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Sample records for model minority stereotype

  1. Model Minority Stereotype: Influence on Perceived Mental Health Needs of Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Alice W; Chang, Janet; O'Brien, Janine; Budgazad, Marc S; Tsai, Jack

    2017-06-01

    This study examined the influence of the model minority stereotype on the perceived mental health functioning of Asian Americans. It was hypothesized that college students would perceive Asian Americans as having fewer mental health problems and clinical symptoms than Whites due to the model minority stereotype. Four hundred and twenty-five undergraduate students from a predominately White college campus in the American northeast were randomly exposed to one of four conditions: (1) a clinical vignette describing a White college student suffering from adjustment disorder; (2) the same vignette describing an Asian American college student; (3) a newspaper article describing a success story of Whites and the White clinical vignette; (4) the same newspaper article and clinical vignette describing an Asian American. Following exposure to one of the conditions, participants completed a memory recall task and measures of colorblindness, attitudes towards Asian Americans, attitudes towards out-group members, and perceived mental health functioning. Participants exposed to the vignettes primed with the positive/model minority stereotype perceived the target regardless of race/ethnicity as having better mental health functioning and less clinical symptoms than the condition without the stereotype. Additionally, the stereotype primer was found to be a modest predictor for the perception of mental health functioning in Asian American vignettes. Results shed light on the impact of the model minority stereotype on the misperception of Asian Americans' mental health status, contributing to the invisibility or neglect of this minority group's mental health needs.

  2. Understanding Korean Transnational Girls in High School Science Classes: Beyond the Model Minority Stereotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Minjung

    2015-01-01

    This study examines six Korean transnational girls enrolled in two advanced placement (AP) biology classes to understand their experiences in science classrooms at the intersection of race, language, and gender. Confronting the model minority stereotype for Asian students, which is particularly salient in science, technology, engineering, and…

  3. Testing the Model Minority Stereotype: Youth Behaviors across Racial and Ethnic Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Yoonsun; Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2006-01-01

    Using data from a large nationally representative sample of adolescents attending school, this study tests the stereotype that youth of Asian Pacific Islander ethnicity (API) are the model minority. The results suggest that, except for substance use, API American youth do not report fewer delinquent behaviors than white youth; in fact, API American youth report slightly higher numbers of aggressive offenses than white youth, and female API American youth report greater numbers of nonaggressiv...

  4. Asian and Pacific Islander women scientists and engineers: A narrative exploration of model minority, gender, and racial stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, Pauline W. U.

    2002-04-01

    This qualitative study uses narrative methodology to understand what becoming a scientist or engineer entails for women stereotyped as model minorities. Interviews with four Chinese and Japanese women focused on the social contexts in which science is encountered in classrooms, families, and community. Interpretation was guided by theories that individuals construct personal narratives mediated by cultural symbolic systems to make meaning of experiences. Narratives revealed that Confucian cultural scripts shaped gender expectations even in families several generations in America. Regardless of parents' level of education, country of birth, and number of children, educational expectations, and resources were lower for daughters. Parents expected daughters to be compliant, feminine, and educated enough to be marriageable. Findings suggest K-12 gender equity science practices encouraged development of the women's interests and abilities but did not affect parental beliefs. The author's 1999 study of Hawaiians/Pacific Islander and Filipina female engineers is included in implications for teacher education programs sensitive to gender, culture, ethnicity, and language.

  5. Examining Recruitment and Retention Factors for Minority STEM Majors through a Stereotype Threat Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, Audrey

    2018-01-01

    Prior research regarding minorities in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields indicated that the factors of peer support and participation in STEM-related activities contributed positively to minority students' recruitment and retention in these fields. Utilizing stereotype threat as a conceptual framework, this…

  6. Contents of Stereotypes toward Woman Subgroups: An Investigation in the Framework of Stereotype Content Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timucin Aktan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the stereotype contents toward woman subgroups and relate these contents to social-structural predictors and sexism. In this respect, 119 university students were recruited for the first study and they were asked to rate 10 woman subgroups in terms of their competence and warmth, and their status and competitiveness. Participants' level of sexism was also measured using ambivalent sexism scale. The findings of the first study revealed that competence and warmth were the two fundamental dimensions of the stereotype contents, these stereotypes could be depicted in three clusters, the content of many women stereotypes were mixed, and status was linked to competence and competition was related to lack of warmth. Besides replicating the main hypotheses of stereotype content model, the findings supported its two basic assumptions, i.e. negative stereotypes are not necessary to reveal stereotype clusters and personal stereotypes are more open to motivational concerns. Finally, sexism was related only with competition, but not with stereotype contents. Since, high competent / high warm cluster was not observed in the first study, the number of woman subgroups was increased in the second study. Thus, 86 university students were asked to rate 18 women subgroups on the scales used in the first study. Results replicated the findings of the first study, supporting the main hypothesis of stereotype content model. The findings of the studies were discussed in the light of relevant literature.

  7. Able but unintelligent: including positively stereotyped black subgroups in the stereotype content model.

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    Walzer, Amy S; Czopp, Alexander M

    2011-01-01

    The stereotype content model (SCM) posits that warmth and competence are the key components underlying judgments about social groups. Because competence can encompass different components (e.g., intelligence, talent) different group members may be perceived to be competent for different reasons. Therefore, we believe it may be important to specify the type of competence being assessed when examining perceptions of groups that are positively stereotyped (i.e., Black athletes and musical Blacks). Consistent with the SCM, these subgroups were perceived as high in competence-talent but not in competence-intelligence and low in warmth. Both the intelligence and talent frame of competence fit in the SCM's social structural hypothesis.

  8. Perceived social structural relations and group stereotypes : A test of the Stereotype Content Model in Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, Heleen; Verkuijten, Maykel; Khan, Aqeel

    2015-01-01

    Using data from two studies, the current research tests the Stereotype Content Model (SCM) within a Malaysian context using Chinese and ethnic Malay participants. The aim of the research is to examine the theoretical underpinnings of the SCM in a new context by investigating the role of aspects of

  9. Extracting the Evaluations of Stereotypes: Bi-factor Model of the Stereotype Content Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Sayans-Jiménez, Pablo; Cuadrado, Isabel; Rojas, Antonio J.; Barrada, Juan R.

    2017-01-01

    Stereotype dimensions—competence, morality and sociability—are fundamental to studying the perception of other groups. These dimensions have shown moderate/high positive correlations with each other that do not reflect the theoretical expectations. The explanation for this (e.g., halo effect) undervalues the utility of the shared variance identified. In contrast, in this work we propose that this common variance could represent the global evaluation of the perceived group. Bi-factor models ar...

  10. Minority, Student, and Athlete: Multiracial Division I College Athletes' Stereotype Threat Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brutus, Angel L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative transcendental phenomenological study was to understand the meanings ascribed by multiracial male and female NCAA Division I student athletes in the Southeast region of the United States to the lived experiences of stereotype threat. Stereotype threat is a phenomenon that is boundless and can influence any…

  11. Extracting the Evaluations of Stereotypes: Bi-factor Model of the Stereotype Content Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayans-Jiménez, Pablo; Cuadrado, Isabel; Rojas, Antonio J; Barrada, Juan R

    2017-01-01

    Stereotype dimensions-competence, morality and sociability-are fundamental to studying the perception of other groups. These dimensions have shown moderate/high positive correlations with each other that do not reflect the theoretical expectations. The explanation for this (e.g., halo effect) undervalues the utility of the shared variance identified. In contrast, in this work we propose that this common variance could represent the global evaluation of the perceived group. Bi-factor models are proposed to improve the internal structure and to take advantage of the information representing the shared variance among dimensions. Bi-factor models were compared with first order models and other alternative models in three large samples (300-309 participants). The relationships among the global and specific bi-factor dimensions with a global evaluation dimension (measured through a semantic differential) were estimated. The results support the use of bi-factor models rather than first order models (and other alternative models). Bi-factor models also show a greater utility to directly and more easily explore the stereotype content including its evaluative content.

  12. Extracting the Evaluations of Stereotypes: Bi-factor Model of the Stereotype Content Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Sayans-Jiménez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Stereotype dimensions—competence, morality and sociability—are fundamental to studying the perception of other groups. These dimensions have shown moderate/high positive correlations with each other that do not reflect the theoretical expectations. The explanation for this (e.g., halo effect undervalues the utility of the shared variance identified. In contrast, in this work we propose that this common variance could represent the global evaluation of the perceived group. Bi-factor models are proposed to improve the internal structure and to take advantage of the information representing the shared variance among dimensions. Bi-factor models were compared with first order models and other alternative models in three large samples (300–309 participants. The relationships among the global and specific bi-factor dimensions with a global evaluation dimension (measured through a semantic differential were estimated. The results support the use of bi-factor models rather than first order models (and other alternative models. Bi-factor models also show a greater utility to directly and more easily explore the stereotype content including its evaluative content.

  13. A Longitudinal Examination of the Role of Stereotype Threat and Racial Climate on College Outcomes for Minorities at Elite Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Mary J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper employs hierarchical linear models to explore the long-term effects of stereotype threat on college outcomes for students in the National Longitudinal Survey of Freshmen. Performance burden was negatively related to both grades and social satisfaction with college. Social satisfaction with college was also significantly impacted by…

  14. Filipinos and the Myth of Model Minority in Hawai'i: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunanan, Vanessa L.; Guerrero, Anthony P. S.; Minamoto, Linda Y.

    2006-01-01

    Despite tremendous heterogeneity in culture, native language, values, socioeconomic status and a steadily growing presence in the United States, Asian Americans are viewed as a monolithic group under the model minority stereotype. Using the focus group approach with youth, young professionals, key/community leaders, and parent participants, the…

  15. Enduring Influence of Stereotypical Computer Science Role Models on Women's Academic Aspirations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheryan, Sapna; Drury, Benjamin J.; Vichayapai, Marissa

    2013-01-01

    The current work examines whether a brief exposure to a computer science role model who fits stereotypes of computer scientists has a lasting influence on women's interest in the field. One-hundred undergraduate women who were not computer science majors met a female or male peer role model who embodied computer science stereotypes in appearance…

  16. Predicting Stereotype Endorsement and Academic Motivation in Women in Science Programs: A Longitudinal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delisle, Marie-Noelle; Guay, Frederic; Senecal, Caroline; Larose, Simon

    2009-01-01

    This study proposed and tested a model based on stereotype threat theory. The hypothesis is that women who are exposed to a low percentage of women in a science program are more likely to endorse the gender stereotype that science is a male domain, which will in turn undermine their autonomous academic motivation. A total of 167 women university…

  17. Visual and Computational Modelling of Minority Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robertas Damaševičius

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the Minority Game and focuses on analysis and computational modelling of several variants (variable payoff, coalition-based and ternary voting of Minority Game using UAREI (User-Action-Rule-Entities-Interface model. UAREI is a model for formal specification of software gamification, and the UAREI visual modelling language is a language used for graphical representation of game mechanics. The URAEI model also provides the embedded executable modelling framework to evaluate how the rules of the game will work for the players in practice. We demonstrate flexibility of UAREI model for modelling different variants of Minority Game rules for game design.

  18. Contending with Stereotype Threat at Work: A Model of Long-Term Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Caryn J.; Koch, Sandy M.; Liberman, Benjamin E.; Merriweather, Tarani J.; Roberson, Loriann

    2011-01-01

    Women and people of color are still underrepresented in many occupational roles. Being in a situation where one is underrepresented, and thus in the demographic minority, has been shown to be a factor leading to the experience of stereotype threat--the expectation that one will be judged or perceived on the basis of social identity group…

  19. Stereotype Threat and College Academic Performance: A Latent Variables Approach*

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    Owens, Jayanti; Massey, Douglas S.

    2013-01-01

    Stereotype threat theory has gained experimental and survey-based support in helping explain the academic underperformance of minority students at selective colleges and universities. Stereotype threat theory states that minority students underperform because of pressures created by negative stereotypes about their racial group. Past survey-based studies, however, are characterized by methodological inefficiencies and potential biases: key theoretical constructs have only been measured using summed indicators and predicted relationships modeled using ordinary least squares. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Freshman, this study overcomes previous methodological shortcomings by developing a latent construct model of stereotype threat. Theoretical constructs and equations are estimated simultaneously from multiple indicators, yielding a more reliable, valid, and parsimonious test of key propositions. Findings additionally support the view that social stigma can indeed have strong negative effects on the academic performance of pejoratively stereotyped racial-minority group members, not only in laboratory settings, but also in the real world. PMID:23950616

  20. Stereotype content model across cultures: Towards universal similarities and some differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddy, Amy J. C.; Fiske, Susan T.; Kwan, Virginia S. Y.; Glick, Peter; Demoulin, Stéphanie; Leyens, Jacques-Philippe; Bond, Michael Harris; Croizet, Jean-Claude; Ellemers, Naomi; Sleebos, Ed; Htun, Tin Tin; Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Maio, Greg; Perry, Judi; Petkova, Kristina; Todorov, Valery; Rodríguez-Bailón, Rosa; Morales, Elena; Moya, Miguel; Palacios, Marisol; Smith, Vanessa; Perez, Rolando; Vala, Jorge; Ziegler, Rene

    2014-01-01

    The stereotype content model (SCM) proposes potentially universal principles of societal stereotypes and their relation to social structure. Here, the SCM reveals theoretically grounded, cross-cultural, cross-groups similarities and one difference across 10 non-US nations. Seven European (individualist) and three East Asian (collectivist) nations (N = 1, 028) support three hypothesized cross-cultural similarities: (a) perceived warmth and competence reliably differentiate societal group stereotypes; (b) many out-groups receive ambivalent stereotypes (high on one dimension; low on the other); and (c) high status groups stereotypically are competent, whereas competitive groups stereotypically lack warmth. Data uncover one consequential cross-cultural difference: (d) the more collectivist cultures do not locate reference groups (in-groups and societal prototype groups) in the most positive cluster (high-competence/high-warmth), unlike individualist cultures. This demonstrates out-group derogation without obvious reference-group favouritism. The SCM can serve as a pancultural tool for predicting group stereotypes from structural relations with other groups in society, and comparing across societies. PMID:19178758

  1. Stereotype content model across cultures: towards universal similarities and some differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddy, Amy J C; Fiske, Susan T; Kwan, Virginia S Y; Glick, Peter; Demoulin, Stéphanie; Leyens, Jacques-Philippe; Bond, Michael Harris; Croizet, Jean-Claude; Ellemers, Naomi; Sleebos, Ed; Htun, Tin Tin; Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Maio, Greg; Perry, Judi; Petkova, Kristina; Todorov, Valery; Rodríguez-Bailón, Rosa; Morales, Elena; Moya, Miguel; Palacios, Marisol; Smith, Vanessa; Perez, Rolando; Vala, Jorge; Ziegler, Rene

    2009-03-01

    The stereotype content model (SCM) proposes potentially universal principles of societal stereotypes and their relation to social structure. Here, the SCM reveals theoretically grounded, cross-cultural, cross-groups similarities and one difference across 10 non-US nations. Seven European (individualist) and three East Asian (collectivist) nations (N=1,028) support three hypothesized cross-cultural similarities: (a) perceived warmth and competence reliably differentiate societal group stereotypes; (b) many out-groups receive ambivalent stereotypes (high on one dimension; low on the other); and (c) high status groups stereotypically are competent, whereas competitive groups stereotypically lack warmth. Data uncover one consequential cross-cultural difference: (d) the more collectivist cultures do not locate reference groups (in-groups and societal prototype groups) in the most positive cluster (high-competence/high-warmth), unlike individualist cultures. This demonstrates out-group derogation without obvious reference-group favouritism. The SCM can serve as a pancultural tool for predicting group stereotypes from structural relations with other groups in society, and comparing across societies.

  2. The effects of stereotypes of women's performance in male-dominated hierarchies: Stereotype threat activation and reduction through role models

    OpenAIRE

    Latu, V.; Schmid Mast, M.

    2015-01-01

    Despite recent progress in increasing gender equality in organizations, workplace hierarchies remain male-dominated in most domains. We discuss how gender stereotypes contribute to holding women back in leadership and workplace domains and how we can reduce the negative effects of gender stereotypes. In the first part of the chapter we discuss how awareness of negative stereotypes of women in leadership can decrease women's performance and self-related cognitions in leadership tasks such as m...

  3. Stereotypes Can “Get Under the Skin”: Testing a Self-Stereotyping and Psychological Resource Model of Overweight and Obesity

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    Rivera, Luis M.; Paredez, Stefanie M.

    2014-01-01

    The authors draw upon social, personality, and health psychology to propose and test a self-stereotyping and psychological resource model of overweight and obesity. The model contends that self-stereotyping depletes psychological resources, namely self-esteem, that help to prevent overweight and obesity. In support of the model, mediation analysis demonstrates that adult Hispanics who highly self-stereotype had lower levels of self-esteem than those who self-stereotype less, which in turn predicted higher levels of body mass index (overweight and obesity levels). Furthermore, the model did not hold for the referent sample, White participants, and an alternative mediation model was not supported. These data are the first to theoretically and empirically link self-stereotyping and self-esteem (a psychological resource) with a strong physiological risk factor for morbidity and short life expectancy in stigmatized individuals. Thus, this research contributes to understanding ethnic-racial health disparities in the United States and beyond. PMID:25221353

  4. Modeling market mechanism with the minority game

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    Challet, Damien; Marsili, Matteo; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2000-01-01

    Using the minority game model we study a broad spectrum of problems of market mechanism. We study the role of different types of agents: producers, speculators as well as noise traders. The central issue here is the information flow: producers feed in the information whereas speculators make it away. How well each agent fares in the common game depends on the market conditions, as well as their sophistication. Sometimes there is much to gain with little effort, sometimes great effort virtually brings no more incremental gain. Market impact is also shown to play an important role, a strategy should be judged when it is actually used in play for its quality. Though the minority game is an extremely simplified market model, it allows to ask, analyze and answer many questions which arise in real markets.

  5. Disentangling stereotype activation and stereotype application in the stereotype misperception task.

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    Krieglmeyer, Regina; Sherman, Jeffrey W

    2012-08-01

    When forming impressions about other people, stereotypes about the individual's social group often influence the resulting impression. At least 2 distinguishable processes underlie stereotypic impression formation: stereotype activation and stereotype application. Most previous research has used implicit measures to assess stereotype activation and explicit measures to assess stereotype application, which has several disadvantages. The authors propose a measure of stereotypic impression formation, the stereotype misperception task (SMT), together with a multinomial model that quantitatively disentangles the contributions of stereotype activation and application to responses in the SMT. The validity of the SMT and of the multinomial model was confirmed in 5 studies. The authors hope to advance research on stereotyping by providing a measurement tool that separates multiple processes underlying impression formation.

  6. Social organization in the Minority Game model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slanina, František

    2000-10-01

    We study the role of imitation within the Minority Game model of market. The players can exchange information locally, which leads to formation of groups which act as if they were single players. Coherent spatial areas of rich and poor agents result. We found that the global effectivity is optimized at certain value of the imitation probability, which decreases with increasing memory length. The social tensions are suppressed for large imitation probability, but generally the requirements of high global effectivity and low social tensions are in conflict.

  7. Stereotypes help people connect with others in the community: A situated functional analysis of the stereotype consistency bias in communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clark, A.E.; Kashima, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Communicators tend to share more stereotype-consistent than stereotype-inconsistent information. The authors propose and test a situated functional model of this stereotype consistency bias: Stereotype-consistent and inconsistent information differentially serve 2 central functions of

  8. Gender Stereotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellemers, N.

    There are many differences between men and women. To some extent, these are captured in the stereotypical images of these groups. Stereotypes about the way men and women think and behave are widely shared, suggesting a kernel of truth. However, stereotypical expectations not only reflect existing

  9. Gender Stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellemers, Naomi

    2018-01-04

    There are many differences between men and women. To some extent, these are captured in the stereotypical images of these groups. Stereotypes about the way men and women think and behave are widely shared, suggesting a kernel of truth. However, stereotypical expectations not only reflect existing differences, but also impact the way men and women define themselves and are treated by others. This article reviews evidence on the nature and content of gender stereotypes and considers how these relate to gender differences in important life outcomes. Empirical studies show that gender stereotypes affect the way people attend to, interpret, and remember information about themselves and others. Considering the cognitive and motivational functions of gender stereotypes helps us understand their impact on implicit beliefs and communications about men and women. Knowledge of the literature on this subject can benefit the fair judgment of individuals in situations where gender stereotypes are likely to play a role.

  10. Stereotype Threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Steven J; Logel, Christine; Davies, Paul G

    2016-01-01

    When members of a stigmatized group find themselves in a situation where negative stereotypes provide a possible framework for interpreting their behavior, the risk of being judged in light of those stereotypes can elicit a disruptive state that undermines performance and aspirations in that domain. This situational predicament, termed stereotype threat, continues to be an intensely debated and researched topic in educational, social, and organizational psychology. In this review, we explore the various sources of stereotype threat, the mechanisms underlying stereotype-threat effects (both mediators and moderators), and the consequences of this situational predicament, as well as the means through which society and stigmatized individuals can overcome the insidious effects of stereotype threat. Ultimately, we hope this review alleviates some of the confusion surrounding stereotype threat while also sparking further research and debate.

  11. Validation of the internalization of the Model Minority Myth Measure (IM-4) and its link to academic performance and psychological adjustment among Asian American adolescents.

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    Yoo, Hyung Chol; Miller, Matthew J; Yip, Pansy

    2015-04-01

    There is limited research examining psychological correlates of a uniquely racialized experience of the model minority stereotype faced by Asian Americans. The present study examined the factor structure and fit of the only published measure of the internalization of the model minority myth, the Internalization of the Model Minority Myth Measure (IM-4; Yoo et al., 2010), with a sample of 155 Asian American high school adolescents. We also examined the link between internalization of the model minority myth types (i.e., myth associated with achievement and myth associated with unrestricted mobility) and psychological adjustment (i.e., affective distress, somatic distress, performance difficulty, academic expectations stress), and the potential moderating effect of academic performance (cumulative grade point average). Results suggested the 2-factor model of the IM-4 had an acceptable fit to the data and supported the factor structure using confirmatory factor analyses. Internalizing the model minority myth of achievement related positively to academic expectations stress; however, internalizing the model minority myth of unrestricted mobility related negatively to academic expectations stress, both controlling for gender and academic performance. Finally, academic performance moderated the model minority myth associated with unrestricted mobility and affective distress link and the model minority myth associated with achievement and performance difficulty link. These findings highlight the complex ways in which the model minority myth relates to psychological outcomes. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. The consequences of chronic stereotype threat: domain disidentification and abandonment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, Anna; Hernandez, Paul R; Estrada, Mica; Schultz, P Wesley

    2012-10-01

    Stereotype threat impairs performance across many domains. Despite a wealth of research, the long-term consequences of chronic stereotype threat have received little empirical attention. Beyond the immediate impact on performance, the experience of chronic stereotype threat is hypothesized to lead to domain disidentification and eventual domain abandonment. Stereotype threat is 1 explanation why African Americans and Hispanic/Latino(a)s "leak" from each juncture of the academic scientific pipeline in disproportionately greater numbers than their White and Asian counterparts. Using structural equation modeling, we tested the stereotype threat-disidentification hypothesis across 3 academic years with a national longitudinal panel of undergraduate minority science students. Experience of stereotype threat was associated with scientific disidentification, which in turn predicted a significant decline in the intention to pursue a scientific career. Race/ethnicity moderated this effect, whereby the effect was evident for Hispanic/Latino(a) students but not for all African American students. We discuss findings in terms of understanding chronic stereotype threat.

  13. Learning variable and stereotypical sequences of responses: Some data and a new model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, A

    1993-10-01

    In a left-right (L-R) choice situation, pigeons were exposed to a frequency-dependent schedule that selectively reinforced either the momentarily least-frequent pairs of responses (Experiment 1), or the least-frequent triplets of responses (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, the birds developed various stereotypical response patterns including double alternation (i.e. RRLLRRLL…), the stable pattern that satisfied the schedule constraint. In Experiment 2, three out of four birds developed random-like behavior. A linear operator reinforcement model, in the tradition of Bush and Mosteller, accounted for the qualitative features of pigeons' behavior in frequency-dependent schedules: strict alternation (i.e. RLRL…) when the schedule selectively reinforces the least-frequent individual response, double alternation when the least-frequent pairs are selectively reinforced, random-like behavior when the least-frequent triplets are selectively reinforced, and various stereotypical response patterns apparently not related to the target of selection. Copyright © 1993. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Exploring the relation between masculinity and mental illness stigma using the stereotype content model and BIAS map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boysen, Guy A

    2017-01-01

    The current research explored the association of masculinity and stigma toward mental illness using theoretical predictions stemming from the stereotype content model and BIAS map. Two correlational studies (Ns = 245, 163) measured stereotypes, emotions, and behavioral intentions in relation to masculine, feminine, and gender-neutral disorders. Participants perceived masculine disorders as lacking personal warmth and competence. Masculine disorders also elicited more negative emotions and behavioral intentions. Two experimental studies (Ns = 161, 431) manipulated personal warmth, sex, and type of disorder in descriptions of people with mental illness. Low warmth and stereotypically masculine disorders consistently elicited negative emotions and behavioral intentions, but sex had limited effects. Overall, the results supported the theoretical models and illustrated the importance of warmth and symptomatic behavior in explaining the masculinity-stigma relation.

  15. Minority stress in people who identify as transgender: testing the minority stress model

    OpenAIRE

    Stennett, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: People who identify as transgender are reported to experience high levels of mental health problems in comparison to people who do not identify as transgender. The minority stress model has been used to explain these high prevalence rates. But this model was designed to be used in lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) populations (Meyer, 1995, 2003). Researchers have applied some of the hypothesised processes of the model to people who identify as transgender. However, evidence testing ...

  16. Using the Stereotype Content Model to examine group depictions in Fascism: An Archival Approach.

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    Durante, Federica; Volpato, Chiara; Fiske, Susan T

    2010-04-01

    The Stereotype Content Model (SCM) suggests potentially universal intergroup depictions. If universal, they should apply across history in archival data. Bridging this gap, we examined social groups descriptions during Italy's Fascist era. In Study 1, articles published in a Fascist magazine- La Difesa della Razza -were content analyzed, and results submitted to correspondence analysis. Admiration prejudice depicted ingroups; envious and contemptuous prejudices depicted specific outgroups, generally in line with SCM predictions. No paternalistic prejudice appeared; historical reasons might explain this finding. Results also fit the recently developed BIAS Map of behavioral consequences. In Study 2, ninety-six undergraduates rated the content-analysis traits on warmth and competence, without knowing their origin. They corroborated SCM's interpretations of the archival data.

  17. [Stereotypic movements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Alvarez, E

    2003-02-01

    Stereotypic movements are repetitive patterns of movement with certain peculiar features that make them especially interesting. Their physiopathology and their relationship with the neurobehavioural disorders they are frequently associated with are unknown. In this paper our aim is to offer a simple analysis of their dominant characteristics, their differentiation from other processes and a hypothesis of the properties of stereotypic movements, which could all set the foundations for research work into their physiopathology.

  18. Breaking the Model Minority Stereotype: An Exploration of Asian American and Pacific Islander Student Substance Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabato, Todd

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare alcohol, tobacco, and illicit or nonmedical drug use behaviors and self-reported consequences of Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) students to cross-ethnic peers. Participants: A sample of 114,816 undergraduates between 18 and 24 completing the National College Health Assessment between 2011 and 2014 were used.…

  19. Teachers' modeling advantage and their modeling effects on college students' learning styles and occupational stereotypes: a case of collaborative teaching in technical courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Wen-Bin; Yang, Chao-Chin

    2006-01-01

    In this study, modeling advantage that depicts the likelihood of a teacher model being imitated by students over other competing models in a particular class was developed to differentiate the rival modeling of two kinds of teachers (the technical teachers vs. the lecturing teachers) between college students' learning styles and occupational stereotypes in the collaborative teaching of technical courses. Results of a one-semester longitudinal study indicated that the students perceived a greater modeling advantage of the technical teachers than that of the lecturing teachers. Both the students' learning styles and occupational stereotypes were in accordance with those teachers as their role models. In general, the impact of the teachers' learning styles and occupational stereotypes on students appeared to be mediated by the teachers' modeling advantage. Administrators and curriculum designers should pay attention to the fact that the technical teachers appeared to exhibit greater modeling effects than the lecturing teachers in collaborative teaching.

  20. Stereotypes and Stereotyping: A Moral Analysis | Blum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stereotypes are false or misleading generalizations about groups held in a manner that renders them largely, though not entirely, immune to counterevidence. In doing so, stereotypes powerfully shape the stereotyper's perception of stereotyped groups, seeing the stereotypic characteristics when they are not present, failing ...

  1. A Mediational Model Explaining the Connection Between Religiosity and Anti-Homosexual Attitudes in Italy: The Effects of Male Role Endorsement and Homosexual Stereotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piumatti, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to better understand the relationship between religiosity and anti-homosexual attitudes in Italy by examining the mediation effects of male role endorsement and homosexual stereotyping. A sample of 5,522 Italian residents (age range = 18-74) was drawn from a cross-sectional national representative survey carried out in 2011. Measures included general religiosity, male role endorsement, homosexual stereotyping, social acceptance of homosexuality, and homosexual rights endorsement. Structural equation modeling was used to test the mediational effects of male role endorsement and homosexual stereotyping on the relationship between general religiosity and attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. Results showed that both male role endorsement and homosexual stereotyping partially mediated the relationship. In a model where religiosity and both mediators positively explained anti-homosexual attitudes, male role endorsement was the strongest mediator. Endorsement of gender role beliefs and homosexual stereotyping may thus exacerbate the connection between religiosity and anti-homosexual attitudes among Italians.

  2. Characterization and Computational Modeling of Minor Phases in Alloy LSHR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jou, Herng-Jeng; Olson, Gregory; Gabb, Timothy; Garg, Anita; Miller, Derek

    2012-01-01

    The minor phases of powder metallurgy disk superalloy LSHR were studied. Samples were consistently heat treated at three different temperatures for long times to approach equilibrium. Additional heat treatments were also performed for shorter times, to assess minor phase kinetics in non-equilibrium conditions. Minor phases including MC carbides, M23C6 carbides, M3B2 borides, and sigma were identified. Their average sizes and total area fractions were determined. CALPHAD thermodynamics databases and PrecipiCalc(TradeMark), a computational precipitation modeling tool, were employed with Ni-base thermodynamics and diffusion databases to model and simulate the phase microstructural evolution observed in the experiments with an objective to identify the model limitations and the directions of model enhancement.

  3. When suppressing one stereotype leads to rebound of another: on the procedural nature of stereotype rebound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geeraert, Nicolas

    2013-09-01

    A known consequence of stereotype suppression is post-suppressional rebound (PSR), an ironic activation of the suppressed stereotype. This is typically explained as an unintended by-product from a dual-process model of mental control. Relying on this model, stereotype rebound is believed to be conceptual. Alternative accounts predict PSR to be featural or procedural. According to the latter account, stereotype rebound would not be limited to the suppressed social category, but could occur for a target from any social category. The occurrence of procedural stereotype rebound was examined across five experiments. Suppression of one particular stereotype consistently led to rebound for social targets belonging to the same or a different stereotype in an essay-writing task (Experiments 1-3) and led to facilitation in recognition of stereotype-consistent words (Experiment 4). Finally, stereotype suppression was shown to impact on assessments of stereotype use but not on heuristic thinking (Experiment 5).

  4. Stereotypes as justifications of prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, Christian S; Bahns, Angela J; Warner, Ruth; Schaller, Mark

    2011-11-01

    Three experiments investigate how stereotypes form as justifications for prejudice. The authors created novel content-free prejudices toward unfamiliar social groups using either subliminal (Experiment 1, N = 79) or supraliminal (Experiment 2, N = 105; Experiment 3, N = 130) affective conditioning and measured the consequent endorsement of stereotypes about the groups. Following the stereotype content model, analyses focused on the extent to which stereotypes connoted warmth or competence. Results from all three experiments revealed effects on the warmth dimension but not on the competence dimension: Groups associated with negative affect were stereotyped as comparatively cold (but not comparatively incompetent). These results provide the first evidence that-in the absence of information, interaction, or history of behavioral discrimination-stereotypes develop to justify prejudice.

  5. Stereotype Threat and Gender Differences in Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunny, Cijy Elizabeth; Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Clark, Lauren; Marchand, Gwen

    2017-01-01

    Stereotype threat theory (STT) offers one explanation for achievement differences in math and science for both women and minority students. Specifically, STT posits that the perceived risk of confirming a negative stereotype about an individual's identity group acts as a psychological burden that negatively impacts performance. This study examined…

  6. Confronting Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buswell, Carol

    2011-01-01

    People confront stereotypes every day, both in and out of the classroom. Some ideas have been carried in the collective memory and classroom textbooks for so long they are generally recognized as fact. Many are constantly being reinforced by personal experiences, family discussions, and Hollywood productions as well. The distinct advantage to…

  7. Equal opportunities? : The effects of negative stereotypes and teacher-child relationship quality on the school adjustment of ethnic minority students in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, E.M.

    2018-01-01

    School achievement of non-Western ethnic minority students in the Netherlands often lags behind the achievement of their native Dutch peers. Non-Western ethnic minority students also often seem to show relatively more problematic behavior. In this dissertation, two possible explanations for these

  8. Why They Leave: The Impact of Stereotype Threat on the Attrition of Women and Minorities from Science, Math and Engineering Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, Maya A.; Fischer, Mary J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of group performance anxiety on the attrition of women and minorities from science, math, and engineering majors. While past research has relied primarily on the academic deficits and lower socioeconomic status of women and minorities to explain their absence from these fields, we focus on the impact of stereotype…

  9. Stereotypes possess heterogeneous directionality: a theoretical and empirical exploration of stereotype structure and content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, William T L; Devine, Patricia G

    2015-01-01

    We advance a theory-driven approach to stereotype structure, informed by connectionist theories of cognition. Whereas traditional models define or tacitly assume that stereotypes possess inherently Group → Attribute activation directionality (e.g., Black activates criminal), our model predicts heterogeneous stereotype directionality. Alongside the classically studied Group → Attribute stereotypes, some stereotypes should be bidirectional (i.e., Group ⇄ Attribute) and others should have Attribute → Group unidirectionality (e.g., fashionable activates gay). We tested this prediction in several large-scale studies with human participants (NCombined = 4,817), assessing stereotypic inferences among various groups and attributes. Supporting predictions, we found heterogeneous directionality both among the stereotype links related to a given social group and also between the links of different social groups. These efforts yield rich datasets that map the networks of stereotype links related to several social groups. We make these datasets publicly available, enabling other researchers to explore a number of questions related to stereotypes and stereotyping. Stereotype directionality is an understudied feature of stereotypes and stereotyping with widespread implications for the development, measurement, maintenance, expression, and change of stereotypes, stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination.

  10. The Truth about Mentoring Minorities: Race Matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, David A.

    2001-01-01

    A 3-year study of mentoring patterns at 3 corporations reveals that whites and minorities follow distinct patterns of advancement and should be mentored in very different ways. Cross-race mentoring must acknowledge issues of negative stereotypes, role modeling, peer resentment, skepticism about intimacy, and network management. (JOW)

  11. The "Model Minority": Bane or Blessing for Asian Americans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Frieda; Halgin, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Asian Americans have been touted as the "model minority" since the 1960s. The authors examine the prevalence, accuracy, and implications of this label, and, based on a review of the literature, discuss problems associated with this characterization. The authors point out ways in which such labeling impedes rather than facilitates access to various…

  12. Native American Stereotypes, TV Portrayals, and Personal Contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Alexis; Fujioka, Yuki; Lucht, Nancy

    1997-01-01

    Investigates stereotyping of Native Americans by white college students, examining effects of vicarious contact via television and affective evaluations of direct and vicarious contact on stereotypes. Finds that evaluations of contact with minority groups determine group evaluation and that stereotyping is predicted by pleasant or unpleasant first…

  13. Distracted by the Unthought - Suppression and Reappraisal of Mind Wandering under Stereotype Threat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Schuster

    Full Text Available Previous research has found that subtle reminders of negative stereotypes about one's group can lead individuals to underperform on stereotype-relevant tests (e.g., women in math, ethnic minorities on intelligence tests. This so called stereotype threat effect can contribute to systematic group differences in performance that can obscure the true abilities of certain social groups and thereby sustain social inequalities. In the present study, we examined processes underlying stereotype threat effects on women's math performance, specifically focusing on the role of suppression of mind wandering (i.e., task-irrelevant thinking in stereotype threat (ST and no threat (NT situations. Based on a process model of stereotype threat effects on performance, we hypothesized that women under stereotype threat spontaneously suppress mind wandering, and that this suppression impairs performance. An alternative regulation strategy that prevents suppression (i.e., reappraising task-irrelevant thoughts as normal was predicted to prevent stereotype threat effects on performance. We manipulated stereotype threat (ST vs. NT and cognitive regulation strategy (suppression, reappraisal, or no strategy and measured women's performance on a math and a concentration task (N = 113. We expected three groups to perform relatively more poorly: Those in ST with either no strategy or suppression and those in NT with a suppression strategy. We tested the performance of these groups against the remaining three groups hypothesized to perform relatively better: those in NT with no strategy or reappraisal and those in ST with reappraisal. The results showed the expected pattern for participants' math performance, but not for concentration achievement. This pattern suggests that ineffective self-regulation by suppressing mind wandering can at least partly explain stereotype threat effects on performance, whereas a reappraisal strategy can prevent this impairment. We discuss

  14. Distracted by the Unthought – Suppression and Reappraisal of Mind Wandering under Stereotype Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Carolin; Martiny, Sarah E.; Schmader, Toni

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has found that subtle reminders of negative stereotypes about one’s group can lead individuals to underperform on stereotype-relevant tests (e.g., women in math, ethnic minorities on intelligence tests). This so called stereotype threat effect can contribute to systematic group differences in performance that can obscure the true abilities of certain social groups and thereby sustain social inequalities. In the present study, we examined processes underlying stereotype threat effects on women’s math performance, specifically focusing on the role of suppression of mind wandering (i.e., task-irrelevant thinking) in stereotype threat (ST) and no threat (NT) situations. Based on a process model of stereotype threat effects on performance, we hypothesized that women under stereotype threat spontaneously suppress mind wandering, and that this suppression impairs performance. An alternative regulation strategy that prevents suppression (i.e., reappraising task-irrelevant thoughts as normal) was predicted to prevent stereotype threat effects on performance. We manipulated stereotype threat (ST vs. NT) and cognitive regulation strategy (suppression, reappraisal, or no strategy) and measured women’s performance on a math and a concentration task (N = 113). We expected three groups to perform relatively more poorly: Those in ST with either no strategy or suppression and those in NT with a suppression strategy. We tested the performance of these groups against the remaining three groups hypothesized to perform relatively better: those in NT with no strategy or reappraisal and those in ST with reappraisal. The results showed the expected pattern for participants’ math performance, but not for concentration achievement. This pattern suggests that ineffective self-regulation by suppressing mind wandering can at least partly explain stereotype threat effects on performance, whereas a reappraisal strategy can prevent this impairment. We discuss

  15. Distracted by the Unthought - Suppression and Reappraisal of Mind Wandering under Stereotype Threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Carolin; Martiny, Sarah E; Schmader, Toni

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has found that subtle reminders of negative stereotypes about one's group can lead individuals to underperform on stereotype-relevant tests (e.g., women in math, ethnic minorities on intelligence tests). This so called stereotype threat effect can contribute to systematic group differences in performance that can obscure the true abilities of certain social groups and thereby sustain social inequalities. In the present study, we examined processes underlying stereotype threat effects on women's math performance, specifically focusing on the role of suppression of mind wandering (i.e., task-irrelevant thinking) in stereotype threat (ST) and no threat (NT) situations. Based on a process model of stereotype threat effects on performance, we hypothesized that women under stereotype threat spontaneously suppress mind wandering, and that this suppression impairs performance. An alternative regulation strategy that prevents suppression (i.e., reappraising task-irrelevant thoughts as normal) was predicted to prevent stereotype threat effects on performance. We manipulated stereotype threat (ST vs. NT) and cognitive regulation strategy (suppression, reappraisal, or no strategy) and measured women's performance on a math and a concentration task (N = 113). We expected three groups to perform relatively more poorly: Those in ST with either no strategy or suppression and those in NT with a suppression strategy. We tested the performance of these groups against the remaining three groups hypothesized to perform relatively better: those in NT with no strategy or reappraisal and those in ST with reappraisal. The results showed the expected pattern for participants' math performance, but not for concentration achievement. This pattern suggests that ineffective self-regulation by suppressing mind wandering can at least partly explain stereotype threat effects on performance, whereas a reappraisal strategy can prevent this impairment. We discuss implications for

  16. Towards exaggerated emphysema stereotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Chen; Sørensen, Lauge; Lauze, Francois Bernard

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the notion of an exaggerated image stereotype for some image class of interest, which emphasizes/exaggerates the characteristic patterns in an image class and visualizes what visual information the classication relies on. This is useful for gaining insight into the classi cation...... and serves for comparison with thebiological models of disease. We build the exaggerated image stereotypes by optimizing an objective function which consists of a discriminativeterm based on the classi cation accuracy, and a generative term based on the class distribution. Agradient descent method...... is employed for optimization. We use this idea with Fisher's Linear Discriminant rule,and assume a multivariate normal distribution for samples within a class. The proposed framework is appliedto computed tomography (CT) images of lung tissue with emphysema. The synthesized stereotypes illustratethe...

  17. A Dual Processing Approach to Stereotype Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Lucy; Coolen, Petra

    1995-01-01

    Considered stereotype change within a framework of dual process models. Using three experiments, manipulated task involvement, source credibility, and message quality. Findings proved dual process as appropriate when considering the processing of stereotype-disconfirming information and processing's impact on existing stereotypes. Different…

  18. Stereotypes of Norwegian social groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bye, Hege H; Herrebrøden, Henrik; Hjetland, Gunnhild J; Røyset, Guro Ø; Westby, Linda L

    2014-10-01

    We present a pilot study and two main studies that address the nature of stereotypes of social groups in Norway within the framework of the Stereotype Content Model (SCM). The first study focused on stereotypes of a wide range of groups across categories such as gender, age, religious conviction, socioeconomic and health status. The second study focused on stereotypes of immigrant groups. Participants (n = 244 and n = 63, respectively) rated the groups on perceived warmth, competence, status, and competition. Results from both studies support the applicability of the SCM in Norway and provides a unique insight into stereotypes of Norwegian social groups. © 2014 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology published by Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. BLACK AND HISPANIC IMMIGRANTS' RESILIENCE AGAINST NEGATIVE ABILITY RACIAL STEREOTYPES AT SELECTIVE COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES IN THE UNITED STATES*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Jayanti; Lynch, Scott M

    2012-10-01

    Stereotype threat is a widely supported theory for understanding the racial achievement gap in college grade performance. However, today's minority college students are increasingly of immigrant origins, and it is unclear whether two dispositional mechanisms that may increase susceptibility to stereotype threat are applicable to immigrants. We use survey data to examine whether and how negative ability stereotypes affect the grades of 1,865 first, second, and third generation or higher (domestic) minority students at 28 selective American colleges. Structural equation model results indicate that first generation immigrants are highly-resistant to both dispositional identity threat mechanisms we consider. Second generation immigrants experience only certain dispositional elements of identity threat. Drawing on research in social psychology, we suggest immigrants tend to resist stereotype threat in part due to the primacy of their immigrant identities and their connectedness to the opportunity structure of mainstream society.

  20. From Racial Stereotyping and Deficit Discourse toward a Critical Race Theory in Teacher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solorzano, Daniel G.; Yosso, Tara J.

    2001-01-01

    Examines connections between critical race theory (CRT) and its application to the concepts of race, racial bias, and racial stereotyping in teacher education. Defines CRT, then discusses racism and stereotyping, racial stereotypes in the media, and racial stereotypes in professional environments, noting the effects on minority students. Presents…

  1. Stereotyping gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Inger

    2011-01-01

    , there is still some way to go before genuine gender equality and emancipation may become reality, in spite of Denmark’s image as egalitarian society. To try to explain this paradox, the paper explores gender perceptions by analysing how men and women talk about gender in focus group discussions and how the two...... stereotypical categorizations made by the interviewees, the article argues that employees in the bank tend to reproduce and perpetuate a patriarchal management system in spite of various forces pulling in a new post-patriarchal direction where gender is just one of many identities....

  2. Different groups, different threats: a multi-threat approach to the experience of stereotype threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Jenessa R

    2011-04-01

    Two studies demonstrated that different negatively stereotyped groups are at risk for distinct forms of stereotype threats. The Multi-Threat Framework articulates six distinct stereotype threats and the unique constellations of variables (e.g., group identification, stereotype endorsement) that elicit each stereotype threat. Previous research suggests that different negatively stereotyped groups systematically vary across these stereotype threat elicitors; a pilot study confirms these differences. Across two studies, groups that tend to elicit low stereotype endorsement (religion, race/ethnicity, congenital blindness) were less likely to report experiencing self-as-source stereotype threats (stereotype threats requiring stereotype endorsement) and groups that tend to elicit low group identification (mental illness, obesity, blindness later in life) were less likely to report experiencing group-as-target stereotype threats (stereotype threats requiring group identification). This research suggests that traditional models may overlook the experiences of stereotype threats within some groups and that interventions tailored to address differences between stereotype threats will be most effective.

  3. Stereotypes, Emotions, and Behaviors Toward Lesbians, Gay Men, Bisexual Women, and Bisexual Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Allison A; Teeters, Stacy A; Sadler, Melody S; Cronan, Sierra B

    2017-01-01

    The utility of the Stereotype Content Model (Fiske, Cuddy, Glick, & Xu, 2002) and the Behaviors from Intergroup Affect and Stereotypes map (Cuddy, Fiske, & Glick, 2007) were examined in the context of heterosexuals' attitudes toward sexual minorities. Heterosexual adults completed a survey measuring stereotypes, emotions, and behavioral tendencies toward lesbians, gay men, bisexual women, and bisexual men. Stereotype content differed across groups and showed "gendered" and "valenced" effects on emotions and behavioral tendencies. Competence predicted behaviors for men, whereas warmth and competence predicted behaviors for women, and, for the most part, more was better. Admiration and contempt mediated most of these relationships across most subgroups, but pity and envy played smaller roles for some subgroups. Across all groups, competence played a more predictive role than warmth.

  4. Towards exaggerated emphysema stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C.; Sørensen, L.; Lauze, F.; Igel, C.; Loog, M.; Feragen, A.; de Bruijne, M.; Nielsen, M.

    2012-03-01

    Classification is widely used in the context of medical image analysis and in order to illustrate the mechanism of a classifier, we introduce the notion of an exaggerated image stereotype based on training data and trained classifier. The stereotype of some image class of interest should emphasize/exaggerate the characteristic patterns in an image class and visualize the information the employed classifier relies on. This is useful for gaining insight into the classification and serves for comparison with the biological models of disease. In this work, we build exaggerated image stereotypes by optimizing an objective function which consists of a discriminative term based on the classification accuracy, and a generative term based on the class distributions. A gradient descent method based on iterated conditional modes (ICM) is employed for optimization. We use this idea with Fisher's linear discriminant rule and assume a multivariate normal distribution for samples within a class. The proposed framework is applied to computed tomography (CT) images of lung tissue with emphysema. The synthesized stereotypes illustrate the exaggerated patterns of lung tissue with emphysema, which is underpinned by three different quantitative evaluation methods.

  5. Analytical model for minority games with evolutionary learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Daniel; Méndez, Vicenç; Llebot, Josep E.; Hernández, Germán A.

    2010-06-01

    In a recent work [D. Campos, J.E. Llebot, V. Méndez, Theor. Popul. Biol. 74 (2009) 16] we have introduced a biological version of the Evolutionary Minority Game that tries to reproduce the intraspecific competition for limited resources in an ecosystem. In comparison with the complex decision-making mechanisms used in standard Minority Games, only two extremely simple strategies ( juveniles and adults) are accessible to the agents. Complexity is introduced instead through an evolutionary learning rule that allows younger agents to learn taking better decisions. We find that this game shows many of the typical properties found for Evolutionary Minority Games, like self-segregation behavior or the existence of an oscillation phase for a certain range of the parameter values. However, an analytical treatment becomes much easier in our case, taking advantage of the simple strategies considered. Using a model consisting of a simple dynamical system, the phase diagram of the game (which differentiates three phases: adults crowd, juveniles crowd and oscillations) is reproduced.

  6. Testing a Model of Minority Identity Achievement, Identity Affirmation and Psychological Well-Being among Ethnic Minority and Sexual Minority Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    How is social identity related to psychological well-being among minority individuals? Drawing on developmental models of identity formation (e.g., Erikson, 1968) and on Social Identity Theory (Tajfel & Turner, 1979), we tested a conceptual model examining links between two key aspects of social identity and psychological well-being. We proposed that the association between identity achievement (exploring and understanding the meaning of one’s identity) and psychological well-being is mediated by identity affirmation (developing positive feelings and a sense of belonging to one’s social group). Across three studies, including ethnic minority high school students (Study 1), ethnic minority college students (Study 2) and lesbian and gay male adults (Study 3), we found strong support for the model. Results suggest that the process of exploring and understanding one’s minority identity can serve as an important basis for developing positive feelings toward and an enhanced sense of attachment to the group which can in turn confer psychological benefits for minority individuals. Implications and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:21341900

  7. Memory shaped by age stereotypes over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Becca R; Zonderman, Alan B; Slade, Martin D; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2012-07-01

    Previous studies showed that negative self-stereotypes detrimentally affect the cognitive performance of marginalized group members; however, these findings were confined to short-term experiments. In the present study, we considered whether stereotypes predicted memory over time, which had not been previously examined. We also considered whether self-relevance increased the influence of stereotypes on memory over time. Multiple waves of memory performance were analyzed using individual growth models. The sample consisted of 395 participants in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Those with more negative age stereotypes demonstrated significantly worse memory performance over 38 years than those with less negative age stereotypes, after adjusting for relevant covariates. The decline in memory performance for those aged 60 and above was 30.2% greater for the more negative age stereotype group than for the less negative age stereotype group. Also, the impact of age stereotypes on memory was significantly greater among those for whom the age stereotypes were self-relevant. This study shows that the adverse influence of negative self-stereotypes on cognitive performance is not limited to a short-term laboratory effect. Rather, the findings demonstrate, for the first time, that stereotypes also predict memory performance over an extended period in the community.

  8. Assessing aging stereotypes: Personal stereotypes, self-stereotypes and self-perception of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Ballesteros, Rocío; Olmos, Ricardo; Santacreu, Marta; Bustillos, Antonio; Schettini, Rocío; Huici, Carmen; Rivera, José M

    2017-11-01

    There is a broad semantic network of aging stereotypes; where different concepts and their measurement are confused: personal stereotypes, self-stereotypes and self-perception of aging. First, we analyze the translated version of the Image of Aging Scale (IAS) measurement model through exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, with two representative sub-samples of the Spanish population aged over eighteen (N = 1,105) and in a sample of gerontologists and geriatricians (N = 325). Second, in an effort to disentangle the theoretical relationships between personal stereotypes, self-stereotypes and self-perception of aging, both the IAS (with different instructions) and Lawton’s 5-item scale were administered to a representative sample of Spanish people over 50. Our results indicate that the Spanish version of the IAS has a similar psychometric structure to that proposed by the authors. Furthermore, the factorial structure (equal form and metric invariance) is replicated in both samples, but latent means and factor correlations were higher in the professional group. We discuss Levy’s theoretical assumptions about personal-stereotypes and the self-stereotype measured with IAS and their relationship to self-perception of ageing.

  9. Transcending Frozen Gender Stereotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Madsen, Troels Bo Haarh; Svanborg, Mikkel; Kühn, Lena; Lomholm Chemnitz, Marie; Barba, Clara; Howard Kitchen, Nikolaj

    2013-01-01

    This project is centered around examining the root of gender stereotyping and discrimination. It entails an account for the heteronormative matrix as an inhibiting norm that was coined by Judith Butler. This ground-giving model will be explored and then applied to Simon Baron-Cohen who participates in the project as a representation of the heteronormative matrix. Cordelia Fine allows us to understand how the matrix influences our way of thinking and performing gender. Gender neutrality is the...

  10. A Language for Modeling Cultural Norms, Biases and Stereotypes for Human Behavior Models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Solomon, Steven; van Lent, Michael; Core, Mark; Carpenter, Paul; Rosenberg, Milton

    2008-01-01

    .... The Culturally-Affected Behavior project seeks to define a language for encoding ethnographic data in order to capture cultural knowledge and use that knowledge to affect human behavior models...

  11. Ecology-driven stereotypes override race stereotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Keelah E. G.; Sng, Oliver; Neuberg, Steven L.

    2015-01-01

    Ecological features shape people’s goals, strategies, and behaviors. Our research suggests that social perceivers possess a lay understanding of ecology’s influence on behavior, resulting in ecology-driven stereotypes. Moreover, because race is confounded with ecology in the United States, Americans’ stereotypes about racial groups may actually reflect their stereotypes about these groups’ presumed home ecologies. In a series of studies, we demonstrate that (i) individuals possess ecology-dri...

  12. Unhealthy interactions: the role of stereotype threat in health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Joshua; Burgess, Diana; Phelan, Sean M; Juarez, Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    Stereotype threat is the unpleasant psychological experience of confronting negative stereotypes about race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, or social status. Hundreds of published studies show how the experience of stereotype threat can impair intellectual functioning and interfere with test and school performance. Numerous published interventions derived from this research have improved the performance and motivation of individuals targeted by low-ability stereotypes. Stereotype threat theory and research provide a useful lens for understanding and reducing the negative health consequences of interracial interactions for African Americans and members of similarly stigmatized minority groups. Here we summarize the educational outcomes of stereotype threat and examine the implications of stereotype threat for health and health-related behaviors.

  13. A Multilevel Model of Minority Opinion Expression and Team Decision-Making Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Guihyun; DeShon, Richard P.

    2010-01-01

    The consideration of minority opinions when making team decisions is an important factor that contributes to team effectiveness. A multilevel model of minority opinion influence in decision-making teams is developed to address the conditions that relate to adequate consideration of minority opinions. Using a sample of 57 teams working on a…

  14. Ecology-driven stereotypes override race stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Keelah E. G.; Sng, Oliver; Neuberg, Steven L.

    2016-01-01

    Why do race stereotypes take the forms they do? Life history theory posits that features of the ecology shape individuals’ behavior. Harsh and unpredictable (“desperate”) ecologies induce fast strategy behaviors such as impulsivity, whereas resource-sufficient and predictable (“hopeful”) ecologies induce slow strategy behaviors such as future focus. We suggest that individuals possess a lay understanding of ecology’s influence on behavior, resulting in ecology-driven stereotypes. Importantly, because race is confounded with ecology in the United States, we propose that Americans’ stereotypes about racial groups actually reflect stereotypes about these groups’ presumed home ecologies. Study 1 demonstrates that individuals hold ecology stereotypes, stereotyping people from desperate ecologies as possessing faster life history strategies than people from hopeful ecologies. Studies 2–4 rule out alternative explanations for those findings. Study 5, which independently manipulates race and ecology information, demonstrates that when provided with information about a person’s race (but not ecology), individuals’ inferences about blacks track stereotypes of people from desperate ecologies, and individuals’ inferences about whites track stereotypes of people from hopeful ecologies. However, when provided with information about both the race and ecology of others, individuals’ inferences reflect the targets’ ecology rather than their race: black and white targets from desperate ecologies are stereotyped as equally fast life history strategists, whereas black and white targets from hopeful ecologies are stereotyped as equally slow life history strategists. These findings suggest that the content of several predominant race stereotypes may not reflect race, per se, but rather inferences about how one’s ecology influences behavior. PMID:26712013

  15. Stereotypic movement disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001548.htm Stereotypic movement disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Stereotypic movement disorder is a condition in which a person makes ...

  16. Stereotypes in a context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hnilica, Karel

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the study we tested some hypotheses concerning the influence of a context on stereotypes. Our first hypothesis concerns explicit stereotypes. According to it Czech respondents will ascribe to their own category more positive attributes if a list of categories will include only Czech and Roma people than when it will include also some categories which are more positively evaluated than Czechs. The next hypothesis concerns implicit stereotypes. According to it when using IAT (Implicit Association Test; Greenwald et al., 1998, where there are compared two categories, we will ascertain a more profound difference between attitudes to Czech and Roma people than when we use BFP (Bona Fide Pipeline; Fazio et al., 1995, in which there is no such a comparison. Our next two hypotheses concern consensual stereotypes. According to one of them the content of a consensual stereotype will overlap with content of a no personal stereotype. According to the other, the valences of consensual stereotypes will be more polarized than the mean valences of personal stereotypes. The context will have similar influences on consensual and personal stereotypes. In our two researches there took part two samples (N1 = 86, N2 = 201 of adult members. To ascertain the content of explicit stereotypes we used an open-form technique. The first sample adduced attributes of members of two categories, the second sample adduced attributes of members of twelve categories. We define the consensual stereotype as a set of ten most often cited attributes. To measure implicit stereotypes, we used IAT and BFP. Results show that responses of the respondents were influenced by context in the directions expected. The content of no personal stereotype overlapped with the content of any consensual stereotype. The context had influence on both explicit and implicit measures. At the same time it was found that context had on personal and consensual stereotypes similar, but not identical

  17. Thermophysical properties and modeling of minor bodies regoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbo, M.

    2017-12-01

    I will review recent studies of atmosphere-less Solar System minor bodies in the thermal infrared wavelengths (> 5 micron), which have seen major advances in the last few years thanks to the observations from space telescopes such as NASA's WISE and Spitzer, JAXA's Akari and ESA's Herschel. Analysis of these observations by means of numerical models allowed not only the determination of sizes and albedos for more than hundred-thousands asteroids, but also to infer, for several of these objects, the values of their thermal inertia. The latter is a sensitive indicator for the presence (or absence) of surface regolith, its grain size, porosity, and degree of compaction. These data confirm presence of regolith on all the studied asteroids, even on the rapidly rotating (period thermal inertia inversely correlates with asteroid sizes, and directly correlates with their rotation periods. This can be explained by regolith density increasing with increasing depth below the surface, a phenomenon already noted of our moon. These findings will soon be tested with unprecedented detail by data from NASA's OSIRIS-REx sample return mission to the asteroid Bennu. OSIRIS-REx's instruments will map temperatures of the entire surface at different local times of the day (between 3:20am and 8:40pm) allowing fine sampling of the diurnal temperature curve. This will result in maps of the thermal inertia of the surface at 40 m spatial scale. On atmosphere-less bodies, thermal inertia controls the amplitude and rate of changes of temperature cycles, which can reach several tens of degrees and several degrees per minute, respectively. Laboratory experiments on materials analogs to those expected on asteroids show that these repeated temperature excursions cause stress on the materials, leading to their fragmentation and the production of fresh regolith

  18. African Immigrants, the "New Model Minority": Examining the Reality in U.S. K-12 Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukpokodu, Omiunota N.

    2018-01-01

    African immigrants in the U.S. have been headlined as America's "new model minority." The purpose of this paper is to examine if evidence exists to support the claim of African immigrant students' (AIS) educational achievement and excellence (a core indicator of the "model minority" theory) in U.S. k-12 schools. Using a…

  19. Aging and stereotype suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radvansky, Gabriel A; Lynchard, Nicholas A; von Hippel, William

    2009-01-01

    Recent work in social cognitive aging has suggested that older adults are more likely than younger adults to activate and use stereotypic information, even when they intend not to. Furthermore, evidence suggests that older adults have difficulty altering their interpretation of a situation, even when it has become clear that their initial interpretation is incorrect. In the current study, younger and older adults read a series of narratives in which a character had a sex-stereotyped occupation (e.g., a plumber is stereotypically male), and the character's gender was either consistent or inconsistent with that stereotype. Explicit labeling of gender was also varied. Results revealed that with explicit labeling, older adults were able to discount their stereotypes and avoid processing difficulties when subsequent stereotype-inconsistent information was encountered. These data suggest that when counter-stereotypic information is explicitly provided at encoding, older adults are no more likely than younger adults to rely on stereotypes, and are similarly capable of altering their interpretation of a situation when information suggests that interpretation is incorrect. These findings indicate that although older adults are more prone to the influence of unwanted stereotypes, this effect can be averted and judgments can be made more egalitarian by providing older adults with explicit stereotype contradiction at encoding.

  20. Evolution of imitation networks in Minority Game model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lavička, H.; Slanina, František

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 56, - (2007), s. 53-63 ISSN 1434-6028 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1P04OCP10.001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : econophysics * networks * minority game Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.356, year: 2007

  1. Gender stereotype susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Marina A; Weber, Susanna; Simoes, Elisabeth; Sokolov, Alexander N

    2014-01-01

    Gender affects performance on a variety of cognitive tasks, and this impact may stem from socio-cultural factors such as gender stereotyping. Here we systematically manipulated gender stereotype messages on a social cognition task on which no initial gender gap has been documented. The outcome reveals: (i) Stereotyping affects both females and males, with a more pronounced impact on females. Yet an explicit negative message for males elicits a striking paradoxical deterioration in performance of females. (ii) Irrespective of gender and directness of message, valence of stereotype message affects performance: negative messages have stronger influence than positive ones. (iii) Directness of stereotype message differentially impacts performance of females and males: females tend to be stronger affected by implicit than explicit negative messages, whereas in males this relationship is opposite. The data are discussed in the light of neural networks underlying gender stereotyping. The findings provide novel insights into the sources of gender related fluctuations in cognition and behavior.

  2. From Model Minorities to Disposable Models: The De-Legitimisation of Educational Success through Discourses of Authenticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Alice

    2013-01-01

    This article explores teachers' use of discourses of authenticity in relation to minoritised students, with a focus on the relationship between these discourses and "model minority" status. The paper aims to advance the critical thinking about "model minorities" in the education system in England by examining the diversity of…

  3. Gender stereotypes in organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Čeněk

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is focused on stereotypes of women as managers. The literature review summarizes the most common areas of gender stereotypes. In the empirical part we conducted research on a sample of 111 respondents (students. Research data was obtained by administration of translated and adapted questionnaire Women as Managers Scale (L. Peters et al.. Psychometric analysis of the questionnaire was conducted and its factor structure verified. The goal of this study was to create and pilot Czech adaptation of the questionnaire as an instrument for diagnostics of gender stereotypes in different types of organizations

  4. Arab Stereotypes and American Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingfield, Marvin; Karaman, Bushra

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that negative stereotypes of Arabs permeate U.S. popular culture. Discusses Arab stereotypes among educators and the effects of stereotyping on Arab American students. Describes efforts used in the Dearborn, MI, schools to eliminate stereotypes and integrate into the curriculum the study of Arab culture. (CFR)

  5. Stereotype Strength and Attentional Bias: Preference for Confirming versus Disconfirming Information Depends on Processing Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Thomas J.; Sherman, Jeffrey W.; Conrey, Frederica R.; Stroessner, Steven J.

    2009-01-01

    In two experiments, we investigated the relationships among stereotype strength, processing capacity, and the allocation of attention to stereotype-consistent versus stereotype-inconsistent information describing a target person. The results of both experiments showed that, with full capacity, greater stereotype strength was associated with increased attention toward stereotype-consistent versus stereotype-inconsistent information. However, when capacity was diminished, greater stereotype strength was associated with increased attention toward inconsistent versus consistent information. Thus, strong stereotypes may act as self-confirming filters when processing capacity is plentiful, but as efficient information gathering devices that maximize the acquisition of novel (disconfirming) information when capacity is depleted. Implications for models of stereotyping and stereotype change are discussed. PMID:20161043

  6. Toward a Model of Social Influence that Explains Minority Student Integration into the Scientific Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Mica; Woodcock, Anna; Hernandez, Paul R.; Schultz, P. Wesley

    2010-01-01

    Students from several ethnic minority groups are underrepresented in the sciences, such that minority students more frequently drop out of the scientific career path than non-minority students. Viewed from a perspective of social influence, this pattern suggests that minority students do not integrate into the scientific community at the same rate as non-minority students. Kelman (1958, 2006) describes a tripartite integration model of social influence (TIMSI) by which a person orients to a social system. To test if this model predicts integration into the scientific community, we conducted analyses of data from a national panel of minority science students. A structural equation model framework showed that self-efficacy (operationalized consistent with Kelman’s ‘rule-orientation’) predicted student intentions to pursue a scientific career. However, when identification as a scientist and internalization of values are added to the model, self-efficacy becomes a poorer predictor of intention. Additional mediation analyses support the conclusion that while having scientific self-efficacy is important, identifying with and endorsing the values of the social system reflect a deeper integration and more durable motivation to persist as a scientist. PMID:21552374

  7. [Cultural diversity and stereotyping: implication for the medical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durieux-Paillard, S; Loutan, L

    2005-09-28

    Increasing number of migrants worldwide brings doctors to treat patients of various origins. Patients' diversity enriches health professionals but also induces a risk of mutual incomprehension, due to cultural and language barriers. Multicultural context stimulates unwittingly stereotyping, based on a simplistic assessment of the patient's culture. Stereotyping is also influenced by the political and media coverage. Studies underscored that universally, minorities patients have an unequal access to health care in host countries. Health professionals should be aware that racial stereotyping exists in medical practice: it is a first step to bridge cultural gap between them and their patients.

  8. Stereotype locally convex spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbarov, S S

    2000-08-31

    We give complete proofs of some previously announced results in the theory of stereotype (that is, reflexive in the sense of Pontryagin duality) locally convex spaces. These spaces have important applications in topological algebra and functional analysis.

  9. Stereotype locally convex spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarov, S. S.

    2000-08-01

    We give complete proofs of some previously announced results in the theory of stereotype (that is, reflexive in the sense of Pontryagin duality) locally convex spaces. These spaces have important applications in topological algebra and functional analysis.

  10. Affirmative Action and Stereotype Threat

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Alma

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides experimental evidence on the effect of affirmative action (AA). In particular, we investigate whether affirmative action has a ”stereotype threat effect” – that is, whether AA cues a negative stereotype that leads individuals to conform to the stereotype and adversely affects their performance. Stereotype threat has been shown in the literature to be potentially significant for individuals who identify strongly with the domain of the stereotype and who engage in complex st...

  11. TRAILING GENDER STEREOTYPE

    OpenAIRE

    Arjun Sekhar P M; J. Parameswari

    2017-01-01

    A gender stereotype is a kind of over generalization about characteristics, attributes and differences on the basis of gender. Gender stereotypes construct certain gender roles. A gender role is a behavior learned by a person as desirable, acceptable appropriate, to their gender, determined by the prevailing cultural norms. In society, the gender role continues through generation. There are certain factors which help to transmit these roles. This conceptual paper will try to explain the role ...

  12. The Development of Spontaneous Gender Stereotyping in Childhood: Relations to Stereotype Knowledge and Stereotype Flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banse, Rainer; Gawronski, Bertram; Rebetez, Christine; Gutt, Helene; Morton, J. Bruce

    2010-01-01

    The development of spontaneous gender stereotyping in children was investigated using the newly developed Action Interference Paradigm (AIP). This task consists of assigning gender-stereotypical toys as quickly as possible to boys and girls in either a stereotype-congruent or a stereotype-incongruent manner. A pilot study with 38 children (mean…

  13. From Forever Foreigners to Model Minority: Asian American Men in Sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Yomee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite their long history in the United States, relatively little scholarly attention has been paid to Asian Americans and their lived experience in sports. The purpose of this study was to give voices to Asian American men by focusing on their experiences in sports. In particular, this study examined the experiences of East Asian and Southeast Asian American male college students who were often perceived as “foreign” and “pejoratively feminine” racialized minority yet participated in sports that were associated with dominant masculinity in the U.S. The setting of the study was as a predominately White institution located in Upstate New York where Asian Americans make up about one percent of the total student population. Qualitative research method was employed for the study. Six Asian American male students were recruited through snowball and purposeful sampling methods. In-depth interviews were conducted to reveal the rich stories of these Asian American men. The research showed that the stories of Asian American male college students were much nuanced and complicated. Specifically, this study revealed that Asian American men were constantly otherized as “forever foreigners” who did not have a legitimate citizenship in the United States. Also, Asian Americans faced unique ideas about their manhood that either highlighted emasculated and feminized masculinity or hyper-masculinity. In dealing with these situations, Asian American men employed unique cultural strategies to challenge and resist racial stereotypes through sports.

  14. Validating Work Discrimination and Coping Strategy Models for Sexual Minorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Y. Barry; Williams, Wendi; Dispenza, Franco

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate and expand on Y. B. Chung's (2001) models of work discrimination and coping strategies among lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons. In semistructured individual interviews, 17 lesbians and gay men reported 35 discrimination incidents and their related coping strategies. Responses were coded based on Chung's…

  15. Effects of environmental enrichment and stereotypic behavior on maternal behavior and infant viability in a model carnivore, the American mink (Neovison vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez-León, María; Mason, Georgia

    2016-01-01

    In several species, stress compromises maternal behaviors that are important for infant viability (e.g. licking and grooming). Understanding how stress in captivity affects maternal behavior could therefore be beneficial, especially for carnivores in zoos and breeding centers where infant mortality is often high. We used a model carnivore--American mink--to test two hypotheses, namely that maternal investment and/or behavior is i. improved by environmental enrichment; and ii. compromised by stereotypic behavior. We observed 22 females raised in an indoor facility, 9 enriched, 13 non-enriched. At birth, and at post-natal day 20 when altricial infants were still fully dependent on their mothers, the following offspring variables were recorded: litter size, infant mortality, litter sex ratio (post-natal day 1), and weight. Maternal behavior was assessed by recording nest shape (post-natal day 1), and the frequency of licking and grooming (post-natal days 1-7). Non-enriched females stereotyped more, had female-skewed litters at birth, and tended to make poorer, flatter nests. Maternal licking and grooming showed large, stable individual differences, but appeared unaffected by enrichment. High levels of maternal stereotypic behavior predicted slower offspring growth, replicating previous findings for farmed mink. Nevertheless, enrichment did not significantly increase infant growth rates nor decrease infant mortality. Due to small sample sizes, our study now needs replicating, particularly to explore the potential benefits of enrichment on nest building, sex ratio effects, and the implications of maternal licking and grooming for offspring stress reactivity. Findings could then apply to endangered mustelids like the European mink. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. A variation method in the optimization problem of the minority game model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blazhyijevs'kij, L.; Yanyishevs'kij, V.

    2009-01-01

    This article contains the results of applying a variation method in the investigation of the optimization problem in the minority game model. That suggested approach is shown to give relevant results about phase transition in the model. Other methods pertinent to the problem have also been assessed.

  17. Gender Stereotyping in Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hussain

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Gender stereotyping and gender role development is one of the debatable concerns to sociologists especially those who are interested in sociology of gender. This study attempts to investigate the role of family inculcating gender stereotyping in Pakhtun culture and its impact on gender role development conducted in public-sector universities of Malakand Division, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. The data were collected through in-depth interview method using interview guide as a tool of data collection. A sample size of 24 respondents consisting male and female students and teachers (8 samples from each university through purposive sampling technique was selected from three universities in the region, that is, University of Malakand, University of Swat, and Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University Sharingal (main campus. The collected information has been analyzed qualitatively where primary information has been linked with secondary data for further elaboration and attainment of grounded facts. The study reveals that gender stereotyping and gender role formation are sociocultural and relational constructs, which are developed and inculcated in the institutional network, social interaction, and social relationships especially in family. The study indicated that in family sphere, gender stereotyping and gender role formation are the outcome of gender socialization, differential familial environment, and parents’ differential role with children. The study recommends that gender-balanced familial environment, adopting the strategy of gender mainstreaming and positive role of media, can overcome gender stereotyping and reduce its impacts on gender and social role formation.

  18. The Creative Stereotype Effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Dumas

    Full Text Available Because of its fundamental relevance to scientific innovation, artistic expression, and human ingenuity, creativity has long been the subject of systematic psychological investigation. Concomitantly, the far-reaching effects of stereotypes on various cognitive and social processes have been widely researched. Bridging these two literatures, we show in a series of two studies that stereotypes related to creativity can both enhance and diminish individuals' performance on a divergent thinking task. Specifically, Study 1 demonstrated that participants asked to take on a stereotypically uninhibited perspective performed significantly better on a divergent thinking task than those participants who took on a stereotypically inhibited perspective, and a control group. Relatedly, Study 2 showed that the same effect is found within-subjects, with divergent thinking significantly improving when participants invoke an uninhibited stereotype. Moreover, we demonstrate the efficacy of Latent Semantic Analysis as an objective measure of the originality of ideas, and discuss implications of our findings for the nature of creativity. Namely, that creativity may not be best described as a stable individual trait, but as a malleable product of context and perspective.

  19. The Creative Stereotype Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Denis; Dunbar, Kevin N

    2016-01-01

    Because of its fundamental relevance to scientific innovation, artistic expression, and human ingenuity, creativity has long been the subject of systematic psychological investigation. Concomitantly, the far-reaching effects of stereotypes on various cognitive and social processes have been widely researched. Bridging these two literatures, we show in a series of two studies that stereotypes related to creativity can both enhance and diminish individuals' performance on a divergent thinking task. Specifically, Study 1 demonstrated that participants asked to take on a stereotypically uninhibited perspective performed significantly better on a divergent thinking task than those participants who took on a stereotypically inhibited perspective, and a control group. Relatedly, Study 2 showed that the same effect is found within-subjects, with divergent thinking significantly improving when participants invoke an uninhibited stereotype. Moreover, we demonstrate the efficacy of Latent Semantic Analysis as an objective measure of the originality of ideas, and discuss implications of our findings for the nature of creativity. Namely, that creativity may not be best described as a stable individual trait, but as a malleable product of context and perspective.

  20. Condoning stereotyping? How awareness of stereotyping prevalence impacts expression of stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duguid, Michelle M; Thomas-Hunt, Melissa C

    2015-03-01

    The deleterious effects of stereotyping on individual and group outcomes have prompted a search for solutions. One approach has been to increase awareness of the prevalence of stereotyping in the hope of motivating individuals to resist natural inclinations. However, it could be that this strategy creates a norm for stereotyping, which paradoxically undermines desired effects. The present research demonstrates that individuals who received a high prevalence of stereotyping message expressed more stereotypes than those who received a low prevalence of stereotyping message (Studies 1a, 1b, 1c, and 2) or no message (Study 2). Furthermore, working professionals who received a high prevalence of stereotyping message were less willing to work with an individual who violated stereotypical norms than those who received no message, a low prevalence of stereotyping message, or a high prevalence of counter-stereotyping effort message (Study 3). Also, in a competitive task, individuals who received a high prevalence of stereotyping message treated their opponents in more stereotype-consistent ways than those who received a low prevalence of stereotyping message or those who received a high prevalence of counter-stereotyping effort message (Study 4). PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Stereotype(s of music in literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Hejmej

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The article concerns the question of music in literature, one of the problems of comparative studies, and terms: "non-musicality", "musicality" as stereotypes in literary studies. In the course of considering these views the following problems are discussed: analogy between literature and music (esthetic point of view, "non-musicality" of literature (as quite controversial category in literary research, musical contexts and intertexts (numerous artistic and analytical-literary strategies, contemporary typology of music in literature (S. P. Scher, E. Wiegandt, F. Arroyas, S. Jeanneret.

  2. Testing Stereotype Threat: Does Anxiety Explain Race and Sex Differences in Achievement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Jason W.

    The stereotype threat theory of C. Steele (1992, 1997) attempts to explain the underperformance of minority students in academic domains and of women in mathematics. Steele asserts that situational self-relevance of negative group stereotypes in testing situations increases the anxiety these students experience, and that these differential anxiety…

  3. Psychology Degree Beliefs and Stereotypes: Differences in the Perceptions of Majors and Non-Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinthaupt, Thomas M.; Hurst, Jennifer R.; Johnson, Quinn R.

    2016-01-01

    Very little research examines the beliefs and stereotypes students have about the discipline and major of psychology. Previous research has found that psychology majors report hearing a variety of such beliefs and stereotypes more often from their fellow students than from their family members. In the current study, psychology majors/minors and…

  4. A hysteresis model for ferroelectric ceramics with mechanism for minor loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Dan; Wang, Linxiang; Melnik, Roderick

    2017-01-01

    In the current paper, the coupled hysteretic behaviors of ferroelectric ceramics subjected to combined electromechanical stimulations are modeled. For a single grain, the polarization orientation switching process is modeled by employing the Euler–Lagrange equations and formulated as a coupled differential equation system. For ferroelectric ceramics, the principle axis orientations of the individual grains are assumed to be distributed in a certain profile, the behaviors of the ceramics are modeled as a weighted combination of the response of each grain. The influence of intergranular interactions is carefully discussed. Numerical results for the minor hysteresis loops in strain and polarization are demonstrated. Comparisons between these results and their experimental counterparts are presented to illustrate the attributes of the proposed model. - Highlights: • Coupled hysteresis in ferroelectric ceramics is efficiently captured. • Intergranular interactions are naturally incorporated into the model. • Mechanism for minor loops generation is well illustrated.

  5. A hysteresis model for ferroelectric ceramics with mechanism for minor loops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Dan [State Key Laboratory of Fluid Power and Mechatronic Systems, Zhejiang University, 310027 Hangzhou (China); MS2Discovery Interdisciplinary Research Institute, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, ON N2L 3L5 (Canada); Wang, Linxiang, E-mail: wanglx236@zju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Fluid Power and Mechatronic Systems, Zhejiang University, 310027 Hangzhou (China); Melnik, Roderick [MS2Discovery Interdisciplinary Research Institute, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, ON N2L 3L5 (Canada)

    2017-01-30

    In the current paper, the coupled hysteretic behaviors of ferroelectric ceramics subjected to combined electromechanical stimulations are modeled. For a single grain, the polarization orientation switching process is modeled by employing the Euler–Lagrange equations and formulated as a coupled differential equation system. For ferroelectric ceramics, the principle axis orientations of the individual grains are assumed to be distributed in a certain profile, the behaviors of the ceramics are modeled as a weighted combination of the response of each grain. The influence of intergranular interactions is carefully discussed. Numerical results for the minor hysteresis loops in strain and polarization are demonstrated. Comparisons between these results and their experimental counterparts are presented to illustrate the attributes of the proposed model. - Highlights: • Coupled hysteresis in ferroelectric ceramics is efficiently captured. • Intergranular interactions are naturally incorporated into the model. • Mechanism for minor loops generation is well illustrated.

  6. Analyzing Stereotypes in Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Jackie

    1996-01-01

    A high school film teacher studied how students recognized messages in film, examining how film education could help students identify and analyze racial and gender stereotypes. Comparison of students' attitudes before and after the film course found that the course was successful in raising students' consciousness. (SM)

  7. Towards exaggerated image stereotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Chen; Lauze, Francois Bernard; Igel, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Given a training set of images and a binary classifier,we introduce the notion of an exaggerated image stereotype forsome image class of interest, which emphasizes/exaggerates thecharacteristic patterns in an image and visualizes which visualinformation the classification relies on. This is useful...

  8. An examination of age-based stereotype threat about cognitive decline: Implications for stereotype threat research and theory development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Sarah J.

    2017-01-01

    Stereotype threat” is often thought of as a singular construct, with moderators and mechanisms that are stable across groups and domains. However, this is not always true. To illustrate this, the current review focuses on the stereotype threat that older adults face about their cognitive abilities. Using Shapiro and Neuberg's (2007) Multi-Threat Framework, I first provide evidence that this is a self-concept threat, and not a group-reputation threat. Because this differs from the form(s) of threat experienced by other groups (e.g., the threat that minority students face about their intellectual abilities), the moderators of threat observed in other groups (i.e., group identification) do not always generalize to age-based stereotype threat about cognitive decline. Looking beyond the form(s) of threat elicited, this review also provides evidence that the mechanisms underlying stereotype threat effects may vary across the lifespan. Due to age-related improvements in emotion regulation abilities, stereotype threat does not seem to reduce older adults' executive control resources. Overall, this review highlights the need to approach the concept of stereotype threat with more granularity. This will allow us to design more effective stereotype threat interventions. It will also shed light on why certain effects “fail to replicate” across domains or groups. PMID:28073332

  9. An Examination of Age-Based Stereotype Threat About Cognitive Decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Sarah J

    2017-01-01

    "Stereotype threat" is often thought of as a singular construct, with moderators and mechanisms that are stable across groups and domains. However, this is not always true. To illustrate this, the current review focuses on the stereotype threat that older adults face about their cognitive abilities. Drawing upon the multithreat framework, I first provide evidence that this is a self-concept threat and not a group-reputation threat. Because this differs from the forms of stereotype threat experienced by other groups (e.g., the threat that minority students face about their intellectual abilities), the moderators of stereotype threat observed in other groups (i.e., group identification) do not always generalize to age-based stereotype threat about cognitive decline. Looking beyond the forms of stereotype threat elicited, this review also provides evidence that the mechanisms underlying stereotype-threat effects may vary across the adult life span. Because of age-related improvements in emotion-regulation abilities, stereotype threat does not seem to reduce older adults' executive-control resources. Overall, this review highlights the need to approach the concept of stereotype threat with more granularity, allowing researchers to design more effective stereotype-threat interventions. It will also shed light on why certain stereotype threat effects "fail to replicate" across domains or groups.

  10. Gender Stereotypes among Road Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabalevskaya, Alexandra I.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the mechanism of stereotyping as exemplified by gender stereotypes of road users. Gender stereotypes are not only viewed as an a priori image of a percept, but also examined ‘in action’ — at the very moment of their actualization with road users. In the paper we have identified the content of road users’ gender stereotypes; analyzed the behaviour of male and female drivers, pinpointing a number of gender-specific behavioural features; demonstrated that male and female driving differ from each other in terms of speed, intensity and roughness; and identified the conditions and mechanisms underlying the actualization of gender stereotypes. Based on video and audio materials, we have found that drivers’ gender-specific behavioural features are perceivable to road users: such features trigger the actualization of gender stereotypes as attributive schemes, which determine the interaction between road users, while also laying the foundation for gender stereotypes.

  11. Minority persistence in agent based model using information and emotional arousal as control variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobkowicz, Pawel

    2013-07-01

    We present detailed analysis of the behavior of an agent based model of opinion formation, using a discrete variant of cusp catastrophe behavior of single agents. The agent opinion about a particular issue is determined by its information about the issue and its emotional arousal. It is possible that for agitated agents the same information would lead to different opinions. This results in a nontrivial individual opinion dynamics. The agents communicate via messages, which allows direct application of the model to ICT based communities. We study the dependence of the composition of an agent society on the range of interactions and the rate of emotional arousal. Despite the minimal number of adjustable parameters, the model reproduces several phenomena observed in real societies, for example nearly perfectly balanced results of some highly contested elections or the fact that minorities seldom perceive themselves to be a minority.

  12. A Relational Model of Sexual Minority Mental and Physical Health: The Negative Effects of Shame on Relationships, Loneliness, and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mereish, Ethan H.; Poteat, V. Paul

    2015-01-01

    Sexual minorities (e.g., lesbians, gay men, bisexual individuals) are at higher risk for mental and physical health disparities than heterosexuals, and some of these disparities relate to minority stressors such as discrimination. Yet, there is little research elucidating pathways that predict health or that promote resiliency among sexual minorities. Building on the minority stress model, the present study utilized relational cultural theory to situate sexual minority health within a relational framework. Specifically, the study tested mediators of the relationships between distal (i.e., discrimination, rejection, victimization) and proximal stressors (i.e., internalized homophobia, sexual orientation concealment) and psychological and physical distress for sexual minorities. Among 719 sexual minority adults, structural equation modeling analyses were used to test four models reflecting the mediating effects of shame, poorer relationships with a close peer and the LGBT community, and loneliness on the associations between minority stressors and psychological distress (i.e., depression and anxiety) and physical distress (i.e., distressing physical symptoms). As hypothesized, the associations between distal and proximal minority stressors and distress were mediated by shame, poorer relationships with a close peer and the LGBT community, and loneliness. Findings underscore the possible relational and interpersonal mechanisms by which sexual minority stressors lead to psychological and physical distress. PMID:26010289

  13. Poles apart: The processing and consequences of mixed media stereotypes of older workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroon, A.C.; van Selm, M.; ter Hoeven, C.L.; Vliegenthart, R.

    2016-01-01

    This study uses the Stereotype Content Model to examine how mixed-media stereotypes about older workers affect the implicit activation and application of competence and warmth stereotypes among employees. By means of a 2 × 2 experiment, we show that a newspaper article portraying older workers in a

  14. Reliable and unproductive? Stereotypes of older employees in corporate and news media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroon, A.C.; van Selm, M.; ter Hoeven, C.L.; Vliegenthart, R.

    Older employees face a severe employability problem, partly because of dominant stereotypes about them. This study investigates stereotypes of older employees in corporate and news media. Drawing on the Stereotype Content Model, we content analysed newspaper coverage and corporate media of 50

  15. Minority Population Concentration and Earnings: Evidence from Fixed-Effects Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kecia; Pais, Jeremy; South, Scott J.

    2012-01-01

    Consistent with the hypothesis that heightened visibility and competition lead to greater economic discrimination against minorities, countless studies have observed a negative association between minority population concentration and minority socioeconomic attainment. But minorities who reside in areas with high minority concentration are likely…

  16. We are the opposite of you! Mirroring of national, regional and ethnic stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hřebíčková, Martina; Graf, Sylvie; Tegdes, Tamás; Brezina, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    The content of stereotypes can be shaped by multiple mechanisms, one of them possibly being the "mirroring effect." Mirroring describes a phenomenon whereby people rate their ingroup characteristics as opposite to characteristics typical of a relevant outgroup. The aim of our study was to explore mirroring in three intergroup contexts-in national, regional, and ethnic stereotypes. In Study 1, 2,241 participants rated national ingroup stereotype and outgroup stereotypes of five Central European countries. In Study 2, 741 Czech participants rated regional ingroup and outgroup stereotypes of people living in two distinct parts of the Czech Republic. In Study 3, 463 majority and Hungarian minority participants in Slovakia rated ethnic ingroup and outgroup stereotypes. The results showed a clear presence of mirroring in all three contexts.

  17. Fighting TV Stereotypes. An ACT Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alperowicz, Cynthia

    Suitable for classroom use, the handbook promotes public awareness of the need to provide more positive role models and fewer negative stereotypes on children's television. Each section contains photographic examples and quotations by members representing organizations such as Black Endowment Television, the National Association for the…

  18. The inaccuracy of national character stereotypes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    McCrae, R. R.; Chan, W.; Jussim, L.; De Fruyt, F.; Löckenhoff, C.E.; De Bolle, M.; Costa Jr., P.T.; Hřebíčková, Martina; Graf, Sylvie; Realo, A.; Allik, J.; Nakazato, K.; Shimonaka, Y.; Yik, M.; Ficková, E.; Brunner-Sciarra, M.; Reátigui, N.; Leibovich de Figueroa, N.; Schmidt, V.; Ahn, Ch.; Ahn, H.; Aguilar-Vafaie, M.E.; Siuta, J.; Szmigielska, B.; Cain, T.R.; Crawford, J.T.; Mastor, K.A.; Rolland, J. P.; Nansubuga, F.; Miramontez, D.R.; Benet-Martínez, V.; Rossier, J.; Bratko, D.; Marušić, I.; Halberstadt, J.; Yamaguchi, N.; Knežević, G.; Purić, D.; Martin, T. A.; Gheorghiu, M.; Smith, P.B.; Barbaranelli, C.; Wang, L.; Shakespeare-Finch, J.; Lima, M.P.; Klinkosz, W.; Sekowski, A.; Alcalay, L.; Simonetti, F.; Avdeyeva, T.V.; Pramila, V.S.; Terracciano, A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 6 (2013), s. 831-842 ISSN 0092-6566 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-25656S Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : national character * stereotypes * Five- Factor Model of Personality Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor : 2.011, year: 2013

  19. The inaccuracy of national character stereotypes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    McCrae, R. R.; Chan, W.; Jussim, L.; De Fruyt, F.; Löckenhoff, C.E.; De Bolle, M.; Costa Jr., P.T.; Hřebíčková, Martina; Graf, Sylvie; Realo, A.; Allik, J.; Nakazato, K.; Shimonaka, Y.; Yik, M.; Ficková, E.; Brunner-Sciarra, M.; Reátigui, N.; Leibovich de Figueroa, N.; Schmidt, V.; Ahn, Ch.; Ahn, H.; Aguilar-Vafaie, M.E.; Siuta, J.; Szmigielska, B.; Cain, T.R.; Crawford, J.T.; Mastor, K.A.; Rolland, J. P.; Nansubuga, F.; Miramontez, D.R.; Benet-Martínez, V.; Rossier, J.; Bratko, D.; Marušić, I.; Halberstadt, J.; Yamaguchi, N.; Knežević, G.; Purić, D.; Martin, T. A.; Gheorghiu, M.; Smith, P.B.; Barbaranelli, C.; Wang, L.; Shakespeare-Finch, J.; Lima, M.P.; Klinkosz, W.; Sekowski, A.; Alcalay, L.; Simonetti, F.; Avdeyeva, T.V.; Pramila, V.S.; Terracciano, A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 6 (2013), s. 831-842 ISSN 0092-6566 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-25656S Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : national character * stereotypes * Five-Factor Model of Personality Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 2.011, year: 2013

  20. Stereotypes as stumbling-blocks: how coping with stereotype threat affects life outcomes for people with physical disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Arielle M; Cohen, Geoffrey L

    2014-10-01

    Stereotype threat, the concern about being judged in light of negative stereotypes, causes underperformance in evaluative situations. However, less is known about how coping with stereotypes can aggravate underperformance over time. We propose a model in which ongoing stereotype threat experiences threaten a person's sense of self-integrity, which in turn prompts defensive avoidance of stereotype-relevant situations, impeding growth, achievement, and well-being. We test this model in an important but understudied population: the physically disabled. In Study 1, blind adults reporting higher levels of stereotype threat reported lower self-integrity and well-being and were more likely to be unemployed and to report avoiding stereotype-threatening situations. In Study 2's field experiment, blind students in a compensatory skill-training program made more progress if they had completed a values-affirmation, an exercise that bolsters self-integrity. The findings suggest that stereotype threat poses a chronic threat to self-integrity and undermines life outcomes for people with disabilities. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  1. Shaping stereotypical behaviour through the discussion of social stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Laura G E; Postmes, Tom

    2011-03-01

    In two studies, we demonstrate that small group discussions change the extent to which an activated stereotype affects performance in a relevant domain. In Study 1, female participants were asked why men are (or are not) better than them at maths. They generated their answers individually or through group discussion, and their subsequent maths performance was highest when they collectively challenged the stereotype and lowest when they collectively affirmed the stereotype. When participants affirmed the stereotype through discussion, they used more theories which supported the validity of the stereotype, compared to the individual thought condition; and consensus mediated the effect of group discussion on performance (relative to individual rumination). In Study 2, male and female participants affirmed or challenged the stereotype in same-gender discussion groups. After affirming the stereotype, women's performance decreased relative to their baseline scores and men's performance was 'lifted'. In contrast, when they challenged the stereotype, there was no difference between the performance of men and women on the maths test. This pattern of effects was mediated by confidence in mathematical ability. The findings support the idea that topical small group discussions can, in the short term, differentially alter the impact that stereotypes have on performance. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  2. Sex Trait Stereotypes in Malaysian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Colleen

    1985-01-01

    To examine the development of sex-role stereotyping in Malaysia, 80 children were tested with the Sex Stereotype Measurement II. Results revealed that stereotyping increases with age, that the male stereotype is more easily recognized than the female, and that boys are more familiar with the male stereotype than are girls. (KH)

  3. Dealing With Cultural Diversity : The Endorsement of Societal Models Among Ethnic Minority and Majority Youth in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brug, Peary; Verkuyten, Maykel

    2007-01-01

    The present research was conducted among ethnic minority and majority youth in the Netherlands, examining the endorsement of four models for dealing with multiculturalism: mosaic, melting pot, assimilation, and segregation. Results showed that, compared to the majority group, minorities were more in

  4. An analysis of stereotype threat in African American engineering students at predominantly White, ethnically diverse, and historically Black colleges and universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, David M.

    The purpose of this research was to distinguish the similarities and differences in coping strategies of African American engineering students by analyzing their perceptions of stereotype threat at three academic institution types, Predominantly White Institutions (PWI), ethnically diverse, and Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs). The researcher collected demographic and survey data using the Stereotype Vulnerability Scale (SVS). The study was offered to the entire population of African American engineering students at each college using an online survey. Results were analyzed using MANOVA and Pearson's correlational statistical analyses to test the hypotheses. Findings revealed that little differences exist between students' scores on an assessment of stereotype vulnerability, with a few areas showing that HBCUs and ethnically diverse universities are doing a similar job in addressing perceptions of their African American engineering students. Finding also revealed that the percentage of African American students at a university did not correlate with the scores on the SVS accept on questions related to the personal feelings students have about their race. The strongest findings related to the differences in male and female students across the universities. African American female engineering students appeared to perceive more stereotype threat than did their male counterparts; although, this fining was not statistically significant. Overall, no statistically significant differences were found between students' perceptions of stereotype threat at the three types of universities. Future research should expand the number of survey participants at the current universities, add more HBCUs to the study population, run similar experiments in different parts of the country, compare stereotype threat in private and elite universities, use ethnically diverse universities as models for minority student development, and use new or improved survey instruments

  5. Gas Removal in the Ursa Minor Galaxy: Linking Hydrodynamics and Chemical Evolution Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caproni, Anderson; Lanfranchi, Gustavo Amaral; Baio, Gabriel Henrique Campos; Kowal, Grzegorz [Núcleo de Astrofísica Teórica, Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, R. Galvão Bueno 868, Liberdade, 01506-000, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Falceta-Gonçalves, Diego, E-mail: anderson.caproni@cruzeirodosul.edu.br [Escola de Artes, Ciências e Humanidades, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua Arlindo Bettio 1000, CEP 03828-000 São Paulo (Brazil)

    2017-04-01

    We present results from a non-cosmological, three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulation of the gas in the dwarf spheroidal galaxy Ursa Minor. Assuming an initial baryonic-to-dark-matter ratio derived from the cosmic microwave background radiation, we evolved the galactic gas distribution over 3 Gyr, taking into account the effects of the types Ia and II supernovae. For the first time, we used in our simulation the instantaneous supernovae rates derived from a chemical evolution model applied to spectroscopic observational data of Ursa Minor. We show that the amount of gas that is lost in this process is variable with time and radius, being the highest rates observed during the initial 600 Myr in our simulation. Our results indicate that types Ia and II supernovae must be essential drivers of the gas loss in Ursa Minor galaxy (and probably in other similar dwarf galaxies), but it is ultimately the combination of galactic winds powered by these supernovae and environmental effects (e.g., ram-pressure stripping) that results in the complete removal of the gas content.

  6. Mentoring ethnic minority counseling and clinical psychology students: A multicultural, ecological, and relational model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Anne W; Yeh, Christine J; Krumboltz, John D

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the current study was to understand the role of race and culture in successful mentoring relationships in graduate school. We examined the practices of 9 faculty mentors working with 15 ethnic minority doctoral students in counseling and clinical psychology. Grounded theory was used to discern unifying patterns and to formulate a theory of multicultural mentoring. Five overall themes significant to multicultural mentoring emerged: (a) career support and guidance tailored for ethnic minorities, (b) relationality between mentors and protégés, (c) significance of contexts, (d) interconnections across contexts, and (e) multidirectionality of interactions between contexts. The 5 themes combined to form a multicultural, ecological, and relational model of mentoring. Our findings suggest that mentoring ethnic minority students can be successful, productive, and satisfying for both mentors and protégés when mentors possess the necessary skills, time, commitment, and multicultural competencies. Implications for doctoral programs in counseling and clinical psychology are discussed, along with recommendations for future research directions. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Resilience in community: a social ecological development model for young adult sexual minority women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Lindsey; Darnell, Doyanne A; Rhew, Isaac C; Lee, Christine M; Kaysen, Debra

    2015-03-01

    Family support and rejection are associated with health outcomes among sexual minority women (SMW). We examined a social ecological development model among young adult SMW, testing whether identity risk factors or outness to family interacted with family rejection to predict community connectedness and collective self-esteem. Lesbian and bisexual women (N = 843; 57% bisexual) between the ages of 18-25 (M = 21.4; SD = 2.1) completed baseline and 12-month online surveys. The sample identified as White (54.2%), multiple racial backgrounds (16.6%), African American (9.6%) and Asian/Asian American (3.1%); 10.2% endorsed a Hispanic/Latina ethnicity. Rejection ranged from 18 to 41% across family relationships. Longitudinal regression indicated that when outness to family increased, SMW in highly rejecting families demonstrated resilience by finding connections and esteem in sexual minority communities to a greater extent than did non-rejected peers. But, when stigma concerns, concealment motivation, and other identity risk factors increased over the year, high family rejection did not impact community connectedness and SMW reported lower collective self-esteem. Racial minority SMW reported lower community connectedness, but not lower collective self-esteem. Families likely buffer or exacerbate societal risks for ill health. Findings highlight the protective role of LGBTQ communities and normative resilience among SMW and their families.

  8. STEREOTYPICAL FACTORS IN TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina-Elena ALBU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available International tourism has grown rapidly nowdays, contributing to the growth of the global economy. The purpose of this essay is to identify and analyze stereotypical factors in the development of strategies concerning the offer for the tourism industry: the image of a tourist destination, brand, country of origin and customer behaviour. Documentary study was the research method used: representative articles were analysed, as recent as possible, to determine the factors mentioned above. Professionals in the industry of tourism need to understand cultural differences between tourists, as well as those of the host country, to be able to create tourist reception offers that live up to the standards expected by clients.

  9. Stereotypes and Welfare Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Troels Fage

    2014-01-01

    What is the impact of a predominantly negative debate about social assistance on public and individual support for the social benefit? Over the course of a year the public debate about social assistance flared up twice in Denmark. The debates drew on classic stereotypes of the social assistance...... recipients lacking both the financial incentives and the will to work. According to theories of the impact of media on welfare attitudes, this had the potential to undermine public support. A two-wave panel survey, however, showed only a small drop in public support for spending on social assistance...

  10. Stereotypic movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Harvey S

    2011-01-01

    Stereotypic movements are repetitive, rhythmic, fixed, patterned in form, amplitude, and localization, but purposeless (e.g., hand shaking, waving, body rocking, head nodding). They are commonly seen in children; both in normal children (primary stereotypy) and in individuals with additional behavioral or neurological signs and symptoms (secondary stereotypy). They should be differentiated from compulsions (OCD), tics (tic disorders), trichotillomania, skin picking disorder, or the direct physiological effect of a substance. There is increasing evidence to support a neurobiological mechanism. Response to behavioral and pharmacological therapies is variable. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Building a pantheoretical model of dehumanization with transgender men: Integrating objectification and minority stress theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez, Brandon L; Breslow, Aaron S; Brewster, Melanie E; Cox, Robert; Foster, Aasha B

    2016-10-01

    With a national sample of 304 transgender men, the present study tested a pantheoretical model of dehumanization (Moradi, 2013) with hypotheses derived from objectification theory (Fredrickson & Roberts, 1997), minority stress theory (Meyer, 2003), and prior research regarding men's body image concerns. Specifically, we tested common objectification theory constructs (internalization of sociocultural standards of attractiveness [SSA], body surveillance, body satisfaction) as direct and indirect predictors of compulsive exercise. We also examined the roles of transgender-specific minority stress variables-antitransgender discrimination and transgender identity congruence-in the model. Results of a latent variable structural equation model yielded mixed support for the posited relations. The direct and indirect interrelations of internalization of SSA, body surveillance, and body satisfaction were consistent with prior objectification theory research, but only internalization of SSA yielded a significant direct relation with compulsive exercise. In addition, neither internalization of SSA nor body surveillance yielded significant indirect relations with compulsive exercise. However, antitransgender discrimination yielded predicted indirect relations with body surveillance, body satisfaction, and compulsive exercise, with transgender congruence playing a key mediating role in most of these relations. The implications of this pantheoretical model for research and practice with transgender men are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. A review of international pharmacy-based minor ailment services and proposed service design model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Mariyam; García-Cárdenas, Victoria; Williams, Kylie; Benrimoj, Shalom I

    2018-01-05

    The need to consider sustainable healthcare solutions is essential. An innovative strategy used to promote minor ailment care is the utilisation of community pharmacists to deliver minor ailment services (MASs). Promoting higher levels of self-care can potentially reduce the strain on existing resources. To explore the features of international MASs, including their similarities and differences, and consider the essential elements to design a MAS model. A grey literature search strategy was completed in June 2017 to comply with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses standard. This included (1) Google/Yahoo! search engines, (2) targeted websites, and (3) contact with commissioning organisations. Executive summaries, table of contents and title pages of documents were reviewed. Key characteristics of MASs were extracted and a MAS model was developed. A total of 147 publications were included in the review. Key service elements identified included eligibility, accessibility, staff involvement, reimbursement systems. Several factors need to be considered when designing a MAS model; including contextualisation of MAS to the market. Stakeholder engagement, service planning, governance, implementation and review have emerged as key aspects involved with a design model. MASs differ in their structural parameters. Consideration of these parameters is necessary when devising MAS aims and assessing outcomes to promote sustainability and success of the service. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Brain drain? An examination of stereotype threat effects during training on knowledge acquisition and organizational effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grand, James A

    2017-02-01

    Stereotype threat describes a situation in which individuals are faced with the risk of upholding a negative stereotype about their subgroup based on their actions. Empirical work in this area has primarily examined the impact of negative stereotypes on performance for threatened individuals. However, this body of research seldom acknowledges that performance is a function of learning-which may also be impaired by pervasive group stereotypes. This study presents evidence from a 3-day self-guided training program demonstrating that stereotype threat impairs acquisition of cognitive learning outcomes for females facing a negative group stereotype. Using hierarchical Bayesian modeling, results revealed that stereotyped females demonstrated poorer declarative knowledge acquisition, spent less time reflecting on learning activities, and developed less efficiently organized knowledge structures compared with females in a control condition. Findings from a Bayesian mediation model also suggested that despite stereotyped individuals "working harder" to perform well, their underachievement was largely attributable to failures in learning to "work smarter." Building upon these empirical results, a computational model and computer simulation is also presented to demonstrate the practical significance of stereotype-induced impairments to learning on the development of an organization's human capital resources and capabilities. The simulation results show that even the presence of small effects of stereotype threat during learning/training have the potential to exert a significant negative impact on an organization's performance potential. Implications for future research and practice examining stereotype threat during learning are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Does stereotype threat influence performance of girls in stereotyped domains? A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flore, Paulette C; Wicherts, Jelte M

    2015-02-01

    Although the effect of stereotype threat concerning women and mathematics has been subject to various systematic reviews, none of them have been performed on the sub-population of children and adolescents. In this meta-analysis we estimated the effects of stereotype threat on performance of girls on math, science and spatial skills (MSSS) tests. Moreover, we studied publication bias and four moderators: test difficulty, presence of boys, gender equality within countries, and the type of control group that was used in the studies. We selected study samples when the study included girls, samples had a mean age below 18years, the design was (quasi-)experimental, the stereotype threat manipulation was administered between-subjects, and the dependent variable was a MSSS test related to a gender stereotype favoring boys. To analyze the 47 effect sizes, we used random effects and mixed effects models. The estimated mean effect size equaled -0.22 and significantly differed from 0. None of the moderator variables was significant; however, there were several signs for the presence of publication bias. We conclude that publication bias might seriously distort the literature on the effects of stereotype threat among schoolgirls. We propose a large replication study to provide a less biased effect size estimate. Copyright © 2014 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The colour of gender stereotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Sheila J; Macrae, C Neil

    2011-08-01

    Despite legislative attempts to eliminate gender stereotyping from society, the propensity to evaluate people on the basis of their sex remains a pernicious social problem. Noting the critical interplay between cultural and cognitive factors in the establishment of stereotypical beliefs, the current investigation explored the extent to which culturally transmitted colour-gender associations (i.e., pink is for girls, blue is for boys) set the stage for the automatic activation and expression of gender stereotypes. Across six experiments, the results demonstrated that (1) consumer choice for children's goods is dominated by gender-stereotyped colours (Experiment 1); (2) colour-based stereotypic associations guide young children's behaviour (Experiment 2); (3) colour-gender associations automatically activate associated stereotypes in adulthood (Experiments 3-5); and (4) colour-based stereotypic associations bias impressions of male and female targets (Experiment 6). These findings indicate that, despite prohibitions against stereotyping, seemingly innocuous societal practices may continue to promote this mode of thought. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  16. Challenging Stereotypes of Eating and Body Image Concerns among College Students: Implications for Diagnosis and Treatment of Diverse Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Dana L.; Castonguay, Louis G.; Locke, Benjamin D.

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe a study that was conducted to provide better understanding of eating and body image concerns among clients in university counseling centers. First, they explored the prevalence of such concerns among stereotype-congruent (White, heterosexual, female) and stereotype-incongruent groups (e.g., ethnic/sexual minorities, men).…

  17. Influence of warmth and competence on the promotion of safe in-group selection: Stereotype content model and social categorization of faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsi, G; Panasiti, M S; Scandola, M; Aglioti, S M

    2016-01-01

    Categorizing an individual as a friend or foe plays a pivotal role in navigating the social world. According to the stereotype content model (SCM), social perception relies on two fundamental dimensions, warmth and competence, which allow us to process the intentions of others and their ability to enact those intentions, respectively. Social cognition research indicates that, in categorization tasks, people tend to classify other individuals as more likely to belong to the out-group than the in-group (in-group overexclusion effect, IOE) when lacking diagnostic information, probably with the aim of protecting in-group integrity. Here, we explored the role of warmth and competence in group-membership decisions by testing 62 participants in a social-categorization task consisting of 150 neutral faces. We assessed whether (a) warmth and competence ratings could predict the in-group/out-group categorization, and (b) the reliance on these two dimensions differed in low-IOE versus high-IOE participants. Data showed that high ratings of warmth and competence were necessary to categorize a face as in-group. Moreover, while low-IOE participants relied on warmth, high-IOE participants relied on competence. This finding suggests that the proneness to include/exclude unknown identities in/from one's own in-group is related to individual differences in the reliance on SCM social dimensions. Furthermore, the primacy of the warmth effect seems not to represent a universal phenomenon adopted in the context of social evaluation.

  18. A Preliminary Report on a New Measure: Internalization of the Model Minority Myth Measure (IM-4) and Its Psychological Correlates among Asian American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hyung Chol; Burrola, Kimberly S.; Steger, Michael F.

    2010-01-01

    This investigation is a preliminary report on a new measure of internalization of the model minority myth. In 3 studies, there was evidence for the validation of the 15-item Internalization of the Model Minority Myth Measure (IM-4), with 2 subscales. The Model Minority Myth of Achievement Orientation referred to the myth of Asian Americans'…

  19. Are all interventions created equal? A multi-threat approach to tailoring stereotype threat interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Jenessa R; Williams, Amy M; Hambarchyan, Mariam

    2013-02-01

    To date, stereotype threat interventions have been considered interchangeable. Across 4 experiments, the present research demonstrates that stereotype threat interventions need to be tailored to the specific form of experienced stereotype threat to be effective. The Multi-Threat Framework (Shapiro & Neuberg, 2007) distinguishes between group-as-target stereotype threats-concerns that a stereotype-relevant performance will reflect poorly on the abilities of one's group-and self-as-target stereotype threats-concerns that a stereotype-relevant performance will reflect poorly on one's own abilities. The present experiments explored Black college students' performance on diagnostic intelligence tests (Experiments 1 and 3) and women's interest (Experiment 2) and performance (Experiment 4) in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). Across the 4 experiments, participants were randomly assigned to experience either a group-as-target or self-as-target stereotype threat. Experiments 1 and 2 revealed that role model interventions were successful at protecting only against group-as-target stereotype threats, and Experiments 3 and 4 revealed that self-affirmation interventions were successful at protecting only against self-as-target stereotype threats. The present research provides an experimental test of the Multi-Threat Framework across different negatively stereotyped groups (Black students, female students), different negatively stereotyped domains (general intelligence, STEM), and different outcomes (test performance, career interest). This research suggests that interventions should address the range of possible stereotype threats to effectively protect individuals against these threats. Through an appreciation of the distinct forms of stereotype threats and the ways in which interventions work to reduce them, this research aims to facilitate a more complete understanding of stereotype threat. (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Retirement as Meaningful: Positive Retirement Stereotypes Associated with Longevity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Reuben; Allore, Heather G.; Monin, Joan K.; Levy, Becca R.

    2016-01-01

    Studies examining the association between retirement and health have produced mixed results. This may be due to previous studies treating retirement as merely a change in job status rather than a transition associated with stereotypes or societal beliefs (e.g., retirement is a time of mental decline or retirement is a time of growth). To examine whether these stereotypes are associated with health, we studied retirement stereotypes and survival over a 23-year period among 1,011 older adults. As predicted by stereotype embodiment theory, it was found that positive stereotypes about physical health during retirement showed a survival advantage of 4.5 years (hazard ratio = 0.88, p = .022) and positive stereotypes about mental health during retirement tended to show a survival advantage of 2.5 years (hazard ratio = 0.87, p = .034). Models adjusted for relevant covariates such as age, gender, race, employment status, functional health, and self-rated health. These results suggest that retirement preparation could benefit from considering retirement stereotypes. PMID:27346893

  1. Minority stress model components and affective well-being in a sample of sexual orientation minority adults living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Robert J; Burks, Alixandra C; Plöderl, Martin; Durgampudi, Praveen

    2017-12-01

    To date very little literature exists examining theoretically-based models applied to day-to-day positive and negative affective well-being among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Grounded in the perspective of Meyer, I. H. (2003). Prejudice, social stress, and mental health in lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations: Conceptual issues and research evidence. Psychological Bulletin, 129, 674-697. Minority Stress Model, the present study examined HIV- and sexual orientation-related factors influencing affective well-being (i.e., positive affect, negative affect, life satisfaction, and stress). Participants were 154 HIV-positive LGB adults from an urban area in the southwestern United States. Data were drawn from an archival database (i.e., Project Legacy). The study methodology featured a cross-sectional self-report survey of minority stress, victimization, coping, and emotional well-being, among other subjects. Primary regression results were: (1) males reported less general stress than females; (2) higher internalized HIV-related stigma was associated with elevated negative affect; (3) higher internalized homophobia was associated with elevations in negative affect and general stress; (4) higher coping self-efficacy was associated with lesser negative affect, lesser general stress, greater positive affect, and greater satisfaction with life; (5) a significant interaction between HIV-related victimization and coping self-efficacy showed that coping self-efficacy was positively associated with positive affect only (only for non-victims). Contrary to expectations, coping self-efficacy demonstrated the largest main effects on affective well-being. Results are discussed with regard to potential need for theoretical refinement of Minority Stress Model applied to PLWHA and affective well-being outcomes. Recommendations are offered for future research.

  2. Plutonium and Minor Actinides Recycling in Standard BWR using Equilibrium Burnup Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Waris

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Plutonium (Pu and minor actinides (MA recycling in standard BWR with equilibrium burnup model has been studied. We considered the equilibrium burnup model as a simple time independent burnup method, which can manage all possible produced nuclides in any nuclear system. The equilibrium burnup code was bundled with a SRAC cell-calculation code to become a coupled cell-burnup calculation code system. The results show that the uranium enrichment for the criticality of the reactor, the amount of loaded fuel and the required natural uranium supply per year decrease for the Pu recycling and even much lower for the Pu & MA recycling case compared to those of the standard once-through BWR case. The neutron spectra become harder with the increasing number of recycled heavy nuclides in the reactor core. The total fissile rises from 4.77% of the total nuclides number density in the reactor core for the standard once-through BWR case to 6.64% and 6.72% for the Plutonium recycling case and the Pu & MA recycling case, respectively. The two later data may become the main basis why the required uranium enrichment declines and consequently diminishes the annual loaded fuel and the required natural uranium supply. All these facts demonstrate the advantage of plutonium and minor actinides recycling in BWR.

  3. A posteriori stereotype activation: The preservation of stereotypes through memory distortion

    OpenAIRE

    Knippenberg, A. van; Dijksterhuis, A.

    1996-01-01

    Four experiments investigated memory for stereotype-consistent and stereotype-inconsistent information after a posteriori stereotype activation. In Experiment 1 it was established that, in comparison with a no stereotype control condition, recall of stereotype-inconsistent behaviors of group members deteriorated after a posteriori stereotype activation, while recall of stereotype-consistent information was not affected. An explanation of this phenomenon in terms of the memory organization of ...

  4. Stereotype threat strengthens automatic recall and undermines controlled processes in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, Marie; Régner, Isabelle; Morisset, Pauline; Rigalleau, François; Huguet, Pascal

    2012-07-01

    The threat of being judged stereotypically (stereotype threat) may impair memory performance in older adults, thereby producing inflated age differences in memory tasks. However, the underlying mechanisms of stereotype threat in older adults or other stigmatized groups remain poorly understood. Here, we offer evidence that stereotype threat consumes working memory resources in older adults. More important, using a process-dissociation procedure, we found, for the first time, that stereotype threat undermines the controlled use of memory and simultaneously intensifies automatic response tendencies. These findings indicate that competing models of stereotype threat are actually compatible and offer further reasons for researchers and practitioners to pay special attention to age-related stereotypes during standardized neuropsychological testing.

  5. Stereotypes and advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starčević Slađana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Many times, we have had a chance to hear that marketing communications are something that can move ahead of time. However, there are many areas in which they are moving slowly than time, without consideration of provided conditions. One of these areas is gender portraying, that is, accepted roles of women and men in the society. We cannot deny that gentle movements have been made towards their more realistic presentation, but a persistent claim that results from recent researches is that marketing communications and particularly advertising, as instrument that most directly reflects this theme, has remained rather resistant to changes in the society. Consequently values that have been built in brands with help of advertising are rather obsolete. Differently speaking, advertising has a showdown with stereotyping - as an assignment of a (usually negative label to certain groups of people based on a certain belief about how these people tend to behave in the society.

  6. Toward a Model of Social Influence that Explains Minority Student Integration into the Scientific Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Mica; Woodcock, Anna; Hernandez, Paul R.; Schultz, P. Wesley

    2011-01-01

    Students from several ethnic minority groups are underrepresented in the sciences, indicating that minority students more frequently drop out of the scientific career path than nonminority students. Viewed from a perspective of social influence, this pattern suggests that minority students do not integrate into the scientific community at the same…

  7. The Stereotyping of Muslims : An Analysis of The New York Times’ and The Washington Times’ Coverage of Veiling and the Muhammad Cartoon Controversy

    OpenAIRE

    Schønemann, Julie

    2013-01-01

    This thesis investigates the stereotypical portrayal of Muslims in the American media. More specifically, it explores the relative importance of stereotype theory, prejudice theory and the stereotype content model in the media’s remaking and reinforcing of common stereotypes of Muslims. This study argues that that Muslims were stereotypically portrayed in The New York Times’ and The Washington Times’ coverage of the Muhammad cartoons controversy and the tradition of veiling among Muslim women...

  8. Parental monitoring, parental warmth, and minority youths' academic outcomes: exploring the integrative model of parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Katie; Dotterer, Aryn M

    2013-09-01

    Guided by the integrative model of parenting, the present study investigated the relationship between parental monitoring and racial/ethnic minority adolescents' school engagement and academic motivation as a function of parental warmth, and explored whether these associations varied for boys and girls. Participants (60 % female) were 208 sixth through eighth grade students (63 % African American, 19 % Latino, 18 % Multiracial) from an urban middle school in the Midwestern United States. Youth completed an in-school survey with items on parenting (parental monitoring, mothers'/fathers' warmth), cognitive engagement (school self-esteem), behavioral engagement (school trouble), and academic motivation (intrinsic motivation). As hypothesized, mothers' warmth enhanced the association between parental monitoring and youths' engagement and motivation. No gender differences in these associations emerged. Fathers' warmth strengthened the negative association between parental monitoring and school trouble, and this association was stronger for boys. Implications regarding the importance of sustaining a high level of monitoring within the context of warm parent-adolescent relationships to best support academic outcomes among minority youth are discussed.

  9. The Emergent Reader's Working Kit of Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    This article draws on a careful study of series fiction read in the 1950s to explore how stereotypes feature in the development of a young reader's competence in learning to process stories in print. Five categories of stereotype are teased out: "embodied stereotypes," understood through physical experience; "working stereotypes," discerned…

  10. Stereotype Threat, Test Anxiety, and Mathematics Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempel, Tobias; Neumann, Roland

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the combined effects of stereotype threat and trait test anxiety on mathematics test performance. Stereotype threat and test anxiety interacted with each other in affecting performance. Trait test anxiety predicted performance only in a diagnostic condition that prevented stereotype threat by stereotype denial. A state measure of…

  11. Brief Report: Stereotypes in Autism Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, Jennifer Christina; Schmitz, Florian; Dziobek, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Autism involves core impairments in social cognition. Given that social learning underlies the acquisition of stereotypes, it was hypothesized that use of stereotypes would be reduced in autism. Contrary to this prediction, previous studies found the same use of stereotypes in autistic individuals as in controls. Measurement of stereotypes,…

  12. A posteriori stereotype activation: The preservation of stereotypes through memory distortion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knippenberg, A. van; Dijksterhuis, A.

    1996-01-01

    Four experiments investigated memory for stereotype-consistent and stereotype-inconsistent information after a posteriori stereotype activation. In Experiment 1 it was established that, in comparison with a no stereotype control condition, recall of stereotype-inconsistent behaviors of group members

  13. [Towards an Understanding of Stigma: What is the Stereotype Associated with Schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yvon, Florence; Prouteau, Antoinette

    Objectives Stigmatization of people suffering from schizophrenia spectrum disorder relies on the existence of a stereotype which is associated with a social category, here schizophrenia. The short report's aim is to briefly synthesize the recent literature about the content of the stereotype associated with schizophrenia, and to suggest some perspectives for future studies, on the basis of recent advances in the domain.Methods First, we present the theoretical concepts of stigma and stereotype. Second, we propose a brief synthesis of the recently published articles focusing on the content of schizophrenia stereotype in the general population, in English and in French.Results The stereotype associated with mental illness is clearly negative. The most common model in the literature assumes 4 factors in the content of stereotype: attribution of responsibility in the condition, dangerousness, poor prognosis, unpredictability and incompetence in social roles. If the stereotype could vary among countries, it is clearly associated with desire for social distance and discrimination. The stereotype also varies among mental illnesses. Compared with bipolar disorders and autism, schizophrenia focuses the most negative aspects of mental illness stereotype, especially in terms of dangerousness and social distance.Conclusion The study of stereotype, though rapidly growing, still raises questions about the validity of commonly used models in the psychiatric literature, and may benefit from further specific studies. Social psychology models and methods appear to be a promising perspective. The production of data, useful for users, families as well as for professionals may require multidisciplinarity for future projects.

  14. Chapter 4: Contesting the Model Minority and Perpetual Foreigner Stereotypes--A Critical Review of Literature on Asian Americans in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Jennifer C.; Lee, Sharon S.; Pak, Yoon K.

    2007-01-01

    There are several aims of this literature review. At its basic level, the authors' goal is to provide readers with content knowledge of the educational research on Asian Americans, highlighting important findings and key studies in the field. It is their goal to identify themes and trends and look to important future directions as a whole,…

  15. Identifying With a Stereotype: The Divergent Effects of Exposure to Homosexual Television Characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Bryan; Rodriguez, Nathian S

    2017-01-01

    Scholars examining homosexual television characters have typically come to one of two conclusions: either exposure to homosexual characters can lead to increased acceptance, or homosexual characters serve to reaffirm negative stereotypes. We seek to bridge these two bodies of research by introducing the concept of stereotyped identification-the idea that cognitively and emotionally identifying with fictional characters can increase acceptance of minorities, while reinforcing implicit stereotypes about how they look, act, and talk. Results from our national survey (N = 972) offer support for this hypothesis.

  16. Stereotypes about sex related personality traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Avsec

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available In present research, stereotypes about sex differences in personality traits were examined. They were compared to traits, included in two masculinity and femininity questionnaires and to big five factors. Results indicate the presence of gender stereotypes and their similarity to stereotypes, discovered in other studies. The majority of attributes that comprise stereotypes about average man pertain to assertive and controlling tendency, but in stereotypes about average woman caring and nurturant qualities predominate.

  17. Children's Control/Display Stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Errol R; Chan, Alan H S; Tai, Judy P C

    2018-02-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to determine control/display stereotypes for children of a range of ages and development of these stereotypes with age. Background Little is known about control/display stereotypes for children of different ages and the way in which these stereotypes develop with age. This study is part of a program to determine the need to design differentially for these age groups. Method We tested four groups of children with various tasks (age groups 5 to 7, 8 to 10, 11 to 13, 14 to 16), with about 30 in each group. Examples of common tasks were opening a bottle, turning on taps, and allocating numbers to keypads. More complex tasks involved rotating a control to move a display in a requested direction. Results Tasks with which different age groups were familiar showed no effect of age group. Different control/display arrangements generally showed an increase in stereotype strength with age, with dependence on the form of the control/display arrangement. Two-dimensional arrangements, with the control on the same plane as the display, had higher stereotype strength than three-dimensional arrangements for all age groups, suggesting an effect of familiarity with controls and displays with increasing age. Conclusion Children's control/display stereotypes do not differ greatly from those of adults, and hence, design for children older than 5 years of age, for control/display stereotypes, can be the same as that for adult populations. Application When designing devices for children, the relationship between controls and displays can be as for adult populations, for which there are considerable experimental data.

  18. Duckweed (Lemna minor as a model plant system for the study of human microbial pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plant infection models provide certain advantages over animal models in the study of pathogenesis. However, current plant models face some limitations, e.g., plant and pathogen cannot co-culture in a contained environment. Development of such a plant model is needed to better illustrate host-pathogen interactions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We describe a novel model plant system for the study of human pathogenic bacterial infection on a large scale. This system was initiated by co-cultivation of axenic duckweed (Lemna minor plants with pathogenic bacteria in 24-well polystyrene cell culture plate. Pathogenesis of bacteria to duckweed was demonstrated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus as two model pathogens. P. aeruginosa PAO1 caused severe detriment to duckweed as judged from inhibition to frond multiplication and chlorophyll formation. Using a GFP-marked PAO1 strain, we demonstrated that bacteria colonized on both fronds and roots and formed biofilms. Virulence of PAO1 to duckweed was attenuated in its quorum sensing (QS mutants and in recombinant strains overexpressing the QS quenching enzymes. RN4220, a virulent strain of S. aureus, caused severe toxicity to duckweed while an avirulent strain showed little effect. Using this system for antimicrobial chemical selection, green tea polyphenols exhibited inhibitory activity against S. aureus virulence. This system was further confirmed to be effective as a pathogenesis model using a number of pathogenic bacterial species. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that duckweed can be used as a fast, inexpensive and reproducible model plant system for the study of host-pathogen interactions, could serve as an alternative choice for the study of some virulence factors, and could also potentially be used in large-scale screening for the discovery of antimicrobial chemicals.

  19. A Test of the Perfectionism Social Disconnection Model among Ethnic Minority Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goya Arce, Ana B; Polo, Antonio J

    2017-08-01

    Perfectionistic self-presentation (PSP) has been identified as a vulnerability factor in the development of depressive disorders during early adolescence. The Perfectionism Social Disconnection Model (PSDM) offers a theoretical framework suggesting PSP leads to depressive symptoms via interpersonal problems and social disconnection. Previous studies have supported the role of social disconnection as a mediator in the relation between PSP and suicidal ideation, but have not evaluated interpersonal problems in the model. Furthermore, the generalizability of the model has not been established for community and ethnic minority samples. Using cross-sectional data, the present study addresses these gaps by evaluating the PSDM and including social anxiety and loneliness as indicators of interpersonal problems and social disconnection, respectively, as predictors of youth depressive symptoms. The sample includes 289 (51.2% females) predominately low income and Latino and African American youth in fifth through seventh grade in three public schools. As predicted, social anxiety mediates the relationship between both PSP and loneliness and PSP and depressive symptoms. Moreover, mediational analyses indicate that social anxiety accounts for the relation between PSP and depression. Consistent with the PSDM model, the relationship between PSP and youth depressive symptoms is mediated sequentially through both social anxiety and loneliness, but primarily among the Latino sample.

  20. Subchronic Treatment of Donepezil Rescues Impaired Social, Hyperactive, and Stereotypic Behavior in Valproic Acid-Induced Animal Model of Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Woon; Seung, Hana; Kwon, Kyung Ja; Ko, Mee Jung; Lee, Eun Joo; Oh, Hyun Ah; Choi, Chang Soon; Kim, Ki Chan; Gonzales, Edson Luck; You, Jueng Soo; Choi, Dong-Hee; Lee, Jongmin; Han, Seol-Heui; Yang, Sung Min; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Shin, Chan Young; Bahn, Geon Ho

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a group of pervasive developmental disorders with core symptoms such as sociability deficit, language impairment, and repetitive/restricted behaviors. Although worldwide prevalence of ASD has been increased continuously, therapeutic agents to ameliorate the core symptoms especially social deficits, are very limited. In this study, we investigated therapeutic potential of donepezil for ASD using valproic acid-induced autistic animal model (VPA animal model). We found that prenatal exposure of valproic acid (VPA) induced dysregulation of cholinergic neuronal development, most notably the up-regulation of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the prefrontal cortex of affected rat and mouse offspring. Similarly, differentiating cortical neural progenitor cell in culture treated with VPA showed increased expression of AChE in vitro. Chromatin precipitation experiments revealed that acetylation of histone H3 bound to AChE promoter region was increased by VPA. In addition, other histone deacetyalse inhibitors (HDACIs) such as trichostatin A and sodium butyrate also increased the expression of AChE in differentiating neural progenitor cells suggesting the essential role of HDACIs in the regulation of AChE expression. For behavioral analysis, we injected PBS or donepezil (0.3 mg/kg) intraperitoneally to control and VPA mice once daily from postnatal day 14 all throughout the experiment. Subchronic treatment of donepezil improved sociability and prevented repetitive behavior and hyperactivity of VPA-treated mice offspring. Taken together, these results provide evidence that dysregulation of ACh system represented by the up-regulation of AChE may serve as an effective pharmacological therapeutic target against autistic behaviors in VPA animal model of ASD, which should be subjected for further investigation to verify the clinical relevance. PMID:25133713

  1. Accuracy, consensus, in-group bias, and cultural frame shifting in the context of national character stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönnqvist, Jan-Erik; Konstabel, Kenn; Lönnqvist, Nellystiina; Verkasalo, Markku

    2014-01-01

    We examined Finns' and bilingual Swedish-Finns' stereotypes regarding personality differences between Finns and Swedish-Finns and compared them with their respective self-ratings. Stereotype ratings by both groups converged on depicting Swedish-Finns as having a more desirable personality. In-group bias also influenced stereotypes. Contrary to predictions based on the Stereotype Content Model, out-group stereotypes were not compensatory. Consistent with the kernel of truth hypothesis of national stereotypes, Swedish-Finns' aggregate self-ratings resembled their stereotype of personality differences between the two groups, and their personality self-ratings were more desirable than Finns' self-ratings. Tentatively suggesting the occurrence of cultural frame shifting, the resemblance between Swedish-Finns' self-ratings and their stereotype of Swedish-Finns was, although only marginally statistically significantly, somewhat stronger when the self-ratings were provided in Swedish.

  2. 'Stereotypes are reality': addressing stereotyping in Canadian Aboriginal medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Anh; Crowshoe, Lynden

    2015-06-01

    Efforts are underway in many parts of the world to develop medical education curricula that address the health care issues of indigenous populations. The topic of stereotypes and their impact on such peoples' health, however, has received little attention. An examination of stereotypes will shed light on dominant cultural attitudes toward Aboriginal people that can affect quality of care and health outcomes in Aboriginal patients. This study examines the views of undergraduate medical students regarding Canadian Aboriginal stereotypes and how they potentially affect Aboriginal people's health. The goal of this study was to gain insight into how medical learners perceive issues related to racism, discrimination and social stereotypes and to draw attention to gaps in Aboriginal health curricula. This study involved a convenience sample of medical learners drawn from one undergraduate medical programme in western Canada. Using a semi-structured interview guide, we conducted a total of seven focus group interviews with 38 first- and second-year undergraduate medical students. Data were analysed using a thematic content analysis approach. Medical students recognise that stereotypes are closely related to processes of racism and discrimination. However, they generally feel that stereotypes of Aboriginal people are rooted in reality. Students also identified medical school as one of the environments in which they are commonly exposed to negative views of Aboriginal people. Student responses suggest they see the cultural gap between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people as being both a cause and a consequence of discrimination against Aboriginal people. The results of this study suggest that teaching medical students about the realities and impacts of stereotypes on Aboriginal peoples is a good starting point from which to address issues of racism and health inequities affecting the health of Aboriginal people. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Seeing Is Eating: How and When Activation of a Negative Stereotype Increases Stereotype-Conducive Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Margaret C. Campbell; Gina S. Mohr

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates the effect of activation of a negative stereotype on behaviors that are perceived to increase the chance of becoming a member of the stereotyped group. Activation of a negative stereotype (the overweight stereotype) is shown to lead to stereotype-consistent goal commitment (low health goal commitment), which partially explains increases in stereotype-conducive behavior (eating indulgent foods). Two theoretically relevant moderators are proposed and supported. Increa...

  4. mGluR5-antagonist mediated reversal of elevated stereotyped, repetitive behaviors in the VPA model of autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mili V Mehta

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASD are highly disabling developmental disorders with a population prevalence of 1-3%. Despite a strong genetic etiology, there are no current therapeutic options that target the core symptoms of ASD. Emerging evidence suggests that dysfunction of glutamatergic signaling, in particular through metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5 receptors, may contribute to phenotypic deficits and may be appropriate targets for pharmacologic intervention. This study assessed the therapeutic potential of 2-methyl-6-phenylethyl-pyrididine (MPEP, an mGluR5-receptor antagonist, on repetitive and anxiety-like behaviors in the valproic acid (VPA mouse model of autism. Mice were exposed prenatally on day E13 to VPA and assessed for repetitive self-grooming and marble burying behaviors as adults. Anxiety-like behavior and locomotor activity were measured in an open-field. VPA-exposed mice displayed increased repetitive and anxiety-like behaviors, consistent with previously published results. Across both marble burying and self-grooming assays, MPEP significantly reduced repetitive behaviors in VPA-treated mice, but had no effect on locomotor activity. These results are consistent with emerging preclinical literature that mGluR5-antagonists may have therapeutic efficacy for core symptoms of autism.

  5. Minority Games

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metzler, R

    2005-01-01

    New branches of scientific disciplines often have a few paradigmatic models that serve as a testing ground for theories and a starting point for new inquiries. In the late 1990s, one of these models found fertile ground in the growing field of econophysics: the Minority Game (MG), a model for speculative markets that combined conceptual simplicity with interesting emergent behaviour and challenging mathematics. The two basic ingredients were the minority mechanism (a large number of players have to choose one of two alternatives in each round, and the minority wins) and limited rationality (each player has a small set of decision rules, and chooses the more successful ones). Combining these, one observes a phase transition between a crowded and an inefficient market phase, fat-tailed price distributions at the transition, and many other nontrivial effects. Now, seven years after the first paper, three of the key players-Damien Challet, Matteo Marsili and Yi-Cheng Zhang-have published a monograph that summarizes the current state of the science. The book consists of two parts: a 100-page overview of the various aspects of the MG, and reprints of many essential papers. The first chapters of Part I give a well-written description of the motivation and the history behind the MG, and then go into the phenomenology and the mathematical treatment of the model. The authors emphasize the 'physics' underlying the behaviour and give coherent, intuitive explanations that are difficult to extract from the original papers. The mathematics is outlined, but calculations are not carried out in great detail (maybe they could have been included in an appendix). Chapter 4 then discusses how and why the MG is a model for speculative markets, how it can be modified to give a closer fit to observed market statistics (in particular, reproducing the 'stylized facts' of fat-tailed distributions and volatility clustering), and what conclusions one can draw from the behaviour of the MG when

  6. Modeling the interaction of light intensity, nutrient concentration and uranium toxicity in Lemna minor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmer, E.; Horemans, N.; Vandenhove, H. [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN (Belgium); Cedergreen, N. [University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Jager, T. [Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-07-01

    Radioecology aims at assessing the effect of radionuclides and radiation on the environment. Since we cannot test every possible environmental situation in the laboratory, we need modeling approaches to extrapolate the results of toxicity assays to environmentally relevant scenarios. Therefore, it is of crucial importance to understand the effect of relevant environmental factors, such as nutrients, temperature and light on the toxicity of the test. Radionuclides are often found to induce the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In plants, an overload of ROS can lead to disturbances of the photosynthetic system. Since the light intensity determines the efficiency of the photo-systems in plants, it can be expected to interact with the effect of radionuclides. The nutrient concentration of the test medium determines the physiological state of the plant, affecting in turn the plant's capability of dealing with stress and hence influences the toxicity of the contaminant. To study the interaction of stressors with environmental conditions, mechanistic effect modeling is promoted widely in ecotoxicology. In principle, the modelling aims at a mechanistic understanding of the different processes causing the stress individually, and integrating them in one framework to study their joint effect and possible interaction. We here present a mechanistic effect model for Lemna minor (common duckweed), which is based on Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory. Models based on DEB have been used widely to study the effects of compounds on animals. Due to its general applicability to all types of organisms, it holds potential to be used for comparison of species and compounds in a broad context. Energy uptake from the environment is modeled explicitly, and metabolic rates are set to depend on temperature in DEB models. Therefore, they can be used to extrapolate effects to a wide range of environmentally relevant scenarios. Until now, the DEB research in ecotoxicology has

  7. Silent and a audible stereotypes: The constitution of "ethnic character" in Serbian epic poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đerić Gordana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the explanatory relevance of the concept of stereotype in one of its original meanings - as a "mental image". This meaning of the term is the starting point for further differentiations, such as: between linguistic and behavioral stereotypes (in the sense of nonverbal, expected responses; universal and particular stereotypes; self representative and introspective stereotypes; permanent and contemporary stereotypes; and finally, what is most important for our purposes, the difference between silent and audible stereotypes. These distinctions, along with the functions of stereotype, are discussed in the first part of the paper. In the second part, the relations of silent and audible stereotypes are tested against the introduction of "innovative vocabularies" in popular lore. In other words, the explanatory power of this differentiation is checked through an analysis of unconventional motives in Serbian epic poems. The goal of the argument is to clarify the procedure of self creation of masculinity as a relevant feature of the "national character" through "tactic games" of silent and audible stereotypes. The examination of these "poetic strategies" serves a twofold purpose: to illustrate the process of constructing particular features of the "ethno type", on one hand, and to check hypotheses and models which are taken as frameworks in analyzing stereotypes, on the other.

  8. We are the opposite of you! Mirroring of national, regional and ethnic stereotypes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hřebíčková, Martina; Graf, Sylvie; Tegdes, T.; Brezina, I.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 157, č. 6 (2017), s. 703-719 ISSN 0022-4545 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-14387S; GA ČR GA13-25656S Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : ethnic stereotypes * five-factor model * mirroring * national stereotypes * regional stereotypes Subject RIV: AN - Psychology OBOR OECD: Psychology (including human - machine relations) Impact factor: 0.844, year: 2016

  9. We are the opposite of you! Mirroring of national, regional and ethnic stereotypes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hřebíčková, Martina; Graf, Sylvie; Tegdes, T.; Brezina, I.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 157, č. 6 (2017), s. 703-719 ISSN 0022-4545 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-14387S; GA ČR GA13-25656S Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : ethnic stereotype s * five-factor model * mirroring * national stereotype s * regional stereotype s Subject RIV: AN - Psychology OBOR OECD: Psychology (including human - machine relations) Impact factor: 0.844, year: 2016

  10. Undoing Gender Stereotypes in Hindi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pande, Anjali

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic prerequisite for using any language is the willingness of the speaker to follow the rules of the game. Socially defined norms of language use then tend to set the limits within which one can express oneself using this language. Whether these norms set the speaker free or whether they act as constraints in a free expression of Self, is a question that will be raised in this article. Using examples from Hindi, the paper highlights the role of such norms of language use in perpetuating gender stereotypes. Gender stereotypes get constructed as part of a broader process of social differentiation but the site of this construction is to a large extent the normal everyday discourse. A normal classroom discussion amongst university students in New Delhi thus shows how deep rooted such stereotypes are and how effectively they get perpetuated through language and linguistic norms in Indian society. The basic premise in this paper is that meanings are context-specific, they are not fixed and they get created in discourse. But since language use is one thread in social fabric, it serves as an instrument to construct and perpetuate gender stereotypes. The paper is more of an essay on issues that became obvious about gender stereotypes during two classroom discussions. It should not therefore be taken as a study into the deeper aspects of gender representation in Hindi.

  11. Stereotype threat and executive functions: which functions mediate different threat-related outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydell, Robert J; Van Loo, Katie J; Boucher, Kathryn L

    2014-03-01

    Stereotype threat research shows that women's math performance can be reduced by activating gender-based math stereotypes. Models of stereotype threat assert that threat reduces cognitive functioning, thereby accounting for its negative effects. This work provides a more detailed understanding of the cognitive processes through which stereotype threat leads women to underperform at math and to take risks, by examining which basic executive functions (inhibition, shifting, and updating) account for these outcomes. In Experiments 1 and 2, women under threat showed reduced inhibition, reduced updating, and reduced math performance compared with women in a control condition (or men); however, only updating accounted for women's poor math performance under threat. In Experiment 3, only updating accounted for stereotype threat's effect on women's math performance, whereas only inhibition accounted for the effect of threat on risk-taking, suggesting that distinct executive functions can account for different stereotype threat-related outcomes.

  12. Women's Stereotypes and Consumer Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Velandia Morales

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available According to The Ambivalent Sexism Theory (Glick y Fiske, 1996 there are distinct stereotypes of women that men express different attitudes. Among them, the housewife, sexy women and executive women are the clearest ones. One hundred people participated in the present study in order to test the relationship between the female stereotypes, their level of influence and prestige and the level of preference for a commercial product (described in female and male terms. The results showed that sexy women is more associated with the masculine description, whereas the executive women is more associated to the feminine product description, and in both cases the housewife is the least associated with the two different descriptions. It was also found that the influence and the women prestige mediated the relationship between the stereotypes and the preference shown for the product described in feminine terms

  13. Stereotyped perceptions of chronic pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Marie Østergaard

    2010-01-01

    Artiklen undersøger hvordan stærke sociale stereotyper former socialarbejderes tilgang til hjælpesøgende borgere. Den empiriske analyse fokuserer på betydningen af 'deservingness' kriterier, samt på hvordan paternalistiske og følelsesmæssige argumenter bliver brugt af socialarbejdere til at retfæ......Artiklen undersøger hvordan stærke sociale stereotyper former socialarbejderes tilgang til hjælpesøgende borgere. Den empiriske analyse fokuserer på betydningen af 'deservingness' kriterier, samt på hvordan paternalistiske og følelsesmæssige argumenter bliver brugt af socialarbejdere til...... at retfærdiggøre stereotype kategoriseringer....

  14. Modeling minority stress effects on homelessness and health disparities among young men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Douglas; Stall, Ron; Fata, Aimee; Campbell, Richard T

    2014-06-01

    Sexual minority youth are more likely to experience homelessness, and homeless sexual minority youth report greater risk for mental health and substance abuse symptoms than homeless heterosexual youth, yet few studies have assessed determinants that help explain the disparities. Minority stress theory proposes that physical and mental health disparities among sexual minority populations may be explained by the stress produced by living in heterosexist social environments characterized by stigma and discrimination directed toward sexual minority persons. We used data from a sample of 200 young men who have sex with men (YMSM) (38 % African American, 26.5 % Latino/Hispanic, 23.5 % White, 12 % multiracial/other) to develop an exploratory path model measuring the effects of experience and internalization of sexual orientation stigma on depression and substance use via being kicked out of home due to sexual orientation and current homelessness. Direct significant paths were found from experience of sexual orientation-related stigma to internalization of sexual orientation-related stigma, having been kicked out of one's home, experiencing homelessness during the past year, and major depressive symptoms during the past week. Having been kicked out of one's home had a direct significant effect on experiencing homelessness during the past 12 months and on daily marijuana use. Internalization of sexual orientation-related stigma and experiencing homelessness during the past 12 months partially mediated the direct effect of experience of sexual orientation-related stigma on major depressive symptoms. Our empirical testing of the effects of minority stress on health of YMSM advances minority stress theory as a framework for investigating health disparities among this population.

  15. Relationship between Knowledge, Stereotyping, and Prejudice in Interethnic Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Matusitz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes, analyzes, critiques, and synthesizes four theories pertaining to interethnic communication: the contact hypothesis, Anxiety/Uncertainty Management Theory, Cultural Theory, and the White Racial Identity Development Model. All center on the relationship between knowledge, stereotyping, and prejudice. What is valuable about those theories is that they attempt to integrate communication into a perspective on cultural, behavioral, social, interactional, and developmental transformations. What the four theories have in common is that the understanding and development of healthy interethnic relations and flexible interactions require a high degree of ingroup communication and, at the same time, an equally high degree of out-group communication. To corroborate the major arguments put forward in this study, relevant research studies (and the methodological underpinnings thereof are analyzed. Three levels of knowledge (highest level of knowledge, middle level of knowledge, and lowest level of knowledge are also compared in an attempt to confirm, or disconfirm, the idea that increased knowledge of minority groups increases liking of such groups.

  16. A Critical Review of the Model Minority Myth in Selected Literature on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, OiYan; Squire, Dian; Kodama, Corinne; Byrd, Ajani; Chan, Jason; Manzano, Lester; Furr, Sara; Bishundat, Devita

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a critical review of 112 works of research on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs) in higher education. It focuses on ways previous scholarship framed AAPIs in higher education, and specifically on how those works engaged in a sustained project of countering the model minority myth (MMM). Many publications on AAPIs…

  17. Reading Rescue: An Effective Tutoring Intervention Model for Language-Minority Students Who Are Struggling Readers in First Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehri, Linnea C.; Dreyer, Lois G.; Flugman, Bert; Gross, Alan

    2007-01-01

    The Reading Rescue tutoring intervention model was investigated with 64 low-socioeconomic status, language-minority first graders with reading difficulties. School staff provided tutoring in phonological awareness, systematic phonics, vocabulary, fluency, and reading comprehension. Tutored students made significantly greater gains reading words…

  18. MUICYCL and MUIFAP: models tracking minor uranium isotopes in the nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, S.R.; McLaren, R.A.

    1979-10-01

    Two computer programs have been written to provide information on the buildup of minor uranium isotopes in the nuclear fuel cycle. The Minor Uranium Isotope Cycle Program, MUICYCL, tracks fuel through a multiyear campaign cycle of enrichment, reactor burnup, reprocessing, enrichment, etc. MUICYCL facilities include preproduction stockpiles, U/sup 235/ escalation, and calculation of losses. The Minor Uranium Isotope Flowsheet Analyzer Program, MUIFAP, analyzes one minor isotope in one year of an enrichment operation. The formulation of the enrichment cascade, reactors, and reprocessing facility is presented. Input and output descriptions and sample cases are presented. The programs themselves are documented by short descriptions of each routine, flowcharts, definitions of common blocks and variables, and internal documentation. The programs are written in FORTRAN for use in batch mode.

  19. MUICYCL and MUIFAP: models tracking minor uranium isotopes in the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, S.R.; McLaren, R.A.

    1979-10-01

    Two computer programs have been written to provide information on the buildup of minor uranium isotopes in the nuclear fuel cycle. The Minor Uranium Isotope Cycle Program, MUICYCL, tracks fuel through a multiyear campaign cycle of enrichment, reactor burnup, reprocessing, enrichment, etc. MUICYCL facilities include preproduction stockpiles, U 235 escalation, and calculation of losses. The Minor Uranium Isotope Flowsheet Analyzer Program, MUIFAP, analyzes one minor isotope in one year of an enrichment operation. The formulation of the enrichment cascade, reactors, and reprocessing facility is presented. Input and output descriptions and sample cases are presented. The programs themselves are documented by short descriptions of each routine, flowcharts, definitions of common blocks and variables, and internal documentation. The programs are written in FORTRAN for use in batch mode

  20. Possible ecological risk of two pharmaceuticals diclofenac andparacetamol demonstrated on a model plant Lemna minor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kummerová, M.; Zezulka, Š.; Babula, P.; Tříska, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 302, jan (2016), s. 351-361 ISSN 0304-3894 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Antioxidant mechanism * Diclofenac * Lemna minor * Oxidative stress * Paracetamol Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 6.065, year: 2016

  1. Stereotype threat and female communication styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hippel, Courtney; Wiryakusuma, Cindy; Bowden, Jessica; Shochet, Megan

    2011-10-01

    A large body of research has documented the performance-debilitating effects of stereotype threat for individuals, but there is a paucity of research exploring interpersonal consequences of stereotype threat. Two experiments tested the hypothesis that stereotype threat would change the style in which women communicate. Results indicate that women who experience stereotype threat regarding leadership abilities react against the stereotype by adopting a more masculine communication style. Study 2 provides evidence that self-affirmation eliminates this effect of stereotype threat on women's communication styles. A third study demonstrates an ironic consequence of this effect of stereotype threat on women's communication--when women under stereotype threat adopt a more masculine communication style, they are rated as less warm and likeable, and evaluators indicate less willingness to comply with their requests. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  2. Adaptive memory: stereotype activation is not enough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otgaar, Henry; Smeets, Tom; Merckelbach, Harald; Jelicic, Marko; Verschuere, Bruno; Galliot, Anne-Marie; van Riel, Laura

    2011-08-01

    Studies have shown that survival processing leads to superior memorability. The aim of the present study was to examine whether this survival recall advantage might result from stereotype activation. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a pilot study and two experiments in which participants were primed with stereotypes (Experiment 1, professor and elderly person; Experiment 2, survival-stereotype). In Experiment 1, 120 undergraduates were randomly assigned to a survival, professor stereotype, elderly person stereotype, or moving scenario and rated words for their relevance to the imagined scenario. In Experiment 2, 75 undergraduates were given a survival, survival-stereotype (based on our pilot study), or moving scenario. Both experiments showed that survival processing leads to a greater recall advantage over the stereotype groups and control group. These data indicate that the mere activation of stereotypes cannot explain the survival recall advantage.

  3. Sequential Stereotype Priming: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidder, Ciara K; White, Katherine R; Hinojos, Michelle R; Sandoval, Mayra; Crites, Stephen L

    2017-08-01

    Psychological interest in stereotype measurement has spanned nearly a century, with researchers adopting implicit measures in the 1980s to complement explicit measures. One of the most frequently used implicit measures of stereotypes is the sequential priming paradigm. The current meta-analysis examines stereotype priming, focusing specifically on this paradigm. To contribute to ongoing discussions regarding methodological rigor in social psychology, one primary goal was to identify methodological moderators of the stereotype priming effect-whether priming is due to a relation between the prime and target stimuli, the prime and target response, participant task, stereotype dimension, stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA), and stimuli type. Data from 39 studies yielded 87 individual effect sizes from 5,497 participants. Analyses revealed that stereotype priming is significantly moderated by the presence of prime-response relations, participant task, stereotype dimension, target stimulus type, SOA, and prime repetition. These results carry both practical and theoretical implications for future research on stereotype priming.

  4. Stereotypes and the Achievement Gap: Stereotype Threat Prior to Test Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, Markus; Kronberger, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Stereotype threat is known as a situational predicament that prevents members of negatively stereotyped groups to perform up to their full ability. This review shows that the detrimental influence of stereotype threat goes beyond test taking: It impairs stereotyped students to build abilities in the first place. Guided by current theory on…

  5. Images and Stereotypes of the Native American.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilcoat, George W.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews how the popular stereotypes of American Indians have changed since the colonization of North America. Once seen as noble savages by European settlers, the popular stereotypes changed to become less and less positive as colonization advanced. Urges teachers to vigorously challenge the stereotypes and negative images. (JDH)

  6. Age Stereotypes about Emotional Resilience at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauschenbach, Cornelia; Goritz, Anja S.; Hertel, Guido

    2012-01-01

    In light of an aging workforce, age stereotypes have become an important topic both for researchers and for practitioners. Among other effects, age stereotypes might predict discriminatory behavior at work. This study examined stereotypic beliefs about emotional resilience as a function of both targets' and judges' age. In a web-based study, 4,181…

  7. Can counter-stereotypes boost flexible thinking?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goclowska, M.A.; Crisp, R.J.; Labuschagne, K.

    2013-01-01

    To reduce prejudice psychologists design interventions requiring people to think of counter-stereotypes (i.e., people who defy stereotypic expectations—a strong woman, a Black President). Grounded in the idea that stereotypes constrain the ability to think flexibly, we propose that thinking of

  8. Stereotyping Physical Attractiveness: A Sociocultural Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dion, Karen K.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Studies the tendency to stereotype physical attractiveness and identification in a collectivist culture using a group of 53 Chinese Canadian college students. Finds that introverts tended to be more prone to stereotyping than extroverts. Subjects with the highest cultural involvement were least prone to stereotyping with regard to social…

  9. The effects of gender stereotypic and counter-stereotypic textbook images on science performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Jessica J; Woodzicka, Julie A; Wingfield, Lylan C

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the effect of gender stereotypic and counter-stereotypic images on male and female high school students' science comprehension and anxiety. We predicted stereotypic images to induce stereotype threat in females and impair science performance. Counter-stereotypic images were predicted to alleviate threat and enhance female performance. Students read one of three chemistry lessons, each containing the same text, with photograph content varied according to stereotype condition. Participants then completed a comprehension test and anxiety measure. Results indicate that female students had higher comprehension after viewing counter-stereotypic images (female scientists) than after viewing stereotypic images (male scientists). Male students had higher comprehension after viewing stereotypic images than after viewing counter-stereotypic images. Implications for alleviating the gender gap in science achievement are discussed.

  10. Stereotypes of Old People Persist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Tornstam

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In 2005, as well as in 1982, almost 90 percent of Swedes subscribed to the stereotype that retirement pensioners suffer from loneliness and more than half of Swedes also believed that pensioners suffer from boredom and dissatisfaction with life.Little seems to have changed for the better, or even impaired with regard to the images of the psychological conditions of pensioners, at the same time as Swedes have become somewhat more knowledgeable about the physiological/material conditions associated with aging. This follows from a 2005 follow-up of a Swedish Facts on Aging Quiz, first given in 1982. The comparatively stable pattern of stereotypes over the 23-year period indicates that stereotypes – in old, well-known or permutated forms – will prevail as long as their ageist roots do. The changes observed indicate the possibility of a future pattern of stereotypes, which combines an exaggerated “positive” image of retirement pensioners’ health and wealth, with associated envy of the “greedy geezers”, and pity for their lonely and meaningless lives.

  11. Sex Stereotyping and Sex Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegarty, Moira

    1977-01-01

    Although unable to find any evidence to indicate that secondary schools in Canada have or have not made any progress in reducing sex stereotyping or sex discrimination, the author states that the Canadian educational system is aware of its responsibility to uphold non-sexist standards for its young students. Discusses some research done on undoing…

  12. A Model of Organizational Context and Shared Decision Making: Application to LGBT Racial and Ethnic Minority Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMeester, Rachel H; Lopez, Fanny Y; Moore, Jennifer E; Cook, Scott C; Chin, Marshall H

    2016-06-01

    Shared decision making (SDM) occurs when patients and clinicians work together to reach care decisions that are both medically sound and responsive to patients' preferences and values. SDM is an important tenet of patient-centered care that can improve patient outcomes. Patients with multiple minority identities, such as sexual orientation and race/ethnicity, are at particular risk for poor SDM. Among these dual-minority patients, added challenges to clear and open communication include cultural barriers, distrust, and a health care provider's lack of awareness of the patient's minority sexual orientation or gender identity. However, organizational factors like a culture of inclusion and private space throughout the visit can improve SDM with lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender ("LGBT") racial/ethnic minority patients who have faced stigma and discrimination. Most models of shared decision making focus on the patient-provider interaction, but the health care organization's context is also critical. Context-an organization's structure and operations-can strongly influence the ability and willingness of patients and clinicians to engage in shared decision making. SDM is most likely to be optimal if organizations transform their contexts and patients and providers improve their communication. Thus, we propose a conceptual model that suggests ways in which organizations can shape their contextual structure and operations to support SDM. The model contains six drivers: workflows, health information technology, organizational structure and culture, resources and clinic environment, training and education, and incentives and disincentives. These drivers work through four mechanisms to impact care: continuity and coordination, the ease of SDM, knowledge and skills, and attitudes and beliefs. These mechanisms can activate clinicians and patients to engage in high-quality SDM. We provide examples of how specific contextual changes could make SDM more effective for LGBT

  13. The CAMPARE Program:A New Model Promoting Minority Participation in Astronomy Research and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Alexander L.; Impey, C. D.; Bieging, J. H.; Phillips, C. B.; Tieu, J.; Povich, M. S.

    2014-01-01

    The California-Arizona Minority Partnership for Astronomy Research and Education (CAMPARE) program represents a new and innovative kind of research program for undergraduates: one that can effectively carry out the goal of recruiting qualified minority and female students to participate in Astronomy and Planetary Science research opportunities, while mentoring them in a way to maximize the chance that these students will persist in obtaining their undergraduate degrees in STEM fields, and potentially go on to obtain their PhDs or pursue careers in those fields. The members of CAMPARE comprise a network of comprehensive universities and community colleges in Southern California and Arizona (most of which are minority serving institutions), and four major research institutions (University of Arizona Steward Observatory, the SETI Institute, and JPL/Caltech). Most undergraduate research programs focus on a single research institution. By having multiple institutions, we significantly broaden the opportunities for students, both in terms of breadth of research topics and geographical location.

  14. Electoral entry and success of ethnic minority parties in central and eastern Europe: A hierarchical selection model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernauer, Julian; Bochsler, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The paper examines determinants of electoral entry and success of ethnic minority parties in central and eastern Europe. The application of a hierarchical selection model shows that the strategic entry of minority parties depends on their expected electoral success due both to observed...... and unobserved factors. Drawing on formal models of electoral entry, the electoral success of new (or niche) parties is expected to be influenced by the costs of entry (determined by electoral thresholds) and the potential for electoral support. The latter depends on the reactions of political competitors...... and electoral demand, measured here as the size of ethnic groups and the saliency of ethnic issues. In line with these expectations, parties only run if they can expect electoral support sufficient to pass the electoral threshold. This finding would have been overlooked by a na??ve model of electoral success...

  15. Self-care behaviour for minor symptoms: can Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Use help us to understand it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porteous, Terry; Wyke, Sally; Hannaford, Philip; Bond, Christine

    2015-02-01

    To explore whether Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Use can aid understanding of self-care behaviour and inform development of interventions to promote self-care for minor illness. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 24 Scottish participants about their experience and management of minor symptoms normally associated with analgesic use. Synthesised data from the interviews were mapped onto the Behavioral Model. All factors identified as influencing decisions about how to manage the symptoms discussed, mapped onto at least one domain of Andersen's model. Individual characteristics including beliefs, need factors and available resources were associated with health behaviour, including self-care. Outcomes such as perceived health status and consumer satisfaction from previous experience of managing symptoms also appeared to feed back into health behaviour. The Behavioral Model seems relevant to self-care as well as formal health services. Additional work is needed to explore applicability of the Behavioral Model to different types of symptoms, different modalities of self-care and in countries with different health care systems. Future quantitative studies should establish the relative importance of factors influencing the actions people take to manage minor symptoms to inform future interventions aimed at optimising self-care behaviour. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  16. Healthcare Stereotype Threat in Older Adults in the Health and Retirement Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdou, Cleopatra M; Fingerhut, Adam W; Jackson, James S; Wheaton, Felicia

    2016-02-01

    Healthcare stereotype threat is the threat of being personally reduced to group stereotypes that commonly operate within the healthcare domain, including stereotypes regarding unhealthy lifestyles and inferior intelligence. The objective of this study was to assess the extent to which people fear being judged in healthcare contexts on several characteristics, including race/ethnicity and age, and to test predictions that experience of such threats would be connected with poorer health and negative perceptions of health care. Data were collected as part of the 2012 Health and Retirement Study (HRS). A module on healthcare stereotype threat, designed by the research team, was administered to a random subset (n=2,048 of the total 20,555) of HRS participants. The final sample for the present healthcare stereotype threat experiment consists of 1,479 individuals. Logistic regression was used to test whether healthcare stereotype threat was associated with self-rated health, reported hypertension, and depressive symptoms, as well as with healthcare-related outcomes, including physician distrust, dissatisfaction with health care, and preventative care use. Seventeen percent of respondents reported healthcare stereotype threat with respect to one or more aspects of their identities. As predicted, healthcare stereotype threat was associated with higher physician distrust and dissatisfaction with health care, poorer mental and physical health (i.e., self-rated health, hypertension, and depressive symptoms), and lower odds of receiving the influenza vaccine. The first of its kind, this study demonstrates that people can experience healthcare stereotype threat on the basis of various stigmatized aspects of social identity, and that these experiences can be linked with larger health and healthcare-related outcomes, thereby contributing to disparities among minority groups. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Geo-Needs: Investigating Models for Improved Access to Geosciences at Two-Year and Minority-Serving Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Her, X.; Turner, S. P.; LaDue, N.; Bentley, A. P.; Petcovic, H. L.; Mogk, D. W.; Cartwright, T.

    2015-12-01

    Geosciences are an important field of study for the future of energy, water, climate resilience, and infrastructure in our country. Geoscience related job growth is expected to steeply climb in the United States, however many of these positions will be left unfilled. One untapped population of Americans is ethnic minorities, who have historically been underrepresented in the geosciences. In 2010, the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) reported that black and Hispanics only make 8.1% of geoscience related jobs, while making up nearly 30% of Americans. This pattern of underrepresentation has been attributed to 1) minority serving institutions lacking geoscience programs, 2) low interest in the outdoors due to a lack of opportunity, and 3) negative and low prestigious perceptions of geoscientists. Our project focuses specifically on the first barrier. Preliminary research suggests that only 2.5% of institutions with geoscience programs (n= 609) are also minority serving. The goals of the Geo-Needs project are to identify obstacles to and opportunities for better use of existing educational resources in two-year and minority-serving institutions, and to explore "ideal" models of resources, partnerships, and other support for geoscience faculty and students in these institutions. Four focus group meetings were held in August 2015 bringing administrators, instructors, resource providers, and education researchers together to discuss and develop these models. Activities at the meetings included small and whole group prompted discussion, guest speakers, gallery walks, and individual reflection. Content from the focus group meetings is available at the project's website: http://serc.carleton.edu/geoneeds/index.html. Findings from the meetings can be used to inform future efforts aimed toward broadening access to the geosciences at two-year and minority-serving institutions.

  18. Challenging gender stereotypes: resistance and exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Killen, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    The likelihood of resisting gender-stereotypic peer group norms, along with expectations about personal resistance, was investigated in 9- to 10-year-olds and 13- to 14-year-olds (N = 292). Participants were told about a stereotype conforming group (boys playing football; girls doing ballet) and a stereotype nonconforming group (boys doing ballet; girls playing football). Contrary to expectations from gender-stereotyping research, participants stated that they would personally resist gender-stereotypic norms, and more so than they would expect their peers to resist. However, expecting peers to resist declined with age. Participants expected that exclusion from the group was a consequence for challenging the peer group, and understood the asymmetrical status of gender stereotypes with an expectation that it would be more difficult for boys to challenge stereotypes than for girls. © 2014 The Authors. Child Development © 2014 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  19. Transgender Individuals' Workplace Experiences: The Applicability of Sexual Minority Measures and Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewster, Melanie E.; Velez, Brandon; DeBlaere, Cirleen; Moradi, Bonnie

    2012-01-01

    The present study explored whether 3 existing measures of workplace constructs germane to the experiences of sexual minority people could be modified to improve their applicability with transgender individuals. To this end, the Workplace Heterosexist Experiences Questionnaire (WHEQ; C. R. Waldo, 1999); the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgendered…

  20. A Postsecondary Transition Model for Low-Income, Minority Youth in Philadelphia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alexis Tolbert

    2016-01-01

    School administrators are in the best position, but often lack the knowledge, to help low-income, minority youth transition to college. Consequently, some youth are not meeting their full potential and there are long-term, deleterious consequences on local economies as wage earning potential stagnates. Using Aslanargun's, Farmer-Hinton's, and…

  1. When Using a Negative Gender Stereotype as an Excuse Increases Gender Stereotyping in Others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkley, Melissa; Andrade, Angela; Burkley, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Prior work has shown that women use gender stereotypes to excuse their stereotypic failures, and doing so incurs negative costs. This study examined if the audience who witnesses a woman using such a stereotypic excuse also incurs costs in the form of increased gender stereotype endorsement. Male and female participants reviewed a survey supposedly completed by a female target who recently took a math exam. In this survey, the female target either performed well or poorly on the exam, and when asked to explain her performance, either invoked a gender stereotype as an excuse (e.g., women are worse at math than men) or not. The results indicated that men (but not women) showed greater gender stereotype endorsement after reading about a female target that invoked a stereotypic excuse. These results suggest that when women use a gender stereotype as an excuse, they may unintentionally cause some observers to increase their endorsement of gender stereotypes.

  2. Tracking subtle stereotypes of children with trisomy 21: from facial-feature-based to implicit stereotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enea-Drapeau, Claire; Carlier, Michèle; Huguet, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    Stigmatization is one of the greatest obstacles to the successful integration of people with Trisomy 21 (T21 or Down syndrome), the most frequent genetic disorder associated with intellectual disability. Research on attitudes and stereotypes toward these people still focuses on explicit measures subjected to social-desirability biases, and neglects how variability in facial stigmata influences attitudes and stereotyping. The participants were 165 adults including 55 young adult students, 55 non-student adults, and 55 professional caregivers working with intellectually disabled persons. They were faced with implicit association tests (IAT), a well-known technique whereby response latency is used to capture the relative strength with which some groups of people--here photographed faces of typically developing children and children with T21--are automatically (without conscious awareness) associated with positive versus negative attributes in memory. Each participant also rated the same photographed faces (consciously accessible evaluations). We provide the first evidence that the positive bias typically found in explicit judgments of children with T21 is smaller for those whose facial features are highly characteristic of this disorder, compared to their counterparts with less distinctive features and to typically developing children. We also show that this bias can coexist with negative evaluations at the implicit level (with large effect sizes), even among professional caregivers. These findings support recent models of feature-based stereotyping, and more importantly show how crucial it is to go beyond explicit evaluations to estimate the true extent of stigmatization of intellectually disabled people.

  3. Positive stereotypes, negative outcomes: Reminders of the positive components of complementary gender stereotypes impair performance in counter-stereotypical tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahalon, Rotem; Shnabel, Nurit; Becker, Julia C

    2018-04-01

    Gender stereotypes are complementary: Women are perceived to be communal but not agentic, whereas men are perceived to be agentic but not communal. The present research tested whether exposure to reminders of the positive components of these gender stereotypes can lead to stereotype threat and subsequent performance deficits on the complementary dimension. Study 1 (N = 116 female participants) revealed that compared to a control/no-stereotype condition, exposure to reminders of the stereotype about women's communality (but not to reminders of the stereotype about women's beauty) impaired women's math performance. In Study 2 (N = 86 male participants), reminders of the stereotype about men's agency (vs. a control/no-stereotype condition) impaired men's performance in a test of socio-emotional abilities. Consistent with previous research on stereotype threat, in both studies the effect was evident among participants with high domain identification. These findings extend our understanding of the potentially adverse implications of seemingly positive gender stereotypes. © 2018 The British Psychological Society.

  4. Why people stereotype affects how they stereotype: the differential influence of comprehension goals and self-enhancement goals on stereotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bos, Arne; Stapel, Diederik A

    2009-01-01

    In four studies, the authors examined the hypothesis that the way people stereotype is determined by the motives that instigate it. Study 1 measured and demonstrated the effectiveness of a commonly used priming technique to manipulate comprehension and self-enhancement goals. Study 2 demonstrated that why people stereotype determines how they stereotype: When a comprehension goal was salient, positive as well as negative stereotypes were applied, whereas a salient self-enhancement goal led to the application of negative but not positive stereotypes. Study 3 replicated these effects with different stereotypes. Study 4 replicated these effects and gave more insight in the consequences of goal fulfillment on stereotyping. Results indicated the fulfillment of a salient self-enhancement or comprehension goal led to the reduction of stereotyping. These effects were goal specific: Fulfillment of a self-enhancement goal decreased enhancement-driven but not comprehension-driven stereotyping; fulfillment of a comprehension goal decreased comprehension-driven but not enhancement-driven stereotyping.

  5. Being a Freshie is (not) Cool:stigma, capital and disgust in British Pakistani stereotypes of new subcontinental migrants

    OpenAIRE

    Charsley, Katharine A H; Bolognani, Marta

    2017-01-01

    Intra-ethnic discrimination, in the form of stereotyping of recent migrants by settled ethnic minorities, has been interpreted as internalised racism, displacing stigma, and the negotiation of local hierarchies of belonging. Stereotypes of ‘fresh off the boat’ migrants construct cultural boundaries and assertions of belonging, offering clues to processes of identity-making where ethnicity is complicated by ongoing migration. Portrayals of ‘freshies’ among British Pakistanis are particularly i...

  6. The semantic representation of prejudice and stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Sudeep

    2017-07-01

    We use a theory of semantic representation to study prejudice and stereotyping. Particularly, we consider large datasets of newspaper articles published in the United States, and apply latent semantic analysis (LSA), a prominent model of human semantic memory, to these datasets to learn representations for common male and female, White, African American, and Latino names. LSA performs a singular value decomposition on word distribution statistics in order to recover word vector representations, and we find that our recovered representations display the types of biases observed in human participants using tasks such as the implicit association test. Importantly, these biases are strongest for vector representations with moderate dimensionality, and weaken or disappear for representations with very high or very low dimensionality. Moderate dimensional LSA models are also the best at learning race, ethnicity, and gender-based categories, suggesting that social category knowledge, acquired through dimensionality reduction on word distribution statistics, can facilitate prejudiced and stereotyped associations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Perspective: adopting an asset bundles model to support and advance minority students' careers in academic medicine and the scientific pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Japera; Bozeman, Barry

    2012-11-01

    The authors contend that increasing diversity in academic medicine, science, technology, engineering, and mathematics requires the adoption of a systematic approach to retain minority high school and college students as they navigate the scientific pipeline. Such an approach should focus on the interrelated and multilayered challenges that these students face. The authors fuse an alternative conceptualization of the scientific and technical human capital theoretical framework and the theory of social identity contingencies to offer a conceptual model for targeting the critical areas in which minority students may need additional support to continue toward careers in science. Their proposed asset bundles model is grounded in the central premise that making greater progress in recruiting and retaining minorities likely requires institutions to respond simultaneously to various social cues that signal devaluation of certain identities (e.g., gender, race, socioeconomic status). The authors define "asset bundles" as the specific sets of abilities and resources individuals develop that help them succeed in educational and professional tasks, including but not limited to science and research. The model consists of five asset bundles, each of which is supported in the research literature as a factor relevant to educational achievement and, the authors contend, may lead to improved and sustained diversity: educational endowments, science socialization, network development, family expectations, and material resources. Using this framework, they suggest possible ways of thinking about the task of achieving diversity as well as guideposts for next steps. Finally, they discuss the feasibility of implementing such an approach.

  8. Chronic Stereotype Threat Is Associated With Mathematical Achievement on Representative Sample of Secondary Schoolgirls: The Role of Gender Identification, Working Memory, and Intellectual Helplessness

    OpenAIRE

    Sylwia Bedyńska; Izabela Krejtz; Grzegorz Sedek

    2018-01-01

    Stereotype threat affects performance in many different groups across many different domains. Despite a large body of experimental research on situational stereotype threat, little attention has been paid to the consequences of repeated experience of stereotype threat. Using structural equation modeling on data from a representative sample of girls from secondary schools, the current research examined the relations of chronic stereotype threat with mathematical achievement, and effectiveness ...

  9. Male Stereotypes in a Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel García Toca

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to know the attitude that men have towards stereotypes in couples relationships established by society. The rating scale used consists of 51 items divided in five families: macho thoughts, power, demonstrating feelings, expectations in couple’s relationships and how a couple is seen in society. The instrument used Likert scale, and valued by three types of discrimination, reliability and the validation to content. The instrument was applied to men in a not random way. The results indicate that now a day’s men are still concerned in following stereotypes established in couple’s relationships. However this conduct has decreased slowly and insignificantly.

  10. Physical attractiveness stereotype and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohner, Jean-Christophe; Rasmussen, Anders

    2011-08-01

    Three experiments examined explicit and implicit memory for information that is congruent with the physical attractiveness stereotype (i.e. attractive-positive and unattractive-negative) and information that is incongruent with the physical attractiveness stereotype (i.e. attractive-negative and unattractive-positive). Measures of explicit recognition sensitivity and implicit discriminability revealed a memorial advantage for congruent compared to incongruent information, as evident from hit and false alarm rates and reaction times, respectively. Measures of explicit memory showed a recognition bias toward congruent compared to incongruent information, where participants tended to call congruent information old, independently of whether the information had been shown previously or not. This recognition bias was unrelated to reports of subjective confidence in retrieval. The present findings shed light on the cognitive mechanisms that might mediate discriminatory behavior towards physically attractive and physically unattractive individuals. © 2011 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2011 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  11. Male Stereotypes in a Relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Isabel García Toca; Fernanda Nader Carreta

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study is to know the attitude that men have towards stereotypes in couples relationships established by society. The rating scale used consists of 51 items divided in five families: macho thoughts, power, demonstrating feelings, expectations in couple’s relationships and how a couple is seen in society. The instrument used Likert scale, and valued by three types of discrimination, reliability and the validation to content. The instrument was applied to men in a not random way. ...

  12. The invisible stereotypes of bisexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivony, Alon; Lobel, Thalma

    2014-08-01

    Bisexual men have little public visibility, yet previous reports indicate that heterosexuals have specific prejudicial attitudes towards them. This article reports on two studies that examined the stereotypical beliefs of heterosexual men and women regarding bisexual men. In Study 1 (n = 88), we examined awareness of social stereotypes (stereotype knowledge). Most of the participants were unable to describe the various stereotypes of bisexual men. Contrary to previous studies, low-prejudiced participants had more stereotype knowledge than high-prejudiced participants. In Study 2 (n = 232), we examined prejudice in a contextual evaluation task that required no stereotype knowledge. Participants evaluated a single target character on a first date: a bisexual man dating a heterosexual woman, a bisexual man dating a gay man, a heterosexual man dating a heterosexual woman, or a gay man dating a gay man. The findings indicated that participants implemented stereotypical beliefs in their evaluation of bisexual men: compared to heterosexual and gay men, bisexual men were evaluated as more confused, untrustworthy, open to new experiences, as well as less inclined towards monogamous relationships and not as able to maintain a long-term relationship. Overall, the two studies suggest that the stereotypical beliefs regarding bisexual men are prevalent, but often not acknowledged as stereotypes. In addition, the implementation of stereotypes in the evaluations was shown to be dependent on the potential romantic partner of the target. Possible theoretical explanations and implications are discussed.

  13. Transsexualism: An Issue of Sex-Role Stereotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Janice

    Transsexualism offers a unique perspective on gender identity, sex-role stereotyping, and sex differences in a patriarchal society. It is also an important medical ethical issue which raises questions of bodily mutilation and integrity, nature versus technology, medical research priorities, unnecessary surgery, and the medical model, as well as…

  14. Comparison of gender stereotypes with gender differences across generations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kouřilová, Sylvie; Hřebíčková, Martina

    43 2008, 3-4 (2008), s. 709-709 ISSN 0020-7594. [International Congress of Psychology /XXIX/. 21.07.2008-25.07.2008, Berlin] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA406/07/1561 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : gender differences * gender stereotypes * five-factor model Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  15. Accuracy of Slovak national stereotypes: Result of judgment or intuition?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kouřilová, Sylvie; Hřebíčková, Martina

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 2 (2011), 201-213 ISSN 0039-3320 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP407/10/2394 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : national stereotypes * judgement * five-factor model Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.197, year: 2011

  16. Predictors of Collegiate Student-Athletes' Susceptibility to Stereotype Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltz, Deborah L.; Schneider, Richard; Hwang, Seunghyun; Skogsberg, Nikolaus J.

    2013-01-01

    The present investigation sought to determine the extent to which collegiate student-athletes are susceptible to stereotype threat and the factors that predict it. We proposed a structural equation model (SEM) by which a perceived coach's positive regard for an athlete's academic ability, athletic identity, and academic identity predicts the…

  17. Stereotypes of autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draaisma, D.

    2009-01-01

    In their landmark papers, both Kanner and Asperger employed a series of case histories to shape clinical insight into autistic disorders. This way of introducing, assessing and representing disorders has disappeared from today's psychiatric practice, yet it offers a convincing model of the way

  18. Communication for social inclusion of minorities. La Clase Mágica, an intervention model for social change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Martínez Avidad

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cultural and ethnic minorities are typically among the socially and economically disadvantaged groups in most societies due to their lack of institutional representation. The aim of this paper is to propose an intervention model capable of increasing the participatory power of a minority group through sustained and strategically design interaction between them and representatives of the dominant groups in the society. The results of the case study of the socio-educational program La Clase Mágica, employing survey methods to collect data, shows that those elements contributes to develop key capabilities for the empowerment and social inclusion of the first and second generation Mexican origin immigrants in San Diego County. Furthermore, the results show that the program was a decisive factor in promoting community empowerment and voice in influencing social institutions in terms of external support.

  19. The California-Arizona Minority Partnership for Astronomy Research and Education (CAMPARE): A New Model for Promoting Minority Participation in Astronomy Research and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Alexander L.; Impey, C. D.; Bieging, J. H.; Phillips, C. B.; Tieu, J.; Prather, E. E.; Povich, M. S.

    2013-01-01

    The California-Arizona Minority Partnership for Astronomy Research and Education (CAMPARE) program represents a new and innovative kind of research program for undergraduates: one that can effectively carry out the goal of recruiting qualified minority and female students to participate in Astronomy and Planetary Science research opportunities, while mentoring them in a way to maximize the chance that these students will persist in obtaining their undergraduate degrees in STEM fields, and potentially go on to obtain their PhDs or pursue careers in those fields. The members of CAMPARE comprise a network of comprehensive universities and community colleges in Southern California and Arizona (most of which are minority serving institutions), and four major research institutions (University of Arizona Steward Observatory, the SETI Institute, and JPL/Caltech). Most undergraduate research programs focus on a single research institution. By having multiple institutions, we significantly broaden the opportunities for students, both in terms of breadth of research topics and geographical location. In its first three years, the CAMPARE program has had 20 undergraduates from two CSU campuses, both Hispanic Serving Institutions, take part in research and educational activities at four research institutions, the University of Arizona Steward Observatory, the SETI Institute, and JPL/Caltech. Of the 20 participants, 9 are women and 11 are men, a much more even split than is typical in Astronomy research programs; 10 are Hispanic, 2 are African American, and 1 is part Native American, including 2 female Hispanic and 2 female African-American participants, an exceptionally high participation rate (65%) for students from underrepresented minority groups. Of the five participants who have graduated since the program began, two are in graduate programs in Physics or Astronomy, two are pursuing a K-12 teaching credential, and one has enlisted in the Nuclear Propulsion Officer Candidate

  20. Genetic programming-based mathematical modeling of influence of weather parameters in BOD5removal by Lemna minor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Sivapragasam; Sankararajan, Vanitha; Neelakandhan, Nampoothiri; Ram Kumar, Mahalakshmi

    2017-11-04

    This study, through extensive experiments and mathematical modeling, reveals that other than retention time and wastewater temperature (T w ), atmospheric parameters also play important role in the effective functioning of aquatic macrophyte-based treatment system. Duckweed species Lemna minor is considered in this study. It is observed that the combined effect of atmospheric temperature (T atm ), wind speed (U w ), and relative humidity (RH) can be reflected through one parameter, namely the "apparent temperature" (T a ). A total of eight different models are considered based on the combination of input parameters and the best mathematical model is arrived at which is validated through a new experimental set-up outside the modeling period. The validation results are highly encouraging. Genetic programming (GP)-based models are found to reveal deeper understandings of the wetland process.

  1. The Coppin Academy for Pre-Nursing Success: a model for the recruitment and retention of minority students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Frances C; Copes, Marcella A

    2010-01-01

    There is a clearly documented need for greater minority representation in professional nursing as the nation grows more diversified. Increasing the ranks of minority nurses will assist both in alleviating the nursing shortage and in addressing the health care disparities that plague our healthcare systems. One barrier has been the recruitment and retention of underserved minority nursing students. To address this, the Coppin State University Helene Fuld School of Nursing (HFSON) in Baltimore, Maryland developed and implemented the "Coppin Academy for Pre-Nursing Success" (CAPS), a comprehensive year-round pre-entry baccalaureate preparation program, targeting high school students from disadvantaged backgrounds who are interested in a nursing career. CAPS graduates have met or exceeded goals in retention, passing rate on the nursing licensure exam, and service to the community. As a result, the program is growing, and the School plans to replicate the CAPS model, not only in surrounding communities, but in other vulnerable and under-served urban settings in the nation.

  2. Content and uniformity of stereotypes and meta-stereotypes of homeless people in Madrid (Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Vázquez Cabrera, José Juan; Panadero, Sonia; Zúñiga, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    This study analyses the content and the uniformity of meta-stereotypes among homelessness people, and the stereotypes that domiciled people have of homeless people. The research took place in Madrid (Spain), based on data provided by a representative sample of homeless people (n=188) and a sample of people at no risk of becoming homeless (n=180). Results show that stereotypes of homeless people and homeless people's meta-stereotypes predominantly have negative or indulgent content, with very ...

  3. How sadness and happiness influence ethnic stereotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žeželj Iris

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Incidental affective states tend to influence stereotyping in counterintuitive way: experimentally induced happiness leads to more stereotyping while experimentally induced sadness leads to less stereotyping. It was therefore predicted that happy subjects would a. would make more stereotype-consistent errors in memory task; b. attribute more stereotypical features to a specific ethnic group, and c. be less sensitive to ethnic discrimination in comparison to sad subjects. In a sample of 90 high school students from Belgrade, Serbia, differently valenced affects were successfully induced using 'autobiographic recollection' procedure. Experiment 1 showed that happy and sad subjects did not differ in the number of stereotype consistent errors in memory task. In experiment 2, however, happy subjects in comparison to sad subjects attributed more stereotypic traits to a non-stereotypical exemplar of a national category and expected him to behave more stereotypically in the future. Additionally, in thought listing task, happy subjects recorded more irrelevant and less story-focused thoughts in comparison to sad subjects. Finally, in Experiment 3 (N=66 sad subjects demonstrated more sensitivity to ethnic discrimination in comparison to happy subjects. These findings are discussed in terms of the impact of emotional experience on social information-processing strategies.

  4. MS PHD'S: A successful model for reaching underrepresented minorities (URM) students through virtual platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, O.; Johnson, A.; Williamson, V.; Ricciardi, L.; Jearld, A., Jr.; Guzman, W. I.

    2014-12-01

    To successfully recruit and retain underrepresented minority (URM) students and early career scientists, many programs supplement traditional curricular activities with multiple online platforms, establishing "virtual communities" that are free and easily accessible. These virtual communities offer readily sustainable opportunities to facilitate communication across a wide range of cultural lines and socioeconomic levels thereby broadening participation and inclusivity in STEM. Established in 2003, the Minorities Striving and Pursuing Higher Degrees of Success (MS PHD'S) in Earth System Science Professional Development Program has successfully used virtual community tools such as a listserv, community forum, social media, and VoIP technologies, to extend the face-to-face activities of the program and support the advancement of URM students and early career scientists in STEM. The use of multiple facets of virtual community by MS PHD'S participants supports and encourages "real life" interactions and mentorship, facilitates networking and professional development, and maintains continuity of shared networks. The program is now in its ninth cohort and supports 213 participants. To date, 54 participants have completed their PhD and another 61 are currently enrolled in doctoral programs.

  5. ADS Model in the TIRELIRE-STRATEGIE Fuel Cycle Simulation Code Application to Minor Actinides Transmutation Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garzenne, Claude; Massara, Simone; Tetart, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    Accelerator Driven Systems offer the advantage, thanks to the core sub-criticality, to burn highly radioactive elements such as americium and curium in a dedicated stratum, and then to avoid polluting with these elements the main part of the nuclear fleet, which is optimized for electricity production. This paper presents firstly the ADS model implemented in the fuel cycle simulation code TIRELIRE-STRATEGIE that we developed at EDF R and D Division for nuclear power scenario studies. Then we show and comment the results of TIRELIRE-STRATEGIE calculation of a transition scenario between the current French nuclear fleet, and a fast reactor fleet entirely deployed towards the end of the 21. century, consistently with the EDF prospective view, with 3 options for the minor actinides management:1) vitrified with fission products to be sent to the final disposal; 2) extracted together with plutonium from the spent fuel to be transmuted in Generation IV fast reactors; 3) eventually extracted separately from plutonium to be incinerated in a ADSs double stratum. The comparison of nuclear fuel cycle material fluxes and inventories between these options shows that ADSs are not more efficient than critical fast reactors for reducing the high level waste radio-toxicity; that minor actinides inventory and fluxes in the fuel cycle are more than twice as high in case of a double ADSs stratum than in case of minor actinides transmutation in Generation IV FBRs; and that about fourteen 400 MWth ADS are necessary to incinerate minor actinides issued from a 60 GWe Generation IV fast reactor fleet, corresponding to the current French nuclear fleet installed power. (authors)

  6. Girls' Math Performance under Stereotype Threat: The Moderating Role of Mothers' Gender Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasetto, Carlo; Alparone, Francesca Romana; Cadinu, Mara

    2011-01-01

    Previous research on stereotype threat in children suggests that making gender identity salient disrupts girls' math performance at as early as 5 to 7 years of age. The present study (n = 124) tested the hypothesis that parents' endorsement of gender stereotypes about math moderates girls' susceptibility to stereotype threat. Results confirmed…

  7. Changing Stereotypes, Changing Grades: A Longitudinal Study of Stereotyping during a College Math Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Laura R.; Sekaquaptewa, Denise

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has illuminated an important connection between stereotypes and the performance of those targeted by a stereotype. This body of work suggests that even implicit (i.e., nonconscious and unintended) math-gender stereotyping is related to poor math performance among women. Our longitudinal study sought to measure students'…

  8. Spontaneous default mode network phase-locking moderates performance perceptions under stereotype threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, Jordan B.; Duran-Jordan, Kelly; Magerman, Adam B.; Schmader, Toni; Allen, John J. B.

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed whether individual differences in self-oriented neural processing were associated with performance perceptions of minority students under stereotype threat. Resting electroencephalographic activity recorded in white and minority participants was used to predict later estimates of task errors and self-doubt on a presumed measure of intelligence. We assessed spontaneous phase-locking between dipole sources in left lateral parietal cortex (LPC), precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex (P/PCC), and medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC); three regions of the default mode network (DMN) that are integral for self-oriented processing. Results revealed that minorities with greater LPC-P/PCC phase-locking in the theta band reported more accurate error estimations. All individuals experienced less self-doubt to the extent they exhibited greater LPC-MPFC phase-locking in the alpha band but this effect was driven by minorities. Minorities also reported more self-doubt to the extent they overestimated errors. Findings reveal novel neural moderators of stereotype threat effects on subjective experience. Spontaneous synchronization between DMN regions may play a role in anticipatory coping mechanisms that buffer individuals from stereotype threat. PMID:25398433

  9. Spontaneous default mode network phase-locking moderates performance perceptions under stereotype threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Chad E; Leitner, Jordan B; Duran-Jordan, Kelly; Magerman, Adam B; Schmader, Toni; Allen, John J B

    2015-07-01

    This study assessed whether individual differences in self-oriented neural processing were associated with performance perceptions of minority students under stereotype threat. Resting electroencephalographic activity recorded in white and minority participants was used to predict later estimates of task errors and self-doubt on a presumed measure of intelligence. We assessed spontaneous phase-locking between dipole sources in left lateral parietal cortex (LPC), precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex (P/PCC), and medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC); three regions of the default mode network (DMN) that are integral for self-oriented processing. Results revealed that minorities with greater LPC-P/PCC phase-locking in the theta band reported more accurate error estimations. All individuals experienced less self-doubt to the extent they exhibited greater LPC-MPFC phase-locking in the alpha band but this effect was driven by minorities. Minorities also reported more self-doubt to the extent they overestimated errors. Findings reveal novel neural moderators of stereotype threat effects on subjective experience. Spontaneous synchronization between DMN regions may play a role in anticipatory coping mechanisms that buffer individuals from stereotype threat. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Semivarying coefficient models for capture-recapture data: colony size estimation for the little penguin Eudyptula minor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoklosa, Jakub; Dann, Peter; Huggins, Richard

    2014-09-01

    To accommodate seasonal effects that change from year to year into models for the size of an open population we consider a time-varying coefficient model. We fit this model to a capture-recapture data set collected on the little penguin Eudyptula minor in south-eastern Australia over a 25 year period using Jolly-Seber type estimators and nonparametric P-spline techniques. The time-varying coefficient model identified strong changes in the seasonal pattern across the years which we further examined using functional data analysis techniques. To evaluate the methodology we also conducted several simulation studies that incorporate seasonal variation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Study of market model describing the contrary behaviors of informed and uninformed agents: Being minority and being majority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Xia; Liao, Hao; Medo, Matus; Shang, Ming-Sheng; Yeung, Chi Ho

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we analyze the contrary behaviors of the informed investors and uniformed investors, and then construct a competition model with two groups of agents, namely agents who intend to stay in minority and those who intend to stay in majority. We find two kinds of competitions, inter- and intra-groups. The model shows periodic fluctuation feature. The average distribution of strategies illustrates a prominent central peak which is relevant to the peak-fat-tail character of price change distribution in stock markets. Furthermore, in the modified model the tolerance time parameter makes the agents diversified. Finally, we compare the strategies distribution with the price change distribution in real stock market, and we conclude that contrary behavior rules and tolerance time parameter are indeed valid in the description of market model.

  12. London Model of Multicultural Development: Urban Administrative Initiatives and Cultural Integration of Ethnic Minorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A B Berson

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available London is among most culturally diverse cities in Europe and in the world. This paper will investigate ethnic cultural integration of immigrants within the city's social space. Firstly the paper explores multi-cultural political inclusion strategies of London administration, municipal service provision and policy and cultural integration programs both on the city level and locally in London boroughs. Secondly this paper raises the question of the initiatives of ethnic minorities, the issue of ghettoisation and linguistic segregation of the city and analyzes the impact of such integration on social city space. The paper also analyses the preparation to Olympic Games 2012 in London as they are presented as cultural cohesion element.

  13. Disinhibition of stereotyping: Context, prejudice, and target characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kawakami, K.L.; Spears, R.; Dovidio, J.F.

    2002-01-01

    The present research examined the moderating influences of individual differences in sexism on the application of gender stereotypes to stereotypic versus nonstereotypic targets as a function of contexts that induced sex stereotypic or counterstereotypic responses. Specifically, participants first

  14. How we see the ingroup sometimes reflects how we see outgroups: Mirroring of national stereotypes in Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hřebíčková, Martina; Graf, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 59, Supplement 1 (2015), s. 91-99 ISSN 0009-062X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-25656S Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : Mirroring * national stereotypes * Five Factor Model * Stereotype Content Model Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.236, year: 2015

  15. Minor actinide transmutation using minor actinide burner reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukaiyama, T.; Yoshida, H.; Gunji, Y.

    1991-01-01

    The concept of minor actinide burner reactor is proposed as an efficient way to transmute long-lived minor actinides in order to ease the burden of high-level radioactive waste disposal problem. Conceptual design study of minor actinide burner reactors was performed to obtain a reactor model with very hard neutron spectrum and very high neutron flux in which minor actinides can be fissioned efficiently. Two models of burner reactors were obtained, one with metal fuel core and the other with particle fuel core. Minor actinide transmutation by the actinide burner reactors is compared with that by power reactors from both the reactor physics and fuel cycle facilities view point. (author)

  16. Older adult stereotypes among care providers in residential care facilities: examining the relationship between contact, eduaction, and ageism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyna, Christine; Goodwin, Eric J; Ferrari, Joseph R

    2007-02-01

    One barrier to quality elder care is ageism among care providers. In the present study, two models of stereotype reduction were tested with care providers at residential homes for older adults--the effects of contact and the effects of education on prejudice. Caregivers at five residential programs in Australia completed a survey assessing education, training, contact with older clients, prior experience, and stereotypes toward older adults. Results revealed that contact was not associated with fewer stereotypes but education (both specific and general) was associated with fewer stereotypes. Implications are discussed in terms of possible interventions and increasing optimal contact with older clients.

  17. Female gender stereotype in French advertising texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А С Борисова

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the problem of female gender stereotypes in French advertising texts. On the ground of the practical analysis of advertising texts published in some modern French periodicals, we managed to expose and define general and national-cultural female gender stereotypes fixed in collective consciousness of the French.

  18. Myths and Stereotypes in "Asterix le Gaulois"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinet, Christopher

    1978-01-01

    A discussion of "Asterix," the comic book series, and an analysis of its use of myths and stereotypes usually associated with the French. Some of these are: their love of food, individualism and spirit of resistance, sense of "Frenchness," and "esprit." Goscinny succeeds in making these stereotypes universal in application. (AMH)

  19. The Stereotypes in Pupil's Self Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cankar, Franc; Žakelj, Amalija; Grmek, Milena Ivanuš

    2012-01-01

    Through the influences of our social environment, both boys and girls learn their sexual norms, specific rules and values from the early childhood. Hence, children grow up in the world of distinct sexual duality. In their efforts to act according to their sexual stereotypes, children adopt these widespread stereotyped conceptions in developing…

  20. Cultural stereotypes in Nigerian print media advertisements ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study set out to examine the extent to which cultural stereotype roles are depicted in print advertisements in Nigeria. It specifically sought to highlight what kind of influence (negative or positive) such stereotype representations carry. The study also attempts to identify those factors that may have been responsible for the ...

  1. Visual Stereotypes and Virtual Pedagogical Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haake, Magnus; Gulz, Agneta

    2008-01-01

    The paper deals with the use of visual stereotypes in virtual pedagogical agents and its potential impact in digital learning environments. An analysis of the concept of visual stereotypes is followed by a discussion of affordances and drawbacks as to their use in the context of traditional media. Next, the paper explores whether virtual…

  2. Licensed Practical Nurses' Sex Role Stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallston, Barbara Strudler; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Examined whether sex-role stereotypes would affect nurses' (N=32) attitudes toward simulations of male and female patients. Emotional style and patients' diagnosis were manipulated. Results showed significant sex-role differences and stereotypical attitudes. Male patients were rated more positively, and were more likely to possess traditional male…

  3. Knowing about Racial Stereotypes versus Believing Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Na'ilah Suad; McKinney de Royston, Maxine; O'Connor, Kathleen; Wischnia, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Despite post-racial rhetoric, stereotypes remain salient for American youth. We surveyed 150 elementary and middle schoolers in Northern California and conducted case studies of 12 students. Findings showed that (a) students hold school-related stereotypes that get stronger in middle school, (b) African American and Latino students experience…

  4. The function of stereotypes in visual perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeyer, Greg O

    2003-01-01

    Human vision is a product of both physiological and cultural dispositions. This cultural study investigates the role of cultural dispositions in visual perception. In particular, the study focuses on the role of stereotypes, which are involved in recognition. I propose that stereotypes are essential for basic functions of perception and human perception. However, stereotypes also introduce significant limitations on human experience. The fact that stereotypes are abstract simplifications of realities is not the limiting factor, since scientific and cultural progress continually refines stereotypes. The very principle of the stereotype appears to introduce the limitation, because the process of forming stereotypes requires both temporal and functional fragmentations of the continuum of our perception. This fragmentation can be a cause of sensory overload, a postmodern condition that generates cultural, perceptual and behavioral problems. To address this problem, I propose a cultural modification to our modality of perception. The modification shifts the emphasis of our perception from the recognition of stereotypes to the recognition of flows, processes and durations. References to the work of Henri Bergson and Martin Heidegger provide the philosophical basis for this modification and several empirical and experimental examples illustrate such modifications in practice.

  5. Stereotyped: Investigating Gender in Introductory Science Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Shanda; Momsen, Jennifer; Offerdahl, Erika; Kryjevskaia, Mila; Christensen, Warren; Montplaisir, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Research in science education has documented achievement gaps between men and women in math and physics that may reflect, in part, a response to perceived stereotype threat. Research efforts to reduce achievement gaps by mediating the impact of stereotype threat have found success with a short values-affirmation writing exercise. In biology and…

  6. Gender Stereotypes in Selected Igbo Proverbs | Ezeifeka ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigates observed encodings of gender stereotypes in Igbo proverbs, the obvious pigeonhole effects of these stereotypes on male-female operational spaces, and how the fixed formats of these proverbs present them as taken-for-granted, impermeable for deconstruction and recontextualization. Drawing ...

  7. Being smart or getting smarter: Implicit theory of intelligence moderates stereotype threat and stereotype lift effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, Laura; Martiny, Sarah E; Deaux, Kay; Goetz, Thomas; Mok, Sog Yee

    2016-09-01

    This research explores implicit theory of intelligence (TOI) as a moderator of stereotype activation effects on test performance for members of negatively stereotyped and of favourably stereotyped groups. In Germany, Turkish-origin migrants are stereotyped as low in verbal ability. We predicted that on a test diagnostic of verbal intelligence, endorsement of an entity TOI predicts stereotype threat effects for Turkish-origin students and stereotype lift effects for German students. This effect could account for some of the performance gap between immigrants and host society members after stereotype activation. Study 1 (N = 107) established structural equivalence of implicit theories across the ethnic groups. In two experimental studies (Study 2: N = 182, Study 3: N = 190), we tested the moderating effect of TOI in a 2 (stereotype activation: diagnostic vs. non-diagnostic test) × 2 (ethnicity: German vs. Turkish migration background) experimental design. The results showed that when the test was described as diagnostic of verbal intelligence, higher entity theory endorsement predicted stereotype threat effects for Turkish-origin students (Study 2 and Study 3) and stereotype lift effects for German students (Study 3). The results are discussed in terms of practical implications for educational settings and theoretical implications for processes underlying stereotype activation effects. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  8. Stereotype Fit Effects for Golf Putting Nonexperts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Lisa R; Lewis, Benjamin; Maddox, W Todd; Markman, Arthur B

    2016-02-01

    Research has connected stereotype threat and regulatory fit by showing improved performance for individuals with negative stereotypes when they focused on minimizing potential losses. In the current study, non-Black participants, who were non-experts at golf putting, were told that a golf-putting task was diagnostic of natural athletic ability (i.e., negative stereotype) or sports intelligence (i.e., positive stereotype). Participants tried to maximize earned points or minimize lost points assigned after every putt, which was calculated based on the distance to a target. We demonstrate better performance for participants experiencing a fit between their global task stereotype and the task goal, and argue that regulatory fit allows for increased attention on the strategies beneficial for task performance. Interestingly, we find that performance of individuals high in working memory capacity suffers greatly when those individuals experience a regulatory mismatch.

  9. The Inaccuracy of National Character Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrae, Robert R.; Chan, Wayne; Jussim, Lee; De Fruyt, Filip; Löckenhoff, Corinna E.; De Bolle, Marleen; Costa, Paul T.; Hřebíčková, Martina; Graf, Sylvie; Realo, Anu; Allik, Jüri; Nakazato, Katsuharu; Shimonaka, Yoshiko; Yik, Michelle; Ficková, Emília; Brunner-Sciarra, Marina; Reátigui, Norma; de Figueora, Nora Leibovich; Schmidt, Vanina; Ahn, Chang-kyu; Ahn, Hyun-nie; Aguilar-Vafaie, Maria E.; Siuta, Jerzy; Szmigielska, Barbara; Cain, Thomas R.; Crawford, Jarret T.; Mastor, Khairul Anwar; Rolland, Jean-Pierre; Nansubuga, Florence; Miramontez, Daniel R.; Benet-Martínez, Veronica; Rossier, Jérôme; Bratko, Denis; Marušić, Iris; Halberstadt, Jamin; Yamaguchi, Mami; Knežević, Goran; Purić, Danka; Martin, Thomas A.; Gheorghiu, Mirona; Smith, Peter B.; Barbaranelli, Claudio; Wang, Lei; Shakespeare-Finch, Jane; Lima, Margarida P.; Klinkosz, Waldemar; Sekowski, Andrzej; Alcalay, Lidia; Simonetti, Franco; Avdeyeva, Tatyana V.; Pramila, V. S.; Terracciano, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Consensual stereotypes of some groups are relatively accurate, whereas others are not. Previous work suggesting that national character stereotypes are inaccurate has been criticized on several grounds. In this article we (a) provide arguments for the validity of assessed national mean trait levels as criteria for evaluating stereotype accuracy; and (b) report new data on national character in 26 cultures from descriptions (N=3,323) of the typical male or female adolescent, adult, or old person in each. The average ratings were internally consistent and converged with independent stereotypes of the typical culture member, but were weakly related to objective assessments of personality. We argue that this conclusion is consistent with the broader literature on the inaccuracy of national character stereotypes. PMID:24187394

  10. The Effect of Private Benefits of Control on Minority Shareholders: A Theoretical Model and Empirical Evidence from State Ownership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of private benefits of control on minority shareholders. Design/methodology/approach: A theoretical model is established. The empirical analysis includes hand-collected data from a wide range of data sources. OLS and 2SLS regression analysis are applied with Huber-White standard errors. Findings: The theoretical model shows that, while private benefits are generally harmful to minority shareholders, the overall effect depends on the size of large shareholder ownership. The empirical evidence from government ownership is consistent with theoretical analysis. Research limitations/implications: The empirical evidence is based on a small number of hand-collected data sets of government ownership. Further studies can be expanded to other types of ownership, such as family ownership and financial institutional ownership. Originality/value: This study is the first to theoretically analyse and empirically test the effect of private benefits. In general, this study significantly contributes to the understanding of the effect of large shareholder and corporate governance.

  11. Tracking subtle stereotypes of children with trisomy 21: from facial-feature-based to implicit stereotyping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Enea-Drapeau

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Stigmatization is one of the greatest obstacles to the successful integration of people with Trisomy 21 (T21 or Down syndrome, the most frequent genetic disorder associated with intellectual disability. Research on attitudes and stereotypes toward these people still focuses on explicit measures subjected to social-desirability biases, and neglects how variability in facial stigmata influences attitudes and stereotyping. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The participants were 165 adults including 55 young adult students, 55 non-student adults, and 55 professional caregivers working with intellectually disabled persons. They were faced with implicit association tests (IAT, a well-known technique whereby response latency is used to capture the relative strength with which some groups of people--here photographed faces of typically developing children and children with T21--are automatically (without conscious awareness associated with positive versus negative attributes in memory. Each participant also rated the same photographed faces (consciously accessible evaluations. We provide the first evidence that the positive bias typically found in explicit judgments of children with T21 is smaller for those whose facial features are highly characteristic of this disorder, compared to their counterparts with less distinctive features and to typically developing children. We also show that this bias can coexist with negative evaluations at the implicit level (with large effect sizes, even among professional caregivers. CONCLUSION: These findings support recent models of feature-based stereotyping, and more importantly show how crucial it is to go beyond explicit evaluations to estimate the true extent of stigmatization of intellectually disabled people.

  12. Possible ecological risk of two pharmaceuticals diclofenac and paracetamol demonstrated on a model plant Lemna minor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummerová, Marie; Zezulka, Štěpán; Babula, Petr; Tříska, Jan

    2016-01-25

    Lemna minor is often used in environmental risk assessment and it can be supposed that usually evaluated parameters will be reliable even for assessing the risk of pharmaceuticals. Subtle changes in duckweed plant number, biomass production, and leaf area size induced by 10-day-exposure to diclofenac (DCF) and paracetamol (PCT) (0.1, 10, and 100 μg/L), excepting 100 μg/L DCF, are in contrast with considerable changes on biochemical and histochemical level. Both drugs caused a decrease in content of photosynthetic pigments (by up to 50%), an increase in non-photochemical quenching (by 65%) and decrease in relative chlorophyll fluorescence decay values (by up to 90% with DCF). Both DCF and especially PCT increased amount of reactive nitrogen and oxygen species in roots. DCF-induced effects included mainly increased lipid peroxidation (by 78%), disturbation in membrane integrity and lowering both oxidoreductase and dehydrogenase activities (by 30%). PCT increased the content of soluble proteins and phenolics. Higher concentrations of both DCF and PCT increased the levels of oxidised ascorbate (by 30%) and oxidised thiols (by up to 84% with DCF). Glutathion-reductase activity was elevated by both pharmaceuticals (nearly by 90%), glutathion-S-transferase activity increased mainly with PCT (by 22%). The early and sensitive indicators of DCF and PCT phytotoxicity stress in duckweed are mainly the changes in biochemical processes, connected with activation of defense mechanisms against oxidative stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. AstroCom NYC: A National Model for Urban Minority Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglione, Timothy; Ford, Saavik; Robbins, Dennis; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; Agueros, Marcel A.

    2016-01-01

    AstroCom NYC is an undergraduate mentoring program designed to improve urban minority student access to opportunities in astrophysical research by greatly enhancing partnerships between research astronomers in New York City (City University of New York - an MSI, American Museum of Natural History, and Columbia). AstroCom NYC provides centralized, personalized mentoring as well as financial and academic support, to CUNY undergraduates throughout their studies, plus the resources and opportunities to further CUNY faculty research with students. The goal is that students' residency at AMNH helps them build a sense of belonging in the field, and readies and inspires them for graduate study. AstroCom NYC provides a rigorous Methods of Scientific Research course developed specifically to this purpose, a laptop, research and career mentors, outreach activities, scholarships and stipends, Metrocards, and regular assessment for maximum effectiveness. The goal of this support is to remove barriers to access and success. AMNH serves as the central hub for our faculty and students, who are otherwise dispersed among all five boroughs of the City. We welcomed our third and largest cohort last year, along with 13 additional students through a NASA community college initiative. We review plans for Year 4, when we expect all of our interns to compete for external summer REUs, and our growing participation and leadership within partner activities.

  14. Activating gender stereotypes during online spoken language processing: evidence from Visual World Eye Tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyykkönen, Pirita; Hyönä, Jukka; van Gompel, Roger P G

    2010-01-01

    This study used the visual world eye-tracking method to investigate activation of general world knowledge related to gender-stereotypical role names in online spoken language comprehension in Finnish. The results showed that listeners activated gender stereotypes elaboratively in story contexts where this information was not needed to build coherence. Furthermore, listeners made additional inferences based on gender stereotypes to revise an already established coherence relation. Both results are consistent with mental models theory (e.g., Garnham, 2001). They are harder to explain by the minimalist account (McKoon & Ratcliff, 1992) which suggests that people limit inferences to those needed to establish coherence in discourse.

  15. Work-related stress according to the demand-control model and minor psychic disorders in nursing workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janete de Souza Urbanetto

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This was a cross-sectional study that aimed to assess the association between work-related stress according to the Demand-Control Model, and the occurrence of Minor Psychic Disorder (MPD in nursing workers. The participants were 335 professionals, out of which 245 were nursing technicians, aged predominantly between 20 and 40 years. Data were collected using the Job Stress Scale and the Self-Reporting Questionnaire-20. The analysis was performed using descriptive and analytical statistics. The prevalence of suspected MPD was 20.6%. Workers classified in the quadrants active job and high strain of the Demand-Control Model presented higher potential for developing MPD compared with those classified in the quadrant low strain. In conclusion, stress affects the mental health of workers and the aspects related to high psychological demands and high control still require further insight in order to understand their influence on the disease processes of nursing workers.

  16. Herding, minority game, market clearing and efficient markets in a simple spin model framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristoufek, Ladislav; Vosvrda, Miloslav

    2018-01-01

    We present a novel approach towards the financial Ising model. Most studies utilize the model to find settings which generate returns closely mimicking the financial stylized facts such as fat tails, volatility clustering and persistence, and others. We tackle the model utility from the other side and look for the combination of parameters which yields return dynamics of the efficient market in the view of the efficient market hypothesis. Working with the Ising model, we are able to present nicely interpretable results as the model is based on only two parameters. Apart from showing the results of our simulation study, we offer a new interpretation of the Ising model parameters via inverse temperature and entropy. We show that in fact market frictions (to a certain level) and herding behavior of the market participants do not go against market efficiency but what is more, they are needed for the markets to be efficient.

  17. Prejudices in Cultural Contexts: Shared Stereotypes (Gender, Age) Versus Variable Stereotypes (Race, Ethnicity, Religion).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiske, Susan T

    2017-09-01

    Some prejudices share cross-cultural patterns, but others are more variable and culture specific. Those sharing cross-cultural patterns (sexism, ageism) each combine societal status differences and intimate interdependence. For example, in stereotypes of sex and age, lower status groups-women and elders-gain stereotypic warmth (from their cooperative interdependence) but lose stereotypic competence (from their lower status); men and middle-aged adults show the opposite trade-off, stereotypically more competent than warm. Meta-analyses support these widespread ambivalent (mixed) stereotypes for gender and age across cultures. Social class stereotypes often share some similarities (cold but competent rich vs. warm but incompetent poor). These compensatory warmth versus competence stereotypes may function to manage common human dilemmas of interacting across societal and personal positions. However, other stereotypes are more variable and culture specific (ethnicity, race, religion). Case studies of specific race/ethnicities and religions reveal much more cultural variation in their stereotype content, supporting their being responses to particular cultural contexts, apparent accidents of history. To change stereotypes requires understanding their commonalities and differences, their origins and patterns across cultures.

  18. Counter-stereotypical pictures as a strategy for overcoming spontaneous gender stereotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eimear eFinnegan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present research investigated the use of counter-stereotypical pictures as a strategy for overcoming spontaneous gender stereotypes when certain social role nouns and professional terms are read. Across two experiments, participants completed a judgement task in which they were presented with word pairs comprised of a role noun with a stereotypical gender bias (e.g. beautician and a kinship term with definitional gender (e.g. brother. Their task was to quickly decide whether or not both terms could refer to one person. In each experiment they completed 2 blocks of such judgement trials separated by a training session in which they were presented with pictures of people working in gender counter-stereotypical (Experiment 1 or gender stereotypical roles (Experiment 2. To ensure participants were focused on the pictures, they were also required to answer 4 questions on each one relating to the character’s leisure activities, earnings, job satisfaction and personal life. Accuracy of judgements to stereotype incongruent pairings was found to improve significantly across blocks when participants were exposed to counter-stereotype images (9.87% as opposed to stereotypical images (0.12%, while response times decreased significantly across blocks in both studies. It is concluded that exposure to counter-stereotypical pictures is a valuable strategy for overcoming spontaneous gender stereotype biases in the short term.

  19. Maximum likelihood model based on minor allele frequencies and weighted Max-SAT formulation for haplotype assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Sayyed R; Khodadadi, Ilnaz; Falsafain, Hossein; Nadimi, Reza; Ghadiri, Nasser

    2014-06-07

    Human haplotypes include essential information about SNPs, which in turn provide valuable information for such studies as finding relationships between some diseases and their potential genetic causes, e.g., for Genome Wide Association Studies. Due to expensiveness of directly determining haplotypes and recent progress in high throughput sequencing, there has been an increasing motivation for haplotype assembly, which is the problem of finding a pair of haplotypes from a set of aligned fragments. Although the problem has been extensively studied and a number of algorithms have already been proposed for the problem, more accurate methods are still beneficial because of high importance of the haplotypes information. In this paper, first, we develop a probabilistic model, that incorporates the Minor Allele Frequency (MAF) of SNP sites, which is missed in the existing maximum likelihood models. Then, we show that the probabilistic model will reduce to the Minimum Error Correction (MEC) model when the information of MAF is omitted and some approximations are made. This result provides a novel theoretical support for the MEC, despite some criticisms against it in the recent literature. Next, under the same approximations, we simplify the model to an extension of the MEC in which the information of MAF is used. Finally, we extend the haplotype assembly algorithm HapSAT by developing a weighted Max-SAT formulation for the simplified model, which is evaluated empirically with positive results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A differential algebraic approach for the modeling of polycrystalline ferromagnetic hysteresis with minor loops and frequency dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Dan; Wang, Linxiang; Melnik, Roderick

    2016-01-01

    In the current paper, a nonlinear differential algebraic approach is proposed for the modeling of hysteretic dynamics of polycrystalline ferromagnetic materials. The model is constructed by employing a phenomenological theory to the magnetization orientation switching. For the modeling of hysteresis in polycrystalline ferromagnetic materials, the single crystal model is applied to each magnetic domain along its own principal axis. The overall dynamics of the polycrystalline materials is obtained by taking a weighted combination of the dynamics of all magnetic domains. The weight function for the combination is taken as the distribution function of the principal axes. Numerical simulations are performed and comparisons with its experimental counterparts are presented. The hysteretic dynamics caused by orientation switching processes is accurately captured by the proposed model. Minor hysteresis loops associated with partial-amplitude loadings are also captured. Rate dependence of the hysteresis loops are inherently incorporated into the model due to its differential nature. - Highlights: • Predict the polycrystalline hysteresis effectively. • Sub hysteresis loop can be captured. • Frequency dependence is naturally included.

  1. A differential algebraic approach for the modeling of polycrystalline ferromagnetic hysteresis with minor loops and frequency dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Dan [State Key Laboratory of Fluid Power and Mechatronic Systems, Zhejiang University, 310027 Hangzhou (China); Wang, Linxiang, E-mail: wanglx236@zju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Fluid Power and Mechatronic Systems, Zhejiang University, 310027 Hangzhou (China); Melnik, Roderick [MS2Discovery Interdisciplinary Research Institute, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, ON, Canada N2L 3L5 (Canada)

    2016-07-15

    In the current paper, a nonlinear differential algebraic approach is proposed for the modeling of hysteretic dynamics of polycrystalline ferromagnetic materials. The model is constructed by employing a phenomenological theory to the magnetization orientation switching. For the modeling of hysteresis in polycrystalline ferromagnetic materials, the single crystal model is applied to each magnetic domain along its own principal axis. The overall dynamics of the polycrystalline materials is obtained by taking a weighted combination of the dynamics of all magnetic domains. The weight function for the combination is taken as the distribution function of the principal axes. Numerical simulations are performed and comparisons with its experimental counterparts are presented. The hysteretic dynamics caused by orientation switching processes is accurately captured by the proposed model. Minor hysteresis loops associated with partial-amplitude loadings are also captured. Rate dependence of the hysteresis loops are inherently incorporated into the model due to its differential nature. - Highlights: • Predict the polycrystalline hysteresis effectively. • Sub hysteresis loop can be captured. • Frequency dependence is naturally included.

  2. The use of stereotypes and individuating information in political person perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Jarret T; Jussim, Lee; Madon, Stephanie; Cain, Thomas R; Stevens, Sean T

    2011-04-01

    This article introduces the political person perception model, which identifies conditions under which perceivers rely on stereotypes (party membership), individuating information (issue position), or both in political person perception. Three studies supported the model's predictions. Study 1 showed that perceivers gave primacy to target information that was narrowly relevant to a judgment, whether that information was stereotypic or individuating. Study 2 found that perceivers relied exclusively on individuating information when it was narrowly relevant to the judgment and relied on both stereotype and individuating information when individuating information was not narrowly relevant to the judgment but did imply a political ideology. Study 3 replicated these findings in a more ecologically valid context and showed that people relied on party information in the absence of narrowly relevant policy positions and when individuating information did not imply a political ideology. Implications for political person perception and theories of stereotyping are discussed.

  3. How social-class stereotypes maintain inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, Federica; Fiske, Susan T

    2017-12-01

    Social class stereotypes support inequality through various routes: ambivalent content, early appearance in children, achievement consequences, institutionalization in education, appearance in cross-class social encounters, and prevalence in the most unequal societies. Class-stereotype content is ambivalent, describing lower-SES people both negatively (less competent, less human, more objectified), and sometimes positively, perhaps warmer than upper-SES people. Children acquire the wealth aspects of class stereotypes early, which become more nuanced with development. In school, class stereotypes advantage higher-SES students, and educational contexts institutionalize social-class distinctions. Beyond school, well-intentioned face-to-face encounters ironically draw on stereotypes to reinforce the alleged competence of higher-status people and sometimes the alleged warmth of lower-status people. Countries with more inequality show more of these ambivalent stereotypes of both lower-SES and higher-SES people. At a variety of levels and life stages, social-class stereotypes reinforce inequality, but constructive contact can undermine them; future efforts need to address high-status privilege and to query more heterogeneous samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Content of teachers' stereotypes about adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đerić Ivana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Discourse on 'problematic behavior' of the young in adolescence period is often present in lay, media, professional and scientific public. In this research, we performed empirical testing of the psychological concept of 'storm and stress', which is manifested by stereotypes about adolescents as rebels. The goal was to establish whether teachers hold stereotypes about younger adolescents as a social group and what the content of the stereotype is. Research participants were 193 teachers teaching the seventh grade in ten Belgrade primary schools. Factor analysis method established the presence of several factors, which reflect the psychological content and meaning of teachers' stereotypes about younger adolescents. The results of our research point out: (a that stereotypes of teachers about younger adolescents stand in partial correspondence with the content of a widely distributed concept of 'storm and stress'; (b that this concept is mostly loaded with a negative perception of pupils on the part of teachers and (c that teachers less often perceive pupils through the prism of some positive qualities. That is, teachers think that these positive qualities are not 'typical' qualities of adolescents if they are observed as a group. Interviewed teachers hold stereotypes about younger adolescents, but intensity and valence of stereotypes vary depending on the nature of obtained factors.

  5. They Are What You Hear in Media Reports: The Racial Stereotypes toward Uyghurs Activated by Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Jin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Stereotypes from the major nationality toward minorities constitute a widely concerning problem in many countries. As reported by previous studies, stereotypes can be activated by media information that portrays the negative aspects of the target group. The current study focused on the neural basis of the modulation of negative media information on Han Chinese stereotypes toward Uyghurs by using event-related potentials. We employed the lexical decision task, in which participants were asked to categorize the presented word as positive or negative. Behavioral result showed that participants had a shorter reaction time to positive adjectives than to negative adjectives. The data of brain activity showed that compared with the Han condition, the Uyghurs condition elicited smaller N400 differences in the media priming group, whereas there was no significant N400 deflection difference between Han Chinese and Uyghurs in the control group. The current results suggested that the negative media information might influence their judgments toward other groups reflected in the deflection of N400 amplitude. Therefore, in order to mitigate or even eliminate stereotypes about national minorities, the effort of the media is important.

  6. They Are What You Hear in Media Reports: The Racial Stereotypes toward Uyghurs Activated by Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jia; Pei, Guanxiong; Ma, Qingguo

    2017-01-01

    Stereotypes from the major nationality toward minorities constitute a widely concerning problem in many countries. As reported by previous studies, stereotypes can be activated by media information that portrays the negative aspects of the target group. The current study focused on the neural basis of the modulation of negative media information on Han Chinese stereotypes toward Uyghurs by using event-related potentials. We employed the lexical decision task, in which participants were asked to categorize the presented word as positive or negative. Behavioral result showed that participants had a shorter reaction time to positive adjectives than to negative adjectives. The data of brain activity showed that compared with the Han condition, the Uyghurs condition elicited smaller N400 differences in the media priming group, whereas there was no significant N400 deflection difference between Han Chinese and Uyghurs in the control group. The current results suggested that the negative media information might influence their judgments toward other groups reflected in the deflection of N400 amplitude. Therefore, in order to mitigate or even eliminate stereotypes about national minorities, the effort of the media is important. PMID:29270104

  7. Unethical Female Stereotypes in Reproductive Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garanina I. G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The author considers the established stereotypes which are summarized prejudices identifying the membership of certain people in a certain group. The article reveals that women are victims of stereotyping them as housekeepers and mothers in the negative sense, which exclude them from performing other roles and functions. There are examples from the foreign legislation where they dispel the stereotype of a woman as a reproductive instrument and uphold the woman‘s right to equal dignity with men in their reproductive choice

  8. The influence of stereotype threat on immigrants: review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Appel, Markus; Weber, Silvana; Kronberger, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    In many regions around the world students with certain immigrant backgrounds underachieve in educational settings. This paper provides a review and meta-analysis on one potential source of the immigrant achievement gap: stereotype threat, a situational predicament that may prevent students to perform up to their full abilities. A meta-analysis of 19 experiments suggests an overall mean effect size of 0.63 (random effects model) in support of stereotype threat theory. The results are complemen...

  9. Qualitative study of the behavior of minor species during a stratospheric warming with a 3-D model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaroson, R.; Pirre, M.; Cariolle, D.

    1994-01-01

    It is well-known that the behavior of the ozone layer depends upon the coupling between several processes in the atmosphere. Natural or anthropogenic pollutants emitted from the surface or injected directly at high altitude may affect this layer. Assessment studies for long-term changes of the ozone layer are conducted with the aid of various two-dimensional models. These models describe the long-term and seasonal evolution of minor constituents and take into account the interaction between all processes. However, many limitations affect the self-consistency of these models e.g., the circulation in these models is only meridional and vertical and is not able to represent all types of motion in the atmosphere. During a perturbed winter in the north polar regions, the vortex is displaced from the pole to lower latitude so that wind may be reversed at a given location. Perturbed air masses are transported outside the darkened regions and may mix with local air masses. Three-dimensional models are the only tools which can describe correctly these sporadic phenomena.

  10. A socio-ecological model for unintentional injuries in minorities: a case study of Arab Israeli children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron-Epel, Orna; Ivancovsky, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Minority children have often been reported to be at high risk of injury. The higher levels of reported unintentional injuries among Arab children compared to Jewish children in Israel are mainly due to pedestrian traffic crashes, falls and burns. Arab children aged 1-4 years have a higher relative risk of injury compared to Jews. We suggest a socio-ecological model to explain these differences in risk based on individual, interpersonal, community and societal ecological levels of society. Each level is divided into social and physical environments and behaviour. Two main factors may contribute to the high rates of injury among Arab children: the quality of the physical environment in which the children live and play and the levels of child supervision. Socio-economic status may contribute to these differences at all ecological levels of society. This approach could be useful for researchers and practitioners to analyse similar issues in other communities and help develop appropriate interventions.

  11. Crisis and emergency risk communication in a pandemic: a model for building capacity and resilience of minority communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouse Quinn, Sandra

    2008-10-01

    As public health agencies prepare for pandemic influenza, it is evident from our experience with Hurricane Katrina that these events will occur in the same social, historical, and cultural milieu in which marked distrust of government and health disparities already exist. This article grapples with the challenges of crisis and emergency risk communication with special populations during a pandemic. Recognizing that targeting messages to specific groups poses significant difficulties at that time, this article proposes a model of community engagement, disaster risk education, and crisis and emergency risk communication to prepare minority communities and government agencies to work effectively in a pandemic, build the capacity of each to respond, and strengthen the trust that is critical at such moments. Examples of such engagement and potential strategies to enhance trust include tools familiar to many health educators.

  12. Seeing is not stereotyping: the functional independence of categorization and stereotype activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Tiffany A; Tomelleri, Silvia

    2017-05-01

    Social categorization has been viewed as necessarily resulting in stereotyping, yet extant research suggests the two processes are differentially sensitive to task manipulations. Here, we simultaneously test the degree to which race perception and stereotyping are conditionally automatic. Participants performed a sequential priming task while either explicitly attending to the race of face primes or directing attention away from their semantic nature. We find a dissociation between the perceptual encoding of race and subsequent activation of associated stereotypes, with race perception occurring in both task conditions, but implicit stereotyping occurring only when attention is directed to the race of the face primes. These results support a clear conceptual distinction between categorization and stereotyping and show that the encoding of racial category need not result in stereotype activation. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  13. Discrimination, Subjective Wellbeing, and the Role of Gender: A Mediation Model of LGB Minority Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlin, Sarah E; Douglass, Richard P; Ouch, Staci

    2017-10-26

    The present study examined the link between discrimination and the three components of subjective wellbeing (positive and negative affect and life satisfaction) among a cisgender sample of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adults. Specifically, we investigated internalized homonegativity and expectations of rejection as potential mediators of the links between discrimination and subjective wellbeing among a sample of 215 participants. Results from our structural equation model demonstrated a strong, positive direct link between discrimination and negative affect. Discrimination also had small, negative indirect effects on life satisfaction through our two mediators. Interestingly, neither discrimination nor our two mediators were related with positive affect, demonstrating the need for future research to uncover potential buffers of this link. Finally, our model evidenced configural, metric, and scalar invariance, suggesting that our model applies well for both women and men. Practical implications and future directions for research are discussed.

  14. The Impact of Engineering Identification and Stereotypes on Undergraduate Women's Achievement and Persistence in Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brett D.; Ruff, Chloe; Paretti, Marie C.

    2013-01-01

    Women almost always comprise a minority in engineering programs and a smaller percentage of women pursue engineering than other science and technology majors. The culture of engineering departments and negative stereotypes of women's engineering and mathematical ability have been identified as factors that inhibit women's entry into…

  15. Do Students' Religion and School Absences Moderate the Effect of Ethnic Stereotypes on School-Placement Recommendations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapproth, Florian; Kärchner, Henrike; Glock, Sabine

    2018-01-01

    The results of two experiments demonstrate that preservice teachers made biased school-placement recommendations depending on student's ethnicity, which on average penalized students from an ethnic minority. Moreover, additional information that was supposed to disconfirm ethnic stereotypes (religious affiliation in Experiment 1, number of missed…

  16. Warmth and competence in your face! Visual encoding of stereotype content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland eImhoff

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous research suggests that stereotypes about a group’s warmth bias our visual representation of group members. Based on the Stereotype Content Model the current research explored whether the second big dimension of social perception, competence, is also reflected in visual stereotypes. To test this, participants created typical faces for groups either high in warmth and low in competence (male nursery teachers or vice versa (managers in a reverse correlation image classification task, which allows for the visualization of stereotypes without any a priori assumptions about relevant dimensions. In support of the independent encoding of both SCM dimensions hypotheses-blind raters judged the resulting visualizations of nursery teachers as warmer but less competent than the resulting image for managers, even when statistically controlling for judgments on one dimension. People thus seem to use facial cues indicating both relevant dimensions to make sense of social groups in a parsimonious, non-verbal and spontaneous manner.

  17. The persistent stereotype: children's images of scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emens McAdam, Janice

    1990-03-01

    Through their reading children learn to regard scientists as eccentrics. It is shown that this stereotype has persisted for over thirty years and affects many adult attitudes. Some methods of breaking the author-reader cycle are suggested.

  18. Herding, minority game, market clearing and efficient markets in a simple spin model framework

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krištoufek, Ladislav; Vošvrda, Miloslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 1 (2017), s. 148-155 ISSN 1007-5704 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP402/12/G097 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 612955 - FINMAP Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Ising model * Efficient market hypothesis * Monte Carlo simulation Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Applied Economics, Econometrics Impact factor: 2.784, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2017/E/kristoufek-0474986.pdf

  19. Stereotypic movement disorder: easily missed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Roger D; Soltanifar, Atefeh; Baer, Susan

    2010-08-01

    To expand the understanding of stereotypic movement disorder (SMD) and its differentiation from tics and autistic stereotypies. Forty-two children (31 males, mean age 6y 3mo, SD 2y 8mo; 11 females, mean age 6y 7mo, SD 1y 9mo) consecutively diagnosed with SMD, without-self-injurious behavior, intellectual disability, sensory impairment, or an autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), were assessed in a neuropsychiatry clinic. A list of probe questions on the nature of the stereotypy was administered to parents (and to children if developmentally ready). Questionnaires administered included the Stereotypy Severity Scale, Short Sensory Profile, Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, Repetitive Behavior Scale--Revised, and the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire. The stereotyped movement patterns were directly observed and in some cases further documented by video recordings made by parents. The probe questions were used again on follow-up at a mean age of 10 years 7 months (SD 4y 4mo). Mean age at onset was 17 months. Males exceeded females by 3:1. Family history of a pattern of SMD was reported in 13 and neuropsychiatric comorbidity in 30 (attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder in 16, tics in 18, and developmental coordination disorder in 16). Obsessive-compulsive disorder occurred in only two. The Short Sensory Profile correlated with comorbidity (p<0.001), the Stereotypy Severity Scale (p=0.009), and the Repetitive Behavior Scale (p<0.001); the last correlated with the Stereotypy Severity Scale (p=0.001). Children (but not their parents) liked their movements, which were usually associated with excitement or imaginative play. Mean length of follow-up was 4 years 8 months (SD 2y 10mo). Of the 39 children followed for longer than 6 months, the behavior stopped or was gradually shaped so as to occur primarily privately in 25. Misdiagnosis was common: 26 were initially referred as tics, 10 as ASD, five as compulsions, and one as epilepsy. Co-occurring facial

  20. Gender Stereotypes in Same-Sex Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Bro, Jesper Koch; Jensen, Ditte; Stokholm, Martin Valdemar Sachse; Kristoffersen, Simone Ryegaard; Tranberg, Line Falk

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Through five qualitative interviews with people that currently are or have been in same-sex relationship, analyzed by applying the theories of social constructivism by Peter L. Berger and Thomas Luckmann and Queer theorist Judith Butler, the project explores heterosexual stereotypes in same-sex relationships. The result is a thoroughgoing analysis where it appears from the interviews as if the interviewed people reproduce heterosexual stereotypical gender roles in their relationsh...

  1. Adapting the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills Model: Predicting HIV-Related Sexual Risk among Sexual Minority Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Colleen M.

    2012-01-01

    Young sexual minority males are among those at highest risk for HIV infection, yet we know relatively little about the impact of sexual identity development on HIV risk. This study used cross-sectional data to investigate factors associated with HIV-related sexual risk among a sample of sexual minority males (n = 156), ages 14 to 21 years, using…

  2. Trait Implications as a Moderator of Recall of Stereotype-Consistent and Stereotype-Inconsistent Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijksterhuis, Ap; Knippenberg, Ad van

    1996-01-01

    Tests the assumption that organization in memory of behavior information and recall depends on the descriptive relatedness of consistent information with inconsistent information. Subjects read stereotype-consistent and stereotype-inconsistent behavioral descriptions implying the same trait dimension or different trait dimensions. Predictions were…

  3. A Lesson Not to Be Learned? Understanding Stereotype Threat Does Not Protect Women from Stereotype Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasetto, Carlo; Appoloni, Sara

    2013-01-01

    This research examines whether reading a text presenting scientific evidence concerning the phenomenon of stereotype threat improves or disrupts women's performance in a subsequent math task. In two experimental conditions participants (N=118 ) read a text summarizing an experiment in which stereotypes, and not biological differences, were shown…

  4. Why we stereotype influences how we stereotype. Self-enhancemmt and comprehension effects on social perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Arne van den

    2008-01-01

    Stereotypes are generalized beliefs about the characteristics of groups of individuals and form the basis of prejudice. Stereotyping can be functional in at least two ways: as a tool to understand the world around us and because it can help to elevate ones self-esteem. In this dissertation, the

  5. Does stereotype threat influence performance of girls in stereotyped domains? : A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flore, P.C.; Wicherts, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Although the effect of stereotype threat concerning women and mathematics has been subject to various systematic reviews, none of them have been performed on the sub-population of children and adolescents. In this meta-analysis we estimated the effects of stereotype threat on performance of girls on

  6. Stereotype validation: the effects of activating negative stereotypes after intellectual performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jason K; Thiem, Kelsey C; Barden, Jamie; Stuart, Jillian O'Rourke; Evans, Abigail T

    2015-04-01

    With regard to intellectual performance, a large body of research has shown that stigmatized group members may perform more poorly when negative, self-relevant stereotypes become activated prior to a task. However, no research to date has identified the potential ramifications of stereotype activation that happens after-rather than before-a person has finished performing. Six studies examined how postperformance stereotype salience may increase the certainty individuals have in evaluations of their own performance. In the current research, the accessibility of gender or racial stereotypes was manipulated after participants completed either a difficult math test (Studies 1-5) or a test of child-care knowledge (Study 6). Consistent with predictions, stereotype activation was found to increase the certainty that women (Studies 1, 2, 4, and 5), African Americans (Study 3), and men (Study 6) had toward negative evaluations of their own test performance. These effects emerged when performance-related perceptions were stereotype consistent rather than inconsistent (Studies 1-6) and were found to be most pronounced among those who were highly identified with the stereotyped group (Study 5). Furthermore, greater certainty-triggered by negative stereotypes-predicted lowered domain-relevant beliefs (Studies 1, 2, 3, and 6) and differential exposure to domain-relevant stimuli (Studies 4 and 5). (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. The impact of Stereotype Threat on the simulated driving performance of older drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joanisse, Mélanie; Gagnon, Sylvain; Voloaca, Mihnea

    2013-01-01

    Older drivers are perceived as being dangerous and overly cautious by other drivers. We tested the hypothesis that this negative stereotype has a direct influence on the performance of older drivers. Based on the Stereotype Threat literature, we predicted that older driving performance would be altered after exposure to a Stereotype Threat. Sixty-one older drivers aged 65 and above completed a simulated driving assessment course. Prior to testing, half of the participants were told that the objective of the study was to investigate why older adults aged 65 and above were more implicated in on-road accidents (Stereotype Threat condition) and half were showed a neutral statement. Results confirmed that exposure to the threat significantly altered driving performance. Older adults in the Stereotype Threat condition made more driving mistakes than those in the control group. Interestingly, under a Stereotype Threat condition, older adults tended to commit more speeding infractions. We also observed that domain identification (whether driving is deemed important or not) moderated the impact of the threat. Taken together, these results support recent older drivers' performance models suggesting that the interaction between individual and social factors need to be considered when examining older drivers' performance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. On the gender–science stereotypes held by scientists: explicit accord with gender-ratios, implicit accord with scientific identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Frederick L.; Nosek, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Women's representation in science has changed substantially, but unevenly, over the past 40 years. In health and biological sciences, for example, women's representation among U.S. scientists is now on par with or greater than men's, while in physical sciences and engineering they remain a clear minority. We investigated whether variation in proportions of women in scientific disciplines is related to differing levels of male-favoring explicit or implicit stereotypes held by students and scientists in each discipline. We hypothesized that science-is-male stereotypes would be weaker in disciplines where women are better represented. This prediction was tested with a sample of 176,935 college-educated participants (70% female), including thousands of engineers, physicians, and scientists. The prediction was supported for the explicit stereotype, but not for the implicit stereotype. Implicit stereotype strength did not correspond with disciplines' gender ratios, but, rather, correlated with two indicators of disciplines' scientific intensity, positively for men and negatively for women. From age 18 on, women who majored or worked in disciplines perceived as more scientific had substantially weaker science-is-male stereotypes than did men in the same disciplines, with gender differences larger than 0.8 standard deviations in the most scientifically-perceived disciplines. Further, particularly for women, differences in the strength of implicit stereotypes across scientific disciplines corresponded with the strength of scientific values held by women in the disciplines. These results are discussed in the context of dual process theory of mental operation and balanced identity theory. The findings point to the need for longitudinal study of the factors' affecting development of adults' and, especially, children's implicit gender stereotypes and scientific identity. PMID:25964765

  9. On the gender-science stereotypes held by scientists: explicit accord with gender-ratios, implicit accord with scientific identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Frederick L; Nosek, Brian A

    2015-01-01

    Women's representation in science has changed substantially, but unevenly, over the past 40 years. In health and biological sciences, for example, women's representation among U.S. scientists is now on par with or greater than men's, while in physical sciences and engineering they remain a clear minority. We investigated whether variation in proportions of women in scientific disciplines is related to differing levels of male-favoring explicit or implicit stereotypes held by students and scientists in each discipline. We hypothesized that science-is-male stereotypes would be weaker in disciplines where women are better represented. This prediction was tested with a sample of 176,935 college-educated participants (70% female), including thousands of engineers, physicians, and scientists. The prediction was supported for the explicit stereotype, but not for the implicit stereotype. Implicit stereotype strength did not correspond with disciplines' gender ratios, but, rather, correlated with two indicators of disciplines' scientific intensity, positively for men and negatively for women. From age 18 on, women who majored or worked in disciplines perceived as more scientific had substantially weaker science-is-male stereotypes than did men in the same disciplines, with gender differences larger than 0.8 standard deviations in the most scientifically-perceived disciplines. Further, particularly for women, differences in the strength of implicit stereotypes across scientific disciplines corresponded with the strength of scientific values held by women in the disciplines. These results are discussed in the context of dual process theory of mental operation and balanced identity theory. The findings point to the need for longitudinal study of the factors' affecting development of adults' and, especially, children's implicit gender stereotypes and scientific identity.

  10. On the Gender-Science Stereotypes held by Scientists: Explicit accord with Gender-Ratios, Implicit accord with Scientific Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick L Smyth

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Women’s representation in science has changed substantially, but unevenly, over the past 40 years. In health and biological sciences, for example, women’s representation among U.S. scientists is now on par with or greater than men’s, while in physical sciences and engineering they remain a clear minority. We investigated whether variation in proportions of women in scientific disciplines is related to differing levels of male-favoring explicit or implicit stereotypes held by students and scientists in each discipline. We hypothesized that science-is-male stereotypes would be weaker in disciplines where women are better represented. This prediction was tested with a sample of 176,935 college-educated participants (70% female, including thousands of engineers, physicians, and scientists. The prediction was supported for the explicit stereotype, but not for the implicit stereotype. Implicit stereotype strength did not correspond with disciplines’ gender ratios, but, rather, correlated with two indicators of disciplines’ scientific intensity, positively for men and negatively for women. From age 18 on, women who majored or worked in disciplines perceived as more scientific had substantially weaker science-is-male stereotypes than did men in the same disciplines, with gender differences larger than 0.8 standard deviations in the most scientifically-perceived disciplines. Further, particularly for women, differences in the strength of implicit stereotypes across scientific disciplines corresponded with the strength of scientific values held by women in the disciplines. These results are discussed in the context of dual process theory of mental operation and balanced identity theory. The findings point to the need for longitudinal study of the factors’ affecting development of adults’ and, especially, children’s implicit gender stereotypes and scientific identity.

  11. Evidence for the social role theory of stereotype content: observations of groups' roles shape stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Anne M; Eagly, Alice H

    2014-09-01

    In applying social role theory to account for the content of a wide range of stereotypes, this research tests the proposition that observations of groups' roles determine stereotype content (Eagly & Wood, 2012). In a novel test of how stereotypes can develop from observations, preliminary research collected participants' beliefs about the occupational roles (e.g., lawyer, teacher, fast food worker, chief executive officer, store clerk, manager) in which members of social groups (e.g., Black women, Hispanics, White men, the rich, senior citizens, high school dropouts) are overrepresented relative to their numbers in the general population. These beliefs about groups' typical occupational roles proved to be generally accurate when evaluated in relation to data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Then, correlational studies predicted participants' stereotypes of social groups from the attributes ascribed to group members' typical occupational roles (Studies 1a, 1b, and 1c), the behaviors associated with those roles (Study 2), and the occupational interest profile of the roles (Study 3). As predicted by social role theory, beliefs about the attributes of groups' typical roles were strongly related to group stereotypes on both communion and agency/competence. In addition, an experimental study (Study 4) demonstrated that when social groups were described with changes to their typical social roles in the future, their projected stereotypes were more influenced by these future roles than by their current group stereotypes, thus supporting social role theory's predictions about stereotype change. Discussion considers the implications of these findings for stereotype change and the relation of social role theory to other theories of stereotype content. 2014 APA, all rights reserved

  12. Tests of multiplicative models in psychology: a case study using the unified theory of implicit attitudes, stereotypes, self-esteem, and self-concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanton, Hart; Jaccard, James

    2006-01-01

    Theories that posit multiplicative relationships between variables are common in psychology. A. G. Greenwald et al. recently presented a theory that explicated relationships between group identification, group attitudes, and self-esteem. Their theory posits a multiplicative relationship between concepts when predicting a criterion variable. Greenwald et al. suggested analytic strategies to test their multiplicative model that researchers might assume are appropriate for testing multiplicative models more generally. The theory and analytic strategies of Greenwald et al. are used as a case study to show the strong measurement assumptions that underlie certain tests of multiplicative models. It is shown that the approach used by Greenwald et al. can lead to declarations of theoretical support when the theory is wrong as well as rejection of the theory when the theory is correct. A simple strategy for testing multiplicative models that makes weaker measurement assumptions than the strategy proposed by Greenwald et al. is suggested and discussed.

  13. Restricted, canonical, stereotyped and convergent immunoglobulin responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry Dunand, Carole J; Wilson, Patrick C

    2015-09-05

    It is becoming evident that B-cell responses to particular epitopes or in particular contexts can be highly convergent at the molecular level. That is, depending on the epitope targeted, persons of diverse genetic backgrounds and immunological histories can use highly similar, stereotyped B-cell receptors (BCRs) for a particular response. In some cases, multiple people with immunity to a particular epitope or with a type of B-cell neoplasia will elicit antibodies encoded by essentially identical immunoglobulin gene rearrangements. In other cases, particular VH genes encode antibodies important for immunity against pathogens such as influenza and HIV. It appears that the conserved antibody structures driving these stereotyped responses are highly limited and selected. There are interesting and important convergences in the types of stereotyped BCRs induced in conditions of immunity and B-cell-related pathology such as cancer and autoimmunity. By characterizing and understanding stereotyped B-cell responses, novel approaches to B-cell immunity and in understanding the underlying causes of B-cell pathology may be discovered. In this paper, we will review stereotyped BCR responses in various contexts of B-cell immunity and pathology. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  14. Social stereotypes in realities of modern society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. K. Kolisnyk

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the article the author analyzes the social stereotypes as a stable emotional image of the nowadays social reality. It is a kind of the common and effective ways to use the manipulation technology to impact on society. This kind of interaction could made a transformation of social identities, spreading different forms of intolerance, creating phantom world. Making the analysis of this phenomenon of social reality is a real way to reduce social risks and unforeseen conflicts in society. It is noted that stereotypical thinking making perception of reality in some special way, offering of tern an illusion of reality, instead of an objective information. Subjects of social interactions should recognize and consciously abandon them in favor of perception of reality in its undistorted not limited form of social stereotypes that goes beyond the usual concepts or contradict them. However, this phenomenon is ambivalent  and not only has a negative side. The positive expression of stereotypical thinking is that it simplifies the processes of learning and creativity, allowing extensive use of existing knowledge, which is actually a complex set of stereotypes.

  15. Ethnic minority ageing and intergenerational relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    This paper deals with the dynamics of ageing among ethnic minorities within a broad psychosocial framework involving the transnational contexts. Based on findings from psychotherapy with older adults (Knight, 2004) and a couple of empirical studies (Singla, 2008, Westerling, 2008) with young adults......, reciprocal expectations, ambivalences. The results of these studies show a convergence in the filial norms among ethnic groups in the Danish welfare state. The unique aspects of the young adults’ trajectories challenge, transgress and transform some of the stereotypes related to cultural practices...

  16. Testing Stereotype Threat: Does Anxiety Explain Race and Sex Differences in Achievement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Jason W.

    2001-07-01

    Steele's (1992, 1997) stereotype-threat theory attempts to explain underperformance of minority students in academic domains and of women in mathematics. Steele argues that situational self-relevance of negative group stereotypes in testing situations increases the anxiety these students experience and that these differential anxiety levels explain performance differences. Research shows that manipulation of stereotype threat can affect academic performance. However, there has been little research testing whether anxiety does at least partially explain the relationship between race and achievement. The goal of this study was to examine whether anxiety will explain racial differences in academic performance and gender differences in math performance in the context of a nationally representative sample of high school seniors. Partial mediation was observed, with anxiety explaining significant portions of the racial differences in academic performance. Anxiety also partially explained sex differences in math achievement, although the effect sizes were very small. These results provide general support for Steele's stereotype-threat hypothesis. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  17. Models of interinstitutional partnerships between research intensive universities and minority serving institutions (MSI) across the Clinical Translational Science Award (CTSA) consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofili, Elizabeth O; Fair, Alecia; Norris, Keith; Verbalis, Joseph G; Poland, Russell; Bernard, Gordon; Stephens, David S; Dubinett, Steven M; Imperato-McGinley, Julianne; Dottin, Robert P; Pulley, Jill; West, Andrew; Brown, Arleen; Mellman, Thomas A

    2013-12-01

    Health disparities are an immense challenge to American society. Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSAs) housed within the National Center for Advancing Translational Science (NCATS) are designed to accelerate the translation of experimental findings into clinically meaningful practices and bring new therapies to the doorsteps of all patients. Research Centers at Minority Institutions (RCMI) program at the National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities (NIMHD) are designed to build capacity for biomedical research and training at minority serving institutions. The CTSA created a mechanism fostering formal collaborations between research intensive universities and minority serving institutions (MSI) supported by the RCMI program. These consortium-level collaborations activate unique translational research approaches to reduce health disparities with credence to each academic institutions history and unique characteristics. Five formal partnerships between research intensive universities and MSI have formed as a result of the CTSA and RCMI programs. These partnerships present a multifocal approach; shifting cultural change and consciousness toward addressing health disparities, and training the next generation of minority scientists. This collaborative model is based on the respective strengths and contributions of the partnering institutions, allowing bidirectional interchange and leveraging NIH and institutional investments providing measurable benchmarks toward the elimination of health disparities. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Models of Interinstitutional Partnerships between Research Intensive Universities and Minority Serving Institutions (MSI) across the Clinical Translational Science Award (CTSA) Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fair, Alecia; Norris, Keith; Verbalis, Joseph G.; Poland, Russell; Bernard, Gordon; Stephens, David S.; Dubinett, Steven M.; Imperato‐McGinley, Julianne; Dottin, Robert P.; Pulley, Jill; West, Andrew; Brown, Arleen; Mellman, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Health disparities are an immense challenge to American society. Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSAs) housed within the National Center for Advancing Translational Science (NCATS) are designed to accelerate the translation of experimental findings into clinically meaningful practices and bring new therapies to the doorsteps of all patients. Research Centers at Minority Institutions (RCMI) program at the National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities (NIMHD) are designed to build capacity for biomedical research and training at minority serving institutions. The CTSA created a mechanism fostering formal collaborations between research intensive universities and minority serving institutions (MSI) supported by the RCMI program. These consortium‐level collaborations activate unique translational research approaches to reduce health disparities with credence to each academic institutions history and unique characteristics. Five formal partnerships between research intensive universities and MSI have formed as a result of the CTSA and RCMI programs. These partnerships present a multifocal approach; shifting cultural change and consciousness toward addressing health disparities, and training the next generation of minority scientists. This collaborative model is based on the respective strengths and contributions of the partnering institutions, allowing bidirectional interchange and leveraging NIH and institutional investments providing measurable benchmarks toward the elimination of health disparities. PMID:24119157

  19. Science Majors and Degrees among Asian-American Students: Influences of Race and Sex in "model Minority" Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yu; Hanson, Sandra L.

    Both race and sex continue to be factors that stratify entry into science education and occupations in the United States. Asian-Americans (men and women) have experienced considerable success in the sciences and have earned the label of "model minority." The complexities and patterns involved in this success remain elusive. We use several concepts coming out of the status attainment framework and a multicultural gender perspective to explore the way in which race and sex come together to influence choices of science major and degree. Our sample consists of Asian-American and white students in the National Educational Longitudinal Study. Findings suggest that being male and being Asian-American are both associated with higher chances of pursuing majors and degrees in science. The male advantage is greater than the Asian-American advantage. Findings also suggest that race and sex interact in the science decision. For example, race differences (with an Asian-American advantage) in choice of science major are significant for women but not men. Sex differences (with a male advantage) in choice of science major are significant in the white, but not the Asian-American sample. A different set of race and sex patterns is revealed in the science degree models. Processes associated with family socioeconomic status and student characteristics help to explain race and sex patterns. Findings suggest that when Asian-American youths have closer ties to the Asian culture, they are more likely to choose science majors and degrees. Implications for policy, practice, and research in science education are discussed.

  20. Disinhibition of stereotyping : context, prejudice, and target characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kawakami, K; Spears, R; Dovidio, JF

    2002-01-01

    The present research examined the moderating influences of individual differences in sexism on the application of gender stereqtypes to stereotypic versus nonstereotypic targets as a function of contexts that induced sex stereotypic or counterstereotypic responses. Specifically, participants first

  1. The Consequences of Chronic Stereotype Threat: Domain Disidentification and Abandonment

    OpenAIRE

    Woodcock, Anna; Hernandez, Paul R.; Estrada, Mica; Schultz, P. Wesley

    2012-01-01

    Stereotype threat impairs performance across many domains. Despite a wealth of research, the long-term consequences of chronic stereotype threat have received little empirical attention. Beyond the immediate impact on performance, the experience of chronic stereotype threat is hypothesized to lead to domain disidentification and eventual domain abandonment. Stereotype threat is 1 explanation why African Americans and Hispanic/Latino(a)s “leak” from each juncture of the academic scientific pip...

  2. Compensatory hypertrophy of the teres minor muscle after large rotator cuff tear model in adult male rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichinose, Tsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Tsutomu; Shitara, Hitoshi; Shimoyama, Daisuke; Iizuka, Haku; Koibuchi, Noriyuki; Takagishi, Kenji

    2016-02-01

    Rotator cuff tear (RCT) is a common musculoskeletal disorder in the elderly. The large RCT is often irreparable due to the retraction and degeneration of the rotator cuff muscle. The integrity of the teres minor (TM) muscle is thought to affect postoperative functional recovery in some surgical treatments. Hypertrophy of the TM is found in some patients with large RCTs; however, the process underlying this hypertrophy is still unclear. The objective of this study was to determine if compensatory hypertrophy of the TM muscle occurs in a large RCT rat model. Twelve Wistar rats underwent transection of the suprascapular nerve and the supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendons in the left shoulder. The rats were euthanized 4 weeks after the surgery, and the cuff muscles were collected and weighed. The cross-sectional area and the involvement of Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling were examined in the remaining TM muscle. The weight and cross-sectional area of the TM muscle was higher in the operated-on side than in the control side. The phosphorylated Akt/Akt protein ratio was not significantly different between these sides. The phosphorylated-mTOR/mTOR protein ratio was significantly higher on the operated-on side. Transection of the suprascapular nerve and the supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendons activates mTOR signaling in the TM muscle, which results in muscle hypertrophy. The Akt-signaling pathway may not be involved in this process. Nevertheless, activation of mTOR signaling in the TM muscle after RCT may be an effective therapeutic target of a large RCT. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Minorities and Language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorter, D.

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between minorities and language is complicated and related to the development of nation-states. Language minorities, as a social group, are distinguished from minority languages. The definition of minority is problematic. The size of a minority can differ widely. For membership,

  4. Gender Stereotypes in Science Education Resources : A Visual Content Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhoven, A.H.; Rodrigues, Dos Santos Russo P.M.; Land, A.M.; Saxena, A.; Rodenburg, F.J.

    2016-01-01

    More men are studying and working in science fields than women. This could be an effect of the prevalence of gender stereotypes (e.g., science is for men, not for women). Aside from the media and people’s social lives, such stereotypes can also occur in education. Ways in which stereotypes are

  5. The Living Gender Curriculum: Helping FCS Students Analyze Gender Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein-Schultz, Martha

    2016-01-01

    The concept of gender stereotypes permeates the lives of youth in the United States. This article provides background information and rationale for incorporating gender stereotype analysis into family and consumer sciences (FCS) coursework. The critical analysis of gender stereotypes includes numerous activities and assessments that encourage…

  6. Japanese International Female Students' Experience of Discrimination, Prejudice, and Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonazzo, Claude; Wong, Y. Joel

    2007-01-01

    This qualitative study examined four Japanese international female college students' experience of discrimination, prejudice, and stereotypes in a predominately white university. Four themes emerged from the analysis of data: (1) overt forms of prejudice and discrimination; (2) stereotypes common to Asians; (3) stereotypes unique to the Japanese;…

  7. Stereotypes about Children with Traditional and Nontraditional Gender Roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Carol Lynn

    1995-01-01

    Assessed adults' stereotypes of gender-traditional and nontraditional children by analyzing undergraduates' ratings of the desirability of 25 personality traits, and their classifying children as "tomboys" or "sissies" based on 26 traits and behaviors. Results show extensive adult stereotyping of young children. Tomboys were stereotyped similar to…

  8. 276 The Felonious Stereotyping of the Woman in Nollywood Films ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tracie1

    Keywords: Stereotyping, Gender roles, Idemili, Woman, Violence,. Nature, Nurture. .... express her self-will and make sound judgments in the film, especially .... gender stereotypes are beliefs and attitudes about masculinity and femininity. It goes ahead to state that: The concepts of gender role and gender stereotype tend to.

  9. Prejudice Masquerading as Praise: The Negative Echo of Positive Stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siy, John Oliver; Cheryan, Sapna

    2016-07-01

    Five studies demonstrate the powerful connection between being the target of a positive stereotype and expecting that one is also being ascribed negative stereotypes. In Study 1, women who heard a man state a positive stereotype were more likely to believe that he held negative stereotypes of them than women who heard no stereotype. Beliefs about being negatively stereotyped mediated the relationship between hearing a positive stereotype and believing that the stereotyper was prejudiced. Studies 2 to 4 extended these results to Asian Americans and accounted for alternative explanations (e.g., categorization threat). In Study 5, the same positive stereotype (e.g., good at math) was directed to Asian American men's racial or gender identity. Their perceptions about whether negative racial or gender stereotypes were being applied to them depended on the identity referenced by the positive stereotype. Positive stereotypes signal a latent negativity about one's group, thereby explaining why they can feel like prejudice. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  10. Media Stereotypes Analysis in the Classroom at the Student Audience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Media Stereotypes Analysis is the identification and analysis of stereotypical images of people, ideas, events, stories, themes and etc. in media texts. Media stereotype reflects the well-established attitudes towards a particular object, it is schematic averaged, familiar, stable representation of genres, social processes/events, ideas, people,…

  11. An Examination of Stereotype Threat Effects on Girls' Mathematics Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganley, Colleen M.; Mingle, Leigh A.; Ryan, Allison M.; Ryan, Katherine; Vasilyeva, Marina; Perry, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Stereotype threat has been proposed as 1 potential explanation for the gender difference in standardized mathematics test performance among high-performing students. At present, it is not entirely clear how susceptibility to stereotype threat develops, as empirical evidence for stereotype threat effects across the school years is inconsistent. In…

  12. Stigma of persons with disabilities in Afghanistan: Examining the pathways from stereotyping to mental distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trani, Jean-Francois; Ballard, Ellis; Peña, Juan B

    2016-03-01

    Despite evidence that stigma of disability is frequently reflected through stereotyping and often results in mental distress, very limited literature demonstrates the pathways through which stereotyping has an impact on mental health. Drawing from a large sample of 1449 participants interviewed between December 2012 and September 2013 from an Afghan community-based rehabilitation program, we examined the structure of stigma associated with disability in Afghanistan. Labeling and negative stereotypes, associated with a specific cause of disability, result in social exclusion that in turn impacts mental health. Using structural equation modeling with latent variables, we examined the mediation effect of stereotypes associated with disability on mental distress and anxiety. We found a mediating role of social exclusion between stereotypes and mental distress but only in the case of persons with disabilities from birth. Comparing the total effect of 'disabled at birth' and mental distress 0.195 (95% CI: 0.018-0.367) the effect size of this mediation effect was 0.293 (95% CI: 0.173-0.415). There was no significant direct effect between 'disabled at birth' and mental distress once mediation effect was accounted for in our model. These findings suggest that a multipronged policy approach that recognizes the driving forces of stigma and promotes social participation directly alongside psychosocial interventions on mental distress of persons with disabilities is necessary to achieve wellbeing for a group that has been historically and systematically excluded from development interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessing age stereotypes in the German population in 1996 and 2011: socio-demographic correlates and shift over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangenberg, Lena; Zenger, Markus; Glaesmer, Heide; Brähler, Elmar; Strauss, Bernhard

    2018-03-01

    The present study aimed to extend the knowledge regarding dimensionality, socio-demographic correlates and shifts in age stereotypes over the past 15 years using a time-sequential design. In 1996 and 2011, we assessed age stereotypes in two independent samples of the German population aged ≥ 45 years ( N  = 970 in sample 1, N  = 1545 in sample 2). Three scales with six items each were assessed. Two scales cover negative (i.e., rigidity/isolation, burden), and one scale covers positive age stereotypes (wisdom/experience). Dimensionality of the scale, associations with socio-demographic variables and whether the stereotypes have shifted were tested using confirmatory factor analyses, structural equation modeling and analyses of variances. Three dimensions were identified and replicated following an exploratory as well as a confirmatory approach. Age stereotypes did shift between 1996 and 2011 in the dimension burden (i.e., becoming more negative). Our results further underpin the finding that age stereotypes are multifaceted and suggest that dimensions do not change over time. Additionally, our data provide some evidence that societal age stereotypes partly change over time.

  14. Being black in a white skin: Beliefs and stereotypes around albinism at a South African university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Relebohile Phatoli

    2015-05-01

    Objectives: The study endeavoured to explore the beliefs and practices regarding albinism within a South African university, and the availability of support services. Method: The research was located within an interpretive qualitative paradigm and was framed within the theories of stigma, discrimination and ‘othering’. Interviews were conducted with five students with albinism and 10 students without albinism. Results: Findings confirmed the existence of myths and stereotypes regarding albinism. Students with albinism tended to exclude themselves from the rest of the student community to avoid discrimination and stereotypes around their condition. Conclusion: People with albinism can teach us about social constructions of race, colour and relations between minority groups and the majority culture. Results have implications for schools, disability units at universities, and albinism societies in terms of opening up channels of communication between people with albinism and the general public and fostering knowledge and awareness thereof.

  15. Stereotype or success? Prime-time television's portrayals of gay male, lesbian, and bisexual characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raley, Amber B; Lucas, Jennifer L

    2006-01-01

    The current content analysis of prime-time network television during the fall of 2001 seeks to identify the representation of Gay male, Lesbian, and Bisexual characters in shows known to have one reoccurring homosexual character based on the theories of Clark and Berry. Clark (1969) established four stages of media representation for minority groups: non-representation, ridicule, regulation, and respect. The findings of the study support the premise that Gay males and Lesbians have passed Clark's stage of non-representation and have progressed into the stage of ridicule and some are moving into the stages of regulation and respect. Berry (1980) devised three periods based on the television portrayal of Blacks: The Stereotypic Age, The New Awareness, and Stabilization. Results were mixed, with only a partial support of the hypothesis that Gay males and Lesbians had advanced beyond The Stereotypic Age.

  16. Stereotype Endorsement And Mathematics-Related Behaviour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    By endorsing the stereotypic belief that Mathematics is a male-only subject, some females accept the limitation placed on them by the gendering process and this inhibits the identification, development and utilization of their Mathematics ability for the development of self and the society. To determine the extent and effect of ...

  17. Europeans among themselves: Geographical and linguistic stereotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mamadouh, V.D.; Dąbrowska, A.; Pisarek, W.; Stickel, G.

    2017-01-01

    Stereotypes can be studied from the perspective of political geography and critical geopolitics as part of geographical imaginations, in other words those geopolitical representations that help us make sense of the world around us. They necessarily frame our perception of ongoing events, and inform

  18. Looking at the Male Librarian Stereotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Thad E.

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of library profession stereotypes focuses on academic male librarians. Topics include the position of the early academic librarians and the environment in which they worked; the beginnings of reference service; women in academic libraries; men in a feminized profession; and current images of male librarians in motion pictures and…

  19. Spreading stereotypes through media and translation

    OpenAIRE

    van Doorslaer, Luc

    2009-01-01

    This presentation makes a distinction between several subcategories in the field of media translation, mainly between research on audiovisual translation and news translation. It brings in imagology as a framework for the examples of stereotyping and translation of images in news translation.

  20. Sex Role Stereotypes Are Alive and Well.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snodgrass, Sara E.

    Two studies, in late 1988 and early 1990, examined sex-role stereotypes held by northeastern liberal arts college students (N=719) and southern state university college students (N=145). The first study used the Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ) and compared ratings of men and women with the traditional sex-roles represented by the PAQ in…

  1. Gender Stereotypes in Children's Picture Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narahara, May M.

    Research has examined how gender stereotypes and sexism in picture books affect the development of gender identity in young children, how children's books in the last decade have portrayed gender, and how researchers evaluate picture books for misrepresentations of gender. A review of the research indicated that gender development is a critical…

  2. Racial and Ethnic Stereotypes and Bullying Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peguero, Anthony A.; Williams, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Bullying is a serious problem within the U.S. school system. Prior research suggests that victimization is stratified by race and ethnicity. However, few studies consider factors that may moderate this relationship. This article extends research on this topic by considering whether stereotypes moderate bullying among racial and ethnic youth. Youth…

  3. Stereotype-based modulation of person perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadflieg, Susanne; Flannigan, Natasha; Waiter, Gordon D; Rossion, Bruno; Wig, Gagan S; Turk, David J; Macrae, C Neil

    2011-07-15

    A core social-psychological question is how cultural stereotypes shape our encounters with other people. While there is considerable evidence to suggest that unexpected targets-such as female airline pilots and male nurses-impact the inferential and memorial aspects of person construal, it has yet to be established if early perceptual operations are similarly sensitive to the stereotype-related status of individuals. To explore this issue, the current investigation measured neural activity while participants made social (i.e., sex categorization) and non-social (i.e., dot detection) judgments about men and women portrayed in expected and unexpected occupations. When participants categorized the stimuli according to sex, stereotype-inconsistent targets elicited increased activity in cortical areas associated with person perception and conflict resolution. Comparable effects did not emerge during a non-social judgment task. These findings begin to elucidate how and when stereotypic beliefs modulate the formation of person percepts in the brain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Adaptive memory: stereotype activation is not enough

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otgaar, H.; Smeets, T.; Merckelbach, H.; Jelicic, M.; Verschuere, B.; Galliot, A.M.; van Riel, L.

    2011-01-01

    Studies have shown that survival processing leads to superior memorability. The aim of the present study was to examine whether this survival recall advantage might result from stereotype activation. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a pilot study and two experiments in which participants were

  5. Combatting Stereotype Threat: College Math Classroom Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretty, Joelle

    2017-01-01

    This research provides new insight into stereotype threat by examining a real-world intervention in community college classrooms. Practitioners need information about which interventions work in authentic school settings to implement them and begin to bring educational equity to historically marginalized students. The experimental study examined…

  6. Minority engineering scholarships, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Scholarships for Minority Students Studying Engineering and Science: Support will make scholarships available to minority students : interested in engineering and science and will increase significantly the number of minority students that Missouri S...

  7. Cultural stereotypes as gatekeepers: increasing girls’ interest in computer science and engineering by diversifying stereotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Cheryan, Sapna; Master, Allison; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2015-01-01

    Despite having made significant inroads into many traditionally male-dominated fields (e.g., biology, chemistry), women continue to be underrepresented in computer science and engineering. We propose that students’ stereotypes about the culture of these fields—including the kind of people, the work involved, and the values of the field—steer girls away from choosing to enter them. Computer science and engineering are stereotyped in modern American culture as male-oriented fields that involve ...

  8. Gender stereotype-inconsistent acts are seen as more acceptable than stereotype-consistent acts, if they are clever

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijs, M.H.J.; Lammers, J.; Ratliff, Kate A.

    2015-01-01

    Four studies show that gender stereotype-inconsistent behavior is seen as more acceptable than gender stereotype-consistent behavior, if it is clever. Four studies found consistently that participants rated the behavior of a man who relied on attractiveness or passiveness (stereotypically female) to

  9. Priming Prejudice: How Stereotypes and Counter-Stereotypes Influence Attribution of Responsibility and Credibility among Ingroups and Outgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, J. Gerard; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examines the effect of priming negative stereotypic and positive counter-stereotypic portrayals of African Americans and women on interpretations of actual media events. Shows that a counter-stereotypic portrayal of an African American male led participants to make more external or situational attributions of responsibility to other African…

  10. Threatening the heart and mind of gender stereotypes: Can imagined contact influence the physiology of stereotype threat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Ben; Friedman, Bruce H

    2016-01-01

    Research shows that when a gender stereotype is made salient and the target of the stereotype is asked to perform in the stereotyped domain, targets of the stereotype often perform at a lower level compared to situations when the stereotype was not made salient. The noticeable absence of female faculty and students in math and science departments at coed universities throughout the United States may increase the belief in gender stereotypes and discourage women from pursuing careers in these fields. Contact with counterstereotypical exemplars, such as female science experts, decreases belief in gender stereotypes and increases women's motivation to pursue careers in science. Thus, the present study examined whether imagining an interpersonal interaction with a counterstereotypical exemplar removes the physiological and performance effects of stereotype threat. Subjects were asked to imagine either a nature scene or meeting a female math professor, and were also assigned to either a control or stereotype threat condition. Imagination was used because studies have shown it to be an effective method of simulating interpersonal contact. Subjects were 139 young women (mean age 19 years) recruited from a pool of undergraduates. Results showed that the stereotype threat manipulation elicited greater vagal withdrawal and poorer working memory capacity during the n-back, and that vagal withdrawal was attenuated when the stereotype threat manipulation was preceded by a brief imagined interaction with a counterstereotypical exemplar. This study provides novel evidence that exposure to counterstereotypical exemplars can diminish cardiovascular reactions to salient information about threatening gender stereotypes. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  11. When abstraction does not increase stereotyping : Preparing for intragroup communication enables abstract construal of stereotype-inconsistent information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greijdanus, Hedy; Postmes, Tom; Gordijn, Ernestine H.; van Zomeren, Martijn

    2014-01-01

    Two experiments investigated when perceivers can construe stereotype-inconsistent information abstractly (i.e., interpret observations as generalizable) and whether stereotype-consistency delimits the positive relation between abstract construal level and stereotyping. Participants (N1=104, N2=83)

  12. Cultural stereotypes as gatekeepers: increasing girls' interest in computer science and engineering by diversifying stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheryan, Sapna; Master, Allison; Meltzoff, Andrew N

    2015-01-01

    Despite having made significant inroads into many traditionally male-dominated fields (e.g., biology, chemistry), women continue to be underrepresented in computer science and engineering. We propose that students' stereotypes about the culture of these fields-including the kind of people, the work involved, and the values of the field-steer girls away from choosing to enter them. Computer science and engineering are stereotyped in modern American culture as male-oriented fields that involve social isolation, an intense focus on machinery, and inborn brilliance. These stereotypes are compatible with qualities that are typically more valued in men than women in American culture. As a result, when computer science and engineering stereotypes are salient, girls report less interest in these fields than their male peers. However, altering these stereotypes-by broadening the representation of the people who do this work, the work itself, and the environments in which it occurs-significantly increases girls' sense of belonging and interest in the field. Academic stereotypes thus serve as gatekeepers, driving girls away from certain fields and constraining their learning opportunities and career aspirations.

  13. On the Leaky Math Pipeline: Comparing Implicit Math-Gender Stereotypes and Math Withdrawal in Female and Male Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, Melanie C.; Jelenec, Petra; Noack, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Many models assume that habitual human behavior is guided by spontaneous, automatic, or implicit processes rather than by deliberate, rule-based, or explicit processes. Thus, math-ability self-concepts and math performance could be related to implicit math-gender stereotypes in addition to explicit stereotypes. Two studies assessed at what age…

  14. The physical attractiveness stereotype in a consumer-related situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, H; Kanekar, S

    1994-06-01

    A mixed factorial design was used to examine the physical attractiveness stereotype in the context of consumer behavior, with physical attractiveness and clothing elegance as between-subjects variables and type of consumer product as a within-subject variable. Female graduate students in India were shown photographs of a young female model and were asked to indicate the quality of four consumer products that the model was likely to choose. Product quality was rated higher for the attractive model than for the plain (nonattractive) model, but the difference was significant only for beauty products. Product quality was rated higher for the elegantly dressed model than for the model who was not elegantly dressed, irrespective of product type.

  15. A Values-Affirmation Intervention Does Not Benefit Negatively Stereotyped Immigrant Students in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Margaretha De Jong

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous research showed that a values-affirmation intervention can help reduce the achievement gap between African American and European American students in the US. In the present study, it was examined if these results would generalize to ethnic minority students in a country outside the US, namely the Netherlands, where there is also an achievement gap between native and ethnic minority students. This type of intervention was tested in two separate studies, the first among first-year pre-vocational students (n = 361, 84% ethnic minority, and the second among sixth grade students (n = 290, 96% ethnic minority. Most minority participants had a Turkish-Dutch or Moroccan-Dutch immigrant background. In the second study, a third condition was added to the original paradigm, in which students elaborated on either their affirmation- or a control exercise with the help of a teaching assistant. We also examined whether values affirmation affected the level of problem behavior of negatively stereotyped ethnic minority youth. Contrary to what was expected, multilevel analyses revealed that the intervention had no effect on the school achievement or the problem behavior of the ethnic minority students. Possible explanations for these findings, mainly related to contextual and cultural differences between the Netherlands and the US, are discussed.

  16. Age and Gender Differences in Facial Attractiveness, but Not Emotion Resemblance, Contribute to Age and Gender Stereotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Palumbo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Considerable research has shown effects of facial appearance on trait impressions and group stereotypes. We extended those findings in two studies that investigated the contribution of resemblance to emotion expressions and attractiveness to younger adults (YA and older adults (OA age and gender stereotypes on the dimensions of warmth and competence. Using connectionist modeling of facial metrics of 240 neutral younger and older faces, Study 1 found that, neutral expression older faces or female faces showed greater structural resemblance to happy expressions and less resemblance to angry expressions than did younger or male faces, respectively. In addition, neutral female faces showed greater resemblance to surprise expressions. In Study 2, YA and OA rated the faces of Study 1 for attractiveness and for 4 traits that we aggregated on the dimensions of competence (competent, healthy and warmth (trustworthy, not shrewd. We found that YA, but not OA, age stereotypes replicated previous research showing higher perceived warmth and lower perceived competence in older adults. In addition, previously documented gender stereotypes were moderated by face age for both YA and OA. The greater attractiveness of younger than older faces and female than male faces influenced age and gender stereotypes, including these deviations from prior research findings using category labels rather than faces. On the other hand, face age and face sex differences in emotion resemblance did not influence age or gender stereotypes, contrary to prediction. Our results provide a caveat to conclusions about age and gender stereotypes derived from responses to category labels, and they reveal the importance of assessing stereotypes with a methodology that is sensitive to influences of group differences in appearance that can exacerbate or mitigate stereotypes in more ecologically valid contexts. Although the gender differences in attractiveness in the present study may not have

  17. Age and Gender Differences in Facial Attractiveness, but Not Emotion Resemblance, Contribute to Age and Gender Stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Rocco; Adams, Reginald B; Hess, Ursula; Kleck, Robert E; Zebrowitz, Leslie

    2017-01-01

    Considerable research has shown effects of facial appearance on trait impressions and group stereotypes. We extended those findings in two studies that investigated the contribution of resemblance to emotion expressions and attractiveness to younger adults (YA) and older adults (OA) age and gender stereotypes on the dimensions of warmth and competence. Using connectionist modeling of facial metrics of 240 neutral younger and older faces, Study 1 found that, neutral expression older faces or female faces showed greater structural resemblance to happy expressions and less resemblance to angry expressions than did younger or male faces, respectively. In addition, neutral female faces showed greater resemblance to surprise expressions. In Study 2, YA and OA rated the faces of Study 1 for attractiveness and for 4 traits that we aggregated on the dimensions of competence (competent, healthy) and warmth (trustworthy, not shrewd). We found that YA, but not OA, age stereotypes replicated previous research showing higher perceived warmth and lower perceived competence in older adults. In addition, previously documented gender stereotypes were moderated by face age for both YA and OA. The greater attractiveness of younger than older faces and female than male faces influenced age and gender stereotypes, including these deviations from prior research findings using category labels rather than faces. On the other hand, face age and face sex differences in emotion resemblance did not influence age or gender stereotypes, contrary to prediction. Our results provide a caveat to conclusions about age and gender stereotypes derived from responses to category labels, and they reveal the importance of assessing stereotypes with a methodology that is sensitive to influences of group differences in appearance that can exacerbate or mitigate stereotypes in more ecologically valid contexts. Although the gender differences in attractiveness in the present study may not have generalizability

  18. Stereotype Threat Alters the Subjective Experience of Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, Marie; Régner, Isabelle; Rigalleau, François; Huguet, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    There is now evidence that negative age-related stereotypes about memory reduce older adults' memory performance, and inflate age differences in this domain. Here, we examine whether stereotype threat may also influence the basic feeling that one is more or less able to remember. Using the Remember/Know paradigm, we demonstrated that stereotype threat conducted older adults to a greater feeling of familiarity with events, while failing to retrieve any contextual detail. This finding indicates that stereotype threat alters older adults' subjective experience of memory, and strengthens our understanding of the mechanisms underlying stereotype threat effects.

  19. Angels and swingers, matrons and sinners: nursing stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferns, Terry; Chojnacka, Irena

    Media sexual stereotyping of the nursing profession is a well-recognized phenomenon; however the sexual stereotyping of the image of the nurse by the sex/pornography industry is a much less publicized or discussed phenomenon within the nursing profession. This paper aims to examine the presentation of the sexual stereotyping of nurses by newspapers and the sex/pornography industry. Both national and local newspapers in the UK frequently use derogatory terminology to depict the sexual stereotyping of nurses. Images and sexual stereotyping of nursing by the sex industry is also noted. The media was found to emphasize both positive and negative nursing stereotypes and in comparison with other occupations and professions sexual stereotyping was prevalent. The utilization of nursing imagery is also significantly visible across a wide range of pornographic and sex industry material.

  20. Overdiagnosis of ADHD in boys: Stereotype impact on neuropsychological assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresson, Megan; Meulemans, Thierry; Dardenne, Benoit; Geurten, Marie

    2018-02-12

    There is vigorous debate regarding the possibility that ADHD is overdiagnosed in boys. We investigated the impact of the gender stereotype depicting boys as inattentive and impulsive on neuropsychological assessment (observation of psychology students and child's cognitive performance). In experiment 1, after the stereotype was activated, psychology students rated a "boy," a "girl," or a "child" on a behavioral assessment scale. In experiment 2, 103 children (boys and girls) completed neuropsychological tasks under stereotype threat or neutral conditions. The gender stereotype led psychology students to assess a child's behaviors more negatively if they thought the child was a boy. Boys' performance on one cognitive score declined following stereotype threat. Regression path analyses suggested moderation by stigma consciousness. Additionally, there were mediating and suppressing (through stereotype endorsement) effects. Our results suggest that the gender stereotype might contribute to the overdiagnosis of ADHD in boys.

  1. Age and Race Differences in Racial Stereotype Awareness and Endorsement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copping, Kristine E.; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Rowley, Stephanie J.; Wood, Dana

    2012-01-01

    Age and race differences in race stereotype awareness and endorsement were examined in 382 Black and White fourth, sixth, and eighth graders. Youth reported their own beliefs and their perceptions of adults’ beliefs about racial differences in ability in two domains: academics and sports. Children’s own endorsement of race stereotypes was highly correlated with their perceptions of adults’ race stereotypes. Blacks reported stronger traditional sports stereotypes than Whites, and fourth- and sixth-grade Blacks reported roughly egalitarian academic stereotypes. At every grade level, Whites reported academic stereotypes that favored Whites, and sixth and eighth grade Whites reported sports stereotypes that favored Blacks. Results support the tenets of status theory and have implications for identity development and achievement motivation in adolescents. PMID:23729837

  2. Age and Gender Differences in Facial Attractiveness, but Not Emotion Resemblance, Contribute to Age and Gender Stereotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Palumbo, Rocco; Adams, Reginald B.; Hess, Ursula; Kleck, Robert E.; Zebrowitz, Leslie

    2017-01-01

    Considerable research has shown effects of facial appearance on trait impressions and group stereotypes. We extended those findings in two studies that investigated the contribution of resemblance to emotion expressions and attractiveness to younger adults (YA) and older adults (OA) age and gender stereotypes on the dimensions of warmth and competence. Using connectionist modeling of facial metrics of 240 neutral younger and older faces, Study 1 found that, neutral expression older faces or f...

  3. The Minority Game : An Economics Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kets, W.

    2007-01-01

    This paper gives a critical account of the minority game literature. The minority game is a simple congestion game: players need to choose between two options, and those who have selected the option chosen by the minority win. The learning model proposed in this literature seems to differ markedly

  4. Ethno-cultural duality and, ethnic, stereotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žikić Bojan P.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A construction of an individual identity, in dual ethno-cultural environments, is often based on a premise that an ethnic identity is a primary human determinant. In such dual ethno-cultural communities, a basic ethnic stereotype could be called „relational“: it is founded on the concept of „Others/We-group“ distinction, where the Others appear as a main reason for the existence of the We-group members who use the distinction. This stereotype is based on the following premises: the first one says that a local socio-cultural reality contains two solid ethno-cultural groups, whereas the other suggests that in a local context, there exist just „They“ as a solid ethno-cultural group while among „Us“ the solidity is in fact, limited to ethnic affiliation. The consequence of the attitude is pervasive presentation of intra-ethnic differences, more than mere stereotyping of the Others. These stereotypes are based on the so-called „homeland“ classifications and appear to represent a small ethnography of ideas and images on what constitutes and makes a local ethnic community. The stereotypes of this particular kind are more often seen among members of Serbian ethnic group, at least based on a research in two local communities - Bečej and Seleuš. In the two communities, the prevailing attitudes on intra-ethnic differences and the stereotypes developed out of the differences are more numerous and elaborated, based on the „homeland“ classification. This cultural, cognitive process is a consequence of intertwining of two perspectives in understanding of the We-group. The first perspective narrates about the We-group ethnic background, and the second emphasizes the group domicile, that is, it defines the We-group in space. The first perspective is founded, more or less, on indispensable experience of an ethnic identity, while the other perspective is more based on empirical experience; the second perspective is also a creation of a

  5. The effect of research method type on stereotypes' content: A brief research report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Daniel; Bizo, Aurelian; Cimpean, Alina Ioana; Oltean, Horea; Cardos, Roxana; Soflau, Radu; Negut, Alexandra

    2018-01-01

    Stereotype Content Model (SCM) emphasizes the content rather than the underlying processes of the stereotypes and the content might be influenced by several cultural dimensions (e.g., individualism vs. collectivism). The main dimensions of SCM-namely warmth and competence-underlying various contents are assumed to be universal. However, from a cognitive science paradigm, we argue that different research methods (i.e., data collections and data analysis) might also yield different stereotype contents that might impact the universality versus specificity problem in the SCM. Indeed, using a sample from a collectivistic country (i.e., Romania), we found that using different methods in data collection (i.e., unstructured vs. semi-structured vs. structured interview) and different methods of data analysis (i.e., availability vs. accessibility scores) might be an important research strategy to counter artefacts and confusions in the universality versus specificity problem related to the SCM. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  6. Twórca - stereotyp - profilowanie, czyli literacka rzeczywistość alternatywna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Tokarz

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The man lives in the culture built by him, which also includes stereotypes both created and used by the writer, belonging to the structure of the composition the stereotypes reference convention, scheme, model and cliché. They are forms of consciousness and as such they do not make a category in poetics, becoming closer to the rhetoric embodied by different shapes of thoughts. At the same time they are not shapes of thoughts, but rather forms of consciousness. Stereotypes are terms and phenomena on the border of humanities, such as myth or topos. They exist in the area of all culture. The community sanctions their presence, both positive and negative.

  7. Nations’ Income Inequality Predicts Ambivalence in Stereotype Content: How Societies Mind the Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, Federica; Fiske, Susan T.; Kervyn, Nicolas; Cuddy, Amy J. C.; Akande, Adebowale (Debo); Adetoun, Bolanle E.; Adewuyi, Modupe F.; Tserere, Magdeline M.; Ramiah, Ananthi Al; Mastor, Khairul Anwar; Barlow, Fiona Kate; Bonn, Gregory; Tafarodi, Romin W.; Bosak, Janine; Cairns, Ed; Doherty, Claire; Capozza, Dora; Chandran, Anjana; Chryssochoou, Xenia; Iatridis, Tilemachos; Contreras, Juan Manuel; Costa-Lopes, Rui; González, Roberto; Lewis, Janet I.; Tushabe, Gerald; Leyens, Jacques-Philippe; Mayorga, Renée; Rouhana, Nadim N.; Castro, Vanessa Smith; Perez, Rolando; Rodríguez-Bailón, Rosa; Moya, Miguel; Morales Marente, Elena; Palacios Gálvez, Marisol; Sibley, Chris G.; Asbrock, Frank; Storari, Chiara C.

    2013-01-01

    Income inequality undermines societies: the more inequality, the more health problems, social tensions, and the lower social mobility, trust, life expectancy. Given people’s tendency to legitimate existing social arrangements, the Stereotype Content Model (SCM) argues that ambivalence—perceiving many groups as either warm or competent, but not both—may help maintain socio-economic disparities. The association between stereotype ambivalence and income inequality in 37 cross-national samples from Europe, the Americas, Oceania, Asia, and Africa investigates how groups’ overall warmth-competence, status-competence, and competition-warmth correlations vary across societies, and whether these variations associate with income inequality (Gini index). More unequal societies report more ambivalent stereotypes, while more equal ones dislike competitive groups and do not necessarily respect them as competent. Unequal societies may need ambivalence for system stability: income inequality compensates groups with partially positive social images. PMID:23039178

  8. The Influence of Stereotype Threat on Immigrants: Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus eAppel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In many regions around the world students with certain immigrant backgrounds underachieve in educational settings. This paper provides a review and meta-analysis on one potential source of the immigrant achievement gap: stereotype threat, a situational predicament that may prevent students to perform up to their full abilities. A meta-analysis of 19 experiments suggests an overall mean effect size of .63 (random effects model in support of stereotype threat theory. The results are complemented by moderator analyses with regard to circulation (published or unpublished research, cultural context (US vs. Europe, age of immigrants, type of stereotype threat manipulation, dependent measures, and means for identification of immigrant status; evidence on the role of ethnic identity strength is reviewed. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  9. The influence of stereotype threat on immigrants: review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, Markus; Weber, Silvana; Kronberger, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    In many regions around the world students with certain immigrant backgrounds underachieve in educational settings. This paper provides a review and meta-analysis on one potential source of the immigrant achievement gap: stereotype threat, a situational predicament that may prevent students to perform up to their full abilities. A meta-analysis of 19 experiments suggests an overall mean effect size of 0.63 (random effects model) in support of stereotype threat theory. The results are complemented by moderator analyses with regard to circulation (published or unpublished research), cultural context (US versus Europe), age of immigrants, type of stereotype threat manipulation, dependent measures, and means for identification of immigrant status; evidence on the role of ethnic identity strength is reviewed. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:26217256

  10. Recognition bias and the physical attractiveness stereotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohner, Jean-Christophe; Rasmussen, Anders

    2012-06-01

    Previous studies have found a recognition bias for information consistent with the physical attractiveness stereotype (PAS), in which participants believe that they remember that attractive individuals have positive qualities and that unattractive individuals have negative qualities, regardless of what information actually occurred. The purpose of this research was to examine whether recognition bias for PAS congruent information is replicable and invariant across a variety of conditions (i.e. generalizable). The effects of nine different moderator variables were examined in two experiments. With a few exceptions, the effect of PAS congruence on recognition bias was independent of the moderator variables. The results suggest that the tendency to believe that one remembers information consistent with the physical attractiveness stereotype is a robust phenomenon. © 2012 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2012 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  11. Adult-onset stereotypical motor behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltête, D

    Stereotypies have been defined as non-goal-directed movement patterns repeated continuously for a period of time in the same form and on multiple occasions, and which are typically distractible. Stereotypical motor behaviors are a common clinical feature of a variety of neurological conditions that affect cortical and subcortical functions, including autism, tardive dyskinesia, excessive dopaminergic treatment of Parkinson's disease and frontotemporal dementia. The main differential diagnosis of stereotypies includes tic disorders, motor mannerisms, compulsion and habit. The pathophysiology of stereotypies may involve the corticostriatal pathways, especially the orbitofrontal and anterior cingulated cortices. Because antipsychotics have long been used to manage stereotypical behaviours in mental retardation, stereotypies that present in isolation tend not to warrant pharmacological intervention, as the benefit-to-risk ratio is not great enough. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Stereotype Threat and Women's Performance in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Gwen C.; Taasoobshirazi, Gita

    2013-12-01

    Stereotype threat (ST), which involves confirming a negative stereotype about one's group, is a factor thought to contribute to the gender gap in science achievement and participation. This study involved a quasi-experiment in which 312 US high school physics students were randomly assigned, via their classroom cluster, to one of three ST conditions. The conditions included an explicit ST condition, an implicit ST condition, and a nullified condition. Results indicated that males in all three conditions performed similarly on a set of physics problems. Females in the nullified condition outperformed females in the explicit ST condition and females in the implicit and explicit conditions performed similarly. Males performed better than females in the implicit and explicit ST conditions, but male and female performance on the physics problems was not significantly different in the nullified condition. The implications of these findings for physics instruction and future research on gender differences in physics and ST in science are discussed.

  13. Cultural Stereotypes as Gatekeepers: Increasing Girls’ Interest in Computer Science and Engineering by Diversifying Stereotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapna eCheryan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite having made significant inroads into many traditionally male-dominated fields (e.g., biology, chemistry, women continue to be underrepresented in computer science and engineering. We propose that students’ stereotypes about the culture of these fields—including the kind of people, the work involved, and the values of the field—steer girls away from choosing to enter these fields. Computer science and engineering are stereotyped in modern American culture as male-oriented fields that involve social isolation, an intense focus on machinery, and inborn brilliance. These stereotypes are more compatible with qualities that are typically valued in men than women. As a result, when computer science and engineering stereotypes are salient, girls report less interest in these fields than their male peers. However, altering these stereotypes—by broadening the representation of the people who do this work, the work itself, and the environments in which it occurs—significantly increases girls’ sense of belonging and interest in the field. Academic stereotypes thus serve as gatekeepers, driving girls away from certain fields and constraining their learning opportunities and career aspirations.

  14. Cultural stereotypes as gatekeepers: increasing girls’ interest in computer science and engineering by diversifying stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheryan, Sapna; Master, Allison; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2015-01-01

    Despite having made significant inroads into many traditionally male-dominated fields (e.g., biology, chemistry), women continue to be underrepresented in computer science and engineering. We propose that students’ stereotypes about the culture of these fields—including the kind of people, the work involved, and the values of the field—steer girls away from choosing to enter them. Computer science and engineering are stereotyped in modern American culture as male-oriented fields that involve social isolation, an intense focus on machinery, and inborn brilliance. These stereotypes are compatible with qualities that are typically more valued in men than women in American culture. As a result, when computer science and engineering stereotypes are salient, girls report less interest in these fields than their male peers. However, altering these stereotypes—by broadening the representation of the people who do this work, the work itself, and the environments in which it occurs—significantly increases girls’ sense of belonging and interest in the field. Academic stereotypes thus serve as gatekeepers, driving girls away from certain fields and constraining their learning opportunities and career aspirations. PMID:25717308

  15. How stereotypes impair women's careers in science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuben, Ernesto; Sapienza, Paola; Zingales, Luigi

    2014-03-25

    Women outnumber men in undergraduate enrollments, but they are much less likely than men to major in mathematics or science or to choose a profession in these fields. This outcome often is attributed to the effects of negative sex-based stereotypes. We studied the effect of such stereotypes in an experimental market, where subjects were hired to perform an arithmetic task that, on average, both genders perform equally well. We find that without any information other than a candidate's appearance (which makes sex clear), both male and female subjects are twice more likely to hire a man than a woman. The discrimination survives if performance on the arithmetic task is self-reported, because men tend to boast about their performance, whereas women generally underreport it. The discrimination is reduced, but not eliminated, by providing full information about previous performance on the task. By using the Implicit Association Test, we show that implicit stereotypes are responsible for the initial average bias in sex-related beliefs and for a bias in updating expectations when performance information is self-reported. That is, employers biased against women are less likely to take into account the fact that men, on average, boast more than women about their future performance, leading to suboptimal hiring choices that remain biased in favor of men.

  16. Stereotyped movement disorder in ICD-11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan J. Stein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to current proposals for ICD-11, stereotyped movement disorder will be classified in the grouping of neurodevelopmental disorders, with a qualifier to indicate whether self-injury is present, similar to the classification of stereotypic movement disorder in DSM-5. At the same time, the WHO ICD-11 Working Group on the Classification of Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders has proposed a grouping of body-focused repetitive behavior disorders within the obsessive-compulsive and related disorders (OCRD cluster to include trichotillomania and skin-picking disorder. DSM-5 has taken a slightly different approach: trichotillomania and excoriation (skin picking disorder are included in the OCRD grouping, while body-focused repetitive behavior disorder is listed under other specified forms of OCRD. DSM-5 also includes a separate category of nonsuicidal self-injury in the section on “conditions for further study.” There are a number of unresolved nosological questions regarding the relationships among stereotyped movement disorder, body-focused repetitive behavior disorders, and nonsuicidal self-injury. In this article, we attempt to provide preliminary answers to some of these questions as they relate to the ICD-11 classification of mental and behavioral disorders.

  17. Stereotyped movement disorder in ICD-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Dan J; Woods, Douglas W

    2014-01-01

    According to current proposals for ICD-11, stereotyped movement disorder will be classified in the grouping of neurodevelopmental disorders, with a qualifier to indicate whether self-injury is present, similar to the classification of stereotypic movement disorder in DSM-5. At the same time, the WHO ICD-11 Working Group on the Classification of Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders has proposed a grouping of body-focused repetitive behavior disorders within the obsessive-compulsive and related disorders (OCRD) cluster to include trichotillomania and skin-picking disorder. DSM-5 has taken a slightly different approach: trichotillomania and excoriation (skin picking) disorder are included in the OCRD grouping, while body-focused repetitive behavior disorder is listed under other specified forms of OCRD. DSM-5 also includes a separate category of nonsuicidal self-injury in the section on "conditions for further study." There are a number of unresolved nosological questions regarding the relationships among stereotyped movement disorder, body-focused repetitive behavior disorders, and nonsuicidal self-injury. In this article, we attempt to provide preliminary answers to some of these questions as they relate to the ICD-11 classification of mental and behavioral disorders.

  18. Stereotype threat lowers older adults’ self-reported hearing abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Sarah J.; Lee, Soohyoung Rain

    2016-01-01

    Background Although stereotype threat is a well-documented phenomenon, previous studies examining it in older adults have almost exclusively focused on objective cognitive outcomes. Considerably less attention has been paid to the impact of stereotype threat on older adults’ subjective assessments of their own abilities or to the impact of stereotype threat in non-cognitive domains. Objective Older adults are stereotyped as having experienced not only cognitive declines, but physical declines as well. The current study tested the prediction that stereotype threat can negatively influence older adult's subjective hearing abilities. Methods To test this, 115 adults (M age = 50.02, range = 41-67) read either a positive or negative description about how aging affects hearing. All participants then answered a questionnaire in which they assessed their own hearing abilities. Results The impact of stereotype threat on self-reported hearing was moderated by chronological age. Participants in their 40's and early 50's were unaffected by the stereotype threat manipulation. In contrast, participants in their late 50's and 60's rated their hearing as being subjectively worse when under stereotype threat. Conclusion The current study provides a clear demonstration that stereotype threat negatively impacts older adults’ subjective assessments of their own abilities. It is also the first study to demonstrate an effect of stereotype threat within the domain of hearing. These results have important implications for researchers investigating age-related hearing decline. Stereotype threat can lead to overestimation of the prevalence of age-related hearing decline. It can also serve as a confounding variable when examining the psychosocial correlates of hearing loss. Because of this, researchers studying age-related hearing loss should aim to provide a stereotype-threat free testing environment and also include assessments of stereotype threat within their studies. PMID:26461273

  19. Stereotype Threat Lowers Older Adults' Self-Reported Hearing Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Sarah J; Lee, Soohyoung Rain

    2015-01-01

    Although stereotype threat is a well-documented phenomenon, previous studies examining it in older adults have almost exclusively focused on objective cognitive outcomes. Considerably less attention has been paid to the impact of stereotype threat on older adults' subjective assessments of their own abilities or to the impact of stereotype threat in noncognitive domains. Older adults are stereotyped as having experienced not only cognitive declines, but physical declines as well. The current study tested the prediction that stereotype threat can negatively influence older adults' subjective hearing abilities. To test this, 115 adults (mean age 50.03 years, range 41-67) read either a positive or negative description about how aging affects hearing. All participants then answered a questionnaire in which they assessed their own hearing abilities. The impact of stereotype threat on self-reported hearing was moderated by chronological age. Participants in their 40s and early 50s were unaffected by the stereotype threat manipulation. In contrast, participants in their late 50s and 60s rated their hearing as being subjectively worse when under stereotype threat. The current study provides a clear demonstration that stereotype threat negatively impacts older adults' subjective assessments of their own abilities. It is also the first study to demonstrate an effect of stereotype threat within the domain of hearing. These results have important implications for researchers investigating age-related hearing decline. Stereotype threat can lead to overestimation of the prevalence of age-related hearing decline. It can also serve as a confounding variable when examining the psychosocial correlates of hearing loss. Because of this, researchers studying age-related hearing loss should aim to provide a stereotype threat-free testing environment and also include assessments of stereotype threat within their studies. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Perceptions of Stereotype Vulnerability, Belonging and Campus Climate by African Americans Attending a Predominately White Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Loren Wright

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine of stereotype vulnerability, sense of belonging and campus climate for African American college students at a Predominately White Institution (PWI) in the Southeast. This research used a sociocultural model to explore African American student perceptions at a PWI in the southeast of the United States. This…

  1. BOOK REVIEW: Minority Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, R.

    2005-02-01

    New branches of scientific disciplines often have a few paradigmatic models that serve as a testing ground for theories and a starting point for new inquiries. In the late 1990s, one of these models found fertile ground in the growing field of econophysics: the Minority Game (MG), a model for speculative markets that combined conceptual simplicity with interesting emergent behaviour and challenging mathematics. The two basic ingredients were the minority mechanism (a large number of players have to choose one of two alternatives in each round, and the minority wins) and limited rationality (each player has a small set of decision rules, and chooses the more successful ones). Combining these, one observes a phase transition between a crowded and an inefficient market phase, fat-tailed price distributions at the transition, and many other nontrivial effects. Now, seven years after the first paper, three of the key players—Damien Challet, Matteo Marsili and Yi-Cheng Zhang—have published a monograph that summarizes the current state of the science. The book consists of two parts: a 100-page overview of the various aspects of the MG, and reprints of many essential papers. The first chapters of Part I give a well-written description of the motivation and the history behind the MG, and then go into the phenomenology and the mathematical treatment of the model. The authors emphasize the `physics' underlying the behaviour and give coherent, intuitive explanations that are difficult to extract from the original papers. The mathematics is outlined, but calculations are not carried out in great detail (maybe they could have been included in an appendix). Chapter 4 then discusses how and why the MG is a model for speculative markets, how it can be modified to give a closer fit to observed market statistics (in particular, reproducing the `stylized facts' of fat-tailed distributions and volatility clustering), and what conclusions one can draw from the behaviour of the MG

  2. Stereotype Directionality and Attractiveness Stereotyping: Is Beauty Good or is Ugly Bad?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Angela M.; Langlois, Judith H.

    2005-01-01

    Dion, Berscheid, and Walster (1972), in their seminal article, labeled the attribution of positive characteristics to attractive people the “beauty-is-good” stereotype. The stereotyping literature since then provides extensive evidence for the differential judgment and treatment of attractive versus unattractive people, but does not indicate whether it is an advantage to be attractive or a disadvantage to be unattractive. Two studies investigated the direction of attractiveness stereotyping by comparing judgments of positive and negative attributes for medium vs. low and medium vs. high attractive faces. Taken together, results for adults (Experiment 1) and children (Experiment 2) suggest that most often, unattractiveness is a disadvantage, consistent with negativity bias (e.g., Rozin & Royzman, 2001) but contrary to the “beauty-is-good” aphorism. PMID:17016544

  3. Extending the Minority Stress Model to Incorporate HIV-Positive Gay and Bisexual Men's Experiences: a Longitudinal Examination of Mental Health and Sexual Risk Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendina, H Jonathon; Gamarel, Kristi E; Pachankis, John E; Ventuneac, Ana; Grov, Christian; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2017-04-01

    Minority stress theory represents the most plausible conceptual framework for explaining health disparities for gay and bisexual men (GBM). However, little focus has been given to including the unique stressors experienced by HIV-positive GBM. We explored the role of HIV-related stress within a minority stress model of mental health and condomless anal sex. Longitudinal data were collected on a diverse convenience sample of 138 highly sexually active, HIV-positive GBM in NYC regarding sexual minority (internalized homonegativity and gay-related rejection sensitivity) and HIV-related stressors (internalized HIV stigma and HIV-related rejection sensitivity), emotion dysregulation, mental health (symptoms of depression, anxiety, sexual compulsivity, and hypersexuality), and sexual behavior (condomless anal sex with all male partners and with serodiscordant male partners). Across both sexual minority and HIV-related stressors, internalized stigma was significantly associated with mental health and sexual behavior outcomes while rejection sensitivity was not. Moreover, path analyses revealed that emotion dysregulation mediated the influence of both forms of internalized stigma on symptoms of depression/anxiety and sexual compulsivity/hypersexuality as well as serodiscordant condomless anal sex. We identified two targets of behavioral interventions that may lead to improvements in mental health and reductions in sexual transmission risk behaviors-maladaptive cognitions underlying negative self-schemas and difficulties with emotion regulation. Techniques for cognitive restructuring and emotion regulation may be particularly useful in the development of interventions that are sensitive to the needs of this population while also highlighting the important role that structural interventions can have in preventing these disparities for future generations.

  4. Extending the minority stress model to incorporate HIV-positive gay and bisexual men’s experiences: A longitudinal examination of mental health and sexual risk behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendina, H. Jonathon; Gamarel, Kristi E.; Pachankis, John E.; Ventuneac, Ana; Grov, Christian; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Minority stress theory represents the most plausible conceptual framework for explaining health disparities for gay and bisexual men (GBM). However, little focus has been given to including the unique stressors experienced by HIV-positive GBM. Purpose We explored the role of HIV-related stress within a minority stress model of mental health and condomless anal sex. Methods Longitudinal data were collected on a diverse convenience sample of 138 highly sexually active, HIV-positive GBM in NYC regarding sexual minority (internalized homonegativity, gay-related rejection sensitivity) and HIV-related stressors (internalized HIV stigma, HIV-related rejection sensitivity), emotion dysregulation, mental health (symptoms of depression, anxiety, sexual compulsivity, and hypersexuality), and sexual behavior (condomless anal sex with all male partners and with serodiscordant male partners). Results Across both sexual minority and HIV-related stressors, internalized stigma was significantly associated with mental health and sexual behavior outcomes while rejection sensitivity was not. Moreover, path analyses revealed that emotion dysregulation mediated the influence of both forms of internalized stigma on symptoms of depression/anxiety and sexual compulsivity/hypersexuality as well as serodiscordant condomless anal sex. Conclusions We identified two targets of behavioral interventions that may lead to improvements in mental health and reductions in sexual transmission risk behaviors—maladaptive cognitions underlying negative self-schemas and difficulties with emotion regulation. Techniques for cognitive restructuring and emotion regulation may be particularly useful in the development of interventions that are sensitive to the needs of this population while also highlighting the important role that structural interventions can have in preventing these disparities for future generations. PMID:27502073

  5. Person categorization and automatic racial stereotyping effects on weapon identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christopher R; Fazio, Russell H

    2010-08-01

    Prior stereotyping research provides conflicting evidence regarding the importance of person categorization along a particular dimension for the automatic activation of a stereotype corresponding to that dimension. Experiment 1 replicated a racial stereotyping effect on object identification and examined whether it could be attenuated by encouraging categorization by age. Experiment 2 employed socially complex person stimuli and manipulated whether participants categorized spontaneously or by race. In Experiment 3, the distinctiveness of the racial dimension was manipulated by having Black females appear in the context of either Black males or White females. The results indicated that conditions fostering categorization by race consistently produced automatic racial stereotyping and that conditions fostering nonracial categorization can eliminate automatic racial stereotyping. Implications for the relation between automatic stereotype activation and dimension of categorization are discussed.

  6. Stereotype threat”: a self-fulfilling prophecy in education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A. Gulevitch

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the phenomenon of “stereotype threat”– the influence of stereotypes on learning and achievement level in members of gender, age and ethnic groups. We analyze overt and covert forms of actualization of such ideas. We describe the basic mechanisms of their action (actualization of social identity, negative emotions, extraneous thoughts, increased self-control, difficulty in learning, reduction of self-efficacy, increased motivation of avoidance, de-identification with the area of activity. We highlight the main ways to reduce the “stereotype threat” focused on social identity (actualization or creating a new identity, stereotypes (from the removal of stereotype stimuli to demonstration of positive behaviors, task (modified instruction and individual human characteristics (higher self-efficacy, learning coping strategies. We note that the knowledge of the “stereotype threat”impact laws can improve learning efficiency.

  7. Stereotype threat can reduce older adults' memory errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Sarah J; Mather, Mara

    2013-01-01

    Stereotype threat often incurs the cost of reducing the amount of information that older adults accurately recall. In the current research, we tested whether stereotype threat can also benefit memory. According to the regulatory focus account of stereotype threat, threat induces a prevention focus in which people become concerned with avoiding errors of commission and are sensitive to the presence or absence of losses within their environment. Because of this, we predicted that stereotype threat might reduce older adults' memory errors. Results were consistent with this prediction. Older adults under stereotype threat had lower intrusion rates during free-recall tests (Experiments 1 and 2). They also reduced their false alarms and adopted more conservative response criteria during a recognition test (Experiment 2). Thus, stereotype threat can decrease older adults' false memories, albeit at the cost of fewer veridical memories, as well.

  8. The Roots of Stereotype Threat: When Automatic Associations Disrupt Girls' Math Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdi, Silvia; Cadinu, Mara; Tomasetto, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Although stereotype awareness is a prerequisite for stereotype threat effects (Steele & Aronson, 1995), research showed girls' deficit under stereotype threat before the emergence of math-gender stereotype awareness, and in the absence of stereotype endorsement. In a study including 240 six-year-old children, this paradox was addressed by…

  9. Stereotype threat and lift effects in motor task performance: the mediating role of somatic and cognitive anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurin, Raphael

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to replicate the stereotype threat and lift effects in a motor task in a neutral sex-typed activity, using somatic and cognitive anxiety as key mediators of these phenomena. It was hypothesized that an ingroup/outgroup social categorization based on gender would have distinctive effects for female and male participants. A total of 161 French physical education students were randomly assigned to three threat conditions--no threat, female threat, and male threat--thus leading to a 3 x 2 (threat by gender) design. The analyses revealed a stereotype lift effect on the performances for both male and female participants, as well as a stereotype threat effect only for female participants. They also indicated that somatic anxiety had a mediating effect on the performance of female participants targeted by a negative stereotype, but that it had a facilitating effect on their performance. The stereotype threat and lift effects on motor tasks were replicated in a neutral sex-typed activity and somatic anxiety seems to have a facilitating mediating effect of the relationships between the gender-conditions (control or female threat) interaction and free-throw performance. The model used to distinguish somatic and cognitive anxiety appeared to be a relevant means of explaining the stereotype threat and lift mechanisms.

  10. Identifying Stereotypes in the Online Perception of Physical Attractiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo, Camila Souza; Meira Jr., Wagner; Almeida, Virgilio

    2016-01-01

    Stereotyping can be viewed as oversimplified ideas about social groups. They can be positive, neutral or negative. The main goal of this paper is to identify stereotypes for female physical attractiveness in images available in the Web. We look at the search engines as possible sources of stereotypes. We conducted experiments on Google and Bing by querying the search engines for beautiful and ugly women. We then collect images and extract information of faces. We propose a methodology and app...

  11. Stereotypes of women solders about army and military service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Kalahin

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of the results of the study showed that among women soldiers are not common stereotypes of patriarchal views on the presence of women in the military. The results showed dissemination of gender­determined stereotypes that structure the military activity in male and female. Stereotypes denying the allocation of military activity differences for men and women, are also common among women soldiers. Analysis of the results of the study revealed a new group of respondents who share the dominant stereotypes about the role of women in the military.

  12. The perfect match: Do criminal stereotypes bias forensic evidence analysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalarz, Laura; Madon, Stephanie; Yang, Yueran; Guyll, Max; Buck, Sarah

    2016-08-01

    This research provided the first empirical test of the hypothesis that stereotypes bias evaluations of forensic evidence. A pilot study (N = 107) assessed the content and consensus of 20 criminal stereotypes by identifying perpetrator characteristics (e.g., sex, race, age, religion) that are stereotypically associated with specific crimes. In the main experiment (N = 225), participants read a mock police incident report involving either a stereotyped crime (child molestation) or a nonstereotyped crime (identity theft) and judged whether a suspect's fingerprint matched a fingerprint recovered at the crime scene. Accompanying the suspect's fingerprint was personal information about the suspect of the type that is routinely available to fingerprint analysts (e.g., race, sex) and which could activate a stereotype. Participants most often perceived the fingerprints to match when the suspect fit the criminal stereotype, even though the prints did not actually match. Moreover, participants appeared to be unaware of the extent to which a criminal stereotype had biased their evaluations. These findings demonstrate that criminal stereotypes are a potential source of bias in forensic evidence analysis and suggest that suspects who fit criminal stereotypes may be disadvantaged over the course of the criminal justice process. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Does stereotype threat affect women in academic medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Diana Jill; Joseph, Anne; van Ryn, Michelle; Carnes, Molly

    2012-04-01

    Multiple complex factors contribute to the slow pace of women's advancement into leadership positions in academic medicine. In this article, the authors propose that stereotype threat--under which individuals who are members of a group characterized by negative stereotypes in a particular domain perform below their actual abilities in that domain when group membership is emphasized--may play an important role in the underrepresentation of women in leadership positions in academic medicine. Research to objectively assess the impact of stereotype threat for women in academic medicine is feasible and necessary to confirm this hypothesis. Still, a number of conditions present in the academic medicine community today have been shown to trigger stereotype threat in other settings, and stereotype threat fits with existing research on gender in academic medicine. In the meantime, academic health centers should implement relatively simple measures supported by experimental evidence from other settings to reduce the risk of stereotype threat, including (1) introducing the concept of stereotype threat to the academic medicine community, (2) engaging all stakeholders, male and female, to promote identity safety by enacting and making faculty aware of policies to monitor potential instances of discrimination, and training faculty to provide performance feedback that is free of gender bias, (3) counteracting the effects of sex segregation at academic health centers by increasing exposure to successful female leaders, (4) reducing gender stereotype priming by avoiding stereotypically male criteria for promotion, grants, and awards, and (5) building leadership efficacy among female physicians and scientists.

  14. MS PHD'S: A Successful Model Promoting Inclusion, Preparation and Engagement of Underrepresented Minorities within the Geosciences Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, E.; Scott, O.; Strickland, J. T.; Ricciardi, L.; Guzman, W. I.; Braxton, L.; Williamson, V.; Johnson, A.

    2015-12-01

    According to 2014 findings of the National Research Council, geoscience and related industries indicate an anticipated 48,000 blue-collar, scientific, and managerial positions to be filled by underrepresented minority (URM) workers in the next 15 years. An Information Handling Services (IHS) report prepared for the American Petroleum Institute forecasts even greater numbers estimating upward of 408,000 opportunities for URM workers related to growth in accelerated development of oil, gas and petroleum industries. However, many URM students lack the training in both the hard sciences and craft skills necessary to fill these positions. The Minorities Striving and Pursuing Higher Degrees of Success in Earth System Science (MS PHD'S) Professional Development Program uses integrative and holistic strategies to better prepare URM students for entry into all levels of the geoscience workforce. Through a three-phase program of mentoring, community building, networking and professional development activities, MS PHD'S promotes collaboration, critical thinking, and soft skills development for participants. Program activities expose URM students to education, training and real-life geoscience workforce experiences while maintaining a continuity of supportive mentoring and training networks via an active virtual community. MS PHD'S participants report increased self-confidence and self-efficacy in pursuing geoscience workforce goals. To date, the program supports 223 participants of who 57, 21 and 16 have received Doctorate, Masters and Baccalaureate degrees respectively and are currently employed within the geoscience and related industries workforce. The remaining 129 participants are enrolled in undergraduate and graduate programs throughout the U.S. Geographic representation of participants includes 35 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico and two international postdoctoral appointments - one in Saudi Arabia and the other in France.

  15. Toys, sociocognitive traits, and occupations: Italian children's endorsement of gender stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Caroli, Maria Elvira; Sagone, Elisabetta

    2007-06-01

    In a sample of 136 Italian children ages 8 to 12 years (M = 9.6, SD = 1.2; 68 boys, 68 girls), gender stereotypes related to gender-typed toys, traits, and occupational choices were examined, using the forced-choice technique between a male and a female silhouette. Stereotypy was established considering boys' and girls' choices for the 70%-100% range. Differences in gender stereotyping for age and sex of participants were verified. Analysis indicated children attributed toys prevalently connected with aesthetic aspect and domestic activities to the female silhouette, while technology, warfare, locomotion, and construction toys were attributed to the male. Children attributed physical and verbal aggressiveness and dominance to the male silhouette; the female profile was exclusively characterized by sweetness. The occupational stereotypical male model was structured in both practical-manual activities and of highly cultural and specialist relevance, while for the female model the number of activities, mainly of a domestic type, were reduced. Significant main effect of sex of children was found, but no significant age-related differences in the three domains. Results were discussed within the framework of gender-stereotype theories.

  16. Implicit stereotyping and medical decisions: unconscious stereotype activation in practitioners' thoughts about African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, Gordon B; Stone, Jeff; Childs, Amanda

    2012-05-01

    We investigated whether stereotypes unconsciously influence the thinking and behavior of physicians, as they have been shown to do in other professional settings, such as among law enforcement personnel and teachers. We conducted 2 studies to examine whether stereotypes are implicitly activated in physicians. Study 1 assessed what diseases and treatments doctors associate with African Americans. Study 2 presented these (and control terms) to doctors as part of a computerized task. Subliminal images of African American and White men appeared prior to each word, and reaction times to words were recorded. When primed with an African American face, doctors reacted more quickly for stereotypical diseases, indicating an implicit association of certain diseases with African Americans. These comprised not only diseases African Americans are genetically predisposed to, but also conditions and social behaviors with no biological association (e.g., obesity, drug abuse). We found implicit stereotyping among physicians; faces they never consciously saw altered performance. This suggests that diagnoses and treatment of African American patients may be biased, even in the absence of the practitioner's intent or awareness.

  17. The neuroscience of prejudice and stereotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amodio, David M

    2014-10-01

    Despite global increases in diversity, social prejudices continue to fuel intergroup conflict, disparities and discrimination. Moreover, as norms have become more egalitarian, prejudices seem to have 'gone underground', operating covertly and often unconsciously, such that they are difficult to detect and control. Neuroscientists have recently begun to probe the neural basis of prejudice and stereotyping in an effort to identify the processes through which these biases form, influence behaviour and are regulated. This research aims to elucidate basic mechanisms of the social brain while advancing our understanding of intergroup bias in social behaviour.

  18. Women stereotypes in Shi Zhecun's short stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenmeier, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses the representation of women in two 1933 short story collections by Shi Zhecun: An Evening of Spring Rain and Exemplary Conduct of Virtuous Women. It discusses how the New Woman image was a site of contestation in Republican China, and argues that Shi Zhecun’s short stories contain four basic stereotypes: the enigmatic woman, the estranged wife, the prostitute, and the inhibited woman. Using these narratives of women and how they were perceived by men, Shi Zhecun deconstructed the New Woman image by subverting the various ways modernity was projected onto women.

  19. The physiognomic basis of sexual stereotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakdimen, K A

    1984-04-01

    Although it is routine for mental status reports to comment on appearance and attractiveness, there is no prevailing theory to explain the psychological impact of physical features. Two perceptual processes are proposed: nonverbal quasi-communication (counterfeit body language) and nonverbal quasi-information (spurious information). Applying this perspective to the sexual dimorphism of anatomy, clothing, and makeup, one finds that appearance fosters the belief that men and women have the personality traits that are stereotypically attributed to them, and this seems to be at the heart of physical attractiveness.

  20. Plasma cortisol and faecal cortisol metabolites concentrations in stereotypic and non-stereotypic horses: do stereotypic horses cope better with poor environmental conditions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fureix Carole

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stereotypic behaviours, i.e. repetitive behaviours induced by frustration, repeated attempts to cope and/or brain dysfunction, are intriguing as they occur in a variety of domestic and captive species without any clear adaptive function. Among the different hypotheses, the coping hypothesis predicts that stereotypic behaviours provide a way for animals in unfavourable environmental conditions to adjust. As such, they are expected to have a lower physiological stress level (glucocorticoids than non-stereotypic animals. Attempts to link stereotypic behaviours with glucocorticoids however have yielded contradictory results. Here we investigated correlates of oral and motor stereotypic behaviours and glucocorticoid levels in two large samples of domestic horses (NStudy1 = 55, NStudy2 = 58, kept in sub-optimal conditions (e.g. confinement, social isolation, and already known to experience poor welfare states. Each horse was observed in its box using focal sampling (study 1 and instantaneous scan sampling (study 2. Plasma samples (collected in study 1 but also non-invasive faecal samples (collected in both studies were retrieved in order to assess cortisol levels. Results Results showed that 1 plasma cortisol and faecal cortisol metabolites concentrations did not differ between horses displaying stereotypic behaviours and non-stereotypic horses and 2 both oral and motor stereotypic behaviour levels did not predict plasma cortisol or faecal cortisol metabolites concentrations. Conclusions Cortisol measures, collected in two large samples of horses using both plasma sampling as well as faecal sampling (the latter method minimizing bias due to a non-invasive sampling procedure, therefore do not indicate that stereotypic horses cope better, at least in terms of adrenocortical activity.

  1. The roots of stereotype threat: when automatic associations disrupt girls' math performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdi, Silvia; Cadinu, Mara; Tomasetto, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Although stereotype awareness is a prerequisite for stereotype threat effects (Steele & Aronson, 1995), research showed girls' deficit under stereotype threat before the emergence of math-gender stereotype awareness, and in the absence of stereotype endorsement. In a study including 240 six-year-old children, this paradox was addressed by testing whether automatic associations trigger stereotype threat in young girls. Whereas no indicators were found that children endorsed the math-gender stereotype, girls, but not boys, showed automatic associations consistent with the stereotype. Moreover, results showed that girls' automatic associations varied as a function of a manipulation regarding the stereotype content. Importantly, girls' math performance decreased in a stereotype-consistent, relative to a stereotype-inconsistent, condition and automatic associations mediated the relation between stereotype threat and performance. © 2013 The Authors. Child Development © 2013 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  2. Prime-Time Stereotyping on the New Television Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, B. Carol

    1997-01-01

    Finds that women are underrepresented in all five television networks' promotional announcements (ABC, CBS, NBC, Fox, and UPN), and that stereotypical portrayals of women in these announcements varied due to the television network's target audience: announcements on networks seeking a younger male audience contained more stereotypical female…

  3. Content Analysis and Gender Stereotypes in Children's Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Frank

    2003-01-01

    Focuses on gender stereotypes in popular childrens' books. Proposes a student exercise for identifying gender stereotypes, using Dr. Seuss as an example. Asks students to articulate how their gender identities have been shaped by media. Provides actual student comments to highlight major discussion points. (Author/KDR)

  4. The Huns in Western Consciousness: Images, Stereotypes and Civilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marácz, L.

    2015-01-01

    This article is devoted to negative images and stereotypes to the Huns in Western historiography. The author points out that the aforementioned negative images and stereotypes connected, in turn, to the very concept of 'civilization' in its Western interpretation, have strongly affected the

  5. Negative stereotypes examined through the HIV and AIDS discourse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Previous studies reporting perceptions of HIV and AIDS by white youth in South Africa suggest both explicit and implicit racial stereotypes and negative attitudes. This paper contributes to the literature on the discourse of racial stereotypes found in discussions about HIV and AIDS. The study was conducted in the suburb of ...

  6. National stereotypes in the context of the European crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierp, Aline; Karner, Christian

    2017-01-01

    In this article we position the contributions to our special issue in relation to existing scholarship on racism and stereotypes. We pay close attention to conceptual strands in the literature that emphasize two cognitive-discursive characteristics of stereotypes: their essentialist reductions and

  7. Students' Gender Stereotypes about Running in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Ping; McBride, Ron E.; Lin, Shuqiong; Gao, Zan; Francis, Xueying

    2018-01-01

    Two hundred forty-six students (132 boys, 114 girls) were tracked from fifth to eighth grades, and changes in gender stereotypes about running as a male sport, running performance, interest in running, and intention for future running participation were assessed. Results revealed that neither sex held gender stereotypes about running as a male…

  8. Occupational Gender Stereotypes and Problem-Solving in Italian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginevra, Maria Cristina; Nota, Laura

    2017-01-01

    The first purpose of the study was to establish how Italian adolescents perceive jobs in the newly emerging economy sectors as well as more traditional jobs from gender-stereotyped and gender-segregated perspectives. The second purpose was to verify the role of problem-solving and gender in gender-role stereotyping. A total of 217 Italian high…

  9. A Stereotype Threat Account of Boys' Academic Underachievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Bonny L.; Sutton, Robbie M.

    2013-01-01

    Three studies examined the role of stereotype threat in boys' academic underachievement. Study 1 (children aged 4-10, n = 238) showed that girls from age 4 years and boys from age 7 years believed, and thought adults believed, that boys are academically inferior to girls. Study 2 manipulated stereotype threat, informing children aged…

  10. Men as cultural ideals: Cultural values moderate gender stereotype content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddy, Amy J C; Wolf, Elizabeth Baily; Glick, Peter; Crotty, Susan; Chong, Jihye; Norton, Michael I

    2015-10-01

    Four studies tested whether cultural values moderate the content of gender stereotypes, such that male stereotypes more closely align with core cultural values (specifically, individualism vs. collectivism) than do female stereotypes. In Studies 1 and 2, using different measures, Americans rated men as less collectivistic than women, whereas Koreans rated men as more collectivistic than women. In Study 3, bicultural Korean Americans who completed a survey in English about American targets rated men as less collectivistic than women, whereas those who completed the survey in Korean about Korean targets did not, demonstrating how cultural frames influence gender stereotype content. Study 4 established generalizability by reanalyzing Williams and Best's (1990) cross-national gender stereotype data across 26 nations. National individualism-collectivism scores predicted viewing collectivistic traits as more-and individualistic traits as less-stereotypically masculine. Taken together, these data offer support for the cultural moderation of gender stereotypes hypothesis, qualifying past conclusions about the universality of gender stereotype content. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Implicit stereotyping and prejudice and the primed Stroop task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kawakami, K.L.; Dion, K.L.; Dovidio, J.F.

    1999-01-01

    In the present study, automatic stereotype activation related to racial categories was examined utilizing a primed Stroop task. The speed of participants' ink-color naming of stereotypic and nonstereotypic target words following Black and White category primes were compared: slower naming times are

  12. Challenging Stereotypes about Academic Writing: Complexity, Elaboration, Explicitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biber, Douglas; Gray, Bethany

    2010-01-01

    The stereotypical view of professional academic writing is that it is grammatically complex, with elaborated structures, and with meaning relations expressed explicitly. In contrast, spoken registers, especially conversation, are believed to have the opposite characteristics. Our goal in the present paper is to challenge these stereotypes, based…

  13. Beyond the Stereotypes: An Inside Look at Canada's Emerging Millennials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibby, Reginald W.

    2010-01-01

    Stereotypes about teenagers typically result in negative views of young people and contribute to the age-old idea that every new generation of teenagers is somehow inferior to previous ones. One of the reasons for the prevalence of inaccurate stereotypes about teenagers in Canada is that people have not been having very many national conversations…

  14. Mathematically Gifted Adolescent Females' Mixed Sentiment toward Gender Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Chen-yao

    2015-01-01

    There has been a paucity of research on gifted individuals' perceptions of gender stereotypes. The purpose of this study was to explore mathematically gifted adolescent females' perceptions of gender stereotypes through a research design of the qualitative multiple case study involving the constant comparison and the Three C's analysis scheme.…

  15. Teaching Diversity in Organizations: Stereotyping the Stock Photo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetherston, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Course: Organizational Communication. Objectives: After completing this single-class activity, students should be able to (1) identify stereotypes that are created and/or reinforced by images frequently used in communication materials, (2) explain how those stereotypes influence communication and relational barriers in organizations, and (3)…

  16. Older workers : stereotypes and occupational self-efficacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiesa, Rita; Toderi, Stefano; Dordoni, Paola; Henkens, Kene; Fiabane, Elena Maria; Setti, Ilaria

    2016-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between organizational age stereotypes and occupational self-efficacy. First, the authors intend to test the measurement invariance of Henkens's (2005) age stereotypes scale across two age group, respectively, under 50 and 50 years

  17. Older workers: stereotypes and occupational self-efficacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiesa, R.; Toderi, S.; Dordoni, P.; Henkens, K.; Fiabane, E.M.; Setti, I.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The present study aims to explore the relationship between organizational age stereotypes and occupational self-efficacy. First, we intend to test the measurement invariance of Henkens (2005)’s age stereotypes scale across two age group, respectively under 50 years and 50 years and older.

  18. Older workers : Stereotypes and occupational self-efficacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiesa, R.; Toderi, S.; Dordoni, P.; Henkens, K.; Fiabane, E.M.; Setti, I.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between organizational age stereotypes and occupational self-efficacy. First, the authors intend to test the measurement invariance of Henkens’s (2005) age stereotypes scale across two age group, respectively, under 50 and 50 years and

  19. Stereotype threat in salary negotiations is mediated by reservation salary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellhed, Una; Björklund, Fredrik

    2011-04-01

    Women are stereotypically perceived as worse negotiators than men, which may make them ask for less salary than men when under stereotype threat (Kray et al., 2001). However, the mechanisms of stereotype threat are not yet properly understood. The current study investigated whether stereotype threat effects in salary negotiations can be explained by motivational factors. A total of 116 business students negotiated salary with a confederate and were either told that this was diagnostic of negotiating ability (threat manipulation) or not. Measures of minimum (reservation) and ideal (aspiration) salary goals and regulatory focus were collected. The finding (Kray et al., 2001) that women make lower salary requests than men when under stereotype threat was replicated. Women in the threat condition further reported lower aspiration salary, marginally significantly lower reservation salary and less eagerness/more vigilance than men. Reservation salary mediated the stereotype threat effect, and there was a trend for regulatory focus to mediate the effect. Thus, reservation salary partly explains why women ask for less salary than men under stereotype threat. Female negotiators may benefit from learning that stereotype threat causes sex-differences in motivation. © 2010 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2010 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  20. Ethnic stereotypes and the ideological manifestations of ethnicity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article is informed by a series of Internet texts that were collected in the months leading to the 2007 general elections in Kenya. It explores the ethnic stereotype, linking it to ideas of ethnicity and power, 'othering' and the constructed nature of stereotypes. It asks a number of questions, including: Is there signifi cance to ...

  1. Ageism at Organizations: a study of stereotypes in ageing workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Blauth Loth

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is facing a rapidly aging population. In 2020 it is projected a median age of 31,8 years. This represents an increase of 12,4% over the average age in 2010. In 2030 this figure should reach 34,6average age and will continue to grow. This process offers challenges and opportunities for organizations, which are becoming increasingly diverse. However there are few studies in the country that focus on the phenomenon of ageism within organizational context. The present study attempted, through an exploratory and descriptive research, to understand whichare the stereotypes perceived by aging people in relation to ageism at work. Through open interviews was possible to identify three categories of stereotypical perceptions: stereotypical perceptions of themselves, stereotypical perceptions of others and stereotypical perceptions of young people. The results can help organizations to develop better intergenerational policies that promote a growing proximity between people who are in different stages of life and ages.

  2. Stereotyping by Omission: Eliminate the Negative, Accentuate the Positive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergsieker, Hilary B.; Leslie, Lisa M.; Constantine, Vanessa S.; Fiske, Susan T.

    2014-01-01

    Communicators, motivated by strategic self-presentation, selectively underreport negative content in describing their impressions of individuals and stereotypes of groups, particularly for targets whom they view ambivalently with respect to warmth and competence. Communicators avoid overtly inaccurate descriptions, preferring to omit negative information and emphasize positive information about mixed individual targets (Study 1). With more public audiences, communicators increasingly prefer negativity omission to complete accuracy (Study 2), a process driven by self-presentation concerns (Study 3), and moderated by bidimensional ambivalence. Similarly, in an extension of the Princeton Trilogy studies, reported stereotypes of ethnic and national outgroups systematically omitted negative dimensions over 75 years—as anti-prejudice norms intensified—while neutral and positive stereotype dimensions remained constant (Study 4). Multiple assessment methods confirm this stereotyping-by-omission phenomenon (Study 5). Implications of negativity omission for innuendo and stereotype stagnation are discussed. PMID:22448889

  3. The basis of shooter biases: beyond cultural stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Saul L; Zielaskowski, Kate; Plant, E Ashby

    2012-10-01

    White police officers and undergraduate students mistakenly shoot unarmed Black suspects more than White suspects on computerized shoot/don't shoot tasks. This bias is typically attributed to cultural stereotypes of Black men. Yet, previous research has not examined whether such biases emerge even in the absence of cultural stereotypes. The current research investigates whether individual differences in chronic beliefs about interpersonal threat interact with target group membership to elicit shooter biases, even when group membership is unrelated to race or cultural stereotypes about danger. Across two studies, participants with strong beliefs about interpersonal threats were more likely to mistakenly shoot outgroup members than ingroup members; this was observed for unfamiliar, arbitrarily formed groups using a minimal group paradigm (Study 1) and racial groups not culturally stereotyped as dangerous (Asians; Study 2). Implications for the roles of both group membership and cultural stereotypes in shaping decisions to shoot are discussed.

  4. Racial athletic stereotype confirmation in college football recruiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Grant; Good, Jessica J; Gross, Alexi R

    2015-01-01

    The present study tested real-world racial stereotype use in the context of college athletic recruiting. Stereotype confirmation suggests that observers use stereotypes as hypotheses and interpret relevant evidence in a biased way that confirms their stereotypes. Shifting standards suggest that the evaluative standard to which we hold a target changes as a function of their group membership. We examined whether stereotype confirmation and shifting standards effects would be seen in college football coaches during recruiting. College football coaches evaluated a Black or White player on several attributes and made both zero- and non-zero-sum allocations. Results suggested that coaches used the evidence presented to develop biased subjective evaluations of the players based on race while still maintaining equivalent objective evaluations. Coaches also allocated greater overall resources to the Black recruit than the White recruit.

  5. Race Salience and Essentialist Thinking in Racial Stereotype Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauker, Kristin; Ambady, Nalini; Apfelbaum, Evan P.

    2010-01-01

    The authors explored the emergence and antecedents of racial stereotyping in 89 children ages 3–10 years. Children completed a number of matching and sorting tasks, including a measure designed to assess their knowledge and application of both positive and negative in-group and out-group stereotypes. Results indicate that children start to apply stereotypes to the out-group starting around 6 years of age. Controlling for a number of factors, two predictors contributed significantly towards uniquely explaining the use of these stereotypes: race salience (i.e., seeing and organizing by race) and essentialist thinking (i.e., believing that race cannot change). These results provide insight into how and when real-world interventions aimed at altering the acquisition of racial stereotypes may be implemented. PMID:21077865

  6. Increasing the Presence of Underrepresented Minorities in the Geosciences: The Woods Hole Partnership Education Program Model and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, A.; Gutierrez, B.; Jearld, A.; Liles, G.; Scott, O.; Harden, B.

    2017-12-01

    Launched in 2009, the Partnership Education Program (PEP) is supported by six scientific institutions in Woods Hole, Massachusetts through the Woods Hole Diversity Initiative. PEP, which was shaped by experience with other diversity programs as well as input from scientists in Woods Hole, is designed to promote a diverse scientific community by recruiting talent from minority groups that are under-represented in marine and environmental sciences. Focused on college juniors and seniors with course work in marine and/or environmental sciences, PEP is comprised of a four-week course, "Ocean and Environmental Sciences: Global Climate Change," and a six to eight week individual research project under the guidance of a research mentor. Investigators from the six science institutions serve as course faculty and research mentors. Course credit is through PEP's academic partner, the University of Maryland Eastern Shore. PEP students also participate in seminars, workshops, field trips, at-sea experiences, career development activities, and attend lectures at participating science institutions throughout the summer. Students present their research results at the end of the summer with a 15-minute public presentation. A number of PEP participants then presented their work at professional and scientific meetings, such as AGU, using the program as a gateway to graduate education and career opportunities in the marine and environmental sciences. From 2009 through 2017, 138 students from 86 colleges and universities, including many that previously had sent few or no students or faculty to Woods Hole, have participated in the program. Participating organizations are: Northeast Fisheries Science Center (NOAA Fisheries), Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL), Sea Education Association (SEA), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), Woods Hole Research Center (WHRC), and University of Maryland Eastern Shore (UMES) - academic partner.

  7. An Experimental Study of the Effects of Stereotype Threat and Stereotype Lift on Men and Women's Performance in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Heather J.; Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Saxon, Terrill F.; Johnson, Megan K.

    2012-01-01

    In this study the authors examined the differential effects of stereotype threat and lift between genders on math test performance. They asked 3 questions: (a) What is the effect of gender on math test performance?, (b) What is the effect of stereotyping condition (threat, lift, or neither) on math test performance?, and (c) What is the effect of…

  8. Autonomy and minority rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barten, Ulrike

    2008-01-01

    in the cultural, educational, religious and social sectors which have of course are exercised in a limited territory; however, do not threaten the state's sovereignty in the same way as independent political decisions could do. How far minority rights have the same dimensions, will be another issue. Minorities......'? I will look at this in connection with minority rights, as minority rights accord special rights and procedures to a specific group. For example, minorities have sometimes far reaching competences in the educational field: setting up and running their own schools and to a certain degree also decide......, are they at odds with each other or do they possibly overlap? This last possibility would be that minority rights are so extensive that they actually amount to autonomy. Autonomy has a range of dimensions and one must distinguish between political autonomy which is largely territorial in nature and autonomy...

  9. [Genetic mice models of type 2 diabetes for evaluation of the effectiveness of minor biologically active food substances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazo, V K; Sidorova, Yu S; Kochetkova, A A

    2015-01-01

    This report is devoted to discussion of type 2 diabetes experimental modelling on genetic mice lines. These laboratory animals, the same as genetic rats lines, are usually used in type 2 diabetes experimental modelling. The problem of using mice with genetic obesity in modeling of type 2 diabetes is discussed in details in the review. In this article the authors shortly characterize the congenic line of mice ККАУ, suffering from genetic obesity and hyperinsulinemia. The features of modelling type 2 diabetes using ob/ob and db/db mice are described closely. The phenotype of the animals comes into obesity, infertility, brakes in length growth, hyperinsulinemia and dysimmunity. Neither leptin mRNA, nor the hormone itself are synthesized in ob/ob mice, leading to ob phenotype formation. Whilst db/db mice have two mutant copies of leptin receptor gene, which leads to gradual hyperglycemia and obesity progression, followed by hyperinsulemia similar to human type 2 diabetes. C57BL/KsLeprdb/+ mice with recessive gene leptin receptoi-Lepiнlb (db) is very perspective genetic type 2 diabetes model developed in Russia. TSOD mice are used as an alternative model (Tsumura Suzuki, diabetes with obesity), showing diabetes and obesity symptoms with marked hyperinsulinemia and pancreatic gland hypertrophy. Thus, presented in this review scientific reports approve wide opportunities of effective usage of genetic lines of small laboratory animals (mice) for type 2 diabetes modelling.

  10. Ethnic Minority-Majority Unions in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ham, Maarten; Tammaru, Tiit

    2011-08-01

    Ethnic minority-majority unions-also referred to as mixed ethnic unions-are often seen as the ultimate evidence of the integration of ethnic minorities into their host societies. We investigated minority-majority unions in Estonia, where ethnic minorities account for one-third of the total population (Russians 26%, followed by Ukrainians, Byelorussians, Finns and other smaller groups). Using data from the 2000 Estonian census and regression models, we found that Slavic women are less likely to be in minority-majority unions than are members of other minority groups, with Russians being the least likely. Finns, who are culturally most similar to the Estonian majority population, are the most likely to form a union with an Estonian. For ethnic minority women, the likelihood of being in minority-majority unions is highest in rural areas and increases over generations, with third-generation immigrants being the most likely. Estonian women are most likely to have a minority partner when they or their parents were born abroad and when they live in urban areas. Our findings suggest that both the opportunity to meet potential partners and openness to other ethnic groups are important factors for understanding the dynamics of minority-majority unions.

  11. Women leaders in academia, gender and stereotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibiana Carolina Moncayo Orjuela

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the leadership characteristics typical of women in managerial positions in higher education institutions, starting from a particular literary approach and found in research regarding this topic. It is based on the subjective constructions of social duality between the masculine and feminine genders and attributes in the social relations of power. Also, within the conceptual framework examines leadership as a social construction and, therefore, their dependence on the various social characterizations. To fulfill the goal four themes were set. They allow the categorization of the literature review, namely: leadership and development, gender and stereotypes, leadership and gender, and to end, women's leadership in education institutions. Finally, we present the results of the literature research, where the transactional transformational, participative and authoritarian leadership styles are clearly evident, from which the transformational, characteristic of women, is the must in power and leadership positions in higher education institutions.

  12. True gender ratios and stereotype rating norms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan eGarnham

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a study comparing, in English, perceived distributions of men and women in 422 named occupations with actual real world distributions. The first set of data was obtained from previous a large-scale norming study, whereas the second set was mostly drawn from UK governmental sources. In total, real world ratios for 290 occupations were obtained for our perceive vs. real world comparison, of which 205 were deemed to be unproblematic. The means for the two sources were similar and the correlation between them was high, suggesting that people are generally accurate at judging real gender ratios, though there were some notable exceptions. Beside this correlation, some interesting patterns emerged from the two sources, suggesting some response strategies when people complete norming studies. We discuss these patterns in terms of the way real world data might complement norming studies in determining gender stereotypicality.

  13. Stereotypic movement disorder after acquired brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Cynthia M; Kennedy, Richard E; Hoye, Wayne; Yablon, Stuart A

    2002-05-01

    Stereotypic movement disorder (SMD) consists of repetitive, non-functional motor behaviour that interferes with daily living or causes injury to the person. It is most often described in patients with mental retardation. However, recent evidence indicates that this condition is common among otherwise normal individuals. This case study describes a patient with new-onset SMD occurring after subdural haematoma and brain injury. SMD has rarely been reported after acquired brain injury, and none have documented successful treatment. The current psychiatric literature regarding neurochemistry, neuroanatomy, and treatment of SMD are reviewed with particular application to one patient. Treatment options include serotonin re-uptake inhibitors, opioid antagonists and dopamine antagonists. SMD has been under-appreciated in intellectually normal individuals, and may also be unrecognized after brain injury. Further investigation is needed in this area, which may benefit other individuals with SMD as well.

  14. Contributions of dental colour to the physical attractiveness stereotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, J; Gómez-Polo, C; Santos, J A; Portillo, M; Lorenzo, M C; Albaladejo, A

    2014-10-01

    Dental appearance may play a key role on the way we develop a first impression of another person. To test whether relatively minor changes in the lightness of tooth colour would influence the perceived social appeal (social, intellectual, psychological and relational abilities) of an unknown male and unknown female, this cross-sectional study was performed on 555 Spanish adults. The two major independent variables related to the photograph were tooth lightness (computer-derived), divided into three levels that included lightened teeth, natural teeth and darkened teeth, and the gender of the observed face. Moreover, six independent variables related to the observer were assessed (age, gender, educational level, place of residence, frequency of brushing and self-reported health status). The dependent variables were scored on five-point Likert scales designed to quantify four domains (social, intellectual, psychological and relationship competences) of the Social Appeal Scale (SAS). Tooth lightness influences the perception of social appeal in all dimensions, as darkened smiles received significantly poorer scores than natural-colour smiles, but these were also worse than lightened smiles. A logistic regression analysis revealed that the major predictor of social appeal was tooth lightness, and for each increment in lightness (from darkened to lightened smiles), the odds ratio (OR) of positive values being perceived increased significantly in all items (from 2·3 in Popularity to 6·9 in Happiness). A perceptible change in dental lightness is the strongest factor associated with the dental attractiveness stereotype, affecting significantly the 12 traits assessed, but mainly the Happiness, Social Relations and Academic Performance. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Physical-chemical modeling of elements' behavior in mixing sea and fresh waters of minor rivers in the White Sea catchment area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimova, Victoria V; Mazukhina, Svetlana I; Cherepanova, Tatiana A; Gorbacheva, Tamara T

    2017-07-29

    The physical-chemical stage of marginal filters in minor rivers of the White Sea catchment area by the example of the Umba River, flowing to Kandalaksha Gulf, has been explored. Application of the method of physical-chemical modeling on the basis of field data allowed establishing migration forms of a number of elements in the "river-sea" system and deposition of solid phases when mixing waters. The mixing of river and sea water is accompanied by the sedimentation of predominantly goethite, hydromuscovite, and hydroxylapatite. Sediments in mixing river and sea waters were found to be mainly composed by goethite, hydromuscovite, and hydroxylapatite. The research has added to the knowledge of the role of the abiotic part in the marginal filters of small rivers in the Arctic.

  16. Backlash against gender stereotype-violating preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Jessica; Moss-Racusin, Corinne; Lopez, Michael; Williams, Katherine

    2018-01-01

    While there is substantial evidence that adults who violate gender stereotypes often face backlash (i.e. social and economic penalties), less is known about the nature of gender stereotypes for young children, and the penalties that children may face for violating them. We conducted three experiments, with over 2000 adults from the US, to better understand the content and consequences of adults' gender stereotypes for young children. In Experiment 1, we tested which characteristics adults (N = 635) believed to be descriptive (i.e. typical), prescriptive (i.e. required), and proscriptive (i.e. forbidden) for preschool-aged boys and girls. Using the characteristics that were rated in Experiment 1, we then constructed vignettes that were either 'masculine' or 'feminine', and manipulated whether the vignettes were said to describe a boy or a girl. Experiment 2 (N = 697) revealed that adults rated stereotype-violating children as less likeable than their stereotype-conforming peers, and that this difference was more robust for boys than girls. Experiment 3 (N = 731) was a direct replication of Experiment 2, and revealed converging evidence of backlash against stereotype-violating children. In sum, our results suggest that even young children encounter backlash from adults for stereotype violations, and that these effects may be strongest for boys.

  17. Stereotypes of football players as a function of positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R L; Youssef, Z I

    1975-01-01

    Sports experts agree that different football positions require different personality characteristics and a varied level of motor skill, e.g., quarterback position presumably demands a calm personality, a cerebral endowment, and great motor finesse. By contrast, some other positions may require sheer physical strength and a combative aggressive personality. This study investigated whether football coaches stereotype players according to their various positions and attempted to determine the profile, magnitude and consistency of such stereotyping on both personality traits and motor skill dimensions. This study also investigated the relationship between such stereotypes and the players' scores on psychological tests. On two separate occasions, each of six coaches rated thirteen football positions as to their players' motor skill and personality characteristics. Coaches were instructed to base their ratings on their actual experiences with the players of each position throughout their coaching careers. MMPI-derived scales and the 16 PF test were administered to 251 players. Test-retest correlation coefficients indicate that the six coaches were reliably stable in their stereotypes of the players. Coefficients of concordance indicate significant agreement among the coaches on the stereotypes. Only the 16 PF scores yielded a personality picture consistent with the coaches' stereotypes. Effect of such stereotyping on interpersonal relationships between coach and player are discussed.

  18. The effect of gender stereotype activation on entrepreneurial intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vishal K; Turban, Daniel B; Bhawe, Nachiket M

    2008-09-01

    In this study, the impact of implicit and explicit activation of gender stereotypes on men's and women's intentions to pursue a traditionally masculine career, such as entrepreneurship, was examined. On the basis of stereotype activation theory, it was hypothesized that men and women would confirm the gender stereotype about entrepreneurship when it was presented implicitly but disconfirm it when it was presented explicitly. Hypotheses were tested by randomly assigning 469 business students to one of 6 experimental conditions and then measuring their entrepreneurial intentions. Results supported the hypothesis when entrepreneurship was associated with stereotypically masculine characteristics but not when it was associated with traditionally feminine characteristics. Men also had higher entrepreneurial intention scores compared with women when no stereotypical information about entrepreneurship was presented, suggesting that underlying societal stereotypes associating entrepreneurship with masculine characteristics may influence people's intentions. However, men and women reported similar intentions when entrepreneurship was presented as gender neutral, suggesting that widely held gender stereotypes can be nullified. Practical implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  19. Getting to Know You: Familiarity, Stereotypes, and Children's Eyewitness Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordón, Ingrid M; Silberkleit, Gent; Goodman, Gail S

    2016-01-01

    The present study concerned how the acquisition of social information, specifically knowledge about personal characteristics, influences young children's memory and suggestibility. Effects of two sources of knowledge about a target person were systematically examined: familiarity and stereotypes. Children, aged 4-5 and 7-9 years (N = 145), were randomly assigned, per age group, to experimental conditions based on a familiarity (6 hours vs. no prior exposure) × stereotype (negative depiction as messy and clumsy vs. no stereotype) factorial design. Children then watched the target person engage in a target event (a series of contests) at a preschool ("Camp Ingrid"). The children's memory and suggestibility about the target person and target event were tested after a delay of 2 weeks. Results indicated that the negative stereotype resulted in an increase in children's correct responses both to free-recall stereotype-related questions (when children were unfamiliar with the target person) and to closed-ended questions overall (for younger children). However, the stereotype was associated with greater error to stereotype-related closed-ended questions. Moreover, familiarity increased children's accuracy to closed-ended questions. Implications for theory and application are discussed. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Stereotypes of Black American Women Related to Sexuality and Motherhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Lisa; Lobel, Marci

    2016-01-01

    Intersectionality theorists and researchers suggest the importance of examining unique stereotypes associated with intersecting group identities. We focus on the unique stereotypes of Black women in the United States related to sexuality and motherhood. In an online experimental study, 435 undergraduates from a Northeastern U.S. university were randomly assigned to one of the four conditions in which they viewed a photograph and read a description of a target young woman. The target’s race (Black vs. White) and pregnancy status (pregnant vs. no pregnancy information) were varied. A Black female target (pregnant or not) was perceived more negatively on items related to historically rooted societal stereotypes about sexual activity, sexual risk, motherhood status, and socioeconomic status than was a White female target, but there were no differences on items unrelated to societal stereotypes. A Black target described as pregnant was also perceived as more likely to be a single mother and to need public assistance than was a White target described as pregnant. Current findings, along with evidence that societal stereotypes have damaging effects, underscore the importance of diversifying images of Black women and increasing awareness of how stereotypes affect perceptions of Black women. Findings also highlight the value of research employing intersectionality to understand stereotypes. PMID:27821904

  1. FIESTA; Minority Television Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Wes; And Others

    The suggestions for planning, running, and evaluating minority television programing presented in this handbook are based on the experience and example of the FIESTA project (Tucson, Arizona). After initiating the reader into the topic of minority programing, the document disucsses the following topics: broadcast research, origins of the FIESTA…

  2. Surveying ethnic minorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joost Kappelhof

    2015-01-01

    Obtaining accurate survey data on ethnic minorities is not easy. Ethnic minorities are usually underrepresented in surveys, and it is moreover not certain that those who do take part in surveys are representative of the group the researcher is interested in. For example, is it only people with

  3. Age Stereotypes and Self-Views Revisited: Patterns of Internalization and Projection Processes Across the Life Span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornadt, Anna E; Voss, Peggy; Rothermund, Klaus

    2017-07-01

    We investigated processes of age stereotype internalization into the self and projection of self-views onto age stereotypes from a life-span perspective, taking age-related differences in the relevance of life domains into account. Age stereotypes and self-views in eight life domains were assessed in a sample of N = 593 persons aged 30-80 years (T1) at two time points that were separated by a 4-year time interval. We estimated cross-lagged projection and internalization effects in multigroup structural equation models. Internalization and projection effects were contingent on age group and life domain: Internalization effects were strongest in the young and middle-aged groups and emerged in the domains family, personality, work, and leisure. Projection effects in different domains were most pronounced for older participants. Our findings suggest that the internalization of age stereotypes is triggered by domain-specific expectations of impending age-related changes and transitions during certain phases of the life span. Projection processes, however, seem to occur in response to changes that have already been experienced by the individual. Our study demonstrates the dynamic interrelation of age stereotypes and self-views across the life course and highlights the importance of a differentiated, life-span perspective for the understanding of these mechanisms. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. An Agent-Based Simulation for Investigating the Impact of Stereotypes on Task-Oriented Group Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghami, Mahsa; Sukthankar, Gita

    In this paper, we introduce an agent-based simulation for investigating the impact of social factors on the formation and evolution of task-oriented groups. Task-oriented groups are created explicitly to perform a task, and all members derive benefits from task completion. However, even in cases when all group members act in a way that is locally optimal for task completion, social forces that have mild effects on choice of associates can have a measurable impact on task completion performance. In this paper, we show how our simulation can be used to model the impact of stereotypes on group formation. In our simulation, stereotypes are based on observable features, learned from prior experience, and only affect an agent's link formation preferences. Even without assuming stereotypes affect the agents' willingness or ability to complete tasks, the long-term modifications that stereotypes have on the agents' social network impair the agents' ability to form groups with sufficient diversity of skills, as compared to agents who form links randomly. An interesting finding is that this effect holds even in cases where stereotype preference and skill existence are completely uncorrelated.

  5. Increasing College Students' Interest and Engagement in STEM: A Comparison of Strategies for Challenging STEM Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jiyun Elizabeth L.

    Increasing science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) graduates has become an important part of the education agenda in the U.S. in recent years. Stereotypes about STEM (i.e., belief that STEM abilities are innate, and that European American men are best suited for STEM) have been identified as one of the critical factors that may contribute to low recruitment and retention of STEM students. Drawing from the literatures on biological essentialism and role models, this study compared different strategies for challenging STEM stereotypes among undergraduate students in STEM and non-STEM fields. STEM stereotypes were challenged directly with research articles that provided non-biological explanations for STEM success and interest (a strategy used in the essentialism research) and indirectly with biographies of successful STEM role models who are underrepresented in their field and who succeeded through hard work (a strategy used in the role model research). Contrary to the predictions, exposure to the role model biographies, research articles, or combination of both did not have statistically significant effects on participants' reported STEM interest and academic intentions. Possible explanations for the lack of significant findings as well as suggestions for developing effective interventions to promote STEM engagement among students are discussed.

  6. Ethical Aspects of Gender Stereotypes in Romanian Advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRUNZA Mihaela

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we aim at arguing that the advertising agencies – as significant organizations in the field of public communication – should follow the example of business corporations that are voluntarily using ethical practices to increase the trust of customers. One area where this can be done safely and constructively is the area of gender stereotypes in advertisement. By removing gender stereotypes and promoting non-stereotypical, creative images of gender relations, ads can simultaneously promote their brands as open-minded, creative and modern and inspire building the trust of their customers.

  7. Stereotype threat and social function in opioid substitution therapy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hippel, Courtney; Henry, Julie D; Terrett, Gill; Mercuri, Kimberly; McAlear, Karen; Rendell, Peter G

    2017-06-01

    People with a history of substance abuse are subject to widespread stigmatization. It seems likely that this societal disapproval will result in feelings of stereotype threat, or the belief that one is the target of demeaning stereotypes. If so, stereotype threat has the potential to contribute to functional difficulties including poor social outcomes. Eighty drug users on opioid substitution therapy and 84 demographically matched controls completed measures of mental health and social function. The opioid substitution therapy group were additionally asked to complete a measure that focused on their feelings of stereotype threat in relation to their drug use history. Bivariate correlations and hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to establish the magnitude and specificity of the relationship between stereotype threat and social functioning. Relative to controls, the opioid substitution therapy group reported higher levels of negative affect and schizotypy, and poorer social functioning, with all three of these indices significantly correlated with their feelings of stereotype threat. The results also showed that stereotype threat contributed significant unique variance to social functioning in the opioid substitution therapy group, even after taking into account other background, clinical, and mental health variables. Social functioning is an important aspect of recovery, yet these data indicate that people with a history of drug abuse who believe they are the target of stereotypical attitudes have poorer social functioning. This relationship holds after controlling for the impact of other variables on social functioning, including mental health. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. Concerns about being stereotyped can shape the social experiences of opioid substitution therapy patients. Opioid substitution therapy patients who feel negatively stereotyped experience greater social function deficits, and this

  8. Cultural heritage conservation and communication by digital modeling tools. Case studies: minor architectures of the Thirties in the Turin area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, A., Jr.; Spallone, R.

    2015-08-01

    Between the end of the twenties and the beginning of the World war two Turin, as the most of the Italian cities, was endowed by the fascist regime of many new buildings to guarantee its visibility and to control the territory: the fascist party main houses and the local ones. The style that was adopted for these constructions was inspired by the guide lines of the Modern movement which were spreading by a generation of architects as Le Corbusier, Gropius, Mendelsohn. At the end of the war many buildings were reconverted to several functions that led heavy transformations not respectful of the original worth, other were demolished. Today it's possible to rebuild those lost architectures in their primal format as it was created by their architects on paper (and in their mind). This process can guarantee the three-dimensional perception, the authenticity of the materials and the placement into the Turin urban tissue, using static and dynamic digital representation systems. The "three-dimensional re-drawing" of the projects, thought as an heuristic practice devoted to reveal the original idea of the project, inserts itself in a digital model of the urban and natural context as we can live it today, to simulate the perceptive effects that the building could stir up today. The modeling skills are the basis to product videos able to explore the relationship between the environment and "re-built architectures", describing with the synthetic movie techniques, the main formal and perceptive roots. The model represents a scientific product that can be involved in a virtual archive of cultural goods to preserve the collective memory of the architectural and urban past image of Turin.

  9. Long-term behavior of the concentration of the minor constituents in the mesosphere – a model study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Grygalashvyly

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the influence the rising concentrations of methane, nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide which have occurred since the pre-industrial era, have had on the chemistry of the mesosphere. For this investigation we use our global 3-D-model COMMA-IAP which was designed for the exploration of the MLT-region and in particular the extended mesopause region. Assumptions and approximations for the trends in the Lyman-α flux (needed for the water vapor dissociation rate, methane and the water vapor mixing ratio at the hygropause are necessary to accomplish this study. To approximate the solar Lyman-α flux back to the pre-industrial time, we derived a quadratic fit using the sunspot number record which extends back to 1749 and is the only solar proxy available for the Lyman-α flux prior to 1947. We assume that methane increases with a constant growth rate from the pre-industrial era to the present. An unsolved problem for the model calculations consists of how the water vapor mixing ratio at the hygropause should be specified during this period. We assume that the hygropause was dryer during pre-industrial times than the present. As a consequence of methane oxidation, the model simulation indicates that the middle atmosphere has become more humid as a result of the rising methane concentration, but with some dependence on height and with a small time delay of few years. The solar influence on the water vapor mixing ratio is insignificant below about 80 km in summer high latitudes, but becomes increasingly more important above this altitude. The enhanced water vapor concentration increases the hydrogen radical concentration and reduces the mesospheric ozone. A second region of stronger ozone decrease is located in the vicinity of the stratopause. Increases in CO2 concentration enhance slightly the concentration of CO in the mesosphere. However, its influence upon the chemistry is small and its main effect is connected with a cooling

  10. Politicy of care in the criticism towards gender stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Maria Raquel Gomes Maia; Fonseca, Rosa Maria Godoy Serpa da; Padilla, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    analyze gender inequalities among Brazilian women in Portugal and in contemporary nursing based on care politicity in the light of gender; disclose oppression of the female produced by the stereotypes that look upon women as natural caregivers; point out politicity to deconstruct gender stereotypes. theoretical reflection with narrative review of literature to analyze classic references in the feminist epistemology combined with the care politicity thesis. the similarities between the stereotypes of the Brazilian Eves and the Portuguese Maries as either the sexualized or sanctified nurse are inserted in the Jewish-Christian moral genealogy that reaffirms the subservience of the female to the male. by attaching priority to care that needs non-care to expand the possibilities of care giving, the theoretical assumption of politicy of care can contribute to subvert the stereotypical images of Brazilian women in Portuguese lands and in contemporary nursing.

  11. Forming impressions: effects of facial expression and gender stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hack, Tay

    2014-04-01

    The present study of 138 participants explored how facial expressions and gender stereotypes influence impressions. It was predicted that images of smiling women would be evaluated more favorably on traits reflecting warmth, and that images of non-smiling men would be evaluated more favorably on traits reflecting competence. As predicted, smiling female faces were rated as more warm; however, contrary to prediction, perceived competence of male faces was not affected by facial expression. Participants' female stereotype endorsement was a significant predictor for evaluations of female faces; those who ascribed more strongly to traditional female stereotypes reported the most positive impressions of female faces displaying a smiling expression. However, a similar effect was not found for images of men; endorsement of traditional male stereotypes did not predict participants' impressions of male faces.

  12. Sex-Trait Stereotypes in India and Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, John E.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Sex-trait stereotypes were studied among five- and eight-year-old children and among university students in India and Pakistan. Results were generally congruent with the findings from similar studies in western countries. (Author/MP)

  13. Professional Stereotypes of Interprofessional Education Naive Pharmacy and Nursing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, Maria Miller; Harris, Elaine C.; Ryan, Gina J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To assess and compare interprofessional education (IPE) naive pharmacy and nursing student stereotypes prior to completion of an IPE activity. Methods. Three hundred and twenty-three pharmacy students and 275 nursing students at Mercer University completed the Student Stereotypes Rating Questionnaire. Responses from pharmacy and nursing students were compared, and responses from different level learners within the same profession also were compared. Results. Three hundred and fifty-six (59.5%) students completed the survey. Pharmacy students viewed pharmacists more favorably than nursing students viewed pharmacists for all attributes except the ability to work independently. Additionally, nursing students viewed nurses less favorably than pharmacy students viewed nurses for academic ability and practical skills. There was some variability in stereotypes between professional years. Conclusion. This study confirms the existence of professional stereotypes, although overall student perceptions of their own profession and the other were generally positive. PMID:28720912

  14. Stereotypes of Age Differences in Personality Traits: Universal and Accurate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Wayne; McCrae, Robert R.; De Fruyt, Filip; Jussim, Lee; Löckenhoff, Corinna E.; De Bolle, Marleen; Costa, Paul T.; Sutin, Angelina R.; Realo, Anu; Allik, Jüri; Nakazato, Katsuharu; Shimonaka, Yoshiko; Hřebíčková, Martina; Kourilova, Sylvie; Yik, Michelle; Ficková, Emília; Brunner-Sciarra, Marina; de Figueora, Nora Leibovich; Schmidt, Vanina; Ahn, Chang-kyu; Ahn, Hyun-nie; Aguilar-Vafaie, Maria E.; Siuta, Jerzy; Szmigielska, Barbara; Cain, Thomas R.; Crawford, Jarret T.; Mastor, Khairul Anwar; Rolland, Jean-Pierre; Nansubuga, Florence; Miramontez, Daniel R.; Benet-Martínez, Veronica; Rossier, Jérôme; Bratko, Denis; Halberstadt, Jamin; Yamaguchi, Mami; Knežević, Goran; Martin, Thomas A.; Gheorghiu, Mirona; Smith, Peter B.; Barbaranelli, Claduio; Wang, Lei; Shakespeare-Finch, Jane; Lima, Margarida P.; Klinkosz, Waldemar; Sekowski, Andrzej; Alcalay, Lidia; Simonetti, Franco; Avdeyeva, Tatyana V.; Pramila, V. S.; Terracciano, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Age trajectories for personality traits are known to be similar across cultures. To address whether stereotypes of age groups reflect these age-related changes in personality, we asked participants in 26 countries (N = 3,323) to rate typical adolescents, adults, and old persons in their own country. Raters across nations tended to share similar beliefs about different age groups; adolescents were seen as impulsive, rebellious, undisciplined, preferring excitement and novelty, whereas old people were consistently considered lower on impulsivity, activity, antagonism, and Openness. These consensual age group stereotypes correlated strongly with published age differences on the five major dimensions of personality and most of 30 specific traits, using as criteria of accuracy both self-reports and observer ratings, different survey methodologies, and data from up to 50 nations. However, personal stereotypes were considerably less accurate, and consensual stereotypes tended to exaggerate differences across age groups. PMID:23088227

  15. CODING LOGICAL MECHANISM AND STEREOTYPING IN GENDER CYBER HUMORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truly Almendo Pasaribu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Gender-related humors have their own way of being funny; and this research aims to find out how and why they are funny. For this purpose, both researchers have collected 50 gender cyber humors and analyzed them, first, to decode how their logical mechanism relates to specific linguistic features, and secondly, to uncover how gender stereotyping contributes to the comical effects. The twisting of logic and linguistic ambiguity is analyzed formally using Attardos (2001 General Theory of Verbal Humor (GTVH and supported by gender studies. The findings reveal that the logical mechanism consists of elements of incongruities, and gender stereotyping presents negative stereotypical images. The analysis further shows that some gender stereotypical images ridicule traditional roles of man and woman while others make fun of non-traditional representations. This shift from women only to both men and women as targets of gender humors has been an impact of effective feminist movements.

  16. Disgust, contempt, and anger and the stereotypes of obese people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartanian, Lenny R; Thomas, Margaret A; Vanman, Eric J

    2013-12-01

    Emotions form an important part of stereotyping and prejudice, but little is known about how intergroup emotions are associated with anti-fat prejudice. This study examined the relation between negative intergroup emotions (disgust, contempt, and anger) and the stereotypes of obese people. A community sample (n = 380) and an undergraduate sample (n = 96) rated obese people on common obesity stereotypes (e.g., lazy, sloppy), and also indicated the extent to which they felt disgust, contempt, and anger toward obese people. In both samples, participants reported feeling more disgust and contempt than anger toward obese people. Furthermore, regression analyses indicated that disgust was a significant positive predictor of obesity stereotypes, but contempt and anger were not. Overall, these findings provide further evidence that disgust plays an important role in prejudice toward obese people.

  17. Air Dispersion Modeling for the INL Application for a Synthetic Minor Sitewide Air Quality Permit to Construct with a Facility Emission Cap Component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sondrup, Andrus Jeffrey [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) is applying for a synthetic minor, Sitewide, air quality permit to construct (PTC) with a facility emission cap (FEC) component from the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) for Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to limit its potential to emit to less than major facility limits for criteria air pollutants (CAPs) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) regulated under the Clean Air Act. This document is supplied as an appendix to the application, Idaho National Laboratory Application for a Synthetic Minor Sitewide Air Quality Permit to Construct with a Facility Emissions Cap Component, hereafter referred to as “permit application” (DOE-ID 2015). Air dispersion modeling was performed as part of the permit application process to demonstrate pollutant emissions from the INL will not cause a violation of any ambient air quality standards. This report documents the modeling methodology and results for the air dispersion impact analysis. All CAPs regulated under Section 109 of the Clean Air Act were modeled with the exception of lead (Pb) and ozone, which are not required to be modeled by DEQ. Modeling was not performed for toxic air pollutants (TAPs) as uncontrolled emissions did not exceed screening emission levels for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic TAPs. Modeling for CAPs was performed with the EPA approved AERMOD dispersion modeling system (Version 14134) (EPA 2004a) and five years (2000-2004) of meteorological data. The meteorological data set was produced with the companion AERMET model (Version 14134) (EPA 2004b) using surface data from the Idaho Falls airport, and upper-air data from Boise International Airport supplied by DEQ. Onsite meteorological data from the Grid 3 Mesonet tower located near the center of the INL (north of INTEC) and supplied by the local National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) office was used for surface wind directions and wind speeds. Surface data (i

  18. Emotion blocks the path to learning under stereotype threat

    OpenAIRE

    Mangels, Jennifer A.; Good, Catherine; Whiteman, Ronald C.; Maniscalco, Brian; Dweck, Carol S.

    2011-01-01

    Gender-based stereotypes undermine females’ performance on challenging math tests, but how do they influence their ability to learn from the errors they make? Females under stereotype threat or non-threat were presented with accuracy feedback after each problem on a GRE-like math test, followed by an optional interactive tutorial that provided step-wise problem-solving instruction. Event-related potentials tracked the initial detection of the negative feedback following errors [feedback relat...

  19. Women and men in management : Stereotypes, evaluation and discourse

    OpenAIRE

    Kusterer, Hanna Li

    2014-01-01

    Very few women hold top corporate positions in Sweden, and women are underrepresented as managers in all work sectors. The present thesis examined stereotypes, perceptions and presuppositions about women, men and management with a combination of perspectives from social and organizational psychology, discourse analysis and gender in organization research. Study 1 of Paper I was a content analysis of management attributes and cultural stereotypes of female and male managers. In Study 2, an inv...

  20. Young and older adults’ gender stereotype in multitasking

    OpenAIRE

    Tilo eStrobach; Alesia eWoszidlo

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated discrepancies between two components of stereotyping by means of the popular notion that women are better at multitasking behaviors: the cognitive structure in individuals (personal belief) and the perceived consensus regarding certain beliefs (perceived belief of groups). With focus on this notion, we examined whether there was empirical evidence for the stereotype's existence and whether and how it was shared among different age groups. Data were collec...

  1. Superman meets Don Quixote: stereotypes in clinical medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkus, Rosa Lynn

    1986-01-01

    Drawing in part on her experiences as a "humanist-in-residence" on a neurological surgery service, the author discusses how stereotypic views held by and toward physicians and humanists interfere with the teaching of ethics to physicians and, indirectly, to the general public. She traces the development of these stereotypes over the past hundred years and suggests ways that they can be overcome to permit more effective working relationships between physicians and clinical ethicists.

  2. Hiring retirees: impact of age norms and stereotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Karspinska, K.; Henkens, K.; Schippers, J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – This study aims to investigate the role of managers in the re-employment of early retirees and focuses on the effect of managers' age norms and stereotypes on managers' employment decisions. Design/methodology/approach – A combination of a factorial study and a survey was conducted. First, information on the age norms and stereotypes was collected. Secondly, profiles of hypothetical retired job applicants were presented to the employers, who were asked to make a specific hiring deci...

  3. Examining the Relationship between Minority Status Stress, the Social Change Model of Leadership Development, and Persistence of Black Students at Predominantly White Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lesley-Ann

    2012-01-01

    Minority status stress, which is the stress Black college students experience at predominantly White institutions (PWIs) as a result of their racial minority status, has been found to negatively impact their persistence in college. Two manuscripts were developed for this dissertation. The first is a critical literature review which establishes the…

  4. Being black in a white skin: Beliefs and stereotypes around albinism at a South African university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phatoli, Relebohile; Bila, Nontembeko; Ross, Eleanor

    2015-01-01

    Background: Partly because of the legacy of apartheid, and despite being a constitutional democracy, South Africa continues to be a deeply divided society, particularly along racial lines. In this context many people with albinism do not fit neatly into black and white categories and are likely to experience social discrimination and marginalisation. Objectives: The study endeavoured to explore the beliefs and practices regarding albinism within a South African university, and the availability of support services. Method: The research was located within an interpretive qualitative paradigm and was framed within the theories of stigma, discrimination and 'othering'. Interviews were conducted with five students with albinism and 10 students without albinism. Results: Findings confirmed the existence of myths and stereotypes regarding albinism. Students with albinism tended to exclude themselves from the rest of the student community to avoid discrimination and stereotypes around their condition. Conclusion: People with albinism can teach us about social constructions of race, colour and relations between minority groups and the majority culture. Results have implications for schools, disability units at universities, and albinism societies in terms of opening up channels of communication between people with albinism and the general public and fostering knowledge and awareness thereof.

  5. Cultural Value Differences, Value Stereotypes, and Diverging Identities in Intergroup Conflicts: The Estonian Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Dobewall

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available

    An examination of the relationship between cultural values, value stereotypes and social identities in Estonia, where intergroup conflicts triggered riots in the capital
    Tallinn in April 2007, using data from the European Social Survey on cultural differences and value trends as the background to a survey exploring perceived
    group values and assessed social identities among ethnic Estonians and members of the Russian-speaking minority. The study, conducted in summer 2008, found
    agreement across both ethnic groups about the values of a typical group member, but no accuracy in their attribution. The Estonian students (n = 152 avoided
    Eastern-European identification, while the Russian-speaking students (n = 54 did not want to give up Estonia’s Soviet past. We found that attributed rather than
    self-rated value differences between groups caused the conflicts, whilst diverging identities were found to make value stereotypes more extreme.

  6. Being black in a white skin: Beliefs and stereotypes around albinism at a South African university

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phatoli, Relebohile; Bila, Nontembeko

    2015-01-01

    Background: Partly because of the legacy of apartheid, and despite being a constitutional democracy, South Africa continues to be a deeply divided society, particularly along racial lines. In this context many people with albinism do not fit neatly into black and white categories and are likely to experience social discrimination and marginalisation. Objectives: The study endeavoured to explore the beliefs and practices regarding albinism within a South African university, and the availability of support services. Method: The research was located within an interpretive qualitative paradigm and was framed within the theories of stigma, discrimination and ‘othering’. Interviews were conducted with five students with albinism and 10 students without albinism. Results: Findings confirmed the existence of myths and stereotypes regarding albinism. Students with albinism tended to exclude themselves from the rest of the student community to avoid discrimination and stereotypes around their condition. Conclusion: People with albinism can teach us about social constructions of race, colour and relations between minority groups and the majority culture. Results have implications for schools, disability units at universities, and albinism societies in terms of opening up channels of communication between people with albinism and the general public and fostering knowledge and awareness thereof. PMID:28730019

  7. Being black in a white skin: Beliefs and stereotypes around albinism at a South African university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Relebohile Phatoli

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Partly because of the legacy of apartheid, and despite being a constitutional democracy, South Africa continues to be a deeply divided society, particularly along racial lines. In this context many people with albinism do not fit neatly into black and white categories and are likely to experience social discrimination and marginalisation.Objectives: The study endeavoured to explore the beliefs and practices regarding albinism within a South African university, and the availability of support services. Method: The research was located within an interpretive qualitative paradigm and was framed within the theories of stigma, discrimination and ‘othering’. Interviews were conducted with five students with albinism and 10 students without albinism. Results: Findings confirmed the existence of myths and stereotypes regarding albinism. Students with albinism tended to exclude themselves from the rest of the student community to avoid discrimination and stereotypes around their condition. Conclusion: People with albinism can teach us about social constructions of race, colour and relations between minority groups and the majority culture. Results have implications for schools, disability units at universities, and albinism societies in terms of opening up channels of communication between people with albinism and the general public and fostering knowledge and awareness thereof.

  8. BINARY MINOR PLANETS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The data set lists orbital and physical properties for well-observed or suspected binary/multiple minor planets including the Pluto system, compiled from the...

  9. Teaching minority children hygiene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rheinländer, Thilde; Samuelsen, Helle; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Ethnic minority children in Vietnam experience high levels of hygiene- and sanitation-related diseases. Improving hygiene for minority children is therefore vital for improving child health. The study objective was to investigate how kindergarten and home environments influence...... the learning of hygiene of pre-school ethnic minority children in rural Vietnam. Design. Eight months of ethnographic field studies were conducted among four ethnic minority groups living in highland and lowland communities in northern Vietnam. Data included participant observation in four kindergartens and 20...... homes of pre-school children, together with 67 semi-structured interviews with caregivers and five kindergarten staff. Thematic analysis was applied and concepts of social learning provided inputs to the analysis. Findings. This study showed that poor living conditions with lack of basic sanitation...

  10. Minority Veteran Report 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This report is the first comprehensive report that chronicles the history of racial and ethnic minorities in the military and as Veterans, profiles characteristics...

  11. Minorities in Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elling, Rasmus Christian

    Contrary to the popular understanding of Iran as a Persian nation, half of the country's population consists of minorities, among whom there has been significant ethnic mobilization at crucial stages in Iranian history. One such stage is now: suppressed minority demands, identity claims, and deba......Contrary to the popular understanding of Iran as a Persian nation, half of the country's population consists of minorities, among whom there has been significant ethnic mobilization at crucial stages in Iranian history. One such stage is now: suppressed minority demands, identity claims......, and debates on diversity have entered public discourse and politics. In 2005–2007, Iran was rocked by the most widespread ethnic unrest experienced in that country since the revolution. The same period was also marked by the re-emergence of nationalism. This interdisciplinary book takes a long-overdue step...

  12. Minority Veteran Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This report is the first comprehensive report that chronicles the history of racial and ethnic minorities in the military and as Veterans, profiles characteristics...

  13. BCDC Minor Permits

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — An administrative permit can be issued for an activity that qualifies as a minor repair or improvement in a relatively short period of time and without a public...

  14. Sygdomsrelateret adfærd og sociale stereotyper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørring, Marie Louise; Andersen, Rikke Sand

    2008-01-01

    Som lægmandskategorier bruges stereotyper til at præsentere en given gruppes essentielle eller iboende kulturelle værdier. Det er også tilfældet indenfor sundhedsvæsnet, hvor stereotyper ofte bruges som billeder på kønslige og kulturelle forskelle. Her opstår stereotyper som blandt andet 'den...... hypokondriske kvinde' og 'den jyske landmand'. Formålet med denne artikel er at diskutere de sociale stereotypers funktion i sundhedsvæsnet ud fra et antropologisk perspektiv. Vi ønsker at bidrage til en processuel forståelse af, hvordan sociale stereotyper benyttes i forhold til sygdomsrelateret adfærd....... Artiklen tager udgangspunkt i to kvalitative studier af henholdsvis lægesøgningsadfærd blandt danske kræftpatienter og postoperativ smertebehandlingspraksis i Danmark og Italien. Det er artiklens hovedargument at stereotyper har en social funktion, mere end de er en præsentation af den sociale virkelighed...

  15. Challenging gender stereotypes: Theory of mind and peer group dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Rizzo, Michael T; Killen, Melanie

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the social cognitive skills related to challenging gender stereotypes, children (N = 61, 3-6 years) evaluated a peer who challenged gender stereotypic norms held by the peer's group. Participants with false belief theory of mind (FB ToM) competence were more likely than participants who did not have FB ToM to expect a peer to challenge the group's stereotypes and propose that the group engage in a non-stereotypic activity. Further, participants with FB ToM rated challenging the peer group more positively. Participants without FB ToM did not differentiate between their own and the group's evaluation of challenges to the group's stereotypic norms, but those with ToM competence asserted that they would be more supportive of challenging the group norm than would the peer group. Results reveal the importance of social-cognitive competencies for recognizing the legitimacy of challenging stereotypes, and for understanding one's own and other group perspectives. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Evolution of gender stereotypes in Spain: traits and roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Sáez, Mercedes; Morales, J Francisco; Lisbona, Ana

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this study is twofold: to determine whether (and how) gender stereotypes have changed over time through a comparison of two different sets of data collected in 1993 (N=1255) and 2001 (N=1255) from a representative sample of the Spanish population, and to examine the relation between gender traits and roles and its stability over time. In addition, special attention is paid to the psychometric properties of the measures of gender traits and roles used in the study. The content of gender stereotypes was found to remain stable over the target period of time, confirming the classical typology (a higher assignment of expressive-communal traits to women and of instrumental-agentic traits to men). The structure of the gender-role questionnaire allows us to distinguish between family-role and work-role stereotyping. Gender-role stereotyping shows a marked decline between 1993 and 2001, a result that contrasts with the stability of trait-role stereotyping. The fact that a very low correlation is observed at the two time points between these two components of gender stereotyping strongly suggests their independence.

  17. Impact of social pressure on stereotypes about obese people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Jessica; Carels, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to test the effects of different types of influence on the expression of stereotypes towards people who are obese. It was hypothesized that public social pressure would more significantly impact the expression of stereotypes towards obese people than other types of influence. One-hundred fifty-eight undergraduate students were randomly assigned to one of three conditions or a control condition. Participants completed measures of stereotypes towards obese people prior to and after receiving manipulated feedback depicting purported stereotypes possessed by others (anonymously or publically) or scientific information about the base rates of these stereotypical traits in the obese population (i.e., trait prevalence). Participants also completed a measure of weight bias unrelated to the manipulated feedback. Explicit beliefs were influenced more when people perceived that others' views were inconsistent with their own in a public setting than an anonymous setting or when they received trait prevalence feedback. However, levels of weight bias on a separate measure were unchanged. Strong, public manipulations of social feedback have great potential to impact, at least, the short-term expression of stereotypes towards obese people.

  18. Young and Older Adults' Gender Stereotype in Multitasking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobach, Tilo; Woszidlo, Alesia

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated discrepancies between two components of stereotyping by means of the popular notion that women are better at multitasking behaviors: the cognitive structure in individuals (personal belief) and the perceived consensus regarding certain beliefs (perceived belief of groups). With focus on this notion, we examined whether there was empirical evidence for the stereotype's existence and whether and how it was shared among different age groups. Data were collected from 241 young (n = 129) and older (n = 112) German individuals. The reported perceptions of gender effects at multitasking were substantial and thus demonstrated the existence of its stereotype. Importantly, in young and older adults, this stereotype existed in the perception of attributed characteristics by members of a collective (perceived belief of groups). When contrasting this perceived belief of groups and the personal belief, older adults showed a similar level of conformation of the gender stereotype while young adults were able to differentiate between these perspectives. Thus, young adults showed a discrepancy between the stereotype's components cognitive structure in individuals and perceived consensus regarding certain beliefs.

  19. Stereotype threat can both enhance and impair older adults' memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Sarah J; Mather, Mara

    2013-12-01

    Negative stereotypes about aging can impair older adults' memory via stereotype threat; however, the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are unclear. In two experiments, we tested competing predictions derived from two theoretical accounts of stereotype threat: executive-control interference and regulatory fit. Older adults completed a working memory test either under stereotype threat about age-related memory declines or not under such threat. Monetary incentives were manipulated such that recall led to gains or forgetting led to losses. The executive-control-interference account predicts that stereotype threat decreases the availability of executive-control resources and hence should impair working memory performance. The regulatory-fit account predicts that threat induces a prevention focus, which should impair performance when gains are emphasized but improve performance when losses are emphasized. Results were consistent only with the regulatory-fit account. Although stereotype threat significantly impaired older adults' working memory performance when remembering led to gains, it significantly improved performance when forgetting led to losses.

  20. Stereotype threat reduces false recognition when older adults are forewarned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jessica T; Gallo, David A

    2016-01-01

    Exposing older adults to ageing stereotypes can reduce their memory for studied information--a phenomenon attributed to stereotype threat--but little is known about stereotype effects on false memory. Here, we assessed ageing stereotype effects on the Deese-Roediger-McDermott false memory illusion. Older adults studied lists of semantically associated words, and then read a passage about age-related memory decline (threat condition) or an age-neutral passage (control condition). They then took a surprise memory test with a warning to avoid false recognition of non-studied associates. Relative to the control condition, activating stereotype threat reduced the recognition of both studied and non-studied words, implicating a conservative criterion shift for associated test words. These results indicate that stereotype threat can reduce false memory, and they help to clarify mixed results from prior ageing research. Consistent with the regulatory focus hypothesis, threat motivates older adults to respond more conservatively when error-prevention is emphasised at retrieval.

  1. The N400 as an index of racial stereotype accessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehman, Eric; Volpert, Hannah I; Simons, Robert F

    2014-04-01

    The current research examined the viability of the N400, an event-related potential (ERP) related to the detection of semantic incongruity, as an index of both stereotype accessibility and interracial prejudice. Participants' EEG was recorded while they completed a sequential priming task, in which negative or positive, stereotypically black (African American) or white (Caucasian American) traits followed the presentation of either a black or white face acting as a prime. ERP examination focused on the N400, but additionally examined N100 and P200 reactivity. Replicating and extending previous N400 stereotype research, results indicated that the N400 can indeed function as an index of stereotype accessibility in an interracial domain, as greater N400 reactivity was elicited by trials in which the face prime was incongruent with the target trait than when primes and traits matched. Furthermore, N400 activity was moderated by participants' self-reported explicit bias. More explicitly biased participants demonstrated greater N400 reactivity to stereotypically white traits following black faces than black traits following black faces. P200 activity was additionally associated with participants' implicit biases, as more implicitly biased participants similarly demonstrated greater P200 reactivity to stereotypically white traits following black faces than black traits following black faces.

  2. Multichoice minority game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ein-Dor, Liat; Metzler, Richard; Kanter, Ido; Kinzel, Wolfgang

    2001-01-01

    The generalization of the problem of adaptive competition, known as the minority game, to the case of K possible choices for each player, is addressed, and applied to a system of interacting perceptrons with input and output units of a type of K-state Potts spins. An optimal solution of this minority game, as well as the dynamic evolution of the adaptive strategies of the players, are solved analytically for a general K and compared with numerical simulations

  3. Much damage for little advantage: Field studies and morphodynamic modelling highlight the environmental impact of an apparently minor coastal mismanagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasagna, Roberta; Montefalcone, Monica; Albertelli, Giancarlo; Corradi, Nicola; Ferrari, Marco; Morri, Carla; Bianchi, Carlo Nike

    2011-09-01

    While coastal management activities have long been known to exert a strong influence on the health of marine ecosystems, neither scientists nor administrators have realized that small interventions may lead to disproportionately larger impacts. This study investigated the broad and long-lasting environmental consequences of the construction of an ill-planned, although small (only 12 m long) jetty for pleasure crafts on the hydrodynamic conditions and on the meadow of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica of an embayed cove in the Ligurian Sea (NW Mediterranean). There, P. oceanica used to develop on a high (>1.5 m) matte (a lignified terrace causing seafloor elevation) in which the leaves reach the surface and form a compact natural barrier to waves in front of the beach. Such a so-called 'fringing reef' of P. oceanica is today recognized of high ecological value and specific conservation efforts are required. The construction of the jetty implied the cutting of the matte, which directly destroyed part of the fringing reef. In addition, meadow mapping and sedimentological analyses coupled with morphodynamic modelling showed that the ecosystem of the whole cove had been greatly altered by the jetty. We used the geometric planform approach, a proper tool in the study of headland-controlled embayment, both to characterise the present situation of Prelo cove and to simulate the original one, before the jetty was built. In the long term, such a small jetty completely altered the configuration and the hydrodynamic conditions of the whole cove, splitting the original pocket beach into two smaller ones and creating strong rip-currents flowing seaward along the jetty. These rip-currents enhanced erosion of residual shallow portions of the meadow and further modified the sedimentary fluxes in shallow waters. A century after the construction of the jetty, an irreversible environmental damage has occurred, as the slow growing rate of P. oceanica implies that the high matte terrace

  4. [Stereotyping of overweight children by their contemporaries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Ansgar; Alizadeh, Manuela; Giel, Katrin; Zipfel, Stephan

    2008-12-01

    Childhood obesity represents not only a health risk but results also in social exclusion and stigmatization. While several studies have been conducted on this topic in America [1-3], there are hardly any German trials on the social impact of obesity in childhood and adolescence. This study investigates whether and how obese children and adolescents are stigmatized by their contemporaries because of their corpulence. A total of 454 (230 female, 224-male) children and adolescents aged 10-15 years from high and secondary modern schools in a Southern German university city were asked about how they appreciate their obese contemporaries. The interviewees were asked to assess six photographs of girls and boys with regard to sympathy, playmate preference, activity, intelligence and attractiveness. Obese children were assessed far more negatively in all asked areas compared to normal weight healthy and physically disabled children respectively. They were also referred to as more dislikable, lazy, less intelligent, unalluring and less considerable as playmates. This applies particularly for the obese boy. Hence, negative stereotypization of obese people can already be observed in childhood and adolescence.

  5. Determinants of Aggression Toward Sexual Minorities in a Community Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Dominic J.; Peterson, John L.; Bakeman, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Objective Sexual prejudice and masculine gender role stress were examined as mediators of the associations between adherence to different male gender norms and aggression toward sexual minorities. This study also sought to extend past research to a community sample and employ multiple methods to assess aggression. Method Participants were 199 heterosexual men between the ages of 18–30 who were recruited from a large southeastern United States city. Participants completed measures of adherence to male gender role norms, sexual prejudice, masculine gender role stress, and aggression toward sexual minorities. Results Associations between adherence to the status and antifemininity norms and aggression toward sexual minorities were mediated by sexual prejudice, but not masculine gender role stress. The portion of unique association between adherence to the antifemininity norm and aggression toward sexual minorities was about three times larger than the portion mediated by sexual prejudice and masculine gender role stress. Conclusions Findings provide the first multivariate evidence from a community-based sample for determinants of aggression toward sexual minorities motivated by gender role enforcement. These data support intervention programming and preventative intervention studies aimed at reducing sexual prejudice and facilitating less stereotypic attitudes about the male gender role, particularly surrounding the antifemininity norm. PMID:21479161

  6. Minority engineering scholarships renewal, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Scholarships for Minority Students Studying Engineering and Science : Support will make scholarships available to minority students : interested in engineering and science and will increase significantly the number of minority students that Missouri ...

  7. A review and meta-analysis of age-based stereotype threat: negative stereotypes, not facts, do the damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, Ruth A; Swift, Hannah J; Abrams, Dominic

    2015-03-01

    Stereotype threat effects arise when an individual feels at risk of confirming a negative stereotype about their group and consequently underperforms on stereotype relevant tasks (Steele, 2010). Among older people, underperformance across cognitive and physical tasks is hypothesized to result from age-based stereotype threat (ABST) because of negative age-stereotypes regarding older adults' competence. The present review and meta-analyses examine 22 published and 10 unpublished articles, including 82 effect sizes (N = 3882) investigating ABST on older people's (Mage = 69.5) performance. The analysis revealed a significant small-to-medium effect of ABST (d = .28) and important moderators of the effect size. Specifically, older adults are more vulnerable to ABST when (a) stereotype-based rather than fact-based manipulations are used (d = .52); (b) when performance is tested using cognitive measures (d = .36); and (c) occurs reliably when the dependent variable is measured proximally to the manipulation. The review raises important theoretical and methodological issues, and areas for future research. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Stereotyped patterns of B-cell receptor in splenic marginal zone lymphoma

    KAUST Repository

    Zibellini, S.

    2010-05-29

    Antigen stimulation may be important for splenic marginal zone lymphoma pathogenesis. To address this hypothesis, the occurrence of stereotyped B-cell receptors was investigated in 133 SMZL (26 HCV+) compared with 4,414 HCDR3 sequences from public databases. Sixteen SMZL (12%) showed stereotyped BCR; 7 of 86 (8%) SMZL sequences retrieved from public databases also belonged to stereotyped HCDR3 subsets. Three categories of subsets were identified: i) SMZL-specific subsets (n=5), composed only of 12 SMZL (9 HCV- from our series); ii) Non-Hodgkin\\'s lymphoma-like subsets (n=5), comprising 5 SMZL (4 from our series) clustering with other indolent lymphomas; iii) "CLL-like subsets" (n=6), comprising 6 SMZL (3 from our series) that belonged to known CLL subsets (n=4) or clustered with public CLL sequences. Immunoglobulin 3D modeling of 3 subsets revealed similarities in antigen binding regions not limited to HCDR3. Overall, data suggest that the pathogenesis of splenic marginal zone lymphoma may involve also HCV unrelated epitopes or an antigenic trigger common to other indolent lymphomas. ©2010 Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  9. A simple strategy to reduce stereotype threat for orthopedic residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Everlyne; Wright, James G

    2014-04-01

    Stereotype threat, defined as the predicament felt by people in either positive or negative learning experiences where they could conform to negative stereotypes associated with their own group membership, can interfere with learning. The purpose of this study was to determine if a simple orientation session could reduce stereotype threat for orthopedic residents. The intervention group received an orientation on 2 occasions focusing on their possible responses to perceived poor performance in teaching rounds and the operating room (OR). Participants completed a survey with 7 questions typical for stereotype threat evaluating responses to their experiences. The questions had 7 response options with a maximum total score of 49, where higher scores indicated greater degree of experiences typical of stereotype threat. Of the 84 eligible residents, 49 participated: 22 in the nonintervention and 27 in the intervention group. The overall scores were 29 and 29.4, and 26.2 and 25.8 in the nonintervention and intervention groups for their survey responses to perceived poor performance in teaching rounds (p = 0.85) and the OR (p = 0.84), respectively. Overall, responses typical of stereotype threat were greater for perceived poor performance at teaching rounds than in the OR (p = 0.001). Residents experience low self-esteem following perceived poor performance, particularly at rounds. A simple orientation designed to reduce stereotype threat was unsuccessful in reducing this threat overall. Future research will need to consider longer-term intervention as possible strategies to reduce perceived poor performance at teaching rounds and in the OR.

  10. The Effects of Mother Participation in Relationship Education on Coparenting, Parenting, and Child Social Competence: Modeling Spillover Effects for Low-Income Minority Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler-Baeder, Francesca; Garneau, Chelsea; Vaughn, Brian; McGill, Julianne; Harcourt, Kate Taylor; Ketring, Scott; Smith, Thomas

    2016-11-14

    Although suggestions are that benefits of relationship and marriage education (RME) participation extend from the interparental relationship with parenting and child outcomes, few evaluation studies of RME test these assumptions and the relationship among changes in these areas. This quasi-experimental study focuses on a parallel process growth model that tests a spillover hypothesis of program effects and finds, in a sample of low-income minority mothers with a child attending a Head Start program, that increases in mother reports of coparenting agreement for RME participants predict decreases in their reports of punitive parenting behaviors. Although improvements in parenting behaviors did not predict increases in teacher reports of children's social competence, improvements in coparenting agreement were associated with increases in children's social competence over time. In addition, comparative tests of outcomes between parents in the program and parents in a comparison group reveal that RME program participants (n = 171) demonstrate significant improvements compared to nonparticipants (n = 143) on coparenting agreement, parenting practices, and teachers' reports of preschool children's social competence over a 1 year period. The findings are offered as a step forward in better understanding the experiences of low-resource participants in RME. Implications for future research are discussed. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  11. Disproportionate Minority Contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fix, Rebecca L; Cyperski, Melissa A; Burkhart, Barry R

    2017-04-01

    The overrepresentation of racial/ethnic minorities within the criminal justice system relative to their population percentage, a phenomenon termed disproportionate minority contact, has been examined within general adult and adolescent offender populations; yet few studies have tested whether this phenomenon extends to juvenile sexual offenders (JSOs). In addition, few studies have examined whether offender race/ethnicity influences registration and notification requirements, which JSOs are subject to in some U.S. states. The present study assessed for disproportionate minority contact among general delinquent offenders and JSOs, meaning it aimed to test whether the criminal justice system treats those accused of sexual and non-sexual offenses differently by racial/ethnic group. Furthermore, racial/ethnic group differences in risk, legal classification, and sexual offending were examined for JSOs. Results indicated disproportionate minority contact was present among juveniles with non-sexual offenses and JSOs in Alabama. In addition, offense category and risk scores differed between African American and European American JSOs. Finally, registration classifications were predicted by offending characteristics, but not race/ethnicity. Implications and future directions regarding disproportionate minority contact among JSOs and social and legal policy affecting JSOs are discussed.

  12. Autonomy and minority rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barten, Ulrike

    2008-01-01

    to a specific group. The question never posed is, if there is a point and in that case at what point the group can actually talk about being autonomous. Is there a minimum in the number of special rights and procedures that has to be reached in order for the package of rights to qualify as ‘granting autonomy......'? I will look at this in connection with minority rights, as minority rights accord special rights and procedures to a specific group. For example, minorities have sometimes far reaching competences in the educational field: setting up and running their own schools and to a certain degree also decide...... with kin-states face a two-way situation regarding autonomy. First there is the autonomy from the home-state - the state the minority exists in. Secondly, though, there is the question of autonomy from the kin-state: How autonomous is a minority when it is (partly) financed by the kin-state? The discussion...

  13. Adapting the minority stress model: associations between gender non-conformity stigma, HIV-related stigma and depression among men who have sex with men in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, Carmen H; Newman, Peter A; Chakrapani, Venkatesan; Shunmugam, Murali

    2012-04-01

    Marginalization and stigmatization heighten the vulnerability of sexual minorities to inequitable mental health outcomes. There is a dearth of information regarding stigma and mental health among men who have sex with men (MSM) in India. We adapted Meyer's minority stress model to explore associations between stigma and depression among MSM in South India. The study objective was to examine the influence of sexual stigma, gender non-conformity stigma (GNS) and HIV-related stigma (HIV-S) on depression among MSM in South India. A cross-sectional survey was administered to MSM in urban (Chennai) (n=100) and semi-urban (Kumbakonam) (n=100) locations in Tamil Nadu. The majority of participants reported moderate/severe depression scores. Participants in Chennai reported significantly higher levels of GNS, social support and resilient coping, and lower levels of HIV-S and depression, than participants in Kumbakonam. Hierarchical block regression analyses were conducted to measure associations between independent (GNS, HIV-S), moderator (social support, resilient coping) and dependent (depression) variables. Sexual stigma was not included in regression analyses due to multicollinearity with GNS. The first regression analyses assessed associations between depression and stigma subtypes. In Chennai, perceived GNS was associated with depression; in Kumbakonam enacted/perceived GNS and vicarious HIV-S were associated with depression. In the moderation analyses, overall GNS and HIV-S scores (subtypes combined) accounted for a significant amount of variability in depression in both locations, although HIV-S was only a significant predictor in Kumbakonam. Social support and resilient coping were associated with lower depression but did not moderate the influence of HIV-S or GNS on depression. Differences in stigma, coping, social support and depression between locations highlight the salience of considering geographical context in stigma analyses. Associations between HIV-S and

  14. Migrant and Ethnic Minority Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise; Agyemang, Charles; Stronks, Karien

    2015-01-01

    in health related to migration and ethnicity. Thereto we will first define the concepts of migration and ethnicity, briefly review the various groups of migrants and ethnic minorities in Europe, and introduce a conceptual model that specifies the link and causal pathways between ethnicity and health....... Then we use the example of ethnic inequalities in cardiovascular disease and diabetes to illustrate the conceptual model. The second issue concerns the potential contribution from the health-care system to minimize the ethnic inequalities in health. As a public health sector, we should do all we can...

  15. Why People Stereotype Affects How They Stereotype : The Differential Influence of Comprehension Goals and Self-Enhancement Goals on Stereotyping (Retracted article. See vol. 38, pg. 1378, 2012)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bos, Arne; Stapel, Diederik A.

    In four studies, the authors examined the hypothesis that the way people stereotype is determined by the motives that instigate it. Study 1 measured and demonstrated the effectiveness of a commonly used priming technique to manipulate comprehension and self-enhancement goals. Study 2 demonstrated

  16. Tidal Tales of Minor Mergers: Star Formation in the Tidal Tails of Minor Mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knierman, Karen; Monkiewicz, Jacqueline; Scowen, Paul; Groppi, Christopher

    2018-01-01

    While major mergers and their tidal debris are well studied, equal mass galaxy mergers are relatively rare compared to minor mergers (mass ratio HI for 15 minor mergers, are providing a larger sample of environments to study the threshold for star formation that can inform star formation models, particularly at low densities.

  17. SEBACEOUS CYSTS MINOR SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Ayu Agung Laksemi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Minor surgery is small surgery or localized example cut ulcers and boils, cyst excision, and suturing. Somethings that need to be considered in the preparation of the surgery is minor tools, operating rooms and operating tables, lighting, maintenance of tools and equipment, sterilization and desinfection equipment, preparation of patients and anesthesia. In general cysts is walled chamber that consist of fluid, cells and the remaining cells. Cysts are formed not due to inflammation although then be inflamed. Lining of the cysts wall is composed of fibrous tissue and usually coated epithelial cells or endothelial. Cysts formed by dilated glands and closed channels, glands, blood vessels, lymph channels or layers of the epidermis. Contents of the cysts wall consists of the results is serum, lymph, sweat sebum, epithelial cells, the stratum corneum, and hair. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  18. Sex Trafficking of Minors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jessica L; Kaplan, Dana M; Barron, Christine E

    2017-04-01

    Sex trafficking is an increasingly recognized global health crisis affecting every country and region in the world. Domestic minor sex trafficking is a subset of commercial sexual exploitation of children, defined as engagement of minors (sexual acts for items of value (eg, food, shelter, drugs, money) involving children victimized within US borders. These involved youth are at risk for serious immediate and long-term physical and mental health consequences. Continued efforts are needed to improve preventive efforts, identification, screening, appropriate interventions, and subsequent resource provision for victimized and high-risk youth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Becoming (ethnic minority) teenagers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørslev, Mette Kirstine; Norredam, Marie; Vitus, Kathrine

    2017-01-01

    This article explores how everyday school life interacts with students’ practices of ‘becoming teenagers’ at a Danish school, analysing how age and ethnicity intersect with emotional well-being. The article builds on an ethnographic study at a public sports school following ethnic minority...... and majority students in two school classes from the fifth to seventh grades. Taking a practice approach, the article first analyses school as a social site before turning phenomenological attention to experiences and expectations of becoming teenagers, focusing on the experiences of ethnic minority students...

  20. Emotion blocks the path to learning under stereotype threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangels, Jennifer A; Good, Catherine; Whiteman, Ronald C; Maniscalco, Brian; Dweck, Carol S

    2012-02-01

    Gender-based stereotypes undermine females' performance on challenging math tests, but how do they influence their ability to learn from the errors they make? Females under stereotype threat or non-threat were presented with accuracy feedback after each problem on a GRE-like math test, followed by an optional interactive tutorial that provided step-wise problem-solving instruction. Event-related potentials tracked the initial detection of the negative feedback following errors [feedback related negativity (FRN), P3a], as well as any subsequent sustained attention/arousal to that information [late positive potential (LPP)]. Learning was defined as success in applying tutorial information to correction of initial test errors on a surprise retest 24-h later. Under non-threat conditions, emotional responses to negative feedback did not curtail exploration of the tutor, and the amount of tutor exploration predicted learning success. In the stereotype threat condition, however, greater initial salience of the failure (FRN) predicted less exploration of the tutor, and sustained attention to the negative feedback (LPP) predicted poor learning from what was explored. Thus, under stereotype threat, emotional responses to negative feedback predicted both disengagement from learning and interference with learning attempts. We discuss the importance of emotion regulation in successful rebound from failure for stigmatized groups in stereotype-salient environments.

  1. Gender Stereotypes and Discrimination: How Sexism Impacts Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christia Spears; Stone, Ellen A

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, we summarize and integrate some of the latest developmental science research on gender stereotypes and discrimination in childhood and adolescence. We focus on five forms of sexism: (a) stereotypes and discrimination against boys regarding their school behaviors and disciplinary actions; (b) stereotypes and discrimination against girls in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) domains; (c) stereotypes and discrimination in sports; (d) peer gendered harassment, including sexual harassment and teasing because of gender atypicality or nonconformity; and (e) sexualized gender stereotypes that sexually objectify girls and assume boys are sexually voracious. First, we document each type of sexism and examine children's awareness and perceptions of that bias, including their own self-reports and attributions. We examine the implications of this sexism for children and adolescents' developmental health (i.e., social, academic, and psychological well-being). We then draw connections between these various areas of research, focusing on how these different forms of sexism interact to reduce equity and justice among children and negatively impact positive developmental outcomes. The chapter concludes with suggestions for future research. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Gender and job satisfaction in stereotypical masculine and feminine occupations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipińska-Grobelny, Agnieszka; Goździk, Iwona

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to analyze the relationship between gender and job satisfaction among employees involved in a stereotypical masculine (tram driver) and a stereotypical feminine occupation (nurse). It was expected that people with feminine gender schema would be more satisfied with their traditionally feminine occupations compared with those with masculine gender schema and vice versa. A group of 103 individuals, including 47 females (15 tram drivers and 32 nurses) and 56 males (41 tram drivers and 15 nurses) completed the following battery of instruments: The Bem Sex Role Inventory by Kuczyńska, Job Affect Scale by Brief, et al. Job Descriptions Questionnaire by Neuberger and Allerbeck. The results of the study showed that gender proved to be a variable that differentiates the level of job satisfaction (both overall satisfaction and satisfaction with different components) only as regards stereotypical feminine occupations. Moreover, individuals with feminine gender schema working in a stereotypical feminine occupation are more satisfied with co-workers and work conditions, and those with masculine gender schema involved in a stereotypical masculine occupation are more satisfied with a supervisor. The gender analysis can be an important tool for the recruitment and selection procedures and plays an essential role in assessing the person-environment fit.

  3. Gender Stereotypes in Science Education Resources: A Visual Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkhoven, Anne H; Russo, Pedro; Land-Zandstra, Anne M; Saxena, Aayush; Rodenburg, Frans J

    2016-01-01

    More men are studying and working in science fields than women. This could be an effect of the prevalence of gender stereotypes (e.g., science is for men, not for women). Aside from the media and people's social lives, such stereotypes can also occur in education. Ways in which stereotypes are visible in education include the use of gender-biased visuals, language, teaching methods, and teachers' attitudes. The goal of this study was to determine whether science education resources for primary school contained gender-biased visuals. Specifically, the total number of men and women depicted, and the profession and activity of each person in the visuals were noted. The analysis showed that there were more men than women depicted with a science profession and that more women than men were depicted as teachers. This study shows that there is a stereotypical representation of men and women in online science education resources, highlighting the changes needed to create a balanced representation of men and women. Even if the stereotypical representation of men and women in science is a true reflection of the gender distribution in science, we should aim for a more balanced representation. Such a balance is an essential first step towards showing children that both men and women can do science, which will contribute to more gender-balanced science and technology fields.

  4. The association between stereotyping and interprofessional collaborative practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachma Sari, Vika; Hariyati, Rr Tutik Sri; Syuhaimie Hamid, Achir Yani

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to identify the association between stereotyping and professional intercollaborative practice. This study used a cross-sectional analytical study involving physicians, nurses, pharmacists, and dietitians in a hospital in Jakarta, Indonesia, who were selected using the stratified random sampling method. Data was collected using the Student Stereotypes Rating Questionnaire (SSRQ) and the Assessment of Interprofessional Team Collaboration Scale (AITCS). The stereotyping level was analyzed based on a nine-point SSRQ, while interprofessional collaborative practice was scored based on partnership/shared decision-making, cooperation, and coordination. Stereotyping was shown to significantly correlate with interprofessional collaborative practice as measured by the SSRQ and AITCS. Poor interprofessional collaborative practice in subscale partnership/decision-making was dominant. Also, low-rating stereotyping was shown to be dominant with poor interprofessional collaborative practice. The research recommends that health care providers improve partnership/ decision-making skills for better interprofessional collaboration. For further research, it's recommended to explore another barrier of interprofessional collaborative practice. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Stereotype-based faultlines and out-group derogation in diverse teams: The moderating roles of task stereotypicality and need for cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanciu, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Alignment of individuals on more than one diversity attribute (i.e., faultlines) may lead to intergroup biases in teams, disrupting the efficiency expectancies. Research has yet to examine if this can be a consequence of a stereotypical consistency between social and information attributes of diversity. The present study tests the hypothesis that, in a team with a stereotype-based faultline (a stereotypical consistency between gender and skills), there is increased out-group derogation compared to a team with a stereotype-inconsistent faultline. Furthermore, the study proposes that tasks can activate stereotypes, and the need for cognition dictates whether stereotypes are applied. The findings confirm the hypothesis and additionally provide evidence that tasks that activate gender stereotypes emphasize out-group derogation, especially for team members with low need for cognition.

  6. Sexual minority-related victimization as a mediator of mental health disparities in sexual minority youth: a longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Chad M; Marshal, Michael P; Chisolm, Deena J; Sucato, Gina S; Friedman, Mark S

    2013-03-01

    Sexual minority youth (youth who are attracted to the same sex or endorse a gay/lesbian/bisexual identity) report significantly higher rates of depression and suicidality than heterosexual youth. The minority stress hypothesis contends that the stigma and discrimination experienced by sexual minority youth create a hostile social environment that can lead to chronic stress and mental health problems. The present study used longitudinal mediation models to directly test sexual minority-specific victimization as a potential explanatory mechanism of the mental health disparities of sexual minority youth. One hundred ninety-seven adolescents (14-19 years old; 70 % female; 29 % sexual minority) completed measures of sexual minority-specific victimization, depressive symptoms, and suicidality at two time points 6 months apart. Compared to heterosexual youth, sexual minority youth reported higher levels of sexual minority-specific victimization, depressive symptoms, and suicidality. Sexual minority-specific victimization significantly mediated the effect of sexual minority status on depressive symptoms and suicidality. The results support the minority stress hypothesis that targeted harassment and victimization are partly responsible for the higher levels of depressive symptoms and suicidality found in sexual minority youth. This research lends support to public policy initiatives that reduce bullying and hate crimes because reducing victimization can have a significant impact on the health and well-being of sexual minority youth.

  7. Minority stress, psychosocial resources, and psychological distress among sexual minority breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamen, Charles; Jabson, Jennifer M; Mustian, Karen M; Boehmer, Ulrike

    2017-06-01

    Few studies have examined unique factors predicting psychological distress among sexual minority (i.e., lesbian and bisexual) women postbreast cancer diagnosis. The present study assessed the association of minority stress and psychosocial resource factors with depression and anxiety symptoms among sexual minority breast cancer survivors. Two hundred one sexual minority women who had ductal carcinoma in situ or Stage I-IV breast cancer participated in this study through the Love/Avon Army of Women. Self-report questionnaires were used to assess demographic and clinical factors, minority stress factors (discrimination, minority identity development, outness), psychosocial resources (resilience, social support), and psychological distress (anxiety and depression). These factors were included in a structural equation model, testing psychosocial resources as mediators between minority stress and psychological distress. There were no significant differences noted between lesbian and bisexual women. The final structural equation model demonstrated acceptable fit across all sexual minority women, χ2 = 27.83, p > .05; confirmatory fit index = 0.97, root-mean-square error of approximation = 0.04, Tucker-Lewis index = 0.93. The model accounted for significant variance in psychological distress (56%). Examination of indirect effects confirmed that exposure to discrimination was associated with distress via association with resilience. Factors unique to sexual minority populations, such as minority stress, may be associated with higher rates of psychological distress among sexual minority breast cancer survivors. However, presence of psychosocial resources may mediate relationships with distress in this population; enhancement of resilience, in particular, could be an aim of psychological intervention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Housing Problems of Minorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Robert

    1975-01-01

    This testimony, before a public hearing of the New York City Commission on Human Rights in May 1974, reviews the status of minority group housing and the effects of federal programs upon it, advocating an approach which recognizes the intrinsic locational and real estate value of many black ghettos. (Author/JM)

  9. Britain's Ethnic Minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Central Office of Information, London (England).

    This pamphlet discusses the situation of ethnic minorities--particularly those of Caribbean, Asian, or African origin--in the United Kingdom. Following introductory material, the background to immigration in Britain is described and the numbers and geographic distribution of the different ethnic groups are discussed. Next comes a general…

  10. Minority Language Teaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monique Turkenburg

    2001-01-01

    Original title: Onderwijs in alochtone levende talen. At the request of the Dutch Ministry of Education, Culture and Science, an exploratory study was carried out of minority Language teaching for primary school pupils. This exploratory study in seven municipalities not only shows the way in

  11. "Great Technology, Football and...": Malaysian Language Learners' Stereotypes about Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Nikitina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on stereotypes about Germany, its culture and people, held by learners of German in a big public university in Malaysia. It examines not only the stereotypical representations of the target language country but also assesses its favourability and salience, which has not been done previously. The findings revealed that the students' stereotypes about Germany were varied and diverse. Also, they were overwhelmingly positive. The top three salient categories of images about Germany were related to technology, famous personalities - for the most part football players and scientists - and cars. The findings also indicated that very few references had been made to German culture and to its great cultural figures. The results of the present study suggest that students could benefit from a wider and deeper exposure to German culture in the language classroom.

  12. Math-gender stereotypes in elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvencek, Dario; Meltzoff, Andrew N; Greenwald, Anthony G

    2011-01-01

    A total of 247 American children between 6 and 10 years of age (126 girls and 121 boys) completed Implicit Association Tests and explicit self-report measures assessing the association of (a) me with male (gender identity), (b) male with math (math-gender stereotype), and (c) me with math (math self-concept). Two findings emerged. First, as early as second grade, the children demonstrated the American cultural stereotype that math is for boys on both implicit and explicit measures. Second, elementary school boys identified with math more strongly than did girls on both implicit and self-report measures. The findings suggest that the math-gender stereotype is acquired early and influences emerging math self-concepts prior to ages at which there are actual differences in math achievement. © 2011 The Authors. Child Development © 2011 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  13. Stress and stereotypic behaviour in mink (Mustela vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmkvist, Jens; Jeppesen, Leif Lau; Palme, R.

    2011-01-01

    We examined whether female mink with low (LS) and high (HS) occurrence of stereotypic behaviour differ in their adrenocortical activity in baseline conditions or in response to immobilisation (Experiment 1), handling, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge (Experiment 2) and excretion...... 4-20 h after the handling (P = 0.001). In Experiment 3 (n = 16), the excretion of infused (3)H-cortisol did not differ between LS and HS mink. Stereotypic behaviour is concurrent with higher baseline concentrations of FCM, which cannot be explained by a greater adrenocortical reactivity...... or a different excretion of the circulating cortisol. Instead, we conclude that mink with a high level of stereotypic behaviour have a greater perception of stress, or increased sensitivity to stressors at the pituitary level....

  14. Perception of intentions and actions: gender stereotype susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Marina A; Wecker, Matthias; Krombholz, Kerstin; Sokolov, Arseny A

    2010-01-22

    Gender differences are evident in the comprehension of social signals, but the underlying basis for these differences is unclear. There is some indication that gender effects have neurobiological sources. Here we manipulated stereotype messages about gender differences in a social cognition task, on which no gender gap has previously been documented. The outcome indicates that manipulation of stereotype messages elicits gender effects. A positive message enhances performance, whereas a negative message diminishes it. Furthermore, this effect is more pronounced in females, with a greater force of a negative stereotype message. The study provides novel insights into the possible sources of gender related fluctuations in social cognition. The findings are discussed in terms of behavioral components and brain mechanisms underpinning gender effects in social cognition. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. GENDER STEREOTYPES IN THE SCHOOL DROPOUT: CASE EL FUERTE, SINALOA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalva Ruíz-Ramírez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Gender stereotypes are accepted preconceptions of what should be a man and a woman. Affect all areas of life, in the relationships that stablished in the family and the school. Within education, these stereotypes are reflected in the access, retention and completion of education degrees, as well as the area of study that preferred the women and men. They also have different effects on the causes of dropout depending on the gender to which they belong. This article aims to show the influence of gender stereotypes on dropout students and high school students in rural areas, specifically in three schools located in the municipality of El Fuerte, Sinaloa, the academic unit (AU San Blas and its extensions La Constancia and Las Higueras of Los Natoches. The results were obtained through a wider investigation in 2013.

  16. Depicted welfare recipient stereotypes in Norway and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker-Larsen, Sofie; Lundberg, Kjetil G.

    2016-01-01

    Welfare recipients are continuously subjected to media debates and governmental campaigns drawing on images and symbols encouraging improved work ethic and individual responsibility. Only few studies, however, have analysed how welfare recipients as ‘othered’ citizens react to these often...... stereotypical symbols and images targeting them. In this study we have investigated how welfare recipients in Norway and Denmark, and caseworkers in Denmark, understand and account for images which, through the use of stereotypes, directly or indirectly may question welfare recipients’ work ethic...... and deservedness. Analysing photo-elicitation interview data, we have uncovered a variety of reactions characterized by ‘problematization’. The interviewees problematize the image and depicted stereotypes, which they link both with motif and symbols and with surrounding public debates on the work ethic...

  17. Depicted welfare-recipient stereotypes in Norway and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker-Larsen, Sofie; Lundberg, Kjetil G.

    2016-01-01

    Welfare recipients are continuously subjected to media debates and governmental campaigns drawing on images and symbols encouraging improved work ethic and individual responsibility. Only few studies, however, have analysed how welfare recipients as ‘othered’ citizens react to these often...... stereotypical symbols and images targeting them. In this study we have investigated how welfare recipients in Norway and Denmark, and caseworkers in Denmark, understand and account for images which, through the use of stereotypes, directly or indirectly may question welfare recipients’ work ethic...... and deservedness. Analysing photo-elicitation interview data, we have uncovered a variety of reactions characterized by ‘problematization’. The interviewees problematize the image and depicted stereotypes, which they link both with motif and symbols and with surrounding public debates on the work ethic...

  18. Sexual minorities seeking services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Tracey L; Emanuel, Kristen; Bradford, Judith

    2003-01-01

    SUMMARY Understanding the mental health needs of lesbian and bisexual (sexual minority) women is an integral part of designing and providing appropriate mental health services and treatment for them. In an effort to understand the mental health needs of sexual minority women who seek community treatment, a chart review was conducted of the 223 lesbian and bisexual women who presented for services between July 1, 1997 and December 31, 2000 at Fenway Community Health in Boston, MA. Data are based on clients' self-reports and clinician assessments of clients' presenting problem, relevant developmental history, prior mental health and substance abuse treatment, current reports of emotional/psychological symptoms, and areas of impaired functioning. Although substance abuse and suicidal ideation were commonly reported problems, other concerns were more frequently reported. High percentages of lesbians and bisexual women reported relationship concerns and lack of adequate social networks; rates of depression and anxiety based on clinicians' assessments were also high. Overall, lesbians and bisexual women did not differ in the issues they brought to treatment or level or types of impairment. Compared with previous community survey samples, however, study participants appeared to be healthier than general, non-clinical samples of self-identified lesbians, possibly reflecting the special characteristics of sexual minority women who seek treatment in specialized community sites such as the Fenway. Although patients who come to these sites may not represent the more general population of sexual minority women, community health centers known to serve lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) individuals may be fruitful access points for studying the mental health status and treatment needs of sexual minority women.

  19. Providing Social Support for Underrepresented Racial and Ethnic Minority PhD Students in the Biomedical Sciences: A Career Coaching Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Simon N; Thakore, Bhoomi K; McGee, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Improvement in the proportion of underrepresented racial and ethnic minorities (URMs) in academic positions has been unsatisfactory. Although this is a complex problem, one key issue is that graduate students often rely on research mentors for career-related support, the effectiveness of which can be variable. We present results from a novel academic career "coaching" intervention, one aim of which was to provide supplementary social support for PhD students, particularly those from underrepresented backgrounds. Coaching was delivered both within small groups and on an individual basis, with a diverse group of coaches and students coming from many universities. Coaches were provided with additional diversity training. Ninety-six semistructured interviews with 33 URM students over 3 years were analyzed using a qualitative framework approach. For most of the URM PhD students, coaching provided social support in the form of emotional, informational, and appraisal support. Coaching groups provided a noncompetitive environment and "community of support" within which students were able to learn from one another's experiences and discuss negative and stressful experiences related to their graduate school, lab, or career plans. This coached peer group model is capable of providing the social support that many URM students do not find at their home universities. © 2017 S. N. Williams et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2017 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  20. Subtle and Severe: Microaggressions Among Racially Diverse Sexual Minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Amanda; Collins, Shelly-Ann; Robinson-Wood, Tracy; Zeko-Underwood, Elda; Poindexter, Bianca

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, understanding prejudice and discrimination toward minorities has developed to include the investigation of microaggressions. Microaggressions are brief and commonplace verbal, behavioral, or environmental indignities. They are intentional or unintentional and communicate hostile, derogatory, or negative slights toward racial and sexual minorities. The purpose of this phenomenological study is to chronicle the prevalence and type of microaggressions experienced among a sample of 18 highly educated and racially diverse sexual minorities, 24-65 years of age. The impact of microaggressions on physical and psychological health is central to our investigation. Thematic data analysis was used to analyze 14 interviews and one focus group, which resulted in the following themes of microaggressions: (a) discomfort/disapproval with LGBT experience, (b) assumption of universal experience, (c) traditional gender role stereotyping, (d) denial of personal privacy, (e) exoticization, (f) ascription of intelligence, (g) policing bodies, and (h) assumption of criminality. Research findings may have implications for the development of interventions that can serve clinicians in their therapeutic work with microaggressed sexual minorities across racial diversity.