Nieves; Iza, Jon; Ramón, Jarol Derley

    2016-08-15

    Latest investigations on atmospheric carbon tetrachloride (CTC) are focused on its ozone depleting potential, adverse effects on the human health, and radiative efficiency and Global Warming Potential as a greenhouse gas. CTC mixing ratios have been thoroughly studied since its restriction under the Montreal Protocol, mostly in remote areas with the aim of reporting long-term trends after its banning. The observed decrease of the CTC background mixing ratio, however, was not as strong as expected. In order to explain this behavior CTC lifetime should be adjusted by estimating the relative significance of its sinks and by identifying ongoing potential sources. Looking for possible sources, CTC was measured with high-time resolution in two sites in Northern Spain, using auto-GC systems and specifically developed acquisition and processing methodologies. The first site, Bilbao, is an urban area influenced by the surrounding industry, where measurements were performed with GC-MSD for a one-year period (2007-2008). The second site, at Valderejo Natural Park (VNP), is a rural background area where measurements were carried out with GC-FID and covering CTC data a nonsuccessive five-year period (2003-2005, 2010-2011, and 2014-2015years). Median yearly CTC mixing ratios were slightly higher in the urban area (120pptv) than in VNP (80-100pptv). CTC was reported to be well mixed in the atmosphere and no sources were noticed to impact the rural site. The observed long-term trend in VNP was in agreement with the estimated global CTC emissions. In the urban site, apart from industrial and commercial CTC sources, chlorine-bleach products used as cleaning agents were reported as promotors of indoor sources.

  12. Fault Tolerance Automotive Air-Ratio Control Using Extreme Learning Machine Model Predictive Controller

    OpenAIRE

    Pak Kin Wong; Hang Cheong Wong; Chi Man Vong; Tong Meng Iong; Ka In Wong; Xianghui Gao

    2015-01-01

    Effective air-ratio control is desirable to maintain the best engine performance. However, traditional air-ratio control assumes the lambda sensor located at the tail pipe works properly and relies strongly on the air-ratio feedback signal measured by the lambda sensor. When the sensor is warming up during cold start or under failure, the traditional air-ratio control no longer works. To address this issue, this paper utilizes an advanced modelling technique, kernel extreme learning machine (...

  13. On testing an unspecified function through a linear mixed effects model with multiple variance components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanjia; Chen, Huaihou

    2012-12-01

    We examine a generalized F-test of a nonparametric function through penalized splines and a linear mixed effects model representation. With a mixed effects model representation of penalized splines, we imbed the test of an unspecified function into a test of some fixed effects and a variance component in a linear mixed effects model with nuisance variance components under the null. The procedure can be used to test a nonparametric function or varying-coefficient with clustered data, compare two spline functions, test the significance of an unspecified function in an additive model with multiple components, and test a row or a column effect in a two-way analysis of variance model. Through a spectral decomposition of the residual sum of squares, we provide a fast algorithm for computing the null distribution of the test, which significantly improves the computational efficiency over bootstrap. The spectral representation reveals a connection between the likelihood ratio test (LRT) in a multiple variance components model and a single component model. We examine our methods through simulations, where we show that the power of the generalized F-test may be higher than the LRT, depending on the hypothesis of interest and the true model under the alternative. We apply these methods to compute the genome-wide critical value and p-value of a genetic association test in a genome-wide association study (GWAS), where the usual bootstrap is computationally intensive (up to 10(8) simulations) and asymptotic approximation may be unreliable and conservative. © 2012, The International Biometric Society.

  14. Implications of Recent Data on Neutrino Mixing and Lepton Flavour Violating Decays for the Zee Model

    CERN Document Server

    He, Xiao-Gang

    2011-01-01

    We study implications of recent data on neutrino mixing from T2K, MINOS, Double Chooz and $\\mu \\to e \\gamma$ from MEG for the Zee model. The simplest version of this model has been shown to be ruled out by experimental data some time ago. The general Zee model is still consistent with recent data. We demonstrate this with a constrained Zee model based on naturalness consideration. In this constrained model, only inverted mass hierarchy for neutrino masses is allowed, and $\\theta_{13}$ must be non-zero in order to have correct ratio for neutrino mass-squared differences and for mixing in solar and atmospherical neutrino oscillations. The best fit value of our model for $\\theta_{13}$ is $8.91\\deg$ from T2K and MINOS data, very close to the central value obtained by Double Chooz experiment. There are solutions with non-zero CP violation with the Jarlskog parameter predicted in the range $\\pm 0.039$, $\\pm 0.044$ and $\\pm 0.048$ respectively for a 1$\\sigma$, 2$\\sigma$ and 3$\\sigma$ ranges of other input parameters...

  15. Cabibbo--Kobayashi--Maskawa Mixing in Superstring Derived Standard--like Models

    CERN Document Server

    Faraggi, A E; Faraggi, Alon E.; Halyo, Edi

    1994-01-01

    We examine the problem of three generation quark flavor mixing in realistic, superstring derived standard--like models, constructed in the free fermionic formulation. We study the sources of family mixing in these models and discuss the necessary conditions to obtain a realistic Cabibbo--Kobayashi--Maskawa (CKM) mixing matrix. In a specific model, we estimate the mixing angles and discuss the weak CP violating phase. We argue that the superstring standard--like models can produce a realistic CKM mixing matrix. We discuss the possible textures of quark mass matrices that may be obtained in these models.

  16. Application of porous titanium in prosthesis production using a moldless process: Evaluation of physical and mechanical properties with various particle sizes, shapes, and mixing ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prananingrum, Widyasri; Tomotake, Yoritoki; Naito, Yoshihito; Bae, Jiyoung; Sekine, Kazumitsu; Hamada, Kenichi; Ichikawa, Tetsuo

    2016-08-01

    The prosthetic applications of titanium have been challenging because titanium does not possess suitable properties for the conventional casting method using the lost wax technique. We have developed a production method for biomedical application of porous titanium using a moldless process. This study aimed to evaluate the physical and mechanical properties of porous titanium using various particle sizes, shapes, and mixing ratio of titanium powder to wax binder for use in prosthesis production. CP Ti powders with different particle sizes, shapes, and mixing ratios were divided into five groups. A 90:10wt% mixture of titanium powder and wax binder was prepared manually at 70°C. After debinding at 380°C, the specimen was sintered in Ar at 1100°C without a mold for 1h. The linear shrinkage ratio of sintered specimens ranged from 2.5% to 14.2%. The linear shrinkage ratio increased with decreasing particle size. While the linear shrinkage ratio of Groups 3, 4, and 5 were approximately 2%, Group 1 showed the highest shrinkage of all. The bending strength ranged from 106 to 428MPa under the influence of porosity. Groups 1 and 2 presented low porosity followed by higher strength. The shear bond strength ranged from 32 to 100MPa. The shear bond strength was also particle-size dependent. The decrease in the porosity increased the linear shrinkage ratio and bending strength. Shrinkage and mechanical strength required for prostheses were dependent on the particle size and shape of titanium powders. These findings suggested that this production method can be applied to the prosthetic framework by selecting the material design.

  17. Measurement of low-ppm mixing ratios of water vapor in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere using chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. D. Thornberry

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS instrument has been developed for the fast, precise, and accurate measurement of water vapor (H2O at low mixing ratios in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS. A low-pressure flow of sample air passes through an ionization volume containing an α-particle radiation source, resulting in a cascade of ion-molecule reactions that produce hydronium ions (H3O+ from ambient H2O. The production of H3O+ ions from ambient H2O depends on pressure and flow through the ion source, which were tightly controlled in order to maintain the measurement sensitivity independent of changes in the airborne sampling environment. The instrument was calibrated every 45 min in flight by introducing a series of H2O mixing ratios between 0.5 and 153 parts per million (ppm, 10−6 mol mol−1 generated by Pt-catalyzed oxidation of H2 standards while overflowing the inlet with dry synthetic air. The CIMS H2O instrument was deployed in an unpressurized payload area aboard the NASA WB-57F high-altitude research aircraft during the Mid-latitude Airborne Cirrus Properties Experiment (MACPEX mission in March and April 2011. The instrument performed successfully during seven flights, measuring H2O mixing ratios below 5 ppm in the lower stratosphere at altitudes up to 17.7 km, and as low as 3.5 ppm near the tropopause. Data were acquired at 10 Hz and reported as 1 s averages. In-flight calibrations demonstrated a typical sensitivity of 2000 Hz ppm−1 at 3 ppm with a signal to noise ratio (2 σ, 1 s greater than 32. The total measurement uncertainty was 9 to 11%, derived from the uncertainty in the in situ calibrations.

  18. Mixed domain models for the distribution of aluminum in high silica zeolite SSZ-13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Subramanian; Petrov, Maria

    2013-01-01

    High silica zeolite SSZ-13 with Si/Al ratios varying from 11 to 17 was characterized by aluminum-27 and silicon-29 NMR spectroscopy. Aluminum-27 MAS and MQMAS NMR data indicated that in addition to tetrahedral aluminum sites, a fraction of aluminum sites are present in distorted tetrahedral environments. Although in samples of SSZ-13 having high Si/Al ratios all aluminum atoms are expected to be isolated, silicon-29 NMR spectra revealed that in addition to isolated aluminum atoms (Si(1Al)), non-isolated aluminum atoms (Si(2Al)) exist in the crystals. To model these contributions of the various aluminum atoms, a mixed-domain distribution was developed, using double-six membered rings (D6R) as the basic building units of SSZ-13. A combination of different ideal domains, one containing isolated and the other with non-isolated aluminum sites, has been found to describe the experimental silicon-29 NMR data.

  19. Modelling Mixed Discrete-Continuous Domains for Planning

    CERN Document Server

    Fox, M; 10.1613/jair.2044

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present pddl+, a planning domain description language for modelling mixed discrete-continuous planning domains. We describe the syntax and modelling style of pddl+, showing that the language makes convenient the modelling of complex time-dependent effects. We provide a formal semantics for pddl+ by mapping planning instances into constructs of hybrid automata. Using the syntax of HAs as our semantic model we construct a semantic mapping to labelled transition systems to complete the formal interpretation of pddl+ planning instances. An advantage of building a mapping from pddl+ to HA theory is that it forms a bridge between the Planning and Real Time Systems research communities. One consequence is that we can expect to make use of some of the theoretical properties of HAs. For example, for a restricted class of HAs the Reachability problem (which is equivalent to Plan Existence) is decidable. pddl+ provides an alternative to the continuous durative action model of pddl2.1, adding a more flex...

  20. Free-jet investigation of mechanically suppressed, high radius ratio coannular plug model nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janardan, B. A.; Majjigi, R. K.; Brausch, J. F.; Knott, P. R.

    1985-01-01

    The experimental and analytical acoustic results of a scale-model investigation or unsuppressed and mechanically suppressed high-radius ratio coannular plug nozzles with inverted velocity and temperature profiles are summarized. Nine coannular nozzle configurations along with a reference conical nozzle were evaluated in the Anechoic Free-Jet Facility for a total of 212 acoustic test points. Most of the tests were conducted at variable cycle engine conditions applicable to advanced high speed aircraft. The tested nozzles included coannular plug nozzles with both convergent and convergent-divergent (C-D) terminations in order to evaluate C-D effectiveness in the reduction of shock-cell noise and 20 and 40 shallow-chute mechanical suppressors in the outer stream in order to evaluate their effectiveness in the reduction of jet noise. In addition to the acoustic tests, mean and turbulent velocity measurements were made on selected plumes of the 20 shallow-chute configuration using a laser velocimeter. At a mixed jet velocity of 700 m/sec, the 20 shallow-chute suppressor configuration yielded peak aft quadrant suppression of 11.5 and 9 PNdB and forward quadrant suppression of 7 and 6 PNdB relative to a baseline conical nozzles during static and simulated flight, respectively. The C-D terminations were observed to reduce shock-cell noise. An engineering spectral prediction method was formulated for mechanically suppressed coannular plug nozzles.

  1. Modeling of mixed-mode chromatography of peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Susanna; Gétaz, David; Forrer, Nicola; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2013-03-29

    Mixed-mode chromatographic materials are more and more often used for the purification of biomolecules, such as peptides and proteins. In many instances they in fact exhibit better selectivity values and therefore improve the purification efficiency compared to classical materials. In this work, a model to describe biomolecules retention in cation-exchange/reversed-phase (CIEX-RP) mixed-mode columns under diluted conditions has been developed. The model accounts for the effect of the salt and organic modifier concentration on the biomolecule Henry coefficient through three parameters: α, β and γ. The α parameter is related to the adsorption strength and ligand density, β represents the number of organic modifier molecules necessary to displace one adsorbed biomolecule and γ represents the number of salt molecules necessary to desorb one biomolecule. The latter parameter is strictly related to the number of charges on the biomolecule surface interacting with the ion-exchange ligands and it is shown experimentally that its value is close to the biomolecule net charge. The model reliability has been validated by a large set of experimental data including retention times of two different peptides (goserelin and insulin) on five columns: a reversed-phase C8 column and four CIEX-RP columns with different percentages of sulfonic groups and various concentration values of the salt and organic modifier. It has been found that the percentage of sulfonic groups on the surface strongly affects the peptides adsorption strength, and in particular, in the cases investigated, a CIEX ligand density around 0.04μmol/m(2) leads to optimal retention values.

  2. Efficient material flow in mixed model assembly lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnahhal, Mohammed; Noche, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    In this study, material flow from decentralized supermarkets to stations in mixed model assembly lines using tow (tugger) trains is investigated. Train routing, scheduling, and loading problems are investigated in parallel to minimize the number of trains, variability in loading and in routes lengths, and line-side inventory holding costs. The general framework for solving these problems in parallel contains analytical equations, Dynamic Programming (DP), and Mixed Integer Programming (MIP). Matlab in conjunction with LP-solve software was used to formulate the problem. An example was presented to explain the idea. Results which were obtained in very short CPU time showed the effect of using time buffer among routes on the feasible space and on the optimal solution. Results also showed the effect of the objective, concerning reducing the variability in loading, on the results of routing, scheduling, and loading. Moreover, results showed the importance of considering the maximum line-side inventory beside the capacity of the train in the same time in finding the optimal solution.

  3. Oxygen and hydrogen isotope ratios in tree rings: how well do models predict observed values?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Waterhouse, JS

    2002-07-30

    Full Text Available the trunk, it is proficient to model the observed annual values of oxygen isotope ratios of alpha-cellulose to a significant level (r = 0.77, P < 0.01). When the same model is applied to hydrogen isotope ratios, results are found, and predictions can be made...

  4. COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS MODELING OF SCALED HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK MIXING - CFD MODELING SENSITIVITY STUDY RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JACKSON VL

    2011-08-31

    The primary purpose of the tank mixing and sampling demonstration program is to mitigate the technical risks associated with the ability of the Hanford tank farm delivery and celtification systems to measure and deliver a uniformly mixed high-level waste (HLW) feed to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Uniform feed to the WTP is a requirement of 24590-WTP-ICD-MG-01-019, ICD-19 - Interface Control Document for Waste Feed, although the exact definition of uniform is evolving in this context. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling has been used to assist in evaluating scaleup issues, study operational parameters, and predict mixing performance at full-scale.

  5. Computational Modeling and Experimental Facts of Mixed Self- Assembly Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Paula V; Besada-Porto, Jose Miguel; Rial, Ramón; González-Díaz, Humberto; Ruso, Juan M

    2016-01-01

    The formation of liposomes, nanoparticle micelles, and related systems by mixtures of drugs and/or surfactants is of major relevance for the design of drug delivery systems. We can design new systems using different compounds. Traditionally these systems are created by trial and error using experimental data. However, in most cases measuring all the possible combinations represents a extensive work and almost always unaffordable. In this sense, we can use theoretical concepts and develop computational models to predict different physicochemical properties of self-aggregation processes of mixed molecular systems. In a previous work, we developed a new PT-LFER model (Linear Free Energy Relationships, LFER, combined with Perturbation Theory, PT, ideas) for binary systems. The best PT-LFER model found predicted the effects of 25000 perturbations over nine different properties of binary systems. The present work has two parts. Firstly, we carry out an analysis on the new results on the applications and experimental-theoretical studies of binary selfassembled systems. In the second part, we report for the first time, a new experimental-theoretic study of the NaDC-DTAB binary system. For this purpose, we have combined experimental procedures plus physicochemical thermodynamic framework with the PT-LFER model reported in our previous work.

  6. Bayesian Gaussian Copula Factor Models for Mixed Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Jared S; Dunson, David B; Carin, Lawrence; Lucas, Joseph E

    2013-06-01

    Gaussian factor models have proven widely useful for parsimoniously characterizing dependence in multivariate data. There is a rich literature on their extension to mixed categorical and continuous variables, using latent Gaussian variables or through generalized latent trait models acommodating measurements in the exponential family. However, when generalizing to non-Gaussian measured variables the latent variables typically influence both the dependence structure and the form of the marginal distributions, complicating interpretation and introducing artifacts. To address this problem we propose a novel class of Bayesian Gaussian copula factor models which decouple the latent factors from the marginal distributions. A semiparametric specification for the marginals based on the extended rank likelihood yields straightforward implementation and substantial computational gains. We provide new theoretical and empirical justifications for using this likelihood in Bayesian inference. We propose new default priors for the factor loadings and develop efficient parameter-expanded Gibbs sampling for posterior computation. The methods are evaluated through simulations and applied to a dataset in political science. The models in this paper are implemented in the R package bfa.

  7. Model Persamaan Massa Karbon Akar Pohon dan Root-Shoot Ratio Massa Karbon (Equation Models of Tree Root Carbon Mass and Root-Shoot Carbon Mass Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias .

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The case study was conducted in the area of Acacia mangium plantation at BKPH Parung Panjang, KPH Bogor. The objective of the study was to formulate equation models of tree root carbon mass and root to shoot carbon mass ratio of the plantation. It was found that carbon content in the parts of tree biomass (stems, branches, twigs, leaves, and roots was different, in which the highest and the lowest carbon content was in the main stem of the tree and in the leaves, respectively. The main stem and leaves of tree accounted for 70% of tree biomass. The root-shoot ratio of root biomass to tree biomass above the ground and the root-shoot ratio of root biomass to main stem biomass was 0.1443 and 0.25771, respectively, in which 75% of tree carbon mass was in the main stem and roots of tree. It was also found that the root-shoot ratio of root carbon mass to tree carbon mass above the ground and the root-shoot ratio of root carbon mass to tree main stem carbon mass was 0.1442 and 0.2034, respectively. All allometric equation models of tree root carbon mass of A. mangium have a high goodness-of-fit as indicated by its high adjusted R2.Keywords: Acacia mangium, allometric, root-shoot ratio, biomass, carbon mass

  8. Modeling of mixing in stirred bioreactors 4. mixing time for aerated bacteria, yeasts and fungus broths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cascaval Dan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The mixing time for bioreactors depends mainly on the rheoiogicai properties of the broths, the biomass concentration and morphology, mixing system characteristics and fermentation conditions. For quantifying the influence of these factors on the mixing efficiency for stirred bioreactors, aerated broths of bacteria (P. shermanii, yeasts (S. cerevisiae and fungi (P. chrysogenum, free mycelia and mycelial aggregates of different concentrations have been investigated using a laboratory bioreactor with a double turbine impeller. The experimental data indicated that the influence of the rotation speed, aeration rate and stirrer positions on the mixing intensity strongly differ from one system to another and must be correlated with the microorganism characteristics, namely: the biomass concentration and morphology. Moreover, compared with non-aerated broths, variations of the mixing time with the considered parameters are very different, due to the complex flow mechanism of gas-liquid dispersions. By means of the experimental data and using a multiregression analysis method some mathematical correlations for the mixing time of the general form: tm = a1*Cx2+a2*Cx+a3*IgVa+a4-N2+a5-N+a6/a7*L2+a8*L+a9 were established. The proposed equations offer good agreement with the experiments, the average deviation being ±6.7% - ±9.4 and are adequate for the flow regime Re < 25,000.

  9. Interstellar 12C/13C ratios through CH+ ll 3957,4232 absorption in local clouds: incomplete mixing in the ISM

    CERN Document Server

    Casassus, S; Wilson, T L

    2005-01-01

    The 12C/13C isotope ratio is a tracer of stellar yields and the efficiency of mixing in the ISM. 12CH+/13CH+ is not affected by interstellar chemistry, and is the most secure way of measuring 12C/13C in the diffuse ISM. R= 12C/13C is 90 in the solar system. Previous measurements of 12CH+ ll3957.7,4232.3 and 13CH+ ll3958.2,4232.0 absorption toward nearby stars indicate some variations in 12C/13C, with values ranging from 40 to 90 suggesting inefficient mixing. Except for the cloud toward zeta Oph, these R values are strongly affected by noise. With UVES on the VLT we have improved on the previous interstellar 12C/13C measurements. The weighted 12C/13C ratio in the local ISM is 78.27 +- 1.83, while the weighted dispersion of our measurements is 12.7, giving a 6.9 sigma scatter. Thus we report on a 6.9 sigma detection of 16.2% root-mean-square variations in the carbon isotopic ratio on scales of ~100 pc: R= 74.7 +- 2.3 in the zetaOph cloud, while R = 88.6 +- 3.0 toward HD152235 in the Lupus clouds, R = 62.2 +- 5...

  10. Characterization of Organic Thin Film Solar Cells of PCDTBT : PC71BM Prepared by Different Mixing Ratio and Effect of Hole Transport Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Srinivasan Murugesan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The organic thin film solar cells (OTFSCs have been successfully fabricated using PCDTBT : PC71BM with different mixing ratios (1 : 1 to 1 : 8 and the influence of hole transport layer thickness (PEDOT : PSS. The active layers with different mixing ratios of PCDTBT : PC71BM have been fabricated using o-dichlorobenzene (o-DCB. The surface morphology of the active layers and PEDOT : PSS layer with different thicknesses were characterized by AFM analysis. Here, we report that the OTFSCs with high performance have been optimized with 1 : 4 ratios of PCDTBT : PC71BM. The power conversion efficiency (PCE = 5.17% of the solar cells was significantly improved by changing thickness of PEDOT : PSS layer. The thickness of the PEDOT : PSS layer was found to be of significant importance; the thickness of the PEDOT : PSS layer at 45 nm (higher spin speed 5000 rpm shows higher short circuit current density (Jsc and lower series resistance (Rs and higher PCE.

  11. Latent Fundamentals Arbitrage with a Mixed Effects Factor Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Salem Gonçalves

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We propose a single-factor mixed effects panel data model to create an arbitrage portfolio that identifies differences in firm-level latent fundamentals. Furthermore, we show that even though the characteristics that affect returns are unknown variables, it is possible to identify the strength of the combination of these latent fundamentals for each stock by following a simple approach using historical data. As a result, a trading strategy that bought the stocks with the best fundamentals (strong fundamentals portfolio and sold the stocks with the worst ones (weak fundamentals portfolio realized significant risk-adjusted returns in the U.S. market for the period between July 1986 and June 2008. To ensure robustness, we performed sub period and seasonal analyses and adjusted for trading costs and we found further empirical evidence that using a simple investment rule, that identified these latent fundamentals from the structure of past returns, can lead to profit.

  12. Vertimill™ pilot scale tests simulated by perfect mixing model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Batista Mazzinghy

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Minas-Rio Project, Anglo American property, located in Brazil, considers Vertimill™ to make the particle size distribution adequate to feed slurry pipeline. A pilot test campaign was carried out at Metso's pilot plant facility located in York city, Pennsylvania State, USA, to provide information to scale up the industrial grinding circuit. The perfect mixing model, normally used to simulate ball mills, was used to compare the direct and reverse circuit configurations. The simulations were based on the appearance function determined from the laboratory tests using a batch tube mill. The combined breakage rate/discharge rate function (r/d was determined from Vertimill™ feed and product particle size distributions obtained from pilot tests. The residence time was estimated considering the mill hold-up and solids flow rate. The simulation results show that there are no significant differences between direct and reverse circuits for the sample tested.

  13. Building a Bridge from Moments to PDF's: A New Approach to Finding PDF Mixing Models

    CERN Document Server

    Schüler, Lennart; Knabner, Peter; Attinger, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Probability density function (PDF) methods are a promising alternative to predicting the transport of solutes in groundwater under uncertainty. They make it possible to derive the evolution equations of the mean concentration and the concentration variance, used in moment methods. A mixing model, also known as a dissipation model, is essential for both methods. Finding a satisfactory mixing model is still an open question and due to the rather elaborate PDF methods, a difficult undertaking. Both the PDF equation and the concentration variance equation depend on the same mixing model. This connection is used to find and test an improved mixing model for the much easier to handle concentration variance. Subsequently, this mixing model is transferred to the PDF equation and tested. The newly proposed mixing model yields significantly improved results for both variance modelling and PDF modelling.

  14. A proposed experimental platform for measuring the properties of warm dense mixtures: Testing the applicability of the linear mixing model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawreliak, James

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents a proposed experimental technique for investigating the impact of chemical interactions in warm dense liquid mixtures. It uses experimental equation of state (EOS) measurements of warm dense liquid mixtures with different compositions to determine the deviation from the linear mixing model. Statistical mechanics is used to derive the EOS of a mixture with a constant pressure linear mixing term (Amagat's rule) and an interspecies interaction term. A ratio between the particle density of two different compositions of mixtures, K(P, T)i: ii, is defined. By comparing this ratio for a range of mixtures, the impact of interspecies interactions can be studied. Hydrodynamic simulations of mixtures with different carbon/hydrogen ratios are used to demonstrate the application of this proposed technique to multiple shock and ramp compression experiments. The limit of the pressure correction that can be measured due to interspecies interactions using this methodology is determined by the uncertainty in the density measurement.

  15. Application of a Theory and Simulation-based Convective Boundary Mixing Model for AGB Star Evolution and Nucleosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battino, U.; Pignatari, M.; Ritter, C.; Herwig, F.; Denisenkov, P.; Den Hartogh, J. W.; Trappitsch, R.; Hirschi, R.; Freytag, B.; Thielemann, F.; Paxton, B.

    2016-08-01

    The s-process nucleosynthesis in Asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars depends on the modeling of convective boundaries. We present models and s-process simulations that adopt a treatment of convective boundaries based on the results of hydrodynamic simulations and on the theory of mixing due to gravity waves in the vicinity of convective boundaries. Hydrodynamics simulations suggest the presence of convective boundary mixing (CBM) at the bottom of the thermal pulse-driven convective zone. Similarly, convection-induced mixing processes are proposed for the mixing below the convective envelope during third dredge-up (TDU), where the {}13{{C}} pocket for the s process in AGB stars forms. In this work, we apply a CBM model motivated by simulations and theory to models with initial mass M = 2 and M=3 {M}⊙ , and with initial metal content Z = 0.01 and Z = 0.02. As reported previously, the He-intershell abundances of {}12{{C}} and {}16{{O}} are increased by CBM at the bottom of the pulse-driven convection zone. This mixing is affecting the {}22{Ne}(α, n){}25{Mg} activation and the s-process efficiency in the {}13{{C}}-pocket. In our model, CBM at the bottom of the convective envelope during the TDU represents gravity wave mixing. Furthermore, we take into account the fact that hydrodynamic simulations indicate a declining mixing efficiency that is already about a pressure scale height from the convective boundaries, compared to mixing-length theory. We obtain the formation of the {}13{{C}}-pocket with a mass of ≈ {10}-4 {M}⊙ . The final s-process abundances are characterized by 0.36\\lt [{{s}}/{Fe}]\\lt 0.78 and the heavy-to-light s-process ratio is -0.23\\lt [{hs}/{ls}]\\lt 0.45. Finally, we compare our results with stellar observations, presolar grain measurements and previous work.

  16. A single gas chromatograph for accurate atmospheric mixing ratio measurements of CO2, CH4, N2O, SF6 and CO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. J. Meijer

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We present an adapted gas chromatograph capable of measuring simultaneously and semi-continuously the atmospheric mixing ratios of the greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, N2O and SF6 and the trace gas CO with high precision and long-term stability. The novelty of our design is that all species are measured with only one device, making it a very cost-efficient system. No time lags are introduced between the measured mixing ratios. The system is designed to operate fully autonomously which makes it ideal for measurements at remote and unmanned stations. Only a small amount of sample air is needed, which makes this system also highly suitable for flask air measurements. In principle, only two reference cylinders are needed for daily operation and only one calibration per year against international WMO standards is sufficient to obtain high measurement precision and accuracy. The system described in this paper is in use since May 2006 at our atmospheric measurement site Lutjewad near Groningen, The Netherlands at 6°21´ E, 53°24´N, 1 m a.s.l. Results show the long-term stability of the system. Observed measurement precisions at our remote research station Lutjewad were: ±0.04 ppm for CO2, ±0.8 ppb for CH4, ±0.8 ppb for CO, ±0.3 ppb for N2O, and ±0.1 ppt for SF6. The ambient mixing ratios of all measured species as observed at station Lutjewad for the period of May 2007 to August 2008 are presented as well.

  17. Study of Ratio of Proton Momentum Distributions with a Chiral Quark Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jian; DONG Yu-Bing

    2005-01-01

    The ratio between the anomalous magnetic moments of proton and neutron has recently been suggested to be connected to the ratio of proton momentum fractions carried by the valence quarks inside it. This moment fraction ratio is respectively evaluated by using constituent quark model and chiral quark model in order to check meson cloud effect. Our results show that the meson cloud effect is remarkable to the ratio of the proton momentum fractions, and therefore, this ratiois a sensitive test for the meson cloud effect as well as for the SU(6) symmetry breaking effect.

  18. Extending the linear model with R generalized linear, mixed effects and nonparametric regression models

    CERN Document Server

    Faraway, Julian J

    2005-01-01

    Linear models are central to the practice of statistics and form the foundation of a vast range of statistical methodologies. Julian J. Faraway''s critically acclaimed Linear Models with R examined regression and analysis of variance, demonstrated the different methods available, and showed in which situations each one applies. Following in those footsteps, Extending the Linear Model with R surveys the techniques that grow from the regression model, presenting three extensions to that framework: generalized linear models (GLMs), mixed effect models, and nonparametric regression models. The author''s treatment is thoroughly modern and covers topics that include GLM diagnostics, generalized linear mixed models, trees, and even the use of neural networks in statistics. To demonstrate the interplay of theory and practice, throughout the book the author weaves the use of the R software environment to analyze the data of real examples, providing all of the R commands necessary to reproduce the analyses. All of the ...

  19. Differential expression analysis for RNAseq using Poisson mixed models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shiquan; Hood, Michelle; Scott, Laura; Peng, Qinke; Mukherjee, Sayan; Tung, Jenny; Zhou, Xiang

    2017-06-20

    Identifying differentially expressed (DE) genes from RNA sequencing (RNAseq) studies is among the most common analyses in genomics. However, RNAseq DE analysis presents several statistical and computational challenges, including over-dispersed read counts and, in some settings, sample non-independence. Previous count-based methods rely on simple hierarchical Poisson models (e.g. negative binomial) to model independent over-dispersion, but do not account for sample non-independence due to relatedness, population structure and/or hidden confounders. Here, we present a Poisson mixed model with two random effects terms that account for both independent over-dispersion and sample non-independence. We also develop a scalable sampling-based inference algorithm using a latent variable representation of the Poisson distribution. With simulations, we show that our method properly controls for type I error and is generally more powerful than other widely used approaches, except in small samples (n <15) with other unfavorable properties (e.g. small effect sizes). We also apply our method to three real datasets that contain related individuals, population stratification or hidden confounders. Our results show that our method increases power in all three data compared to other approaches, though the power gain is smallest in the smallest sample (n = 6). Our method is implemented in MACAU, freely available at www.xzlab.org/software.html. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  20. Determination of appropriate mix ratios for concrete grades using Nigerian Portland-limestone grades 32.5 and 42.5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazeem Kayode ADEWOLE

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The construction of buildings by incompetent craftsmen and the use of low quality building materials, including low quality concrete have been identified in the literature as two of the major reasons for the incessant collapse of building in Nigeria. The roadside craftsmen/artisans usually/generally construct buildings using 1:2:4 cement-fine aggregate-large aggregate mix ratio irrespective of the cement strength class. In this paper, the investigation conducted to determine the appropriate concrete mix ratios required to produce Class 20/25 and Class 25/30 concretes commonly used for design of building structural members using the Portland-limestone cement grades 32.5 and 42.5 that are available in the Nigerian open market is presented. Investigation revealed that the cube compressive strength of 1:2:4 concrete produced with Portland-limestone cement grade 32.5 is less than the minimum 25MPa required for concrete Class 20/25 and a richer 1:1.5:3 concrete produced with Portland-limestone cement grade 32.5 may be needed to produce concrete Class 20/25. Investigation also revealed that Portland-limestone cement grade 32.5 may not be suitable for the production of concrete class 25/30 with cube compressive strength of 30MPa as the cube compressive strength of 1:1:2 concrete produced with Portland-limestone cement grade 32.5 may not attain 30MPa. Concrete strength classes 20/25 and class 25/30 can be produced with Portland-limestone cement grade 42.5 using 1:2:4 and 1:1.5:3 mix ratios respectively. To produce concrete with strength class C20/25 which is the minimum concrete strength class recommended for the construction of the load-bearing building structural members using the 1:2:4 mix ratio, Portland-limestone cement grade 42.5 is required.

  1. A time dependent mixing model to close PDF equations for transport in heterogeneous aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüler, L.; Suciu, N.; Knabner, P.; Attinger, S.

    2016-10-01

    Probability density function (PDF) methods are a promising alternative to predicting the transport of solutes in groundwater under uncertainty. They make it possible to derive the evolution equations of the mean concentration and the concentration variance, used in moment methods. The mixing model, describing the transport of the PDF in concentration space, is essential for both methods. Finding a satisfactory mixing model is still an open question and due to the rather elaborate PDF methods, a difficult undertaking. Both the PDF equation and the concentration variance equation depend on the same mixing model. This connection is used to find and test an improved mixing model for the much easier to handle concentration variance. Subsequently, this mixing model is transferred to the PDF equation and tested. The newly proposed mixing model yields significantly improved results for both variance modelling and PDF modelling.

  2. The transition model test for serial dependence in mixed-effects models for binary data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinegaard, Nina; Rabe-Hesketh, Sophia; Skrondal, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Generalized linear mixed models for longitudinal data assume that responses at different occasions are conditionally independent, given the random effects and covariates. Although this assumption is pivotal for consistent estimation, violation due to serial dependence is hard to assess by model...... the targeted root mean squared error of approximation (TRSMEA) as a measure of the population misfit due to serial dependence....

  3. Improved free-surface expression for frequency-domain elastic optimal mixed-grid modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jian; Chen, Jing-Bo; Dai, Meng-Xue

    2016-07-01

    An accurate and efficient forward modeling is the foundation of full-waveform inversion (FWI). In elastic wave modeling, one of the key problems is how to deal with the free-surface boundary condition appropriately. For the representation of the free-surface boundary condition, conventional displacement-based approaches and staggered-grid approaches are often used in time-domain. In frequency-domain, considering the saving of storage and CPU time, we integrate the idea of physical parameter-modified staggered-grid approach in time-domain with an elastic optimal mixed-grid modeling scheme to design an improved parameter-modified free-surface expression. Accuracy analysis shows that an elastic optimal mixed-grid modeling scheme using the parameter-modified free-surface expression can provide more accurate solutions with only 4 grid points per smallest shear wavelength than conventional displacement-based approaches and is stable for most Poisson ratios. Besides, it also yields smaller condition number of the resulting impedance matrix than conventional displacement-based approaches in laterally varying complex media. These advantages reveal great potential of this free-surface expression in big-data practical application.

  4. Cruise observation and numerical modeling of turbulent mixing in the Pearl River estuary in summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jiayi; Gu, Yanzhen

    2016-06-01

    The turbulent mixing in the Pearl River estuary and plume area is analyzed by using cruise data and simulation results of the Regional Ocean Model System (ROMS). The cruise observations reveal that strong mixing appeared in the bottom layer on larger ebb in the estuary. Modeling simulations are consistent with the observation results, and suggest that inside the estuary and in the near-shore water, the mixing is stronger on ebb than on flood. The mixing generation mechanism analysis based on modeling data reveals that bottom stress is responsible for the generation of turbulence in the estuary, for the re-circulating plume area, internal shear instability plays an important role in the mixing, and wind may induce the surface mixing in the plume far-field. The estuary mixing is controlled by the tidal strength, and in the re-circulating plume bulge, the wind stirring may reinforce the internal shear instability mixing.

  5. Mixed axion/neutralino cold dark matter in supersymmetric models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baer, Howard; Lessa, Andre; Rajagopalan, Shibi; Sreethawong, Warintorn, E-mail: baer@nhn.ou.edu, E-mail: lessa@nhn.ou.edu, E-mail: shibi@nhn.ou.edu, E-mail: wstan@nhn.ou.edu [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States)

    2011-06-01

    We consider supersymmetric (SUSY) models wherein the strong CP problem is solved by the Peccei-Quinn (PQ) mechanism with a concommitant axion/axino supermultiplet. We examine R-parity conserving models where the neutralino is the lightest SUSY particle, so that a mixture of neutralinos and axions serve as cold dark matter (a Z-tilde {sub 1} CDM). The mixed a Z-tilde {sub 1} CDM scenario can match the measured dark matter abundance for SUSY models which typically give too low a value of the usual thermal neutralino abundance, such as models with wino-like or higgsino-like dark matter. The usual thermal neutralino abundance can be greatly enhanced by the decay of thermally-produced axinos (ã) to neutralinos, followed by neutralino re-annihilation at temperatures much lower than freeze-out. In this case, the relic density is usually neutralino dominated, and goes as ∼ (f{sub a}/N)/m{sub ã}{sup 3/2}. If axino decay occurs before neutralino freeze-out, then instead the neutralino abundance can be augmented by relic axions to match the measured abundance. Entropy production from late-time axino decays can diminish the axion abundance, but ultimately not the neutralino abundance. In a Z-tilde {sub 1} CDM models, it may be possible to detect both a WIMP and an axion as dark matter relics. We also discuss possible modifications of our results due to production and decay of saxions. In the appendices, we present expressions for the Hubble expansion rate and the axion and neutralino relic densities in radiation, matter and decaying-particle dominated universes.

  6. Analysis of fluid mixing characteristics in reactor vessel downcomer using Theofanous and Wallis` mixing model. (DVI Case)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Bong Hyun; Kim, Hwan Yeol; Kang, Hyung Seok; Bae, Yoon Young

    1997-05-01

    Direct injection of emergency core cooling water into the reactor vessel downcomer annulus (DVI) is an unique feature of the four-train safety injection system of Korean Next Generation Reactor(KNGR). In this study, in order to evaluate the fluid mixing characteristics of the injected water for DVI case, we have suggested for application to DVI, Theofanous` regional mixing model and Wallis` experiments of flow regimes for injection water to the annulus. Theofanous`model was developed as a fluid mixing model in reactor vessel downcomer for the case of Cold Leg Injection(CLI). We have established a procedure for calculating fluid mixing temperature, calculated the mixing temperature for SBLOCA and MSLB, and compared them to those of CLI. In general, the fluid temperatures across the reactor vessel beltline are higher than 110 deg F, the RT{sub NDT} of EOL for reactor vessel material, and the values are within the acceptable limits of PTS concern. (author). 6 tabs., 21 figs., 11 refs.

  7. Effects of ceria/zirconia ratio on properties of mixed CeO_2-ZrO_2-Al_2O_3 compound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红梅; 祝清超; 李移乐; 龚茂初; 陈永东; 王健礼; 陈耀强

    2010-01-01

    A series of CexZr0.50-xAl0.50O1.75(0.05≤x≤0.45) mixed oxides with different Ce/Zr ratio were prepared by co-precipitation method and characterized by means of X-ray diffraction(XRD),Brunauer-Emmet Teller method(BET),temperature-programmed reduction(H2-TPR) and oxygen pulsing technique.The XRD results showed that all samples kept the single CeO2 cubic fluorite structure after calcination at 600 and 1000 oC for 5 h.The results of BET revealed that CexZr0.50-xAl0.50O1.75 with Ce/Zr molar ratio 1/1 exhibited hi...

  8. Predictability of Shanghai Stock Market by Agent-based Mix-game Model

    CERN Document Server

    Gou, C

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports the effort of using agent-based mix-game model to predict financial time series. It introduces the prediction methodology by means of mix-game model and gives an example of its application to forecasting Shanghai Index. The results show that this prediction methodology is effective and agent-based mix-game model is a potential good model to predict time series of financial markets.

  9. Feedback model evaluation of high-mix product manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Dion; Cheng, Mingjen; Lu, Aho; Mao, Zhibiao; Liang, Curtis

    2006-03-01

    As the patterns are getting smaller, the difficulty to control a margin-tight process expands exponentially. The use of the Automated Process Control (APC), therefore, becomes a widely employed mean in photolithography process to control overlay and CD variations. The accuracy of APC is dependent upon the amount of the previous process data. However, in a foundry with high-mix products it is typical that there are not enough historic data points for accurate calculation of process parameters for a low volume product. The consequence is the high rework rate of pilot runs and test runes due to poor process parameter prediction for overlay. Several studies of the method for predicting the overlay correction have been reported. The key to build a good prediction model is to break the overlay errors down to several parts. Some are equipment or technology related errors, which are shared by all products. Others are the characteristic for certain products, for instance, mask error or special alignment marks. In the production environment the former parts are updated in real time by data feedback from processing all kinds of products. The low volume products or pilot products can share the information. Thus we can achieve a more accurate control or prediction for a new product. In this paper we provide a new model for predicting the process parameter settings of overlay for a pilot run or a product not being run on a tool for a long period of time. This new model is a Simplified Cerebellar Manipulation Arithmetic Controller (SCMAC), which is one kind of Neural Network (NN) model. We assume each part of overlay errors is a cell in SCMAC and build the whole cell table by using this assumption. The final overlay correction value is the sum of a group of cells, which is activated by one lot information. We will also present the details of the building and training of this new SCMAC model. The prediction accuracy of SCMAC in overlay parameters is also evaluated. According to

  10. Extended Mixed-Efects Item Response Models with the MH-RM Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, R. Philip

    2015-01-01

    A mixed-effects item response theory (IRT) model is presented as a logical extension of the generalized linear mixed-effects modeling approach to formulating explanatory IRT models. Fixed and random coefficients in the extended model are estimated using a Metropolis-Hastings Robbins-Monro (MH-RM) stochastic imputation algorithm to accommodate for…

  11. $B^0_{(s)}$-mixing matrix elements from lattice QCD for the Standard Model and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Bazavov, A; Bouchard, C M; Chang, C C; DeTar, C; Du, Daping; El-Khadra, A X; Freeland, E D; Gamiz, E; Gottlieb, Steven; Heller, U M; Kronfeld, A S; Laiho, J; Mackenzie, P B; Neil, E T; Simone, J; Sugar, R; Toussaint, D; Van de Water, R S; Zhou, Ran

    2016-01-01

    We calculate---for the first time in three-flavor lattice QCD---the hadronic matrix elements of all five local operators that contribute to neutral $B^0$- and $B_s$-meson mixing in and beyond the Standard Model. We present a complete error budget for each matrix element and also provide the full set of correlations among the matrix elements. We also present the corresponding bag parameters and their correlations, as well as specific combinations of the mixing matrix elements that enter the expression for the neutral $B$-meson width difference. We obtain the most precise determination to date of the SU(3)-breaking ratio $\\xi = 1.203(17)(6)$, where the second error stems from the omission of charm sea quarks, while the first encompasses all other uncertainties. The threefold reduction in total uncertainty tightens the constraint from $B$ mixing on the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) unitarity triangle. Our calculation employs gauge-field ensembles generated by the MILC Collaboration with four lattice spacings a...

  12. Modelling exhaust plume mixing in the near field of an aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Garnier

    Full Text Available A simplified approach has been applied to analyse the mixing and entrainment processes of the engine exhaust through their interaction with the vortex wake of an aircraft. Our investigation is focused on the near field, extending from the exit nozzle until about 30 s after the wake is generated, in the vortex phase. This study was performed by using an integral model and a numerical simulation for two large civil aircraft: a two-engine Airbus 330 and a four-engine Boeing 747. The influence of the wing-tip vortices on the dilution ratio (defined as a tracer concentration shown. The mixing process is also affected by the buoyancy effect, but only after the jet regime, when the trapping in the vortex core has occurred. In the early wake, the engine jet location (i.e. inboard or outboard engine jet has an important influence on the mixing rate. The plume streamlines inside the vortices are subject to distortion and stretching, and the role of the descent of the vortices on the maximum tracer concentration is discussed. Qualitative comparison with contrail photograph shows similar features. Finally, tracer concentration of inboard engine centreline of B-747 are compared with other theoretical analyses and measured data.

  13. A mixing-length model for the prediction of convex curvature effects on turbulent boundary layers. [for turbine blade convective heat transfer prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, E. W.; Johnston, J. P.

    1983-01-01

    A mixing-length model is developed for the prediction of turbulent boundary layers with convex streamwise curvature. For large layer thickness ratio, delta/R greater than 0.05, the model scales mixing length on the wall radius of curvature, R. For small delta/R, ordinary flat wall modeling is used for the mixing-length profile with curvature corrections, following the recommendations of Eide and Johnston (1976). Effects of streamwise change of curvature are considered; a strong lag from equilibrium is required when R increases downstream. Fifteen separate data sets were compared, including both hydrodynamic and heat transfer results. Six of these computations are presented and compared to experiment.

  14. Mixed Dark Matter in Left-Right Symmetric Models

    CERN Document Server

    Berlin, Asher; Hooper, Dan; Mohlabeng, Gopolang

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the recently reported diboson and dijet excesses in Run 1 data at ATLAS and CMS, we explore models of mixed dark matter in left-right symmetric theories. In this study, we calculate the relic abundance and the elastic scattering cross section with nuclei for a number of dark matter candidates that appear within the fermionic multiplets of left-right symmetric models. In contrast to the case of pure multiplets, WIMP-nucleon scattering proceeds at tree-level, and hence the projected reach of future direct detection experiments such as LUX-ZEPLIN and XENON1T will cover large regions of parameter space for TeV-scale thermal dark matter. Decays of the heavy charged W' boson to particles in the dark sector can potentially shift the right-handed gauge coupling to larger values when fixed to the rate of the Run 1 excesses, moving towards the theoretically attractive scenario, gR = gL. This region of parameter space may be probed by future collider searches for new Higgs bosons or electroweak fermions.

  15. Mixed dark matter in left-right symmetric models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berlin, Asher [Department of Physics, University of Chicago,Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Fox, Patrick J. [Theoretical Physics Department, Fermilab,Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States); Hooper, Dan [Center for Particle Astrophysics, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory,Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States); Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago,Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Mohlabeng, Gopolang [Center for Particle Astrophysics, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory,Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kansas,Lawrence, Kansas 66045 (United States)

    2016-06-08

    Motivated by the recently reported diboson and dijet excesses in Run 1 data at ATLAS and CMS, we explore models of mixed dark matter in left-right symmetric theories. In this study, we calculate the relic abundance and the elastic scattering cross section with nuclei for a number of dark matter candidates that appear within the fermionic multiplets of left-right symmetric models. In contrast to the case of pure multiplets, WIMP-nucleon scattering proceeds at tree-level, and hence the projected reach of future direct detection experiments such as LUX-ZEPLIN and XENON1T will cover large regions of parameter space for TeV-scale thermal dark matter. Decays of the heavy charged W{sup ′} boson to particles in the dark sector can potentially shift the right-handed gauge coupling to larger values when fixed to the rate of the Run 1 excesses, moving towards the theoretically attractive scenario, g{sub R}=g{sub L}. This region of parameter space may be probed by future collider searches for new Higgs bosons or electroweak fermions.

  16. Car Delay Model near Bus Stops with Mixed Traffic Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xiaobao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a model for estimating car delays at bus stops under mixed traffic using probability theory and queuing theory. The roadway is divided to serve motorized and nonmotorized traffic streams. Bus stops are located on the nonmotorized lanes. When buses dwell at the stop, they block the bicycles. Thus, two conflict points between car stream and other traffic stream are identified. The first conflict point occurs as bicycles merge to the motorized lane to avoid waiting behind the stopping buses. The second occurs as buses merge back to the motorized lane. The average car delay is estimated as the sum of the average delay at these two conflict points and the delay resulting from following the slower bicycles that merged into the motorized lane. Data are collected to calibrate and validate the developed model from one site in Beijing. The sensitivity of car delay to various operation conditions is examined. The results show that both bus stream and bicycle stream have significant effects on car delay. At bus volumes above 200 vehicles per hour, the curbside stop design is not appropriate because of the long car delays. It can be replaced by the bus bay design.

  17. Mixed Integer Programming Model and Incremental Optimization for Delivery and Storage Planning Using Truck Terminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakakibara, Kazutoshi; Tian, Yajie; Nishikawa, Ikuko

    We discuss the planning of transportation by trucks over a multi-day period. Each truck collects loads from suppliers and delivers them to assembly plants or a truck terminal. By exploiting the truck terminal as a temporal storage, we aim to increase the load ratio of each truck and to minimize the lead time for transportation. In this paper, we show a mixed integer programming model which represents each product explicitly, and discuss the decomposition of the problem into a problem of delivery and storage, and a problem of vehicle routing. Based on this model, we propose a relax-and-fix type heuristic in which decision variables are fixed one by one by mathematical programming techniques such as branch-and-bound methods.

  18. A Bayesian based functional mixed-effects model for analysis of LC-MS data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Befekadu, Getachew K; Tadesse, Mahlet G; Ressom, Habtom W

    2009-01-01

    A Bayesian multilevel functional mixed-effects model with group specific random-effects is presented for analysis of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) data. The proposed framework allows alignment of LC-MS spectra with respect to both retention time (RT) and mass-to-charge ratio (m/z). Affine transformations are incorporated within the model to account for any variability along the RT and m/z dimensions. Simultaneous posterior inference of all unknown parameters is accomplished via Markov chain Monte Carlo method using the Gibbs sampling algorithm. The proposed approach is computationally tractable and allows incorporating prior knowledge in the inference process. We demonstrate the applicability of our approach for alignment of LC-MS spectra based on total ion count profiles derived from two LC-MS datasets.

  19. Modeling 210Pb-derived mixing activity in ocean margin sediments: Diffusive versus nonlocal mixing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetaert, K.E.R.; Herman, P.M.J.; Middelburg, J.J.; Heip, C.H.R.; De Stigter, H.; Van Weering, T.C.E.; Epping, E.; Helder, W.

    1996-01-01

    The influence of sediment mixing on activity versus depth profiles of the radionuclide (210)pb in the upper 20 cm of the sediments has been investigated along a depth transect (208 m- 4500 m, 17 stations) in the OMEX study area (Goban Spur, NE Atlantic Ocean). A hierarchical family of bioturbation/n

  20. Prediction of stock markets by the evolutionary mix-game model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fang; Gou, Chengling; Guo, Xiaoqian; Gao, Jieping

    2008-06-01

    This paper presents the efforts of using the evolutionary mix-game model, which is a modified form of the agent-based mix-game model, to predict financial time series. Here, we have carried out three methods to improve the original mix-game model by adding the abilities of strategy evolution to agents, and then applying the new model referred to as the evolutionary mix-game model to forecast the Shanghai Stock Exchange Composite Index. The results show that these modifications can improve the accuracy of prediction greatly when proper parameters are chosen.

  1. Experimental research on the mixed sand ratio and initial dry density of weathered sand improved expansive soil free load swelling rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Jun; Yang Zhi; Zhang Guodong; Tang Yunwei; Chen Hongping

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, through the indoor free load swelling rate test, expansive soil in a section of a first- class highway reconstruction project in Yichang City was studied. It emphatically analyzed the interrelations among free load swelling rate, non-load time, the proportion of mixed sand and initial dry density. Experimen- tal studies have shown that: Free load swelling deformation is mainly divided into three stages of rapid expan- sion, slow expansion and final stability; when the initial dry density is constant, free load swelling rate of the weathered sand modified soil will reduce rapidly before they slow down with the increase of sand proportion, and weathered sand modified soil free load swelling rate is not sensitive to the large amount of sand mixed; in the same mixed sand ratio, weathered sand modified soil free load swelling rate increases rapidly with the in- crease of initial dry density, there is a good linear correlation between them. To take appropriate control of the initial dry density during the expansive soil subgrade construction helps to reduce its swelling deformation and ensures the stability of the embankment.

  2. Marked long-term decline in ambient CO mixing ratio in SE England, 1997-2014: evidence of policy success in improving air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, D; Lanoisellé, M E; Fisher, R E; Martin, M; Fowler, C M R; France, J L; Hernández-Paniagua, I Y; Novelli, P C; Sriskantharajah, S; O'Brien, P; Rata, N D; Holmes, C W; Fleming, Z L; Clemitshaw, K C; Zazzeri, G; Pommier, M; McLinden, C A; Nisbet, E G

    2016-05-23

    Atmospheric CO at Egham in SE England has shown a marked and progressive decline since 1997, following adoption of strict controls on emissions. The Egham site is uniquely positioned to allow both assessment and comparison of 'clean Atlantic background' air and CO-enriched air downwind from the London conurbation. The decline is strongest (approximately 50 ppb per year) in the 1997-2003 period but continues post 2003. A 'local CO increment' can be identified as the residual after subtraction of contemporary background Atlantic CO mixing ratios from measured values at Egham. This increment, which is primarily from regional sources (during anticyclonic or northerly winds) or from the European continent (with easterly air mass origins), has significant seasonality, but overall has declined steadily since 1997. On many days of the year CO measured at Egham is now not far above Atlantic background levels measured at Mace Head (Ireland). The results are consistent with MOPITT satellite observations and 'bottom-up' inventory results. Comparison with urban and regional background CO mixing ratios in Hong Kong demonstrates the importance of regional, as opposed to local reduction of CO emission. The Egham record implies that controls on emissions subsequent to legislation have been extremely successful in the UK.

  3. Marked long-term decline in ambient CO mixing ratio in SE England, 1997-2014: evidence of policy success in improving air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, D.; Lanoisellé, M. E.; Fisher, R. E.; Martin, M.; Fowler, C. M. R.; France, J. L.; Hernández-Paniagua, I. Y.; Novelli, P. C.; Sriskantharajah, S.; O'Brien, P.; Rata, N. D.; Holmes, C. W.; Fleming, Z. L.; Clemitshaw, K. C.; Zazzeri, G.; Pommier, M.; McLinden, C. A.; Nisbet, E. G.

    2016-05-01

    Atmospheric CO at Egham in SE England has shown a marked and progressive decline since 1997, following adoption of strict controls on emissions. The Egham site is uniquely positioned to allow both assessment and comparison of ‘clean Atlantic background’ air and CO-enriched air downwind from the London conurbation. The decline is strongest (approximately 50 ppb per year) in the 1997-2003 period but continues post 2003. A ‘local CO increment’ can be identified as the residual after subtraction of contemporary background Atlantic CO mixing ratios from measured values at Egham. This increment, which is primarily from regional sources (during anticyclonic or northerly winds) or from the European continent (with easterly air mass origins), has significant seasonality, but overall has declined steadily since 1997. On many days of the year CO measured at Egham is now not far above Atlantic background levels measured at Mace Head (Ireland). The results are consistent with MOPITT satellite observations and ‘bottom-up’ inventory results. Comparison with urban and regional background CO mixing ratios in Hong Kong demonstrates the importance of regional, as opposed to local reduction of CO emission. The Egham record implies that controls on emissions subsequent to legislation have been extremely successful in the UK.

  4. A novel approach of anaerobic co-digestion between organic fraction of food waste and waste sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plant: Effect of mixing ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nga, Dinh Thi; Ngoc, Tran Thi Minh; Van Ty, Nguyen; Thuan, Van Tan

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of mixing ratio of co-anaerobic digestion between dewatered waste sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plant (DS) and organic fraction of food waste (FW). The experiment was carried out in 3L reactors for 16 days at ambient temperature. Four mixing ratios of DW and FW was investigated including 100 % DS : 0 % FW (Run S100); 75% DS : 25 % FW (Run S75); 50% DS : 50% FW (Run S50); and 25% DS : 75% FW (Run S25) in term of VS concentration. As a result, the Run S50 achieved best performance among the four funs indicated in biogas accumulation of 32.48 L biogas and methane yield of 358.9 400ml CH4/g VS removal after 16 days operation at ambient temperature. Biogas accumulation of Run S25 was higher than that of Run S75. Run S100 produced the lowest of biogas of all runs. It is concluded that co-anaerobic digestion of different organic sources could enhance the performance of methane fermentation.

  5. Atmospheric carbon tetrachloride in rural background and industry surrounded urban areas in Northern Iberian Peninsula: Mixing ratios, trends, and potential sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blas, Maite de, E-mail: maite.deblas@ehu.eus [School of Engineering of Bilbao, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU (Spain); Uria-Tellaetxe, Iratxe; Gomez, Maria Carmen [School of Engineering of Bilbao, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU (Spain); Navazo, Marino [University College of Engineering of Vitoria-Gasteiz, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU (Spain); Alonso, Lucio; García, Jose Antonio; Durana, Nieves; Iza, Jon; Ramón, Jarol Derley [School of Engineering of Bilbao, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU (Spain)

    2016-08-15

    Latest investigations on atmospheric carbon tetrachloride (CTC) are focused on its ozone depleting potential, adverse effects on the human health, and radiative efficiency and Global Warming Potential as a greenhouse gas. CTC mixing ratios have been thoroughly studied since its restriction under the Montreal Protocol, mostly in remote areas with the aim of reporting long-term trends after its banning. The observed decrease of the CTC background mixing ratio, however, was not as strong as expected. In order to explain this behavior CTC lifetime should be adjusted by estimating the relative significance of its sinks and by identifying ongoing potential sources. Looking for possible sources, CTC was measured with high-time resolution in two sites in Northern Spain, using auto-GC systems and specifically developed acquisition and processing methodologies. The first site, Bilbao, is an urban area influenced by the surrounding industry, where measurements were performed with GC–MSD for a one-year period (2007–2008). The second site, at Valderejo Natural Park (VNP), is a rural background area where measurements were carried out with GC-FID and covering CTC data a nonsuccessive five-year period (2003–2005, 2010–2011, and 2014–2015 years). Median yearly CTC mixing ratios were slightly higher in the urban area (120 pptv) than in VNP (80–100 pptv). CTC was reported to be well mixed in the atmosphere and no sources were noticed to impact the rural site. The observed long-term trend in VNP was in agreement with the estimated global CTC emissions. In the urban site, apart from industrial and commercial CTC sources, chlorine-bleach products used as cleaning agents were reported as promotors of indoor sources. - Highlights: • A methodology was developed to measure CTC using GC-MSD and GC-FID. • CTC ongoing sources were noticed in an industry surrounded urban area. • No noticeable nearby CTC sources impacted the rural site. • Long-term CTC trend in agreement

  6. Revisiting Bimaximal Neutrino Mixing in a Model with S4 Discrete Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Altarelli, G; Merlo, L

    2009-01-01

    In view of the fact that the data on neutrino mixing are still compatible with a situation where Bimaximal mixing is valid in first approximation and it is then corrected by terms of order of the Cabibbo angle, arising from the diagonalization of the charged lepton masses, we construct a model based on the discrete group S4 where those properties are naturally realized. The model is supersymmetric in 4-dimensions and the complete flavour group is S4 x Z4 x U(1)_FN, which also allows to reproduce the hierarchy of the charged lepton spectrum. The only fine tuning needed in the model is to reproduce the small observed value of r, the ratio between the neutrino mass squared differences. Once the relevant parameters are set to accommodate r then the spectrum of light neutrinos shows a moderate normal hierarchy and is compatible, within large ambiguities, with the constraints from leptogenesis as an explanation of the baryon asymmetry in the Universe.

  7. Mixing models and ionic geothermometers applied to warm (up to 60°C) springs: Jordan Rift Valley, Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazor, E.; Levitte, D.; Truesdell, A.H.; Healy, J.; Nissenbaum, A.

    1980-01-01

    Mixing models and evaluation of SiO2 contents of warm-water manifestations in the Jordan—Dead Sea Rift Valley indicate that these waters are fed by aquifers with estimated temperatures of up to 68°C. These calculations and Na/K ratios, concentrations of Na, K and Ca, concentrations of atmospheric Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe; and concentrations of the stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopes all indicate below-boiling temperatures.

  8. Flow mixing model of liquid phase in an internal airlift loop reactor%气升式内环流反应器的液相流动混合模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂大仕; 沈文豪; 刘群姣; 张震宇; 王欣

    2006-01-01

    Residence time distribution (RTD) analysis of liquid phase was conducted in an internal airlift loop reactor (AL) and a bubble column (BC) with the tracer response technique. These data were simulated and compared through several flow mixing models. The modeling results of two-parameter model indicated that there were higher ratio of full mixing zones and lower ratio of bypass flow in AL than in BC. Then a completely mixed-plug flow parallel combined (four-parameter) model was established. Modeling results show that it is more precise and more obvious than two-parameter model.

  9. Immiscible multicomponent lattice Boltzmann model for fluids with high relaxation time ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tao Jiang; Qiwei Gong; Ruofan Qiu; Anlin Wang

    2014-10-01

    An immiscible multicomponent lattice Boltzmann model is developed for fluids with high relaxation time ratios, which is based on the model proposed by Shan and Chen (SC). In the SC model, an interaction potential between particles is incorporated into the discrete lattice Boltzmann equation through the equilibrium velocity. Compared to the SC model, external forces in our model are discretized directly into the discrete lattice Boltzmann equation, as proposed by Guo et al. We develop it into a new multicomponent lattice Boltzmann (LB) model which has the ability to simulate immiscible multicomponent fluids with relaxation time ratio as large as 29.0 and to reduce `spurious velocity’. In this work, the improved model is validated and studied using the central bubble case and the rising bubble case. It finds good applications in both static and dynamic cases for multicomponent simulations with different relaxation time ratios.

  10. FBR for catalytic propylene polymerization: Controlled mixing and reactor modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meier, G.B.; Weickert, G.; Swaaij, van W.P.M.

    2002-01-01

    Particle mixing and segregation have been studied in a small-scale fluidized-bed reactor (FBR) under pressure. The solids mixing is relatively faster than the residence time of catalyst particles in the case of a polymerization process, but smaller particles accumulate in the upper zone. Semibatch p

  11. Optimization of end-members used in multiple linear regression geochemical mixing models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlea, Ann G.; Murray, Richard W.

    2015-11-01

    Tracking marine sediment provenance (e.g., of dust, ash, hydrothermal material, etc.) provides insight into contemporary ocean processes and helps construct paleoceanographic records. In a simple system with only a few end-members that can be easily quantified by a unique chemical or isotopic signal, chemical ratios and normative calculations can help quantify the flux of sediment from the few sources. In a more complex system (e.g., each element comes from multiple sources), more sophisticated mixing models are required. MATLAB codes published in Pisias et al. solidified the foundation for application of a Constrained Least Squares (CLS) multiple linear regression technique that can use many elements and several end-members in a mixing model. However, rigorous sensitivity testing to check the robustness of the CLS model is time and labor intensive. MATLAB codes provided in this paper reduce the time and labor involved and facilitate finding a robust and stable CLS model. By quickly comparing the goodness of fit between thousands of different end-member combinations, users are able to identify trends in the results that reveal the CLS solution uniqueness and the end-member composition precision required for a good fit. Users can also rapidly check that they have the appropriate number and type of end-members in their model. In the end, these codes improve the user's confidence that the final CLS model(s) they select are the most reliable solutions. These advantages are demonstrated by application of the codes in two case studies of well-studied datasets (Nazca Plate and South Pacific Gyre).

  12. Genomic Heritability of Bovine Growth Using a Mixed Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihye Ryu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated heritability for bovine growth estimated with genomewide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP information obtained from a DNA microarray chip. Three hundred sixty seven Korean cattle were genotyped with the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip, and 39,112 SNPs of 364 animals filtered by quality assurance were analyzed to estimate heritability of body weights at 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, and 24 months of age. Restricted maximum likelihood estimate of heritability was obtained using covariance structure of genomic relationships among animals in a mixed model framework. Heritability estimates ranged from 0.58 to 0.76 for body weights at different ages. The heritability estimates using genomic information in this study were larger than those which had been estimated previously using pedigree information. The results revealed a trend that the heritability for body weight increased at a younger age (6 months. This suggests an early genetic evaluation for bovine growth using genomic information to increase genetic merits of animals.

  13. Modeling of groundwater productivity in northeastern Wasit Governorate, Iraq using frequency ratio and Shannon's entropy models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Abadi, Alaa M.

    2017-05-01

    In recent years, delineation of groundwater productivity zones plays an increasingly important role in sustainable management of groundwater resource throughout the world. In this study, groundwater productivity index of northeastern Wasit Governorate was delineated using probabilistic frequency ratio (FR) and Shannon's entropy models in framework of GIS. Eight factors believed to influence the groundwater occurrence in the study area were selected and used as the input data. These factors were elevation (m), slope angle (degree), geology, soil, aquifer transmissivity (m2/d), storativity (dimensionless), distance to river (m), and distance to faults (m). In the first step, borehole location inventory map consisting of 68 boreholes with relatively high yield (>8 l/sec) was prepared. 47 boreholes (70 %) were used as training data and the remaining 21 (30 %) were used for validation. The predictive capability of each model was determined using relative operating characteristic technique. The results of the analysis indicate that the FR model with a success rate of 87.4 % and prediction rate 86.9 % performed slightly better than Shannon's entropy model with success rate of 84.4 % and prediction rate of 82.4 %. The resultant groundwater productivity index was classified into five classes using natural break classification scheme: very low, low, moderate, high, and very high. The high-very high classes for FR and Shannon's entropy models occurred within 30 % (217 km2) and 31 % (220 km2), respectively indicating low productivity conditions of the aquifer system. From final results, both of the models were capable to prospect GWPI with very good results, but FR was better in terms of success and prediction rates. Results of this study could be helpful for better management of groundwater resources in the study area and give planners and decision makers an opportunity to prepare appropriate groundwater investment plans.

  14. From emissions to ambient mixing ratios: on-line seasonal field measurements of volatile organic compounds over a Norway spruce dominated forest in central Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourtsoukidis, E.; Williams, J.; Kesselmeier, J.; Jacobi, S.; Bonn, B.

    2013-11-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) are substantial contributors to atmospheric chemistry and physics and demonstrate the close relationship between biosphere and atmosphere. Their emission rates are highly sensitive to meteorological and environmental changes with concomitant impacts on atmospheric chemistry. We have investigated seasonal isoprenoid and oxygenated VOC (oxVOC) fluxes from a Norway spruce (Picea abies) tree in Central Germany and explored the emission responses under various atmospheric conditions. Emission rates were quantified by using dynamic branch enclosure and Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) techniques. Additionally, ambient mixing ratios were derived through application of a new box model treatment on the dynamic chamber measurements. These are compared in terms of abundance and origin with the corresponding emissions. Isoprenoids govern the BVOC emissions from Norway spruce, with monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes accounting for 50.8 ± 7.2% and 19.8 ± 8.1% respectively of the total emissions. Normalizing the VOC emission rates, we have observed a trend of reduction of carbon containing emissions from April to November, with an enhancement of oxVOC. Highest emission rates were observed in June for all measured species, with the exception of sesquiterpenes that were emitted most strongly in April. We exploit the wide range of conditions experienced at the site to filter the dataset with a combination of temperature, ozone and absolute humidity values in order to derive the emission potential and temperature dependency development for the major chemical species investigated. A profound reduction of monoterpene emission potential (E30) and temperature dependency (β) was found under low temperature regimes, combined with low ozone levels (E30MT, LTLO3=56 ± 9.1 ng g(dw)-1 h-1, βMT,LTLO3=0.03±0.01 K-1) while a combination of both stresses was found to alter their emissions responses with respect to temperature

  15. Elasto-Plasticity Critical Corrosive Ratio Model for RC Structure Corrosive Expanding Crack

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yueshun; LU Yiyan; LIU Li

    2007-01-01

    The parameter of filling expanding ratio n, plasticity factor k1 and deformation parameter k2 is raised, and then the elasto-plasticity critical corrosive ratio model for RC structure corrosive expanding crack based on elasto-plasticity theory is constructed in this paper. The influences of parameters such as filling expansion ratio n, plasticity factor k1, deformation parameter k2, Poisson ratio of concrete v, diameter of reinforced bar d and protective layer thickness c on the critical corrosive ratio are researched by theory analysis and experiments. The experimental results validate the accuracy of the model. According to the experimental study, the least squares solution is calculated as n=1.8,k1 =0.61,k2 =0.5.

  16. PREDICTION OF THE MIXING ENTHALPIES OF BINARY LIQUID ALLOYS BY MOLECULAR INTERACTION VOLUME MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.W.Yang; D.P.Tao; Z.H.Zhou

    2008-01-01

    The mixing enthalpies of 23 binary liquid alloys are calculated by molecular interaction volume model (MIVM), which is a two-parameter model with the partial molar infinite dilute mixing enthalpies. The predicted values are in agreement with the experimental data and then indicate that the model is reliable and convenient.

  17. Estimating marginal properties of quantitative real-time PCR data using nonlinear mixed models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerhard, Daniel; Bremer, Melanie; Ritz, Christian

    2014-01-01

    A unified modeling framework based on a set of nonlinear mixed models is proposed for flexible modeling of gene expression in real-time PCR experiments. Focus is on estimating the marginal or population-based derived parameters: cycle thresholds and ΔΔc(t), but retaining the conditional mixed mod...

  18. Interpreting methane variations in the past two decades using measurements of CH4 mixing ratio and isotopic composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteil, G.; Houweling, S.; Dlugockenky, E. J.; Maenhout, G.; Vaughn, B. H.; White, J. W. C.; Rockmann, T.

    2011-09-01

    The availability δ13C-CH4 measurements from atmospheric samples has significantly improved in recent years, which allows the construction of time series spanning up to about 2 decades. We have used these measurements to investigate the cause of the methane growth rate decline since 1980, with a special focus on the period 1998-2006 when the methane growth came to a halt. The constraints provided by the CH4 and δ13C-CH4 measurements are used to construct hypothetical source and sink scenarios, which are translated into corresponding atmospheric concentrations using the atmospheric transport model TM3 for evaluation against the measurements. The base scenario, composed of anthropogenic emissions according to EDGAR 4.0, constant emissions from natural sources, and a constant atmospheric lifetime, overestimates the observed global growth rates of CH4 and δ13C-CH4 by, respectively, 10 ppb yr-1 and 0.02‰ yr-1 after the year 2000. It proves difficult to repair this inconsistency by modifying trends in emissions only, notably because a temporary reduction of isotopically light sources, such as natural wetlands, leads to a further increase of δ13C-CH4. Furthermore, our results are difficult to reconcile with the estimated increase of 5 Tg CH4 yr-1 in emissions from fossil fuel use in the period 2000-2005. On the other hand, we find that a moderate (less than 5% per decade) increase in the global OH concentration can bring the model in agreement with the measurements for plausible emission scenarios. This study demonstrates the value of global monitoring of methane isotopes, and calls for further investigation into the role OH and anthropogenic emissions to further improve our understanding of methane variations in recent years.

  19. Mixed isoparametric finite element models of laminated composite shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, A. K.; Andersen, C. M.

    1977-01-01

    Mixed shear-flexible isoparametric elements are presented for the stress and free vibration analysis of laminated composite shallow shells. Both triangular and quadrilateral elements are considered. The 'generalized' element stiffness, consistent mass, and consistent load coefficients are obtained by using a modified form of the Hellinger-Reissner mixed variational principle. Group-theoretic techniques are used in conjunction with computerized symbolic integration to obtain analytic expressions for the stiffness, mass and load coefficients. A procedure is outlined for efficiently handling the resulting system of algebraic equations. The accuracy of the mixed isoparametric elements developed is demonstrated by means of numerical examples, and their advantages over commonly used displacement elements are discussed.

  20. The sensitivity of stratocumulus-capped mixed layers to cloud droplet concentration: do LES and mixed-layer models agree?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Uchida

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of a stratocumulus-capped mixed layer to a change in cloud droplet concentration is evaluated with a large-eddy simulation (LES and a mixed layer model (MLM. The strength of the second aerosol indirect effect simulated by the two model types agrees within 50% for cases in which the LES-simulated boundary layer remains well mixed, if the MLM entrainment closure includes the effects of cloud droplet sedimentation.

    To achieve this agreement, parameters in the MLM entrainment closure and the drizzle parameterization must be retuned to match the LES. This is because the LES advection scheme and microphysical parameterization significantly bias the entrainment rate and precipitation profile compared to observational best guesses. Before this modification, the MLM simulates more liquid water path and much more drizzle at a given droplet concentration than the LES and is more sensitive to droplet concentration, even undergoing a drizzle-induced boundary layer collapse at low droplet concentrations. After this modification, both models predict a comparable decrease of cloud liquid water path as droplet concentration increases, cancelling 30–50% of the Twomey effect for our case. The agreement breaks down at the lowest simulated droplet concentrations, for which the boundary layer in the LES is not well mixed.

    Our results highlight issues with both types of model. Potential LES biases due to inadequate resolution, subgrid mixing and parameterized microphysics must be carefully considered when trying to make a quantitative inference of the second indirect effect from an LES of a stratocumulus-topped boundary layer. On the other hand, even slight internal decoupling of the boundary layer invalidates the central assumption of an MLM, substantially limiting the range of conditions that MLM-predicted sensitivities to droplet concentration are meaningful.

  1. The sensitivity of stratocumulus-capped mixed layers to cloud droplet concentration: do LES and mixed-layer models agree?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. Blossey

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of a stratocumulus-capped mixed layer to a change in cloud droplet concentration is evaluated with a large-eddy simulation (LES and a mixed layer model (MLM, to see if the two model types agree on the strength of the second aerosol indirect effect. Good agreement can be obtained if the MLM entrainment closure explicitly reduces entrainment efficiency proportional to the rate of cloud droplet sedimentation at cloud top for cases in which the LES-simulated boundary layer remains well mixed, with a single peak in the vertical profile of vertical velocity variance.

    To achieve this agreement, the MLM entrainment closure and the drizzle parameterization must be modified from their observationally-based defaults. This is because the LES advection scheme and microphysical parameterization significantly bias the entrainment rate and precipitation profile compared to observational best guesses. Before this modification, the MLM simulates more liquid water path and much more drizzle at a given droplet concentration than the LES and is more sensitive to droplet concentration, even undergoing a drizzle-induced boundary layer collapse at low droplet concentrations. After this modification, both models predict a similar decrease of cloud liquid water path as droplet concentration increases, cancelling 30–50% of the Twomey effect for our case. The agreement breaks down at the lowest simulated droplet concentrations, for which the boundary layer in the LES is not well mixed.

    Our results highlight issues with both types of model. Potential LES biases due to inadequate resolution, subgrid mixing and microphysics must be carefully considered when trying to make a quantitative inference of the second indirect effect from an LES of a stratocumulus-topped boundary layer. On the other hand, even slight internal decoupling of the boundary layer invalidates MLM-predicted sensitivity to droplet concentrations.

  2. The competition between coastal trace metal fluxes and oceanic mixing from the 10Be/9Be ratio: Implications for sedimentary records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, H.; von Blanckenburg, F.; Mohtadi, M.; Christl, M.; Bernhardt, A.

    2017-08-01

    At an ocean margin site 37°S offshore Chile, we use the meteoric cosmogenic 10Be/9Be ratio to trace changes in terrestrial particulate composition due to exchange with seawater. We analyzed the marine authigenic phase in surface sediments along a coast-perpendicular transect and compared to samples from their riverine source. We find evidence for growth of authigenic rims through coprecipitation, not via reversible adsorption, that incorporate an open ocean 10Be/9Be signature from a deep water source only 30 km from the coast, overprinting terrestrial 10Be/9Be signatures. Together with increasing 10Be/9Be ratios, particulate-bound Fe concentrations increase, which we attribute to release of Fe-rich pore waters during boundary exchange in the sediment. The implications for the use of 10Be/9Be in sedimentary records for paleodenudation flux reconstructions are the following: in coast-proximal sites the authigenic record will likely preserve local riverine ratios unaffected by exchange with seawater, whereas sites beneath well-mixed seawater will preserve global flux signatures.

  3. Functional-mixed effects models for candidate genetic mapping in imaging genetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ja-An; Zhu, Hongtu; Mihye, Ahn; Sun, Wei; Ibrahim, Joseph G

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to develop a functional-mixed effects modeling (FMEM) framework for the joint analysis of high-dimensional imaging data in a large number of locations (called voxels) of a three-dimensional volume with a set of genetic markers and clinical covariates. Our FMEM is extremely useful for efficiently carrying out the candidate gene approaches in imaging genetic studies. FMEM consists of two novel components including a mixed effects model for modeling nonlinear genetic effects on imaging phenotypes by introducing the genetic random effects at each voxel and a jumping surface model for modeling the variance components of the genetic random effects and fixed effects as piecewise smooth functions of the voxels. Moreover, FMEM naturally accommodates the correlation structure of the genetic markers at each voxel, while the jumping surface model explicitly incorporates the intrinsically spatial smoothness of the imaging data. We propose a novel two-stage adaptive smoothing procedure to spatially estimate the piecewise smooth functions, particularly the irregular functional genetic variance components, while preserving their edges among different piecewise-smooth regions. We develop weighted likelihood ratio tests and derive their exact approximations to test the effect of the genetic markers across voxels. Simulation studies show that FMEM significantly outperforms voxel-wise approaches in terms of higher sensitivity and specificity to identify regions of interest for carrying out candidate genetic mapping in imaging genetic studies. Finally, FMEM is used to identify brain regions affected by three candidate genes including CR1, CD2AP, and PICALM, thereby hoping to shed light on the pathological interactions between these candidate genes and brain structure and function.

  4. Measurements of $B^{0}-\\overline{B}^{0}$ Mixing, $\\Gamma(Z^{0} \\to b\\overline{b}) / \\Gamma (Z^{0} \\to$ Hadrons) and Semileptonic Branching Ratios for $b$-Flavoured Hadrons in Hadronic $Z^{0}$ Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Akers, R J; Allison, J; Anderson, K J; Arcelli, S; Astbury, Alan; Axen, D A; Azuelos, Georges; Baines, J T M; Ball, A H; Banks, J; Barlow, R J; Barnett, S; Bartoldus, R; Batley, J Richard; Beaudoin, G; Beck, A; Beck, G A; Becker, J; Beeston, C; Behnke, T; Bell, K W; Bella, G; Bentkowski, P; Berlich, P; Bethke, Siegfried; Biebel, O; Bloodworth, Ian J; Bock, P; Boden, B; Bosch, H M; Boutemeur, M; Breuker, Horst; Bright-Thomas, P G; Brown, R M; Buijs, A; Burckhart, Helfried J; Burgard, C; Capiluppi, P; Carnegie, R K; Carter, A A; Carter, J R; Chang, C Y; Charlton, D G; Chu, S L; Clarke, P E L; Clayton, J C; Cohen, I; Conboy, J E; Cooper, M; Coupland, M; Cuffiani, M; Dado, S; Dallavalle, G M; De Jong, S; del Pozo, L A; Deng, H; Dieckmann, A; Dittmar, Michael; Dixit, M S; do Couto e Silva, E; Duboscq, J E; Duchovni, E; Duckeck, G; Duerdoth, I P; Dumas, D J P; Elcombe, P A; Estabrooks, P G; Etzion, E; Evans, H G; Fabbri, Franco Luigi; Fabbro, B; Fierro, M; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Fischer, H M; Fong, D G; Foucher, M; Gaidot, A; Gary, J W; Gascon, J; Geddes, N I; Geich-Gimbel, C; Gensler, S W; Gentit, F X; Giacomelli, G; Giacomelli, R; Gibson, V; Gibson, W R; Gillies, James D; Goldberg, J; Gingrich, D M; Goodrick, M J; Gorn, W; Grandi, C; Grant, F C; Hagemann, J; Hanson, G G; Hansroul, M; Hargrove, C K; Harrison, P F; Hart, J; Hattersley, P M; Hauschild, M; Hawkes, C M; Heflin, E; Hemingway, Richard J; Herten, G; Heuer, R D; Hill, J C; Hillier, S J; Hilse, T; Hinshaw, D A; Hobbs, J D; Hobson, P R; Hochman, D; Homer, R James; Honma, A K; Hughes-Jones, R E; Humbert, R; Igo-Kemenes, P; Ihssen, H; Imrie, D C; Janissen, A C; Jawahery, A; Jeffreys, P W; Jeremie, H; Jimack, Martin Paul; Jones, M; Jones, R W L; Jovanovic, P; Jui, C; Karlen, D A; Kawagoe, K; Kawamoto, T; Keeler, Richard K; Kellogg, R G; Kennedy, B W; King, J; Kluth, S; Kobayashi, T; Koetke, D S; Kokott, T P; Komamiya, S; Kral, J F; Kowalewski, R V; Von Krogh, J; Kroll, J; Kyberd, P; Lafferty, G D; Lafoux, H; Lahmann, R; Lamarche, F; Lauber, J; Layter, J G; Leblanc, P; Lee, A M; Lefebvre, E; Lehto, M H; Lellouch, Daniel; Leroy, C; Letts, J; Levinson, L; Lloyd, S L; Loebinger, F K; Lorah, J M; Lorazo, B; Losty, Michael J; Lou, X C; Ludwig, J; Luig, A; Mannelli, M; Marcellini, S; Markus, C; Martin, A J; Martin, J P; Mashimo, T; Mättig, P; Maur, U; McKenna, J A; McMahon, T J; McNutt, J R; Meijers, F; Menszner, D; Merritt, F S; Mes, H; Michelini, Aldo; Middleton, R P; Mikenberg, G; Mildenberger, J L; Miller, D J; Mir, R; Mohr, W; Moisan, C; Montanari, A; Mori, T; Morii, M; Müller, U; Nellen, B; Nguyen, H H; O'Neale, S W; Oakham, F G; Odorici, F; Ögren, H O; Oram, C J; Oreglia, M J; Orito, S; Pansart, J P; Panzer-Steindel, B; Paschievici, P; Patrick, G N; Paz-Jaoshvili, N; Pearce, M J; Pfister, P; Pilcher, J E; Pinfold, James L; Pitman, D; Plane, D E; Poffenberger, P R; Poli, B; Pritchard, T W; Przysiezniak, H; Quast, G; Redmond, M W; Rees, D L; Richards, G E; Rison, M; Robins, S A; Robinson, D; Rollnik, A; Roney, J M; Ros, E; Rossberg, S; Rossi, A M; Rosvick, M; Routenburg, P; Runge, K; Runólfsson, O; Rust, D R; Sasaki, M; Sbarra, C; Schaile, A D; Schaile, O; Schappert, W; Scharf, F; Scharff-Hansen, P; Schenk, P; Schmitt, B; von der Schmitt, H; Schröder, M; Schwick, C; Schwiening, J; Scott, W G; Settles, M; Shears, T G; Shen, B C; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C H; Sherwood, P; Siroli, G P; Skillman, A; Skuja, A; Smith, A M; Smith, T J; Snow, G A; Sobie, Randall J; Springer, R W; Sproston, M; Stahl, A; Stegmann, C; Stephens, K; Steuerer, J; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D; Takeda, H; Takeshita, T; Tarem, S; Tecchio, M; Teixeira-Dias, P; Tesch, N; Thomson, M A; Torrente-Lujan, E; Towers, S; Tranströmer, G; Tresilian, N J; Tsukamoto, T; Turner, M F; Van den Plas, D; Van Kooten, R; VanDalen, G J; Vasseur, G; Wagner, A; Wagner, D L; Wahl, C; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Weber, M; Weber, P; Wells, P S; Wermes, N; Whalley, M A; Wilkens, B; Wilson, G W; Wilson, J A; Winterer, V H; Wlodek, T; Wolf, G; Wotton, S A; Wyatt, T R; Yaari, R; Yeaman, A; Yekutieli, G; Yurko, M; Zeuner, W; Zorn, G T

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of $B^{0}-\\overline{B}^{0}$ Mixing, $\\Gamma(Z^{0} \\to b\\overline{b}) / \\Gamma (Z^{0} \\to$ Hadrons) and Semileptonic Branching Ratios for $b$-Flavoured Hadrons in Hadronic $Z^{0}$ Decays

  5. Modeling of mixing processes: Fluids, particulates, and powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ottino, J.M.; Hansen, S. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Work under this grant involves two main areas: (1) Mixing of Viscous Liquids, this first area comprising aggregation, fragmentation and dispersion, and (2) Mixing of Powders. In order to produce a coherent self-contained picture, we report primarily on results obtained under (1), and within this area, mostly on computational studies of particle aggregation in regular and chaotic flows. Numerical simulations show that the average cluster size of compact clusters grows algebraically, while the average cluster size of fractal clusters grows exponentially; companion mathematical arguments are used to describe the initial growth of average cluster size and polydispersity. It is found that when the system is well mixed and the capture radius independent of mass, the polydispersity is constant for long-times and the cluster size distribution is self-similar. Furthermore, our simulations indicate that the fractal nature of the clusters is dependent upon the mixing.

  6. Validation of the MIPAS CO2 volume mixing ratio in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere and comparison with WACCM simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Puertas, Manuel; Funke, B.; Jurado-Navarro, Á. A.; García-Comas, M.; Gardini, A.; Boone, C. D.; Rezac, L.; Garcia, R. R.

    2017-08-01

    We present the validation of Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) CO2 daytime concentration in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere by comparing with Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) Fourier transform spectrometer and Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) data. MIPAS shows a very good agreement with ACE below 100 km with differences of ˜5%. Above 100 km, MIPAS CO2 is generally lower than ACE with differences growing from ˜5% at 100 km to 20-40% near 110-120 km. Part of this disagreement can be explained by the lack of a nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium correction in ACE. MIPAS also agrees very well (˜5%) with SABER below 100 km. At 90-105 km, MIPAS is generally smaller than SABER by 10-30% in the polar summers. At 100-120 km, MIPAS and SABER CO2 agree within ˜10% during equinox but, for solstice, MIPAS is larger by 10-25%, except near the polar summer. Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM) CO2 shows the major MIPAS features. At 75-100 km, the agreement is very good (˜5%), with maximum differences of ˜10%. At 95-115 km MIPAS CO2 is larger than WACCM by 20-30% in the winter hemisphere but smaller (20-40%) in the summer. Above 95-100 km WACCM generally overestimates MIPAS CO2 by about 20-80% except in the polar summer where underestimates it by 20-40%. MIPAS CO2 favors a large eddy diffusion below 100 km and suggests that the meridional circulation of the lower thermosphere is stronger than in WACCM. The three instruments and WACCM show a clear increase of CO2 with time, more markedly at 90-100 km.

  7. FC-TLBO: fully constrained meta-heuristic algorithm for abundance estimation using linear mixing model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    OMPRAKASH TEMBHURNE; DEEPTI SHRIMANKAR

    2017-07-01

    A study of abundance estimation has vital importance in spectral unmixing of hyperspectral image. Recently, various methods have been proposed for spectral unmixing to achieve higher performance using an evolutionary approach. However, these methods are based on unconstrained optimisation problems. Theirperformance was also based on proper tuning parameters. We have proposed a new non-parametric algorithm using teaching-learning-based optimisation technique with an inbuilt constraints maintenance mechanism using the linear mixing model. In this approach, the unmixing problem is transformed into a combinatorial optimisation problem by introducing abundance sum to one constraint and abundance non-negative constraint. A comparative analysis of the proposed algorithm is conducted with other two state-of-the-art algorithms.Experimental results in known and unknown environments with varying signal-to-noise ratio on simulated and real hyper spectral data demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms the other methods.

  8. An update on modeling dose-response relationships: Accounting for correlated data structure and heterogeneous error variance in linear and nonlinear mixed models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, M A D; Bello, N M; Dritz, S S; Tokach, M D; DeRouchey, J M; Woodworth, J C; Goodband, R D

    2016-05-01

    Advanced methods for dose-response assessments are used to estimate the minimum concentrations of a nutrient that maximizes a given outcome of interest, thereby determining nutritional requirements for optimal performance. Contrary to standard modeling assumptions, experimental data often present a design structure that includes correlations between observations (i.e., blocking, nesting, etc.) as well as heterogeneity of error variances; either can mislead inference if disregarded. Our objective is to demonstrate practical implementation of linear and nonlinear mixed models for dose-response relationships accounting for correlated data structure and heterogeneous error variances. To illustrate, we modeled data from a randomized complete block design study to evaluate the standardized ileal digestible (SID) Trp:Lys ratio dose-response on G:F of nursery pigs. A base linear mixed model was fitted to explore the functional form of G:F relative to Trp:Lys ratios and assess model assumptions. Next, we fitted 3 competing dose-response mixed models to G:F, namely a quadratic polynomial (QP) model, a broken-line linear (BLL) ascending model, and a broken-line quadratic (BLQ) ascending model, all of which included heteroskedastic specifications, as dictated by the base model. The GLIMMIX procedure of SAS (version 9.4) was used to fit the base and QP models and the NLMIXED procedure was used to fit the BLL and BLQ models. We further illustrated the use of a grid search of initial parameter values to facilitate convergence and parameter estimation in nonlinear mixed models. Fit between competing dose-response models was compared using a maximum likelihood-based Bayesian information criterion (BIC). The QP, BLL, and BLQ models fitted on G:F of nursery pigs yielded BIC values of 353.7, 343.4, and 345.2, respectively, thus indicating a better fit of the BLL model. The BLL breakpoint estimate of the SID Trp:Lys ratio was 16.5% (95% confidence interval [16.1, 17.0]). Problems with

  9. Modeling of pharmaceuticals mixtures toxicity with deviation ratio and best-fit functions models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczerzak, Monika; Kudłak, Błażej; Yotova, Galina; Nedyalkova, Miroslava; Tsakovski, Stefan; Simeonov, Vasil; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2016-11-15

    The present study deals with assessment of ecotoxicological parameters of 9 drugs (diclofenac (sodium salt), oxytetracycline hydrochloride, fluoxetine hydrochloride, chloramphenicol, ketoprofen, progesterone, estrone, androstenedione and gemfibrozil), present in the environmental compartments at specific concentration levels, and their mutual combinations by couples against Microtox® and XenoScreen YES/YAS® bioassays. As the quantitative assessment of ecotoxicity of drug mixtures is an complex and sophisticated topic in the present study we have used two major approaches to gain specific information on the mutual impact of two separate drugs present in a mixture. The first approach is well documented in many toxicological studies and follows the procedure for assessing three types of models, namely concentration addition (CA), independent action (IA) and simple interaction (SI) by calculation of a model deviation ratio (MDR) for each one of the experiments carried out. The second approach used was based on the assumption that the mutual impact in each mixture of two drugs could be described by a best-fit model function with calculation of weight (regression coefficient or other model parameter) for each of the participants in the mixture or by correlation analysis. It was shown that the sign and the absolute value of the weight or the correlation coefficient could be a reliable measure for the impact of either drug A on drug B or, vice versa, of B on A. Results of studies justify the statement, that both of the approaches show similar assessment of the mode of mutual interaction of the drugs studied. It was found that most of the drug mixtures exhibit independent action and quite few of the mixtures show synergic or dependent action. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Global distributions of CO2 volume mixing ratio in the middle and upper atmosphere from daytime MIPAS high-resolution spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aythami Jurado-Navarro, Á.; López-Puertas, Manuel; Funke, Bernd; García-Comas, Maya; Gardini, Angela; González-Galindo, Francisco; Stiller, Gabriele P.; von Clarmann, Thomas; Grabowski, Udo; Linden, Andrea

    2016-12-01

    Global distributions of the CO2 vmr (volume mixing ratio) in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (from 70 up to ˜ 140 km) have been derived from high-resolution limb emission daytime MIPAS (Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding) spectra in the 4.3 µm region. This is the first time that the CO2 vmr has been retrieved in the 120-140 km range. The data set spans from January 2005 to March 2012. The retrieval of CO2 has been performed jointly with the elevation pointing of the line of sight (LOS) by using a non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) retrieval scheme. The non-LTE model incorporates the new vibrational-vibrational and vibrational-translational collisional rates recently derived from the MIPAS spectra by [Jurado-Navarro et al.(2015)]. It also takes advantage of simultaneous MIPAS measurements of other atmospheric parameters (retrieved in previous steps), such as the kinetic temperature (derived up to ˜ 100 km from the CO2 15 µm region of MIPAS spectra and from 100 up to 170 km from the NO 5.3 µm emission of the same MIPAS spectra) and the O3 measurements (up to ˜ 100 km). The latter is very important for calculations of the non-LTE populations because it strongly constrains the O(3P) and O(1D) concentrations below ˜ 100 km. The estimated precision of the retrieved CO2 vmr profiles varies with altitude ranging from ˜ 1 % below 90 km to 5 % around 120 km and larger than 10 % above 130 km. There are some latitudinal and seasonal variations of the precision, which are mainly driven by the solar illumination conditions. The retrieved CO2 profiles have a vertical resolution of about 5-7 km below 120 km and between 10 and 20 km at 120-140 km. We have shown that the inclusion of the LOS as joint fit parameter improves the retrieval of CO2, allowing for a clear discrimination between the information on CO2 concentration and the LOS and also leading to significantly smaller systematic errors. The retrieved CO2 has an improved

  11. The vineyard yeast microbiome, a mixed model microbial map.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathabatha Evodia Setati

    Full Text Available Vineyards harbour a wide variety of microorganisms that play a pivotal role in pre- and post-harvest grape quality and will contribute significantly to the final aromatic properties of wine. The aim of the current study was to investigate the spatial distribution of microbial communities within and between individual vineyard management units. For the first time in such a study, we applied the Theory of Sampling (TOS to sample gapes from adjacent and well established commercial vineyards within the same terroir unit and from several sampling points within each individual vineyard. Cultivation-based and molecular data sets were generated to capture the spatial heterogeneity in microbial populations within and between vineyards and analysed with novel mixed-model networks, which combine sample correlations and microbial community distribution probabilities. The data demonstrate that farming systems have a significant impact on fungal diversity but more importantly that there is significant species heterogeneity between samples in the same vineyard. Cultivation-based methods confirmed that while the same oxidative yeast species dominated in all vineyards, the least treated vineyard displayed significantly higher species richness, including many yeasts with biocontrol potential. The cultivatable yeast population was not fully representative of the more complex populations seen with molecular methods, and only the molecular data allowed discrimination amongst farming practices with multivariate and network analysis methods. Importantly, yeast species distribution is subject to significant intra-vineyard spatial fluctuations and the frequently reported heterogeneity of tank samples of grapes harvested from single vineyards at the same stage of ripeness might therefore, at least in part, be due to the differing microbiota in different sections of the vineyard.

  12. The vineyard yeast microbiome, a mixed model microbial map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setati, Mathabatha Evodia; Jacobson, Daniel; Andong, Ursula-Claire; Bauer, Florian Franz; Bauer, Florian

    2012-01-01

    Vineyards harbour a wide variety of microorganisms that play a pivotal role in pre- and post-harvest grape quality and will contribute significantly to the final aromatic properties of wine. The aim of the current study was to investigate the spatial distribution of microbial communities within and between individual vineyard management units. For the first time in such a study, we applied the Theory of Sampling (TOS) to sample gapes from adjacent and well established commercial vineyards within the same terroir unit and from several sampling points within each individual vineyard. Cultivation-based and molecular data sets were generated to capture the spatial heterogeneity in microbial populations within and between vineyards and analysed with novel mixed-model networks, which combine sample correlations and microbial community distribution probabilities. The data demonstrate that farming systems have a significant impact on fungal diversity but more importantly that there is significant species heterogeneity between samples in the same vineyard. Cultivation-based methods confirmed that while the same oxidative yeast species dominated in all vineyards, the least treated vineyard displayed significantly higher species richness, including many yeasts with biocontrol potential. The cultivatable yeast population was not fully representative of the more complex populations seen with molecular methods, and only the molecular data allowed discrimination amongst farming practices with multivariate and network analysis methods. Importantly, yeast species distribution is subject to significant intra-vineyard spatial fluctuations and the frequently reported heterogeneity of tank samples of grapes harvested from single vineyards at the same stage of ripeness might therefore, at least in part, be due to the differing microbiota in different sections of the vineyard.

  13. ZNJPrice/Earnings Ratio Model through Dividend Yield and Required Yield Above Expected Inflation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Mihalina

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Price/earnings ratio is the most popular and most widespread evaluation model used to assess relative capital asset value on financial markets. In functional terms, company earnings in the very long term can be described with high significance. Empirically, it is visible from long-term statistics that the demanded (required yield on capital markets has certain regularity. Thus, investors first require a yield above the stable inflation rate and then a dividend yield and a capital increase caused by the growth of earnings that influence the price, with the assumption that the P/E ratio is stable. By combining the Gordon model for current dividend value, the model of market capitalization of earnings (price/earnings ratio and bearing in mind the influence of the general price levels on company earnings, it is possible to adjust the price/earnings ratio by deriving a function of the required yield on capital markets measured by a market index through dividend yield and inflation rate above the stable inflation rate increased by profit growth. The S&P 500 index for example, has in the last 100 years grown by exactly the inflation rate above the stable inflation rate increased by profit growth. The comparison of two series of price/earnings ratios, a modelled one and an average 7-year ratio, shows a notable correlation in the movement of two series of variables, with a three year deviation. Therefore, it could be hypothesized that three years of the expected inflation level, dividend yield and profit growth rate of the market index are discounted in the current market prices. The conclusion is that, at the present time, the relationship between the adjusted average price/earnings ratio and its effect on the market index on one hand and the modelled price/earnings ratio on the other can clearly show the expected dynamics and course in the following period.

  14. Tailoring of morphology and crystal structure of CdSe nanostructures by controlling the ratio of triethylenetetraamine and water in their mixed solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadi, M.R.; Zarghami, V. [Sharif University of Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fray, D.J. [University of Cambridge, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2012-05-15

    The morphological manipulation, structural characterization, and optical properties of different CdSe nanocrystals were reported. Several different CdSe nanostructures, including nanowires, tetrapod crystals, and nanoparticles were grown by varying the volume ratio of triethylenetetraamine (TETA) and water (WA) in their mixed solution. By manipulating the growth driving force (i.e., the degree of supersaturation) and kinetics of the process (i.e., growth rate), the morphology and crystal structure of CdSe nanocrystals can be tailored. Growth driving force changed their morphology from nanowires to tetrapod structures and from the latter structure to nanoparticles. Moreover, kinetics of the process altered their crystal structure from wurtzite to zinc blende. The optical property of CdSe nanocrystals was investigated using UV-vis spectroscopy. The absorption edge of CdSe nanostructures showed a blue shift. CdSe nanocrystals prepared under optimized conditions showed good microstructural and optical properties for solar cell application. (orig.)

  15. Numerical investigation of mixed convection heat transfer from two isothermal circular cylinders in tandem arrangement: buoyancy, spacing ratio, and confinement effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcedo, Erick; Cajas, Juan C.; Treviño, César; Martínez-Suástegui, Lorenzo

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents a two-dimensional numerical study for mixed convection in a laminar cross-flow with a pair of stationary equal-sized isothermal cylinders in tandem arrangement confined in a channel. The governing equations are solved using the control volume method on a nonuniform orthogonal Cartesian grid, and the immersed boundary method is employed to identify the cylinders placed in the flow field. The numerical scheme is first validated against standard cases of symmetrically confined isothermal circular cylinders in plane channels, and grid convergence tests were also examined. The objective of the present study was to investigate the influence of buoyancy and the blockage ratio constraint on the flow and heat transfer characteristics of the immersed cylinder array. Using a fixed Reynolds number based on cylinder diameter of ReD = 200, a fixed value of the Prandtl number of Pr = 7, and a blockage ratio of D/H = 0.2, all possible flow regimes are considered by setting the longitudinal spacing ratio (σ = L/D) between the cylinder axes to 2, 3, and 5 for values of the buoyancy parameter (Richardson number) in the range -1≤ Ri≤ 4. The interference effects and complex flow features are presented in the form of mean and instantaneous velocity, vorticity, and temperature distributions. The results demonstrate how the buoyancy, spacing ratio, and wall confinement affect the wake structure and vortex dynamics. In addition, local and average heat transfer characteristics of both cylinders are comprehensively presented for a wide range in the parametric space.

  16. Numerical investigation of mixed convection heat transfer from two isothermal circular cylinders in tandem arrangement: buoyancy, spacing ratio, and confinement effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcedo, Erick; Cajas, Juan C.; Treviño, César; Martínez-Suástegui, Lorenzo

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents a two-dimensional numerical study for mixed convection in a laminar cross-flow with a pair of stationary equal-sized isothermal cylinders in tandem arrangement confined in a channel. The governing equations are solved using the control volume method on a nonuniform orthogonal Cartesian grid, and the immersed boundary method is employed to identify the cylinders placed in the flow field. The numerical scheme is first validated against standard cases of symmetrically confined isothermal circular cylinders in plane channels, and grid convergence tests were also examined. The objective of the present study was to investigate the influence of buoyancy and the blockage ratio constraint on the flow and heat transfer characteristics of the immersed cylinder array. Using a fixed Reynolds number based on cylinder diameter of ReD = 200 , a fixed value of the Prandtl number of Pr = 7 , and a blockage ratio of D/H = 0.2 , all possible flow regimes are considered by setting the longitudinal spacing ratio (σ = L/D ) between the cylinder axes to 2, 3, and 5 for values of the buoyancy parameter (Richardson number) in the range -1≤ Ri≤ 4 . The interference effects and complex flow features are presented in the form of mean and instantaneous velocity, vorticity, and temperature distributions. The results demonstrate how the buoyancy, spacing ratio, and wall confinement affect the wake structure and vortex dynamics. In addition, local and average heat transfer characteristics of both cylinders are comprehensively presented for a wide range in the parametric space.

  17. Relationship Model Between Nightlight Data and Floor Area Ratio from High Resolution Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, M.; Xu, L.

    2017-09-01

    It is a hotpot that extraction the floor area ratio from high resolution remote sensing images. It is a development trend of using nightlight data to survey the urban social and economic information. This document aims to provide a conference relationship model for VIIRS/NPP nightlight data and floor Area Ratio from High Resolution ZY-3 Images. It shows that there is a lineal relationship between the shadow and the floor area ratio, and the R2 is 0.98. It shows that there is a quadratic polynomial relationship between the floor area ratio and the nightlight, and the R2 is 0.611. We can get a conclusion that, VIIRS/NPP nightlights data may show the floor area ratio in an extent at level of administrative street.

  18. The high cost of hospital trauma care: an analysis of hospital length of stay, injury severity score, case mix index, and reimbursement-to-cost ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legorreta, A P; Mikos, J; Sullivan, A; Delany, H M

    1993-01-01

    We conducted a study to evaluate reimbursement characteristics for an urban hospital providing a high volume of trauma care. Complete clinical and financial data for 209 trauma patients admitted to the Bronx Municipal Hospital Center during September 1990 were entered into a trauma registry. Patients were categorized into three groups. Group 1 fulfilled criteria for reimbursement using the New York State Major Diagnostic Category 25 (NYSMDC 25) for trauma. Group 2 patients fulfilled New York City Emergency Medical Service 911 criteria for transport to a level 1 trauma center. Group 3 patients did not fit either category. Analysis included age, race, sex, length of stay, injury severity score, case mix index, payer source, and reimbursement-to-cost ratio. Of the patients studied, 77.5% were men. Hispanic, African-American, and white patients constituted 40.2%, 26.3%, and 17.2%, respectively, of the study population. The payer mix was 36.6% Medicaid; 20.8% self-pay; 19.1% no fault; 9.6% Blue Cross; 5.5% Medicare; 5% commercial; and 3.3% other. The study demonstrated that criteria for group 1 and group 2 define patients who constitute a distinct clinical group by injury severity score. As expected, the length of stay and case mix index were significantly higher for group 1, but they did not differ between group 2 and group 3. Group 1 was a small proportion (7.7%) of trauma patients admitted to the Bronx Municipal Hospital Center level 1 trauma center. Trauma admissions were treated at a net loss, with a projected high annual deficit of $5.3 million.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Leaching of boron, arsenic and selenium from sedimentary rocks: I. Effects of contact time, mixing speed and liquid-to-solid ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabelin, Carlito Baltazar; Hashimoto, Ayaka; Igarashi, Toshifumi; Yoneda, Tetsuro

    2014-02-15

    Sedimentary rocks of marine origin excavated in tunnel projects were recently identified as potentially hazardous because they could release significant amounts of toxic trace elements when exposed to the environment. This study investigated the leaching characteristics of B, As, Se and the major coexisting ions under various conditions to identify the factors and processes controlling their evolution in the leachate. In addition, we evaluated whether the parameters of the currently used leachability test for excavated rocks were adequate. Although the leachabilities of B, As and Se similarly increased at longer contact times, only those of B and As were influenced by the mixing speed and/or liquid-to-solid ratio (L/S). The majority of trace elements dissolved in the leachate originated from the dissolution of soluble salts formed from seawater of the Cretaceous trapped during the formation of the sedimentary rocks. Moreover, the alkaline pH of the leachates could be attributed to the simultaneous dissolutions at varying degrees of the mineral components of the rocks as well as the precipitation of clay minerals. In the leaching test of excavated rocks for regulatory purposes, the best values of contact time and mixing speed should represent conditions of the highest trace element extractabilities, which in this study were found at longer contact times (>48 h) and the fastest mixing speed (200 rpm). The most appropriate L/S for the leaching test is 10 because it was around this L/S that the extractabilities and leaching concentrations of the trace elements were simultaneously observed at their highest values. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Exploring the possibility to store the mixed oxygen-hydrogen cluster in clathrate hydrate in molar ratio 1:2 (O2+2H2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yan; Du, Qi-Shi; Xie, Neng-Zhong; Li, Jian-Xiu; Huang, Ri-Bo

    2017-05-01

    An interesting possibility is explored: storing the mixture of oxygen and hydrogen in clathrate hydrate in molar ratio 1:2. The interaction energies between oxygen, hydrogen, and clathrate hydrate are calculated using high level quantum chemical methods. The useful conclusion points from this study are summarized as follows. (1) The interaction energies of oxygen-hydrogen mixed cluster are larger than the energies of pure hydrogen molecular cluster. (2) The affinity of oxygen molecules with water molecules is larger than that of the hydrogen molecules with water molecules. (3) The dimension of O2-2H2 interaction structure is smaller than the dimension of CO2-2H2 interaction structure. (4) The escaping energy of oxygen molecules from the hydrate cell is larger than that of the hydrogen molecules. (5) The high affinity of the oxygen molecules with both the water molecules and the hydrogen molecules may promote the stability of oxygen-hydrogen mixture in the clathrate hydrate. Therefore it is possible to store the mixed (O2+2H2) cluster in clathrate hydrate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Poisson׳s ratio of arterial wall - Inconsistency of constitutive models with experimental data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skacel, Pavel; Bursa, Jiri

    2016-02-01

    Poisson׳s ratio of fibrous soft tissues is analyzed in this paper on the basis of constitutive models and experimental data. Three different up-to-date constitutive models accounting for the dispersion of fibre orientations are analyzed. Their predictions of the anisotropic Poisson׳s ratios are investigated under finite strain conditions together with the effects of specific orientation distribution functions and of other parameters. The applied constitutive models predict the tendency to lower (or even negative) out-of-plane Poisson׳s ratio. New experimental data of porcine arterial layer under uniaxial tension in orthogonal directions are also presented and compared with the theoretical predictions and other literature data. The results point out the typical features of recent constitutive models with fibres concentrated in circumferential-axial plane of arterial layers and their potential inconsistence with some experimental data. The volumetric (in)compressibility of arterial tissues is also discussed as an eventual and significant factor influencing this inconsistency.

  2. Constant Latent Odds-Ratios Models and the Mantel-Haenszel Null Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessen, David J.

    2005-01-01

    In the present paper, a new family of item response theory (IRT) models for dichotomous item scores is proposed. Two basic assumptions define the most general model of this family. The first assumption is local independence of the item scores given a unidimensional latent trait. The second assumption is that the odds-ratios for all item-pairs are…

  3. Multilayer Numerical Modeling of Flows through Vegetation Using a Mixing-Length Turbulence Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Barrios-Piña

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the effects of vegetation on a fluid flow pattern. In this numerical research, we verify the applicability of a simpler turbulence model than the commonly used k-" model to predict the mean flow through vegetation. The novel characteristic of this turbulence model is that the horizontal mixing-length is explicitly calculated and coupled with a multi-layer approach for the vertical mixing-length, within a general three-dimensional eddy-viscosity formulation. This mixing-length turbulence model has been validated in previous works for different kinds of non-vegetated flows. The hydrodynamic numerical model used for simulations is based on the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations for shallow water flows, where a vegetation shear stress term is considered to reproduce the effects of drag forces on flow. A second-order approximation is used for spatial discretization and a semi-implicit Lagrangian–Eulerian scheme is used for time discretization. In order to validate the numerical results, we compare them against experimental data reported in the literature. The comparisons are carried out for two cases of study: submerged vegetation and submerged and emergent vegetation, both within an open channel flow.

  4. Hierarchical Bayesian modeling of random and residual variance-covariance matrices in bivariate mixed effects models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Nora M; Steibel, Juan P; Tempelman, Robert J

    2010-06-01

    Bivariate mixed effects models are often used to jointly infer upon covariance matrices for both random effects (u) and residuals (e) between two different phenotypes in order to investigate the architecture of their relationship. However, these (co)variances themselves may additionally depend upon covariates as well as additional sets of exchangeable random effects that facilitate borrowing of strength across a large number of clusters. We propose a hierarchical Bayesian extension of the classical bivariate mixed effects model by embedding additional levels of mixed effects modeling of reparameterizations of u-level and e-level (co)variances between two traits. These parameters are based upon a recently popularized square-root-free Cholesky decomposition and are readily interpretable, each conveniently facilitating a generalized linear model characterization. Using Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods, we validate our model based on a simulation study and apply it to a joint analysis of milk yield and calving interval phenotypes in Michigan dairy cows. This analysis indicates that the e-level relationship between the two traits is highly heterogeneous across herds and depends upon systematic herd management factors.

  5. A Proposed Model of Retransformed Qualitative Data within a Mixed Methods Research Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palladino, John M.

    2009-01-01

    Most models of mixed methods research design provide equal emphasis of qualitative and quantitative data analyses and interpretation. Other models stress one method more than the other. The present article is a discourse about the investigator's decision to employ a mixed method design to examine special education teachers' advocacy and…

  6. A Proposed Model of Retransformed Qualitative Data within a Mixed Methods Research Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palladino, John M.

    2009-01-01

    Most models of mixed methods research design provide equal emphasis of qualitative and quantitative data analyses and interpretation. Other models stress one method more than the other. The present article is a discourse about the investigator's decision to employ a mixed method design to examine special education teachers' advocacy and…

  7. Translational mixed-effects PKPD modelling of recombinant human growth hormone - from hypophysectomized rat to patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsted, A; Thygesen, P; Agersø, H;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We aimed to develop a mechanistic mixed-effects pharmacokinetic (PK)-pharmacodynamic (PD) (PKPD) model for recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) in hypophysectomized rats and to predict the human PKPD relationship. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: A non-linear mixed-effects model...

  8. Running Effects on Lepton Mixing Angles in Flavour Models with Type I Seesaw

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Y; Paris, A

    2009-01-01

    We study renormalization group running effects on neutrino mixing patterns when a (type I) seesaw model is implemented by suitable flavour symmetries. We are particularly interested in mass-independent mixing patterns to which the widely studied tribimaximal mixing pattern belongs. In this class of flavour models, the running contribution from neutrino Yukawa coupling, which is generally dominant at energies above the seesaw threshold, can be absorbed by a small shift on neutrino mass eigenvalues leaving mixing angles unchanged. Consequently, in the whole running energy range, the change in mixing angles is due to the contribution coming from charged lepton sector. Subsequently, we analyze in detail these effects in an explicit flavour model for tribimaximal neutrino mixing based on an A4 discrete symmetry group. We find that for normally ordered light neutrinos, the tribimaximal prediction is essentially stable under renormalization group evolution. On the other hand, in the case of inverted hierarchy, the d...

  9. Numerical modelling of sandstone uniaxial compression test using a mix-mode cohesive fracture model

    CERN Document Server

    Gui, Yilin; Kodikara, Jayantha

    2015-01-01

    A mix-mode cohesive fracture model considering tension, compression and shear material behaviour is presented, which has wide applications to geotechnical problems. The model considers both elastic and inelastic displacements. Inelastic displacement comprises fracture and plastic displacements. The norm of inelastic displacement is used to control the fracture behaviour. Meantime, a failure function describing the fracture strength is proposed. Using the internal programming FISH, the cohesive fracture model is programmed into a hybrid distinct element algorithm as encoded in Universal Distinct Element Code (UDEC). The model is verified through uniaxial tension and direct shear tests. The developed model is then applied to model the behaviour of a uniaxial compression test on Gosford sandstone. The modelling results indicate that the proposed cohesive fracture model is capable of simulating combined failure behaviour applicable to rock.

  10. Models and measures of mixing and effective diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Zhi; Doering, Charles R

    2010-01-01

    Mixing a passive scalar field by stirring can be measured in a variety of ways including tracer particle dispersion, via the flux-gradient relationship, or by suppression of scalar concentration variations in the presence of inhomogeneous sources and sinks. The mixing efficiency or efficacy of a particular flow is often expressed in terms of enhanced diffusivity and quantified as an effective diffusion coefficient. In this work we compare and contrast several notions of effective diffusivity. We thoroughly examine the fundamental case of a steady sinusoidal shear flow mixing a scalar sustained by a steady sinusoidal source-sink distribution to explore apparent quantitative inconsistencies among the measures. Ultimately the conflicts are attributed to the noncommutative asymptotic limits of large P$\\acute{\\text{e}}$clet number and large length-scale separation. We then propose another approach, a generalization of Batchelor's 1949 theory of diffusion in homogeneous turbulence, that helps unify the particle dis...

  11. The treatment of mixing in core helium burning models -- II. Constraints from cluster star counts

    CERN Document Server

    Constantino, Thomas; Lattanzio, John C; van Duijneveldt, Adam

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of convective boundaries during core helium burning is a fundamental problem in stellar evolution calculations. In Paper~I we showed that new asteroseismic observations of these stars imply they have either very large convective cores or semiconvection/partially mixed zones that trap g-modes. We probe this mixing by inferring the relative lifetimes of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and horizontal branch (HB) from $R_2$, the observed ratio of these stars in recent HST photometry of 48 Galactic globular clusters. Our new determinations of $R_2$ are more self-consistent than those of previous studies and our overall calculation of $R_2 = 0.117 \\pm 0.005$ is the most statistically robust now available. We also establish that the luminosity difference between the HB and the AGB clump is $\\Delta \\log{L}_\\text{HB}^\\text{AGB} = 0.455 \\pm 0.012$. Our results accord with earlier findings that standard models predict a lower $R_2$ than is observed. We demonstrate that the dominant sources of uncertainty in ...

  12. A time-dependent Mixing Model for PDF Methods in Heterogeneous Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüler, Lennart; Suciu, Nicolae; Knabner, Peter; Attinger, Sabine

    2016-04-01

    Predicting the transport of groundwater contaminations remains a demanding task, especially with respect to the heterogeneity of the subsurface and the large measurement uncertainties. A risk analysis also includes the quantification of the uncertainty in order to evaluate how accurate the predictions are. Probability density function (PDF) methods are a promising alternative to predicting the transport of solutes in groundwater under uncertainty. They make it possible to derive the evolution equations of the mean concentration and the concentration variance, which can be used as a first measure of uncertainty. A mixing model, also known as a dissipation model, is essential for both methods. Finding a satisfactory mixing model is still an open question and due to the rather elaborate PDF methods, a difficult undertaking. Both the PDF equation and the concentration variance equation depend on the same mixing model. This connection is used to find and test an improved mixing model for the much easier to handle concentration variance. Subsequently, this mixing model is transferred to the PDF equation and tested. The newly proposed mixing model yields significantly improved results for both variance modelling and PDF modelling. The implications of the new mixing model for different kinds of flow conditions are discussed and some comments are made on efficiently handling spatially resolved higher moments.

  13. Leaching of boron, arsenic and selenium from sedimentary rocks: I. Effects of contact time, mixing speed and liquid-to-solid ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabelin, Carlito Baltazar, E-mail: carlito@trans-er.eng.hokudai.ac.jp [Laboratory of Soil Environment Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Hashimoto, Ayaka, E-mail: a.hashimoto@diaconsult.co.jp [DIA Consultants Co. Ltd., Sapporo (Japan); Igarashi, Toshifumi, E-mail: tosifumi@eng.hokudai.ac.jp [Laboratory of Groundwater and Mass Transport, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Yoneda, Tetsuro, E-mail: yonet@eng.hokudai.ac.jp [Laboratory of Soil Environment Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

    2014-02-01

    Sedimentary rocks of marine origin excavated in tunnel projects were recently identified as potentially hazardous because they could release significant amounts of toxic trace elements when exposed to the environment. This study investigated the leaching characteristics of B, As, Se and the major coexisting ions under various conditions to identify the factors and processes controlling their evolution in the leachate. In addition, we evaluated whether the parameters of the currently used leachability test for excavated rocks were adequate. Although the leachabilities of B, As and Se similarly increased at longer contact times, only those of B and As were influenced by the mixing speed and/or liquid-to-solid ratio (L/S). The majority of trace elements dissolved in the leachate originated from the dissolution of soluble salts formed from seawater of the Cretaceous trapped during the formation of the sedimentary rocks. Moreover, the alkaline pH of the leachates could be attributed to the simultaneous dissolutions at varying degrees of the mineral components of the rocks as well as the precipitation of clay minerals. In the leaching test of excavated rocks for regulatory purposes, the best values of contact time and mixing speed should represent conditions of the highest trace element extractabilities, which in this study were found at longer contact times ( > 48 h) and the fastest mixing speed (200 rpm). The most appropriate L/S for the leaching test is 10 because it was around this L/S that the extractabilities and leaching concentrations of the trace elements were simultaneously observed at their highest values. - Highlights: • B, As and Se leaching increased with time reaching equilibrium after ca. 48 h. • Effect of L/S on B and As leaching was strong but not that much on Se. • All leachates were alkaline regardless of the contact time, mixing speed and L/S. • Na{sup +}–SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} and Na{sup +}–HCO{sub 3}{sup −} type leachates were produced

  14. Mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of aloe peel waste with dairy manure in the batch digester: Focusing on mixing ratios and digestate stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xinlei; Yun, Sining; Zhu, Jiang; Du, Tingting; Zhang, Chen; Li, Xue

    2016-10-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of aloe peel waste (APW) with dairy manure (DM) was evaluated in terms of biogas and methane yield, volatile solids (VS) removal rate, and the stability of digestate. Batch experiments were performed under mesophilic condition (36±1°C) at five different APW/DM wet weight ratios (1:0, 3:1, 1:1, 1:3, and 0:1). Experimental methane yield from the mixtures was higher than the yield from APW or DM alone, indicating the synergistic effect and benefits of co-digestion of APW with DM. The optimal mixing ratio of APW/DM was found to be 3:1. The cumulative methane yield was 195.1mL/g VS and the VS removal rate was 59.91%. The characteristics of the digestate were investigated by the thermal analysis which indicated the high stability in the samples of the co-digestion. The co-digestion can be an efficient way to improve the degradation efficiency of the bio-wastes and increase the energy output.

  15. Prediction of microbial growth in mixed culture with a competition model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujikawa, Hiroshi; Sakha, Mohammad Z

    2014-01-01

    Prediction of microbial growth in mixed culture was studied with a competition model that we had developed recently. The model, which is composed of the new logistic model and the Lotka-Volterra model, is shown to successfully describe the microbial growth of two species in mixed culture using Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella. With the parameter values of the model obtained from the experimental data on monoculture and mixed culture with two species, it then succeeded in predicting the simultaneous growth of the three species in mixed culture inoculated with various cell concentrations. To our knowledge, it is the first time for a prediction model for multiple (three) microbial species to be reported. The model, which is not built on any premise for specific microorganisms, may become a basic competition model for microorganisms in food and food materials.

  16. Non-linear mixed-effects pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modelling in NLME using differential equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tornøe, Christoffer Wenzel; Agersø, Henrik; Madsen, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    The standard software for non-linear mixed-effect analysis of pharmacokinetic/phar-macodynamic (PK/PD) data is NONMEM while the non-linear mixed-effects package NLME is an alternative as tong as the models are fairly simple. We present the nlmeODE package which combines the ordinary differential...... equation (ODE) solver package odesolve and the non-Linear mixed effects package NLME thereby enabling the analysis of complicated systems of ODEs by non-linear mixed-effects modelling. The pharmacokinetics of the anti-asthmatic drug theophylline is used to illustrate the applicability of the nlme...

  17. Mixed Models: Combining incompatible scalar models in any space-time dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauder, John R.

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally, covariant scalar field theory models are either super renormalizable, strictly renormalizable, or nonrenormalizable. The goal of “Mixed Models” is to make sense of sums of these distinct examples, e.g. gφ34 + g‧φ 36 + g″φ 38, which includes an example of each kind for space-time dimension n = 3. We show how the several interactions such mixed models have may be turned on and off in any order without any difficulties. Analogous results are shown for gφn4 + g‧φ n138, etc. for all n ≥ 3. Different categories hold for n = 2 such as, e.g. gP(φ)2 + g‧NP(φ) 2, that involve polynomial (P) and suitable nonpolynomial (NP) interactions, etc. Analogous situations for n = 1 (time alone) offer simple “toy” examples of how such mixed models may be constructed. As a general rule, if the introduction of a specific interaction term reduces the domain of the free classical action, we invariably find that the introduction of the associated quantum interaction leads, effectively, to a “nonrenormalizable” quantum theory. However, in special cases, a classical interaction that does not reduce the domain of the classical free action may generate an “unsatisfactory” quantum theory, which generally involves a model-specific, different approach to become “satisfactory.” We will encounter both situations in our analysis.

  18. Extension of the dielectric breakdown model for simulation of viscous fingering at finite viscosity ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doorwar, Shashvat; Mohanty, Kishore K

    2014-07-01

    Immiscible displacement of viscous oil by water in a petroleum reservoir is often hydrodynamically unstable. Due to similarities between the physics of dielectric breakdown and immiscible flow in porous media, we extend the existing dielectric breakdown model to simulate viscous fingering patterns for a wide range of viscosity ratios (μ(r)). At low values of power-law index η, the system behaves like a stable Eden growth model and as the value of η is increased to unity, diffusion limited aggregation-like fractals appear. This model is compared with our two-dimensional (2D) experiments to develop a correlation between the viscosity ratio and the power index, i.e., η = 10(-5)μ(r)(0.8775). The 2D and three-dimensional (3D) simulation data appear scalable. The fingering pattern in 3D simulations at finite viscosity ratios appear qualitatively similar to the few experimental results published in the literature.

  19. Aspect Ratio Model for Radiation-Tolerant Dummy Gate-Assisted n-MOSFET Layout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Su; Lee, Hee Chul

    2014-01-01

    In order to acquire radiation-tolerant characteristics in integrated circuits, a dummy gate-assisted n-type metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (DGA n-MOSFET) layout was adopted. The DGA n-MOSFET has a different channel shape compared with the standard n-MOSFET. The standard n-MOSFET has a rectangular channel shape, whereas the DGA n-MOSFET has an extended rectangular shape at the edge of the source and drain, which affects its aspect ratio. In order to increase its practical use, a new aspect ratio model is proposed for the DGA n-MOSFET and this model is evaluated through three-dimensional simulations and measurements of the fabricated devices. The proposed aspect ratio model for the DGA n-MOSFET exhibits good agreement with the simulation and measurement results.

  20. Theoretical quasar emission-line ratios. VII - Energy-balance models for finite hydrogen slabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, E. N.; Puetter, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    The present energy balance calculations for finite, isobaric, hydrogen-slab quasar emission line clouds incorporate probabilistic radiative transfer (RT) in all lines and bound-free continua of a five-level continuum model hydrogen atom. Attention is given to the line ratios, line formation regions, level populations and model applicability results obtained. H lines and a variety of other considerations suggest the possibility of emission line cloud densities in excess of 10 to the 10th/cu cm. Lyman-beta/Lyman-alpha line ratios that are in agreement with observed values are obtained by the models. The observed Lyman/Balmer ratios can be achieved with clouds whose column depths are about 10 to the 22nd/sq cm.

  1. On the Elastic Vibration Model for High Length-Diameter Ratio Rocket with Attitude Control System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱伯立; 杨树兴

    2003-01-01

    An elastic vibration model for high length-diameter ratio spinning rocket with attitude control system which can be used for trajectory simulation is established. The basic theory of elastic dynamics and vibration dynamics were both used to set up the elastic vibration model of rocket body. In order to study the problem more conveniently, the rocket's body was simplified to be an even beam with two free ends. The model was validated by simulation results and the test data.

  2. Modelling subject-specific childhood growth using linear mixed-effect models with cubic regression splines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grajeda, Laura M; Ivanescu, Andrada; Saito, Mayuko; Crainiceanu, Ciprian; Jaganath, Devan; Gilman, Robert H; Crabtree, Jean E; Kelleher, Dermott; Cabrera, Lilia; Cama, Vitaliano; Checkley, William

    2016-01-01

    Childhood growth is a cornerstone of pediatric research. Statistical models need to consider individual trajectories to adequately describe growth outcomes. Specifically, well-defined longitudinal models are essential to characterize both population and subject-specific growth. Linear mixed-effect models with cubic regression splines can account for the nonlinearity of growth curves and provide reasonable estimators of population and subject-specific growth, velocity and acceleration. We provide a stepwise approach that builds from simple to complex models, and account for the intrinsic complexity of the data. We start with standard cubic splines regression models and build up to a model that includes subject-specific random intercepts and slopes and residual autocorrelation. We then compared cubic regression splines vis-à-vis linear piecewise splines, and with varying number of knots and positions. Statistical code is provided to ensure reproducibility and improve dissemination of methods. Models are applied to longitudinal height measurements in a cohort of 215 Peruvian children followed from birth until their fourth year of life. Unexplained variability, as measured by the variance of the regression model, was reduced from 7.34 when using ordinary least squares to 0.81 (p linear mixed-effect models with random slopes and a first order continuous autoregressive error term. There was substantial heterogeneity in both the intercept (p linear regression equation for both estimation and prediction of population- and individual-level growth in height. We show that cubic regression splines are superior to linear regression splines for the case of a small number of knots in both estimation and prediction with the full linear mixed effect model (AIC 19,352 vs. 19,598, respectively). While the regression parameters are more complex to interpret in the former, we argue that inference for any problem depends more on the estimated curve or differences in curves rather

  3. Mixed-domain multi-simulator statistical device modeling and yiel-driven design

    OpenAIRE

    Bandler, J.W.; Biernacki, R.M.; S. H. Chen

    1997-01-01

    We present mixed-domain, multi-simulator approaches to device modeling and yield-driven optimization. Intelligent computational interfaces combine and enhance the features of otherwise disjoint simulators. Time-domain, frequency-domain and electromagnetic simulations are integrated for efficient statistical modeling and design with mixed-domain specifications. Our approach is demonstrated by statistical modeling of GaAs MESFETs and yield optimization using, simultaneously, SPICE device models...

  4. Subgrid-scale heat flux modeling for large eddy simulation of turbulent mixed convection

    OpenAIRE

    Morar, Dejan

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, new subgrid-scale (SGS) heat flux model for large eddy simulation (LES) of turbulent mixed convection is developed. The new model explicitly includes the buoyancy production term. It is based on the algebraic equations and dynamic procedure is applied to calculate model coefficients. An experiment on turbulent mixed convection to water in a vertical duct is used for validation of the model.

  5. Mixed-domain multi-simulator statistical device modeling and yiel-driven design

    OpenAIRE

    Bandler, J.W.; Biernacki, R.M.; Chen, S H

    1997-01-01

    We present mixed-domain, multi-simulator approaches to device modeling and yield-driven optimization. Intelligent computational interfaces combine and enhance the features of otherwise disjoint simulators. Time-domain, frequency-domain and electromagnetic simulations are integrated for efficient statistical modeling and design with mixed-domain specifications. Our approach is demonstrated by statistical modeling of GaAs MESFETs and yield optimization using, simultaneously, SPICE device models...

  6. Linking effort and fishing mortality in a mixed fisheries model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, Thomas Talund; Hoff, Ayoe; Frost, Hans Staby

    2012-01-01

    in fish stocks has led to overcapacity in many fisheries, leading to incentives for overfishing. Recent research has shown that the allocation of effort among fleets can play an important role in mitigating overfishing when the targeting covers a range of species (multi-species—i.e., so-called mixed...

  7. Analyzing the Mixing Dynamics of an Industrial Batch Bin Blender via Discrete Element Modeling Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maitraye Sen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A discrete element model (DEM has been developed for an industrial batch bin blender in which three different types of materials are mixed. The mixing dynamics have been evaluated from a model-based study with respect to the blend critical quality attributes (CQAs which are relative standard deviation (RSD and segregation intensity. In the actual industrial setup, a sensor mounted on the blender lid is used to determine the blend composition in this region. A model-based analysis has been used to understand the mixing efficiency in the other zones inside the blender and to determine if the data obtained near the blender-lid region are able to provide a good representation of the overall blend quality. Sub-optimal mixing zones have been identified and other potential sampling locations have been investigated in order to obtain a good approximation of the blend variability. The model has been used to study how the mixing efficiency can be improved by varying the key processing parameters, i.e., blender RPM/speed, fill level/volume and loading order. Both segregation intensity and RSD reduce at a lower fill level and higher blender RPM and are a function of the mixing time. This work demonstrates the use of a model-based approach to improve process knowledge regarding a pharmaceutical mixing process. The model can be used to acquire qualitative information about the influence of different critical process parameters and equipment geometry on the mixing dynamics.

  8. Comparative quantification of physically and numerically induced mixing in ocean models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchard, Hans; Rennau, Hannes

    A diagnostic method for calculating physical and numerical mixing of tracers in ocean models is presented. The physical mixing is defined as the turbulent mean tracer variance decay rate. The numerical mixing due to discretisation errors of tracer advection schemes is shown to be the decay rate between the advected square of the tracer variance and the square of the advected tracer and can be easily implemented into any ocean model. The applicability of the method is demonstrated for four test cases: (i) a one-dimensional linear advection equation with periodic boundary conditions, (ii) a two-dimensional flat-bottom lock exchange test case without mixing, (iii) a two-dimensional marginal sea overflow study with mixing and entrainment and (iv) the DOME test case with a dense bottom current propagating down a broad linear slope. The method has a number of advantages over previously introduced estimates for numerical mixing.

  9. Observations and modelling of line intensity ratios of OV multiplet lines for ? - ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, T.; Rachlew-Källne, E.; Hörling, P.; Zastrow, K.-D.

    1996-09-01

    Line intensity ratios of OV multiplet lines for the 0953-4075/29/18/019/img3 (J = 2,1,0) transitions are studied using a collisional radiative model and the results are compared with measurements from the reversed field pinch experiments Extrap T1 and T2 at KTH. The measured line intensity ratios deviate from the predictions of the model and the possible causes for the discrepancy are discussed with regard to errors in rate coefficients and non-quasi-steady state.

  10. Baryon Magnetic Moment and Beta Decay Ratio in Colored Quark Cluster Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Zheng-Feng; WANG Qing-Wu; DENG Jian-Liao; LEE Xi-Guo; DU Chun-Guang; WANG Yu-Zhu

    2008-01-01

    Baryon magnetic moments of p, n, ∑+, ∑-, 0, - and the beta decay ratios (GA/GV) of n → p, ∑- → n and 0 →∑+are calculated in a colored quark cluster model. With SU(3) breaking, the model gives a good fit to the experimental values of those baryon magnetic moments and the beta decay ratios. Our results show that the orbital motion has a significant contribution to the spin and magnetic moments of those baryons and the strange component in nucleon is small.

  11. Statistical Modelling of Cardiovascular Data. An Introduction to Linear Mixed Models

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Paulo; Lenoir, Christophe; Heymes, Christophe; Swynghedauw, Bernard; Lavergne, Christian

    2005-01-01

    Most of statistical approaches in cardiovascular research were based on variance analysis (ANOVA). However, most of the time, the assumption that data are independent is violated since several measures are performed on the same subject (repeated measures). In addition, the presence of intra- and inter-observers variability can potentially obscure significant differences. The linear mixed model (LMM) is an extended multivariate linear regression method of analysis that accounts for both fixed ...

  12. Modeling Temporal Behavior in Large Networks: A Dynamic Mixed-Membership Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, R; Gallagher, B; Neville, J; Henderson, K

    2011-11-11

    Given a large time-evolving network, how can we model and characterize the temporal behaviors of individual nodes (and network states)? How can we model the behavioral transition patterns of nodes? We propose a temporal behavior model that captures the 'roles' of nodes in the graph and how they evolve over time. The proposed dynamic behavioral mixed-membership model (DBMM) is scalable, fully automatic (no user-defined parameters), non-parametric/data-driven (no specific functional form or parameterization), interpretable (identifies explainable patterns), and flexible (applicable to dynamic and streaming networks). Moreover, the interpretable behavioral roles are generalizable, computationally efficient, and natively supports attributes. We applied our model for (a) identifying patterns and trends of nodes and network states based on the temporal behavior, (b) predicting future structural changes, and (c) detecting unusual temporal behavior transitions. We use eight large real-world datasets from different time-evolving settings (dynamic and streaming). In particular, we model the evolving mixed-memberships and the corresponding behavioral transitions of Twitter, Facebook, IP-Traces, Email (University), Internet AS, Enron, Reality, and IMDB. The experiments demonstrate the scalability, flexibility, and effectiveness of our model for identifying interesting patterns, detecting unusual structural transitions, and predicting the future structural changes of the network and individual nodes.

  13. On Compound Poisson Processes Arising in Change-Point Type Statistical Models as Limiting Likelihood Ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Dachian, Serguei

    2010-01-01

    Different change-point type models encountered in statistical inference for stochastic processes give rise to different limiting likelihood ratio processes. In a previous paper of one of the authors it was established that one of these likelihood ratios, which is an exponential functional of a two-sided Poisson process driven by some parameter, can be approximated (for sufficiently small values of the parameter) by another one, which is an exponential functional of a two-sided Brownian motion. In this paper we consider yet another likelihood ratio, which is the exponent of a two-sided compound Poisson process driven by some parameter. We establish, that similarly to the Poisson type one, the compound Poisson type likelihood ratio can be approximated by the Brownian type one for sufficiently small values of the parameter. We equally discuss the asymptotics for large values of the parameter and illustrate the results by numerical simulations.

  14. Model Analysis of Influences of Aerosol Mixing State upon Its Optical Properties in East Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Xiao; ZHANG Meigen; ZHU Lingyun; XU Liren

    2013-01-01

    The air quality model system RAMS (Regional Atmospheric Modeling System)-CMAQ (Models-3 Community Multi-scale Air Quality) coupled with an aerosol optical/radiative module was applied to investigate the impact of different aerosol mixing states (i.e.,externally mixed,half externally and half internally mixed,and internally mixed) on radiative forcing in East Asia.The simulation results show that the aerosol optical depth (AOD) generally increased when the aerosol mixing state changed from externally mixed to internally mixed,while the single scattering albedo (SSA) decreased.Therefore,the scattering and absorption properties of aerosols can be significantly affected by the change of aerosol mixing states.Comparison of simulated and observed SSAs at five AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) sites suggests that SSA could be better estimated by considering aerosol particles to be internally mixed.Model analysis indicates that the impact of aerosol mixing state upon aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF) is complex.Generally,the cooling effect of aerosols over East Asia are enhanced in the northern part of East Asia (Northern China,Korean peninsula,and the surrounding area of Japan) and are reduced in the southern part of East Asia (Sichuan Basin and Southeast China) by internal mixing process,and the variation range can reach ±5 W m-2.The analysis shows that the internal mixing between inorganic salt and dust is likely the main reason that the cooling effect strengthens.Conversely,the internal mixture of anthropogenic aerosols,including sulfate,nitrate,ammonium,black carbon,and organic carbon,could obviously weaken the cooling effect.

  15. Modeling the soil water retention properties of same-textured soils with different initial void ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Fang; Zhou, Wan-Huan; Yuen, Ka-Veng

    2016-11-01

    This study presents a method of predicting the soil water retention curve (SWRC) of a soil using a set of measured SWRC data from a soil with the same texture but different initial void ratio. The relationships of the volumetric water contents and the matric suctions between two samples with different initial void ratios are established. An adjustment parameter (β) is introduced to express the relationships between the matric suctions of two soil samples. The parameter β is a function of the initial void ratio, matric suction or volumetric water content. The function can take different forms, resulting in different predictive models. The optimal predictive models of β are determined for coarse-grained and fine-grained soils using the Bayesian method. The optimal models of β are validated by comparing the estimated matric suction and measured data. The comparisons show that the proposed method produces more accurate SWRCs than do other models for both coarse-grained and fine-grained soils. Furthermore, the influence of the model parameters of β on the predicted matric suction and SWRC is evaluated using Latin Hypercube sampling. An uncertainty analysis shows that the reliability of the predicted SWRC decreases with decreasing water content in fine-grained soils, and the initial void ratio has no apparent influence on the reliability of the predicted SWRCs in coarse-grained and fine-grained soils.

  16. Dynamic Modeling of Hydraulic Power Steering System with Variable Ratio Rack and Pinion Gear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nong; Wang, Miao

    A comprehensive mathematical model of a typical hydraulic power steering system equipped with variable ratio rack and pinion gear is developed. The steering system’s dynamic characteristics are investigated and its forced vibrations are compared with those obtained from a counterpart system with a constant ratio rack and pinion gear. The modeling details of the mechanism subsystem, hydraulic supply lines subsystem and the rotary spool valve subsystem are provided and included in the integrated steering system model. The numerical simulations are conducted to investigate the dynamics of the nonlinear parametric steering system. From the comparison between simulated results and the experimental ones, it is shown that the model accurately integrates the boost characteristics of the rotary spool valve which is the key component of hydraulic power steering system. The variable ratio rack-pinion gear behaviors significantly differently from its constant ratio counterpart does. It significantly affects not only the system natural frequencies but also reduces vibrations under constant rate and ramp torque steering inputs. The developed steering model produces valid predictions of the system’s behavior and therfore could assist engineers in the design and analysis of integrated steering systems.

  17. d- $\\overline{B}$ mixing and rare D decays in the Littlest Higgs model with non-unitarity matrix

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Chuan-Hung; Yuan, Tzu-Chiang

    2007-01-01

    We study the $D-\\bar D$ mixing and rare D decays in the Littlest Higgs model. As the new weak singlet quark with the electric charge of 2/3 is introduced to cancel the quadratic divergence induced by the top-quark, the standard unitary $3\\times 3$ Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix is extended to a non-unitary $4\\times 3$ matrix in the quark charged currents and Z-mediated flavor changing neutral currents are generated at tree level. In this model, we show that the $D-\\bar D$ mixing parameter can be as large as the current experimental value and the decay branching ratio (BR) of $D\\to X_u \\ga$ is small but its direct CP asymmetry could be $O(10%)$. In addition, we find that the BRs of $D\\to X_u \\ell^{+} \\ell^{-}$, $D\\to X_u\

  18. A novel Q-based online model updating strategy and its application in statistical process control for rubber mixing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunying Zhang; Sun Chen; Fang Wu; Kai Song

    2015-01-01

    To overcome the large time-delay in measuring the hardness of mixed rubber, rheological parameters were used to predict the hardness. A novel Q-based model updating strategy was proposed as a universal platform to track time-varying properties. Using a few selected support samples to update the model, the strategy could dramat-ical y save the storage cost and overcome the adverse influence of low signal-to-noise ratio samples. Moreover, it could be applied to any statistical process monitoring system without drastic changes to them, which is practical for industrial practices. As examples, the Q-based strategy was integrated with three popular algorithms (partial least squares (PLS), recursive PLS (RPLS), and kernel PLS (KPLS)) to form novel regression ones, QPLS, QRPLS and QKPLS, respectively. The applications for predicting mixed rubber hardness on a large-scale tire plant in east China prove the theoretical considerations.

  19. Experiments using machine learning to approximate likelihood ratios for mixture models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranmer, K.; Pavez, J.; Louppe, G.; Brooks, W. K.

    2016-10-01

    Likelihood ratio tests are a key tool in many fields of science. In order to evaluate the likelihood ratio the likelihood function is needed. However, it is common in fields such as High Energy Physics to have complex simulations that describe the distribution while not having a description of the likelihood that can be directly evaluated. In this setting it is impossible or computationally expensive to evaluate the likelihood. It is, however, possible to construct an equivalent version of the likelihood ratio that can be evaluated by using discriminative classifiers. We show how this can be used to approximate the likelihood ratio when the underlying distribution is a weighted sum of probability distributions (e.g. signal plus background model). We demonstrate how the results can be considerably improved by decomposing the ratio and use a set of classifiers in a pairwise manner on the components of the mixture model and how this can be used to estimate the unknown coefficients of the model, such as the signal contribution.

  20. Improving Mixed-phase Cloud Parameterization in Climate Model with the ACRF Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhien [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)

    2016-12-13

    Mixed-phase cloud microphysical and dynamical processes are still poorly understood, and their representation in GCMs is a major source of uncertainties in overall cloud feedback in GCMs. Thus improving mixed-phase cloud parameterizations in climate models is critical to reducing the climate forecast uncertainties. This study aims at providing improved knowledge of mixed-phase cloud properties from the long-term ACRF observations and improving mixed-phase clouds simulations in the NCAR Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5). The key accomplishments are: 1) An improved retrieval algorithm was developed to provide liquid droplet concentration for drizzling or mixed-phase stratiform clouds. 2) A new ice concentration retrieval algorithm for stratiform mixed-phase clouds was developed. 3) A strong seasonal aerosol impact on ice generation in Arctic mixed-phase clouds was identified, which is mainly attributed to the high dust occurrence during the spring season. 4) A suite of multi-senor algorithms was applied to long-term ARM observations at the Barrow site to provide a complete dataset (LWC and effective radius profile for liquid phase, and IWC, Dge profiles and ice concentration for ice phase) to characterize Arctic stratiform mixed-phase clouds. This multi-year stratiform mixed-phase cloud dataset provides necessary information to study related processes, evaluate model stratiform mixed-phase cloud simulations, and improve model stratiform mixed-phase cloud parameterization. 5). A new in situ data analysis method was developed to quantify liquid mass partition in convective mixed-phase clouds. For the first time, we reliably compared liquid mass partitions in stratiform and convective mixed-phase clouds. Due to the different dynamics in stratiform and convective mixed-phase clouds, the temperature dependencies of liquid mass partitions are significantly different due to much higher ice concentrations in convective mixed phase clouds. 6) Systematic evaluations

  1. Modeling of diesel/CNG mixing in a pre-injection chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Wahhab, H. A.; Aziz, A. R. A.; Al-Kayiem, H. H.; Nasif, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    Diesel engines performance can be improved by adding combustible gases to the liquid diesel. In this paper, the propagation of a two phase flow liquid-gas fuel mixture into a pre-mixer is investigated numerically by computational fluid dynamics simulation. CNG was injected into the diesel within a cylindrical conduit operates as pre-mixer. Four injection models of Diesel-CNG were simulated using ANSYS-FLUENT commercial software. Two CNG jet diameters were used of 1 and 2 mm and the diesel pipe diameter was 9 mm. Two configurations were considered for the gas injection. In the first the gas was injected from one side while for the second two side entries were used. The CNG to Diesel pressure ratio was varied between 1.5 and 3. The CNG to Diesel mass flow ratios were varied between 0.7 and 0.9. The results demonstrate that using double-sided injection increased the homogeneity of the mixture due to the swirl and acceleration of the mixture. Mass fraction, in both cases, was found to increase as the mixture flows towards the exit. As a result, this enhanced mixing is likely to lead to improvement in the combustion performance.

  2. Swell impact on wind stress and atmospheric mixing in a regional coupled atmosphere-wave model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lichuan; Rutgersson, Anna; Sahlée, Erik; Guo Larsén, Xiaoli

    2016-07-01

    Over the ocean, the atmospheric turbulence can be significantly affected by swell waves. Change in the atmospheric turbulence affects the wind stress and atmospheric mixing over swell waves. In this study, the influence of swell on atmospheric mixing and wind stress is introduced into an atmosphere-wave-coupled regional climate model, separately and combined. The swell influence on atmospheric mixing is introduced into the atmospheric mixing length formula by adding a swell-induced contribution to the mixing. The swell influence on the wind stress under wind-following swell, moderate-range wind, and near-neutral and unstable stratification conditions is introduced by changing the roughness length. Five year simulation results indicate that adding the swell influence on atmospheric mixing has limited influence, only slightly increasing the near-surface wind speed; in contrast, adding the swell influence on wind stress reduces the near-surface wind speed. Introducing the wave influence roughness length has a larger influence than does adding the swell influence on mixing. Compared with measurements, adding the swell influence on both atmospheric mixing and wind stress gives the best model performance for the wind speed. The influence varies with wave characteristics for different sea basins. Swell occurs infrequently in the studied area, and one could expect more influence in high-swell-frequency areas (i.e., low-latitude ocean). We conclude that the influence of swell on atmospheric mixing and wind stress should be considered when developing climate models.

  3. Likelihood approaches for proportional likelihood ratio model with right-censored data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong

    2014-06-30

    Regression methods for survival data with right censoring have been extensively studied under semiparametric transformation models such as the Cox regression model and the proportional odds model. However, their practical application could be limited because of possible violation of model assumption or lack of ready interpretation for the regression coefficients in some cases. As an alternative, in this paper, the proportional likelihood ratio model introduced by Luo and Tsai is extended to flexibly model the relationship between survival outcome and covariates. This model has a natural connection with many important semiparametric models such as generalized linear model and density ratio model and is closely related to biased sampling problems. Compared with the semiparametric transformation model, the proportional likelihood ratio model is appealing and practical in many ways because of its model flexibility and quite direct clinical interpretation. We present two likelihood approaches for the estimation and inference on the target regression parameters under independent and dependent censoring assumptions. Based on a conditional likelihood approach using uncensored failure times, a numerically simple estimation procedure is developed by maximizing a pairwise pseudo-likelihood. We also develop a full likelihood approach, and the most efficient maximum likelihood estimator is obtained by a profile likelihood. Simulation studies are conducted to assess the finite-sample properties of the proposed estimators and compare the efficiency of the two likelihood approaches. An application to survival data for bone marrow transplantation patients of acute leukemia is provided to illustrate the proposed method and other approaches for handling non-proportionality. The relative merits of these methods are discussed in concluding remarks.

  4. Bootstrapping Mixed Correlators in the 3D Ising Model

    CERN Document Server

    Kos, Filip; Simmons-Duffin, David

    2014-01-01

    We study the conformal bootstrap for systems of correlators involving non-identical operators. The constraints of crossing symmetry and unitarity for such mixed correlators can be phrased in the language of semidefinite programming. We apply this formalism to the simplest system of mixed correlators in 3D CFTs with a $\\mathbb{Z}_2$ global symmetry. For the leading $\\mathbb{Z}_2$-odd operator $\\sigma$ and $\\mathbb{Z}_2$-even operator $\\epsilon$, we obtain numerical constraints on the allowed dimensions $(\\Delta_\\sigma, \\Delta_\\epsilon)$ assuming that $\\sigma$ and $\\epsilon$ are the only relevant scalars in the theory. These constraints yield a small closed region in $(\\Delta_\\sigma, \\Delta_\\epsilon)$ space compatible with the known values in the 3D Ising CFT.

  5. Estimation of financial loss ratio for E-insurance:a quantitative model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟元生; 陈德人; 施敏华

    2002-01-01

    In view of the risk of E-commerce and the response of the insurance industry to it, this paper is aimed at one important point of insurance, that is, estimation of financial loss ratio, which is one of the most difficult problems facing the E-insurance industry. This paper proposes a quantitative analyzing model for estimating E-insurance financial loss ratio. The model is based on gross income per enterprise and CSI/FBI computer crime and security survey. The analysis results presented are reasonable and valuable for both insurer and the insured and thus can be accepted by both of them. What we must point out is that according to our assumption, the financial loss ratio varied very little, 0.233% in 1999 and 0.236% in 2000 although there was much variation in the main data of the CSI/FBI survey.

  6. Modeling continuous self-report measures of perceived emotion using generalized additive mixed models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown, Gary J; Sneddon, Ian

    2014-03-01

    Emotion research has long been dominated by the "standard method" of displaying posed or acted static images of facial expressions of emotion. While this method has been useful, it is unable to investigate the dynamic nature of emotion expression. Although continuous self-report traces have enabled the measurement of dynamic expressions of emotion, a consensus has not been reached on the correct statistical techniques that permit inferences to be made with such measures. We propose generalized additive models and generalized additive mixed models as techniques that can account for the dynamic nature of such continuous measures. These models allow us to hold constant shared components of responses that are due to perceived emotion across time, while enabling inference concerning linear differences between groups. The generalized additive mixed model approach is preferred, as it can account for autocorrelation in time series data and allows emotion decoding participants to be modeled as random effects. To increase confidence in linear differences, we assess the methods that address interactions between categorical variables and dynamic changes over time. In addition, we provide comments on the use of generalized additive models to assess the effect size of shared perceived emotion and discuss sample sizes. Finally, we address additional uses, the inference of feature detection, continuous variable interactions, and measurement of ambiguity.

  7. Higgs-radion mixing in stabilized brane world models

    CERN Document Server

    Boos, Edward E; Perfilov, Maxim A; Smolyakov, Mikhail N; Volobuev, Igor P

    2015-01-01

    We consider a quartic interaction of the Higgs and Goldberger-Wise fields, which connects the mechanism of the extra dimension size stabilization with spontaneous symmetry breaking on our brane and gives rise to a coupling of the Higgs field to the radion and its KK tower. We estimate a possible influence of this coupling on the Higgs-radion mixing and study its experimental consequences.

  8. Mating behavior, population growth, and the operational sex ratio: a periodic two-sex model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenouvrier, Stéphanie; Caswell, Hal; Barbraud, Christophe; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2010-06-01

    We present a new approach to modeling two-sex populations, using periodic, nonlinear two-sex matrix models. The models project the population growth rate, the population structure, and any ratio of interest (e.g., operational sex ratio). The periodic formulation permits inclusion of highly seasonal behavioral events. A periodic product of the seasonal matrices describes annual population dynamics. The model is nonlinear because mating probability depends on the structure of the population. To study how the vital rates influence population growth rate, population structure, and operational sex ratio, we used sensitivity analysis of frequency-dependent nonlinear models. In nonlinear two-sex models the vital rates affect growth rate directly and also indirectly through effects on the population structure. The indirect effects can sometimes overwhelm the direct effects and are revealed only by nonlinear analysis. We find that the sensitivity of the population growth rate to female survival is negative for the emperor penguin, a species with highly seasonal breeding behavior. This result could not occur in linear models because changes in population structure have no effect on per capita reproduction. Our approach is applicable to ecological and evolutionary studies of any species in which males and females interact in a seasonal environment.

  9. Model Predictive Engine Air-Ratio Control Using Online Sequential Relevance Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang-cheong Wong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Engine power, brake-specific fuel consumption, and emissions relate closely to air ratio (i.e., lambda among all the engine variables. An accurate and adaptive model for lambda prediction is essential to effective lambda control for long term. This paper utilizes an emerging technique, relevance vector machine (RVM, to build a reliable time-dependent lambda model which can be continually updated whenever a sample is added to, or removed from, the estimated lambda model. The paper also presents a new model predictive control (MPC algorithm for air-ratio regulation based on RVM. This study shows that the accuracy, training, and updating time of the RVM model are superior to the latest modelling methods, such as diagonal recurrent neural network (DRNN and decremental least-squares support vector machine (DLSSVM. Moreover, the control algorithm has been implemented on a real car to test. Experimental results reveal that the control performance of the proposed relevance vector machine model predictive controller (RVMMPC is also superior to DRNNMPC, support vector machine-based MPC, and conventional proportional-integral (PI controller in production cars. Therefore, the proposed RVMMPC is a promising scheme to replace conventional PI controller for engine air-ratio control.

  10. Photonic states mixing beyond the plasmon hybridization model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryadharma, Radius N. S.; Iskandar, Alexander A.; Tjia, May-On

    2016-07-01

    A study is performed on a photonic-state mixing-pattern in an insulator-metal-insulator cylindrical silver nanoshell and its rich variations induced by changes in the geometry and dielectric media of the system, representing the combined influences of plasmon coupling strength and cavity effects. This study is performed in terms of the photonic local density of states (LDOS) calculated using the Green tensor method, in order to elucidate those combined effects. The energy profiles of LDOS inside the dielectric core are shown to exhibit consistently growing number of redshifted photonic states due to an enhanced plasmon coupling induced state mixing arising from decreased shell thickness, increased cavity size effect, and larger symmetry breaking effect induced by increased permittivity difference between the core and the background media. Further, an increase in cavity size leads to increased additional peaks that spread out toward the lower energy regime. A systematic analysis of those variations for a silver nanoshell with a fixed inner radius in vacuum background reveals a certain pattern of those growing number of redshifted states with an analytic expression for the corresponding energy downshifts, signifying a photonic state mixing scheme beyond the commonly adopted plasmon hybridization scheme. Finally, a remarkable correlation is demonstrated between the LDOS energy profiles outside the shell and the corresponding scattering efficiencies.

  11. Photonic states mixing beyond the plasmon hybridization model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suryadharma, Radius N. S.; Iskandar, Alexander A., E-mail: iskandar@fi.itb.ac.id; Tjia, May-On [Physics of Magnetism and Photonics Research Division, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2016-07-28

    A study is performed on a photonic-state mixing-pattern in an insulator-metal-insulator cylindrical silver nanoshell and its rich variations induced by changes in the geometry and dielectric media of the system, representing the combined influences of plasmon coupling strength and cavity effects. This study is performed in terms of the photonic local density of states (LDOS) calculated using the Green tensor method, in order to elucidate those combined effects. The energy profiles of LDOS inside the dielectric core are shown to exhibit consistently growing number of redshifted photonic states due to an enhanced plasmon coupling induced state mixing arising from decreased shell thickness, increased cavity size effect, and larger symmetry breaking effect induced by increased permittivity difference between the core and the background media. Further, an increase in cavity size leads to increased additional peaks that spread out toward the lower energy regime. A systematic analysis of those variations for a silver nanoshell with a fixed inner radius in vacuum background reveals a certain pattern of those growing number of redshifted states with an analytic expression for the corresponding energy downshifts, signifying a photonic state mixing scheme beyond the commonly adopted plasmon hybridization scheme. Finally, a remarkable correlation is demonstrated between the LDOS energy profiles outside the shell and the corresponding scattering efficiencies.

  12. Geospatial modeling of plant stable isotope ratios - the development of isoscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, J. B.; Ehleringer, J. R.; Hurley, J. M.; Cerling, T. E.

    2007-12-01

    Large-scale spatial variation in stable isotope ratios can yield critical insights into the spatio-temporal dynamics of biogeochemical cycles, animal movements, and shifts in climate, as well as anthropogenic activities such as commerce, resource utilization, and forensic investigation. Interpreting these signals requires that we understand and model the variation. We report progress in our development of plant stable isotope ratio landscapes (isoscapes). Our approach utilizes a GIS, gridded datasets, a range of modeling approaches, and spatially distributed observations. We synthesize findings from four studies to illustrate the general utility of the approach, its ability to represent observed spatio-temporal variability in plant stable isotope ratios, and also outline some specific areas of uncertainty. We also address two basic, but critical questions central to our ability to model plant stable isotope ratios using this approach: 1. Do the continuous precipitation isotope ratio grids represent reasonable proxies for plant source water?, and 2. Do continuous climate grids (as is or modified) represent a reasonable proxy for the climate experienced by plants? Plant components modeled include leaf water, grape water (extracted from wine), bulk leaf material ( Cannabis sativa; marijuana), and seed oil ( Ricinus communis; castor bean). Our approaches to modeling the isotope ratios of these components varied from highly sophisticated process models to simple one-step fractionation models to regression approaches. The leaf water isosocapes were produced using steady-state models of enrichment and continuous grids of annual average precipitation isotope ratios and climate. These were compared to other modeling efforts, as well as a relatively sparse, but geographically distributed dataset from the literature. The latitudinal distributions and global averages compared favorably to other modeling efforts and the observational data compared well to model predictions

  13. Generalized linear mixed models modern concepts, methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Stroup, Walter W

    2012-01-01

    PART I The Big PictureModeling BasicsWhat Is a Model?Two Model Forms: Model Equation and Probability DistributionTypes of Model EffectsWriting Models in Matrix FormSummary: Essential Elements for a Complete Statement of the ModelDesign MattersIntroductory Ideas for Translating Design and Objectives into ModelsDescribing ""Data Architecture"" to Facilitate Model SpecificationFrom Plot Plan to Linear PredictorDistribution MattersMore Complex Example: Multiple Factors with Different Units of ReplicationSetting the StageGoals for Inference with Models: OverviewBasic Tools of InferenceIssue I: Data

  14. Theoretical Model for Predicting Moisture Ratio during Drying of Spherical Particles in a Rotary Dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. T. Ademiluyi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model was developed for predicting the drying kinetics of spherical particles in a rotary dryer. Drying experiments were carried out by drying fermented ground cassava particles in a bench scale rotary dryer at inlet air temperatures of 115–230°C, air velocities of 0.83 m/s–1.55 m/s, feed mass of 50–500 g, drum drive speed of 8 rpm, and feed drive speed of 100 rpm to validate the model. The data obtained from the experiments were used to calculate the experimental moisture ratio which compared well with the theoretical moisture ratio calculated from the newly developed Abowei-Ademiluyi model. The comparisons and correlations of the results indicate that validation and performance of the established model are rather reasonable.

  15. Selection of noise power ratio spectrum models for electronic measurement of the Boltzmann constant

    CERN Document Server

    Coakley, Kevin J

    2016-01-01

    In the electronic measurement of the Boltzmann constant based on Johnson noise thermometry, the ratio of the power spectral densities of thermal noise across a resistor and pseudo-random noise synthetically generated by a quantum-accurate voltage-noise source varies with frequency due to mismatch between transmission lines. We model this ratio spectrum as an even polynomial function of frequency. For any given frequency range, defined by the maximum frequency $f_{max}$, we select the optimal polynomial ratio spectrum model with a cross-validation method and estimate the conditional uncertainty of the constant term in the ratio spectrum model in a way that accounts for both random and systematic effects associated with imperfect knowledge of the model with a resampling method. We select $f_{max}$ by minimizing this conditional uncertainty. Since many values of $f_{max}$ yield conditional uncertainties close to the observed minimum value on a frequency grid, we quantify an additional component of uncertainty as...

  16. Improved likelihood ratio tests for cointegration rank in the VAR model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boswijk, H.P.; Jansson, M.; Nielsen, M.Ø.

    2012-01-01

    We suggest improved tests for cointegration rank in the vector autoregressive (VAR) model and develop asymptotic distribution theory and local power results. The tests are (quasi-)likelihood ratio tests based on a Gaussian likelihood, but of course the asymptotic results apply more generally. The po

  17. Improved likelihood ratio tests for cointegration rank in the VAR model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boswijk, H.P.; Jansson, M.; Nielsen, M.Ø.

    2015-01-01

    We suggest improved tests for cointegration rank in the vector autoregressive (VAR) model and develop asymptotic distribution theory and local power results. The tests are (quasi-)likelihood ratio tests based on a Gaussian likelihood, but as usual the asymptotic results do not require normally distr

  18. Ratio-model for the simulation of infrared spectra of pollution gases in complicated background

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A ratio-model for the computer simulation of infrared spectra of pollution gases in complicated background is proposed. The characteristic spectrum of the hazardous pollution gas is simulated with background spectra which are measured by passive Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The simulated results agree well with the experimental results.

  19. First Look at Photometric Reduction via Mixed-Model Regression (Poster abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dose, E.

    2016-12-01

    (Abstract only) Mixed-model regression is proposed as a new approach to photometric reduction, especially for variable-star photometry in several filters. Mixed-model regression adds to normal multivariate regression certain "random effects": categorical-variable terms that model and extract specific systematic errors such as image-to-image zero-point fluctuations (cirrus effect) or even errors in comp-star catalog magnitudes.

  20. Design evaluation and optimisation in crossover pharmacokinetic studies analysed by nonlinear mixed effects models

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Thu Thuy; Bazzoli, Caroline; Mentré, France

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Bioequivalence or interaction trials are commonly studied in crossover design and can be analysed by nonlinear mixed effects models as an alternative to noncompartmental approach. We propose an extension of the population Fisher information matrix in nonlinear mixed effects models to design crossover pharmacokinetic trials, using a linearisation of the model around the random effect expectation, including within-subject variability and discrete covariates fixed or chan...