WorldWideScience

Sample records for model mgmm distillate

  1. Non-equilibrium modelling of distillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselingh, J.A

    This is a lecture on the way that we engineers model distillation. How we have done such modelling, how we would like to do it, and how far we have come at this moment. The ideas that I will be bringing forward are not my own. I owe them mostly to R. Krishna, R. Taylor, H. Kooijman and A. Gorak.

  2. Non-equilibrium modelling of distillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselingh, JA; Darton, R

    1997-01-01

    There are nasty conceptual problems in the classical way of describing distillation columns via equilibrium stages, and efficiencies or HETP's. We can nowadays avoid these problems by simulating the behaviour of a complete column in one go using a non-equilibrium model. Such a model has phase

  3. Non-equilibrium modelling of distillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselingh, J.A

    1997-01-01

    This is a lecture on the way that we engineers model distillation. How we have done such modelling, how we would like to do it, and how far we have come at this moment. The ideas that I will be bringing forward are not my own. I owe them mostly to R. Krishna, R. Taylor, H. Kooijman and A. Gorak. The

  4. A Modeling Framework for Conventional and Heat Integrated Distillation Columns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Thomas; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Abildskov, Jens

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a generic, modular model framework for describing fluid separation by distillation is presented. At present, the framework is able to describe a conventional distillation column and a heat-integrated distillation column, but due to a modular structure the database can be further ex...

  5. Graph Modelling Approach: Application to a Distillation Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovelaque, V.; Commault, C.; Bahar, Mehrdad

    1997-01-01

    Introduction, structured systems and digraphs, distillation column model, generic input-output decoupling problem, generic disturbance rejection problem, concluding remarks.......Introduction, structured systems and digraphs, distillation column model, generic input-output decoupling problem, generic disturbance rejection problem, concluding remarks....

  6. Nonlinear model predictive control of a packed distillation column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patwardhan, A.A.; Edgar, T.F. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1993-10-01

    A rigorous dynamic model based on fundamental chemical engineering principles was formulated for a packed distillation column separating a mixture of cyclohexane and n-heptane. This model was simplified to a form suitable for use in on-line model predictive control calculations. A packed distillation column was operated at several operating conditions to estimate two unknown model parameters in the rigorous and simplified models. The actual column response to step changes in the feed rate, distillate rate, and reboiler duty agreed well with dynamic model predictions. One unusual characteristic observed was that the packed column exhibited gain-sign changes, which are very difficult to treat using conventional linear feedback control. Nonlinear model predictive control was used to control the distillation column at an operating condition where the process gain changed sign. An on-line, nonlinear model-based scheme was used to estimate unknown/time-varying model parameters.

  7. Directory of Energy Information Administration Models 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    This directory revises and updates the 1993 directory and includes 15 models of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). Three other new models in use by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) have also been included: the Motor Gasoline Market Model (MGMM), Distillate Market Model (DMM), and the Propane Market Model (PPMM). This directory contains descriptions about each model, including title, acronym, purpose, followed by more detailed information on characteristics, uses and requirements. Sources for additional information are identified. Included in this directory are 37 EIA models active as of February 1, 1994.

  8. Pressure Control in Distillation Columns: A Model-Based Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mauricio Iglesias, Miguel; Bisgaard, Thomas; Kristensen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive assessment of pressure control in distillation columns is presented, including the consequences for composition control and energy consumption. Two types of representative control structures are modeled, analyzed, and benchmarked. A detailed simulation test, based on a real...... industrial distillation column, is used to assess the differences between the two control structures and to demonstrate the benefits of pressure control in the operation. In the second part of the article, a thermodynamic analysis is carried out to establish the influence of pressure on relative volatility...

  9. Object-oriented Modular Model Library for Distillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chang; DING Jianwan; CHEN Liping

    2013-01-01

    For modeling and simulation of distillation process,there are lots of special purpose simulators along with their model libraries,such as Aspen Plus and HYSYS.However,the models in these tools lack of flexibility and are not open to the end-user.Models developed in one tool can not be conveniently used in others because of the barriers among these simulators.In order to solve those problems,a flexible and extensible distillation system model library is constructed in this study,based on the Modelica and Modelica-supported platform MWorks,by the object-oriented technology and level progressive modeling strategy.It supports the reuse of knowledge on different granularities:physical phenomenon,unit model and system model.It is also an interface-friendly,accurate,fast PC-based and easily reusable simulation tool,which enables end-user to customize and extend the framework to add new functionality or adapt the simulation behavior as required.It also allows new models to be composed programmatically or graphically to form more complex models by invoking the existing components.A conventional air distillation column model is built and calculated using the library,and the results agree well with that simulated in Aspen Plus.

  10. Non-equilibrium model for catalytic distillation process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng WANG; Ning ZHAO; Junping LI; Fukui XIAO; Wei WEI; Yuhan SUN

    2008-01-01

    A new improved tri-diagonal method was developed for the non-equilibrium stage model of the catalytic distillation by coupling consumptive reaction coefficient. The reactions in the distillation column were divided into generative reaction and consumptive reac-tion. The non-equilibrium stage model was introduced for the catalytic distillation process of the dimethyl car-bonate (DMC) synthesis by urea methanolysis over solid based catalyst, and the improved tri-diagonal method was used to solve the model equations. Comparison of pre-dicted results with experiment data shows that the mean relative error of the yield of DMC was 3.78% under dif-ferent conditions such as different operating pressures and reaction temperatures. The improved tri-diagonal matrix method could avoid the negative values of the liquid com-positions during the calculations and restrain the fluc-tuation of compositions by slowing down the variations of the values in the iteration. The modeling results show that the improved tri-diagonal method was appropriate for system containing a wide range of boiling point com-ponents and a different rate of reactions.

  11. Mathematical modeling of a single stage ultrasonically assisted distillation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdi, Taha; Ahmad, Arshad; Ripin, Adnan; Abdullah, Tuan Amran Tuan; Nasef, Mohamed M; Ali, Mohamad W

    2015-05-01

    The ability of sonication phenomena in facilitating separation of azeotropic mixtures presents a promising approach for the development of more intensified and efficient distillation systems than conventional ones. To expedite the much-needed development, a mathematical model of the system based on conservation principles, vapor-liquid equilibrium and sonochemistry was developed in this study. The model that was founded on a single stage vapor-liquid equilibrium system and enhanced with ultrasonic waves was coded using MATLAB simulator and validated with experimental data for ethanol-ethyl acetate mixture. The effects of both ultrasonic frequency and intensity on the relative volatility and azeotropic point were examined, and the optimal conditions were obtained using genetic algorithm. The experimental data validated the model with a reasonable accuracy. The results of this study revealed that the azeotropic point of the mixture can be totally eliminated with the right combination of sonication parameters and this can be utilized in facilitating design efforts towards establishing a workable ultrasonically intensified distillation system.

  12. REALIGNED MODEL PREDICTIVE CONTROL OF A PROPYLENE DISTILLATION COLUMN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Hinojosa

    Full Text Available Abstract In the process industry, advanced controllers usually aim at an economic objective, which usually requires closed-loop stability and constraints satisfaction. In this paper, the application of a MPC in the optimization structure of an industrial Propylene/Propane (PP splitter is tested with a controller based on a state space model, which is suitable for heavily disturbed environments. The simulation platform is based on the integration of the commercial dynamic simulator Dynsim® and the rigorous steady-state optimizer ROMeo® with the real-time facilities of Matlab. The predictive controller is the Infinite Horizon Model Predictive Control (IHMPC, based on a state-space model that that does not require the use of a state observer because the non-minimum state is built with the past inputs and outputs. The controller considers the existence of zone control of the outputs and optimizing targets for the inputs. We verify that the controller is efficient to control the propylene distillation system in a disturbed scenario when compared with a conventional controller based on a state observer. The simulation results show a good performance in terms of stability of the controller and rejection of large disturbances in the composition of the feed of the propylene distillation column.

  13. Nonlinear dynamic modeling of multicomponent batch distillation: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to compare several of the commercial dynamic models for batch distillation available worldwide. In this context, BATCHFRAC(TM, CHEMCAD(TM BATCH, and HYSYS.Plant® software performances are compared to experimental data. The software can be used as soft sensors, playing the roll of ad-hoc observers or estimators for control objectives. Rigorous models were used as an alternative to predict the concentration profile and to specify the optimal switching time from products to slop cuts. The performance of a nonlinear model obtained using a novel identification algorithm was also studied. In addition, the strategy for continuous separation was revised with residue curve map analysis using Aspen SPLIT(TM.

  14. A Modelling Framework for Conventional and Heat Integrated Distillation Columns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Thomas; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Abildskov, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Diabatic operation of distillation columns can lead to signicant reductions in energy utilization and operation cost compared to conventional (adiabatic) distillation columns, at an expense of an increased complexity of design and operation. The earliest diabatic distillation conguration dates back...... to the late 70s, and various dierent congurations have appeared since. However, at present, no full-scale diabatic distillation columns are currently operating in the industry. Current studies related to alternative distillation congurations report very dierent gures for potential energy savings which...... constitutes a problem in relations to achieving industrial acceptance. There is clearly a need for research and comparative studies which can help to provide analysis of the pros and cons of novel and intensied distillation processes compared to conventional columns for a range of separations. These studies...

  15. Electrical Thermal Network for Direct Contact Membrane Distillation Modeling and Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Karam, Ayman M.

    2015-02-04

    Membrane distillation is an emerging water distillation technology that offers several advantages compared to conventional water desalination processes. Although progress has been made to model and understand the physics of the process, many studies are based on steady-state assumptions or are computationally not appropriate for real time control. This paper presents the derivation of a novel dynamical model, based on analogy between electrical and thermal systems, for direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD). The proposed model captures the dynamics of temperature distribution and distilled water flux. To demonstrate the adequacy of the proposed model, validation with transient and steady-state experimental data is presented.

  16. General model for studying the feasibility of heterogeneous extractive batch distillation

    OpenAIRE

    Hegely, Laszlo; Gerbaud, Vincent; Lang, Peter

    2014-01-01

    International audience; By extending our former model for batch heteroazeotropic distillation, a general model is developed for the batch heterogeneous extractive distillation. An entrainer-rich and an entrainer-lean phase are present in the decanter, where the holdup of both phases can be reduced, kept constant, or increased, thanks to batch operation mode. Any fraction of both phases can be refluxed or withdrawn as distillate. The entrainer is fed continuously either onto one of the plates ...

  17. Aroma Stripping under various Forms of Membrane Distillation Processes: Experiments and modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    of MD configurations: Vacuum Membrane Distillation , Sweeping Gas Membrane Distillation , Direct Contact Membrane Distillation and Osmotic Membrane Distillation. The influence of feed temperature and feed flow rate on the permeate flux and concentration factor for different types of aroma compounds have...... been measured for these MD configurations. A general transport model for the flux of water and aroma compounds have been derived and compared with the experimental data. A reasonable agreement between the modelling and the experiments could be obtained. From the modelling it was possible to explain...

  18. Modeling and analysis of conventional and heat-integrated distillation columns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Thomas; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Abildskov, Jens

    2015-01-01

    A generic model that can cover diabatic and adiabatic distillation column configurations is presented, with the aim ofproviding a consistent basis for comparison of alternative distillation column technologies. Both a static and a dynamic formulation of the model, together with a model catalogue...

  19. Impact on Model Uncertainty of Diabatization in Distillation Columns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Thomas; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Abildskov, Jens

    2014-01-01

    This work provides uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of design of conventional and heat integrated distillation columns using Monte Carlo simulations. Selected uncertain parameters are relative volatility, heat of vaporization, the overall heat transfer coefficient , tray hold-up, and adiabat ...

  20. A mathematical model of the distillation units with heat pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Zhuchkov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient hardware design of the rectification process and reduce energy costs for their implementation is an urgent task. The mathematical description of the alcohol distillation process using a heat pump was obtained in this study.

  1. Modeling Distillation Column Using ARX Model Structure and Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Pirmoradi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Distillation is a complex and highly nonlinear industrial process. In general it is not always possible to obtain accurate first principles models for high-purity distillation columns. On the other hand the development of first principles models is usually time consuming and expensive. To overcome these problems, empirical models such as neural networks can be used. One major drawback of empirical models is that the prediction is valid only inside the data domain that is sufficiently covered by measurement data. Modeling distillation columns by means of neural networks is reported in literature by using recursive networks. The recursive networks are proper for modeling purpose, but such models have the problems of high complexity and high computational cost. The objective of this paper is to propose a simple and reliable model for distillation column. The proposed model uses feed forward neural networks which results in a simple model with less parameters and faster training time. Simulation results demonstrate that predictions of the proposed model in all regions are close to outputs of the dynamic model and the error in negligible. This implies that the model is reliable in all regions.

  2. MODELING AND CONTROL OF MULTIVARIABLE DISTILLATION COLUMN USING MODEL PREDICTIVE CONTROL USING UNISIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Wahid

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Distillation columns are widely used in chemical industry as unit operation and required advance process control because it has multi input multi output (MIMO or multi-variable system, which is hard to be controlled. Model predictive control (MPC is one of alternative controller developed for MIMO system due to loops interaction to be controlled. This study aimed to obtain dynamic model of process control on a distillation column using MPC, and to get the optimum performance of MPC controller. Process control in distillation columns performed by simulating the dynamic models of distillation columns by UNISIM R390.1 software. The optimization process was carried out by tuning the MPC controller parameters such as sampling time (Ts = 1 – 240 s, prediction horizon (P = 1-400, and the control horizon (M=1-400. The comparison between the performance of MPC and PI controller is presented and Integral Absolut Error (IAE was used as comparison parameter. The results indicate that the performance of MPC was better than PI controller for set point change 0.95 to 0.94 on distillate product composition using a modified model 1 with IAE 0.0584 for MPC controller and 0.0782 for PI controller.

  3. KINETIC MODELS STUDY OF HYDRODESULPHURIZATION VACUUM DISTILLATE REACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AbdulMunem A. Karim

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available    This study deals with  kinetics of hydrodesulphurization (HDS reaction of vacuum gas oil (611-833 K which was distillated from Kirkuk crude oil and which was obtained by blending the fractions, light vacuum gas oil (611 - 650 K, medium vacuum gas oil (650-690 K, heavy vacuum gas oil (690-727 K and very heavy vacuum gas oil (727-833 K.   The vacuum gas oil was hydrotreated on a commercial cobalt-molybdenum alumina catalyst presulfied at specified conditions in a laboratory trickle bed reactor. The reaction temperature range (583-643 K,liquid hourly space velocity range (1.5-3.75 h-1 and hydrogen pressure was kept constant at 3.5 MPa with hydrogen to oil ratio about 250 lt/lt.           The conversion results for desulphurization reaction appeared to obey the second order reaction. According to this model, the rate constants for desulphurization reaction were determined. Finally, the apparent activation energy (Ea, enthalpy of activation ( H* and entropy ( S* were calculated based on the values of rate constant (k2 and were equal 80.3792 KJ/mole, 75.2974 KJ/mole and 197.493 J/mole, respectively.

  4. Cachaça distillation investigated on the basis of model systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. F. A. Scanavini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This work reports experimental tests using commercial spirits that were diluted and had their initial composition modified in order to better measure the distillation behavior of selected minor compounds of importance for the quality of alcoholic beverages. Such compounds were added to the commercial cachaça and the corresponding model wine, obtained after the spirits' dilution, was distilled. In this way a more precise distillation profile could be determined for those minor compounds. The alembic heating was performed by electrical resistance and the corresponding heat transfer coefficient was determined by analyzing the thermal behavior of the still during the distillations. A simulation algorithm was developed, including the mass and enthalpy balances as well as the heat transfer flux to the boiling wine. Good agreement between experimental and simulated results was obtained for the distillate rate, alcoholic graduation, temperature and most minor component profiles.

  5. The Modeling and Simulation of Reactive Distillation for the Esterification Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱建华; 沈复

    2003-01-01

    In this paper,a generalized model of the reactive distillation processes was developed via rate-based approach. The homotopy-continuation method was employed to solve the complicated nonlinear model equations efficiently. The simulation on the reactive distillation processes was carried out with the profiles of stage temperature,composition and flow rate for both vapor and liquid phases obtained. Based on careful analysis of the simulation results, the pitfalls in experimental design were detected. Finally, a software package for the simulation of reactive distillation processes was developed.

  6. Modeling and optimization of a water-ethanol distillation column based on exergoeconomic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghazil, Mehrangiz [Islamic Azad University, Takestan Branch, Department of Mechanic, Takestan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], email: mhrghazi@gmail.com

    2011-07-01

    Performing a thermodynamic analysis is a good way to determine how the performance of a thermal system can be improved. An exergy analysis which uses the second law of thermodynamics must be carried out to account for the energy quality. The aim of this paper is to present the exergoeconomic modeling and optimization of a distillation column. A water-ethanol distillation column is studied herein, an energy and exergy analysis model and an economic model are developed, as are the objective functions. Optimization of the column is done to minimize the cost of distillate. It was found that the method employed in this study resulted in 2.45% savings in the cost of ethanol and the optimum was for a reflux ratio of 8.61 and an ethanol rate of 228.23 kg/hr. This study demonstrated that the method developed herein permits the optimization of a distillation column exergoeconomically.

  7. Modeling of Steam Distillation Mechanism during Steam Injection Process Using Artificial Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahadi, Arash; Kharrat, Riyaz

    2014-01-01

    Steam distillation as one of the important mechanisms has a great role in oil recovery in thermal methods and so it is important to simulate this process experimentally and theoretically. In this work, the simulation of steam distillation is performed on sixteen sets of crude oil data found in the literature. Artificial intelligence (AI) tools such as artificial neural network (ANN) and also adaptive neurofuzzy interference system (ANFIS) are used in this study as effective methods to simulate the distillate recoveries of these sets of data. Thirteen sets of data were used to train the models and three sets were used to test the models. The developed models are highly compatible with respect to input oil properties and can predict the distillate yield with minimum entry. For showing the performance of the proposed models, simulation of steam distillation is also done using modified Peng-Robinson equation of state. Comparison between the calculated distillates by ANFIS and neural network models and also equation of state-based method indicates that the errors of the ANFIS model for training data and test data sets are lower than those of other methods. PMID:24883365

  8. Modeling of steam distillation mechanism during steam injection process using artificial intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryasafar, Amin; Ahadi, Arash; Kharrat, Riyaz

    2014-01-01

    Steam distillation as one of the important mechanisms has a great role in oil recovery in thermal methods and so it is important to simulate this process experimentally and theoretically. In this work, the simulation of steam distillation is performed on sixteen sets of crude oil data found in the literature. Artificial intelligence (AI) tools such as artificial neural network (ANN) and also adaptive neurofuzzy interference system (ANFIS) are used in this study as effective methods to simulate the distillate recoveries of these sets of data. Thirteen sets of data were used to train the models and three sets were used to test the models. The developed models are highly compatible with respect to input oil properties and can predict the distillate yield with minimum entry. For showing the performance of the proposed models, simulation of steam distillation is also done using modified Peng-Robinson equation of state. Comparison between the calculated distillates by ANFIS and neural network models and also equation of state-based method indicates that the errors of the ANFIS model for training data and test data sets are lower than those of other methods.

  9. Distillation of a Complex Mixture. Part I: High Pressure Distillation Column Analysis: Modeling and Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terkhi Sabria

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available In this analysis, based on the bubble point method, a physical model wasestablished clarifying the interactions (mass and heat between the species present in thestreams in circulation in the column. In order to identify the externally controlled operatingparameters, the degree of freedom of the column was determined by using Gibbs phase rule.The mathematical model converted to Fortran code and based on the principles of: 1 Globaland local mass conservation balance, 2 Enthalpy balance, and 3 Vapour-liquid equilibriumat each tray, was used to simulate the behavior of the column, concentration distributions,temperature and streams for each phase along the column at high pressure in each tray. Theenergy consumption at the condenser and the boiler was also evaluated using the Starlingequation of state.

  10. Modeling Separation Dynamics in a Multi-Tray Bio-Ethanol Distillation Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løhndorf, Petar Durdevic; Pedersen, Simon; Yang, Zhenyu

    2015-01-01

    The high energy consumption of popularly used distillation columns has motivated development of energytracking dynamic models with the ultimate objective for potential better energy and quality control of these separation facilities. A dynamic model being able to explicitly describe both...... the product quality and energy consumption in a typical bio-ethanol distillation column is proposed in this paper. The proposed model is derived based on mass and energy balance principles, with an empirical model of the evaporation dynamics of liquids on column trays. The model parameters are identified...

  11. Detailed Modeling of Distillation Technologies for Closed-Loop Water Recovery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allada, Rama Kumar; Lange, Kevin E.; Anderson, Molly S.

    2011-01-01

    Detailed chemical process simulations are a useful tool in designing and optimizing complex systems and architectures for human life support. Dynamic and steady-state models of these systems help contrast the interactions of various operating parameters and hardware designs, which become extremely useful in trade-study analyses. NASA?s Exploration Life Support technology development project recently made use of such models to compliment a series of tests on different waste water distillation systems. This paper presents efforts to develop chemical process simulations for three technologies: the Cascade Distillation System (CDS), the Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) system and the Wiped-Film Rotating Disk (WFRD) using the Aspen Custom Modeler and Aspen Plus process simulation tools. The paper discusses system design, modeling details, and modeling results for each technology and presents some comparisons between the model results and recent test data. Following these initial comparisons, some general conclusions and forward work are discussed.

  12. GOBF-ARMA based model predictive control for an ideal reactive distillation column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seban, Lalu; Kirubakaran, V; Roy, B K; Radhakrishnan, T K

    2015-11-01

    This paper discusses the control of an ideal reactive distillation column (RDC) using model predictive control (MPC) based on a combination of deterministic generalized orthonormal basis filter (GOBF) and stochastic autoregressive moving average (ARMA) models. Reactive distillation (RD) integrates reaction and distillation in a single process resulting in process and energy integration promoting green chemistry principles. Improved selectivity of products, increased conversion, better utilization and control of reaction heat, scope for difficult separations and the avoidance of azeotropes are some of the advantages that reactive distillation offers over conventional technique of distillation column after reactor. The introduction of an in situ separation in the reaction zone leads to complex interactions between vapor-liquid equilibrium, mass transfer rates, diffusion and chemical kinetics. RD with its high order and nonlinear dynamics, and multiple steady states is a good candidate for testing and verification of new control schemes. Here a combination of GOBF-ARMA models is used to catch and represent the dynamics of the RDC. This GOBF-ARMA model is then used to design an MPC scheme for the control of product purity of RDC under different operating constraints and conditions. The performance of proposed modeling and control using GOBF-ARMA based MPC is simulated and analyzed. The proposed controller is found to perform satisfactorily for reference tracking and disturbance rejection in RDC.

  13. TWOPOT: a computer model of the two-pot extractive distillation concept for nitric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jubin, R.T.; Holland, W.D.; Counce, R.M.; Beckwith, D.R.

    1985-05-01

    A mathematical model, TWOPOT, of the ''two-pot'' extractive distillation concept for nitric acid concentration has been developed. Prediction from a computer simulation using this model shows excellent agreement with the experimental data. This model is recommended for use in the design of large-scale, similar-purpose equipment. 9 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Nonlinear model-based control algorithm for a distillation column using software sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Amiya Kumar; Samanta, Amar Nath; Ganguly, Saibal

    2005-04-01

    This paper presents the design of model-based globally linearizing control (GLC) structure for a distillation process within the differential geometric framework. The model of a nonideal binary distillation column, whose characteristics were highly nonlinear and strongly interactive, is used as a real process. The classical GLC law is comprised of a transformer (input-output linearizing state feedback), a nonlinear state observer, and an external PI controller. The tray temperature based short-cut observer (TTBSCO) has been used as a state estimator within the control structure, in which all tray temperatures were considered to be measured. Accordingly, the liquid phase composition of each tray was calculated online using the derived temperature-composition correlation. In the simulation experiment, the proposed GLC coupled with TTBSCO (GLC-TTBSCO) outperformed a conventional PI controller based on servo performances with and without measurement noise as well as on regulatory behaviors. In the subsequent part, the GLC law has been synthesized in conjunction with tray temperature based reduced-order observer (GLC-TTBROO) where the distillate and bottom compositions of the distillation process have been inferred from top and bottom product temperatures respectively, which were measured online. Finally, the comparative performance of the GLC-TTBSCO and the GLC-TTBROO has been addressed under parametric uncertainty and the GLC-TTBSCO algorithm provided slightly better performance than the GLC-TTBROO. The resulting control laws are rather general and can be easily adopted for other binary distillation columns.

  15. Dynamic behaviour of reactive distillation tray columns described with a non-equilibrium cell model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baur, R.; Taylor, R.; Krishna, R.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we develop a generic, dynamic, nonequilibrium (NEQ) cell model for reactive distillation (RD) tray columns. The features of our model are (1) the use of Maxwell–Stefan equations for describing mass transfer between fluid phases, (2) the reaction is assumed to take place in the liquid

  16. APPLICATION OF REGRESSION MODELLING TECHNIQUES IN DESALINATION OF SEA WATER BY MEMBRANE DISTILLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SELVI S. R

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to gain an idea about the statistical significance of experimental parameters on the performance of membrane distillation. In this work the raw sea water sample without pretreatment was collected from Puducherry and desalinated using direct contact membrane distillation method. Experimental data analysis was carried out using statistical methods. The experimental data involves the effects of feed temperature, feed flow rate and feed concentration on the permeate flux. In statistical methods, regression model was developed to correlate the significance of input parameters like feed temperature, feed concentration and feed flow rate with the output parameter like permeate flux in the process of membrane distillation. Since the performance of the membrane distillation in the desalination of water is characterised by permeate flux, regression model using simple linear method was carried out. Goodness of model fitting should always has to be validated. Regression model was validated using ANOVA. Estimates of ANOVA for the parameter study was given and the coefficient obtained by regression analysis was specified in the regression equation and concluded that the highest coefficient of input parameter is significant, highly influences the response. Feed flow rate and feed temperature has higher influence on permeate flux than that of feed concentration. The coefficient of feed concentration was found to be negative which indicates less significant factor on permeate flux. The chemical composition of sea water was given by water quality analysis . TDS of membrane distilled water was found to be 18ppm than the initial feed TDS of sea water 27,720 ppm. From the experimental work it was found, salt rejection as 99% and water analysis report confirms the quality of distillate obtained by this desalination process as potable water.

  17. Modeling Of A Reactive Distillation Column: Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (Mtbe Simulation Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Mohd Saaid Abdul Rahman Mohamed and Subhash Bhatia

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A process simulation stage-wise reactive distillation column model formulated from equilibrium stage theory was developed. The algorithm for solving mathematical model represented by sets of differential-algebraic equations was based on relaxation method. Numerical integration scheme based on backward differentiation formula was selected for solving the stiffness of differential-algebraic equations. Simulations were performed on a personal computer (PC Pentium processor through a developed computer program using FORTRAN90 programming language. The proposed model was validated by comparing the simulated results with the published simulation results and with the pilot plant data from the literature. The model was capable of predicting high isobutene conversion for heterogeneous system, as desirable in industrial MTBE production process. The comparisons on temperature profiles, liquid composition profile and operating conditions of reactive distillation column also showed promising results. Therefore the proposed model can be used as a tool for the development and simulation of reactive distillation column.Keywords: Modeling, simulation, reactive distillation, relaxation method, equilibrium stage, heterogeneous, MTBE

  18. Transport phenomena and fouling in vacuum enhanced direct contact membrane distillation: Experimental and modelling

    KAUST Repository

    Naidu, Gayathri

    2016-08-27

    The application of vacuum to direct contact membrane distillation (vacuum enhanced direct contact membrane distillation, V-DCMD) removed condensable gasses and reduced partial pressure in the membrane pores, achieving 37.6% higher flux than DCMD at the same feed temperature. Transfer mechanism and temperature distribution profile in V-DCMD were studied. The empirical flux decline (EFD) model represented fouling profiles of V-DCMD. In a continuous V-DCMD operation with moderate temperature (55 degrees C) and permeate pressure (300 mbar) for treating wastewater ROC, a flux of 16.0 +/- 0.3 L/m(2) h and high quality distillate were achieved with water flushing, showing the suitability of V-DCMD for ROC treatment. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Aroma Stripping under various Forms of Membrane Distillation Processes: Experiments and modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    Concentration of fruit juices by membrane distillation is an interesting process as it can be done at low temperature giving a gentle concentration process with little deterioration of the juices. Since the juices contains many different aroma compounds with a wide range of chemical properties...... such as volatility, activity coefficient and vapor pressure, it is important to know how these aroma compounds will eventually pass through the membrane. Experiments have been made on an aroma model solution and on black currant juice in a lab scale membrane distillation set up which can be operated in various types...

  20. Modelling and control of heat-integrated distillation columns: An industrial case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mauricio Iglesias, Miguel; Johansen, Kristoffer; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    with heat-integration. To this end a computer-aided methodology was developed. Secondly, the methodology was tested in an actual industrial case, where a dynamic model for heat-integrated distillation systems is developed and used to analyse and solve operation and control problem. The system studied...... in the industrial case is composed of two distillation columns in series (operated at 3.5 and 1.5 bar) for recovery of ethanol from a pseudo-binary mixture (heavy key water). Heat recovery is carried out both backward (from the two bottoms flow to the feed) and forward (from the first condensate to the second...

  1. Air gap membrane distillation. 2. Model validation and hollow fibre module performance analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guijt, C.M.; Meindersma, G.W.; Reith, T.; de Haan, A.B.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the experimental results of counter current flow air gap membrane distillation experiments are presented and compared with predictive model calculations. Measurements were carried out with a cylindrical test module containing a single hollow fibre membrane in the centre and a

  2. First principles dynamic modeling and multivariable control of a cryogenic distillation process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roffel, B.; Betlem, B.H.L.; Ruijter, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    In order to investigate the feasibility of constrained multivariable control of a heat-integrated cryogenic distillation process, a rigorous first principles dynamic model was developed and tested against a limited number of experiments. It was found that the process variables showed a large amount

  3. Comparison of two turbulent models in simulating evaporating liquid film in a wiped molecular distillator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG Aishuang; XU Songlin

    2005-01-01

    Velocity field of evaporating liquid film in a wiped molecular distillator was simulated with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software, and two turbulent models treating near-wall flow were compared. Differences between wiped and other molecular distillations were introduced to explain why turbulent model should be used in this simulation. Three assumptions were made in order to simplify simulating processes. In rotating coordinate system, fixed other settings, the above two turbulent models were used, and the volume of fluid (VOF) multiphase model was also applied to tracking the liquid-gas surface. Both of the simulating results are basically identical with real situation and were compared in several aspects. It was concluded that both of the turbulent models are suitable in this simulation.

  4. Electrical equivalent thermal network for direct contact membrane distillation modeling and analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Karam, Ayman M.

    2016-09-19

    Membrane distillation (MD) is an emerging water desalination technology that offers several advantages compared to conventional desalination methods. Although progress has been made to model the physics of the process, there are two common limitations of existing models. Firstly, many of the models are based on the steady-state analysis of the process and secondly, some of the models are based on partial differential equations, which when discretized introduce many states which are not accessible in practice. This paper presents the derivation of a novel dynamic model, based on the analogy between electrical and thermal systems, for direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD). An analogous electrical thermal network is constructed and its elements are parameterized such that the response of the network models the DCMD process. The proposed model captures the spatial and temporal responses of the temperature distribution along the flow direction and is able to accurately predict the distilled water flux output. To demonstrate the adequacy of the proposed model, validation with time varying and steady-state experimental data is presented. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Simple Distillation and Fractional Distillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张萍

    2004-01-01

    A pure solvent can be separated from a solution by simple distillation. Distillation is the process of boiling a liquid and condensing the vapor. For example, pure water can be obtained from salt solution by distillation. The figure below shows the apparatus used for simple distillation in the laboratory.

  6. Process modeling and control applied to real-time monitoring of distillation processes by near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Rodrigo R; Pedroza, Ricardo H P; Sousa, A O; Lima, Kássio M G; de Juan, Anna

    2017-09-08

    A distillation device that acquires continuous and synchronized measurements of temperature, percentage of distilled fraction and NIR spectra has been designed for real-time monitoring of distillation processes. As a process model, synthetic commercial gasoline batches produced in Brazil, which contain mixtures of pure gasoline blended with ethanol have been analyzed. The information provided by this device, i.e., distillation curves and NIR spectra, has served as initial information for the proposal of new strategies of process modeling and multivariate statistical process control (MSPC). Process modeling based on PCA batch analysis provided global distillation trajectories, whereas multiset MCR-ALS analysis is proposed to obtain a component-wise characterization of the distillation evolution and distilled fractions. Distillation curves, NIR spectra or compressed NIR information under the form of PCA scores and MCR-ALS concentration profiles were tested as the seed information to build MSPC models. New on-line PCA-based MSPC approaches, some inspired on local rank exploratory methods for process analysis, are proposed and work as follows: a) MSPC based on individual process observation models, where multiple local PCA models are built considering the sole information in each observation point; b) Fixed Size Moving Window - MSPC, in which local PCA models are built considering a moving window of the current and few past observation points; and c) Evolving MSPC, where local PCA models are built with an increasing window of observations covering all points since the beginning of the process until the current observation. Performance of different approaches has been assessed in terms of sensitivity to fault detection and number of false alarms. The outcome of this work will be of general use to define strategies for on-line process monitoring and control and, in a more specific way, to improve quality control of petroleum derived fuels and other substances submitted

  7. MODELING AND SIMULATION OF A BENZENE RECOVERY PROCESS BY EXTRACTIVE DISTILLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. B. Brondani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Extractive distillation processes with N-formylmorpholine (NFM are used industrially to separate benzene from six carbon non-aromatics. In the process studied in this work, the stream of interest consists of nearly 20 different hydrocarbons. A new set of NRTL parameters was correlated based on literature experimental data. Both vapor-liquid equilibrium as well as infinite dilution activity coefficient data were taken into account; missing parameters were estimated with the UNIFAC group contribution model. The extractive distillation process was simulated using ASPEN Plus®. Very good agreement with plant data was obtained. The influences of the main operational parameters, solvent to feed ratio and solvent temperature, were studied. Theoretical optimum operating values were obtained and can be implemented to improve the industrial process. Extreme static sensitivity with respect to reboiler heat was observed, indicating that this can be the source of instabilities.

  8. Model predictive control in light naphtha distillation column of gasoline hydrogenation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornkrit Chiewchanchairat

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The main scope of this research is for designing and implementing of model predictive control (MPC on the light naphtha distillation column of gasoline hydrogenation process. This model is designed by using robust multivariable predictive control technology (RMPCT. The performance of MPC controller is better than PID controllers 32.1 % those are comparing by using as the same of objective function and also in the MPC controller can be used for steam optimization that is shown in this research, stream consumption is reduced 6.6 Kg/ m3 of fresh feed.

  9. Analysis of direct contact membrane distillation based on a lumped-parameter dynamic predictive model

    KAUST Repository

    Karam, Ayman M.

    2016-10-03

    Membrane distillation (MD) is an emerging technology that has a great potential for sustainable water desalination. In order to pave the way for successful commercialization of MD-based water desalination techniques, adequate and accurate dynamical models of the process are essential. This paper presents the predictive capabilities of a lumped-parameter dynamic model for direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) and discusses the results under wide range of steady-state and dynamic conditions. Unlike previous studies, the proposed model captures the time response of the spacial temperature distribution along the flow direction. It also directly solves for the local temperatures at the membrane interfaces, which allows to accurately model and calculate local flux values along with other intrinsic variables of great influence on the process, like the temperature polarization coefficient (TPC). The proposed model is based on energy and mass conservation principles and analogy between thermal and electrical systems. Experimental data was collected to validated the steady-state and dynamic responses of the model. The obtained results shows great agreement with the experimental data. The paper discusses the results of several simulations under various conditions to optimize the DCMD process efficiency and analyze its response. This demonstrates some potential applications of the proposed model to carry out scale up and design studies. © 2016

  10. Layer modeling of zinc removal from metallic mixture of waste printed circuit boards by vacuum distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yujie; Li, Xingang; Ding, Hui

    2015-08-01

    A layer model was established to elucidate the mechanism of zinc removal from the metallic mixture of waste printed circuit boards by vacuum distillation. The removal process was optimized by response surface methodology, and the optimum operating conditions were the chamber pressure of 0.1Pa, heating temperature of 923K, heating time of 60.0min, particle size of 70 mesh (0.212mm) and initial mass of 5.25g. Evaporation efficiency of zinc, the response variable, was 99.79%, which indicates that the zinc can be efficiently removed. Based on the experimental results, a mathematical model, which bears on layer structure, evaporation, mass transfer and condensation, interprets the mechanism of the variable effects. Especially, in order to reveal blocking effect on the zinc removal, the Blake-Kozeny-Burke-Plummer equation was introduced into the mass transfer process. The layer model can be applied to a wider range of metal removal by vacuum distillation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Improved Dynamic Modeling of the Cascade Distillation Subsystem and Analysis of Factors Affecting Its Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Bruce A.; Anderson, Molly S.

    2015-01-01

    The Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) is a rotary multistage distiller being developed to serve as the primary processor for wastewater recovery during long-duration space missions. The CDS could be integrated with a system similar to the International Space Station Water Processor Assembly to form a complete water recovery system for future missions. A preliminary chemical process simulation was previously developed using Aspen Custom Modeler® (ACM), but it could not simulate thermal startup and lacked detailed analysis of several key internal processes, including heat transfer between stages. This paper describes modifications to the ACM simulation of the CDS that improve its capabilities and the accuracy of its predictions. Notably, the modified version can be used to model thermal startup and predicts the total energy consumption of the CDS. The simulation has been validated for both NaC1 solution and pretreated urine feeds and no longer requires retuning when operating parameters change. The simulation was also used to predict how internal processes and operating conditions of the CDS affect its performance. In particular, it is shown that the coefficient of performance of the thermoelectric heat pump used to provide heating and cooling for the CDS is the largest factor in determining CDS efficiency. Intrastage heat transfer affects CDS performance indirectly through effects on the coefficient of performance.

  12. Modeling of air-gap membrane distillation process: A theoretical and experimental study

    KAUST Repository

    Alsaadi, Ahmad Salem

    2013-06-03

    A one dimensional (1-D) air gap membrane distillation (AGMD) model for flat sheet type modules has been developed. This model is based on mathematical equations that describe the heat and mass transfer mechanisms of a single-stage AGMD process. It can simulate AGMD modules in both co-current and counter-current flow regimes. The theoretical model was validated using AGMD experimental data obtained under different operating conditions and parameters. The predicted water vapor flux was compared to the flux measured at five different feed water temperatures, two different feed water salinities, three different air gap widths and two MD membranes with different average pore sizes. This comparison showed that the model flux predictions are strongly correlated with the experimental data, with model predictions being within +10% of the experimentally determined values. The model was then used to study and analyze the parameters that have significant effect on scaling-up the AGMD process such as the effect of increasing the membrane length, and feed and coolant flow rates. The model was also used to analyze the maximum thermal efficiency of the AGMD process by tracing changes in water production rate and the heat input to the process along the membrane length. This was used to understand the gain in both process production and thermal efficiency for different membrane surface areas and the resultant increases in process capital and water unit cost. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  13. Improved Dynamic Modeling of the Cascade Distillation Subsystem and Integration with Models of Other Water Recovery Subsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2015-01-01

    The Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) is a rotary multistage distiller being developed to serve as the primary processor for wastewater recovery during long-duration space missions. The CDS could be integrated with a system similar to the International Space Station (ISS) Water Processor Assembly (WPA) to form a complete Water Recovery System (WRS) for future missions. Independent chemical process simulations with varying levels of detail have previously been developed using Aspen Custom Modeler (ACM) to aid in the analysis of the CDS and several WPA components. The existing CDS simulation could not model behavior during thermal startup and lacked detailed analysis of several key internal processes, including heat transfer between stages. The first part of this paper describes modifications to the ACM model of the CDS that improve its capabilities and the accuracy of its predictions. Notably, the modified version of the model can accurately predict behavior during thermal startup for both NaCl solution and pretreated urine feeds. The model is used to predict how changing operating parameters and design features of the CDS affects its performance, and conclusions from these predictions are discussed. The second part of this paper describes the integration of the modified CDS model and the existing WPA component models into a single WRS model. The integrated model is used to demonstrate the effects that changes to one component can have on the dynamic behavior of the system as a whole.

  14. Advanced Distillation Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddalena Fanelli; Ravi Arora; Annalee Tonkovich; Jennifer Marco; Ed Rode

    2010-03-24

    performed with the targeted mixture, ethane-ethylene, as well as with analogous low relative volatility systems: cyclohexane-hexane and cyclopentane-pentane. Devices and test stands were specifically designed for these efforts. Development progressed from experiments and models considering sections of a full scale device to the design, fabrication, and operation of a single-channel distillation unit with integrated heat transfer. Throughout the project, analytical and numerical models and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were validated with experiments in the process of developing this platform technology. Experimental trials demonstrated steady and controllable distillation for a variety of process conditions. Values of Height-to-an-Equivalent Theoretical Plate (HETP) ranging from less than 0.5 inch to a few inches were experimentally proven, demonstrating a ten-fold performance enhancement relative to conventional distillation. This improvement, while substantial, is not sufficient for MPT distillation to displace very large scale distillation trains. Fortunately, parallel efforts in the area of business development have yielded other applications for MPT distillation, including smaller scale separations that benefit from the flowsheet flexibility offered by the technology. Talks with multiple potential partners are underway. Their outcome will also help determine the path ahead for MPT distillation.

  15. Analysis and simulation of industrial distillation processes using a graphical system design model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boca, Maria Loredana; Dobra, Remus; Dragos, Pasculescu; Ahmad, Mohammad Ayaz

    2016-12-01

    The separation column used for experimentations one model can be configured in two ways: one - two columns of different diameters placed one within the other extension, and second way, one column with set diameter [1], [2]. The column separates the carbon isotopes based on the cryogenic distillation of pure carbon monoxide, which is fed at a constant flow rate as a gas through the feeding system [1],[2]. Based on numerical control systems used in virtual instrumentation was done some simulations of the distillation process in order to obtain of the isotope 13C at high concentrations. The experimental installation for cryogenic separation can be configured from the point of view of the separation column in two ways: Cascade - two columns of different diameters and placed one in the extension of the other column, and second one column with a set diameter. It is proposed that this installation is controlled to achieve data using a data acquisition tool and professional software that will process information from the isotopic column based on a logical dedicated algorithm. Classical isotopic column will be controlled automatically, and information about the main parameters will be monitored and properly display using one program. Take in consideration the very-low operating temperature, an efficient thermal isolation vacuum jacket is necessary. Since the "elementary separation ratio" [2] is very close to unity in order to raise the (13C) isotope concentration up to a desired level, a permanent counter current of the liquid-gaseous phases of the carbon monoxide is created by the main elements of the equipment: the boiler in the bottom-side of the column and the condenser in the top-side.

  16. Dynamic modeling and experimental validation for direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process

    KAUST Repository

    Eleiwi, Fadi

    2016-02-01

    This work proposes a mathematical dynamic model for the direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process. The model is based on a 2D Advection–Diffusion Equation (ADE), which describes the heat and mass transfer mechanisms that take place inside the DCMD module. The model studies the behavior of the process in the time varying and the steady state phases, contributing to understanding the process performance, especially when it is driven by intermittent energy supply, such as the solar energy. The model is experimentally validated in the steady state phase, where the permeate flux is measured for different feed inlet temperatures and the maximum absolute error recorded is 2.78 °C. Moreover, experimental validation includes the time variation phase, where the feed inlet temperature ranges from 30 °C to 75 °C with 0.1 °C increment every 2min. The validation marks relative error to be less than 5%, which leads to a strong correlation between the model predictions and the experiments.

  17. Theoretical and Statistical Models for Predicting Flux in Direct Contact Membrane Distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atia E. Khalifa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical modelhas been applied to predict the performance of Direct Contact Membrane Distillation (DCMD based on the analysis of heat and mass transfer through the membrane. The performance of DCMD on the account of different operating parameters had been predicted. Feed inlet temperature, coolant inlet temperature, feed flow rate and coolant flow rate are the considered performance variables. Based on the data obtained from theoretical model, statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA was then performed to determine the significant effect of each operating factors on the DCMD system performance. A new regression model was subsequently developed for predicting the performance of the DCMD system. Resultsrevealed that both theoretical and regression models were in good agreement with each other and also with the selected experimental data used for validation. The maximum percentage error between the two models was found to be1.098%. Hence, the developed regression model is adequate for predict the performance of DCMD system within the domain of the considered analysis.

  18. Performance modeling of direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) seawater desalination process using a commercial composite membrane

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Junggil

    2015-01-10

    This paper presents the development of a rigorous theoretical model to predict the transmembrane flux of a flat sheet hydrophobic composite membrane, comprising both an active layer of polytetrafluoroethylene and a scrim-backing support layer of polypropylene, in the direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process. An integrated model includes the mass, momentum, species and energy balances for both retentate and permeate flows, coupled with the mass transfer of water vapor through the composite membrane and the heat transfer across the membrane and through the boundary layers adjacent to the membrane surfaces. Experimental results and model predictions for permeate flux and performance ratio are compared and shown to be in good agreement. The permeate flux through the composite layer can be ignored in the consideration of mass transfer pathways at the composite membrane. The effect of the surface porosity and the thickness of active and support layers on the process performance of composite membrane has also been studied. Among these parameters, surface porosity is identified to be the main factor significantly influencing the permeate flux and performance ratio, while the relative influence of the surface porosity on the performance ratio is less than that on flux.

  19. Arsenic removal by solar-driven membrane distillation: modeling and experimental investigation with a new flash vaporization module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pa, Parimal; Manna, Ajay Kumar; Linnanen, Lassi

    2013-01-01

    A modeling and simulation study was carried out on a new flux-enhancing and solar-driven membrane distillation module for removal of arsenic from contaminated groundwater. The developed new model was validated with rigorous experimental investigations using arsenic-contaminated groundwater. By incorporating flash vaporization dynamics, the model turned out to be substantially different from the existing direct contact membrane distillation models and could successfully predict (with relative error of only 0.042 and a Willmott d-index of 0.997) the performance of such an arsenic removal unit where the existing models exhibited wide variation with experimental findings in the new design. The module with greater than 99% arsenic removal efficiency and greater than 50 L/m2 x h flux could be implemented in arsenic-affected villages in Southeast Asian countries with abundant solar energy, and thus could give relief to millions of affected people. These encouraging results will raise scale-up confidence.

  20. Theoretical modeling and experimental validation of transport and separation properties of carbon nanotube electrospun membrane distillation

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Jung-Gil

    2016-12-27

    Developing a high flux and selective membrane is required to make membrane distillation (MD) a more attractive desalination process. Amongst other characteristics membrane hydrophobicity is significantly important to get high vapor transport and low wettability. In this study, a laboratory fabricated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) composite electrospun (E-CNT) membrane was tested and has showed a higher permeate flux compared to poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PH) electrospun membrane (E-PH membrane) in a direct contact MD (DCMD) configuration. Only 1% and 2% of CNTs incorporation resulted in an enhanced permeate flux with lower sensitivity to feed salinity while treating a 35 and 70 g/L NaCl solutions. Experimental results and the mechanisms of E-CNT membrane were validated by a proposed new step-modeling approach. The increased vapor transport in E-CNT membranes could not be elucidated by an enhancement of mass transfer only at a given physico-chemical properties. However, the theoretical modeling approach considering the heat and mass transfers simultaneously enabled to explain successfully the enhanced flux in the DCMD process using E-CNT membranes. This indicates that both mass and heat transfers improved by CNTs are attributed to the enhanced vapor transport in the E-CNT membrane.

  1. Thermodynamic modelling of a membrane distillation crystallisation process for the treatment of mining wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathoo, Jeeten; Randall, Dyllon Garth

    2016-01-01

    Membrane distillation (MD) could be applicable in zero liquid discharge applications. This is due to the fact that MD is applicable at high salinity ranges which are generally outside the scope of reverse osmosis (RO) applications, although this requires proper management of precipitating salts to avoid membrane fouling. One way of managing these salts is with MD crystallisation (MDC). This paper focuses on the applicability of MDC for the treatment of mining wastewater by thermodynamically modelling the aqueous chemistry of the process at different temperatures. The paper is based on the typical brine generated from an RO process in the South African coal mining industry and investigates the effect water recovery and operating temperature have on the salts that are predicted to crystallise out, the sequence in which they will crystallise out and purities as a function of the water recovery. The study confirmed the efficacy of using thermodynamic modelling as a tool for investigating and predicting the crystallisation aspects of the MDC process. The key finding from this work was that, for an MDC process, a purer product can be obtained at higher operating temperatures and recoveries because of the inverse solubility of calcium sulphate.

  2. Extraction of polyphenols from white distilled grape pomace: optimization and modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, M Sánchez; Torres, J Sineiro; Nuñez, María José

    2008-03-01

    Both ethanolic and aqueous extraction were carried out in a laboratory-scale vertical extractor to obtain polyphenols from distilled grape pomace of Vitis vinifera var. "Albariño". An experimental design was performed to analyse the effects of flow (2 ml/min and 4 ml/min) and temperature (40 degrees C and 50 degrees C). Yields of polyphenolics from aqueous extraction were much higher (up to 30-fold) than those of ethanolic extraction, in contrast with previous results obtained by us from batch extraction of different grape varieties. Polyphenols extraction was modelled by application of second Fick's law to spherical particles of 0.5 mm diameter, so obtaining the effective diffusion coefficient as parameter. The mass transfer coefficients were also estimated, giving as result that the external mass transfer resistance was negligible. Correlation coefficients ranged 0.989-0.9999. Effective diffusivity values in water extraction assays were between 0.6x10(-11) m(2)/s and 2.1x10(-11) m(2)/s. Using ethanol as solvent, the effective diffusivity was lower, between 0.1x10(-11) m(2)/s and 0.76x10(-11) m(2)/s.

  3. Structural Decoupling and Disturbance Rejection in a Distillation Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahar, Mehrdad; Jantzen, Jan; Commault, C.

    1996-01-01

    Introduction, distillation column model, input-output decoupling, disturbance rejection, concluding remarks, references.......Introduction, distillation column model, input-output decoupling, disturbance rejection, concluding remarks, references....

  4. Modelling of solar distillation system with phase change material (PCM storage medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Hamadani Ali A.F.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental investigation on a passive solar still with myristic acid as phase change material (PCM is carried out to examine the effect of both the mass of PCM and basin water on the daily distillate output and efficiency of the system under indoor simulated condition. Basic energy balance equations are written to predict the water and glass temperatures, daily distillate output and instantaneous efficiency of the single slope solar distillation system with PCM. It is found that the higher mass of PCM with lower mass of water in the solar still basin significantly increases the daily yield and efficiency, but when the amount of PCM exceeds 20 kg productivity reduces. Therefore, a novel and simple of solar stills with PCM is proposed to enhance the overall productivity of the distillation system. The new solar still has increased the distillate output by 35-40%. The use of inner glass cover temperature for productivity prediction has also been investigated, and the prediction shows relatively better agreement with the experimental data.

  5. PLS models for determination of SARA analysis of Colombian vacuum residues and molecular distillation fractions using MIR-ATR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A. Orrego-Ruiz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, prediction models of Saturates, Aromatics, Resins and Asphaltenes fractions (SARA from thirty-seven vacuum residues of representative Colombian crudes and eighteen fractions of molecular distillation process were obtained. Mid-Infrared (MIR Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR spectroscopy in combination with partial least squares (PLS regression analysis was used to estimate accurately SARA analysis in these kind of samples. Calibration coefficients of prediction models were for saturates, aromatics, resins and asphaltenes fractions, 0.99, 0.96, 0.97 and 0.99, respectively. This methodology permits to control the molecular distillation process since small differences in chemical composition can be detected. Total time elapsed to give the SARA analysis per sample is 10 minutes.

  6. Analysis of Multi-Loop Control Structures of Dividing-Wall Distillation Columns Using a Fundamental Model

    OpenAIRE

    Salvador Tututi-Avila; Arturo Jiménez-Gutiérrez; Juergen Hahn

    2014-01-01

    Dividing-wall columns (DWCs) have significant potential as energy-efficient processes for the separation of multicomponent mixtures. However, in addition to an efficient steady state design, dynamics and control also play a major part for the success of a technology. This is especially so for complex distillation systems. This paper investigates the dynamics of a dividing wall column used for the separation of ternary mixtures. A detailed dynamic first principles-based model of the column I ...

  7. Dynamic Modeling and Control of Distributed Heat Transfer Mechanisms: Application to a Membrane Distillation Module

    KAUST Repository

    Eleiwi, Fadi

    2015-12-01

    Sustainable desalination technologies are the smart solution for producing fresh water and preserve the environment and energy by using sustainable renewable energy sources. Membrane distillation (MD) is an emerging technology which can be driven by renewable energy. It is an innovative method for desalinating seawater and brackish water with high quality production, and the gratitude is to its interesting potentials. MD includes a transfer of water vapor from a feed solution to a permeate solution through a micro-porous hydrophobic membrane, rejecting other non-volatile constituents present in the influent water. The process is driven by the temperature difference along the membrane boundaries. Different control applications and supervision techniques would improve the performance and the efficiency of the MD process, however controlling the MD process requires comprehensive mathematical model for the distributed heat transfer mechanisms inside the process. Our objective is to propose a dynamic mathematical model that accounts for the time evolution of the involved heat transfer mechanisms in the process, and to be capable of hosting intermittent energy supplies, besides managing the production rate of the process, and optimizing its energy consumption. Therefore, we propose the 2D Advection-Diffusion Equation model to account for the heat diffusion and the heat convection mechanisms inside the process. Furthermore, experimental validations have proved high agreement between model simulations and experiments with less than 5% relative error. Enhancing the MD production is an anticipated goal, therefore, two main control strategies are proposed. Consequently, we propose a nonlinear controller for a semi-discretized version of the dynamic model to achieve an asymptotic tracking for a desired temperature difference. Similarly, an observer-based feedback control is used to track sufficient temperature difference for better productivity. The second control strategy

  8. Batch distillation column low-order models for quality program control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Betlem, B.H.L.

    2000-01-01

    For batch distillation, the dynamic composition behaviour can be described by the dominant time constant and the bottom exhaustion. Its magnitude is determined by the change of the composition distribution and is maximal when the inflection point of the molar fraction profile is located in the middl

  9. Optimization and modeling for the synthesis of sterol esters from deodorizer distillate by lipase-catalyzed esterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinyu; Yu, Jiang; Zeng, Aiwu

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, cotton seed oil deodorizer distillate (CSODD), was recovered to obtain fatty acid sterol ester (FASE), which is one of the biological activated substances added as human therapeutic to lower cholesterol. Esterification reactions were carried out using Candida rugosa lipase as a catalyst, and the conversion of phytosterol was optimized using response surface methodology. The highest conversion (90.8 ± 0.4%) was reached at 0.84 wt% enzyme load, 1:25 solvent/CSODD mass ratio, and 44.2 °C after 12 H reaction. A kinetic model based on the reaction rate equation was developed to describe the reaction process. The activation energy of the reaction was calculated to be 56.9 kJ/mol and the derived kinetic parameters provided indispensable basics for further study. The optimization and kinetic research of synthesizing FASE from deodorizer distillate provided necessary information for the industrial applications in the near future. Experimental results showed that the proposed process is a promising alternative to recycle sterol esters from vegetable oil deodorizer distillates in a mild, efficient, and environmental friendly method. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Sulfur Isotope Fractionation in Magmatic Systems:Models of Rayleigh Distillation and Selective Flux

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑永飞

    1990-01-01

    The effect of Rayleigh distillation by outgassing of SO2 and H2S on the isotopic composition of sulfur remaining in silicate melts is quantitatively modelled.A threshold mole fraction of sulfur in sulfide component of the melts is reckoned to be of critical importance in shifting the δ34S of the melts mith respect to the original magmas.The partial equilibrium fractionation in a magmatic system is evaluated by assuming that a non-equilibrium flux of sulfur occurs between magmatic volatiles and the melts,while an equilibrium fractionation is approached between sulfate and sulfide within the melts.The results show that under high fo2 conditions,the sulfate/sulfide ratio in a melt entds to increase,and the δ34S value of sulfur in a solidified rock might then be shifted in the positive direction.This may either be due to Rayleigh outgassing in case the mole fraction of sulfide is less than the threshold,or due to a unidirectional increase in δ34S value of the sulfate with decreaing temperature,Conversely,at low fo2,the sulfate/sulfide ratio tends to decrease and the δ34S value of total sulfur could be driven in the negative direction,either because of the Rayleigh outgassing in case the mole fraction of sulfide is greater than the threshold,or because of a unidirectional decrease inδ34S value of the sulfide.To establish isotopic equilibrium between sulfate and sulfide,the HM,QFM or WM buffers in the magmatic system are suggested to provide the redox couple that could simultaneously reduce the sulfate and oxidize the sulfide.CaO present in the silicatte Melts is also called upon to participate in the chemical equilibrium between sulfate and sulfide,Consequently,the δ34S value of an igneous rock could considerably deviate from that of its original magma due to the influence of oxygen fugacity and temperature at the time of magma solidification.

  11. Reduced-Order Dynamic Modeling, Fouling Detection, and Optimal Control of Solar-Powered Direct Contact Membrane Distillation

    KAUST Repository

    Karam, Ayman M.

    2016-12-01

    Membrane Distillation (MD) is an emerging sustainable desalination technique. While MD has many advantages and can be powered by solar thermal energy, its main drawback is the low water production rate. However, the MD process has not been fully optimized in terms of its manipulated and controlled variables. This is largely due to the lack of adequate dynamic models to study and simulate the process. In addition, MD is prone to membrane fouling, which is a fault that degrades the performance of the MD process. This work has three contributions to address these challenges. First, we derive a mathematical model of Direct Contact Membrane Distillation (DCMD), which is the building block for the next parts. Then, the proposed model is extended to account for membrane fouling and an observer-based fouling detection method is developed. Finally, various control strategies are implemented to optimize the performance of the DCMD solar-powered process. In part one, a reduced-order dynamic model of DCMD is developed based on lumped capacitance method and electrical analogy to thermal systems. The result is an electrical equivalent thermal network to the DCMD process, which is modeled by a system of nonlinear differential algebraic equations (DAEs). This model predicts the water-vapor flux and the temperature distribution along the module length. Experimental data is collected to validate the steady-state and dynamic responses of the proposed model, with great agreement demonstrated in both. The second part proposes an extension of the model to account for membrane fouling. An adaptive observer for DAE systems is developed and convergence proof is presented. A method for membrane fouling detection is then proposed based on adaptive observers. Simulation results demonstrate the performance of the membrane fouling detection method. Finally, an optimization problem is formulated to maximize the process efficiency of a solar-powered DCMD. The adapted method is known as Extremum

  12. Analysis of Multi-Loop Control Structures of Dividing-Wall Distillation Columns Using a Fundamental Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Tututi-Avila

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Dividing-wall columns (DWCs have significant potential as energy-efficient processes for the separation of multicomponent mixtures. However, in addition to an efficient steady state design, dynamics and control also play a major part for the success of a technology. This is especially so for complex distillation systems. This paper investigates the dynamics of a dividing wall column used for the separation of ternary mixtures. A detailed dynamic first principles-based model of the column I s developed in gPROMS. The model is used to generate data used for control loop pairing via the Relative Gain Array (RGA, and controller parameters are found by using Internal Model Control (IMC tuning. The best control structures for DWC systems, involving four different ternary mixtures, and two different feed compositions for each mixture, are investigated.

  13. 镉真空蒸馏的热力学模型与过程%Thermodynamic Model and Experiment of Vacuum Distillation of Cadmium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王林军; 郭燕明; 桑文斌; 史伟民; 顾永明; 钱永彪; 闵嘉华; 吴汶海; 居建华; 夏义本

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, a novel approach for highly efficient purification of cadmium by vacuum distillation was reported. During the cadmium vacuum distillation, a small quantity of cadmium oxide film, produced under lower vacuum, was intentionally induced into the evaporator, and the presence of cadmium oxide changed the behavior of impurities. Meantime, a thermodynamic model of the process, which described the phase composition in the evaporator and condenser during evaporation of cadmium, was established. The model was used to classify the impurities according to their behavior in the purification process. On the base of the model, the purification of cadmium by one-stage and two-stage distillation and the validity of the model were also discussed.

  14. 镉真空蒸馏的热力学模型与过程%Thermodynamic Model and Experiment of Vacuum Distillation of Cadmium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王林军; 郭燕明; 桑文斌; 史伟民; 顾永明; 钱永彪; 闵嘉华; 吴汶海; 居建华; 夏义本

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, a novel approach for highly efficient purification of cadmium by vacuum distillation was reported. During the cadmium vacuum distillation, a small quantity of cadmium oxide film, produced under lower vacuum, was intentionally induced into the evaporator, and the presence of cadmium oxide changed the behavior of impurities. Meantime, a thermodynamic model of the process, which described the phase composition in the evaporator and condenser during evaporation of cadmium, was established. The model was used to classify the impurities according to their behavior in the purification process. On the base of the model, the purification of cadmium by one-stage and two-stage distillation and the validity of the model were also discussed.

  15. Steam distillation extraction kinetics regression models to predict essential oil yield, composition, and bioactivity of chamomile oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) is one of the most widely spread and used medicinal and essential oil crop in the world. Chamomile essential oil is extracted via steam distillation of the inflorescences (flowers). In this study, distillation time (DT) was found to be a crucial determinant of yi...

  16. Catalytic distillation structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1984-04-17

    Catalytic distillation structure is described for use in reaction distillation columns, and provides reaction sites and distillation structure consisting of a catalyst component and a resilient component intimately associated therewith. The resilient component has at least about 70 volume % open space and is present with the catalyst component in an amount such that the catalytic distillation structure consists of at least 10 volume % open space. 10 figs.

  17. Operation and Design of Diabatic Distillation Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Thomas

    nature of the modelling framework is favourable for benchmarking distillation column configurations. To further facilitate benchmarking of distillation column configurations, a conceptual design algorithm was formulated, which systematicallyaddresses the selection of the design variables. The conceptual...... design of the heat-integrated distillation column configurations is challenging as a result of the increased number of decision variables compared to the CDiC. Finally, themodel is implemented in Matlab and a database of the considered configurations, case studies, pure component properties, and binary...

  18. Distillation-Based Droplet Modeling of Non-Ideal Oxygenated Gasoline Blends: Investigating the Role of Droplet Evaporation on PM Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, Stephen C.; Ratcliff, Matthew; McCormick, Robert; Rhoads, Robert; Windom, Bret

    2017-03-28

    In some studies, a relationship has been observed between increasing ethanol content in gasoline and increased particulate matter (PM) emissions from vehicles equipped with spark ignition engines. The fundamental cause of the PM increase seen for moderate ethanol concentrations is not well understood. Ethanol features a greater heat of vaporization (HOV) than gasoline and also influences vaporization by altering the liquid and vapor composition throughout the distillation process. A droplet vaporization model was developed to explore ethanol's effect on the evaporation of aromatic compounds known to be PM precursors. The evolving droplet composition is modeled as a distillation process, with non-ideal interactions between oxygenates and hydrocarbons accounted for using UNIFAC group contribution theory. Predicted composition and distillation curves were validated by experiments. Detailed hydrocarbon analysis was applied to fuel samples and to distillate fractions, and used as input for the initial droplet composition. With composition calculated throughout the distillation, the changing HOV and other physical properties can be found using reference data. The droplet can thus be modeled in terms of energy transfer, which in turn provides the transient mass transfer, droplet temperature, and droplet diameter. Model predictions suggest that non-ideal vapor-liquid equilibrium along with an increase in HOV can alter the droplet composition evolution. Results predict that the presence of ethanol causes enrichment of the higher boiling fractions (T90+) in the aromatic components as well as lengthens the droplet lifetime. A simulation of the evaporation process in a transient environment as experienced within an engine cylinder predicts a decrease in mixing time of the heaviest fractions of the fuel prior to spark initiation, possibly explaining observations linking ethanol to PM.

  19. Dynamic Effects of Diabatization in Distillation Columns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Thomas; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Abildskov, Jens

    2012-01-01

    The dynamic eects of diabatization in distillation columns are investigated in simulation with primary focus on the heat-integrated distillation column (HIDiC). A generic, dynamic, rst-principle model has been formulated, which is exible to describe various diabatic distillation congurations....... Dynamic Relative Gain Array and Singular Value Analysis have been applied in a comparative study of a conventional distillation column and a HIDiC. The study showed increased input-output coupling due to diabatization. Feasible SISO control structures for the HIDiC were also found. Control...

  20. Dynamic effects of diabatization in distillation columns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Thomas; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Abildskov, Jens

    2013-01-01

    The dynamic effects of diabatization in distillation columns are investigated in simulation emphasizing the heat-integrated distillation column (HIDiC). A generic, dynamic, first-principle model has been formulated, which is flexible enough to describe various diabatic distillation configurations....... Dynamic Relative Gain Array and Singular Value Analysis have been applied in a comparative study of a conventional distillation column and a HIDiC. The study showed increased input-output coupling due to diabatization. Feasible SISO control structures for the HIDiC were also found and control...

  1. Hydrogen isotope separation by cryogenic distillation: system modelization and design; La separation des isotopes de l`hydrogene par distillation cryogenique: modelisation et conception des installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latge, C.; Boisset-Baticle, L.; Buvat, J.C. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. d`Etudes des Reacteurs

    1994-12-31

    The design of fusion reactor systems involves high safety constraints, especially concerning tritium quantity retained in the reactor processes. It is thus necessary to carefully design the separation cascade in order to minimize the tritium inventory. A simulation code has been developed which describes precisely the packed column, based on a mass transfer model and on an automatic optimization procedure for isotopic separation cascades. 4 figs., 5 refs.

  2. Development of a Higher Fidelity Model for the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2014-01-01

    Significant improvements have been made to the ACM model of the CDS, enabling accurate predictions of dynamic operations with fewer assumptions. The model has been utilized to predict how CDS performance would be impacted by changing operating parameters, revealing performance trade-offs and possibilities for improvement. CDS efficiency is driven by the THP coefficient of performance, which in turn is dependent on heat transfer within the system. Based on the remaining limitations of the simulation, priorities for further model development include: center dot Relaxing the assumption of total condensation center dot Incorporating dynamic simulation capability for the buildup of dissolved inert gasses in condensers center dot Examining CDS operation with more complex feeds center dot Extending heat transfer analysis to all surfaces

  3. A Model of Direct Contact Membrane Distillation of Black Currant Juice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Busch; Christensen, Knud Villy; Andrésen, René

    2011-01-01

    -side spacing of tubular-type unit."  Turtuosity and porosity are characteristics of the membrane in use and have been estimated base don eksperimental studies on destillation of pure water. The fitted model shows a good fit to experimental data obtained by destillation of black currant juice....

  4. Fouling in Membrane Distillation, Osmotic Distillation and Osmotic Membrane Distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourad Laqbaqbi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Various membrane separation processes are being used for seawater desalination and treatment of wastewaters in order to deal with the worldwide water shortage problem. Different types of membranes of distinct morphologies, structures and physico-chemical characteristics are employed. Among the considered membrane technologies, membrane distillation (MD, osmotic distillation (OD and osmotic membrane distillation (OMD use porous and hydrophobic membranes for production of distilled water and/or concentration of wastewaters for recovery and recycling of valuable compounds. However, the efficiency of these technologies is hampered by fouling phenomena. This refers to the accumulation of organic/inorganic deposits including biological matter on the membrane surface and/or in the membrane pores. Fouling in MD, OD and OMD differs from that observed in electric and pressure-driven membrane processes such electrodialysis (ED, membrane capacitive deionization (MCD, reverse osmosis (RO, nanofiltration (NF, ultrafiltration (UF, microfiltration (MF, etc. Other than pore blockage, fouling in MD, OD and OMD increases the risk of membrane pores wetting and reduces therefore the quantity and quality of the produced water or the concentration efficiency of the process. This review deals with the observed fouling phenomena in MD, OD and OMD. It highlights different detected fouling types (organic fouling, inorganic fouling and biofouling, fouling characterization techniques as well as various methods of fouling reduction including pretreatment, membrane modification, membrane cleaning and antiscalants application.

  5. (Vapor + Liquid) Equilibrium (VLE) for Binary Lead-Antimony System in Vacuum Distillation: New Data and Modeling Using Nonrandom Two-Liquid (NRTL) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Junjie; Kong, Lingxin; Xu, Baoqiang; Yang, Bin; You, Yanjun; Xu, Shuai; Zhou, Yuezhen; Li, Yifu; Liu, Dachun

    2016-09-01

    In this work, new experimental vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) data of lead-antimony alloy (Pb-Sb alloy) in vacuum distillation are reported. The activity coefficients of components of Pb-Sb alloy were calculated by using the NRTL model. The calculated average relative deviations were ±0.1425 and ±0.2433 pct, and the average standard deviations were ±0.0009 and ±0.0007, respectively, for Pb and Sb. The VLE phase diagrams, such as the temperature composition ( T- x) and pressure composition ( P-x) diagrams of Pb-Sb alloy in vacuum distillation were predicted based on the NRTL model and VLE theory. The predicted results are consistent with the new experimental data indicating that VLE phase diagrams obtained by this method are reliable. The VLE phase diagrams of alloys will provide an effective and intuitive way for the technical design and realization of recycling and separation processes. The VLE data may be used in separation processes design, and the thermodynamic properties as the key parameters in specific applications.

  6. Regenerative adsorption distillation system

    KAUST Repository

    Ng, Kim Choon

    2013-12-26

    There is provided a regenerative adsorption distillation system comprising a train of distillation effects in fluid communication with each other. The train of distillation effects comprises at least one intermediate effect between the first and last distillation effects of the train, each effect comprising a vessel and a condensing tube for flow of a fluid therein. The system further comprises a pair of adsorption-desorption beds in vapour communication with the last effect and at least one intermediate effect, wherein the beds contain an adsorbent that adsorbs vapour from the last effect and transmits desorbed vapour into at least one of the intermediate effect.

  7. Distilling solid carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ainscow, J.W.H.

    1928-11-19

    Carbonaceous materials such as coal or oil shale are distilled by being passed in a continuous stream through a retort heated externally and at temperatures increasing from the inlet to the outlet end, the distillates being taken off through openings in the retort wall.

  8. 酯化反应蒸馏过程的模型化及模拟研究%The Modeling and Simulation of Reactive Distillation for the Esterification Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱建华; 沈复

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, a generalized model of the reactive distillation processes was developed via rate-based approach. The homotopy-continuation method was employed to solve the complicated nonlinear model equations efficiently. The simulation on the reactive distillation processes was carried out with the profiles of stage temperature,composition and flow rate for both vapor and liquid phases obtained, Based on careful analysis of the simulation results, the pitfalls in experimental design were detected. Finally, a software package for the simulation of reactive distillation processes was developed.

  9. Catalytic distillation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.

    1982-01-01

    A method for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C.sub.4 feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

  10. Catalytic distillation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1982-06-22

    A method is described for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C[sub 4] feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

  11. Nonlinear control of high purity distillation columns

    OpenAIRE

    Groebel, Markus; Allgöwer, Frank; Storz, Markus; Gilles, Ernst Dieter

    1994-01-01

    Two simple models of distillation columns are studied to investigate their suitability for the practical use with exact I/O-linearization. An extension of exact I/O-linearization, the asymptotically exact I/O-linearization is applied to the control of a high purity distillation column, using one of these models to derive the static state feedback law. Simulation studies demonstrate the advantage of asymptotically exact I/O-linearization versus classical exact I/O-linearization techniques. Exp...

  12. Distilling Complex Model Results into Simple Models for use in Assessing Compliance with Performance Standards for Low Level Waste Disposal Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur S. Rood

    2007-02-01

    Assessing the long term performance of waste disposal facility requires numerical simulation of saturated and unsaturated groundwater flow and contaminant transport. Complex numerical models have been developed to try to realistically simulate subsurface flow and transport processes. These models provide important information about system behavior and identify important processes, but may not be practical for demonstrating compliance with performance standards because of excessively long computer simulation times and input requirements. Two approaches to distilling the behavior of a complex model into simpler formulations that are practical for demonstrating compliance with performance objectives are examined in this paper. The first approach uses the information obtained from the complex model to develop a simple model that mimics the complex model behavior for stated performance objectives. The simple model may need to include essential processes that are important to assessing performance, such as time-variable infiltration and waste emplacement rates, subsurface heterogeneity, sorption, decay, and radioactive ingrowth. The approach was applied to a Low-Level Waste disposal site at the Idaho National Laboratory where a complex three dimensional vadose zone model was developed first to understand system behavior and important processes. The complex model was distilled down to a relatively simple one-dimensional vadose zone model and three-dimensional aquifer transport model. Comparisons between the simple model and complex model of vadose zone fluxes and groundwater concentrations showed relatively good agreement between the models for both fission and activation products (129I, 36Cl, 99Tc) and actinides (238U, 239Pu, 237Np). Application of the simple model allowed for Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis and simulations of numerous disposal and release scenarios. The second approach investigated was the response surface model. In the response surface model approach

  13. PARAFFIN SEPARATION VACUUM DISTILLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaid A. Abdulrahman

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Simulated column performance curves were constructed for existing paraffin separation vacuum distillation column in LAB plant (Arab Detergent Company/Baiji-Iraq. The variables considered in this study are the thermodynamic model option, top vacuum pressure, top and bottom temperatures, feed temperature, feed composition & reflux ratio. Also simulated columns profiles for the temperature, vapor & liquid flow rates composition were constructed. Four different thermodynamic model options (SRK, TSRK, PR, and ESSO were used, affecting the results within 1-25% variation for the most cases.The simulated results show that about 2% to 8 % of paraffin (C10, C11, C12, & C13 present at the bottom stream which may cause a problem in the LAB plant. The major variations were noticed for the top temperature & the  paraffin weight fractions at bottom section with top vacuum pressure. The bottom temperature above 240 oC is not recommended because the total bottom flow rate decreases sharply, where as  the weight fraction of paraffins decrease slightly. The study gives evidence about a successful simulation with CHEMCAD

  14. Quantum distillation of bosons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, David

    2015-05-01

    The non-equilibrium dynamics of many-body quantum systems present a series of challenges for theory and opportunities for cold atom experiments. I will describe an experiment in which a bundle of initially trapped superfluid 1D Bose lattice gases is quenched to an untrapped, flat lattice potential. This simple experimental situation in the intermediate coupling regime (U/J between 4 and 9.6) leads to interesting dynamics. These include the progressive dissolution of a fraction of the doublons, as well as the quantum distillation and long term confinement of singlons out of and within the central, doublon-dominated region. We measure these processes by combining absorption imaging, photoassociation and 3-body loss to separately reconstruct the spatial distributions of the expectation values of singlons, doublons and triplons. The qualitative dynamics is reproduced by a Gutzwiller mean field model and the essence of the experiment can be understood by considering simple spatial pictures of site occupancies. This work was supported by the NSF and the ARO.

  15. DISTILLATION OF CALCIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, J.

    1954-07-27

    This invention relates to an improvement in the process for the purification of caicium or magnesium containing an alkali metal as impurity, which comprises distiiling a batch of the mixture in two stages, the first stage distillation being carried out in the presence of an inert gas at an absolute pressure substantially greater than the vapor pressure of calcium or maguesium at the temperature of distillation, but less than the vaper pressure at that temperature of the alkali metal impurity so that only the alkali metal is vaporized and condensed on a condensing surface. A second stage distilso that substantially only the calcium or magnesium distills under its own vapor pressure only and condenses in solid form on a lower condensing surface.

  16. Qutrit Magic State Distillation

    CERN Document Server

    Anwar, Hussain; Browne, Dan E

    2012-01-01

    Magic state distillation (MSD) is a purification protocol that plays a central role in fault tolerant quantum computation. Repeated iteration of the steps of a MSD protocol, generates pure single non-stabilizer states, or magic states, from multiple copies of a mixed resource state using stabilizer operations only. Thus mixed resource states promote the stabilizer operations to full universality. Magic state distillation was introduced for qubit-based quantum computation, but little has been known concerning MSD in higher dimensional qudit-based computation. Here, we describe a general approach for studying MSD in higher dimensions. We use it to investigate the features of a qutrit MSD protocol based on the 5-qutrit stabilizer code. We show that this protocol distills non-stabilizer magic states, and identify two types of states, that are attractors of this iteration map. Finally, we show how these states may be converted, via stabilizer circuits alone, into a state suitable for state injected implementation ...

  17. Tritium Attenuation by Distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittman, N.E.

    2001-07-31

    The objective of this study was to determine how a 100 Area distillation system could be used to reduce to a satisfactory low value the tritium content of the dilute moderator produced in the 100 Area stills, and whether such a tritium attenuator would have sufficient capacity to process all this material before it is sent to the 400 Area for reprocessing.

  18. Membrane distillation for milk concentration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moejes, S.N.; Romero Guzman, Maria; Hanemaaijer, J.H.; Barrera, K.H.; Feenstra, L.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2015-01-01

    Membrane distillation is an emerging technology to concentrate liquid products while producing high quality water as permeate. Application for desalination has been studied extensively the past years, but membrane distillation has also potential to produce concentrated food products like concentrate

  19. Optimization of existing heat-integrated refinery distillation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadalla, M.; Jobson, M.; Smith, R.

    2003-01-01

    Existing refinery distillation systems are highly energy-intensive, and have complex column configurations that interact strongly with the associated heat exchanger network. An optimization approach is developed for existing refinery distillation processes. The optimization framework includes shortcut models developed for the simulation of the existing distillation column, and a retrofit shortcut model for the heat exchanger network. The existing distillation process is optimized by changing key operating parameters, while simultaneously accounting for hydraulic limitations and the design and the performance of the existing heat exchanger network. A case study shows that a reduction in energy consumption and operating costs of over 25% can be achieved. (Author)

  20. Distillation with labelled transition systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamilton, Geoffrey William; Jones, Neil

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we provide an improved basis for the " distillation" program transformation. It is known that superlinear speedups can be obtained using distillation, but cannot be obtained by other earlier automatic program transformation techniques such as deforestation, positive supercompilation...... and partial evaluation. We give distillation an improved semantic basis, and explain how superlinear speedups can occur....

  1. Dynamic solar-powered multi-stage direct contact membrane distillation system: Concept design, modeling and simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Jung Gil

    2017-04-26

    This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the monthly average daily and hourly performances of a solar-powered multi-stage direct contact membrane distillation (SMDCMD) system with an energy recovery scheme and dynamic operating system. Mid-latitude meteorological data from Busan, Korea is employed, featuring large climate variation over the course of one year. The number of module stages used by the dynamic operating scheme changes dynamically based on the inlet feed temperature of the successive modules, which results in an improvement of the water production and thermal efficiency. The simulations of the SMDCMD system are carried out to investigate the spatial and temporal variations in the feed and permeate temperatures and permeate flux. The monthly average daily water production increases from 0.37m3/day to 0.4m3/day and thermal efficiency increases from 31% to 45% when comparing systems both without and with dynamic operation in December. The water production with respect to collector area ranged from 350m2 to 550m2 and the seawater storage tank volume ranged from 16m3 to 28.8m3, and the solar fraction at various desired feed temperatures from 50°C to 80°C have been investigated in October and December.

  2. 溶剂油生产两塔分馏单元的建模与应用%Modeling and application of solvent double tower distillation unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴文波

    2013-01-01

    The double tower distillation unit was studied in the thesis.Comparing with other normal petrochemical processes,there were many specialties in the double tower distillation unit,such as production mode switching frequently,products renewal quickly,operation load changing greatly,and so on.Therefore,in this thesis,based on Aspen HYSYS V7.1 software,the equation of state (EOS) Peng-Robinson,Chao-Seader,Grayson Streed were used and compared.The simulation results showed that the Peng-Robinson EOS was the most suitable for the model.Finally,the model was set up by Aspen HSYSY V7.1 based on the Peng-Robinson EOS.The result sults included that the model was feasible,reasonable and suitable for the need of the solvent production.The model could be applied to the solvent distillation unit for analyzing the dynamic switching procedure,forecasting the product specification,studying the distillation,etc.%本文以溶剂油生产装置的两塔分馏单元为研究对象,针对两塔分馏单元的实际情况,分析其生产工艺特点,如产品模式切换频繁、产品更新换代快、装置运行负荷变化幅度大等,在结合分馏单元实际生产数据的基础上,以化工工艺过程模拟软件Aspen HYSYS V7.1为工具,选用Aspen HYSYS V7.1软件提供的成熟的分馏塔严格计算模块,并对Peng-Robinson、Chao-Seader、Grayson Streed状态方程进行了模拟比较,根据比较结果选择Peng-Robinson为模型的状态方程,最终建立了两塔分馏单元的过程模型.通过对所建立的模型进行验证与应用,数据证明所建立的模型是可行、有效的,能够满足指导实际生产的需要,用于分析产品模式切换动态过程、预测产品性能、预测分馏塔运行状态、降低生产能耗等等,使企业实际生产做到低能耗、高效率,提高企业的市场竞争力.

  3. Cascade Distillation System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Sargushingh, Miriam; Shull, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support System (LSS) Project is chartered with de-veloping advanced life support systems that will ena-ble NASA human exploration beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). The goal of AES is to increase the affordabil-ity of long-duration life support missions, and to re-duce the risk associated with integrating and infusing new enabling technologies required to ensure mission success. Because of the robust nature of distillation systems, the AES LSS Project is pursuing develop-ment of the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) as part of its technology portfolio. Currently, the system is being developed into a flight forward Generation 2.0 design.

  4. Renormalizing Entanglement Distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waeldchen, Stephan; Gertis, Janina; Campbell, Earl T; Eisert, Jens

    2016-01-15

    Entanglement distillation refers to the task of transforming a collection of weakly entangled pairs into fewer highly entangled ones. It is a core ingredient in quantum repeater protocols, which are needed to transmit entanglement over arbitrary distances in order to realize quantum key distribution schemes. Usually, it is assumed that the initial entangled pairs are identically and independently distributed and are uncorrelated with each other, an assumption that might not be reasonable at all in any entanglement generation process involving memory channels. Here, we introduce a framework that captures entanglement distillation in the presence of natural correlations arising from memory channels. Conceptually, we bring together ideas from condensed-matter physics-ideas from renormalization and matrix-product states and operators-with those of local entanglement manipulation, Markov chain mixing, and quantum error correction. We identify meaningful parameter regions for which we prove convergence to maximally entangled states, arising as the fixed points of a matrix-product operator renormalization flow.

  5. Free Boundary Problems in Distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlhuter, Frederick Karl

    Design and scaleup of distillation equipment requires an understanding of the vapor-liquid equilibria as well as an understanding of the column hydraulics. This work focuses on two problems of fluid mechanics important in understanding the behavior of distillation columns: the shapes and stability of dielectric drops in an electric field and the flow patterns on distillation trays. Axisymmetric equilibrium shapes and stability of dielectric drops subject to an applied electric field are determined by solving simultaneously the Young-Laplace equation for drop shape and the Maxwell equations for field distribution. Both linearly and nonlinearly polarizable drops are studied, as are drops that are pendant/sessile on a supporting plate and those that are floating freely between two plates. The range of parameters for which hysteresis in drop deformation can be observed is given for linearly and nonlinearly polarizable drops. Properly accounting for the effects of nonlinear polarization brings the theoretical results of this work into accord with previously published experimental results. Detailed examination of the electric fields inside nonlinearly polarizable drops reveals that they are very nonuniform, in contrast to the nearly uniform fields usually found in linearly polarizable drops. The concept of depth averaging the equations of motion for a thin film (relative to the length of the distillation tray) is used to reduce the three-dimensional, free surface flow problem to two dimensions. A one-dimensional model is first used to gain understanding into the behavior of the bulk flow, ignoring any edge effects. A rise in the height profile on the tray, or hydraulic jump, is predicted. The effects of Reynolds number, capillary number (surface tension), tray geometry, and film thickness are all examined. The importance of the downcomers is shown. The two-dimensional model allows examination not only of rectangular trays, but also round trays and trays which are annular

  6. GeneDistiller--distilling candidate genes from linkage intervals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Seelow

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Linkage studies often yield intervals containing several hundred positional candidate genes. Different manual or automatic approaches exist for the determination of the gene most likely to cause the disease. While the manual search is very flexible and takes advantage of the researchers' background knowledge and intuition, it may be very cumbersome to collect and study the relevant data. Automatic solutions on the other hand usually focus on certain models, remain "black boxes" and do not offer the same degree of flexibility. METHODOLOGY: We have developed a web-based application that combines the advantages of both approaches. Information from various data sources such as gene-phenotype associations, gene expression patterns and protein-protein interactions was integrated into a central database. Researchers can select which information for the genes within a candidate interval or for single genes shall be displayed. Genes can also interactively be filtered, sorted and prioritised according to criteria derived from the background knowledge and preconception of the disease under scrutiny. CONCLUSIONS: GeneDistiller provides knowledge-driven, fully interactive and intuitive access to multiple data sources. It displays maximum relevant information, while saving the user from drowning in the flood of data. A typical query takes less than two seconds, thus allowing an interactive and explorative approach to the hunt for the candidate gene. ACCESS: GeneDistiller can be freely accessed at http://www.genedistiller.org.

  7. The use of artificial neural network modeling to represent the process of concentration by molecular distillation of omega-3 from squid oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossi, P.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of omega-3 compounds obtained for the esterification of squid oil by molecular distillation was carried out in two stages. This operation can process these thermolabile and high molecular weight components at very low temperatures. Given the mathematical complexity of the theoretical model, artificial neural networks (ANN have provided an alternative to a classical computing analysis. The objective of this study was to create a predictive model using artificial neural network techniques to represent the concentration process of omega-3 compounds obtained from squid oil using molecular distillation. Another objective of this study was to analyze the performance of two different alternatives of ANN modeling; one of them is a model that represents all variables in the process and the other is a global model that simulates only the input and output variables of the process. The alternative of the ANN global model showed the best fit to the experimental data.La concentración de compuestos omega-3, obtenidos de la esterificación de aceite de calamar, por destilación molecular fue llevada a cabo en dos etapas. Esta operación permite procesar componentes termolábiles y de alto peso molecular a muy bajas temperaturas. Dada la alta complejidad de los modelos teóricos, las redes neuronales artificiales (RNA conforman una alternativa al análisis computacional clásico. El objetivo de este estudio fue crear un modelo predictivo usando modelos de redes neuronales artificiales para representar el proceso de concentración de compuestos omega-3 obtenidos del aceite de calamar por destilación molecular. Otro objetivo de este estudio fue analizar el desenvolvimiento de dos alternativas de modelos RNA; uno de ellos es un modelo que representa todas las variables en el proceso y otro es un modelo global que simula solo las variables de entrada y de salida del proceso. La alternativa de un modelo RNA global mostró el mejor ajuste de los

  8. Constraint control of distillation processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roffel, B.; Fontein, H.J.

    1979-01-01

    There is a growing interest to design and operate chemical processes for reduced energy consumption. As an example a comparison is made between the distillation of binary mixtures in a conventional distillation column, a vapour recompression system and a two column heat integrated system. For all

  9. Cyclic distillation technology - A mini-review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bîldea, Costin Sorin; Pătruţ, Cătălin; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2016-01-01

    Process intensification in distillation systems has received much attention during the pastdecades, with the aim of increasing both energy and separation efficiency. Varioustechniques, such as internal heat-integrated distillation, membrane distillation, rotating packedbed, dividing-wall columns ...

  10. Shortcut Algorithm for Simulation of Batch Extractive Distillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Huixiong; XU Shimin; HU Hui; XIAO Bin

    2007-01-01

    The batch extractive distillation (BED) process has the advantages of both batch and extractive distillation. It is one of the most promising means for the separation of azeotropic and close-boiling point systems. However, so far this process has not been applied in industry due to its over-complexity. A new shortcut model was proposed to simulate the operation of the batch extractive distillation operations. This algorithm is based on the assumption that the batch extractive distillation column can be considered as a continuous extractive distillation column with changing feed at anytime. Namely, the whole batch process is simulated as a succession of a finite number of steady states of short duration, in which holdup is considered as constant mole. For each period of time the batch extractive distillation process is solved through the algorithm for continuous extractive distillation. Finally, the practical implementation of the shortcut model is discussed and data from the lab-oratory and literature are presented. It is found that this model has better adaptability, more satisfactory accuracy and less calculative load than previous rigorous model. Hence the algorithm for simulating BED is verified.

  11. Statistics, distillation, and ordering emergence in a two-dimensional stochastic model of particles in counterflowing streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Eduardo Velasco; da Silva, Roberto; Fernandes, H. A.

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a stochastic model which describes two species of particles moving in counterflow. The model generalizes the theoretical framework that describes the transport in random systems by taking into account two different scenarios: particles can work as mobile obstacles, whereas particles of one species move in the opposite direction to the particles of the other species, or particles of a given species work as fixed obstacles remaining in their places during the time evolution. We conduct a detailed study about the statistics concerning the crossing time of particles, as well as the effects of the lateral transitions on the time required to the system reaches a state of complete geographic separation of species. The spatial effects of jamming are also studied by looking into the deformation of the concentration of particles in the two-dimensional corridor. Finally, we observe in our study the formation of patterns of lanes which reach the steady state regardless of the initial conditions used for the evolution. A similar result is also observed in real experiments involving charged colloids motion and simulations of pedestrian dynamics based on Langevin equations, when periodic boundary conditions are considered (particles counterflow in a ring symmetry). The results obtained through Monte Carlo simulations and numerical integrations are in good agreement with each other. However, differently from previous studies, the dynamics considered in this work is not Newton-based, and therefore, even artificial situations of self-propelled objects should be studied in this first-principles modeling.

  12. Distillation of carbonaceous material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ainscow, J.W.H.

    1936-10-03

    To recover hydrocarbon products by distillation of carbonaceous material in a plurality of horizontal zones maintained at different temperatures, a retort has a plurality of superimposed (3) retort chambers, the uppermost being in communication at one end with a hopper and at the other end through coupled junction not shown with one end of the next lower chamber, whose opposite end communicates with lowermost chamber, the other end of which has a sealed discharge passage, tank, and conveyor not shown. Each retort chamber has stirring and conveying means consisting of helical blades (2) attached to radial arms on shaft mounted in water cooled bearings and driven through suitably mounted sprocket wheels and chains not shown. Each retort chamber has a gas dome, with pyrometer tube, and off-take connected to a common main opening into a dust eliminator which in turn connects with a plurality of vertical condensation towers of known construction, maintained at different temperatures by means of steam from a superheater not shown situated in one retort chamber. The retort heating gases pass from the furnace via zig-zag, (three) baffles under and around each retort chamber to a flue not shown.

  13. Dynamic optimization of the benzene extractive distillation unit

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ghaee, A; Sotudeh-Gharebagh, R; Mostoufi, N

    2008-01-01

    A mathematical model has been developed for describing the dynamic operation of the N-formylmorpholine extractive distillation column and the corresponding solvent recovery column in the benzene extraction plant...

  14. Partial least square modeling for the control of refining processes on mid-distillates by near infrared spectroscopy; Modeles PLS pour le suivi de la qualite par spectrometrie proche infrarouge des distillats moyens issus des procedes de raffinage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aji, S.; Schildknecht-Szydlowski, N.; Faraj, A. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France)

    2004-07-01

    Partial Least Squares regression (PLS) was used to elaborate the prediction models of the different chemical families i.e. wt% paraffins, naphthenes, and wt% and moll 100 g mono-aromatics, di-aromatics, and total aromatics from Near InfraRed spectra (NIR) of mid-distillates covering a large range of chemical compositions. Cluster analysis was used to reveal the chemical similarities between samples and to organize in clusters the calibration data base. The relation-ships between NIR spectra and modeled properties were well adapted for most of the prediction models in twice the interval of confidence at 95% of the reference methods after clustering of the data base into three clusters. Cluster analysis was necessary to improve the prediction quality of the PLS models. (authors)

  15. Distilling Common History and Practice Elements to Inform Dissemination: Hanf-Model BPT Programs as an Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaehler, Laura A; Jacobs, Mary; Jones, Deborah J

    2016-09-01

    (IY; (Webster-Stratton in Behav Ther 12:634-642, 1981. doi:10.1016/S0005-7894(81)80135-9; Webster-Stratton in J Pediatr Psychol 7:279-294, 1982. doi:10.1093/jpepsy/7.3.279; Webster-Stratton in The incredible years: parents and children series. Leader's guide: preschool version of BASIC (ages 3-6 years, The Incredible Years, Seattle, 2008). Our goal is not to provide an exhaustive review of the evidence base for the Hanf-Model programs, rather our intention is to provide a template of sorts from which agencies and clinicians can make informed choices about how and why they are using one program versus another, as well as how to make inform flexible use one program or combination of practice elements across programs, to best meet the needs of child clients and their families. Clinical implications and directions for future work are discussed.

  16. Quantum entanglement distillation with metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al Farooqui, Md Abdullah; Breeland, Justin; Aslam, Muhammad I; Sadatgol, Mehdi; Özdemir, Şahin K; Tame, Mark; Yang, Lan; Güney, Durdu Ö

    2015-07-13

    We propose a scheme for the distillation of partially entangled two-photon Bell and three-photon W states using metamaterials. The distillation of partially entangled Bell states is achieved by using two metamaterials with polarization dependence, one of which is rotated by π/2 around the direction of propagation of the photons. On the other hand, the distillation of three-photon W states is achieved by using one polarization dependent metamaterial and two polarization independent metamaterials. Upon transmission of the photons of the partially entangled states through the metamaterials the entanglement of the states increases and they become distilled. This work opens up new directions in quantum optical state engineering by showing how metamaterials can be used to carry out a quantum information processing task.

  17. Distillation Column Flooding Predictor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George E. Dzyacky

    2010-11-23

    The Flooding Predictor™ is a patented advanced control technology proven in research at the Separations Research Program, University of Texas at Austin, to increase distillation column throughput by over 6%, while also increasing energy efficiency by 10%. The research was conducted under a U. S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement awarded to George Dzyacky of 2ndpoint, LLC. The Flooding Predictor™ works by detecting the incipient flood point and controlling the column closer to its actual hydraulic limit than historical practices have allowed. Further, the technology uses existing column instrumentation, meaning no additional refining infrastructure is required. Refiners often push distillation columns to maximize throughput, improve separation, or simply to achieve day-to-day optimization. Attempting to achieve such operating objectives is a tricky undertaking that can result in flooding. Operators and advanced control strategies alike rely on the conventional use of delta-pressure instrumentation to approximate the column’s approach to flood. But column delta-pressure is more an inference of the column’s approach to flood than it is an actual measurement of it. As a consequence, delta pressure limits are established conservatively in order to operate in a regime where the column is never expected to flood. As a result, there is much “left on the table” when operating in such a regime, i.e. the capacity difference between controlling the column to an upper delta-pressure limit and controlling it to the actual hydraulic limit. The Flooding Predictor™, an innovative pattern recognition technology, controls columns at their actual hydraulic limit, which research shows leads to a throughput increase of over 6%. Controlling closer to the hydraulic limit also permits operation in a sweet spot of increased energy-efficiency. In this region of increased column loading, the Flooding Predictor is able to exploit the benefits of higher liquid

  18. Distillation process using microchannel technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee; Simmons, Wayne W.; Silva, Laura J.; Qiu, Dongming; Perry, Steven T.; Yuschak, Thomas; Hickey, Thomas P.; Arora, Ravi; Smith, Amanda; Litt, Robert Dwayne; Neagle, Paul

    2009-11-03

    The disclosed invention relates to a distillation process for separating two or more components having different volatilities from a liquid mixture containing the components. The process employs microchannel technology for effecting the distillation and is particularly suitable for conducting difficult separations, such as the separation of ethane from ethylene, wherein the individual components are characterized by having volatilities that are very close to one another.

  19. 27 CFR 19.316 - Distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distillation. 19.316 Section 19.316 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production § 19.316 Distillation. The distillation...

  20. Distillation Designs for the Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boul, Peter J.; Lange,Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2010-01-01

    Gravity-based distillation methods may be applied to the purification of wastewater on the lunar base. These solutions to water processing are robust physical separation techniques, which may be more advantageous than many other techniques for their simplicity in design and operation. The two techniques can be used in conjunction with each other to obtain high purity water. The components and feed compositions for modeling waste water streams are presented in conjunction with the Aspen property system for traditional stage distillation. While the individual components for each of the waste streams will vary naturally within certain bounds, an analog model for waste water processing is suggested based on typical concentration ranges for these components. Target purity levels for recycled water are determined for each individual component based on NASA s required maximum contaminant levels for potable water Optimum parameters such as reflux ratio, feed stage location, and processing rates are determined with respect to the power consumption of the process. Multistage distillation is evaluated for components in wastewater to determine the minimum number of stages necessary for each of 65 components in humidity condensate and urine wastewater mixed streams.

  1. Analysis of Optimal Operation of an Energy Integrated Distillation Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hong Wen; Hansen, C.A.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2003-01-01

    distillation plant is investigated more closely with the purpose of elucidating essential decisions behind planning experiments, which are suitable for identifying models and constraints. The basis for analysis of optimal operation is the type of operation upon which an application focuses. In this paper...... and their influence upon the further decisions behind the experimental design. An energy-integrated distillation column, which may exhibit fold bifurcations, is used as a relevant example process....

  2. DYNAMIC SIMULATION AND FUZZY CONTROL OF A CONTINUOUS DISTILLATION COLUMN

    OpenAIRE

    Arbildo López, A.; Unidad de Post Grado, Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú; Lombira Echevarría, J.; Unidad de Post Grado, Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú; Osario López, l.; Unidad de Post Grado, Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work is the study of the dinamic simulation and fuzzy control of a multicomponent continuous distillation column. In this work, the mathematical model of the distillation column and the computing program for the simulation are described. Also, the structure and implementation of the fuzzy controller are presentad. Finally, the results obtained using this programare compared with those reported in the scientific literature for different mixtures. El objetivo de nuestra...

  3. Simultaneous optimization of heat-integrated crude oil distillation systems☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yiqing Luo; Liwen Wang; He Wang; Xigang Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Crude oil distil ation is important in refining industry. Operating variables of distil ation process have a critical ef-fect on product output value and energy consumption. However, the objectives of minimum energy consumption and maximum product output value do not coordinate with each other and do not lead to the maximum eco-nomic benefit of a refinery. In this paper, a systematic optimization approach is proposed for the maximum an-nual economic benefit of an existing crude oil distil ation system, considering product output value and energy consumption simultaneously. A shortcut model in Aspen Plus is used to describe the crude oil distillation and the pinch analysis is adopted to identify the target of energy recovery. The optimization is a nonlinear program-ming problem and solved by stochastic algorithm of particle warm optimization.

  4. The attractor mechanism as a distillation procedure

    CERN Document Server

    Lévay, Péter

    2010-01-01

    In a recent paper it has been shown that for double extremal static spherically symmetric BPS black hole solutions in the STU model the well-known process of moduli stabilization at the horizon can be recast in a form of a distillation procedure of a three-qubit entangled state of GHZ-type. By studying the full flow in moduli space in this paper we investigate this distillation procedure in more detail. We introduce a three-qubit state with amplitudes depending on the conserved charges the warp factor, and the moduli. We show that for the recently discovered non-BPS solutions it is possible to see how the distillation procedure unfolds itself as we approach the horizon. For the non-BPS seed solutions at the asymptotically Minkowski region we are starting with a three-qubit state having seven nonequal nonvanishing amplitudes and finally at the horizon we get a GHZ state with merely four nonvanishing ones with equal magnitudes. The magnitude of the surviving nonvanishing amplitudes is proportional to the macros...

  5. Present status of solar distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, G.N.; Singh, H.N.; Tripathi, R. [Indian Inst. of Technology, New Delhi (India). Centre for Energy Studies

    2003-11-01

    In this communication an attempt has been made to review, in brief, work on solar distillation, its present status in the world today and its future perspective. The review also includes water sources, water demand, availability of potable water and purification methods including the state of art and historical background. The classification of distillation units has been done on the basis of literature survey till today. The basic heat and mass transfer relation responsible for developing, testing procedure for various designs of solar stills have also been discussed. The present status of solar distillation units in India, economics of single and double slope fibre reinforced plastic on the basis of long-term performance and recommendations for future have been discussed in brief. (author)

  6. Solar power water distillation unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, Kamran; Muzammil Khan, Muhammad; Shahrukh Ateeq, Ijlal; Omair, Syed Muhammad; Ahmer, Muhammad; Wajid, Abdul

    2013-06-01

    Clean drinking water is the basic necessity for every human being, but about 1.1 billion people in the world lacked proper drinking water. There are many different types of water purification processes such as filtration, reverse osmosis, ultraviolet radiation, carbon absorption, but the most reliable processes are distillation and boiling. Water purification, such as distillation, is especially important in regions where water resources or tap water is not suitable for ingesting without boiling or chemical treatment. In design project It treats the water by combining different methods such as Filtration, Distillation and a technique called concentrated solar power (CSP). Distillation is literally the method seen in nature, whereby: the sun heats the water on the earth's surface, the water is turned into a vapor (evaporation) and rises, leaving contaminants behind, to form clouds. As the upper atmosphere drops in temperature the vapors cool and convert back to water to form water. In this project distillation is achieved by using a parabolic mirror which boils water at high temperature. Filtration is done by sand filter and carbon filter. First sand filter catches the sand particles and the carbon filter which has granules of active carbon is used to remove odor dissolved gases from water. This is the Pre-treatment of water. The filtered water is then collected in a water container at a focus of parabolic mirror where distillation process is done. Another important feature of designed project is the solar tracking of a parabolic mirror which increases the efficiency of a parabolic mirror [1],[2].

  7. Corrosion inhibition for distillation apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumert, Kenneth L.; Sagues, Alberto A.; Davis, Burtron H.; Schweighardt, Frank K.

    1985-01-01

    Tower material corrosion in an atmospheric or sub-atmospheric distillation tower in a coal liquefaction process is reduced or eliminated by subjecting chloride-containing tray contents to an appropriate ion-exchange resin to remove chloride from such tray contents materials.

  8. DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF FUZZY PREDICTIVE CONTROLLER FOR DISTILLATION COLUMN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIVAKUMAR. R.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Most of the real systems exhibit non-linear nature; conventional controllers are not always able to provide good and acceptable results. This paper presents a hybrid control strategy of Model Predictive Control (MPC and Fuzzy Logic Control (FLC. The Fuzzy Model Predictive Control (FMPC approach is developed to control various distillation column models. The performance measures like settling time, peak overshoot, Integral Square Error (ISE and Integral Absolute Error (IAE of FMPC is validated with MPC, FLC and conventional multi loop PI controller. The simulation results shows that the FMPC has better performance than other controller on various distillation column models.

  9. Isopropyl alcohol recovery by heteroazeotropic batch distillation

    OpenAIRE

    Van Baelen, Guy; Vreysen, Steven; Gerbaud, Vincent; Rodriguez-Donis, Ivonne; Geens, Jeroen; Janssens, Bart

    2010-01-01

    Solvent recovery is becoming a major issue in the pharmaceutical and specialty chemical industries. Solvent recovery by conventional batch distillation is limited by the frequent presence of azeotropes in the used solvent mixtures. Most distillation processes for the separation of azeotropic or difficult zeotropic mixtures involve the addition of an entrainer (homogeneous and heterogeneous azeotropic distillation or extractive distillation). In this study the recovery of IPA (isopropyl alc...

  10. Green chemical engineering aspects of reactive distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Michael F; Huss, Robert S; Doherty, Michael F

    2003-12-01

    Reactive or catalytic distillation technology combines chemical synthesis steps with separations by distillation. This combination can lead to intensified, high-efficiency process systems with significant green engineering attributes. New applications and understanding have prompted growth in the use of reactive distillation for a variety of chemical syntheses, especially esterifications and etherifications involving oxygenated hydrocarbons. We describe several applications and the potential and tradeoffs for reactive distillation technology in the context of green engineering principles.

  11. The energy integration model and process simulation of the complex paralled-feed multi-effect distillation system%复杂平流多效精馏系统能量集成模型及过程模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严佐毅; 阮奇

    2009-01-01

    In order to utilize energy more fu]ly and reasonably,the condensate of the heating steam in the rebeiler of the first effect,and the product ofthe top of vari-effect distillation tower except the last one,and the product of the bottom of vari-effect distillation tower were used to preheat feed flow.The energy integration model of the complex paralled-feed distillation system was established,whichwas composed of two subsystem--multi-effect distillation system and multilevel preheating system.The model can be suitable forhighly nonideal systems as"Tangent System"and it can be solved by iterative method and matrix method.The simulation resultsshowed that using residual heat to preheat feed flow was the effective measure to save the heating vapor by 25%~35%.and the operat-ing reflux ratio of vari-effect distillation column,the heat-transfer temperature difference of vari-effect rebeiler,the vapor pressure(ortemperature)of the heating vapor of the first effect,the vaporpressure(or temperature)at the top of the last effect and the temperatureof feed flow have great effects on the operating cost and equipment depreciation cost of the paralled-feed multi-effect distillation system.%为了更合理利用能量,将平流多效精馏系统中各效塔底产品、第1效至第n-1效塔顶产品及首效再沸器中加热生蒸汽的冷凝液用于预热原料液,建立由多效精馏及多级预热2个子系统构成的复杂平流多效精馏系统的能量集成模型.用于模拟具有切点系统的高度非理想溶液的平流多效精馏过程,用迭代法结合矩阵法求解.结果表明:用系统余热预热原料液可节省加热生蒸汽消耗量25%~35%,是1种非常有效的节能措施;各效精馏塔回流比及再沸器的有效传热温差、首效塔底再沸器中加热生蒸汽压力(或温度)、末效塔顶压力(或温度)、原料液的预热温度等参数,对平流多效精馏系统的操作费用及设备费用影响很大.

  12. Application of Irreversible Thermodynamics to Distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Signe Kjelstrup

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available We compare three different ways of modelling tray distillation to each other, and to experimental data: the most common way that assumes equilibrium between the liquid and vapour phases at the outlets of each tray, and two more precise methods that use irreversible thermodynamics. Irreversible thermodynamics determines the driving forces and fluxes of a system in agreement with the second law. It is shown that the methods using irreversible thermodynamics (Maxwell-Stefan equations are superior to the method that assumes that equilibrium is reached on each tray. The Soret effect must be included to have a good description of the heat flux.

  13. Cascade Distillation Subsystem Development: Progress Toward a Distillation Comparison Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, M. R.; Lubman, A.; Pickering, Karen D.

    2009-01-01

    Recovery of potable water from wastewater is essential for the success of long-duration manned missions to the Moon and Mars. Honeywell International and a team from NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) are developing a wastewater processing subsystem that is based on centrifugal vacuum distillation. The wastewater processor, referred to as the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS), utilizes an innovative and efficient multistage thermodynamic process to produce purified water. The rotary centrifugal design of the system also provides gas/liquid phase separation and liquid transport under microgravity conditions. A five-stage subsystem unit has been designed, built, delivered and integrated into the NASA JSC Advanced Water Recovery Systems Development Facility for performance testing. A major test objective of the project is to demonstrate the advancement of the CDS technology from the breadboard level to a subsystem level unit. An initial round of CDS performance testing was completed in fiscal year (FY) 2008. Based on FY08 testing, the system is now in development to support an Exploration Life Support (ELS) Project distillation comparison test expected to begin in early 2009. As part of the project objectives planned for FY09, the system will be reconfigured to support the ELS comparison test. The CDS will then be challenged with a series of human-gene-rated waste streams representative of those anticipated for a lunar outpost. This paper provides a description of the CDS technology, a status of the current project activities, and data on the system s performance to date.

  14. Final Report, Distillation Column Flooding Predictor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George E. Dzyacky

    2003-05-31

    The Flooding Predictor is an advanced process control strategy comprising a patented pattern-recognition methodology that identifies pre-flood patterns discovered to precede flooding events in distillation columns. The grantee holds a U.S. patent on the modeling system. The technology was validated at the Separations Research Program, The University of Texas at Austin under a grant from the U. S. Department of Energy, Inventions & Innovation Program. Distillation tower flooding occurs at abnormally high vapor and/or liquid rates. The loss in tray efficiencies is attributed to unusual behavior of liquid inventories inside the column leading to conditions of flooding of the space in between trays with liquid. Depending on the severity of the flood condition, consequences range from off spec products to equipment damage and tower shutdown. This non-intrusive pattern recognition methodology, processes signal data obtained from existing column instrumentation. Once the pattern is identified empirically, it is modeled and coded into the plant's distributed control system. The control system is programmed to briefly "unload" the tower each time the pattern appears. The unloading takes the form of a momentary reduction in column severity, e.g., decrease bottom temperature, reflux or tower throughput. Unloading the tower briefly at the pre-flood state causes long-term column operation to become significantly more stable - allowing an increase in throughput and/or product purity. The technology provides a wide range of value between optimization and flooding. When a distillation column is not running at capacity, it should be run in such a way ("pushed") that optimal product purity is achieved. Additional benefits include low implementation and maintenance costs, and a high level of console operator acceptance. The previous commercial applications experienced 98% uptime over a four-year period. Further, the technology is unique in its ability to distinguish between

  15. Assisted distillation of quantum coherence

    CERN Document Server

    Chitambar, E; Rana, S; Bera, M N; Adesso, G; Lewenstein, M

    2015-01-01

    We introduce and study the task of assisted coherence distillation. This task arises naturally in bipartite systems where both parties work together to generate the maximal possible coherence on one of the subsystems. Only incoherent operations are allowed on the target system while general local quantum operations are permitted on the other, an operational paradigm that we call local quantum-incoherent operations and classical communication (LQICC). We show that the asymptotic rate of assisted coherence distillation for pure states is equal to the coherence of assistance, a direct analog of the entanglement of assistance, whose properties we characterize. Our findings imply a novel interpretation of the von Neumann entropy: it quantifies the maximum amount of extra quantum coherence a system can gain when receiving assistance from a collaborative party. Our results are generalized to coherence localization in a multipartite setting and possible applications are discussed.

  16. Simulation of Suspension Catalytic Distillation for Synthesis of Linear Alkylbenzene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王二强; 李成岳

    2003-01-01

    Suspension catalytic distillation (SCD) has been developed recently as an innovative technology in catalytic distillation. In this paper, a brief introduction to SCD is given and an equilibrium stage (EQ) model is developed to simulate this new process for synthesis of linear alkylbenzene (LAB) from benzene and 1-dodecene.Since non-ideality of this reaction system is not strong, EQ model developed could be applied to it successfully.Simulation results agree well with experimental data, and indicate some characteristics of SCD process as an advanced technology for the production of LAB: 100% conversion of olefins, low temperature (90-100℃) and low benzene/olefin mole ratio.

  17. Cyclic distillation technology - A mini-review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bîldea, Costin Sorin; Pătruţ, Cătălin; Jørgensen, Sten Bay;

    2016-01-01

    Process intensification in distillation systems has received much attention during the past decades, with the aim of increasing both energy and separation efficiency. Various techniques, such as internal heat-integrated distillation, membrane distillation, rotating packed bed, dividing-wall columns...... and reactive distillation were studied and reported in literature. All these techniques employ the conventional continuous counter-current contact of vapor and liquid phases. Cyclic distillation technology is based on an alternative operating mode using separate phase movement which leads to key practical...... advantages in both chemical and biochemical processes. This article provides a mini-review of cyclic distillation technology. The topics covered include the working principle, design and control methods, main benefits and limitations as well as current industrial applications. Cyclic distillation can...

  18. Distillation and Air Stripping Designs for the Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boul, Peter J.; Lange, Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2009-01-01

    Air stripping and distillation are two different gravity-based methods, which may be applied to the purification of wastewater on the lunar base. These gravity-based solutions to water processing are robust physical separation techniques, which may be advantageous to many other techniques for their simplicity in design and operation. The two techniques can be used in conjunction with each other to obtain high purity water. The components and feed compositions for modeling waste water streams are presented in conjunction with the Aspen property system for traditional stage distillation models and air stripping models. While the individual components for each of the waste streams will vary naturally within certain bounds, an analog model for waste water processing is suggested based on typical concentration ranges for these components. Target purity levels for the for recycled water are determined for each individual component based on NASA s required maximum contaminant levels for potable water Distillation processes are modeled separately and in tandem with air stripping to demonstrate the potential effectiveness and utility of these methods in recycling wastewater on the Moon. Optimum parameters such as reflux ratio, feed stage location, and processing rates are determined with respect to the power consumption of the process. Multistage distillation is evaluated for components in wastewater to determine the minimum number of stages necessary for each of 65 components in humidity condensate and urine wastewater mixed streams. Components of the wastewater streams are ranked by Henry s Law Constant and the suitability of air stripping in the purification of wastewater in terms of component removal is evaluated. Scaling factors for distillation and air stripping columns are presented to account for the difference in the lunar gravitation environment. Commercially available distillation and air stripping units which are considered suitable for Exploration Life Support

  19. Distillation and Air Stripping Designs for the Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boul, Peter J.; Lange, Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2009-01-01

    Air stripping and distillation are two different gravity-based methods, which may be applied to the purification of wastewater on the lunar base. These gravity-based solutions to water processing are robust physical separation techniques, which may be advantageous to many other techniques for their simplicity in design and operation. The two techniques can be used in conjunction with each other to obtain high purity water. The components and feed compositions for modeling waste water streams are presented in conjunction with the Aspen property system for traditional stage distillation models and air stripping models. While the individual components for each of the waste streams will vary naturally within certain bounds, an analog model for waste water processing is suggested based on typical concentration ranges for these components. Target purity levels for the for recycled water are determined for each individual component based on NASA s required maximum contaminant levels for potable water Distillation processes are modeled separately and in tandem with air stripping to demonstrate the potential effectiveness and utility of these methods in recycling wastewater on the Moon. Optimum parameters such as reflux ratio, feed stage location, and processing rates are determined with respect to the power consumption of the process. Multistage distillation is evaluated for components in wastewater to determine the minimum number of stages necessary for each of 65 components in humidity condensate and urine wastewater mixed streams. Components of the wastewater streams are ranked by Henry s Law Constant and the suitability of air stripping in the purification of wastewater in terms of component removal is evaluated. Scaling factors for distillation and air stripping columns are presented to account for the difference in the lunar gravitation environment. Commercially available distillation and air stripping units which are considered suitable for Exploration Life Support

  20. Distributive Distillation Enabled by Microchannel Process Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arora, Ravi

    2013-01-22

    The application of microchannel technology for distributive distillation was studied to achieve the Grand Challenge goals of 25% energy savings and 10% return on investment. In Task 1, a detailed study was conducted and two distillation systems were identified that would meet the Grand Challenge goals if the microchannel distillation technology was used. Material and heat balance calculations were performed to develop process flow sheet designs for the two distillation systems in Task 2. The process designs were focused on two methods of integrating the microchannel technology 1) Integrating microchannel distillation to an existing conventional column, 2) Microchannel distillation for new plants. A design concept for a modular microchannel distillation unit was developed in Task 3. In Task 4, Ultrasonic Additive Machining (UAM) was evaluated as a manufacturing method for microchannel distillation units. However, it was found that a significant development work would be required to develop process parameters to use UAM for commercial distillation manufacturing. Two alternate manufacturing methods were explored. Both manufacturing approaches were experimentally tested to confirm their validity. The conceptual design of the microchannel distillation unit (Task 3) was combined with the manufacturing methods developed in Task 4 and flowsheet designs in Task 2 to estimate the cost of the microchannel distillation unit and this was compared to a conventional distillation column. The best results were for a methanol-water separation unit for the use in a biodiesel facility. For this application microchannel distillation was found to be more cost effective than conventional system and capable of meeting the DOE Grand Challenge performance requirements.

  1. A New Generalized Similarity-Based Topic Distillation Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Hongfang; DANG Xiaohui

    2007-01-01

    The procedure of hypertext induced topic search based on a semantic relation model is analyzed, and the reason for the topic drift of HITS algorithm was found to prove that Web pages are projected to a wrong latent semantic basis. A new concept-generalized similarity is introduced and, based on this, a new topic distillation algorithm GSTDA(generalized similarity based topic distillation algorithm) was presented to improve the quality of topic distillation. GSTDA was applied not only to avoid the topic drift, but also to explore relative topics to user query. The experimental results on 10 queries show that GSTDA reduces topic drift rate by 10% to 58% compared to that of HITS(hypertext induced topic search) algorithm, and discovers several relative topics to queries that have multiple meanings.

  2. Optimization of Internal Thermally Coupled Distillation Columns of Nonideal Mixture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘兴高; 徐用懋; 钱积新

    2001-01-01

    Internal thermally coupled distillation column(ITCDIC) is a frontier in energy saving distillation research. In this paper, the optimal assessment on the energy saving and the operating cost for ITCDIC of nonideal mixture is explored. An evaluating method is proposed, and the pertinent optimization model is then derived. The ethanol-water system is studied as an illustrative example. The optimization results show that the maximum energy saving in ITCDIC process is about 35% and the maximum operating cost saving in ITCDIC process is about 30%,as compared with a conventional distillation column(CDIC) under the minimum reflux ratio operating; the optimal operating pressure of the rectifying section is found to be around 0.25 MPa; the effects of the feed composition,operating pressure and the heat transfer rate on operation are also found and analyzed. It is revealed that ITCDIC process possesses high energy saving potential and promising economical prospect.

  3. Optimal Synthesis of Batch Distillation Systems Based on a General Disjunctive Dynamic Optimization Model%基于广义析取动态优化模型综合间歇精馏系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹雄; 王兵; 张毅; 董宏光; 姚平经; 王金渠

    2015-01-01

    基于数学规划技术提出间歇精馏过程设计与操作同步优化方法.首先,在原状态空间超级结构基础上嵌入时间维度,形成状态-时-空间超级结构,扩大间歇精馏过程优化空间.其次,将广义析取规划的思想引入间歇精馏动态优化模型,增加模型的直观性和可扩展性,并通过逻辑与析取约束,对方程进行合理分类,有效降低冗余方程导致的计算复杂度.新的优化策略采用严格模型,去除了恒摩尔流等简化假设,通过综合权衡设备投资、公用工程费用和操作周期等因素,一步获得最佳的间歇精馏塔型配置、结构参数和决策变量的动态控制方案.最后,以不同条件下苯-甲苯二元物系的间歇精馏分离为例展示了其有效性.%A systematic method based on mathematical programming techniques was proposed to optimize the design and operation of batch distillation processes. State-Time-Space (STS) superstructure was constructed by adding a time component into the original State-Space superstructure, which extends the scope of batch distillation optimization. A batch distillation General Disjunctive Dynamic Optimization (GDDO) model was proposed with logic and disjunctive constraints, and the frame work was straightforward and extendable. All equations were reasonably classified by these constraints to reduce the computational complexity caused by redundant equations. Moreover, a rigorous model without constant molar overflow hypothesis was adopted. By considering the trade-offs between capital investments, utility costs and operating cycles, a simultaneous optimization strategy is developed to capture the optimal column configuration, design parameters and operation conditions in one step. A case study of benzene and toluene separation was presented to illustrate the effectiveness of this proposed approach.

  4. Hybrid wind-power-distillation plant

    OpenAIRE

    Ninić Neven; Klarin Branko; Tolj Ivan

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports and elaborates on the idea of a solar distiller and an offshore wind power plant operating together. The subject under discussion is a single-stage solar distillation plant with vaporization, using adiabatic expansion in the gravitational field inside a wind power plant supporting column. This scheme divides investment costs for electric power and distillate production. In the region of the Adriatic Sea, all electric power produced could be “converted” to hydrogen usi...

  5. Simulation for Synthesis of TAME with Catalytic Distillation Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Boxue; Deng Zhengyong; Weng Huixin; Gao Buliang

    2008-01-01

    The triangular matrixing modified relaxation model equation was established for the synthesis of TAME with catalytic distillation process, and a new accelerated convergence technique was adopted. The simulation on the synthesis of TAME showed that the calculated data agreed well with the experimental results.

  6. Hybrid wind-power-distillation plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninić Neven

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports and elaborates on the idea of a solar distiller and an offshore wind power plant operating together. The subject under discussion is a single-stage solar distillation plant with vaporization, using adiabatic expansion in the gravitational field inside a wind power plant supporting column. This scheme divides investment costs for electric power and distillate production. In the region of the Adriatic Sea, all electric power produced could be “converted” to hydrogen using less than 10% of the distillate produced.

  7. 40 CFR 721.4500 - Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues. 721.4500 Section 721.4500 Protection of Environment... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4500 Isopropylamine distillation...

  8. Integrated Multiscale Latent Variable Regression and Application to Distillation Columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muddu Madakyaru

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Proper control of distillation columns requires estimating some key variables that are challenging to measure online (such as compositions, which are usually estimated using inferential models. Commonly used inferential models include latent variable regression (LVR techniques, such as principal component regression (PCR, partial least squares (PLS, and regularized canonical correlation analysis (RCCA. Unfortunately, measured practical data are usually contaminated with errors, which degrade the prediction abilities of inferential models. Therefore, noisy measurements need to be filtered to enhance the prediction accuracy of these models. Multiscale filtering has been shown to be a powerful feature extraction tool. In this work, the advantages of multiscale filtering are utilized to enhance the prediction accuracy of LVR models by developing an integrated multiscale LVR (IMSLVR modeling algorithm that integrates modeling and feature extraction. The idea behind the IMSLVR modeling algorithm is to filter the process data at different decomposition levels, model the filtered data from each level, and then select the LVR model that optimizes a model selection criterion. The performance of the developed IMSLVR algorithm is illustrated using three examples, one using synthetic data, one using simulated distillation column data, and one using experimental packed bed distillation column data. All examples clearly demonstrate the effectiveness of the IMSLVR algorithm over the conventional methods.

  9. Studies on optimal design and operation of integrated distillation arrangements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christiansen, Atle Christer

    1997-12-31

    During the last decades, there has been growing concern in the chemical engineering environment over the task of developing more cost- and energy efficient process equipment. This thesis discusses measures for improving the end-use energy efficiency of separation systems. It emphasises a certain class of integrated distillation arrangements, in particular it considers means for direct coupling of distillation columns so as to use the underlying physics to facilitate more energy efficient separations. The numerical methods discussed are well suited to solve models of distillation columns. A tear and grid method is proposed that to some extent exploits the sparsity, since the number of tear variables required for solving a distillation model usually is rather small. The parameter continuation method described is well suited for ill-conditioned problems. The analysis of integrated columns is extended beyond the scope of numerical simulations by means of analytical results that applies in certain limiting cases. The consept of preferred separation, which is important for prefractionator arrangements, is considered. From this analysis is derived information that is important for the practical operation of such columns. Finally, the proposed numerical methods are used to optimize Petlyuk arrangements for separating ternary and quaternary mixtures. 166 refs., 130 figs., 20 tabs.

  10. A Sustainable Ethanol Distillation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuelei Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The discarded fruit and vegetable waste from the consumer and retailer sectors provide a reliable source for ethanol production. In this paper, an ethanol distillation system has been developed to remove the water contents from the original wash that contains only around 15% of the ethanol. The system has an ethanol production capacity of over 100,000 liters per day. It includes an ethanol condenser, a wash pre-heater, a main exhaust heat exchanger as well as a fractionating column. One unique characteristic of this system is that it utilizes the waste heat rejected from a power plant to vaporize the ethanol, thus it saves a significant amount of energy and at the same time reduces the pollution to the environment.

  11. A Comprehensive Real-World Distillation Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazameas, Christos G.; Keller, Kaitlin N.; Luyben, William L.

    2015-01-01

    Most undergraduate mass transfer and separation courses cover the design of distillation columns, and many undergraduate laboratories have distillation experiments. In many cases, the treatment is restricted to simple column configurations and simplifying assumptions are made so as to convey only the basic concepts. In industry, the analysis of a…

  12. A Comprehensive Real-World Distillation Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazameas, Christos G.; Keller, Kaitlin N.; Luyben, William L.

    2015-01-01

    Most undergraduate mass transfer and separation courses cover the design of distillation columns, and many undergraduate laboratories have distillation experiments. In many cases, the treatment is restricted to simple column configurations and simplifying assumptions are made so as to convey only the basic concepts. In industry, the analysis of a…

  13. Recycling of Waste Acetone by Fractional Distillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weires, Nicholas A.; Johnston, Aubrey; Warner, Don L.; McCormick, Michael M.; Hammond, Karen; McDougal, Owen M.

    2011-01-01

    Distillation is a ubiquitous technique in the undergraduate organic chemistry curriculum; the technique dates back to ca. 3500 B.C.E. With the emergence of green chemistry in the 1990s, the importance of emphasizing responsible waste management practices for future scientists is paramount. Combining the practice of distillation with the message…

  14. Recycling of Waste Acetone by Fractional Distillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weires, Nicholas A.; Johnston, Aubrey; Warner, Don L.; McCormick, Michael M.; Hammond, Karen; McDougal, Owen M.

    2011-01-01

    Distillation is a ubiquitous technique in the undergraduate organic chemistry curriculum; the technique dates back to ca. 3500 B.C.E. With the emergence of green chemistry in the 1990s, the importance of emphasizing responsible waste management practices for future scientists is paramount. Combining the practice of distillation with the message…

  15. Aromatic characterization of pot distilled kiwi spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Vázquez, Cristina; García-Llobodanin, Laura; Pérez-Correa, José Ricardo; López, Francisco; Blanco, Pilar; Orriols, Ignacio

    2012-03-07

    This study contributes fundamental knowledge that will help to develop a distillate of kiwi wine, made from kiwis of the Hayward variety grown in the southwest of Galicia (Spain). Two yeast strains, L1 (Saccharomyces cerevisiae ALB-6 from the EVEGA yeast collection) and L2 (S. cerevisiae Uvaferm BDX from Lallemand) were assessed to obtain a highly aromatic distillate. The kiwi spirits obtained were compared with other fruit spirits, in terms of higher alcohols, minor alcohols, monoterpenols, and other minor compounds, which are relevant in determining the quality and taste of the kiwi spirits. It was found that the kiwi juice fermented with yeast L1 produced a more aromatic distillate. In addition, kiwi distillates produced with both yeasts had the same ratio of trans-3-hexen-1-ol and cis-3-hexen-1-ol, which is lower than that found in other fruit distillates.

  16. Thermogravimetric investigation of the co-combustion between the pyrolysis oil distillation residue and lignite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Xia, Shuqian; Ma, Peisheng

    2016-10-01

    Co-combustion of lignite with distillation residue derived from rice straw pyrolysis oil was investigated by non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The addition of distillation residue improved the reactivity and combustion efficiency of lignite, such as increasing the weight loss rate at peak temperature and decreasing the burnout temperature and the total burnout. With increasing distillation residue content in the blended fuels, the synergistic interactions between distillation residue and lignite firstly increased and then decreased during co-combustion stage. Results of XRF, FTIR, (13)C NMR and SEM analysis indicated that chemical structure, mineral components and morphology of samples have great influence on the synergistic interactions. The combustion mechanisms and kinetic parameters were calculated by the Coats Redfern model, suggesting that the lowest apparent activation energy (120.19kJ/mol) for the blended fuels was obtained by blending 60wt.% distillation residue during main co-combustion stage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. 27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant from which distillates were... fermentation of wine made from a different kind of fruit. Distillates containing aldehydes which are...

  18. 27 CFR 19.322 - Distillates containing extraneous substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... therein for fermentation of wine to be used as distilling material at the distilled spirits plant from... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production §...

  19. Transient behavior of a radiative distiller/condenser system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, O.M.; Al-Nimr, M.A. [Jordan Univ. of Science and Technology, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Irbid (Jordan)

    2002-04-01

    In this work, a mathematical model is proposed to describe the thermal performance of a radiative distiller under transient conditions. The parameters which cause the dynamic variation in the condenser performance are the finite thermal capacity of the radiative condenser panel, effective sky-temperature, ambient temperature, humidity ratio and the condensers overall heat transfer coefficient. The presented model is solved numerically and the effects of the design and operating conditions on the condensers performance are investigated. (Author)

  20. Microbubble Distillation for Ethanol-Water Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atheer Al-yaqoobi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, a novel approach for separating ethanol-water mixture by microbubble distillation technology was investigated. Traditional distillation processes require large amounts of energy to raise the liquid to its boiling point to effect removal of volatile components. The concept of microbubble distillation by comparison is to heat the gas phase rather than the liquid phase to achieve separation. The removal of ethanol from the thermally sensitive fermentation broths was taken as a case of study. Consequently the results were then compared with those which could be obtained under equilibrium conditions expected in an “ideal” distillation unit. Microbubble distillation has achieved vapour compositions higher than that which could be obtained under traditional equilibrium conditions. The separation was achieved at liquid temperature significantly less than the boiling point of the mixture. In addition, it was observed that the separation efficiency of the microbubble distillation could be increased by raising the injected air temperature, while the temperature of the liquid mixture increased only moderately. The separation efficiency of microbubble distillation was compared with that of pervaporation for the recovery of bioethanol from the thermally sensitive fermentation broths. The technology could be controlled to give high separation and energy efficiency. This could contribute to improving commercial viability of biofuel production and other coproducts of biorefinery processing.

  1. On Two-Distillable Werner States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Đoković, Dragomir

    2016-06-01

    We consider bipartite mixed states in a $d\\otimes d$ quantum system. We say that $\\rho$ is PPT if its partial transpose $1 \\otimes T (\\rho)$ is positive semidefinite, and otherwise $\\rho$ is NPT. The well-known Werner states are divided into three types: (a) the separable states (the same as the PPT states); (b) the one-distillable states (necessarily NPT); and (c) the NPT states which are not one-distillable. We give several different formulations and provide further evidence for validity of the conjecture that the Werner states of type (c) are not two-distillable.

  2. Wiped-Film Molecular Distillation Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guobing; ZHANG Xubin; XU Chunjian; ZHOU Ming

    2005-01-01

    Based on the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook equation, a new scheme of wiped-film molecular distillation for two components in the presenceof inert gas is developed. The equations in the scheme are solved numerically by the method of finite difference and iteration. The new scheme is used to simulate the molecular distillation of dibutyl phthalate and dibutyl sebacate (DBP-DBS) mixture. The effects of the inert gas pressure, the distance between the evaporation surface and condensation surface, the rotation rate of blade, and the number of blades on the distillation rate and separation factor are discussed.

  3. Extractive Distillation with Salt in Solvent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Extractive distillation with salt in solvent is a new process for producing anhydrous ethanol by combining the principle of "salt effect" and some traditional extractive distillation methods. Compared with the common extractive distillation the performance of solvent is improved, the recycling amount of solvent is reduced to 1/4-1/5, and the number of theoretical plates is reduced to 1/3. Energy consumption and cost of equipment are also reduced and continuous production is realized. High efficiency and low solvent wastage make this technique feasible.

  4. Distillation time as tool for improved antimalarial activity and differential oil composition of cumin seed oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    A steam distillation extraction kinetics experiment was conducted to estimate essential oil yield, composition, antimalarial, and antioxidant capacity of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seed (fruits). Furthermore, regression models were developed to predict essential oil yield and composition for a given...

  5. Simulation of Extractive Distillation for Recycling Tetrahydrofuran from Pharmaceutical Wastewater with Chem CAD Software

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoguang Wang; Yueyun Yang

    2013-01-01

    The functions and application of ChemCAD simulation software was introduced. Mathematical model of extraction distillation process was established. The extractive distillation process for preparation of tetrahydrofuran (THF) was simulated by SCDS rectification model in ChemCAD software, methanol-THF-solution and ethanedol-lithium chloride solution as extractant. Influence of extraction agent on vapor-liquid equilibrium curve of methanol-THF system and effects of theoretical plate number, feed...

  6. [His Majesty's distillers: distillation and chemical medicine in the court of Phillip II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey Bueno, M; Alegre Pérez, M E

    2001-01-01

    The present work studies the appearance and development of Paracelsian Practices in the Spanish Court through a linked series of events that took place between 1564 and 1602. These were: the creation of Philippine distillation laboratories, the ordenance of the protophysician Francisco de Valles regarding distilled waters; the concession of a patent to Diego de Santiago for the invention of a steam distillery; the publication of the last treatise by Francisco de Valles, dedicated to weights, measures, and distilled waters; the appearance of a distiller on the founding staff of the Royal Apothecary, in charge of preparing all the distilled waters and chemical medicines; and the creation of a new post within the Court health organigram, that of Distiller Major.

  7. Efficient entanglement distillation without quantum memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelkhalek, Daniela; Syllwasschy, Mareike; Cerf, Nicolas J.; Fiurášek, Jaromír; Schnabel, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Entanglement distribution between distant parties is an essential component to most quantum communication protocols. Unfortunately, decoherence effects such as phase noise in optical fibres are known to demolish entanglement. Iterative (multistep) entanglement distillation protocols have long been proposed to overcome decoherence, but their probabilistic nature makes them inefficient since the success probability decays exponentially with the number of steps. Quantum memories have been contemplated to make entanglement distillation practical, but suitable quantum memories are not realised to date. Here, we present the theory for an efficient iterative entanglement distillation protocol without quantum memories and provide a proof-of-principle experimental demonstration. The scheme is applied to phase-diffused two-mode-squeezed states and proven to distil entanglement for up to three iteration steps. The data are indistinguishable from those that an efficient scheme using quantum memories would produce. Since our protocol includes the final measurement it is particularly promising for enhancing continuous-variable quantum key distribution. PMID:27241946

  8. Efficient entanglement distillation without quantum memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelkhalek, Daniela; Syllwasschy, Mareike; Cerf, Nicolas J.; Fiurášek, Jaromír; Schnabel, Roman

    2016-05-01

    Entanglement distribution between distant parties is an essential component to most quantum communication protocols. Unfortunately, decoherence effects such as phase noise in optical fibres are known to demolish entanglement. Iterative (multistep) entanglement distillation protocols have long been proposed to overcome decoherence, but their probabilistic nature makes them inefficient since the success probability decays exponentially with the number of steps. Quantum memories have been contemplated to make entanglement distillation practical, but suitable quantum memories are not realised to date. Here, we present the theory for an efficient iterative entanglement distillation protocol without quantum memories and provide a proof-of-principle experimental demonstration. The scheme is applied to phase-diffused two-mode-squeezed states and proven to distil entanglement for up to three iteration steps. The data are indistinguishable from those that an efficient scheme using quantum memories would produce. Since our protocol includes the final measurement it is particularly promising for enhancing continuous-variable quantum key distribution.

  9. Efficient entanglement distillation without quantum memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelkhalek, Daniela; Syllwasschy, Mareike; Cerf, Nicolas J; Fiurášek, Jaromír; Schnabel, Roman

    2016-05-31

    Entanglement distribution between distant parties is an essential component to most quantum communication protocols. Unfortunately, decoherence effects such as phase noise in optical fibres are known to demolish entanglement. Iterative (multistep) entanglement distillation protocols have long been proposed to overcome decoherence, but their probabilistic nature makes them inefficient since the success probability decays exponentially with the number of steps. Quantum memories have been contemplated to make entanglement distillation practical, but suitable quantum memories are not realised to date. Here, we present the theory for an efficient iterative entanglement distillation protocol without quantum memories and provide a proof-of-principle experimental demonstration. The scheme is applied to phase-diffused two-mode-squeezed states and proven to distil entanglement for up to three iteration steps. The data are indistinguishable from those that an efficient scheme using quantum memories would produce. Since our protocol includes the final measurement it is particularly promising for enhancing continuous-variable quantum key distribution.

  10. Entanglement of Distillation for Lattice Gauge Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Acoleyen, Karel; Bultinck, Nick; Haegeman, Jutho; Marien, Michael; Scholz, Volkher B.; Verstraete, Frank

    2016-09-01

    We study the entanglement structure of lattice gauge theories from the local operational point of view, and, similar to Soni and Trivedi [J. High Energy Phys. 1 (2016) 1], we show that the usual entanglement entropy for a spatial bipartition can be written as the sum of an undistillable gauge part and of another part corresponding to the local operations and classical communication distillable entanglement, which is obtained by depolarizing the local superselection sectors. We demonstrate that the distillable entanglement is zero for pure Abelian gauge theories at zero gauge coupling, while it is in general nonzero for the non-Abelian case. We also consider gauge theories with matter, and show in a perturbative approach how area laws—including a topological correction—emerge for the distillable entanglement. Finally, we also discuss the entanglement entropy of gauge fixed states and show that it has no relation to the physical distillable entropy.

  11. Batch Extractive Distillation with Light Entrainer

    OpenAIRE

    Varga, Viktoria; Rev, Endre; Gerbaud, Vincent; Fonyo, Zsolt; Joulia, Xavier

    2006-01-01

    Use of a light entrainer in batch extractive distillation is justified when the mixture boils at a high temperature, or when an appropriate heavy or intermediate entrainer cannot be found. Feasibility of batch extractive distillation with light entrainer for separating minimum and maximum boiling azeotropes and close boiling mixtures is studied in this article. Our test mixtures are: ethanol/water (minimum boiling azeotrope) with methanol, water/ethylene diamine (maximum boiling azeotro...

  12. Batch extractive distillation with light entrainer

    OpenAIRE

    Varga, Viktoria; Rev, Endre; Gerbaud, Vincent; Lelkes, Zoltan; Fonyo, Zsolt; Joulia, Xavier

    2006-01-01

    Use of a light entrainer in batch extractive distillation is justified when the mixture boils at a high temperature, or when an appropriate heavy or intermediate entrainer cannot be found. Feasibility of batch extractive distillation with light entrainer for separating minimum and maximum boiling azeotropes and close boiling mixtures is studied in this article. Our test mixtures are: ethanol / water (minimum boiling azeotrope) with methanol, water / ethylene diamine (maximum boiling azeotrope...

  13. Fuzzy Based composition Control of Distillation Column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guru.R

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposed a control scheme based on fuzzy logic for a methanol - water system of bubble cap distillation column. Fuzzy rule base and Inference System of fuzzy (FIS is planned to regulatethe reflux ratio (manipulated variable to obtain the preferred product composition (methanol for a distillation column. Comparisons are made with conventional controller and the results confirmed the potentials of the proposed strategy of fuzzy control.

  14. 76 FR 9079 - Revision of Distilled Spirits Plant Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ...: Distilled Spirits Plants in General Distilled spirits taxation is a specialized area of Federal law. The... language principles in order to improve the clarity and readability of the regulatory texts. DATES... regulated, and how taxes on distilled spirits are collected, under Federal law. Basic Definitions Distilled...

  15. 基于VHS分子模型的DSMC方法研究分子蒸馏气相微观特性%Microscopic Characteristics of Vapors in Molecular Distillation by DSMC Method Based on VHS Molecular Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许松林; 李阳

    2015-01-01

    为了研究分子蒸馏器内气体的微观特性,基于变径硬球分子模型,采用了直接模拟蒙特卡洛方法,考虑了分子转动能和平动能,建立了描述分子蒸馏气相传递过程的一维和二维模型,计算了不同蒸发温度下的蒸发效率,并将模拟计算值与实验数据对比,验证了模型的合理性。通过模拟分子的运动和碰撞过程,分析了蒸发温度、冷凝温度和蒸发面与冷凝面的间距等参数对气相空间的碰撞频率和分子平均自由程分布的影响。结果表明:碰撞频率和平均自由程分布的变化始终呈相反趋势;在蒸发面附近,碰撞频率和分子平均自由程分别处于各自最大值和最小值;从蒸发面到冷凝面的气相空间,碰撞频率逐渐减小,分子平均自由程逐渐增大;靠近冷凝面时,碰撞频率和分子平均自由程分别达到各自最小值和最大值;随着蒸发温度或冷凝温度的升高,气相空间同一位置处的碰撞频率增大而平均自由程减小;随着蒸发面与冷凝面的间距增加,碰撞频率在同一位置处有所增大,但在冷凝面附近更小;间距增加,同一位置处的分子平均自由程减小,但是冷凝面附近,间距越大时平均自由程也越大。%To investigate the microscopic characteristics of vapors in molecular distillation,based on the variable hard sphere(VHS)molecular model,the direct simulation Monte Carlo(DSMC)method was adopted and molecular rotational energy was included as well as molecular translational energy when developing one-and two-dimensional model. The evaporation efficiency at different evaporator temperatures was compared with the published experimental data. The simulated results show a satisfactory agreement with the literature,indicating the simulation model is accu-rate. The influence of evaporator temperature,condenser temperature and distillation gap on the distribution of colli

  16. Thermodynamic Analysis, Simulation and Optimization on Energy Savings of Ideal Internal Thermally Coupled Distillation Columns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘兴高; 马龙华; 钱积新

    2000-01-01

    Internal thermally coupled distillation columns (ITCDIC) are the frontier of distillation energy saving research. In this paper, a novel energy saving model of ideal ITCDIC and a simulation algorithm are presented,upon which a series of comparative studies on energy savings with conventional distillation columns are carried out. Furthermore, we present an optimization model of ideal ITCDIC, which can be used to achieve the maximum energy saving and find the optimal design parameters directly. The binary system of benzene-toluene is adopted for the illustrative example of simulation and optimization. The results show that the maximum energy saving of ITCDIC is 52.25% (compared with energy consumption of conventional distillation under the minimum reflux ratio operation); the optimal design parameters are obtained, where the rectifying section pressure and the feed thermal condition are Pr=0.3006 MPa and q=0.5107 respectively.

  17. Approach to Fuzzy Model-Free Adaptive Coordinating Control for Distillation Processes%精馏过程的模糊无模型自适应协调控制方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗帝; 刘振娟; 李宏光

    2013-01-01

    Dealing with multivariable coordinating control problems and regarding multi-input multi-output (MI-MO ) ethanol-water distillation processes with unknown process models and strong coupling characteristic, the control requirements of main and deputy controlled parameters are different and PID control method has poor performance. In the presence of immeasurable disturbances, it is imperative to coordinate the related manipulate variables to ensure both main parameters keeping at desired values and the other process parameters running smoothly. In this context, a control approach of fuzzy model-free adaptive coordinating was introduced. Taking the advantage of model-free adaptive control ( MFAC) metrics, deviations and deviation changes of measurements were utilized to accommodate fuzzy rules concerning alternative control performances of main and deputy controlled parameters which can be employed to adaptively update the parameters of corresponding model-free adaptive controllers accordingly. This novel strategy is eligible for solving coordinating control problems of ethanol-water distillation processes, meeting the control requirements of both main and deputy controlled parameters as well as extending the application scope of model-free adaptive control. The case study demonstrates the effectiveness of the contribution.%研究多变量协调控制问题,针对模型未知且具有强耦合特性的多输入多输出乙醇-水精馏过程,主副被控参数的控制要求不同,常规PID控制性能差,当出现显著的不可测干扰时,应协调相关的操纵变量,既保证关键参数不偏离期望值,又使得其它被控过程参数的波动较小.为了解决上述问题,提出了一类模糊无模型自适应协调控制方法.无模型自适应控制结构,通过充分利用过程控制参数的偏差和偏差变化率等信息,建立了主副控制参数不同控制目标的模糊规则,自适应地改变无模型自适应控制器的参数.该方法

  18. The Coupling Study for Solar Heating System and Membrane Distillation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Suying; Zhang, Tao; Professor, Rui Tian; WeiZhang, Wei

    In this paper, it was simplified that the heating system of thermal mass in solar membrane distillation and it was established that the physical model of heat transfer installed the guide plate in the all-glass thermal solar membrane distillation system. The model included the all-glass solar heat collector system and the hot chamber of membrane distillation system. In this paper, it was constructed that the coupling integration points between the two parts and reached setting methods for coupled boundary conditions and unsteady-state flow. It was established that an unsteady three-dimensional CFD model for solar membrane distillation system and drawn solution and ideas and reached the variation law of fluid temperature and flow rate in outlet of fluid connection changes in solar collector system. It was calculated that the coupling model of hot chamber in membrane distillation and obtained the variation law between non-steady-state flux and solar radiation intensity and laid the foundation for coupling utilization of solar energy with membrane distillation.

  19. Experimental optimisation of a solar still: application to alcohol distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meukam, P. [Laboratoire d' Energetique, ENSP, Universite de Yaounde, Yaounde (Cameroon); Njomo, D. [Laboratoire de Thermique Energetique, Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Yaounde, Yaounde (Cameroon); Gbane, A.; Toure, S. [Laboratoire d' Energie Solaire, Universite de Cocody, Abidjan, Cote d' Ivoire (Ivory Coast)

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of two solar stills, a single-compartment model and a two-compartment type. The single-compartment still is optimized under local climatic conditions. An experimental study of the cover slope shows that a cover angle of 16{sup o} ensures a very good transmission of solar radiation within the still while preventing the drops of the distillate to fall into the basin. In the prototype using two compartments, the glass of the illuminated compartment is a transparent cover with a part of the condensation happening on it, while the other compartment, also made of glass, is covered with a non-transparent material, which shades the sun; it is used only as a condenser. It has been observed that the distillation of a 38% alcohol initial solution yields a product containing 48% of alcohol when using the single-cover model, while under the same climatic conditions the two-compartment still gives a 71% alcohol distillate. (author)

  20. SIMULATION OF THE BEHAVIOR OF A MULTICOMPONENT MIXTURE IN SIMPLE BATCH DISTILLATION

    OpenAIRE

    Otiniano C., M.; D. A. de Operaciones Unitarias, Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a mathematical model for simulating the behavior of multicomponent mixtures on the single batch distillation using Rayleigh equation which can observe the behavior of components in the distillate and residue. Se ha desarrollado un modelo matemático para simular el comportamiento de mezclas multicomponentes en la destilación discontinua simple utilizando la ecuación de Rayleigh que permite observar el comportamiento de los componentes en el destilado y en el residuo.

  1. The minimum work requirement for distillation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yunus, Cerci; Yunus, A. Cengel; Byard, Wood [Nevada Univ., Las Vegas, NV (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2000-07-01

    A typical ideal distillation process is proposed and analyzed using the first and second-laws of thermodynamics with particular attention to the minimum work requirement for individual processes. The distillation process consists of an evaporator, a condenser, a heat exchanger, and a number of heaters and coolers. Several Carnot engines are also employed to perform heat interactions of the distillation process with the surroundings and determine the minimum work requirement for processes. The Carnot engines give the maximum possible work output or the minimum work input associated with the processes, and therefore the net result of these inputs and outputs leads to the minimum work requirement for the entire distillation process. It is shown that the minimum work relation for the distillation process is the same as the minimum work input relation found by Cerci et al [1] for an incomplete separation of incoming saline water, and depends only on the properties of the incoming saline water and the outgoing pure water and brine. Also, certain aspects of the minimum work relation found are discussed briefly. (authors)

  2. High-purity control of internal thermally coupled distillation columns based on nonlinear Wave model%基于非线性Wave模型的内部热耦合塔高纯控制方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丛琳; 刘兴高; 周叶翔

    2012-01-01

    为了解决高纯内部热耦合精馏塔( ITCDIC)的强非线性特性给控制器的设计带来较大困难的问题,将非线性Wave理论运用到内部热耦合精馏塔的控制设计中.首先根据浓度曲线的特性提出了浓度波形的描述函数.其次根据波形描述函数以及物料守恒关系推导出波速公式.最后将Wave理论与一般模型控制(GMC)结合起来,建立了基于Wave模型的一般模型控制(WGMC).在苯-甲苯物系的实例研究中与传统的基于数据模型的一般模型控制(TGMC)进行比较.研究结果表明,WGMC在伺服控制和干扰控制的表现都明显优于TGMC,WGMC控制方案较传统的一般模型控制方案更加稳定可靠.%To solve the problem that high-purity internal thermally coupled distillation columns (ITCDIC) present strong nonlinear dynamics which troubles the controller design, nonlinear wave theory is introduced into the control design of ITCDIC. First, the describing function of the profile of concentration is proposed according to the characteristics of the concentration curve. Then, the wave velocity is derived from describing function of the concentration profile and component mass balance of each stage. Finally, combining the Wave model with the generic model control (GMC) a generic model control based on the Wave model (WGMC) is proposed. Compared with data-based generic model control (TGMC) in benzene-toluene system, WGMC performs more excellently both in servo control and regulatory control and it is more stable and efficient than the generic model control scheme.

  3. Dynamic-accumulative operation policy of continuous distillation for the purification of anisole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhibo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the B10 isotope enrichment industry, the purification of anisole mixture makes great sense. A dynamic-accumulative operation policy of continuous distillation (DACD with repeated filling and dumping of the still is proposed for the separation of trace heavy impurities in the recycled anisole. To simulate and optimize the purification process of anisole, a mathematical model of DACD is derived, and the computer codes are developed in the MATLAB environment. Moreover, the experiment is performed in a pilot-scale distillation column. The results show that the experimental date agrees well with simulation results. DACD could solve the difficulty of flow rate control when the bottom flow rate is very small in continuous distillation. The size of the still in this operation mode is also smaller than that in batch distillation. And the yield of anisole is raised to 99.91%. In a word, DACD is especially suitable for separating trace heavy impurities from the recycled anisole.

  4. Cryogenic distillation facility for isotopic purification of protium and deuterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseev, I.; Arkhipov, Ev.; Bondarenko, S.; Fedorchenko, O.; Ganzha, V.; Ivshin, K.; Kravtsov, P., E-mail: pkravt@gmail.com; Trofimov, V.; Vasilyev, A.; Vasyanina, T.; Vorobyov, A.; Vznuzdaev, M. [National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute” Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (NRC “Kurchatov Institute” PNPI), 188300 Gatchina (Russian Federation); Kammel, P. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Petitjean, C. [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland)

    2015-12-15

    Isotopic purification of the protium and deuterium is an important requirement of many physics experiments. A cryogenic facility for high-efficiency separation of hydrogen isotopes with a cryogenic distillation column as the main element is described. The instrument is portable, so that it can be used at the experimental site. It was designed and built at the Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, Russia. Fundamental operating parameters have been measured including a liquid holdup in the column packing, the pressure drops across the column and the purity of the product at different operating modes. A mathematical model describes expected profiles of hydrogen isotope concentration along the distillation column. An analysis of ortho-parahydrogen isomeric composition by gas chromatography was used for evaluation of the column performance during the tuning operations. The protium content during deuterium purification (≤100 ppb) was measured using gas chromatography with accumulation of the protium in the distillation column. A high precision isotopic measurement at the Institute of Particle Physics, ETH-Zurich, Switzerland, provided an upper bound of the deuterium content in protium (≤6 ppb), which exceeds all commercially available products.

  5. Reactive Distillation for Esterification of Bio-based Organic Acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fields, Nathan; Miller, Dennis J.; Asthana, Navinchandra S.; Kolah, Aspi K.; Vu, Dung; Lira, Carl T.

    2008-09-23

    The following is the final report of the three year research program to convert organic acids to their ethyl esters using reactive distillation. This report details the complete technical activities of research completed at Michigan State University for the period of October 1, 2003 to September 30, 2006, covering both reactive distillation research and development and the underlying thermodynamic and kinetic data required for successful and rigorous design of reactive distillation esterification processes. Specifically, this project has led to the development of economical, technically viable processes for ethyl lactate, triethyl citrate and diethyl succinate production, and on a larger scale has added to the overall body of knowledge on applying fermentation based organic acids as platform chemicals in the emerging biorefinery. Organic acid esters constitute an attractive class of biorenewable chemicals that are made from corn or other renewable biomass carbohydrate feedstocks and replace analogous petroleum-based compounds, thus lessening U.S. dependence on foreign petroleum and enhancing overall biorefinery viability through production of value-added chemicals in parallel with biofuels production. Further, many of these ester products are candidates for fuel (particularly biodiesel) components, and thus will serve dual roles as both industrial chemicals and fuel enhancers in the emerging bioeconomy. The technical report from MSU is organized around the ethyl esters of four important biorenewables-based acids: lactic acid, citric acid, succinic acid, and propionic acid. Literature background on esterification and reactive distillation has been provided in Section One. Work on lactic acid is covered in Sections Two through Five, citric acid esterification in Sections Six and Seven, succinic acid in Section Eight, and propionic acid in Section Nine. Section Ten covers modeling of ester and organic acid vapor pressure properties using the SPEAD (Step Potential

  6. Refreshment topics II: Design of distillation columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milojević Svetomir

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available For distillation column design it is necessary to define all the variable parameters such as component concentrations in different streams temperatures, pressures, mass and energy flow, which are used to represent the separation process of some specific system. They are related to each other according to specific laws, and if the number of such parameters exceeds the number of their relationships, in order to solve a problem some of them must be specified in advance or some constraints assumed for the mass balance, the balance of energy, phase equilibria or chemical equilibria. Knowledge of specific elements which are the constituents of a distillation unit must be known to define the number of design parameters as well as some additional apparati also necessary to realize the distilation. Each separate apparatus might be designed and constructed only if all the necessary and variable parameters for such a unit are defined. This is the right route to solve a distilation unit in many different cases. The construction of some distillation unit requires very good knowledge of mass, heat and momentum transfer phenomena. Moreover, the designer needs to know which kind of apparatus will be used in the distillation unit to realize a specific production process. The most complicated apparatus in a rectification unit is the distillation column. Depending on the complexity of the separation process one, two or more columns are often used. Additional equipment are heat exchangers (reboilers, condensers, cooling systems, heaters, separators, tanks for reflux distribution, tanks and pumps for feed transportation, etc. Such equipment is connected by pipes and valves, and for the normal operation of a distillation unit other instruments for measuring the flow rate, temperature and pressure are also required. Problems which might arise during the determination and selection of such apparati and their number requires knowledge of the specific systems which must

  7. Static multiplicities in heterogeneous azeotropic distillation sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Klavs; Andersen, Torben Ravn; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    1998-01-01

    In this paper the results of a bifurcation analysis on heterogeneous azeotropic distillation sequences are given. Two sequences suitable for ethanol dehydration are compared: The 'direct' and the 'indirect' sequence. It is shown, that the two sequences, despite their similarities, exhibit very...... different static behavior. The method of Petlyuk and Avet'yan (1971), Bekiaris et al. (1993), which assumes infinite reflux and infinite number of stages, is extended to and applied on heterogeneous azeotropic distillation sequences. The predictions are substantiated through simulations. The static sequence...

  8. 船用闪蒸—蒸发海水淡化系统的建模与热力分析%MODELING AND THERMAL ANALYSIS OF EVAPORATION AND FLASH DISTILLATION SEAWATER DESALINATION SYSTEM FOR SHIP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪锦; 顾锦鸿; 沈建; 徐文其

    2012-01-01

    Considering that ship engine gas had the characteristics of high temperature and heat capacity, we designed a scawater desalination system based on evaporation and flash distillations using ship engine gas as heat source. The thermodynamic model of main equipment was established, the steady-state simulation model of die seawater desalination system was established based on the equipment's connection relationship and fluid transfer relationship. The mathematical model can be solved by sequential solution using the sequential modular approach, so the steady-state simulation of the seawater desalination system was realized. In order to improving solving accuracy, the influence of fluid's temperature on fluid's properties was considered. A case was studied, the relationship between fresh water production and system work pressure, seawater flux was got, the seawater desalination system's good operating performance was proved, the system can not only meet the demand for fresh water of small and medium size ship, but also has a good energy-saving effect and economic benefits.%针对舰船发动机排放的烟气具有温度高、热容大的特点,结合闪蒸法和蒸发法海水淡化方法,设计了利用发动机烟气余热的闪蒸-蒸发海水淡化系统.建立了各主要设备的热力计算模型,根据设备之间的连接组合关系以及物流传递关系,建立了海水淡化系统的稳态数学模型,利用序贯模块法顺序求解,可实现系统的稳态模拟.模型中考虑了海水温度变化对系统性能的影响,提高了仿真精度.通过实例研究,获得了海水淡化系统的淡水产量与海水流量、系统压力的关系,研究结果表明该海水淡化系统具有较好的运行性能,可满足中小型船舶对淡水的需求,具有良好的节能效果和经济效益.

  9. Simulation of ethanol extractive distillation with mixed glycols as separating agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. D. Gil

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Extractive distillation is an alternative for ethanol dehydration processes that has been shown to be more effective than azeotropic distillation and, in close proximity, to be very competitive against the process that uses adsorption with molecular sieves. Glycols have been shown to be the most effective solvents in extractive distillation, mainly ethylene glycol and glycerol. In this work, an extractive distillation column was simulated with the Aspen Plus software platform, using the RadFrac module for distillation columns, to investigate the effect on the separation of the ethylene glycol-glycerol mixture composition, the separating agent feed stages, the separating agent split stream feed, and the azeotropic feed temperature. The NRTL model was used to calculate the phase equilibrium of these strongly polar mixtures. A rigorous simulation of the extractive distillation column finally established was also performed, including a secondary recovery column for the mixture of solvents and a recycle loop, to simulate an industrially relevant situation. This simulation allowed establishing the complete parameters to dehydrate ethanol: the optimal stage for separating agent feed is stage 4; the most adequate composition for the glycols mixture is 60 mol% ethylene glycol and 40 mol% glycerol. Finally, energetically efficient operating conditions for each one of the columns were established through a preliminary pinch analysis.

  10. Robust Geometric Control of a Distillation Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kymmel, Mogens; Andersen, Henrik Weisberg

    1987-01-01

    A frequency domain method, which makes it possible to adjust multivariable controllers with respect to both nominal performance and robustness, is presented. The basic idea in the approach is that the designer assigns objectives such as steady-state tracking, maximum resonance peaks, bandwidth, m...... is used to examine and improve geometric control of a binary distillation column....

  11. Lubricity characteristics of marine distillate fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crutchley, Ian [Innospec Fuel Specialties, Ellesmere Port (United Kingdom); Green, Michael [Intertek Lintec ShipCare Services, Darlington (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-15

    This article from Innospec Fuel Specialties, Ellesmere Port, UK, and Intertek Lintec ShipCare Services, Darlington, UK, examines the lubricity characteristics of marine distillate fuels available today in relation to the requirements and limits imposed in ISO8217:2010. It will estimate expected failure rates and also asses the perceived relationship between lubricity, sulphur content and viscosity. (orig.)

  12. Distillation of Liquid Xenon to Remove Krypton

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, K; Iida, T; Ikeda, M; Kobayashi, K; Koshio, Y; Minamino, A; Miura, M; Moriyama, S; Nakahata, M; Nakajima, Y; Namba, T; Ogawa, H; Sekiya, H; Shiozawa, M; Suzuki, Y; Takeda, A; Takeuchi, Y; Ueshima, K; Yamashita, M; Kaneyuki, K; Ebizuka, Y; Kikuchi, J; Ota, A; Suzuki, S; Takahashi, T; Hagiwara, H; Kamei, T; Miyamoto, K; Nagase, T; Nakamura, S; Ozaki, Y; Sato, T; Fukuda, Y; Sato, T; Nishijima, K; Sakurai, M; Maruyama, T; Motoki, D; Itow, Y; Ohsumi, H; Tasaka, S; Kim, S B; Kim, Y D; Lee, J I; Moon, S H; Urakawa, Y; Uchino, M; Kamioka, Y

    2008-01-01

    A high performance distillation system to remove krypton from xenon was constructed, and a purity level of Kr/Xe = $\\sim 3 \\times 10^{-12}$ was achieved. This development is crucial in facilitating high sensitivity low background experiments such as the search for dark matter in the universe.

  13. Designing reactive distillation processes with improved efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almeida-Rivera, C.P.

    2005-01-01

    In this dissertation a life-span inspired perspective is taken on the conceptual design of grassroots reactive distillation processes. Attention was paid to the economic performance of the process and to potential losses of valuable resources over the process life span. The research was cast in a se

  14. Holoprosencephaly: A mythologic and teratologic distillate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, M Michael

    2010-02-15

    This review of holoprosencephaly provides a mythologic and teratologic distillate of the subject under the following headings: Babylonian tablets; Greek mythology; pictures from the 16th through the 20th Centuries; 19th Century teratology; history of more modern concepts and their terminologies; and ocean-going ships named "Cyclops."

  15. Extractive distillation: recent advances in operation strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Shen,Weifeng; Benyounes, Hassiba; Gerbaud, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Extractive distillation is one of the efficient techniques for separating azeotropic and low-relativevolatility mixtures in various chemical industries. This paper first provides an overview of thermodynamic insight covering residue curve map analysis, the application of univolatility and unidistribution curves, and thermodynamic feasibility study. The pinch-point analysis method combining bifurcation shortcut presents another branch of study, and several achievements ...

  16. Minimum Energy Requirements in Complex Distillation Arrangements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halvorsen, Ivar J.

    2001-07-01

    Distillation is the most widely used industrial separation technology and distillation units are responsible for a significant part of the total heat consumption in the world's process industry. In this work we focus on directly (fully thermally) coupled column arrangements for separation of multicomponent mixtures. These systems are also denoted Petlyuk arrangements, where a particular implementation is the dividing wall column. Energy savings in the range of 20-40% have been reported with ternary feed mixtures. In addition to energy savings, such integrated units have also a potential for reduced capital cost, making them extra attractive. However, the industrial use has been limited, and difficulties in design and control have been reported as the main reasons. Minimum energy results have only been available for ternary feed mixtures and sharp product splits. This motivates further research in this area, and this thesis will hopefully give some contributions to better understanding of complex column systems. In the first part we derive the general analytic solution for minimum energy consumption in directly coupled columns for a multicomponent feed and any number of products. To our knowledge, this is a new contribution in the field. The basic assumptions are constant relative volatility, constant pressure and constant molar flows and the derivation is based on Underwood's classical methods. An important conclusion is that the minimum energy consumption in a complex directly integrated multi-product arrangement is the same as for the most difficult split between any pair of the specified products when we consider the performance of a conventional two-product column. We also present the Vmin-diagram, which is a simple graphical tool for visualisation of minimum energy related to feed distribution. The Vmin-diagram provides a simple mean to assess the detailed flow requirements for all parts of a complex directly coupled arrangement. The main purpose in

  17. Comportement en vapocraquage de molécules modèles et de distillats sous vide hydrotraités. Deuxième partie : pyrolyse de molécules modèles représentatives des distillats sous vide bruts et hydrotraités Steam-Cracking Behavior of Model Molecules and Hydrotreated Vacuum Distillates Part Two: Pyrolysis of Model Molecules Representative of Unprocessed and Hydrotreated Vacuum Distillates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freund E.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available La pyrolyse de molécules modèles a permis sur la base d'écarts de rendements obtenus entre le n -décane et leur mélange à 20 % avec celui-ci, l'établissement d'une échelle de potentialité de craquage présentée précédemment. L'approche des phénomènes de pyrolyse par des schémas réactionnels simplifiés est développée dans le présent article pour des molécules modèles, exemples de chaque grande famille susceptible de constituer le distillat sous vide : le perhydrophénanthrène pour les naphtènes lourds, l'octahydrophénanthrène symétrique pour les naphténoaromatiques, le naphtalène et l'alpha méthylnaphtalène pour les aromatiques méthylés ou non, le dodécylbenzène pour les aromatiques substitués par une longue chaîne aliphatique. Le cas de l'acénaphtylène a été examiné à part. On the basis of differences in yields obtained between n-decane and a 20% mixture of model molecules with n-decane, the pyrolysis of model molecules was used to determine a cracking potentiality scale that was previous described. The present article describes the approach to pyrolysis phenomena by simplified reaction mechanisms for model molecules taken from each major family liable to make up vacuum distillate, i. e. perhydrophenanthrene for heavy naphthenes, symmetrical octahydrophenanthrene for naphthenoaromatics, naphthalene and alpha-methynaphthalene for methylated or nonmethylated aromatics, dodecylbenzene for aromatics substituted for by a long aliphatic chain. The case of acenaphthylene is examined separately.

  18. 27 CFR 27.31 - Warehouse receipts covering distilled spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Warehouse receipts... BEER Dealer Registration and Recordkeeping § 27.31 Warehouse receipts covering distilled spirits. The sale of warehouse receipts for distilled spirits is equivalent to the sale of distilled...

  19. Continuous and Batch Distillation in an Oldershaw Tray Column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carlos M.; Vaz, Raquel V.; Santiago, Ana S.; Lito, Patricia F.

    2011-01-01

    The importance of distillation in the separation field prompts the inclusion of distillation experiments in the chemical engineering curricula. This work describes the performance of an Oldershaw column in the rectification of a cyclohexane/n-heptane mixture. Total reflux distillation, continuous rectification under partial reflux, and batch…

  20. Continuous and Batch Distillation in an Oldershaw Tray Column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carlos M.; Vaz, Raquel V.; Santiago, Ana S.; Lito, Patricia F.

    2011-01-01

    The importance of distillation in the separation field prompts the inclusion of distillation experiments in the chemical engineering curricula. This work describes the performance of an Oldershaw column in the rectification of a cyclohexane/n-heptane mixture. Total reflux distillation, continuous rectification under partial reflux, and batch…

  1. 40 CFR 721.9635 - Terpene residue distillates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Terpene residue distillates. 721.9635... Substances § 721.9635 Terpene residue distillates. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as terpene residue distillates (PMN...

  2. Improvement of solar ethanol distillation using ultrasonic waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaruwat Jareanjit

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This report presents a study on the use of ultrasonic waves in solar ethanol distillation to investigate the performance of ultrasonic waves at a frequency of 30 kHz and at 100 Watts that were installed in the inlet area of a 10-litre distillation tank. Based on the non-continuous distillation process (batch distillation, the experiment demonstrated that using ultrasonic waves in solar ethanol distillation caused the average concentration of hourly distilled ethanol to be higher than that of a normal system (solar ethanol distillation without ultrasonic wave at the same or higher distillation rate and hourly distillation volume. The ultrasonic wave was able to enhance the separation of ethanol from the solution (water-ethanol mixture through solar distillation. The amount of pure ethanol product from each distilled batch was clearly larger than the amount of product obtained from a normal system when the initial concentration of ethanol was lower than 50%v/v (% by volume, where an average of approximately 40% and 20% are obtained for an initial ethanol concentration of 10%v/v and 30%v/v, respectively. Furthermore, the distillation rate varied based on the solar radiation value.

  3. Simulation and Analysis of Methanol Distillation based on Aspen Plus User Model%基于Aspen Plus用户模型的甲醇精馏模拟与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱建宁; 陆文斌

    2012-01-01

    采用模拟软件Aspen Plus对某厂大型煤化工甲醇四塔精馏过程进行稳态模拟计算和分析,结果表明,应用物性方法 UNIFAC-DMD能有效模拟汽液平衡数据,模拟结果与工厂采集数据吻合良好。进行了常压塔侧线抽提位置分析、回流比对产品各组分浓度影响及精馏塔水力学分析等研究,提供了可行的精馏操作方案。%Using Aspen Plus,steady-state simulation and analysis were carried out on the four-column methanol distillation process in a large-scale coal chemical industry plant.It turned out that the vapor-liquid equilibrium data could effectively simulated by UNIFAC-DMD,and the simulation results were in good agreement with the practical industrial production data.Moreover,some operation conditions such as the location of side extraction,influences of reflux ratio on product components concentration and distillation column hydraulics were analyzed,and a feasible distillation scheme was put forward.

  4. Distillation time effect on lavender essential oil yield and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Cantrell, Charles L; Astatkie, Tess; Jeliazkova, Ekaterina

    2013-01-01

    Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.) is one of the most widely grown essential oil crops in the world. Commercial extraction of lavender oil is done using steam distillation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the length of the distillation time (DT) on lavender essential oil yield and composition when extracted from dried flowers. Therefore, the following distillation times (DT) were tested in this experiment: 1.5 min, 3 min, 3.75 min, 7.5 min, 15 min, 30 min, 60 min, 90 min, 120 min, 150 min, 180 min, and 240 min. The essential oil yield (range 0.5-6.8%) reached a maximum at 60 min DT. The concentrations of cineole (range 6.4-35%) and fenchol (range 1.7-2.9%) were highest at the 1.5 min DT and decreased with increasing length of the DT. The concentration of camphor (range 6.6-9.2%) reached a maximum at 7.5-15 min DT, while the concentration of linalool acetate (range 15-38%) reached a maximum at 30 min DT. Results suggest that lavender essential oil yield may not increase after 60 min DT. The change in essential oil yield, and the concentrations of cineole, fenchol and linalool acetate as DT changes were modeled very well by the asymptotic nonlinear regression model. DT may be used to modify the chemical profile of lavender oil and to obtain oils with differential chemical profiles from the same lavender flowers. DT must be taken into consideration when citing or comparing reports on lavender essential oil yield and composition.

  5. Neuro-estimator based GMC control of a batch reactive distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, K J Jithin; Patle, Dipesh S; Jana, Amiya K

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, an artificial neural network (ANN)-based nonlinear control algorithm is proposed for a simulated batch reactive distillation (RD) column. In the homogeneously catalyzed reactive process, an esterification reaction takes place for the production of ethyl acetate. The fundamental model has been derived incorporating the reaction term in the model structure of the nonreactive distillation process. The process operation is simulated at the startup phase under total reflux conditions. The open-loop process dynamics is also addressed running the batch process at the production phase under partial reflux conditions. In this study, a neuro-estimator based generic model controller (GMC), which consists of an ANN-based state predictor and the GMC law, has been synthesized. Finally, this proposed control law has been tested on the representative batch reactive distillation comparing with a gain-scheduled proportional integral (GSPI) controller and with its ideal performance (ideal GMC). Copyright © 2011 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Estimation and reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions from crude oil distillation units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadalla, M. [Departament d' Engingeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Paisos Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona (Spain)]. E-mail: mamdouh.gadalla@urv.net; Olujic, Z. [Laboratory for Process Equipment, TU Delft, Leeghwaterstraat 44, 2628 CA Delft (Netherlands); Jobson, M. [Centre for Process Integration, CEAS, The University of Manchester, PO Box 88, Manchester, M60 1QD, UK (United Kingdom); Smith, R. [Centre for Process Integration, CEAS, The University of Manchester, PO Box 88, Manchester, M60 1QD, UK (United Kingdom)

    2006-10-15

    Distillation systems are energy-intensive processes, and consequently contribute significantly to the greenhouse gases emissions (e.g. carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). A simple model for the estimation of CO{sub 2} emissions associated with operation of heat-integrated distillation systems as encountered in refineries is introduced. In conjunction with a shortcut distillation model, this model has been used to optimize the process conditions of an existing crude oil atmospheric tower unit aiming at minimization of CO{sub 2} emissions. Simulation results indicate that the total CO{sub 2} emissions of the existing crude oil unit can be cut down by 22%, just by changing the process conditions accordingly, and that the gain in this respect can be doubled by integrating a gas turbine. In addition, emissions reduction is accompanied by substantial profit increase due to utility saving and/or export.

  7. Pressure swing distillation of azeotropic mixture – A simulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Iqbal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to simulate a pressure-swing distillation column for the separation and purification of ethanol from the ethanol–water binary system. The choice for this system is due to the importance of the ethanol–water separation. A steady-state equilibrium-stage model based on normalised MESH equations is used to simulate pressure-swing distillation column applied for the production of ethanol. All the work has been carried out using Aspen Plus simulator, version 13.2. Among the activity coefficient models available, the WILSON-RK model with binary parameters predicted by the Aspen Plus simulator is shown to be the most accurate to correlate the experimental vapor-/liquid equilibrium (VLE data available for the ethanol–water system. The simulation has been satisfactorily carried out for a mixture of 20 mol% ethanol in water at 1 atm pressure and 90 °C with a molar flow rate of 100 kmol/h. The adjusting parameters include D/F ratio and reflux ratio of the two columns to get water purity of 99.5 mol% from the bottom of the Low Pressure Column (LPC and the ethanol purity of 99.7 mol% from the bottom of High Pressure Column (HPC.

  8. Toxicology of petroleum naphtha distillate vapors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, F W

    1976-12-01

    A unique opportunity was presented to observe the potentially toxic effects of an acute exposure to the vapors of petroleum naphtha distillate on a relatively large number of individuals. The immediate manifestation in all was dyspnea. The action on motor vehicle combustion suggested that some of this could have been due to oxygen deprivation; however, all individuals were dyspneic for several minutes after exposure. A few were cyanotic for several minutes after exposure. All were excited. Tremulousness and mild nausea followed the initial symptoms but were of brief duration. One individual manifested numerous premature ventricular contractions. Since his exposure was brief and since none of the others showed similar findings, it is unlikely that the exposure was causal. The central nervous system depression described in acute exposure cases of the intact (not distillate) petroleum naphtha fumes was not observed in any of this series. There were no delayed manifestations or complications.

  9. Nonadditivity of Rains' bound for distillable entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Duan, Runyao

    2017-06-01

    Rains' bound is arguably the best known upper bound of the distillable entanglement by operations completely preserving positivity of partial transpose (PPT) and was conjectured to be additive and coincide with the asymptotic relative entropy of entanglement. We disprove both conjectures by explicitly constructing a special class of mixed two-qubit states. We then introduce an additive semidefinite programming lower bound (EM) for the asymptotic Rains' bound, and it immediately becomes a computable lower bound for entanglement cost of bipartite states. Furthermore, EM is also proved to be the best known upper bound of the PPT-assisted deterministic distillable entanglement and gives the asymptotic rates for all pure states and some class of genuinely mixed states.

  10. Innovative Vacuum Distillation for Magnesium Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tianbai; Li, Naiyi; Mei, Xiaoming; Yu, Alfred; Shang, Shixiang

    Magnesium recycling now becomes a very important subject as magnesium consumption increases fast around the world. All commonly used magnesium die-casting alloys can be recycled and recovered to the primary metal quality. The recycled materials may be comprised of biscuits, sprues, runners, flash, overflows, dross, sludge, scrap parts, and old parts that are returned from service, An innovative magnesium recycle method, vacuum distillation, is developed and proved out to be able to recycle magnesium scraps, especially machining chips, oily magnesium, smelting sludge, dross or the mixture. With this process at a specific temperature and environment condition, magnesium in scraps can be gasified and then solidified to become crystal magnesium crown. This `recycled' magnesium crown is collected and used as the raw material of magnesium alloys. The experimental results show the vacuum distillation is a feasible and plausible method to recycle magnesium. Further, the cost analysis will be addressed in this paper.

  11. Controllability analysis of thermally coupled distillation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, S.; Jimenez, A.

    1999-10-01

    A comparison of the controllability properties of three thermally coupled distillation sequences (Petlyuk, sequence with side rectifier, and sequence with side stripper) using singular value decomposition is developed. Those properties are also compared to the energy consumption required for separating ternary mixtures. The parameters obtained via singular value decomposition show that sequences with a side rectifier or a side stripper have better control properties than the Petlyuk system, although the Petlyuk scheme has lower energy requirements than the systems with side columns.

  12. Microfluidic distillation chip for methanol concentration detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yao-Nan; Liu, Chan-Chiung; Yang, Ruey-Jen; Ju, Wei-Jhong; Fu, Lung-Ming

    2016-03-17

    An integrated microfluidic distillation system is proposed for separating a mixed ethanol-methanol-water solution into its constituent components. The microfluidic chip is fabricated using a CO2 laser system and comprises a serpentine channel, a boiling zone, a heating zone, and a cooled collection chamber filled with de-ionized (DI) water. In the proposed device, the ethanol-methanol-water solution is injected into the microfluidic chip and driven through the serpentine channel and into the collection chamber by means of a nitrogen carrier gas. Following the distillation process, the ethanol-methanol vapor flows into the collection chamber and condenses into the DI water. The resulting solution is removed from the collection tank and reacted with a mixed indicator. Finally, the methanol concentration is inversely derived from the absorbance measurements obtained using a spectrophotometer. The experimental results show the proposed microfluidic system achieves an average methanol distillation efficiency of 97%. The practicality of the proposed device is demonstrated by detecting the methanol concentrations of two commercial fruit wines. It is shown that the measured concentration values deviate by no more than 3% from those obtained using a conventional bench top system.

  13. Neural network model predictive control algorithm and its application in the control of distillation column%神经网络多步预测控制及其在精馏塔中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐宝昌; 吴建章

    2012-01-01

    An improved Neural Network Model Predictive Control algorithm (NN-MPC) is presented in the paper which can be applied in the control of Multi-variable controlled plant. In the improved algorithm, parameters of these Neural Networks are modified real-timely with the predictive error which can accommodate the error caused by the time-variation of the object, the interference and the model mismatch. Regarding to these controlled objects with coupling, a multivariable coordinated optimization strategy is applied in the performance index function. By this means, optimization of the controlled variable set and the manipulated variable set are achieved and optimization values of the controlled variable and some of the manipulated variable can be achieved. And a new method of parallel predicting model based on several neural networks is presented which is beneficial to improve the robustness of the control system. This algorithm is applied in the control of distillation column in this paper. Optimization values of some manipulated variables can be achieved on the basis of ensuring product quality which can help to reduce the energy consumption and to improve the economic benefit. The simulation results show that the improved NN-MPC has a good dynamic characteristics, robustness and the advantage of energy saving.%本文提出一种基于多神经网络并行预测模型的多变量协调预测控制,利用预测误差实时反馈校正各个神经网络预测模型的参数,对于对象的时变、未建模干扰及模型失配引起的误差均有很好的适应性.针对存在耦合的被控对象,本文在优化性能指标中采用多变量协调优化策略,对被控变量集及操作变量集优化,使被控变量达到优化值和使部分操作变量达到优化值.在单步预测控制的基础上,提出基于多RBF神经网络并行预测模型的多变量协调预测控制,提高了预测控制的鲁棒性及抗干扰能力.将此方法应用于精馏塔控制

  14. A novel purification process for dodecanedioic acid by molecular distillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Yu; Xigang Yuan; Aiwu Zeng

    2015-01-01

    A novel purification process is involved to obtain the high purity [N 99%(by mass)] dodecanedioic acid (DC12). It involves a re-crystal ization followed by molecular distil ation from the crude product. The objective of this study is to investigate general conditions, feed rate, distil ing temperature and vacuum, necessary for centrifugal distil-lation of DC12. Under the optimum conditions, distilling temperature 180 °C, pressure 30 Pa and feed flow rate 700 ml·h−1, the purity of DC12 in the residence reached 97.55%with a yield of 53.18%by the analysis of gas chromatography. Multiple-pass distillation made a considerable contribution by improving the purity to 99.22%. Additionally, the effect of pretreatment (re-crystallization) on distillation process was revealed through a series of comparative experiments.

  15. Purification of 3-hydroxypropionitrile by wiped molecular distillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU; Songlin; XIANG; Aishuang; YING; Anguo

    2004-01-01

    A new separation method, wiped molecular distillation (WMD), was applied and experimental work was carried out to study the effect of operation parameters such as distillation temperature, pressure, feed flow rate, wiped speed and the separation stages on purifying the raw material containing 95% 3-hydroxypropionitrile (HPN). It was an excellent result that the mass concentration of HPN in the final product can be more than 99.5% under the optimistic operation conditions. The high purity cannot be achieved with normal separating method including rectification and extraction in practice. As for the raw material, a function of HPN purity in distillate was plotted with distillation temperature and pressure in experiment ranges. According to the experiment data obtained and the theory in molecular distillation, the distillation speed of HPN and separation efficiency were computed. It was concluded that the distillation speed of HPN and the separation efficiency were satisfying for industrial production.

  16. Solar-driven membrane distillation demonstration in Leupp, Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravisankar, Vishnu Arvind; Seaman, Robert; Mirchandani, Sera; Arnold, Robert G; Ela, Wendell P

    2016-03-01

    The Navajo Nation is the largest and one of the driest Native American reservations in the US. The population in the Navajo Nation is sporadically distributed over a very large area making it extremely ineffective to connect homes to a centralized water supply system. Owing to this population distribution and the multi decadal drought prevailing in the region, over 40% of the 300,000 people living on Navajo Tribal Lands lack access to running potable water. For many people the only alternative is hauling water from filling stations, resulting in economic hardship and limited supply. A solution to this problem is a de-centralized off-grid water source. The University of Arizona and US Bureau of Reclamation's Solar Membrane Distillation (SMD), stand-alone, pilot desalination system on the Navajo Reservation will provide an off-grid source of potable water; the pilot will serve as a proximal water source, ease the financial hardships caused by the drought, and provide a model for low-cost water treatment systems in arid tribal lands. Bench-scale experiments and an earlier field prototype plant showed viable operation of a solar heated, membrane distillation (MD) system, but further optimization is required. The objectives of the Navajo pilot study are to i) demonstrate integration of solar collectors and membrane distillation, ii) optimize operational parameters, iii) demonstrate and monitor technology performance during extended duration operation, and iv) facilitate independent system operation by the Navajo Water Resources Department, including hand-over of a comprehensive operations manual for implementation of subsequent SMD systems. The Navajo SMD system is designed as a perennial installation that includes remote communication of research data and full automation for remote, unmanned operation.

  17. Performance simulation of the JPL solar-powered distiller. Part 1: Quasi-steady-state conditions. [for cooling microwave equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, C. S.; Lansing, F. L.

    1983-01-01

    A 37.85 cu m (10,000 gallons) per year (nominal) passive solar powered water distillation system was installed and is operational in the Venus Deep Space Station. The system replaced an old, electrically powered water distiller. The distilled water produced with its high electrical resistivity is used to cool the sensitive microwave equipment. A detailed thermal model was developed to simulate the performance of the distiller and study its sensitivity under varying environment and load conditions. The quasi-steady state portion of the model is presented together with the formulas for heat and mass transfer coefficients used. Initial results indicated that a daily water evaporation efficiency of 30% can be achieved. A comparison made between a full day performance simulation and the actual field measurements gave good agreement between theory and experiment, which verified the model.

  18. Renewable Water: Direct Contact Membrane Distillation Coupled With Solar Ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, F. I.; Tyler, S. W.; Childress, A. E.

    2010-12-01

    The exponential population growth and the accelerated increase in the standard of living have increased significantly the global consumption of two precious resources: water and energy. These resources are intrinsically linked and are required to allow a high quality of human life. With sufficient energy, water may be harvested from aquifers, treated for potable reuse, or desalinated from brackish and seawater supplies. Even though the costs of desalination have declined significantly, traditional desalination systems still require large quantities of energy, typically from fossil fuels that will not allow these systems to produce water in a sustainable way. Recent advances in direct contact membrane distillation can take advantage of low-quality or renewable heat to desalinate brackish water, seawater or wastewater. Direct contact membrane distillation operates at low pressures and can use small temperature differences between the feed and permeate water to achieve a significant freshwater production. Therefore, a much broader selection of energy sources can be considered to drive thermal desalination. A promising method for providing renewable source of heat for direct contact membrane distillation is a solar pond, which is an artificially stratified water body that captures solar radiation and stores it as thermal energy at the bottom of the pond. In this work, a direct contact membrane distillation/solar pond coupled system is modeled and tested using a laboratory-scale system. Freshwater production rates on the order of 2 L day-1 per m2 of solar pond (1 L hr-1 per m2 of membrane area) can easily be achieved with minimal operating costs and under low pressures. While these rates are modest, they are six times larger than those produced by other solar pond-powered desalination systems - and they are likely to be increased if heat losses in the laboratory-scale system are reduced. Even more, this system operates at much lower costs than traditional desalination

  19. Study on Salt-Containing Extractive Distillation for the 2-Propanol/Water System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Jiquan

    2008-01-01

    The salt-containing extractive distillation column and the salt-containing agent recovery column for the 2-propanol/water/ethanediol/KAc system were simulated by the NRTL model and the modified Rose Relaxation method. The simulation results showed that prediction of the salt effect in vapor-liquid equilib-rium and the correlation method (TDCM) of NRTL parameters were suitable for the said system. Four different distillation technology processes were investigated; the results showed that the salt-containing extractive distillation process was the best one. The simulating design of the extractive distillation column was performed under the conditions of different total stage number, feeding location, reflux ratio, amount of mixed agent and concentration of KAc. The results showed that such factors as 17 stages, a feeding location at the 9th stage, a reflux ratio of 1.2, and a mixed agent feeding rate of 1.141 kmol/h, might be the best suited operating conditions. The simulating design was also done for the column for recovering the salt-containing agent. The simulation method of the salt-containing extractive distillation is simple and effective in this work.

  20. Integrated Design and Control of Reactive and Non-Reactive Distillation Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansouri, Seyed Soheil; Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted

    , an alternative approach is to tackle process design and controllability issues simultaneously, in the early stages of process design. This simultaneous synthesis approach provides optimal/near optimal operation and more efficient control of conventional (non-reactive binary distillation columns) (Hamid et al......., 2010) as well as complex chemical processes; for example, intensified processes such as reactive distillation (Mansouri et al., 2015). Most importantly, it identifies and eliminates potentially promising design alternatives that may have controllability problems later. To date, a number...... of methodologies have been proposed and applied on various problems to address the interactions between process design and control, and they range from optimization-based approaches to model-based methods (Sharifzadeh, 2013). In this work, integrated design and control of non-reactive distillation, ternary...

  1. Chemistry and kinetics of I2 loss in urine distillate and humidity condensate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwater, James E.; Wheeler, Richard R., Jr.; Olivadoti, J. T.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1992-01-01

    Time-resolved molecular absorption spectrophotometry of iodinated ersatz humidity condensates and iodinated ersatz urine distillates across the UV and visible spectral regions are used to investigate the chemistry and kinetics of I2 loss in urine distillate and humidity condensate. Single contaminant systems at equivalent concentrations are also employed to study rates of iodine. Pseudo-first order rate constants are identified for ersatz contaminant model mixtures and for individual reactive constituents. The second order bimolecular reaction of elemental iodine with formic acid, producing carbon dioxide and iodine anion, is identified as the primary mechanism underlying the decay of residual I2 in ersatz humidity concentrate.

  2. Recovery of dilute acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) solvents from aqueous solutions via membrane distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banat, F.A.; Al-Shannag, M. [Jordan Univ. of Science and Technology, Irbid (Jordan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2000-12-01

    The simultaneous recovery of dilute acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) solvents from aqueous solutions by air gap membrane distillation was theoretically assessed. A previously developed and validated Stefan-Maxwell based mathematical model was used for this purpose. It was found that membrane distillation could successfully be used for the recovery of these solvents. Interestingly it was found that butanol could be separated with the highest selectivity and flux though it has the highest boiling point. The effect of operating conditions such as feed and cooling surface temperatures, air gap width, and individual component concentration on the flux and selectivity of these solvents was examined and discussed in this paper. (orig.)

  3. Economic Analysis in Series-Distillation Desalination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Rahmah Lubis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability to produce potable water economically is the primary purpose of seawater desalination research. Reverse osmosis (RO and multi-stage flash (MSF cost more than potable water produced from fresh water resources. Therefore, this research investigates a high-efficiency mechanical vapor-compression distillation system that employs an improved water flow arrangement. The incoming salt concentration was 0.15% salt for brackish water and 3.5% salt for seawater, whereas the outgoing salt concentration was 1.5% and 7%, respectively. Distillation was performed at 439 K and 722 kPa for both brackish water feed and seawater feed. Water costs of the various conditions were calculated for brackish water and seawater feeds using optimum conditions considered as 25 and 20 stages, respectively. For brackish water at a temperature difference of 0.96 K, the energy requirement is 2.0 kWh/m3. At this condition, the estimated water cost is $0.39/m3 achieved with 10,000,000 gal/day distillate, 30-year bond, 5% interest rate, and $0.05/kWh electricity. For seawater at a temperature difference of 0.44 K, the energy requirement is 3.97 kWh/m3 and the estimated water cost is $0.61/m3. Greater efficiency of the vapor compression system is achieved by connecting multiple evaporators in series, rather than the traditional parallel arrangement. The efficiency results from the gradual increase of salinity in each stage of the series arrangement in comparison to parallel. Calculations using various temperature differences between boiling brine and condensing steam show the series arrangement has the greatest improvement at lower temperature differences. Keywords: desalination, dropwise condensation, mechanical-vapor compression

  4. Ocean thermocline driven membrane distillation process

    KAUST Repository

    Francis, Lijo

    2017-07-20

    Systems and methods using membrane distillation are provided for desalinating water, for example for the production of potable water, to address freshwater requirements. In an aspect the systems and methods do not require applying an external heat source, or the energy cost of the heating source, to heat the feed stream to the membrane. In an aspect, the sensible heat present in surface seawater is used for the heat energy for the warm stream fed to the membrane, and deep seawater is used as the cold/coolant feed to the membrane to provide the needed temperature gradient or differential across the membrane.

  5. Surface code implementation of block code state distillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Austin G.; Devitt, Simon J.; Jones, Cody

    2013-01-01

    State distillation is the process of taking a number of imperfect copies of a particular quantum state and producing fewer better copies. Until recently, the lowest overhead method of distilling states produced a single improved |A〉 state given 15 input copies. New block code state distillation methods can produce k improved |A〉 states given 3k + 8 input copies, potentially significantly reducing the overhead associated with state distillation. We construct an explicit surface code implementation of block code state distillation and quantitatively compare the overhead of this approach to the old. We find that, using the best available techniques, for parameters of practical interest, block code state distillation does not always lead to lower overhead, and, when it does, the overhead reduction is typically less than a factor of three. PMID:23736868

  6. Treatment of radioactive wastewater using direct contact membrane distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haiyang; Wang, Jianlong

    2013-10-15

    Direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) was used to treat low level radioactive wastewater (LLRW). The dusty gas model (DGM) was used to analyze the mass transfer mechanism and calculate the permeate flux. The operating parameters such as feed temperature, feed velocity and feed concentration were studied. The experimental results showed that DCMD process can separate almost all Cs(+), Sr(2+) and Co(2+) from wastewater. The permeate flux decreased linearly when NaNO3 concentration increased from 1.0 to 200 g/L. The permeate flux remained about 60% of its initial flux even when NaNO3 concentration in feed solution was as high as 200 g/L. The dusty gas model can be successfully applied to estimate the mass transfer, and the experimental permeate flux values fitted well with that calculated by DGM. DCMD is a promising separation process for low level radioactive wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Cascade Distillation Subsystem Development: Early Results from the Exploration Life Support Distillation Technology Comparison Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Patel, Vipul; Pickering, Karen D.

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) wastewater processor (Honeywell International, Torrance, California) was assessed in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Exploration Life Support (ELS) distillation comparison test. The purpose of the test was to collect data to support down-selection and development of a primary distillation technology for application in a lunar outpost water recovery system. The CDS portion of the comparison test was conducted between May 6 and August 19, 2009. The system was challenged with two pretreated test solutions, each intended to represent a feasible wastewater generated in a surface habitat. The 30-day equivalent wastewater loading volume for a crew of four was intended to be processed for each wastewater solution. Test Solution 1 consisted of a mixed stream containing human-generated urine and humidity condensate. Test Solution 2 contained the addition of human-generated hygiene wastewater to the solution 1 waste stream components. Approximately 1500 kg of total wastewater was processed through the CDS during testing. Respective recoveries per solution were 93.4 +/- 0.7 and 90.3 +/- 0.5 percent. The average specific energy of the system during testing was calculated to be less than 120 W-hr/kg. The following paper provides detailed information and data on the performance of the CDS as challenged per the ELS distillation comparison test.

  8. Assisted distillation cleanup of pesticide residues in animal fats: new beadless distillation tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, A B; Black, R R

    1987-01-01

    A new assisted distillation tube has been developed which contains no glass beads or glass wool. The sample is injected into the top of the tube, and a septum is not required. Large ground-glass joints (10/19) are used at the gas inlet and at the Florisil trap connection for maximum strength. Existing assisted distillation apparatus was easily modified to accept the new tubes. Recoveries of 9 organochlorine pesticides from butter and cattle fat ranged from 87 to 104% at a tube temperature of 230 degrees C and a nitrogen flow rate of 250 mL/min. No significant change occurred in recoveries of 8 of the 9 pesticides after 85 uses of the beadless tube. Only the recovery of HCB from butter decreased, from 95 to 80%, after 51 runs. The new tube was compared with the Unitrex glass bead-packed concentric tube at flow rates of 230, 400, and 600 mL nitrogen/min. Recoveries from the Unitrex tube were similar to those of the beadless tube for all pesticides except DDT which was significantly lower, indicating incomplete distillation at 250 mL/min and possible partial breakdown at 400 and 600 mL/min. A procedure is introduced for pressurized solvent washing of distillation tubes. This procedure is more efficient than vacuum washing.

  9. Modeling and optimization of hollow fiber air gap membrane distillation for seawater desalination%中空纤维空气隙式膜蒸馏海水淡化过程的性能模拟与优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李卜义; 王建友; 王济虎; 刘红斌

    2015-01-01

    利用响应曲面法(RSM),以模拟标准海水(质量分数3.5%)为进水对中空纤维空气隙式膜蒸馏(AGMD-HF)海水淡化过程的影响因子和膜通量指标进行了模拟优化。通过面向中心复合设计法(CCD)实现了基于热料液进水温度、冷凝液进水温度和料液流量的实验优化设计,并建立了响应值与影响因子之间的二次多项式回归模型。方差分析(ANOVA)、RSM分析及实验响应值与预测值的对比验证了该模型对影响因子和膜通量模拟优化的可信度。进一步地,通过期望函数的引入确定了各影响因子最佳水平,并利用太阳能加热驱动过程实验进行验证。结果表明,ANOVA的决定系数R2达到0.986,p值则低于0.0001;实验膜通量与预测值平均误差仅为6.95%,产水电导率始终保持在10μS·cm−1以下,脱盐率稳定在99.99%以上;最佳影响因子水平分别为83.5℃、13.2℃和60.2 L·h−1,在此条件下太阳能加热驱动过程膜通量达到6.47 L·m−2·h−1。该实验不仅为潜在可行的规模放大过程提供了可参照的操作参数,而且表明将太阳能引入AGMD-HF海水淡化过程具有很强的实际应用潜力。%Response surface methodology (RSM) was used for modeling and optimization of operating parameters and permeate flux for hollow fiber air gap membrane distillation (AGMD-HF) desalination process with simulated 3.5%(mass) seawater as feed solution. Hot feed-in temperature, cold feed-in temperature and fluid flow rate were chosen for experiment optimization based on central composite design (CCD). A quadratic polynomial regression model for permeate flux and operating parameters was developed. Accuracy of the model was validated by analysis of variance (ANOVA), RSM and comparison of predicted and experimental permeate flux response. Furthermore,the best optimal level of operating parameters and solar-powered verification were performed. During

  10. Study on a continuous heat integrated distillation column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenchur, T.; Govind, R.

    1987-12-01

    A novel continuous heat integrated distillation column called a concentric column has been studied using computer simulation. It is shown that a concentric column is a novel implementation of a thermodynamically reversible distillation column and has a lower energy loss than an ordinary distillation column. Their studies show that a concentric column has reduced column height, since the stripping section is configured concentrically around the rectifying section, and uses less utilities than a conventional column.

  11. Asymptotic speedups, bisimulation and distillation (Work in progress)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Neil; Hamilton, G. W.

    2015-01-01

    Distillation is a fully automatic program transformation that can yield superlinear program speedups. Bisimulation is a key to the proof that distillation is correct, i.e., preserves semantics. However the proof, based on observational equivalence, is insensitive to program running times. This pa....... This paper shows how distillation can give superlinear speedups on some “old chestnut” programs well-known from the early program transformation literature: naive reverse, factorial sum, and Fibonacci....

  12. Purification of Octacosanol by Agitated Short-Path Distillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许松林; 王军武; 徐世民; 王淑华

    2003-01-01

    Octacosanol is purified by agitated short-path distillation (SPD). Effects of evaporation temperature,number of SPD steps in series and other distillation method on the octacosanol recovery and decomposition are studied. Although the experimental results indicate some decomposition when the mixture of higher primary aliphatic alcohols is distillated by SPD, SPD is still an effective method to purify octacosanol. It is concluded that evaporation temperature affects greatly on the purity and recovery of octacosanol.

  13. Modification of yield and composition of essential oils by distillation time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field and laboratory experiments were conducted to model the length of the steam distillation time (DT) on essential oil yield and oil composition of peppermint, lemongrass, and palmarosa oils. The DTs tested were 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80, and 160 min for peppermint, and 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40...

  14. Multiple steady states detection in a packed-bed reactive distillation column using bifurcation analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramzan, Naveed; Faheem, Muhammad; Gani, Rafiqul

    2010-01-01

    A packed reactive distillation column producing ethyl tert-butyl ether from tert-butyl alcohol and ethanol was simulated for detection of multiple steady states using Aspen Plus®. A rate-based approach was used to make the simulation model more realistic. A base-case was first developed and fine...

  15. Evolution of Volatile Compounds during the Distillation of Cognac Spirit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Pierre; Athès, Violaine; Decloux, Martine Esteban; Ferrari, Gérald; Snakkers, Guillaume; Raguenaud, Patrick; Giampaoli, Pierre

    2017-09-06

    Cognac wine spirit has a complex composition in volatile compounds which contributes to its organoleptic profile. This work focused on the batch distillation process and, in particular, on volatile compounds specifically produced by chemical reactions during the distillation of Cognac wine spirit, traditionally conducted in two steps with charentais pot stills. The aim of this study was to characterize these volatile compounds formed during distillation. Sampling has been performed on the distillates and inside the boiler during a typical Cognac distillation. The analysis of these samples allowed us to perform a mass balance and to point out several types of volatile compounds whose quantities strongly increased during the distillation process. These compounds were distinguished by their chemical family. It has been found that the first distillation step was decisive for the formation of volatile compounds. Moreover, 2 esters, 3 aldehydes, 12 norisoprenoids, and 3 terpenes were shown to be generated during the process. These results suggest that some volatile compounds found in Cognac spirit are formed during distillation due to chemical reactions induced by high temperature. These findings give important indications to professional distillers in order to enhance the product's quality.

  16. Advances in Membrane Distillation for Water Desalination and Purification Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Gomez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Membrane distillation is a process that utilizes differences in vapor pressure to permeate water through a macro-porous membrane and reject other non-volatile constituents present in the influent water. This review considers the fundamental heat and mass transfer processes in membrane distillation, recent advances in membrane technology, module configurations, and the applications and economics of membrane distillation, and identifies areas that may lead to technological improvements in membrane distillation as well as the application characteristics required for commercial deployment.

  17. Integrated Process Design and Control of Reactive Distillation Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansouri, Seyed Soheil; Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted

    2015-01-01

    In this work, integrated design and control of reactive distillation processes is presented. Simple graphical design methods that are similar in concept to non-reactive distillation processes are used, such as reactive McCabe-Thiele method and driving force approach. The methods are based...... of this approach, it is shown that designing the reactive distillation process at the maximum driving force results in an optimal design in terms of controllability and operability. It is verified that the reactive distillation design option is less sensitive to the disturbances in the feed at the highest driving...

  18. Feasibility of Batch Reactive Distillation with Equilibrium-Limited Consecutive Reactions in Rectifier, Stripper, or Middle-Vessel Column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Lukács

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A general overall feasibility methodology of batch reactive distillation of multireaction systems is developed to study all the possible configurations of batch reactive distillation. The general model equations are derived for multireaction system with any number of chemical equilibrium-limited reactions and for any number of components. The present methodology is demonstrated with the detailed study of the transesterification of dimethyl carbonate in two reversible cascade reactions in batch reactive distillation process. Pure methanol is produced as distillate, and pure diethyl carbonate is produced at the bottom simultaneously in middle-vessel column; in each section, continuous feeding of ethanol is necessary. The results of feasibility study are successfully validated by rigorous simulations.

  19. Simulation and Optimization for Thermally Coupled Distillation Using Artificial Neural Network and Genetic Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王延敏; 姚平经

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, a new approach using artificial neural network and genetic algorithm for the optimization of the thermally coupled distillation is presented. Mathematical model can be constructed with artificial neural network based on the simulation results with ASPEN PLUS. Modified genetic algorithm was used to optimize the model. With the proposed model and optimization arithmetic, mathematical model can be calculated, decision variables and target value can be reached automatically and quickly. A practical example is used to demonstrate the algorithm.

  20. Semi-empirical characterization of a greenhouse-effect cascades solar distiller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khelif, C.; Touati, B. [Station d' Experimentation des Equipements Solaries en Milieu Saharien, Adrar (Algeria)

    2000-02-01

    The analysis in steady state of the different modelizations made on solar flat-plate functioning in low and average temperatures (especially the bridges of surface water) has allowed us to develop a simple linear model. By a swift experimental way, this model is able to approximate the thermal and optical performances of a greenhouse-effect solar distiller. This model has equally served for the verification of the time constant of the system in the same functioning and environment conditions. (author)

  1. 玉米干酒糟及其可溶物家禽表观代谢能预测模型%Prediction Model for APParent Metabolizable Energy of Corn Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles in Poultry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李婷婷; 蔡辉益; 闫海洁; 张姝; 刘国华; 杨禄良; 王晓睿

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to establish the optimal model for predicting poultry apparent metabolizable energy(AME)of corn distillers dried grains with solubles( DDGS)from proximate composition. A total of 30 corn DDGS were sampled from all representative manufacturers in China. All samples were analyzed for crude protein(CP),ether extract(EE),crude fiber(CF),ash,neutral detergent fiber(NDF),acid deter-gent fiber(ADF),lightness(L*),redness(a*),yellowness(b*)and gross energy(GE). A total of 72 Hy-Line brown roosters with body weight of(2.5±0.2)kg and at more than 18 weeks of age were randomly divided into 6 groups with 6 replicates per group and 2 roosters per replicate in a completely random experiment design,and each group randomly received one of corn DDGS samples for one time to detect the AME of corn DDGS in 5 periods of metabolism trial. The optimal regression model was established by phenotype correlation, path analysis and stepwise regression analysis between physical and chemical indicators and AME. The results showed as follows:1)all proximate composition content had different levels of variations. Means for each nu-trient were CP 27.86%,EE 8.49%,CF 8.52%,NDF 47.76%,ADF 15.55%,GE 19.47 MJ/ kg and AME 8.62 MJ/ kg,respectively,and the coefficients of variation were 8. 49%,36. 77%,18. 07%,22. 85%, 17.04%,4.31% and 12.87%,respectively. 2)The means of L*,a* and b* of corn DDGS samples were 36.62,7.59 and 18.52,respectively,and the coefficients of variation were 8.81%,15.88% and 16.34%,re-spectively. The optimal regression model for AME of corn DDGS is AME = - 3. 950( ± 2. 041)- 0. 533( ± 0.055 3)CF+0.245( ±0.033 3)EE+0.771( ±0.115)GE(R2 = 0.902,P<0.000 1).%本文旨在对玉米干酒糟及其可溶物(DDGS)进行概略养分分析,建立利用理化指标快速预测玉米 DDGS 家禽表观代谢能(AME)的最优模型。采集我国有代表性的30种玉米 DDGS样品,测定粗蛋白质(CP)、粗脂肪(EE)、粗纤维(CF)、粗灰

  2. Numerical study of a water distillation system using solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarzoum, K.; Zhani, K. [Sfax University, (Turkey); Bacha, H. Ben [Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Alkharj (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-02-15

    This paper tackles an optimization approach in order to boost the fresh water production of a new design of a solar still which is located at Sfax engineering national school in Tunisia. This optimization approach is based upon the above mentioned design's improvement by coupling the conventional solar still into at a condenser, solar air and water collector and humidifier. This new concept of a distiller solar still using humidification- dehumidification processes (HD) is exploited for the desalination purpose. As a result of this work, the humidification- dehumidification processes have an essential effect in improving the solar still performance. Performance has been predicted theoretically in terms of water and inner glass cover temperatures, the inlet temperature of air and water of the new concept of distiller on water condensation rate and fresh water production. A general model based on heat and mass transfers in each component of the unit has been developed in steady dynamic regime. The developed model is used, simulating the HD system, to investigate the influence of the meteorological and operating parameters on the system productivity. The obtained set of ordinary differential equations has been converted to a set of algebraic system of equations by the functional approximation method of orthogonal collocation. The developed model is used to simulate the HD system in order to investigate the steady state behavior of each component of the unit and the entire system exposed to a variation of the entrance parameters and meteorological conditions. The obtained results were compared with those of other studies and the comparison gives a good validity of the present results.

  3. Selective subsurface absorption of hydrogen in palladium using laser distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Jean Christophe; Saalfrank, Peter

    2009-08-28

    A theoretical model for the selective subsurface absorption of atomic hydrogen in a Pd(111) surface by infrared (IR) laser pulses is presented. The dynamics of the adsorbate is studied within the reduced density matrix approach. Energy and phase relaxation of the hydrogen atom are treated using the semigroup formalism. The vibrational excitation leading to subsurface absorption is performed using rationally designed pulses as well as IR laser pulses optimized on-the-fly. It is shown that dissipation can be used as a tool to transfer population to an otherwise inaccessible state via a mechanism known as "laser distillation." We demonstrate that when the reaction path is generalized from a reduced one-dimensional to full three-dimensional treatment of the system, the laser control strategy can prove very different.

  4. CFD simulation on membrane distillation of NaCl solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhaoguang XU; Yanqiu PAN; Yalan YU

    2009-01-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simu-lation that coupled an established heat and mass transfer model was carried out for the air-gap membrane distillation (AGMD) of NaCl solution to predict mass and heat behaviors of the process. The effects of temperature and flowrate on fluxes were first simulated and compared with available experimental data to verify the approach. The profiles of temperature, temperature polarization factor, and mass flux adjacent to the tubular carbon membrane surface were then examined under different feed Reynolds number in the computational domain. Results show that the temperature polarization phenomena can be reduced, and mass flux can be enhanced with increase in the feed Reynolds number.

  5. Troubleshooting Distillation Column by Gamma Ray Scanning Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAOXiaojun; WEIWeishen; 等

    2002-01-01

    A digitally controlled three-dimensional gamma-scanning apparatus was developed and used to troubleshoot distillation column in the present investigation. In a 140mm(ID) model colum, various malfunctional phenomena,both rate and process related conditions and structural problems, which may be frequently encountered in the operation of tray and packing columns, were experimentally simulated and tested with the developed scanning system. The experimental results showed that the scanning spectra can fairly reflect the simulated phenomena. The salient feature of the scanning apparatus lies in that it integrates the so called grid scan and computer-assisted tomography scan in a single system. It was confirmed that the gamma-scanning technique can serve as an important on-line troubleshooting and maintenance tool.

  6. Operation of a Batch Stripping Distillation Column

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A stripping batch distillation column is preferred when the amount of the light component in the feed is small and the products are to be recovered at high purity. The operation modes of a batch stripping are believed to be the same as those of a rectifier. However, the control system of a stripper is different. In this paper, we explore three different control methods with Hysys (Hyprotech Ltd. 1997) for a batch stripper. The main difference is the control scheme for reboiler liquid level: (a) controlled by reflux flow; (b) controlled by reboiler heat duty; (c) controlled by bottom product flow. The main characteristics of operating a batch stripper with different control scheme are presented in this paper. Guidelines are provided for the startup of a batch stripper, the effects of somecontrol tuning parameters on the column performance are discussed.

  7. Submerged membrane distillation for seawater desalination

    KAUST Repository

    Francis, Lijo

    2014-08-11

    A submerged membrane distillation (SMD) process for fresh water production from Red Sea water using commercially available hollow fiber membranes has been successfully employed and compared with the conventional direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process. The hollow fiber membranes have been characterized for its morphology using field effect scanning electron microscope. In SMD process, a bunch of hollow fiber membranes are glued together at both ends to get a simplified open membrane module assembly submerged into the coolant tank equipped with a mechanical stirrer. Hot feed stream is allowed to pass through the lumen side of the membrane using a feed pump. Continuous stirring at the coolant side will reduce the temperature and concentration polarization. During the conventional DCMD process, using feed-coolant streams with co-current and counter-current flows has been tested and the results are compared in this study. In SMD process, a water vapor flux of 10.2 kg m-2 h-1 is achieved when using a feed inlet temperature of 80°C and coolant temperature of 20°C. Under the same conditions, during conventional DCMD process, a water vapor flux of 11.6 and 10.1 kg m-2 h-1 were observed during counter-current and co-current flow streams, respectively. Results show that the water production in the SMD process is comparable with the conventional DCMD process, while the feed-coolant flow streams are in the co-current direction. During conventional DCMD operation, a 15% increase in the water production is observed when feed-coolant streams are in the counter-current direction compared to the co-current direction. © 2014 © 2014 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  8. Software development for the simulation and design of the cryogenic distillation cascade used for hydrogen isotope separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draghia, Mirela Mihaela, E-mail: mirela.draghia@istech-ro.com; Pasca, Gheorghe; Porcariu, Florina

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Software for designing and simulation of a cryogenic distillation cascade. • The simulation provides the distribution of all the molecular species involved along each cryogenic distillation column and also the temperature profile along the columns. • Useful information that are relevant for ITER Isotope Separation System. - Abstract: The hydrogen isotope separation system (ISS) based on cryogenic distillation is one of the key systems of the fuel cycle of a fusion reactor. Similar with ITER ISS in a Water Detritiation Facility for a CANDU reactor, one of the main systems is cryogenic distillation. The developments on the CANDU water detritiation systems have shown that a cascade of four cryogenic distillation columns is required in order to achieve the required decontamination factor of the heavy water and a tritium enrichment up to 99.9%. This paper aims to present the results of the design and simulation activities in support to the development of the Cernavoda Tritium Removal Facility (CTRF). Beside the main features of software developed “in house”, an introduction to the main relevant issues of a CANDU tritium removal facility for the ITER ISS is provided as well. Based on the input data (e.g. the flow rates, the composition of the gas supplied into the cryogenic distillation cascade, pressure drop along the column, liquid inventory) the simulation provides the distribution of all the molecular species involved along each cryogenic distillation column and also the temperature profile along the columns. The approach for the static and dynamic simulation of a cryogenic distillation process is based on theoretical plates model and the calculations are performed incrementally plate by plate.

  9. Students' construction of a simple steam distillation apparatus and development of creative thinking skills: A project-based learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diawati, Chansyanah; Liliasari, Setiabudi, Agus; Buchari

    2017-05-01

    This project-based learning combined the chemistry of separation process using steam distillation with engineering design process in an undergraduate chemistry course. Students built upon their knowledge of phase changes, immiscible mixture, and the relationship between vapor pressure and boiling point to complete a project of modifications steam distillation apparatus. The research method is a qualitative case study, which aims to describe how (1) the creative thinking skills of students emerged during six weeks of theproject, (2) students built steam distillation apparatus characteristics as the project product and (3) students response to the project-based learning model. The results showed that the students had successfully constructed a steam distillation apparatus using plastic kettle as steam generator and distillation flask. A Plastic tubewas used to drain water vapor from steam generator to distillation flask and to drain steam containing essential oil to the condenser. A biscuit tin filled with ice was used as a condenser. The time required until resulting distillate was fifteen minutes. The production of essential was conductive qualitatively by a very strong smell typical of essential oil and two phases of distillate. Throughout the project, students formulated the relevant and varied problem, formulated the goals, proposed the ideas of the apparatus and materials, draw apparatus design, constructed apparatus, tested apparatus, evaluated, and reported the project. Student response was generally positive. They were pleased, interested, more understanding the concepts and work apparatus principles, also implemented new ideas. These results indicate that project-based learning can develop students' creative thinking skills. Based on these results, it is necessary to conduct research and implemented project-based learning to other concepts.

  10. 27 CFR 19.65 - Experimental distilled spirits plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits plants. 19.65 Section 19.65 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Activities Not Subject to This Part § 19.65 Experimental distilled spirits plants....

  11. Desalination and Water Recycling by Air Gap Membrane Distillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meindersma, G.W.; Guijt, C.M.; de Haan, A.B.

    2006-01-01

    Membrane distillation (MD) is an emerging technology for desalination. Membrane distillation differs from other membrane technologies in that the driving force for desalination is the difference in vapour pressure of water across the membrane, rather than total pressure. The membranes for MD are

  12. 27 CFR 26.45 - Warehouse receipts covering distilled spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Warehouse receipts... Recordkeeping § 26.45 Warehouse receipts covering distilled spirits. The sale of warehouse receipts for... distilled spirits into the United States from Puerto Rico who sells, or offers for sale, warehouse...

  13. 27 CFR 26.211 - Warehouse receipts covering distilled spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Warehouse receipts... and Recordkeeping § 26.211 Warehouse receipts covering distilled spirits. The sale of warehouse..., warehouse receipts for distilled spirits stored in warehouses, or elsewhere, must register and keep...

  14. Desalination and water recycling by air gap membrane distillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meindersma, G.W.; Guijt, C.M.; Haan, de A.B.

    2006-01-01

    Membrane distillation (MD) is an emerging technology for desalination. Membrane distillation differs from other membrane technologies in that the driving force for desalination is the difference in vapour pressure of water across the membrane, rather than total pressure. The membranes for MD are hyd

  15. Improved microwave steam distillation apparatus for isolation of essential oils. Comparison with conventional steam distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahraoui, Naima; Vian, Maryline Abert; Bornard, Isabelle; Boutekedjiret, Chahrazed; Chemat, Farid

    2008-11-14

    Steam distillation (SD) is routinely used by analysts for the isolation of essential oils from herbs, flowers and spices prior to gas chromatographic analysis. In this work, a new process design and operation for an improved microwave steam distillation (MSD) of essential oils from aromatic natural products was developed. To demonstrate its feasibility, MSD was compared with the conventional technique, SD, for the analysis of volatile compounds from dry lavender flowers (Lavandula angustifolia Mill., Lamiaceae). Essential oils isolated by MSD were quantitatively (yield) and qualitatively (aromatic profile) similar to those obtained by SD, but MSD was better than SD in terms of rapidity (6 min versus 30 min for lavender flowers), thereby allowing substantial savings of costs in terms of time and energy. Lavender flowers treated by MSD and SD were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Micrographs provide evidence of more rapid opening of essential oil glands treated by MSD, in contrast to conventional SD.

  16. Integrated Process Design and Control of Reactive Distillation Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansouri, Seyed Soheil; Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted

    2015-01-01

    In this work, integrated process design and control of reactive distillation processes is presented. Simple graphical design methods that are similar in concept to non-reactive distillation processes are used, such as reactive McCabe-Thiele method and driving force approach. The methods are based...... on the element concept, which is used to translate a system of compounds into elements. The operation of the reactive distillation column at the highest driving force and other candidate points is analyzed through analytical solution as well as rigorous open-loop and closed-loop simulations. By application...... of this approach, it is shown that designing the reactive distillation process at the maximum driving force results in an optimal design in terms of controllability and operability. It is verified that the reactive distillation design option is less sensitive to the disturbances in the feed at the highest driving...

  17. Improved semidefinite programming upper bound on distillable entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Duan, Runyao

    2016-11-01

    An additive and semidefinite programming (SDP) computable entanglement measure is introduced to upper bound the amount of distillable entanglement in bipartite quantum states by operations completely preserving the positivity of partial transpose (PPT). This quantity is always smaller than or equal to the logarithmic negativity, the previously best known SDP bound on distillable entanglement, and the inequality is strict in general. Furthermore, a succinct SDP characterization of the one-copy PPT deterministic distillable entanglement for any given state is also obtained, which provides a simple but useful lower bound on the PPT distillable entanglement. Remarkably, there is a genuinely mixed state of which both bounds coincide with the distillable entanglement, while being strictly less than the logarithmic negativity.

  18. The Analysis of Distillation Tray Column Efficiency by Fluid Dynamics and Mass Transfer Computation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春江; 袁希钢; 余国琮

    2005-01-01

    It has long been found that the flow pattern of the liquid phase on distillation tray is of great importance on distillation process performance. But until now, there was very few published work on quantitative investigation of this subject. By combining the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with the mass transfer equation, a theoretical model is proposed for predicting the details of velocity and concentration distributions as well as the tray efficiency of distillation tray column. Using the proposed model, four different cases corresponding to different assumptions of liquid and vapor flowing condition for a distillation tray column were investigated. In Case I, the distributions of velocity and concentration of the incoming liquid from the downcomer and the uprising vapor from the underneath tray spacing are uniform. In Case Ⅱ, the distribution of the incoming liquid is non-uniform but the uprising vapor is uniform. In Case Ⅲ, the distribution of the incoming liquid is uniform but the uprising vapor is non-uniform.In Case IV, the distributions of both the incoming liquid and the uprising vapor are non-uniform. The details of velocity and concentration distributions on a multiple sieve tray distillation column in four different cases were simulated using the proposed model. It is found that the shape of the simulated concentration profiles of vapor and the liquid is quite different from case to case. The computed results also show that the tray efficiency is highly reduced by the maldistribution of velocity and concentration of the incoming liquid and uprising vapor. The tray efficiency for Case Ⅰ is higher than Case Ⅱ or Case Ⅲ, and that for Case Ⅳis the lowest. It also reveals that the accumulated effect of maldistribution becomes more pronounced when the number of column trays increased. The present study demonstrates that the use of computational method to predict the mass transfer efficiency for the tray column, especially for the large one, is

  19. Determination of feasibility and advantages of using additional turbines to reduce energy consumption and CO2 emission of a distillation column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svang-Ariyaskul Apichit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Distillation is a process that consumes an extensive amount of energy and emits an enormous amount of CO2. It is attractive to reduce the energy consumption and CO2 emission for distillation. A new design of distillation is proposed by adding turbines in the vapor process streams before the condenser and after a reboiler to produce domestic electricity. As a result, this new design helps in reducing energy consumption and CO2 emission. The key variables are the distillate to feed ratio and the reflux ratio because they are the direct factors that control the vapor flowrates supplying the turbines. The distillation of an alkane mixture of C4 - C8 commonly found in a petroleum refinery was used as a test model to prove the process feasibility. The energy consumption and CO2 emission of the new process are reduced to 0.93 - 0.96 and 0.89 - 0.90 of the conventional process, respectively. This new design increases process efficiency in terms of second law efficiency by reducing the entropy generation from the conventional distillation at low distillate to feed ratios and reflux ratios. The distillation with additional turbines is promising to reduce energy consumption and CO2 emission and to increase process efficiency.

  20. Experimental Verification of Dynamic Operation of Continuous and Multivessel Batch Distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittgens, Bernd

    1999-07-01

    This thesis presents a rigorous model based on first principles for dynamic simulation of the composition dynamics of a staged high-purity continuous distillation columns and experiments performed to verify it. The thesis also demonstrates the importance of tray hydraulics to obtain good agreement between simulation and experiment and derives analytic expressions for dynamic time constants for use in simplified and vapour dynamics. A newly developed multivessel batch distillation column consisting of a reboiler, intermediate vessels and a condenser vessel provides a generalization of previously proposed batch distillation schemes. The total reflux operation of this column was presented previously and the present thesis proposes a simple feedback control strategy for its operation based on temperature measurements. The feasibility of this strategy is demonstrated by simulations and verified by laboratory experiments. It is concluded that the multivessel column can be easily operated with simple temperature controllers, where the holdups are only controlled indirectly. For a given set of temperature setpoints, the final product compositions are independent of the initial feed composition. When the multivessel batch distillation column is compared to a conventional batch column, both operated under feedback control, it is found that the energy required to separate a multicomponent mixture into highly pure products is much less for the multivessel system. This system is also the simplest one to operate.

  1. Inference of conversion and purity for ETBE reactive distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Yu-Chu

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Reactive distillation (RD, an unconventional and attractive technique, has been applied in fuel ether production. A typical application of RD is the synthesis of the widely used methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE. RD has also been found to have potential to produce high quality ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE, a potential alternative to MTBE. A RD process integrates conventional reaction and separation into a single unit, resulting in extra complexity and dual process objectives, i.e. maximization of reactant conversion and purity of products. The conversion and the purity are thus important variables to be controlled in RD of ETBE. Unfortunately, both of them are not economically and reliably available for closed-loop control. This study aims to develop an effective method to infer the conversion and the purity from multiple temperature measurements that are easily available on-line and in real time. Nonlinear inferential models are recommended for ETBE synthesis with a ten-stage pilot scale RD column. The models are two-variable third-order regressive models, in which the temperature measurements of the reboiler and the bottom reactive section are employed. Experimental design, model identification, and model testing are also investigated.

  2. Optimization of the reflux ratio for a stage distillation column based on an improved particle swarm algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Tan, Shiyu; Dong, Lichun

    2010-01-01

    the searching ability of basic particle swarm algorithm significantly. An example of utilizing the improved algorithm to solve the mathematical model was demonstrated; the result showed that it is efficient and convenient to optimize the reflux ratio for a distillation column by using the mathematical model......A mathematical model relating operation profits with reflux ratio of a stage distillation column was established. In order to optimize the reflux ratio by solving the nonlinear objective function, an improved particle swarm algorithm was developed and has been proved to be able to enhance...

  3. Input-Output Decoupling of a Distillation Column LV-Configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdi, H.; Jørgensen, Sten Bay; Bahar (fratrådt), Mehrdad

    1996-01-01

    Introduction, digraph approach, distillation column, digraph analysis, solution analysis, discussion and conclusion, references.......Introduction, digraph approach, distillation column, digraph analysis, solution analysis, discussion and conclusion, references....

  4. Improved waste water vapor compression distillation technology. [for Spacelab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, K. L.; Nuccio, P. P.; Reveley, W. F.

    1977-01-01

    The vapor compression distillation process is a method of recovering potable water from crewman urine in a manned spacecraft or space station. A description is presented of the research and development approach to the solution of the various problems encountered with previous vapor compression distillation units. The design solutions considered are incorporated in the preliminary design of a vapor compression distillation subsystem. The new design concepts are available for integration in the next generation of support systems and, particularly, the regenerative life support evaluation intended for project Spacelab.

  5. Exergy analysis of a MSF distillation plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahraman, Nafiz [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Erciyes University, Kayseri (Turkey)]. E-mail: nafiz@erciyes.edu.tr; Cengel, Yunus A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering/312, University of Nevada, Reno, NV 89557 (United States)

    2005-09-15

    In this paper, a large MSF distillation plant in the gulf area is analyzed thermodynamically using actual plant operation data. Exergy flow rates are evaluated throughout the plant, and the exergy flow diagram is prepared. The rates of exergy destruction and their percentages are indicated on the diagram so that the locations of highest exergy destruction can easily be identified. The highest exergy destruction (77.7%) occurs within the MSF unit, as expected, and this can be reduced by increasing the number of flashing stages. The exergy destruction in the pumps and motors account for 5.3% of the total, and this also can be reduced by using high efficiency motors and pumps. The plant is determined to have a second law efficiency of just 4.2%, which is very low. This indicates that there are major opportunities in the plant to reduce exergy destruction and, thus, the amount of electric and thermal energy supplied, making the operation of the plant more cost effective.

  6. Solar distiller of pyramidal covering and isolation in composite material the Plaster base and EPS; Destilador solar de cobertura piramidal e isolamento em material composito a base de Gesso e EPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, R. D.; Ribeiro, F. A.; Mendes, J. U.; Lima, R. S.; Souza, L. G.; Abreu, R. F.

    2008-07-01

    To demonstrate then term viability calorific and economic of the material, compared to the others conventional distiller, here is presented a solar distiller os simple stage, with has as main differential characteristics the geometry of the covering and the material used to make its coating. the model built has an area of 0,25 m{sup 2} and pyramidal covering, witch allows the collection of the distillate water in the four faces, different of just two like is found in the conventional distiller, besides promote the absorption of the radiation because of its versatility about the positioning of the sun. Not despite, its built is favored for the low cost associated and the agility in the process because it is made with a mix of gypsum, EPS ground and water, witch also attributes to the distiller thermal properties more favorable to the process of distillation. (Author)

  7. Membrane augmented distillation to separate solvents from water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu; Baker, Richard W.; Daniels, Rami; Aldajani, Tiem; Ly, Jennifer H.; Alvarez, Franklin R.; Vane, Leland M.

    2012-09-11

    Processes for removing water from organic solvents, such as ethanol. The processes include distillation to form a rectified overhead vapor, compression of the rectified vapor, and treatment of the compressed vapor by two sequential membrane separation steps.

  8. Entanglement distillation for three-particle W class states

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Z L; Cao, Zhuo-Liang; Yang, Ming

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we propose two general entanglement distillation protocols, which can concentrate the non-maximally entangled pure W class state. The general protocols are mainly based on the unitary transformation on the auxiliary particle and one of the three entangled particles, and in the second protocol, the entanglement distillation includes two meanings, namely, extracting the concentrated tripartite entangled W state and obtaining the maximally entangled bipartite state from the garbage state, which gives no contribution to the distillation of non-maximally entangled pure W class state. We can make use of the garbage in the distillation process, and make the entanglement waste in quantum communication as small as possible. A feasible physical scheme is suggested based on the cavity QED.

  9. Propagating plasma discontinuity in a tube immersed in distilled water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jian; Tang, Jingfeng; Wei, Liqiu; Zhang, Nan; Wang, Youyin; Yu, Daren

    2016-04-01

    In a dielectric tube partially surrounded by distilled water, a propagating discontinuity is observed in a cold argon plasma jet at atmospheric pressure in both the laminar and turbulent flow regimes. Through electrical and optical diagnostics, the mechanism of formation for this phenomenon is investigated. Results show that the strong polarization of the distilled water, the constraint from the electric field (or a sufficiently high electric field), and the transport of the active species are in combination responsible for the propagating plasma discontinuity. Indeed, smaller surface areas of the tube surrounded by distilled water, shorter distances between the distilled water and the ground electrodes, as well as larger gas flow rates can together make the discontinuous discharge channel appear more readily. In particular, when the flow switches from laminar to turbulent, the plasma behavior of the discontinuity no longer depends on the gas flow rate. This is mostly attributed to the extreme instability of turbulence which further suppresses the transport of active species.

  10. Using commercial simulators for determining flash distillation curves for petroleum fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Erdmann

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a new method for estimating the equilibrium flash vaporisation (EFV distillation curve for petro-leum fractions by using commercial simulators. A commercial simulator was used for implementing a stationary mo-del for flash distillation; this model was adjusted by using a distillation curve obtained from standard laboratory ana-lytical assays. Such curve can be one of many types (eg ASTM D86, D1160 or D2887 and involves an experimental procedure simpler than that required for obtaining an EFV curve. Any commercial simulator able to model petroleum can be used for the simulation (HYSYS and CHEMCAD simulators were used here. Several types of petroleum and fractions were experimentally analysed for evaluating the proposed method; this data was then put into a process si-mulator (according to the proposed method to estimate the corresponding EFV curves. HYSYS- and CHEMCAD-estimated curves were compared to those produced by two traditional estimation methods (Edmister’s and Maswell’s methods. Simulation-estimated curves were close to average Edmister and Maxwell curves in all cases. The propo-sed method has several advantages; it avoids the need for experimentally obtaining an EFV curve, it does not de-pend on the type of experimental curve used to fit the model and it enables estimating several pressures by using just one experimental curve as data.

  11. Correlations estimate volume distilled using gravity, boiling point

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, A.; Consuelo Perez de Alba, M. del; Manriquez, L.; Guardia Mendoz, P. de la [Inst. Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico City (Mexico)

    1995-10-23

    Mathematical nd graphic correlations have been developed for estimating cumulative volume distilled as a function of crude API gravity and true boiling point (TBP). The correlations can be used for crudes with gravities of 21--34{degree} API and boiling points of 150--540 C. In distillation predictions for several mexican and Iraqi crude oils, the correlations have exhibited accuracy comparable to that of laboratory measurements. The paper discusses the need for such a correlation and the testing of the correlation.

  12. Distillation of the two-mode squeezed state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurochkin, Yury; Prasad, Adarsh S; Lvovsky, A I

    2014-02-21

    We experimentally demonstrate entanglement distillation of the two-mode squeezed state obtained by parametric down-conversion. Applying the photon annihilation operator to both modes, we raise the fraction of the photon-pair component in the state, resulting in the increase of both squeezing and entanglement by about 50%. Because of the low amount of initial squeezing, the distilled state does not experience significant loss of Gaussian character.

  13. Exergy Rate Profile of Multicomponent Distillation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kehinde Adewale Adesina

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Exergy rate profiles, exergetic efficiency and irreversibility were used to examine the driving forces in multicomponent distillation system with the view to identifying feasible and efficient operating parameters. The mixture used comprised of 5% propane, 15% iso-butane, 25% nbutane, 20% iso-pentane and 35% n-pentane. Operating variables were feed temperature (-30 oC and -80 oC, pressure (800 kPa and 1200 kPa, and reflux-ratio (2 and 6. Stage-by-stage system exergy analysis was estimated. Column profiles of base case -30 oC, -80 oC, -30 oC-reflus ratio 6, -80 oC reflux ratio 6 and base case reflux ratio 6 did not crossed thus are thermodynamically feasible. Base case -30 oC-reflux ratio 2, -80 oC-reflux ratio 2, and base case-reflux ratio 2 were crossed and constricted and are infeasible. Base case results gave efficiency of 81.7% at depropanizer and 65.2% at debutanizer. Base cases sensitivity results with -30 oC, -80 oC and reflux ratio 6, efficiency range 57.40 – 70% and 65.20% - 54.90% for depropanizer and debutanizer respectively. Spitted cases gave 81.7% and 62.20% with more scatter profiles. Splitted feed base case -30 oC design gave the lowest overall system exergy loss rate of 1.12E+6 and efficiency of 95.70%. Design feasible parameters, system efficiency and irreversibility which form basis

  14. Novel method for the design and assessment of direct contact membrane distillation modules

    OpenAIRE

    Field, RW; Wu, HY; Tay, WZ

    2016-01-01

    An equivalent effectiveness-number of heat transfer units (ε-NTUMD) method was developed for direct contact membrane distillation. Efficient performance rating and design sizing for individual DCMD modules can be rapidly made based upon limited experimental data. Using this method, the construction of a specific finite element model and their associated costs, involving both time and expenditure, are avoided. Instead the module performance or sizing requirements can be estimated efficiently u...

  15. Wine distillates: practical operating recipe formulation for stills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Daniel; Pérez-Correa, J Ricardo; Biegler, Lorenz T; Agosin, Eduardo

    2005-08-10

    Consumer perceptions of flavors are associated with the chemical composition of foods. However, consumer preferences change; therefore, it is necessary for food manufacturers to be able to adapt their products. Unlike in aged spirits, the chemical composition of young spirits is determined during distillation; therefore, this is where distillers must tailor their operating recipes to the new trends. Even for an experienced distiller, the complexity of the process makes adapting the operating recipe far from straightforward. In this study, we developed a methodology for generating practical recipes that makes use of computer simulations and optimization techniques. We used Pisco Brandy, a young Muscat wine distillate from Chile and Peru as our case study. Even so, because our methodology is independent of the chemical composition of the broth, it can be applied throughout the industry. Drawing on the experience and preferences of industry enologists, we designed a preferred distillate and used our methodology to obtain the appropriate recipe. This recipe was validated in lab scale experiments, and we obtained a much closer distillate to the desired prescription than commercial products.

  16. Thermo-economic performance of inclined solar water distillation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agboola Phillips O.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the thermo-economic performance of different configurations of inclined solar water desalination for parameters such as daily production, efficiency, system cost and distilled water production cost. The four different configurations considered for this study are as follows; 1. Inclined solar water distillation with bare absorber plate (IISWD with daily production of 5.46 kg/m2 day and daily efficiency of 48.3%. 2. Inclined solar water distillation with wick on absorber plate (IISWDW with daily production of 6.41kg/m2 day and daily efficiency 50.3%. 3. Inclined solar water distillation with wire mesh on absorber plate (IISWDWM with daily production n of 3.03 kg/m2 day and daily efficiency 32.6%. 4. Inclined solar water distillation with bare absorber plate (ISWD. (Control System with daily production of 3.25 kg/m2 day and daily efficiency of 40.1%. The systems potable water cost price ranges from 0.03 $/L for IISWDW to 0.06$/L for IISWDWM System. All the systems are economically and technically feasible as a solar distillation system for potable water in Northern Cyprus. The price of potable water from water vendors/hawkers ranges from 0.11-0.16 $/L. It is more economically viable to have the rooftop inclined solar water desalination system than procuring potable water from vendors.`

  17. Toxicity of petroleum hydrocarbon distillates to soil organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cermak, Janet H; Stephenson, Gladys L; Birkholz, Detlef; Wang, Zhendi; Dixon, D George

    2010-12-01

    Canadian standards for petroleum hydrocarbons in soil are based on four distillate ranges (F1, C6-C10; F2, >C10-C16; F3, >C16-C34; and F4, >C34). Concerns have arisen that the ecological soil contact standards for F3 may be overly conservative. Oil distillates were prepared and characterized, and the toxicity of F3 and two subfractions, F3a (>C16-C23) and F3b (>C23-C34), to earthworms (Eisenia andrei), springtails (Orthonychiurus folsomi), and northern wheatgrass (Elymus lanceolatus), as well as the toxicity of F2 to earthworms, was determined. Clean soil was spiked with individual distillates and measured concentrations were determined for select tests. Results agree with previous studies with these distillates. Reported toxicities of crude and petroleum products to invertebrates were generally comparable to that of F3 and F3a. The decreasing order of toxicity was F3a > F3 > F3b with invertebrates, and F3a > F3b > F3 with plants. The toxicities of F3a and F3b were not sufficiently different to recommend regulating hydrocarbons based on these distillate ranges. The results also suggest that test durations may be insufficient for determining toxicity of higher distillate ranges, and that the selection of species and endpoints may significantly affect interpretation of toxicity test results.

  18. Analytical and experimental investigation of the effect of dyes on solar distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajvanshi, A.K.

    1979-01-01

    An analytical and experimental study of the effect of dyes on solar distillation was conducted in this study. The analytical model developed treated the transient heat transfer inside the dye-water system as one dimensional. The bulk fluid was discretized into layers with conduction, convection and radiation interactions occurring between them. Coupled with this was the energy exchange from the surface of water to the glass cover by convection, radiation and evaporation of water. The bottom surface of the distiller was assumed to be insulated and a black absorber. A finite difference technique was used in solving the nonlinear partial differential equations. In the computer program the measured solar radiation, ambient temperature and the wind speed was used as input; the output from the program was the temperature-time history of the water layers and glass cover and the distiller output. The experimental investigation was conducted using two identical solar stills (4 ft. x 4 ft. x 1 ft.). The control still contained water only while the other had dye-water solution. The dyes used were Black Napthylamine, Red Carmoisine and Dark Green, with various concentrations. The results frm the model were compared with those from the experiment and the agreement between them was found to be excellent. The effects of ambient temperature, wind velocity and dye concentration on still productivity were subsequently investigated. The model predicted a decrease in output with increase in ambient temperature and an increase in still productivity with wind speed. An increase in distillate output resulted with increasing dye concentration, but become independent of concentration atfer 500 ppm.

  19. Floral aroma improvement of Muscat spirits by packed column distillation with variable internal reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias-Guiu, Pau; Rodríguez-Bencomo, Juan José; Orriols, Ignacio; Pérez-Correa, José Ricardo; López, Francisco

    2016-12-15

    The organoleptic quality of wine distillates depends on raw materials and the distillation process. Previous work has shown that rectification columns in batch distillation with fixed reflux rate are useful to obtain distillates or distillate fractions with enhanced organoleptic characteristics. This study explores variable reflux rate operating strategies to increase the levels of terpenic compounds in specific distillate fractions to emphasize its floral aroma. Based on chemical and sensory analyses, two distillate heart sub-fractions obtained with the best operating strategy found, were compared with a distillate obtained in a traditional alembic. Results have shown that a drastic reduction of the reflux rate at an early stage of the heart cut produced a distillate heart sub-fraction with a higher concentration of terpenic compounds and lower levels of negative aroma compounds. Therefore, this sub-fraction presented a much more noticeable floral aroma than the distillate obtained with a traditional alembic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Thermodynamic Investigation of the Reduction-Distillation Process for Rare Earth Metals Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, W. D.; Azimi, G.

    2017-08-01

    Owing to their high vapor pressure, the four rare earth metals samarium, europium, thulium, and ytterbium are produced by reduction-distillation whereby their oxides are reduced with metallic lanthanum in vacuo, and the produced metal is subsequently vaporized off. Here, we performed a thorough thermodynamic investigation to establish a fundamental understanding of the reduction-distillation process. Thermodynamic functions including vapor pressures, Gibbs free energies, and enthalpies of reaction were calculated and compared with available experimental data. Furthermore, the kinetics of the process was explored and theoretical evaporation rates were calculated from thermodynamic data. The thermodynamic model developed in this work can help optimize processing conditions to maximize the yield and improve the overall process.

  1. Experimental and theoretical analyses of temperature polarization effect in vacuum membrane distillation

    KAUST Repository

    Alsaadi, Ahmad Salem

    2014-08-13

    This paper discusses the effect of temperature polarization in Vacuum Membrane Distillation (VMD). The main motivation for using VMD in this work is that this module configuration is much simpler and more suitable for this kind of investigation than the other MD configurations such as Direct Contact Membrane Distillation (DCMD). The coupling between heat and mass transfer mechanisms at the feed-membrane interface is presented from a theoretical point of view. In addition, a new simple graphical method and a mathematical model for determining VMD flux are presented. The two methods used in evaluating the extent of temperature polarization effect on water vapor flux (flux sensitivity factors and temperature polarization coefficient (TPC)) are also analyzed and compared. The effect of integrating a heat recovery system in a large scale module on the TPC coefficient has also been studied and presented in this paper. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  2. Process energy efficiency in pervaporation and vacuum membrane distillation separation of 2,3-butanediol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, P.; Kumar, A. [National Research Council Canada (Canada)

    2011-10-15

    2,3- butanediol has not been produced lately as a fermentation product. Recovery of 2,3- butanediol by distillation is a very energy-intensive process, due to its low concentration in fermentation broth and strong hydrogen bonding interaction between water molecules. An initiative for recovery, an integrated process comprising solvent extraction and pervaporation (PV), has been proposed. This paper presents the energy efficiency of the pervaporative and vacuum membrane distillation separation processes of 2,3- butanediol. The mass and energy balance of the pervaporation process are simulated using a numerical model that is presented in this paper. From the study, it was observed that the distribution of the evaporation heat required over the membrane is asymmetric and within 60% of the membrane area, more than 85% of the heat was consumed. It was also discovered that recycling permeate improves the recovery process and enhances the energy efficiency of the process.

  3. Environmental Considerations of Wastewater Discharge from Solar Distillation Site to Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Nezhad Naderi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Initial dilution and its characteristics play important roles in designing of effluent disposal into the sea. Using the mixing model is very common for estimation of initial dilution. In this study the application of jet system has been addressed for waste disposal of Kish Port solar desalination site by using empirical equations. Initial dilution is related to water depth, diameter, flow rate, the distance between theopening outlets and velocity of the sea water. As the results of this paper, the critical and the best initial dilution were determined with regard to different environmental conditions. For comparison of the effluent disposal systems is investigated application of jet system in Kishport solar distillation with system of waste disposal of Khamirport solar distillation. The performance of the T-shaped diffuser for waste disposal is cheaper than the jet system because in it is consumed the length of duct from beach to sea.

  4. Catalytic reactive distillation process development for 1,1 diethoxy butane production from renewable sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agirre, I; Barrio, V L; Güemez, B; Cambra, J F; Arias, P L

    2011-01-01

    Some acetals can be produced from renewable resources (bioalcohols) and seem to be good candidates for different applications such as oxygenated diesel additives. In the present case the production of 1,1 diethoxy butane from bioethanol and butanal is presented. Butanal can be obtained from biobutanol following a partial oxidation or a dehydrogenation process. In this paper innovative process development about the synthesis of the mentioned acetal including catalytic reactive distillation experimental and simulation results will be presented and discussed. Katapak SP modules containing Amberlyst 47 resin were used as structured catalytic packings. This reactive system allowed reaching higher conversions than the equilibrium ones at the same temperatures. All the experimental data gathered allowed to tune a simulation model for the reactive distillation operation which showed a fairly good behavior in order to perform initial 1,1 diethoxy butane production process design studies.

  5. Thermodynamic Investigation of the Reduction-Distillation Process for Rare Earth Metals Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, W. D.; Azimi, G.

    2017-10-01

    Owing to their high vapor pressure, the four rare earth metals samarium, europium, thulium, and ytterbium are produced by reduction-distillation whereby their oxides are reduced with metallic lanthanum in vacuo, and the produced metal is subsequently vaporized off. Here, we performed a thorough thermodynamic investigation to establish a fundamental understanding of the reduction-distillation process. Thermodynamic functions including vapor pressures, Gibbs free energies, and enthalpies of reaction were calculated and compared with available experimental data. Furthermore, the kinetics of the process was explored and theoretical evaporation rates were calculated from thermodynamic data. The thermodynamic model developed in this work can help optimize processing conditions to maximize the yield and improve the overall process.

  6. Oxidative production of xylonic acid using xylose in distillation stillage of cellulosic ethanol fermentation broth by Gluconobacter oxydans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongsen; Han, Xushen; Wei, Chengxiang; Bao, Jie

    2017-01-01

    An oxidative production process of xylonic acid using xylose in distillation stillage of cellulosic ethanol fermentation broth was designed, experimentally investigated, and evaluated. Dry dilute acid pretreated and biodetoxified corn stover was simultaneously saccharified and fermented into 59.80g/L of ethanol (no xylose utilization). 65.39g/L of xylose was obtained in the distillation stillage without any concentrating step after ethanol was distillated. Then the xylose was completely converted into 66.42g/L of xylonic acid by Gluconobacter oxydans. The rigorous Aspen Plus modeling shows that the wastewater generation and energy consumption was significantly reduced comparing to the previous xylonic acid production process using xylose in pretreatment liquid. This study provided a practical process option for xylonic acid production from lignocellulose feedstock with significant reduction of wastewater and energy consumption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Quantum distillation and confinement of vacancies in a doublon sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Lin; Zundel, Laura A.; Carrasquilla, Juan; Reinhard, Aaron; Wilson, Joshua M.; Rigol, Marcos; Weiss, David S.

    2015-04-01

    Ultracold atomic gases have revolutionized the study of non-equilibrium dynamics in quantum many-body systems. Many counterintuitive non-equilibrium effects have been observed, such as suppressed thermalization in a one-dimensional (1D) gas, the formation of repulsive self-bound dimers, and identical behaviours for attractive and repulsive interactions. Here, we observe the expansion of a bundle of ultracold 1D Bose gases in a flat-bottomed optical lattice potential. By combining in situ measurements with photoassociation, we follow the spatial dynamics of singly, doubly and triply occupied lattice sites. The system sheds interaction energy by dissolving some doublons and triplons. Some singlons quantum distil out of the doublon centre, whereas others remain confined. Our Gutzwiller mean-field model captures these experimental features in a physically clear way. These experiments might be used to study thermalization in systems with particle losses, the evolution of quantum entanglement or, if applied to fermions, to prepare very low entropy states.

  8. Simulation of Extractive Distillation for Recycling Tetrahydrofuran from Pharmaceutical Wastewater with Chem CAD Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoguang Wang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The functions and application of ChemCAD simulation software was introduced. Mathematical model of extraction distillation process was established. The extractive distillation process for preparation of tetrahydrofuran (THF was simulated by SCDS rectification model in ChemCAD software, methanol-THF-solution and ethanedol-lithium chloride solution as extractant. Influence of extraction agent on vapor-liquid equilibrium curve of methanol-THF system and effects of theoretical plate number, feed and extractant input positions, extraction agent ratio (m(chlorinated lithium: v(ethanediol, extractant ratio (m (extractant: m(feed and reflux ratio on tower top mass fraction of THF were investigated. The results of simulation were compared with experimental data. Under optimum extraction distillation conditions: theoretical plate 30, extractant plate 6, feed plate 18, extraction agent ratio 0.24g/mL, extractant ratio 2.7 and reflux ratio 5.0, mass fraction of THF on tower top can reach 97.2%. The distribution characteristic parameters of the column were simulated. The results of simulation and experimental data agree satisfactorily.

  9. APPLYING THE HEAT INTEGRATION IN ORDER TO ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS MINIMIZATION IN DISTILLATION COLUMNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Javid, A. Emamzadeh, A. A. Hamidi, A. Arjmandzadeh

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the close relationship between the energy and environmental problems, recovering technology and optimizing energy consumption have a major role in environment protection by minimization the atmospheric pollutants such as SOX, COX, NOX. This minimization may decrease the greenhouse effect, and the ozone layer destruction. On the other hand, optimization of Energy consumption and its recovering may minimize the water and hot oil consumption at the heat exchangers (reboilers and condensers in petroleum distillation columns, specially. The present research has been performed about the kerosene pre-fractionation unit of one of the country's oil refineries. This system includes two distillation columns with a simple arrangement. Considering that the distillation section consumes a great deal of energy in the chemical and petroleum industries, hence studying the ways in which we may decrease this consumption is of great importance. One of these retrofit solutions is the heat integration, which is going to be presented in this research with a different idea from the other previous methods. This method makes it possible to add a shell and tube heat exchanger for performing a part of condensation and evaporation operation which can decrease the heat duties of reboilers and one of the condensers. To this end , the distillation columns were studied in the process and then the proposed model of columns arrangement were simulated by heat integration with all input and output streams using the Aspen Plus software, version 11.1 and the Rad Frac model in this software. The result has showed itself as a save of 14.26%, 10.86% and 14.26% in energy, water and hot oil consumption, respectively. On the other hand this system will decrease emission of SO2 and CO2 to atmosphere, 28 kg/h and 837 kg/h, respectively.

  10. The demand for distilled spirits: an empirical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCornac, D C; Filante, R W

    1984-03-01

    Economic and social factors that explain variations in the consumption of distilled spirits among political jurisdictions are examined. Particular emphasis is placed on the economic roles of price and the unemployment rate. Using multivariate-analysis regression, equations are estimated for three separate time periods of 1970-1975. In addition, a pooled cross-sectional time-series analysis is undertaken for the entire time period. The dependent variable is the apparent per capita consumption of distilled spirits. The independent variables include price, availability and socioeconomic factors that determine consumption patterns. The results indicate that the price elasticity of demand for distilled spirits inelastic, and implies that a 1% change in price will result in a less than 1% change in the amount purchased, everything else being equal. A rise in price will increase total revenue. Thus, a tax increase on the commodity will generate an increase in tax revenue. The unemployment rate is shown to have a significant impact on the consumption of distilled spirits. The results suggest that further study into the relationship between unemployment and the consumption of distilled spirits is desirable.

  11. Production and composition of cider spirits distilled in "alquitara".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrera, Roberto Rodríguez; Valles, Belén Suarez; Hevia, Ana García; Fernandez, Ovidio García; Tascón, Norman Fernandez; Alonso, Juan José Mangas

    2006-12-27

    The capacity of alquitara (a traditional distillation system) to produce cider brandies is evaluated. To do so, the chemical composition of 12 fractions obtained during the distillation process and the cider brandies obtained from five ciders were analyzed (alcohol strength, methanol, volatile substances, furfural, and metals), taking into account European and Spanish legislation. During the course of distillation, an important increase in methanol, furfural, 2-phenylethanol, and metals in the last fractions was observed, while fusel oils were more abundant in the first fractions collected. Only acetaldehyde behaved differently, showing a minimum concentration in the middle fractions that might be explained by its formation on the surface of alquitara. On the other hand, the final distillates obtained by means of this method complied with the considered regulations. Worth highlighting in this regard are the low levels of a potential toxin such as methanol, as well as the detection of a constant ratio for methanol, ethanol, and fusel oil for the pairs of cider/spirits analyzed, which could be interpreted as an indication of good uniformity in the distillation system and method, thus guaranteeing product quality.

  12. High pressure hydrocracking of vacuum gas oil to middle distillates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri, C. R.; Biswas, Dipa

    1986-05-01

    Hydrocracking of heavier petroleum fractions into lighter ones is of increasing importance today to meet the huge demand, particularly for gasoline and middle distillates. Much work on hydrocracking of a gas oil range feed stock to mainly gasoline using modified zeolite catalyst-base exchanged with metals (namely Ni, Pd, Mo, etc.) has been reported. In India, however, present demand is for a maximum amount of middle distillate. The present investigation was therefore aimed to maximize the yield of middle distillate (140-270°C boiling range) by hydrocracking a vacuum gas oil (365-450°C boiling range) fraction from an Indian Refinery at high hydrogen pressure and temperature. A zeolite catalyst-base exchanged with 4.5% Ni was chosen for the reaction. A high pressure batch reactor with a rocking arrangement was used for the study. No pretreatment of the feed stock for sulphur removal applied as the total sulphur in the feed was less than 2%. The process variables studied for the maximum yield of the middle distillate were temperature 300-450°C, pressure 100-200 bar and residence period 1-3 h at the feed to catalyst ratio of 9.3 (wt/wt). The optimum conditions for the maximum yield of 36% middle distillate of the product were: temperature 400°C, pressure 34.5 bar (initially) and residence period 2 h. A carbon balance of 90-92% was found for each run.

  13. Extractive acetonobutylic fermentation by coupling ultrafiltration and distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minier, M; Grateloup, R; Blanc-Ferras, E; Goma, G

    1990-04-15

    An extractive acetonobutylic fermentation process is developed by integrating bioproduction, Ultrafiltration, and distillation, providing simultaneous retention of biomass, selective removal of inhibitors from the permeate, as well as separation and purification of acetone-butanol-ethanol solvents. Successive batch fermentations were performed with normal pressure distillation (98 degrees C), which permitted prolonging and enhancing (by a factor of 3) solvent production, with very few volume exchanges of medium (average dilution rate ws 0.002 h(-1)), and recovering on-line concentrated solvents. Different operating conditions were also tested in order to study the presence of extracellular autolytic enzymes as inhibition factors: It was shown that, (1) extracellular autolytic activity remains low during the larger part of fermentations, even without enzyme-inactivating thermotreatment in the distillation boiler, and (2) high-temperature distillation causes deleterious effects to the culture medium for long duration treatments. Progressive improvements of the process were achieved, first, by managing continuous runs, providing a minimum renewal of the culture medium and, mainly, by decreasing temperature and pressure of distilation. Solvent productivity then reached 2.6 g/L h for a 0.036 h(-1) average dilution rate, corresponding to a feed concentration of 156 g/L glucose actually consumed.

  14. Improvement of Egyptian vacuum distillates by urea dewaxing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehssan M.R. Nassef

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The dewaxing of paraffinic lube stocks is an essential step in the production of lubricants to improve the operability of machines especially in winter. The present work deals with study of the urea dewaxing process of two types of Egyptian vacuum distillates. The effect of different compositions of methanol to water saturated with urea and yield of the oil, percent of wax, pour point, refractive index, viscosity, viscosity index and specific gravity of the oil produced from the two types of distillates (I and II were evaluated. The operating conditions of the urea adduct formation with n-paraffins using methanol to water mixture achieved the best pour point at −3.88 °C from an initial temperature of 4.4 °C for distillate I at (25/75 methanol to water. At the same ratio of methanol to water the best specific gravity of oil produced changed from 0.865 to 0.867, with viscosity index of 80. Percent yield of 50% for oil and percent wax of 50% were obtained. Results for distillate II, of higher specific gravity, are comparatively higher than those for distillate I. Experiments were carried out at room temperature.

  15. A comparison of the performance of profile position and composition estimators for quality control in binary distillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roffel, B; Betlem, BHL; de Blouw, RM

    2003-01-01

    In this study a number of control strategies have been developed for control of the overhead composition of a binary distillation column. The nonlinear wave model as presented in the literature, has been substantially modified in order to express it in variables that can easily be measured and make

  16. tudy on Hydrolysis of Methyl Acetate in a Catalytic Distillation Column

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王成习

    2001-01-01

    A nonequilibrium stage model was used to simulate countercurrent multicomponent catalytic distillation processes for methyl acetate hydrolysis. Computations of stage eiliciencies or height equivalent to a theoretical plate (HETP) were entirely avoided by this model. The consistency of simulated results and experimental data in conversions and concentration of each component along a column indicates that the model predicts the actual process well. The influences of operating parameters on hydrolytic conversions, such as feed molar ratios, feed locations, feed and reflux rates, heights of reactive and stripping sections, were analyzed adequately by simulating calcuiations. A good operating mode was then obtained, which is helpful to the development of a new process.

  17. Optimization study of small-scale solar membrane distillation desalination systems (s-SMDDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsuan; Chang, Cheng-Liang; Hung, Chen-Yu; Cheng, Tung-Wen; Ho, Chii-Dong

    2014-11-24

    Membrane distillation (MD), which can utilize low-grade thermal energy, has been extensively studied for desalination. By incorporating solar thermal energy, the solar membrane distillation desalination system (SMDDS) is a potential technology for resolving energy and water resource problems. Small-scale SMDDS (s-SMDDS) is an attractive and viable option for the production of fresh water for small communities in remote arid areas. The minimum cost design and operation of s-SMDDS are determined by a systematic method, which involves a pseudo-steady-state approach for equipment sizing and dynamic optimization using overall system mathematical models. Two s-SMDDS employing an air gap membrane distillation module with membrane areas of 11.5 m(2) and 23 m(2) are analyzed. The lowest water production costs are $5.92/m(3) and $5.16/m(3) for water production rates of 500 kg/day and 1000 kg/day, respectively. For these two optimal cases, the performance ratios are 0.85 and 0.91; the recovery ratios are 4.07% and 4.57%. The effect of membrane characteristics on the production cost is investigated. For the commercial membrane employed in this study, the increase of the membrane mass transfer coefficient up to two times is beneficial for cost reduction.

  18. Optimization Study of Small-Scale Solar Membrane Distillation Desalination Systems (s-SMDDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsuan Chang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Membrane distillation (MD, which can utilize low-grade thermal energy, has been extensively studied for desalination. By incorporating solar thermal energy, the solar membrane distillation desalination system (SMDDS is a potential technology for resolving energy and water resource problems. Small-scale SMDDS (s-SMDDS is an attractive and viable option for the production of fresh water for small communities in remote arid areas. The minimum cost design and operation of s-SMDDS are determined by a systematic method, which involves a pseudo-steady-state approach for equipment sizing and dynamic optimization using overall system mathematical models. Two s-SMDDS employing an air gap membrane distillation module with membrane areas of 11.5 m2 and 23 m2 are analyzed. The lowest water production costs are $5.92/m3 and $5.16/m3 for water production rates of 500 kg/day and 1000 kg/day, respectively. For these two optimal cases, the performance ratios are 0.85 and 0.91; the recovery ratios are 4.07% and 4.57%. The effect of membrane characteristics on the production cost is investigated. For the commercial membrane employed in this study, the increase of the membrane mass transfer coefficient up to two times is beneficial for cost reduction.

  19. The Design and Control of Distillation Column with Side Reactors for Chlorobenzene Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薄翠梅; 汤吉海; 柏杨进; 乔旭; 丁良辉; 张湜

    2012-01-01

    The distillation column with side reactors (SRC) can overcome the temperature/pressure mismatch in the traditional reactive distillation, the column operates at temperature/pressure favorable for vapor-liquid separation, while the reactors operate at temperatures/pressures favorable for reaction kinetics. According to the smooth operation and automatic control problem of the distillation column with side reactors (SRC), the design, simulation calculation and dynamic control of the SCR process for chlorobenzene production are discussed in the paper. Firstly, the mechanism models, the integrated structure optimal design and process simulation systems are established, respectively. And then multivariable control schemes are designed, the controllability of SRC process based on the optimal steady-state integrated structure is explored. The dynamic response performances of closed-loop system against several disturbances are discussed to verify the effectiveness of control schemes for the SRC process. The simulating results show that the control structure using conventional control strategies can effectively overcome feeding disturbances in a specific range.

  20. Effect Of Cuo-Distilled Water Based Nanofluids On Heat Transfer Characteristics And Pressure Drop Characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANDEEP KUMAR

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of the distilled water and the copper oxide-distilled water based nanofluid flowing in a horizontal circular pipe under constant heat flux condition are studied. Copper oxide nanoparticles of 40nm size are dispersed in distilled water using sodium dodecyl sulphate as surfactant and sonicated the nanofluid for three hour. Both surfactant and sonication increases the stability of the nanofluid. The nanofluids are made in three different concentration i.e. 0.1 Vol. %, 0.25 Vol. % and 0.50 Vol. %. The thermal conductivity is measured by KD2 PRO, density with pycnometer, viscosity with Brookfield LVDV-III rheometer. The results show that the thermal conductivity increases with both temperature and concentration. The viscosity and density increases with concentration but decreases with temperature. The specific heat is calculated by model and it decreases with concentration. The experimental local Nusselt number of distilled water is compared with local Nusselt number obtained by the well known shah equation for laminar flow under constant heat flux condition for validation of the experimental set up. The relative error is 4.48 % for the Reynolds number 750.9. The heat transfer coefficient increases with increase in both flow rate and concentration. It increases from 14.33 % to 46.1 % when the concentration is increased from 0.1 Vol. % to 0.5 Vol. % at 20 LPH flow rate. Friction factor decreases with increase in flow rate. It decreases 66.54 % when the flow rate increases from 10 LPH to 30 LPH for 0.1 Vol. %.

  1. Mise au point d'un nouvel appareil de "distillation isotherme" Disterm Development of Distherm, a New Isothermal Distillation Apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouton M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Les études analytiques de distillats pétroliers d'intervalles d'ébullition élevés doivent être réalisées sur des produits préparés dans des conditions de distillation extrêmement douces, de manière à conserver intactes toutes les espèces chimiques initialement contenues dans le pétrole brut en l'état. Pour répondre à cet objectif, le Comité de Distillation du GEC (Groupe d'Études Concertées sur l'analyse des fractions lourdes du pétrole, réunissant Compagnie Francaise de Raffinage (CFR, Société Nationale Elf Aquitaine (SNEA et Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP a mis au point un schéma de préparation spécial de ces distillats, faisant appel à des techniques de distillation continue, de type « isotherme» et « moléculaire ». Dans ce cadre, le Comité de Distillation du GEC a été amené à développer un nouvel appareillage de distillation x isotherme », permettant de réduire, sans craquage, tout pétrole brut jusqu'à une température maximale comprise entre 350 et 380 °C. On décrit dans cet article ce nouvel ensemble de distillation, ainsi que ses conditions opératoires de fonctionnement. On y donne aussi un aperçu de la précision de la méthode de distillation réalisable avec cet appareil, ainsi que de la qualité de fractionnement obtenu.Enfin, à l'aide de quelques exemples particuliers, on montre que le domaine d'application de l'appareil peut être étendu à des produits autres que des pétroles bruts. Analytical examinations of high-boiling-range petroleum distillates must be made with products prepared under extremely mild distillation conditions so as ta maintain intact all the chemical species initially present in the original crude oil.

  2. A catalytic distillation process for light gas oil hydrodesulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas-Villamil, F.D.; Marroquin, J.O.; Paz, C. de la; Rodriguez, E. [Prog. de Matematicas Aplicadas y Computacion, Prog. de Tratamiento de Crudo Maya, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico City, DF (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    A light gas oil hydrodesulfurization process via catalytic distillation is developed and compared to a conventional process. By integrating the separation and reaction into a single unit, the catalytic distillation may produce a diesel with low concentration of sulfur compounds at a lower cost than the traditional reaction/separation process. The process proposed in this work is compared to an optimised conventional hydrodesulfurization unit which represents fairly well a plant that belongs to the National System of Refineries. During the optimisation of the conventional process, a compromise is established among the production of diesel and naphtha and the operating costs. The results show that the light gas oil hydrodesulfurization via catalytic distillation is as or more efficient than the conventional process. However, the removal of the sulfur compounds is carried out under less rigorous conditions. This design reduces the fix and operational costs. (author)

  3. Purification of cadmium up to 5N+ by vacuum distillation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S T Ali; J V Rao; K S Varma; T L Prakash

    2002-11-01

    Cadmium was refined by vacuum distillation, a technique suitable for low boiling and melting point materials, to remove the heavy and low vapour pressure impurities at ppm level. The detailed analysis of the purified Cd as well as raw Cd was done by ICP–OES techniques for 27 impurity elements. Purification was carried out in an efficient high-yield vacuum distillation system designed and fabricated for purifying 3N+ purity indigenous cadmium to 5N+ (99.999%). Analysis confirmed the reduction of total impurity content from 134 ppm (3N7) for raw Cd to 3 ppm (5N7) upon vacuum distilled Cd. The present study shows that the analysis of impurities such as Fe, Mg and Ca are contributed from environmental effect, whereas impurities such as Pb, Bi, Ag, Ni, Cu, Zn and Tl require adaptation of elemental analysing technique to counter dilution effect. The Hg trace analysis can however be carried out by hydride generation techniques.

  4. Control of distributed heat transfer mechanisms in membrane distillation plants

    KAUST Repository

    Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2017-01-05

    Various examples are provided that are related to boundary control in membrane distillation (MD) processes. In one example, a system includes a membrane distillation (MD) process comprising a feed side and a permeate side separated by a membrane boundary layer; and processing circuitry configured to control a water production rate of the MD process based at least in part upon a distributed heat transfer across the membrane boundary layer. In another example, a method includes determining a plurality of estimated temperature states of a membrane boundary layer separating a feed side and a permeate side of a membrane distillation (MD) process; and adjusting inlet flow rate or inlet temperature of at least one of the feed side or the permeate side to maintain a difference temperature along the membrane boundary layer about a defined reference temperature based at least in part upon the plurality of estimated temperature states.

  5. A principal component analysis of transmission spectra of wine distillates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogovaya, M. V.; Sinitsyn, G. V.; Khodasevich, M. A.

    2014-11-01

    A chemometric method of decomposing multidimensional data into a small-sized space, the principal component method, has been applied to the transmission spectra of vintage Moldovan wine distillates. A sample of 42 distillates aged from four to 7 years from six producers has been used to show the possibility of identifying a producer in a two-dimensional space of principal components describing 94.5% of the data-matrix dispersion. Analysis of the loads into the first two principal components has shown that, in order to measure the optical characteristics of the samples under study using only two wavelengths, it is necessary to select 380 and 540 nm, instead of the standard 420 and 520 nm, to describe the variability of the distillates by one principal component or 370 and 520 nm to describe the variability by two principal components.

  6. Improvement of Batch Distillation Separation of Azeotropic Mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Hegely, Laszlo

    2013-01-01

    La distillation est le procédé de séparation le plus répandu dans l'industrie chimique. Pour la séparation des mélanges azéotropiques, une méthode spéciale de distillation doit être appliquée. Le but de mon travail était d'améliorer la séparation des mélanges azéotropiques par distillation discontinue (DD). Un nouvel algorithme a été présenté pour la détermination de la séquence des produits de DD pour des mélanges multicomposants azéotropiques. Contrairement aux méthodes publiées précédemmen...

  7. Diesel and Jet Fuels from Bitumen-derived Middle Distillates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SokYui

    2004-01-01

    Narrow fractions of light gas oils obtained from various upgrading processes of Athabasca oilsands bitumen were investigated as diesel and jet fuels. The relationship among the boiling range, cetane number, smoke point, and other properties such as aromatics content, aniline point, and the sulfur and nitrogen content was also studied. The study reveals that when appropriate processes and distillation boiling ranges are selected, oilsands bitumen can produce diesel and jet fuels that meet stringent environmental regulations and future product specifications. New correlations to predict CN and smoke point were developed as a function of density, boiling ranges by simulated distillation, and mono- and total aromatics by supercriticaL fluid chromatography. The correlations apply to bitumen-derived middle distiLLates that have a wide range of boiling points.

  8. Comparison of Advanced Distillation Control Methods, Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. James B. Riggs

    2000-11-30

    Detailed dynamic simulations of three industrial distillation columns (a propylene/propane splitter, a xylene/toluene column, and a depropanizer) have been used to evaluate configuration selections for single-ended and dual-composition control, as well as to compare conventional and advanced control approaches. In addition, a simulator of a main fractionator was used to compare the control performance of conventional and advanced control. For each case considered, the controllers were tuned by using setpoint changes and tested using feed composition upsets. Proportional Integral (PI) control performance was used to evaluate the configuration selection problem. For single ended control, the energy balance configuration was found to yield the best performance. For dual composition control, nine configurations were considered. It was determined that the use of dynamic simulations is required in order to identify the optimum configuration from among the nine possible choices. The optimum configurations were used to evaluate the relative control performance of conventional PI controllers, MPC (Model Predictive Control), PMBC (Process Model-Based Control), and ANN (Artificial Neural Networks) control. It was determined that MPC works best when one product is much more important than the other, while PI was superior when both products were equally important. PMBC and ANN were not found to offer significant advantages over PI and MPC. MPC was found to outperform conventional PI control for the main fractionator. MPC was applied to three industrial columns: one at Phillips Petroleum and two at Union Carbide. In each case, MPC was found to significantly outperform PI controls. The major advantage of the MPC controller is its ability to effectively handle a complex set of constraints and control objectives.

  9. Exploring the interaction between flows and composition in reactive distillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estrada-Villagrana, A.D.; Bogle, I. David L.; Cisneros, Eduardo Salvador P.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper a new equilibrium approach is used to simulate the closed loop behaviour of the MTBE production process to study the interactions between flows and composition. This will facilitate the application of the existing methods for analysis of distillation systems. Results show that the o......In this paper a new equilibrium approach is used to simulate the closed loop behaviour of the MTBE production process to study the interactions between flows and composition. This will facilitate the application of the existing methods for analysis of distillation systems. Results show...

  10. Control structure selection for energy integrated distillation column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J.E.; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    1998-01-01

    This paper treats a case study on control structure selection for an almost binary distillation column. The column is energy integrated with a heat pump in order to transfer heat from the condenser to the reboiler. This integrated plant configuration renders the possible control structures somewhat...... different from what is usual for binary distillation columns. Further the heat pump enables disturbances to propagate faster through the system. The plant has six possible actuators of which three must be used to stabilize the system. Hereby three actuators are left for product purity control. An MILP...

  11. Evolutionary Computation for Realizing Distillation Separation Sequence Optimization Synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Hongguang; Qin Limin; Wang Kefeng; Yao Pingjing

    2005-01-01

    Evolutionary algorithm is applied for distillation separation sequence optimization synthesis problems with combination explosion. The binary tree data structure is used to describe the distillation separation sequence, and it is directly applied as the coding method. Genetic operators, which ensure to prohibit illegal filial generations completely, are designed by using the method of graph theory. The crossover operator based on a single parent or two parents is designed successfully. The example shows that the average ratio of search space from evolutionary algorithm with two-parent genetic operation is lower, whereas the rate of successful minimizations from evolutionary algorithm with single parent genetic operation is higher.

  12. Entanglement distillation by dissipation and continuous quantum repeaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollbrecht, Karl Gerd H; Muschik, Christine A; Cirac, J Ignacio

    2011-09-16

    Even though entanglement is very vulnerable to interactions with the environment, it can be created by purely dissipative processes. Yet, the attainable degree of entanglement is profoundly limited in the presence of noise sources. We show that distillation can also be realized dissipatively, such that a highly entangled steady state is obtained. The schemes put forward here display counterintuitive phenomena, such as improved performance if noise is added to the system. We also show how dissipative distillation can be employed in a continuous quantum repeater architecture, in which the resources scale polynomially with the distance.

  13. Study on Regeneration of MDEA Solution Using Membrane Distillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Pei; Wang Shuli; Zhao Shuhua

    2008-01-01

    Treating acid gases contained in natural gas by MDEA is used widely.But the efficiency of regeneration of the MDEA solution limited the development of this technology.An optimal temperature is necessary for regeneration of the MDEA solution using membrane distillation.The experiment results showed that the regeneration rate of MDEA rose with an increasing temperature.But the rate increased slowly after the regeneration temperature arrived at a certain value.This study can confirm that regeneration of the MDEA solution using membrane distillation is feasible.This technology provides more advantages as compared to conventional regeneration process.

  14. Process Design for Separating C4 Mixtures by Extractive Distillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷志刚; 陈标华; 李建伟

    2003-01-01

    C4 components are useful in industry and should be separated as individuals. A new process was proposed to separate them by extractive distillation, with the advantages of low equipment investment, energy consumption and liquid load in the columns. One principle to improve the extractive distillation process was put forward. Moreover, the analysis of operation state of the new process was done. There were eight operation states found for the whole process, but only one operation state was desirable. This work provides a way to effectively separate C4 mixtures and helps the reasonable utilization of C4 resource.

  15. Study of Products Distilled Spirits with Cassava Dregs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG le; WANG Jun-gao; LIU Wen-long

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, Cassava dregs are an outgrowth produced during starchy production which uses cassava as raw material. It is usually dropped out or used as cheap feedstuff. In order to make the best use of cassava dregs, increase industries' benefits and reduce castoff this study developed a new technique which used cassava dregs as raw material to produce distilled spirits based on cassava dregs characteristics. The technique adopt solid-ferment procedure. At first, the ferment is processed by solid-state distilling, and then rectification extra care refinement: at last the tequila was produced with characteristics of simple and elegant fragrance and mellow-tasting.

  16. Effect of feeding goats with distilled and non-distilled thyme leaves (Thymus zygis subp. gracilis) on milk and cheese properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutoial, Khalid; García, Victor; Rovira, Silvia; Ferrandini, Eduardo; Abdelkhalek, Oussama; López, María Belén

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding goats with distilled and non-distilled thyme leaves (Thymus zygis subsp. gracilis) on the physicochemical composition and technological properties of pasteurised goat milk, and on the physicochemical composition, phenolic content, oxidative stability, microbiology, sensory and texture profile of Murcia al Vino goat cheese. One group of goats was fed the basal diet (control), the second and third groups were fed with different levels of distilled (10 and 20%) or non-distilled (3·75 and 7·5%) thyme leaves. Goat milk physicochemical composition was significantly affected by the substitution of 7·5% of basal goat diet with non-distilled thyme leaves (increase in fat, protein, dry matter and PUFA content), while goat milk clotting time was increased significantly by the introduction of 20% distilled thyme leaves, which reduces its technological suitability. Microbiology, sensory and texture profiles were not affected by the introduction of distilled thyme leaves. The introduction of distilled and non-distilled thyme leaves as an alternative feed to diet can lead to an inhibition of lipids oxidation. The introduction of distilled and non-distilled thyme leaves into goat's diet can be successfully adopted as a strategy to reduce feeding costs and to take advantage of the waste from the production of essential oils, minimising waste removing costs and the environmental impact.

  17. Vacuum distillation refining of crude lithium (Ⅱ)──Kinetics on vacuum distillation of crude lithium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈为亮; 柴立元; 闵小波; 杨斌; 戴永年; 于霞; 张传福

    2002-01-01

    Kinetics on vacuum refining process of crude lithium was studied by using maximum evaporation rate, critical pressure and mean free path of elements in the crude lithium at different temperatures. Behaviors of impurities in the vacuum distillation process have been examined in detail. The results show that fractional vacuum distillation should be taken to obtain lithium with high purity; if the mass loss amount of lithium is 3%~5%, metal K, Na, Mg and Ca can be eliminated at lower temperature of 673~873K at pressure of less than 1.30Pa; the maximum rate of lithium distillation reaches 1.492×10-1~8.244×10-1 g*cm-2*min-1 at higher temperature of 973~1073K at the pressure of 3.0~3.2Pa, which ensure complete separation of lithium from Al, Si, Fe and Ni.

  18. A hybrid multi-effect distillation and adsorption cycle

    KAUST Repository

    Thu, Kyaw

    2013-04-01

    This paper describes the development of a simple hybrid desalination system of a Multi-Effect Distillation (MED) and an adsorption (AD) cycle operating at sub-atmospheric pressures and temperatures. By hybridizing the conventional MED with an AD cycle, there is a symbiotic enhancement of performances of both cycles. The performance enhancement is attributed to (i) the cascade of adsorbent\\'s regeneration temperature and this extended the usage of thermal energy emanating from the brine heater and (ii) the vapor extraction from the last MED stage by AD cycle which provides the effect of lowering saturation temperatures of all MED stages to the extent of 5°C, resulting in scavenging of heat leaks into the MED stages from the ambient. The combined effects of the hybrid cycles increase the water production capacity of the desalination plant by nearly twofolds.In this paper, we demonstrate a hybrid cycle by simulating an 8-stage MED cycle which is coupled to an adsorption cycle for direct vapor extraction from the last MED stage. The sorption properties of silica gel is utilized (acting as a mechanical vapor compressor) to reduce the saturation temperatures of MED stages. The modeling utilizes the adsorption isotherms and kinetics of the adsorbent. +. adsorbate (silica-gel. +. water) pair along with the governing equations of mass, energy and concentration. For a 8-stage MED and AD cycles operating at assorted temperatures of 65-90°C, the results show that the water production rate increases from 60% to twofolds when compared to the MED alone. The performance ratio (PR) and gain output ratio (GOR) also improve significantly. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Dynamic behavior of the intensified alternative configurations for quaternary distillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramirez-Marquez, Cesar; Cabrera-Ruiz, Julián; Juan Gabriel Segovia-Hernandez, Juan Gabriel;

    2016-01-01

    Process intensification emerges as an important tool in the synthesis of multicomponent distillation configurations aimed at the reduction of the energy use and capital costs. Operational and fixed costs savings coupled with simplicity and controllability design configurations appear as an essent...

  20. Purification and deodorization of structured lipids by short path distillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Xuebing; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Nielsen, Nina Skall;

    2002-01-01

    Purification of structured lipids (SL), produced from lipase- catalyzed acidolysis of rapeseed oil and capric acid, and deodorization of randomized SL, produced from chemical randomization of fish oil and tricaprin, were studied in a bench-scale short path distillation (SPD). SL obtained from...

  1. Tomato yield responses to soil-incorporated dried distillers grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dried distiller's grains (DDGs) are a coproduct of dry-grind corn ethanol production, most of which are used for animal feed, and are sold for under $150/metric ton. Developing higher-value uses for DDGs can increase the profitability of corn-based ethanol. Although DDGs applied directly to a pott...

  2. Continuous variable entanglement distillation of non-Gaussian states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Mikael Østergaard; Dong, Ruifang; Heersink, Joel

    2009-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate distillation of continuous variable entangled light that has undergone non-Gaussian attenuation loss. The continuous variable entanglement is generated with optical fibers and sent through a lossy channel, where the transmission is varying in time. By employing simple...

  3. Distillation and detection of SO2 using a microfluidic chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Wei-Jhong; Fu, Lung-Ming; Yang, Ruey-Jen; Lee, Chia-Lun

    2012-02-07

    A miniaturized distillation system is presented for separating sulfurous acid (H(2)SO(3)) into sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) and water (H(2)O). The major components of the proposed system include a microfluidic distillation chip, a power control module, and a carrier gas pressure control module. The microfluidic chip is patterned using a commercial CO(2) laser and comprises a serpentine channel, a heating zone, a buffer zone, a cooling zone, and a collection tank. In the proposed device, the H(2)SO(3) solution is injected into the microfluidic chip and is separated into SO(2) and H(2)O via an appropriate control of the distillation time and temperature. The gaseous SO(2) is then transported into the collection chamber by the carrier gas and is mixed with DI water. Finally, the SO(2) concentration is deduced from the absorbance measurements obtained using a spectrophotometer. The experimental results show that a correlation coefficient of R(2) = 0.9981 and a distillation efficiency as high as 94.6% are obtained for H(2)SO(3) solutions with SO(2) concentrations in the range of 100-500 ppm. The SO(2) concentrations of two commercial red wines are successfully detected using the developed device. Overall, the results presented in this study show that the proposed system provides a compact and reliable tool for SO(2) concentration measurement purposes.

  4. Distillation of granulated scrap tires in a pilot plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Félix A; Centeno, Teresa A; Alguacil, Francisco José; Lobato, Belén

    2011-06-15

    This paper reports the pyrolytic treatment of granulated scrap tires (GST) in a pilot distillation unit at moderate temperature (550°C) and atmospheric pressure, to produce oil, char and gas products. Tire-derived oil is a complex mixture of organic C(5)-C(24) compounds, including a very large proportion of aromatic compounds. This oil has a high gross calorific value (∼ 43 MJ kg(-1)) and N and S contents of 0.4% and 0.6%, respectively, falling within the specifications of certain heating fuels. The distillation gas is composed of hydrocarbons; methane and n-butane are the most abundant, investing the distillation gas with a very high gross calorific value (∼ 68 MJ Nm(-3)). This gas is transformed into electric power by a co-generation turbine. The distillation char is mostly made of carbon but with significant inorganic impurities (∼ 12 wt%). The quality of the solid residue of the process is comparable to that of some commercial chars. The quantity of residual solids, and the qualities of the gas, liquid and solid fractions, are similar to those obtained by conventional pyrolytic treatments of waste tires. However, the simplicity of the proposed technology and its low investment costs make it a very attractive alternative. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Distillability via protocols respecting the positivity of partial transpose

    CERN Document Server

    Eggeling, T; Werner, R F; Wolf, M M; Eggeling, Tilo; Vollbrecht, Karl Gerd H.; Werner, Reinhard F.; Wolf, Michael M.

    2001-01-01

    We show that all quantum states that do not have a positive partial transpose are distillable via channels, which preserve the positivity of the partial transpose. The question whether NPT bound entanglement exist is therefore closely related to the connection between the set of separable superoperators and PPT-preserving maps.

  6. Water recycling and desalination by air gap membrane distillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meindersma, G.W.; Guijt, C.M.; Haan, de A.B.

    2005-01-01

    Because salt and other small components are the most common compounds in wastewater from the process industry, desalination techniques are likely to be suitable as treatment processes in many cases. Although membrane distillation (MD) is a well-known technology for desalination and water treatment,

  7. Biodiesel by catalytic reactive distillation powered by metal oxides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiss, A.A.; Dimian, A.C.; Rothenberg, G.

    2008-01-01

    The properties and use of biodiesel as a renewable fuel as well as the problems associated with its current production processes are outlined. A novel sustainable esterification process based on catalytic reactive distillation is proposed. The pros and cons of manufacturing biodiesel via fatty acid

  8. Entanglement Distillation for Mixed States Using Particle Statistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Xiao-Li; CHENG Li-Hong; YI Xue-Xi

    2006-01-01

    @@ We extend the idea of entanglement concentration protocol for pure states (Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 187903) to the case of entanglement distillation for mixed states. The scheme works only with particle statistics and local operations, without the need of any other interactions.

  9. Fouling mechanisms of dairy streams during membrane distillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hausmann, A.; Sanciolo, P.; Vasiljevic, T.; Weeks, M.; Schroën, C.G.P.H.; Gray, S.; Duke, M.

    2013-01-01

    This study reports on fouling mechanisms of skim milk and whey during membrane distillation (MD) using polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membranes. Structural and elemental changes along the fouling layer from the anchorpoint at the membrane to the topsurface of the fouling layer have been investigated

  10. Distillation device supplies cesium vapor at constant pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basiulis, A.; Shefsiek, P. K.

    1968-01-01

    Distillation apparatus in the form of a U tube supplies small amounts of pure cesium vapor at constant pressure to a thermionic converter. The upstream leg of the U tube is connected to a vacuum pump to withdraw noncondensable impurities, the bottom portion serves as a reservoir for the liquid cesium.

  11. Novel configurations of solar distillation system for potable water production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riahi, A.; Yusof, K. W.; Sapari, N.; Singh, B. S.; Hashim, A. M.

    2013-06-01

    More and more surface water are polluted with toxic chemicals. Alternatively brackish and saline water are used as feed water to water treatment plants. Expensive desalination process via reverse osmosis or distillation is used in the plants. Thus, this conventional desalination is not suitable for low and medium income countries. A cheaper method is by solar distillation. However the rate of water production by this method is generally considered low. This research attempts to enhance water production of solar distillation by optimizing solar capture, evaporation and condensation processes. Solar radiation data was captured in several days in Perak, Malaysia. Three kinds of experiments were done by fabricating triangular solar distillation systems. First type was conventional solar still, second type was combined with 50 Watt solar photovoltaic panel and 40 Watt Dc heater, while third type was integrated with 12 Volt Solar battery and 40 Watt Dc heater. The present investigation showed that the productivity of second and third systems were 150% and 480% of the conventional still type, respectively. The finding of this research can be expected to have wide application in water supply particularly in areas where fresh surface water is limited.

  12. Distilling support opportunities to improve urban search and rescue missions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greef, T. de; Oomes, A.H.J.; Neerincx, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Current USAR missions are challenged by many factors leading to a study on how human computer interaction can provide support in this domain. Using data from a two-day observation in combination with mission reports, we applied a situated cognitive engineering design methodology to distill the opera

  13. Energy Efficient Bioethanol Purification by Heat Pump Assisted Extractive Distillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiss, Anton A.; Luo, Hao; Bildea, Costin Sorin

    2015-01-01

    The purification of bioethanol fuel requires an energy demanding separation process to concentrate the diluted streams obtained in the fermentation stage and to overcome the azeotropic behaviour of ethanol-water mixture. The classic separation sequence consists of three distillation columns that

  14. Distillable entanglement in d circle times d dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamieh, S; Zaraket, H

    2003-01-01

    Distillable entanglement (E-d) is one of the acceptable measures of entanglement of mixed states. On the basis of discrimination through local operation and classical communication, this letter gives E-d for two classes of orthogonal multipartite maximally entangled states.

  15. Purification and deodorization of structured lipids by short path distillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Xuebing; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Nielsen, Nina Skall

    2002-01-01

    Purification of structured lipids (SL), produced from lipase- catalyzed acidolysis of rapeseed oil and capric acid, and deodorization of randomized SL, produced from chemical randomization of fish oil and tricaprin, were studied in a bench-scale short path distillation (SPD). SL obtained from...

  16. Biodiesel by catalytic reactive distillation powered by metal oxides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiss, A.A.; Dimian, A.C.; Rothenberg, G.

    2008-01-01

    The properties and use of biodiesel as a renewable fuel as well as the problems associated with its current production processes are outlined. A novel sustainable esterification process based on catalytic reactive distillation is proposed. The pros and cons of manufacturing biodiesel via fatty acid

  17. Extraction of siphonochilus aethiopicus essential oil by steam distillation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Malaka, MS

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available was to optimize the process parameters of steam distillation for the extraction of oil from African ginger rhizomes. This technology is the oldest and well known for extracting essential oils due to its economic viability and the higher final oil purity...

  18. REGSOLexpert: Entrainer Selection Tool for waste solvent recovery by batch distillation processes

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez-Donis, Ivonne; Gerbaud, Vincent; Baudouin, Olivier; Joulia, Xavier

    2009-01-01

    A general procedure to systematize the search of several alternatives enabling the separation of non-ideal binary mixtures such as pressure-swing distillation, azeotropic and extractive distillation is presented. The use of heterogeneous entrainers is specially highlighted.

  19. 低浓度丙烯和苯催化精馏合成异丙苯过程非平衡级模拟%Non-equilibrium Stage Model of Catalytic Distillation for Cumene Synthesis Using Low Concentration Propylene and Benzene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骞伟中; 魏飞; 汪展文; 金涌; 张吉瑞

    2001-01-01

    对苯与低浓度丙烯合成异丙苯的催化精馏过程建立非平衡级模型。针对模拟过程难以收敛的特点,在计算的开始阶段引入了模式搜索法(Hook-Jeevesmethod)求解。通过对变量的取值范围进行一定的约束,可比牛顿型法适用较宽的初值范围。计算中根据所用催化精馏塔的特点,对方程进行了一定程度的简化。得到了催化精馏塔内的温度及液相组成分布。模拟结果与试验数据吻合较好,可以为工艺设计提供参考。%The non-equilibrium stage model is used to simulate catalyticdistillation process for cumene synthesis using low concentration propylene and benzene. Because of high degree of nonlinear property and large amount of equations, Hooke-Jeeves method is proposed to solve the model. When the variables are limited to a certain range, Hooke-Jeeves method can converge smoothly. It permits wider range of the initial values than the Newton-type method. Some equations can be simplified according to the shape of the packed catalytic distillation column. The axial profile of temperature and concentration in the column is calculated. The results of the simulation fit in well with the data from the experimental-scale column.

  20. Nonlocality Distillation and Trivial Communication Complexity for High-Dimensional Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Li; Xiang-Jun Ye; Jing-Ling Chen

    2016-01-01

    A nonlocality distillation protocol for arbitrary high-dimensional systems is proposed.We study the nonlocality distillation in the 2-input d-output bi-partite case.Firstly,we give the one-parameter nonlocal boxes and their correlated distilling protocol.Then,we generalize the one-parameter nonlocality distillation protocol to the two-parameter case.Furthermore,we introduce a contracting protocol testifying that the 2-input d-output nonlocal boxes make communication complexity trivial.

  1. EKF composition estimation and GMC control of a reactive distillation column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tintavon, Sirivimon; Kittisupakorn, Paisan

    2017-08-01

    This research work proposes an extended Kalman filter (EKF) estimator to give estimates of product composition and a generic model controller (GMC) to control the temperature of a reactive distillation column (RDC). One of major difficulties to control the RDC is large time delays of product composition measurement. Therefore, the estimates of the product composition are needed and determined based on available and reliable measured tray temperature via the extended Kalman Filter (EKF). With these estimates, the GMC controller is applied to control the RDC's temperature. The performance of the EKF estimator under the GMC control is evaluated in various disturbances and set point change.

  2. Purification of specific structured lipids by distillation: Effects on acyl migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Xuebing; Skands, A.; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2001-01-01

    The cause and effects of acyl migration during the purification of specific structured lipids by distillation were studied in a conventional batch deodorizer with stripping steam. The mixture of specific structured lipids produced by lipase-catalyzed acidolysis between rapeseed oil and capric acid...... contained a large amount of free fatty acids and a small amount of partial acylglycerols besides triacylglycerols. Therefore, the effect of steam, free fatty acids, diacylglycerols, and monoacylglycerols on acyl migration was studied in a palm oil midfraction model. The results showed that all these factors...

  3. Total Reflux Operation of Multivessel Batch Distillation for Separation of Binary Mixtures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐克; 白鹏; 李广忠

    2014-01-01

    Multivessel batch distillation (MVBD) is mainly used to separate mixtures with more than two compo-nents. In this article, a new operation mode with MVBD is proposed for separation of binary mixtures under total reflux. A mathematic model is setup for the simulation. The proposed operation policy and the regular operation with constant reflux are compared theoretically and experimentally. The results show that the new operation mode has great advantages in time saving and operation flexibility. MVBD presents great potential for separation with high efficiency.

  4. 27 CFR 28.40 - Evidence of exportation: distilled spirits and wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...: distilled spirits and wine. 28.40 Section 28.40 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... Provisions Evidence of Exportation and Use § 28.40 Evidence of exportation: distilled spirits and wine. The exportation of any shipment of distilled spirits or wine may be evidenced by: (a) A copy of the export bill of...

  5. 40 CFR 417.50 - Applicability; description of the glycerine distillation subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... glycerine distillation subcategory. 417.50 Section 417.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Glycerine Distillation Subcategory § 417.50 Applicability; description of the glycerine distillation subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from the...

  6. 27 CFR 1.83 - Acquiring or receiving distilled spirits in bulk for addition to wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... distilled spirits in bulk for addition to wine. 1.83 Section 1.83 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms... UNDER THE FEDERAL ALCOHOL ADMINISTRATION ACT, NONINDUSTRIAL USE OF DISTILLED SPIRITS AND WINE, BULK... Bottling § 1.83 Acquiring or receiving distilled spirits in bulk for addition to wine. Persons...

  7. Chemical profile of sugarcane spirits produced by double distillation methodologies in rectifying still

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Ricardo Alcarde

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the chemical profile of sugarcane spirits produced by different double distillation methodologies in rectifying still. Fermented sugarcane juice was distilled in rectifying still according to three double distillation methodologies: the methodology used for cognac production; the methodology used for whisky production; and the 10-80-10 percentage composition methodology, referring to the volumes of head, heart and tail of the distillate fractions from the second distillation. For comparison purposes, a simple distilled spirit was also produced. The distillates were analyzed for concentrations of ethanol, copper, volatile acidity, furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural, aldehydes, esters, methanol and higher alcohols. The spirits were also evaluated on the sensory attributes of aroma, taste and preference. Compared to simple distillation, double distillation improved the chemical quality of the spirits, since it has reduced the concentrations of acids, aldehydes, esters, methanol, higher alcohols and, consequently, their coefficient of congeners. Regardless of the methodology employed, the double distillation improved the sensory quality of the spirits since they obtained higher sensory acceptance in relation to spirits produced by simple distillation. Among double distilled spirits, the one produced according to whisky methodology obtained the best scores from appraisers on the aroma and flavor parameters and it was also the most preferred.

  8. 27 CFR 27.75 - Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes. 27.75 Section 27.75 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER General Requirements Exemptions § 27.75 Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes. Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer in...

  9. Systematic Integrated Process Design and Control of Binary Element Reactive Distillation Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansouri, Seyed Soheil; Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted

    2016-01-01

    In this work, integrated process design and control of reactive distillation processes is considered through a computer-aided framework. First, a set of simple design methods for reactive distillation column that are similar in concept to non-reactive distillation design methods are extended to d...

  10. Multi-saline sample distillation apparatus for hydrogen isotope analyses : design and accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Afifa Afifi

    1981-01-01

    A distillation apparatus for saline water samples was designed and tested. Six samples may be distilled simultaneously. The temperature was maintained at 400 C to ensure complete dehydration of the precipitating salts. Consequently, the error in the measured ratio of stable hydrogen isotopes resulting from incomplete dehydration of hydrated salts during distillation was eliminated. (USGS)

  11. Distilling complexity to advance cardiac tissue engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Ogle, Brenda M.; Bursac, Nenad; Domian, Ibrahim; Huang, Ngan F.; Menasché, Philippe; Murry, Charles; Pruitt, Beth; Radisic, Milica; Wu, Joseph C; Wu, Sean M.; Zhang, Jianyi; Zimmermann, Wolfram-Hubertus; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2016-01-01

    The promise of cardiac tissue engineering is in the ability to recapitulate in vitro the functional aspects of healthy heart and disease pathology as well as to design replacement muscle for clinical therapy. Parts of this promise have been realized; others have not. In a meeting of scientists in this field, five central challenges or “big questions” were articulated that, if addressed, could substantially advance the current state-of-the-art in modeling heart disease and realizing heart repa...

  12. Control of Ideal Heat Integrated Distillation Columns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄克谨; 战德志; 中岩腾; 中根尧; 高松武一郎

    1999-01-01

    The operation of an ideal heat integrated dlstillation columan (HIDiC) is addressed .Five Kinds of control configurations, i.e. single-loop control, multi-loop control, multivariable internal model control (IMC), modified multlvariable internal model control (MIMC) and nonlinear process model-based control (NPMC), are designed and applied to the process. Simulation results demonstrate that all of the above control confaguratloam ere valid for product quality control. NPMC control configuration is found to be the best one among all the alternatives. It can readily realize setpoint transitions and conduct effectively against external disturbance. MIMC control configuration ranks second in the row for its regulatory responses to feed composition disturbances with relatively extended setting time, Next comes from the multi-loop control configuration, which is moee or lees handicapped by its greater deviations and overshootings. IMC control configuration can not compete with the multi-loop control configuration because it is extremely sensitive to operating condition changes. Single-ioop control configuration is the worst one among all the mentioned control configurations. Its responses for the uncoutrolled end products are extremely sluggish.

  13. Identification of Distillation Process Dynamics Comparing Process Knowledge and Black Box Based Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Knud H; Nielsen, C. S.; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    1990-01-01

    A distillation plant equipped with a heat pump separates a mixture of isopropanol and methanol. The mixture contains some water as impurity. The model development aims at dual composition control design, where top and bottom compositions should follow the setpoints, and disturbances should...... be rejected. Disturbances may occur in feed low rate and feed composition. Identification is performed using multivariable linear discrete time model structure development tools: a process knowledge based and a black box approach. In the process knowledge based approach, the model structure is developed from...... qualitative process knowledge which presently may require modification to guarantee identifiability. The black box approach is based on pseudocanonical MFD model representation, where the model stracture is determined by a set of structure indices. The identifications are performed on experimental data...

  14. Conceptual design of distillation-based hybrid separation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiborowski, Mirko; Harwardt, Andreas; Marquardt, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid separation processes combine different separation principles and constitute a promising design option for the separation of complex mixtures. Particularly, the integration of distillation with other unit operations can significantly improve the separation of close-boiling or azeotropic mixtures. Although the design of single-unit operations is well understood and supported by computational methods, the optimal design of flowsheets of hybrid separation processes is still a challenging task. The large number of operational and design degrees of freedom requires a systematic and optimization-based design approach. To this end, a structured approach, the so-called process synthesis framework, is proposed. This article reviews available computational methods for the conceptual design of distillation-based hybrid processes for the separation of liquid mixtures. Open problems are identified that must be addressed to finally establish a structured process synthesis framework for such processes.

  15. Entanglement distillation between solid-state quantum network nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalb, N.; Reiserer, A. A.; Humphreys, P. C.; Bakermans, J. J. W.; Kamerling, S. J.; Nickerson, N. H.; Benjamin, S. C.; Twitchen, D. J.; Markham, M.; Hanson, R.

    2017-06-01

    The impact of future quantum networks hinges on high-quality quantum entanglement shared between network nodes. Unavoidable imperfections necessitate a means to improve remote entanglement by local quantum operations. We realize entanglement distillation on a quantum network primitive of distant electron-nuclear two-qubit nodes. The heralded generation of two copies of a remote entangled state is demonstrated through single-photon-mediated entangling of the electrons and robust storage in the nuclear spins. After applying local two-qubit gates, single-shot measurements herald the distillation of an entangled state with increased fidelity that is available for further use. The key combination of generating, storing, and processing entangled states should enable the exploration of multiparticle entanglement on an extended quantum network.

  16. Distillation of photon entanglement using a plasmonic metamaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Motoki; Bechu, Muriel; Tame, Mark; Kaya Özdemir, Şahin; Ikuta, Rikizo; Güney, Durdu Ö.; Yamamoto, Takashi; Yang, Lan; Wegener, Martin; Imoto, Nobuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Plasmonics is a rapidly emerging platform for quantum state engineering with the potential for building ultra-compact and hybrid optoelectronic devices. Recent experiments have shown that despite the presence of decoherence and loss, photon statistics and entanglement can be preserved in single plasmonic systems. This preserving ability should carry over to plasmonic metamaterials, whose properties are the result of many individual plasmonic systems acting collectively, and can be used to engineer optical states of light. Here, we report an experimental demonstration of quantum state filtering, also known as entanglement distillation, using a metamaterial. We show that the metamaterial can be used to distill highly entangled states from less entangled states. As the metamaterial can be integrated with other optical components this work opens up the intriguing possibility of incorporating plasmonic metamaterials in on-chip quantum state engineering tasks. PMID:26670790

  17. Reducing the quantum-computing overhead with complex gate distillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duclos-Cianci, Guillaume; Poulin, David

    2015-04-01

    In leading fault-tolerant quantum-computing schemes, accurate transformations are obtained by a two-stage process. In a first stage, a discrete universal set of fault-tolerant operations is obtained by error-correcting noisy transformations and distilling resource states. In a second stage, arbitrary transformations are synthesized to desired accuracy by combining elements of this set into a circuit. Here we present a scheme that merges these two stages into a single one, directly distilling complex transformations. We find that our scheme can reduce the total overhead to realize certain gates by up to a few orders of magnitude. In contrast to other schemes, this efficient gate synthesis does not require computationally intensive compilation algorithms and a straightforward generalization of our scheme circumvents compilation and synthesis altogether.

  18. Hydrorefining distillates from coal liquefaction using intermetallic compound hydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadiev, Kh.M.; Pivovarova, N.A.; Askhabova, Kh.N.; Taramov, Kh.K.

    1986-07-01

    Investigations are discussed into hydrorefining of coal liquefaction distillate using ZrNi intermetallic compound hydride as catalyst. The paper shows that 70-75% reduction in content of unsaturated and sulfur-containing compounds takes place in the presence of this catalyst at low temperature (200-250 C) and pressure (0.1 MPa), and establishes that preliminary preparation of starting material (removal of phenols and nitrous bases) produces significant effect on hydrorefining results and product stability. Tests have also shown that although intermetallic compound hydride catalyst has fairly low stability, it is capable of recovering its catalytic properties on reduction-oxidation treatment. Description of the tests and characteristics of hydrorefining products of coal liquefaction distillate are given. 8 references.

  19. A hybrid genetic algorithm to optimize simple distillation column sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAN YongSheng; Andreas Linninger

    2004-01-01

    Based on the principles of Genetic Algorithms (GAs), a hybrid genetic algorithm used to optimize simple distillation column sequences was established. A new data structure, a novel arithmetic crossover operator and a dynamic mutation operator were proposed. Together with the feasibility test of distillation columns, they are capable to obtain the optimum simple column sequence at one time without the limitation of the number of mixture components, ideal or non-ideal mixtures and sloppy or sharp splits. Compared with conventional algorithms, this hybrid genetic algorithm avoids solving complicated nonlinear equations and demands less derivative information and computation time. Result comparison between this genetic algorithm and Underwood method and Doherty method shows that this hybrid genetic algorithm is reliable.

  20. A review on recent developments in solar distillation units

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pankaj Kalita; Anupam Dewan; Sangeeta Borah

    2016-02-01

    The solar still is gaining popularity among the scientific community for the production of distillate and fluoride free water due to its low cost and simple working principle. Continuous efforts have been made by various researchers to increase its productivity. Various techniques and configurations have been attempted in the literature to enhance the efficiency of the solar still. Many researchers have also studied different parameters influencing the performance of solar stills. Thermodynamic analysis, such as, energy balance and losses by using the second law of thermodynamics have also been reported in the literature. However, optimum combinations of the operating parameters in addition to thermodynamic optimization for high distillate yield as well as the efficiency have not been thoroughly studied in the literature. In the present work, an emphasis has been given to review the effects of various operating and geometric parameters, and thermodynamic optimization on the performance of a solar still.

  1. Distillation of nonstabilizer states for universal quantum computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duclos-Cianci, Guillaume; Svore, Krysta M.

    2013-10-01

    Magic-state distillation is a fundamental technique for realizing fault-tolerant universal quantum computing and produces high-fidelity Clifford eigenstates, called magic states, which can be used to implement the non-Clifford π/8 gate. We propose an efficient protocol for distilling other nonstabilizer states that requires only Clifford operations, measurement, and magic states. One critical application of our protocol is efficiently and fault-tolerantly implementing arbitrary, non-Clifford, single-qubit rotations in, on average, constant online circuit depth and polylogarithmic (in precision) offline resource cost, resulting in significant improvements over state-of-the-art decomposition techniques. Finally, we show that our protocol is robust to noise in the resource states.

  2. Integrated process of distillation with side reactors for synthesis of organic acid esters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchal, Chandrakant B; Prindle, John C; Kolah, Aspri; Miller, Dennis J; Lira, Carl T

    2015-11-04

    An integrated process and system for synthesis of organic-acid esters is provided. The method of synthesizing combines reaction and distillation where an organic acid and alcohol composition are passed through a distillation chamber having a plurality of zones. Side reactors are used for drawing off portions of the composition and then recycling them to the distillation column for further purification. Water is removed from a pre-reactor prior to insertion into the distillation column. An integrated heat integration system is contained within the distillation column for further purification and optimizing efficiency in the obtaining of the final product.

  3. Systematic Integrated Process Design and Control of Binary Element Reactive Distillation Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansouri, Seyed Soheil; Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted

    2016-01-01

    In this work, integrated process design and control of reactive distillation processes is considered through a computer-aided framework. First, a set of simple design methods for reactive distillation column that are similar in concept to non-reactive distillation design methods are extended....... It is shown that the same design-control principles that apply to a non-reacting binary system of compounds are also valid for a reactive binary system of elements for distillation columns. Application of this framework shows that designing the reactive distillation process at the maximum driving force...... results in a feasible and reliable design of the process as well as the controller structure....

  4. Systematic Integrated Process Design and Control of Reactive Distillation Processes Involving Multi-elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansouri, Seyed Soheil; Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted

    2016-01-01

    In this work, integrated process design and control of reactive distillation processes that involve multiple elements (more than two) is addressed through a computer-aided hierarchical decomposition-based framework. Multiple elements are encountered for reactive systems when four or more compounds...... (including inert compounds) are encountered. The reactive distillation design methods and tools which are similar in concept to design of binary non-reactive distillations and binary reactive distillations are used for design of multi-element reactive distillation processes, such as driving force approach...

  5. Dry Distillation of Radioiodine from TeO2 Targets

    OpenAIRE

    Jacek Koziorowski; Jesper Fonslet

    2013-01-01

    As medical cyclotrons are becoming more abundant, 123I and 124I are getting more attention as alternatives to 131I for diagnostics of thyroid disease. Both 123I and 124I provide better diagnostics, deliver less dose to patients and both reduce the risk of thyroid stunning, facilitating subsequent therapy. Dry distillation of radioiodine from tellurium dioxide targets has become the standard approach to producing these radioiodines. Setting up such a production of radioiodine is associated wit...

  6. Optimal operation of Petlyuk distillation: Steady-state behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Ivar J. Halvorsen; Sigurd Skogestad

    2001-01-01

    The "Petlyuk" or "dividing-wall" or "fully thermally coupled" distillation column is an interesting alternative to the conventional cascaded binary columns for separation of multi-component mixtures. However, the industrial use has been limited, and difficulties in operation have been reported as one reason. With three product compositions controlled, the system has two degrees of freedom left for on-line optimization. We show that the steady-state optimal solution surface is quite narrow, an...

  7. Entanglement distillation for atomic states via cavity QED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming; Song, Wei; Cao, Zhuo-Liang

    2004-10-01

    Following a recent proposal (Phys. Rev. Lett. 85 (2000) 2392) about quantum information processing using dispersive atom-cavity interaction, in this paper, we proposed a physical scheme to concentrate the pure non-maximally entangled atomic states via cavity QED by using atomic collision in a far-off-resonant cavity. The most distinctive advantage of our scheme is that there is no excitation of cavity mode during the distillation procedure. Therefore the requirement on the quality of cavity is greatly loosened.

  8. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF A ROTATING PACKED BED DISTILLATION COLUMN

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento, JVS; Ravagnani, TMK; Pereira, JAFR

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the mass transfer performance of rotating packed beds applying the "Higee" process. The operations were carried out with the n-hexane/n-heptane distilling system at atmospheric pressure and under total reflux conditions. The rotating speed could be varied between 300 and 2500 rpm, which provided centrifugal forces from 5 to 316 times the Earth's gravity. The effects of concentration, vapor velocity, rotating speed and packing type (two different Raschig r...

  9. Experimental study of a rotating packed bed distillation column

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento,J. V. S.; Ravagnani,T. M. K.; Pereira,J. A. F. R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the mass transfer performance of rotating packed beds applying the "Higee" process. The operations were carried out with the n-hexane/n-heptane distilling system at atmospheric pressure and under total reflux conditions. The rotating speed could be varied between 300 and 2500 rpm, which provided centrifugal forces from 5 to 316 times the Earth's gravity. The effects of concentration, vapor velocity, rotating speed and packing type (two different Raschig r...

  10. Comportement en vapocraquage de molécules modèles et de distillats sous vide hydrotraités. Première partie : potentialité de craquage, réacteur à profil de température rectangulaire et à court temps de séjour Steam-Cracking Behavior of Model Molecules and Hydrotreated Vacuum Distillates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berthelin M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Dans le cadre de la valorisation des coupes lourdes par vapocraquage, des distillats sous vide plus ou moins hydrotraités et des molécules modèles ont été pyrolysés. Cette étude a été réalisée sur un micropilote dont la partie réactionnelle est chauffée entre 680 et 860°C, par induction électromagnétique haute fréquence; le débit total peut varier de 60 à 800 g/h avec une perte de charge inférieure à 0,3 bar. Deux réacteurs tubulaires spiralés de rapport surface/volume allant jusqu'à 2000 m-1 permettent d'atteindre des temps de séjour de 10 à 400 millisecondes. Un indice quantifiant l'aptitude de chaque molécule à produire de l'éthylène, du propylène et des composés lourds, a permis l'établissement d'une échelle de potentialité de craquage, permettant d'orienter les performances d'un catalyseur de prétraitement : optimisation de la consommation d'hydrogène, meilleure valorisation des charges lourdes lors du vapocraquage. Grâce au profil de température rectangulaire du micropilote, des gains très importants de rendements d'éthylène et une production très faible d'asphaltènes ont été mis en évidence par pyrolyse de distillats sous vide hydrotraités. L'importance primordiale de la température dans le couple température-temps de séjour a été confirmée. Within the framework of the upgrading of heavy cuts for steam cracking, more or less hydrotreated vacuum distillates and model molecules were pyrolyzed. This research was done in a micropilot plant in which the reaction section was heated to between 680 and 860°C by high-frequency electromagnetic induction. The total flow rate can vary from 60 to 800 g/h with a pressure drop of less than 0. 3 bar. Two spiral tubular reactors with a high surface/volume ratio of up to 2000 m-1 enable residence times of 10 to 400 milliseconds to be obtained. An index quantifying the capacity of each molecule to produce ethylene, propylene and heavy compounds was used

  11. Dry Distillation of Radioiodine from TeO2 Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Koziorowski

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available As medical cyclotrons are becoming more abundant, 123I and 124I are getting more attention as alternatives to 131I for diagnostics of thyroid disease. Both 123I and 124I provide better diagnostics, deliver less dose to patients and both reduce the risk of thyroid stunning, facilitating subsequent therapy. Dry distillation of radioiodine from tellurium dioxide targets has become the standard approach to producing these radioiodines. Setting up such a production of radioiodine is associated with a lengthy optimization of the process and for this purpose natural tellurium is often used for economical reasons. In this paper, the distillation parameters are scrutinized to ensure optimal distillation temperature, in order to minimize time spent and prevent loss of expensive target material. It is further demonstrated how the individual iodine isotopes, produced from proton bombardment of natTe, will diffuse out of the target in a time dependent ratio. We believe the effect is due to the isotopes having their maximum cross section at different energies. The individual isotopes produced will thus have their highest concentration at different depths in the target. This results in individual mean diffusion lengths and diffusion times for the different isotopes.

  12. THEORETICAL & EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF VACUUM MEMBRANE DISTILLATION FOR TAP WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof .V.C. Renge

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Membrane distillation is a thermally driven process in which only vapor molecules pass through a membrane. The liquid feed to be treated by membrane distillation should be in direct contact with one side of the membrane and should not penetrate inside the dry pores of the membrane. It is a rising technology for seawater or brine desalination process. In this process, vacuum is applied on the permeate side to drive the evaporation of water. The performance of vacuum membrane distillation studied by the effect of feed flow rate , effect of permeate pressure,& effect of feed temperature etc The process was a found to be sensitive with respect to permeate-sidepressure; it is always negative and therefore on increasing permeate-side pressure, the mass flux decreases. The process sensitivity is not much affected by changing membrane characteristics parameter and membrane pore diameter, however mass flux increase linearly with membrane characteristics and pore diameter both. Theprocess is much sensitive below feed temperature of 52oC and is always positive.

  13. Volatile organic emissions from the distillation and pyrolysis of vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Greenberg

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaf and woody plant tissue (Pinus ponderosa, Eucalyptus saligna, Quercus gambelli, Saccharum officinarum and Oriza sativa were heated from 30 to 300°C and volatile organic compound (VOC emissions were identified and quantified. Major VOC emissions were mostly oxygenated and included acetic acid, furylaldehyde, acetol, pyrazine, terpenes, 2,3-butadione, phenol and methanol, as well as smaller emissions of furan, acetone, acetaldehyde, acetonitrile and benzaldehyde. Total VOC emissions from distillation and pyrolysis were on the order of 10 gC/kgC dry weight of vegetation, as much as 33% and 44% of CO2 emissions (gC(VOC/gC(CO2 measured during the same experiments, in air and nitrogen atmospheres, respectively. The emissions are similar in identity and quantity to those from smoldering combustion of woody tissue and of different character than those evolved during flaming combustion. VOC emissions from the distillation of pools and endothermic pyrolysis under low turbulence conditions may produce flammable concentrations near leaves and may facilitate the propagation of wildfires. VOC emissions from charcoal production are also related to distillation and pyrolysis; the emissions of the highly reactive VOCs from production are as large as the carbon monoxide emissions.

  14. Conceptual analysis of single-feed heterogeneous distillation columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Arturo Martinez Riascos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Separation in heterogeneous distillation columns is attained by interaction of two liquid and one vapor phases, interaction of three phases involves complexities due to the determination of vapor-liquid-liquid equilibrium and hence, in the design of separation units. Nevertheless, the liquid-liquid equilibrium allows developing separations that may be unfeasible by vapor-liquid equilibrium. In this way, heterogeneous azeotropic distillation is a useful operation for the separation of azeotropic and close-boiling mixtures. In this work, a new methodology for evaluating the feasibility of this process is developed. This methodology is an extension of that proposed by Castillo et al. (1998 for homogeneous systems. Operation leaves for heterogeneous systems are calculated using the concept of pinch point curves in order to establish the process feasibility. Heterogeneous columns with external decanter are considered as the only heterogeneous stage (OHED: only heterogeneous external decanter. The initialization process for the column calculation requires the selection of the distillate composition using thermodynamic criteria in order to guarantee homogeneous phases within the column. A system with industrial and academic relevance was considered as case study: water-acetic acid-amyl acetate. Results show that the developed shortcut method allows evaluating process feasibility and estimating design parameters, without the use of trial and error procedures implemented, with the aid of simulation tools. 

  15. Separation of Benzene and Cyclohexane by Batch Extractive Distillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jiao; ZHANG Weijiang; GUI Xia

    2007-01-01

    Azeotropic liquid mixture cannot be separated by conventional distillation. But extractive distillation or combination of the two can be valid for them. An experiment to separate benzene and cyclohexane by batch extractive distillation was carried out with N, N-dimethylformide (DMF), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and their mixture as extractive solvent. The effect of the operation parameterssuch as solvent flow rate and reflux ratio on the separation was studied under the same operating conditions. The results show that the separation effect was improved with the increase of solvent flow rate and the reflux ratio; all the three extractive solvents can separate benzene and cyclohexane, with DMF being the most efficient one, the mixture the second, and DMSO the least. In the experiment the best operation conditions are with DMF as extractive solvent, the solvent flow rate being 12.33 mL/min, and the reflux ratio being 6. As a result, we can get cyclohexane from the top of tower with the average product content being 86.98%, and its recovering ratio being 83.10%.

  16. Distillation of hydrogen isotopes for polarized HD target

    CERN Document Server

    Ohta, T; Didelez, J -P; Fujiwara, M; Fukuda, K; Kohri, H; Kunimatsu, T; Morisaki, C; Ono, S; Rouill', G; Tanaka, M; Ueda, K; Uraki, M; Utsuro, M; Wang, S Y; Yosoi, M

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a cryogenic distillation system to purify Hydrogen-Deuteride (HD) gas for a polarized HD target in LEPS experiments at SPring-8. A small amount of ortho-H$_2$ ($\\sim$0.01%) in the HD gas plays an important role in efficiently polarizing the HD target. Since there are 1$\\sim$5% impurities of H$_2$ and D$_2$ in commercially available HD gases, it is inevitable that the HD gas is purified up to $\\sim$99.99%. The distillation system has a cryogenic pot (17$\\sim$21 K) containing many small stainless steel cells called Heli-pack. Commercial HD gas with an amount of 5.2 mol is fed into the pot. We carried out three distillation runs by changing temperatures (17.5 K and 20.5 K) and gas extraction speeds (1.3 ml/min and 5.2 ml/min). The extracted gas was analyzed by using a gas analyzer system combining a quadrupole mass spectrometer with a gas chromatograph. The HD gas of 1 mol with a purity better than 99.99% has been successfully obtained. The effective NTS (Number of Theoretical Stages), which is...

  17. HIGH PRESSURE VAPOR-LIQUID EQUILIBRIA OF PALM FATTY ACIDS DISTILLATES-CARBON DIOXIDE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nélio T. MACHADO

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Vapor-Liquid equilibria of palm fatty acids distillates/carbon dioxide system has been investigated experimentally at temperatures of 333, 353, and 373 K and pressures of 20, 23, 26, and 29 MPa using the static method. Experimental data for the quasi-binary system palm fatty acids distillates/carbon dioxide has been correlated with Redlich-Kwong-Aspen equation of state. Modeling shows good agreement with experimental data. Selectivity obtained indicates that supercritical carbon dioxide is a reasonable solvent for separating saturated (palmitic acid and unsaturated (oleic+linoleic acids fatty acids from palm fatty acids distillates in a continuous multistage countercurrent column.Foi investigado experimentalmente o equilíbrio líquido-vapor para o sistema Destilado Ácido de Óleo de Palma (PFAD/Dióxido de Carbono, nas temperaturas de 333, 353 e 373 K e pressões de 20, 23, 26 e 29 MPa, usando-se o método estático. Os dados experimentais do sistema pseudo-binário PFAD/CO2 foram correlacionados com a equação de estado de Redlich-Kwong do pacote computacional ASPEN. O modelo reproduz bem os resultados experimentais. A seletividade obtida indica que o CO2 supercrítico é um solvente razoável para a separação em coluna multi-estágio e contínua, do ácido graxo saturado (ácido palmítico daqueles insaturados (ácido oleico e ácido linoleico contidos no PFAD.

  18. Simultaneous heat and mass transfer of a packed distillation column for ammonia-water absorption refrigeration systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Seara, Jose; Sieres, Jaime; Vazquez, Manuel [Area de Maquinas y Motores Termicos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales de Vigo, Universidad de Vigo, Campus Lagoas-Marcosende, N circle 9, 36200, Vigo (Spain)

    2002-10-01

    This paper presents a study on the NH{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O distillation process using a packed column with liquid reflux from the condenser in an absorption refrigeration system. A differential mathematical model has been developed on the basis of mass and energy balances and the heat and mass transfer equations. A net molar flux between the liquid and vapour phases has been considered in the mass transfer equation, which obviates the need to assume equimolar counter-diffusion. The model equations have been solved using the finite-difference method. Results obtained for a specific application are shown, including parameter distributions along the column length. The influence of rectifying and stripping lengths, mass and heat transfer coefficients and volumetric heat rejection from the column, on the distillate ammonia concentration has been analysed. (authors)

  19. A comparative study of water-steam distillation with water-bubble distillation techniques to increase the quality of patchouli essential oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitri, Noor; Yandi, Nefri; Hermawati, Julianto, Tatang Shabur

    2017-03-01

    A comparative study of the quality of patchouli oil using Water-Steam Distillation (WSD) and Water Bubble Distillation (WBD) techniques has been studied. The raw materials were Patchouli plants from Samigaluh village, Kulon Progo district, Yogyakarta. This study is aimed to compare two distillation techniques in order to find out the optimal distillation technique to increase the content of patchouli alcohol (patchoulol) and the quality of patchouli oil. Pretreatment such as withering, drying, size reduction and light fermentation were intended to increase the yield. One kilogramm of patchouli was moisturized with 500 mL of aquadest. The light fermentation process was carried out for 20 hours in a dark container. Fermented patchouli was extracted for 6 hours using Water-Steam and Water Bubble Distillation techniques. Physical and chemical properties test of patchouli oil were performed using SNI standard No. SNI-06-2385-2006 and the chemical composition of patchouli oil was analysed by GC-MS. As the results, the higher yield oil is obtained using Water-Steam Distillation, i.e. 5.9% versus 2.4%. Spesific gravity, refractive index and acid number of patchouli oil in Water-Steam Distillation results did not meet the SNI standard, i.e. 0.991; 1.623 and 13.19, while the Water Bubble Distillation met the standard, i.e. 0.955; 1.510 and 6.61. The patchoulol content using Water Bubble Distillation technique is 61.53%, significant higher than those using Water-Steam Distillation, i.e. 38.24%. Thus, Water Bubble Distillation promises a potential technique to increase the content of patchoulol in the patchouli oil.

  20. Dynamics and control designs for internal thermally coupled distillation columns with different purities, Part 1: Open loop dynamic behaviors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The open loop dynamic behaviors of internal thermally coupled distillation column with four different purities (low-,moderate-, high- and very high-purity) are studied. These dynamic behaviors are characterized by strong asymmetric non-linearity, high sensitivity to operation conditions change and distinct inverse response. With the increase of purity, these dynamic behaviors are intensified and become more complex, which easily lead to the mismatch between linear model and plant and also change the relationship between manipulated and controlled variables.

  1. Economic viability of incorporating multi-effect distillation with district cooling systems in the United Arab Emirates

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, BR; Chaudhry, HN; Rezazadeh, F

    2013-01-01

    The United Arab Emirates (UAE) has one of the most advanced and developed desalination systems in the world, mainly located along the shore. The aim of this study is to analyze the economic feasibility of incorporating the two most prominent types of desalination systems within the existing district cooling plants in the UAE by utilizing waste heat recovery. Mathematical models are established to compare reverse osmosis (RO) with multi-effect distillation (MED) technology coupled with distric...

  2. Nonlinear Lyapunov-based boundary control of distributed heat transfer mechanisms in membrane distillation plant

    KAUST Repository

    Eleiwi, Fadi

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents a nonlinear Lyapunov-based boundary control for the temperature difference of a membrane distillation boundary layers. The heat transfer mechanisms inside the process are modeled with a 2D advection-diffusion equation. The model is semi-descretized in space, and a nonlinear state-space representation is provided. The control is designed to force the temperature difference along the membrane sides to track a desired reference asymptotically, and hence a desired flux would be generated. Certain constraints are put on the control law inputs to be within an economic range of energy supplies. The effect of the controller gain is discussed. Simulations with real process parameters for the model, and the controller are provided. © 2015 American Automatic Control Council.

  3. Improved Data-based Fault Detection Strategy and Application to Distillation Columns

    KAUST Repository

    Madakyaru, Muddu

    2017-01-31

    Chemical and petrochemical processes require continuous monitoring to detect abnormal events and to sustain normal operations. Furthermore, process monitoring enhances productivity, efficiency, and safety in process industries. Here, we propose an innovative statistical approach that exploits the advantages of multiscale partial least squares (MSPLS) models and generalized likelihood ratio (GLR) tests for fault detection in processes. Specifically, we combine an MSPLS algorithm with wavelet analysis to create our modeling framework. Then, we use GLR hypothesis testing based on the uncorrelated residuals obtained from the MSPLS model to improve fault detection. We use simulated distillation column data to evaluate the MSPLS-based GLR chart. Results show that our MSPLS-based GLR method is more powerful than the PLS-based Q and GLR method and MSPLS-based Q method, especially in early detection of small faults with abrupt or incipient behavior.

  4. Sensitivity analysis of a light gas oil deep hydrodesulfurization process via catalytic distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales-Quintero, A.; Vargas-Villamil, F.D. [Prog. de Matematicas Aplicadas y Computacion, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas 152, Mexico, D.F. 07330 (Mexico); Arce-Medina, E. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, ESIQIE, Ed. 8 Col. Lindavista, Mexico, D.F. 07738 (Mexico)

    2008-01-30

    In this work, a sensitivity analysis of a light gas oil deep hydrodesulfurization catalytic distillation column is presented. The aim is to evaluate the effects of various parameters and operating conditions on the organic sulfur compound elimination by using a realistic light gas oil fraction. The hydrocarbons are modeled using pseudocompounds, while the organic sulfur compounds are modeled using model compounds, i.e., dibenzothiophene (DBT) and 4,6-dimethyl dibenzothiophene (4,6-DMDBT). These are among the most refractive sulfur compounds present in the oil fractions. A sensitivity analysis is discussed for the reflux ratio, bottom flow rate, condenser temperature, hydrogen and gas oil feed stages, catalyst loading, the reactive, stripping, and rectifying stages, feed disturbances, and multiple feeds. The results give insight into the qualitative effect of some of the operating variables and disturbances on organic sulfur elimination. In addition, they show that special attention must be given to the bottom flow rate and LGO feed rate control. (author)

  5. Use of solar distillation for olive mill wastewater drying and recovery of polyphenolic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklavos, Sotirios; Gatidou, Georgia; Stasinakis, Athanasios S; Haralambopoulos, Dias

    2015-10-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) is characterized by its high organic load and the presence of phenolic compounds. For first time, a solar distillator was used to investigate the simultaneous solar drying of OMW and the recovery of phenolic compounds with antioxidant properties in the distillate. Two experiments were conducted and the role of thermal insulation on the performance of the distiller was studied. The use of insulation resulted to higher temperatures in the distillator (up to 84.3 °C and 78.5 °C at the air and sludge, respectively), shorter period for OMW dewatering (14 days), while it increased the performance of distillator by 26.1%. Chemical characterization of the distillate showed that pH and COD concentration gradually decreased during the experiments, whereas an opposite trend was noticed for conductivity and total phenols concentration. Almost 4% of the total phenols found initially in OMW were transferred to the distillate when an insulated solar distillator was used. Gas chromatographic analysis of collected distillates confirmed the presence of tyrosol in all samples; whereas hydroxytyrosol was found only in fresh collected distillate samples. Further experiments should be conducted to optimize the process and quantify the concentrations of recovered phenolic compounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Morphological architecture of dual-layer hollow fiber for membrane distillation with higher desalination performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Teoh, May May; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2011-11-01

    A new strategy to enhance the desalination performance of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) hollow fiber membrane for membrane distillation (MD) via architecture of morphological characteristics is explored in this study. It is proposed that a dual-layer hollow fiber consisting of a fully finger-like macrovoid inner-layer and a sponge-like outer-layer may effectively enhance the permeation flux while maintaining the wetting resistance. Dual-layer fibers with the proposed morphology have been fabricated by the dry-jet wet spinning process via careful choice of dopes composition and coagulation conditions. In addition to high energy efficiency (EE) of 94%, a superior flux of 98.6 L m(-2) h(-1) is obtained during the direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) desalination experiments. Moreover, the liquid entry pressure (LEP) and long-term DCMD performance test show high wetting resistance and long-term stability. Mathematical modeling has been conducted to investigate the membrane mass transfer properties in terms of temperature profile and apparent diffusivity of the membranes. It is concluded that the enhancement in permeation flux arises from the coupling effect of two mechanisms; namely, a higher driving force and a lower mass transfer resistance, while the later is the major contribution. This work provides an insight on MD fundamentals and strategy to tailor making ideal membranes for DCMD application in desalination industry. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Hydrodenitrogenation of Aleksinac shale oil distillates in a pilot trickle-bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saban, M.D.; Skala, D.U.; Jovanovic, J.A.; Mayn, V.W.; Rahimian, I.G.-H. (University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Yugoslavia). Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy)

    1992-02-01

    Hydrodenitrogenation (HDN) of the Aleksinac shale oil distillates was studied in a pilot trickle-bed reactor at 340-435{degree}C, 8.0 MPa, 1-4.57 h{sup -1} liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV) and 500 cm{sup 3} (STP) of H{sub 2}/cm{sup 3} oil. The commercial Co-Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Ni-Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} presulfided catalysts were evaluated for the HDN of three different shale oil distillates. The initial HDN catalyst deactivation was followed using a linear catalyst deactivation model. The Ni-Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst showed somewhat higher initial HDN activity and lower initial deactivation rate than the Co-Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst for the first 30-45 h on shale oil feedstock. Nitriles in shale oil first undergo HDN reaction at mild operating conditions, much faster than five-and six-membered nitrogen heterocyclic compounds. The overall HDN kinetics of refractive nitrogen in shale oil was analyzed using a modified pseudo-first order behaviour. The on-line measured hydrogen consumption was in the range 200-300 cm{sup 3}(STP)/cm{sup 3} for HDN{gt}80% regardless of the catalyst type and feedstock. 31 refs., 7 figs., 7 tabs.

  8. Numerical simulation of solar-assisted multi-effect distillation (SMED) desalination systems

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Youngdeuk

    2013-01-01

    We present a simulation model for the transient behavior of solar-assisted seawater desalination plant that employs the evacuated-tube collectors in conjunction with a multieffect distillation plant of nominal water production capacity of 16m3/day. This configuration has been selected due to merits in terms of environment-friendliness and energy efficiency. The solar-assisted multi-effect distillation system comprises 849 m2 of evacuated-tube collectors, 280 m3 water storage tanks, auxiliary heater, and six effects and a condenser. The present analysis employs a baseline configuration, namely; (i) the local solar insolation input (Jeddah, Saudi Arabia), (ii) a coolant flow rate through the headers of collector based on ASHRAE standards, (iii) a heating water demand, and (iv) the augmentation of water temperature by auxiliary when the supply temperature from the solar tank drops below the set point. It is observed that the annual collector efficiency and solar fraction decrease from 57.3 to 54.8% and from 49.4 to 36.7%, respectively, with an increase in the heating water temperature from 80 to 90 °C. The overall water production rate and the performance ratio increase slightly from 0.18 to 0.21 kg/s and from 4.11 to 4.13, respectively. © 2013 Desalination Publications.

  9. UPGRADING OF BIO-OIL MOLECULAR DISTILLATION FRACTION WITH SOLID ACID CATALYST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuogang Guo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Molecular distillation technology has been adopted to obtain a bio-oil fraction rich in carboxylic acids and ketones. This unique bio-oil fraction was then upgraded with a La-promoted solid acid catalyst. Three washing pretreatments were used to prepare catalysts A, B, and C, with the intention of reducing the amounts of residual sulfuric acid. Model reactions were used to estimate their catalytic activities and the residual amounts of sulfuric acid. Catalyst B, with washing after calcination, displayed higher catalytic activity (80.83% and lower residual amount of sulfuric acid (50 μmol/g. The catalysts were characterized by techniques such as BET, XRD, and SEM to explain the differences in their catalytic activities. The optimum catalyst B was used in the upgrading of the bio-oil molecular distillation fraction. After upgrading, the corrosivity of the bio-oil fraction declined and its storage stability was improved. The carboxylic acid content in the upgraded bio-oil fraction decreased from 18.39% to 2.70%, while the ester content increased from 0.72% to 31.17%. The conversion of corrosive carboxylic acids to neutral esters reduced the corrosivity of the bio-oil fraction. Moreover, the ketones with unsaturated carbon-carbon double bonds (such as 2-cyclopenten-1-one, 3-methyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one, etc. were converted into saturated compounds, which improved the stability of the bio-oil fraction.

  10. Reducing CO{sub 2} emissions of internally heat-integrated distillation columns for separation of close boiling mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadalla, M. [Departament d' Engingeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Paisos Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Olujic, I.; Rijke, A. de; Jansens, P.J. [Laboratory for Process Equipment, TU Delft, Leeghwaterstraat 44, 2628 CA Delft (Netherlands)

    2006-10-15

    A model developed originally for crude oil distillation units has been applied to a standalone internally heat integrated distillation column (HIDiC) to evaluate emissions levels and to generate design options for direct carbon dioxide emissions reduction. Simulations indicate that for propylene-propane separation, an ideal (no reboiler) HIDiC enables a reduction in emissions of 83% and of 36%, compared to conventional and heat pump alternatives, respectively. Integrating a turbine to drive the compressor, in conjunction with a suitable fuel is the key to the minimization of the emissions associated with the operation of a HIDiC. Importantly, while substantial emission reductions are achieved, the process economics are improved. (author)

  11. Multiplicity Analysis in Reactive Distillation Column Using ASPEN PLUS%反应精馏过程中的多稳态分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨伯伦; 吴江; 赵国胜; 王华军; 路士庆

    2006-01-01

    Reactive distillation processes for synthesis of ethylene glycol (EG) and ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) were modeled with the simulation package ASPEN PLUS. The input multiplicity and output multiplicity were discussed with the method of sensitivity analysis for both cases. In EG production process, steady state multiplicities were studied in terms of effective liquid holdup volume and boil-up ratio. In ETBE synthesis process, the user kinetic subroutine was supplied into ASPEN PLUS firstly, and then the composition, temperature and reaction-rate profiles within the reactive distillation column were presented in detail. A set of stable solution branches based on distinct initial guesses for a range of boil-up ratio were found in EG synthesis. Input multiplicities were observed for a range of reboiler duty at several values of reflux ratio for ETBE synthesis process. These results can be used to avoid excessive energy consumption and achieve optimum design of reactive distillation column.

  12. Management of waste solvents in the chemical industry - An ecological comparison of distillation and incineration; Abfallloesungsmittelbewirtschaftung in der chemischen Industrie. Ein oekologischer Vergleich von Rektifikation und Verbrennung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofstetter, T.B.

    2002-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project in which two methods of dealing with solvent wastes were compared - distillation or incineration. The results of an analysis made of two case studies, a waste-solvent incineration plant and a batch distillation column, are presented. These were used to develop a simplified evaluation model for the two methods. The three methods used for the analysis of environmental impact are described - Eco-Indicator 99, ecological scarcity and primary energy demand. The authors note that the distillation model cannot be generally applied as the process is very dependent on the particular mixture of solvents being distilled and that the energy assessment method is dependent on the particular form of energy substituted by the energy produced in the incineration system. The evaluation model developed was used for 5 different mixtures of solvents. The results of the project show that apart from the availability of an accurate evaluation model, the life-cycle inventories for petrochemical production of solvents are limited and may compromise the applicability of the model to other mixtures of solvents.

  13. Thermodynamic analysis of multicomponent distillation columns: identifying optimal feed conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L.O. Maia

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A new methodology for the optimisation of feed conditions as well as the calculation of minimum reflux ratio of distillation columns is presented. The reversible profile approach used for saturated liquid feeds is extended to consider other feed conditions. For flashed feed, the liquid fraction of the feed stream is used to compute the column pinch conditions and the minimum reflux ratio. The modifications required for subcooled liquid and superheated vapor feed are discussed, and a procedure to estimate the minimum reflux for those conditions is proposed. The methodology presented allows the identification of the optimal feed condition, without having to resort to a full stage-by-stage procedure.

  14. Removal of inhibitors from lignocellulosic hydrolyzates by vacuum membrane distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingwen; Zhang, Yaqin; Wang, Yafei; Ji, Xiaosheng; Zhang, Lin; Mi, Xigeng; Huang, He

    2013-09-01

    In this study, vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) was used to remove two prototypical fermentation inhibitors (acetic acid and furfural) from lignocellulose hydrolyzates. The effect of operating parameters, such as feed temperature and feed velocity, on the removal efficiencies of inhibitors was investigated. Under optimal conditions, more than 98% of furfural could be removed by VMD. However, the removal efficiency of acetic acid was considerably lower. After furfural and acetic acid were selectively removed from hydrolyzates by VMD, ethanol production efficiency increased by 17.8% compared to original hydrolyzates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. High-temperature vacuum distillation separation of plutonium waste salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-10-01

    In this task, high-temperature vacuum distillation separation is being developed for residue sodium chloride-potassium chloride salts resulting from past pyrochemical processing of plutonium. This process has the potential of providing clean separation of the salt and the actinides with minimal amounts of secondary waste generation. The process could produce chloride salt that could be discarded as low-level waste (LLW) or low actinide content transuranic (TRU) waste, and a concentrated actinide oxide powder that would meet long-term storage standards (DOE-DTD-3013-94) until a final disposition option for all surplus plutonium is chosen.

  16. A Systematic Synthesis Framework for Extractive Distillation Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kossack, S.; Kraemer, K.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2008-01-01

    An effective extractive distillation process depends on the choice of the extractive agent. in this contribution, heuristic rules for entrainer selection and the design of entrainers through computer-aided molecular design are reviewed. The potential of the generated alternatives is then evaluated...... of alternative entrainers have already been eliminated, only a few optimizations are necessary. These steps form a framework which facilitates the systematic generation and evaluation of entrainer alternatives. The suggested synthesis framework is illustrated with a case study where acetone and methanol...

  17. Methanol Distillation System: Process Analysis and Column Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Jinsheng; Tian Yufeng; Xu Shimin; Ding Hui; Wang Tao; Li Xingang; Zheng Yanmei

    2005-01-01

    Base on industrial research and experience, the process of methanol distillation is analyzed,and above all, a new concept of high pressure flowsheet and low pressure flowsheet is defined. The new configuration helps to handle problems encountered in many factories in China. The inter influence between process and column internal pattern is also pointed out. Recommendation of new column internal designs is given. Finally, industrial examples tell the how the new concept works and the possibility of combining process to give more opens to solve engineering problems.

  18. Analysis of limette and bergamot distilled essential oils by HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buiarelli, Francesca; Cartoni, Giampaolo; Coccioli, Franco; Jasionowska, Renata; Mazzarino, Monica

    2002-04-01

    This work examines the distilled essential oils of limette and bergamot in order to assess the presence of low volatile substances such as coumarins (bergapten) which, being toxic, must be eliminated before using these oils in the food industry. The quantitative determination of coumarins was carried out by spectrofluorimetric detection. The substances present in the chromatograms, obtained by HPLC with UV detection at 254 nm, were then identified. Moreover, a new coumarin that is present in small quantities was identified using HPLC-MS.

  19. Concentration of lignocellulosic hydrolyzates by solar membrane distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Wang, Yafei; Cheng, Li-Hua; Xu, Xinhua; Chen, Huanlin

    2012-11-01

    A small solar energy collector was run to heat lignocellulosic hydrolyzates through an exchanger, and the heated hydrolyzate was concentrated by vacuum membrane distillation (VMD). Under optimal conditions of velocity of 1.0m/s and 65°C, glucose rejection was 99.5% and the flux was 8.46Lm(-2)h(-1). Fermentation of the concentrated hydrolyzate produced 2.64 times the amount of ethanol as fermentation using the original hydrolyzate. The results of this work indicated the possibility to decrease the thermal energy consumption of lignocellulosic ethanol through using VMD.

  20. Quantum Entanglement: Separability, Measure, Fidelity of Teleportation, and Distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantum entanglement plays crucial roles in quantum information processing. Quantum entangled states have become the key ingredient in the rapidly expanding field of quantum information science. Although the nonclassical nature of entanglement has been recognized for many years, considerable efforts have been taken to understand and characterize its properties recently. In this review, we introduce some recent results in the theory of quantum entanglement. In particular separability criteria based on the Bloch representation, covariance matrix, normal form and entanglement witness, lower bounds, subadditivity property of concurrence and tangle, fully entangled fraction related to the optimal fidelity of quantum teleportation, and entanglement distillation will be discussed in detail.

  1. Ground water distillation by basin type solar still for different basin water depth under the climatic condition of Rewa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AbhayAgrawal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Adequate quality and reliability of drinking water supply is a fundamental need. Without potable water or drinking water (less than about 500 ppm of salt human life is not possible. Only 1% of Earth's water is in a fresh, liquid state, and nearly all of this is polluted by both diseases and toxic chemicals. For this reason, purification of water supplies is extremely important. Keeping these things in mind, we have devised a model which will convert the saline ground water into pure and potable water using the renewable source of energy (i.e. solar energy. Solar energy is an abundant, never lasting, and available on site and pollution free energy.Solar Energy is freely available and can be used as a very cheap option to convert saline ground Water through Solar Distillation, by using Solar Stills. The conventional single basin and single slop Passive Solar Still can be used to purify water but the main problem is that the per square meter distillate output is less. So it is need to modify the design of solar still for high output of solar distillate Solar still is easy to construct, can be done by local people from locally available materials, simple in operation by unskilled Personnel, no hard maintenance requirements and almost no operation cost. Simplest basin type models of solar still in earlier days, researchers have progressed a lot to increase its efficiency. Suitable modification of solar still can produce high output using minimum areas of land and even in cloudy days. Experimental study is done at Rewa M.P. on two different basin water depth solar stills. Low water depth solar water still is produced more distillate than high water depth still by the experiment.

  2. Distillation Protocols for Mixed States of Multilevel Qubits and the Quantum Renormalization Group

    CERN Document Server

    Martín-Delgado, M A

    2003-01-01

    We study several properties of distillation protocols to purify multilevel qubit states (qudits) when applied to a certain family of initial mixed bipartite states. We find that it is possible to use qudits states to increase the stability region obtained with the flow equations to distill qubits. In particular, for qutrits we get the phase diagram of the distillation process with a rich structure of fixed points. We investigate the large-$D$ limit of qudits protocols and find an analytical solution in the continuum limit. The general solution of the distillation recursion relations is presented in an appendix. We stress the notion of weight amplification for distillation protocols as opposed to the quantum amplitude amplification that appears in the Grover algorithm. Likewise, we investigate the relations between quantum distillation and quantum renormalization processes.

  3. ENERGETIC ANALYSIS AND PROCESS INTEGRATION IN ALCOHOL DISTILLATION: CONVENTIONAL AND DOUBLE EFFECT METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meilyn González Cortés

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumption was determined in two schemes of alcohol distillation. In the first scheme, columns operate at a pressure close to atmospheric pressure and the second one works with vacuum pressures. An analysis of energy integration in the ASPEN PINCH software is done, determining the minimum requirements of hot and cold utilities in each process. The composite curves showed that there are possibilities for energy recovery in both processes. A minimum ΔT (ΔTmín optimum of 25oC for conventional distillation and 20oC for double effect distillation was obtained. The grids diagram showed the minimum number of exchange units with differences according to the real processes and utilities over consumption for both distillation schemes. The minimum consumption of utilities obtained from energy integration resulted in savings of 52% for double effect distillation and 75% for conventional distillation.

  4. Recovery of Dilute Acetic Acid by Catalytic Distillation Using NKC-9 as Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhigang; LI Xiaofeng; XU Shimin; LI Xingang

    2006-01-01

    The reaction kinetics of dilute acetic acid with methanol using NKC-9 as catalyst was studied at temperatures of 308 K, 318 K, 323 K, 328 K. The kinetic model based on Langmuir-Hinshelwood rate model was derived and the activation energy was 6.13 x 104 kJ/kmol. The experiment of recovery of dilute acetic acid was conducted in a packed bed catalytic distillation column. The optimal process parameters and operational conditions determined to make up to 85.9% conversion of acetic acid are as follows:the height of catalyst bed is 1 100 mm, reflux ratio is 4: 1, and the ratio of methanol to acetic acid is 2: 1. The method can be used as a guide in industrial scale recovery of 15%-30% dilute acetic acid.

  5. Rhamnolipid produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa USM-AR2 facilitates crude oil distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asshifa Md Noh, Nur; Al-Ashraf Abdullah, Amirul; Nasir Mohamad Ibrahim, Mohamad; Ramli Mohd Yahya, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    A biosurfactant-producing and hydrocarbon-utilizing bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa USM-AR2, was used to assist conventional distillation. Batch cultivation in a bioreactor gave a biomass of 9.4 g L(-1) and rhamnolipid concentration of 2.4 g L(-1) achieved after 72 h. Biosurfactant activity (rhamnolipid) was detected by the orcinol assay, emulsification index and drop collapse test. Pretreatment of crude oil TK-1 and AG-2 with a culture of P. aeruginosa USM-AR2 that contains rhamnolipid was proven to facilitate the distillation process by reducing the duration without reducing the quality of petroleum distillate. It showed a potential in reducing the duration of the distillation process, with at least 2- to 3-fold decreases in distillation time. This is supported by GC-MS analysis of the distillate where there was no difference between compounds detected in distillate obtained from treated or untreated crude oil. Calorimetric tests showed the calorie value of the distillate remained the same with or without treatment. These two factors confirmed that the quality of the distillate was not compromised and the incubation process by the microbial culture did not over-degrade the oil. The rhamnolipid produced by this culture was the main factor that enhanced the distillation performance, which is related to the emulsification of hydrocarbon chains in the crude oil. This biotreatment may play an important role to improve the existing conventional refinery and distillation process. Reducing the distillation times by pretreating the crude oil with a natural biosynthetic product translates to energy and cost savings in producing petroleum products.

  6. Deep-Cut Vacuum Distillation in the 10 Mt/a CDUNDU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Zhuwei; Mao Fuzhong; Jiang Bing; Chen Kaibei; Chi Ling; Yan Chun

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces the concepts relating to deep-cut vacuum distillation and its suitability, and analyzes the deep-cut vacuum distillation technique licensed by the KBC Advanced Technologies to the 10 Mt/a CDUNDU of the Qingdao refinery and makes comparison on the test run data after commissioning of the distillation unit. The test results have confirmed that the operation of the CDU/VDU had reached the expected goal to achieve good social and economic benefits.

  7. Impact of 50% Synthesized Iso-Paraffins (SIP) on Middle Distillate Fuel Filtration and Coalescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-30

    Impact of 50% Synthesized Iso-Paraffins (SIP) on Middle Distillate Fuel Filtration and Coalescence NF&LCFT REPORT 441/15-003 30 October 2014...October 2014 Page 1 Impact of 50% Synthesized Iso-Paraffins (SIP) on Middle Distillate Fuel Filtration and Coalescence 1.0 BACKGROUND In...Paraffins (SIP) on Middle 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER N/A Distillate Fuel F-76 Filtration and Coalescence 5b. GRANT NUMBER N/A 5c. PROGRAM

  8. Distillation Parameters for Pilot Plant Production of Laurus nobilis Essential oil

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Essential oils have increasing importance in flavour and fragrance industries. They are obtained by distillation techniques. In order to produce an oil with market potential its optimum production parameters have to be well known prior to its commercial production. Determination of the steam distillation parameters of commercially available Laurel leaves oil in pilot plant scale is described. The effect of steam rate and processing time play a major role in distillation of essential oils. Dis...

  9. Influence of water air content on cavitation erosion in distilled water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Auret, JG

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available air content on cavitation erosion in distilled water J. G. Auret,* O. F. R. A. Damm,* G. J. Wright* and F. P. A. Robinson t The influence of increased air content of the cavitating liquid (distilled water... erosion, air (gas) content, distilled water Introduction The existence of cavitation at positive liquid pressures depends on the presence of small gas pockets or nuclei ~. Thus gas (usually air) content is an extremely...

  10. Study and Commercial Test on Technology for Deacidification of Distillate Oils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Xiaodong; An Rong; Cui Yingxian; Du Hongyong

    2005-01-01

    A new kind of solvent for deacidification of distillate oils was introduced in this paper. After successful laboratory study this technology had been applied in commercial scale successfully. Compared to traditional caustic wash of distillate oils, this technology has a lot of merits, such as the broad range of distillates to be processed, low caustic consumption, recycle of deacidifying agent, absence of waste caustic discharge, and low equipment revamp expenses, which can have promising perspectives for exploitation and application of this technology.

  11. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF EXERGETIC BALANCE METHODS IN ALCOHOLIC DISTILLATION COLUMNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arletis Cruz Llerena

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The comparison between three methods to calculate the exergy of the currents involved in the exergetic balance of alcoholic distillation columns is presented. Exergy of the currents was considered as: 1 flow exergies, 2 heat exergies and 3 the sum of flow exergy and chemical exergy. The implementation of the exergetic analysis was examined as a key point to improve the efficiency of the process. A case study, where the methods are applied for the evaluation of the exergy is analyzed; differences among the methods were obtained between the 15% and 30 %. The influence of the studied columns in total work capacity loss was determined, concluding that regardless of the method, the distillation column has shown the higher loss. An economic analysis was made applying the first method to the case study, where the percentage of ethanol in wine increases from 5.8 ºGL to 9 ºGL, which led to a decrease of vapor consumption of 23.66%, an exergetic yield increase of 28.02 % and a combustion gas flow reduction of 24 627 034.4 m3/year.

  12. Pinch Point Calculations and Its Implications on Robust Distillation Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daniel A. Beneke; Seon B. Kim; Andreas A. Linninger

    2011-01-01

    Rising energy costs and growing environmental awareness motivate a critical revision of the design of distillation units. Systematic design techniques, such as the rectification body, column profile map, and temperature collocation methods, require exact knowledge of all pinch points in a particular system, because these stationary points delineate the possible composition trajectories realizable in separation columns. This paper demonstrates novel methods for rigorously determining all pinch points for the constant relative volatility, ideal and non-ideal systems. Constant relative volatility and ideal solution systems are transformed into one-dimensional polynomial and nonlinear functions, regardless of the number of the components. A deflation method is proposed to locate all zeros in ideal and non-ideal zeotropic problems. For more challenging non-ideal problems, a novel hybrid sequential niche algorithm is used to solve hard azeotropic problems successfully. Finally, the design implications of these pinch point locations are investigated to show how new separation configurations can be devised. Methodically the paper points out the use of rigorous pinch point computations in conjunction with continuous composition profiles for robust distillation design.

  13. Distillability and PPT entanglement of low-rank quantum states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Lin [Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Dokovic, Dragomir Z, E-mail: cqtcl@nus.edu.sg, E-mail: djokovic@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Pure Mathematics and Institute for Quantum Computing, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2 L 3G1 (Canada)

    2011-07-15

    The bipartite quantum states {rho}, with rank strictly smaller than the maximum of the ranks of the reduced states {rho}{sub A} and {rho}{sub B}, are distillable by local operations and classical communication (Horodecki P, Smolin J A, Terhal B M and Thapliyal A V 2003 Theor. Comput. Sci. 292 589-96; 1999 arXiv:quant-ph/9910122). Our first main result is that this is also true for NPT states with rank equal to this maximum. (A state is PPT if the partial transpose of its density matrix is positive semidefinite, and otherwise it is NPT.) This was conjectured first in 1999 in the special case when the ranks of {rho}{sub A} and {rho}{sub B} are equal (see (Horodecki P, Smolin J A, Terhal B M and Thapliyal A V 2003 Theor. Comput. Sci. 292 589-96; 1999 arXiv:quant-ph/9910122). Our second main result provides a complete solution of the separability problem for bipartite states of rank 4. Namely, we show that such a state is separable if and only if it is PPT and its range contains at least one product state. We also prove that the so-called checkerboard states are distillable if and only if they are NPT.

  14. Distillability and PPT entanglement of low-rank quantum states

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Lin

    2011-01-01

    It is well-known that bipartite quantum states, whose rank is strictly smaller than the maximum of the ranks of the reduced states, is 1-distillable by local operations and classical communication. Our first main result is that this is also true for states with rank equal to this maximum. This was conjectured in 1999 in the special case when the two local ranks are equal. From our main result we obtain a new constraint on the monogamy of entanglement: a tripartite pure state cannot have two entangled undistillable reduced bipartite density operators. We also prove that the so called checkerboard states are 1-distillable if and only if they are NPT, i.e., the partial transpose of the density matrix is not positive semidefinite. On the basis of this proof, we derive our second main result. Namely, bipartite states of rank 4 which are also PPT, i.e., have positive semidefinite partial transpose, are separable if and only their range contains a product state. This provides a complete solution of the separability ...

  15. Vacuum Distillation Residue Upgrading by an Indigenous Bacillus Cereus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Sadat Tabatabaee

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background:Biological processing of heavy fractions of crude oils offers less severe process conditions and higher selectivity for refining. Biochemical Processes are expected to be low demand energy processes and certainly ecofriendly.Results:A strain of biosurfactant producing bacterium was isolated from an oil contaminated soil at Tehran refinery distillation unit. Based on selected phenotypic and genotypic characteristic including morphology, biochemical proprety, and 16 SrRNA sequencing identified as a novel strain of Bacillus cereus (JQ178332. This bacterium endures a wide range of pH, salinity and temperature. This specific strain utilizes both paraffin and anthracene as samples of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The ability of this bacterium to acquire all its energy and chemical requirements from Vacuum Distillation Residue (VR, as a net sample of problematic hydrocarbons in refineries, was studied. SARA test ASTM D4124-01 revealed 65.5% decrease in asphaltenic, 22.1% in aliphatics and 30.3% in Aromatics content of the VR in MSM medium. Further results with 0.9% saline showed 55% decrease in asphaltene content and 2.1% Aromatics respectively.Conclusion:Remarkable abilities of this microorganism propose its application in an ecofriendly technology to upgrade heavy crude oils.

  16. Fluoride removal from brackish groundwater by direct contact membrane distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, D Y; Wang, J; Wang, B Q; Luan, Z K; Sun, X C; Ren, X J

    2010-01-01

    The direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) applied for fluoride removal from brackish groundwater is presented. The self-prepared polyvinylidene fluoride membrane exhibited high rejection of inorganic salt solutes and a maximum permeate flux 35.6 kgm(-2) h(-1) was obtained. The feed concentration had no marked impact on the permeate flux and the rejection of fluoride. The precipitation of CaCO3 would clog the hollow fiber inlets and foul the membrane surface with the increase of concentration factor when natural groundwater was used directly as the feed, which resulted in a rapid decline of the module efficiency. This phenomenon was diminished by acidification of the feed. The experimental results showed that the permeate flux and the quality of obtained distillate kept stable before concentration factor reached 5.0 with the acidified groundwater as feed. The membrane module efficiency began to decline gradually when the feed continued to be concentrated, which can be mainly attributed to the formation of CaF2 deposits on the membrane surface. Finally, a 300 h continuous fluoride removal experiment on acidified groundwater was carried out with concentration factor at 4.0, the permeate flux kept stable and the permeate fluoride was not detected.

  17. Reactive Distillation and Air Stripping Processes for Water Recycling and Trace Contaminant Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boul, Peter J.; Lange, Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2009-01-01

    Reactive distillation designs are considered to reduce the presence of volatile organic compounds in the purified water. Reactive distillation integrates a reactor with a distillation column. A review of the literature in this field has revealed a variety of functional reactive columns in industry. Wastewater may be purified by a combination of a reactor and a distiller (e.g., the EWRS or VPCAR concepts) or, in principle, through a design which integrates the reactor with the distiller. A review of the literature in reactive distillation has identified some different designs in such combinations of reactor and distiller. An evaluation of reactive distillation and reactive air stripping is presented with regards to the reduction of volatile organic compounds in the contaminated water and air. Among the methods presented, an architecture is presented for the evaluation of the simultaneous oxidation of organics in air and water. These and other designs are presented in light of potential improvements in power consumptions and air and water purities for architectures which include catalytic activity integrated into the water processor. In particular, catalytic oxidation of organics may be useful as a tool to remove contaminants that more traditional distillation and/or air stripping columns may not remove. A review of the current leading edge at the commercial level and at the research frontier in catalytically active materials is presented. Themes and directions from the engineering developments in catalyst design are presented conceptually in light of developments in the nanoscale chemistry of a variety of catalyst materials.

  18. Thermal distillation system utilizing biomass energy burned in stove by means of heat pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Tanaka

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A thermal distillation system utilizing a part of the thermal energy of biomass burned in a stove during cooking is proposed. The thermal energy is transported from the stove to the distiller by means of a heat pipe. The distiller is a vertical multiple-effect diffusion distiller, in which a number of parallel partitions in contact with saline-soaked wicks are set vertically with narrow gaps of air. A pilot experimental apparatus was constructed and tested with a single-effect and multiple-effect distillers to investigate primarily whether a heat pipe can transport thermal energy adequately from the stove to the distiller. It was found that the temperatures of the heated plate and the first partition of the distiller reached to about 100 °C and 90 °C, respectively, at steady state, showing that the heat pipe works sufficiently. The distilled water obtained was about 0.75 and 1.35 kg during the first 2 h of burning from a single-effect and multiple-effect distillers, respectively.

  19. Reactive Distillation and Air Stripping Processes for Water Recycling and Trace Contaminant Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boul, Peter J.; Lange, Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2009-01-01

    Reactive distillation designs are considered to reduce the presence of volatile organic compounds in the purified water. Reactive distillation integrates a reactor with a distillation column. A review of the literature in this field has revealed a variety of functional reactive columns in industry. Wastewater may be purified by a combination of a reactor and a distiller (e.g., the EWRS or VPCAR concepts) or, in principle, through a design which integrates the reactor with the distiller. A review of the literature in reactive distillation has identified some different designs in such combinations of reactor and distiller. An evaluation of reactive distillation and reactive air stripping is presented with regards to the reduction of volatile organic compounds in the contaminated water and air. Among the methods presented, an architecture is presented for the evaluation of the simultaneous oxidation of organics in air and water. These and other designs are presented in light of potential improvements in power consumptions and air and water purities for architectures which include catalytic activity integrated into the water processor. In particular, catalytic oxidation of organics may be useful as a tool to remove contaminants that more traditional distillation and/or air stripping columns may not remove. A review of the current leading edge at the commercial level and at the research frontier in catalytically active materials is presented. Themes and directions from the engineering developments in catalyst design are presented conceptually in light of developments in the nanoscale chemistry of a variety of catalyst materials.

  20. Advanced distillation curve measurements for corrosive fluids: Application to two crude oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisa Starkey Ott; Beverly L. Smith; Thomas J. Bruno [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO (United States). Physical and Chemical Properties Division

    2008-10-15

    We have recently introduced several important improvements in the measurement of distillation curves for complex fluids. The modifications include a composition-explicit data channel for each distillate fraction (for both qualitative and quantitative analysis) and corrosivity assessment of each distillate fraction. The composition-explicit information is achieved with a new sampling approach that allows precise qualitative as well as quantitative analyses of each fraction, on the fly. We have applied the new method to a variety of fluids, including simple n-alkanes, rocket propellant, gasoline, jet fuels, and a hydrocarbon fluid made corrosive with dissolved hydrogen sulfide. In the current contribution, we present the application of the advanced distillation curve method to two samples of crude oil. A primary motivation behind the work is to precisely measure the distillation curves of these oils using our advanced distillation apparatus; these low uncertainty measurements of true thermodynamic state points can be used for equation of state development and differentiation of crude oil samples. Then, the information content of each distillation was extended much further by use of the composition-explicit data channel: gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), infrared spectrophotometry (IR), gas chromatography with sulfur chemiluminescence detection (GC-SCD), and the copper strip corrosion test (CSCT) were used for each distillate volume fraction sampled. Consequently, for each volume fraction of crude oil distillate sampled, we can address the composition, quantitate the total sulfur content, and measure the corrosivity. 39 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Effectiveness of Automatic Control over Flash Distillation Kettle for Liquid-Phase Bulk Polymerization of Propylene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Linge; Ma Jiantong

    2004-01-01

    Automatic control over flash distillation section at SINOPEC Cangzhou Refinery has been realized, resulting in saving of propylene feedstock and emission reduction to harvest significant economic benefits.

  2. Determination of the Relative Effectiveness of Four Food Additives in Degrading Aflatoxin in Distillers Wet Grains and Condensed Distillers Solubles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, H U; Stroshine, Richard L; Ileleji, Klein

    2017-01-01

    The food additives sodium bisulfite, sodium hypochlorite, citric acid, and ammonium persulfate were evaluated for their effectiveness in degrading aflatoxin in samples of distillers wet grains (DWG) and condensed distillers solubles (CDS) obtained from an industrial ethanol plant. Aqueous food additive solutions, 0.5% by weight, were added to DWG or CDS at the level of 0.5 ml/g of sample, and the materials were heated at 90°C for 1 h. Sodium bisulfite was not effective in degrading aflatoxin in either DWG or CDS. Among the four food additives tested, sodium hypochlorite was the most effective. However, it bleached the substrate and left an off-odor. Citric acid and ammonium persulfate reduced aflatoxin levels by 31 to 51%. Citric acid is the most promising additive for degrading aflatoxin because it has been classified as generally recognized as safe by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Aflatoxin reduction was enhanced by increasing the citric acid addition level and prolonging the heating time. Reductions of 65 and 80% in DWG and CDS, respectively, were obtained by the addition of 2.5% (by weight) citric acid and heating at 90°C for 1 h. Aflatoxin levels in DWG and CDS were gradually reduced with prolonged heating at 90°C, even without the addition of food additives. Aflatoxin reductions of 53 and 73% were achieved in DWG and CDS as a result of heating at 90°C for 5 h.

  3. SIMULATION OF THE DISTILLATION BY PRESSURE REDUCTION TO OBTAIN ANHYDROUS ETHANOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeney Lauzurique Guerra

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work the distillation by pressure reduction was evaluated through the HYSYS v3.2 process simulator. Due to the lack of data in the consulted bibliography to perform the simulation, the STATGRAPHICS Centurion XVI software was used to obtain a response surface that would define optimal operating conditions. The property package selected to work was based on the Margules model. An anhydrous ethanol molar composition of 0.9917 was obtained. Temperature profiles were analyzed as well as liquid and vapor molar flows and dehydration column composition profiles. The influence of operating parameters on the efficiency of simulated technology was determined by analyzing one case study. According to economic evaluation, the implementation of this technology is not economically profitable; taking into account current prices and costs mostly due to high energy consumption and construction costs of the tower. This result contributes to the pursuit of other profitable technologies from the economic point of view.

  4. Studies on Recast-layer in EDM using Aluminium Powder Mixed Distilled Water Dielectric Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Hussain Syed

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an attempt has been made to study the effect of aluminium powder when mixed in the distilled water dielectric fluid. The work and tool electrode materials used are W300 diesteel and electrolytic copper respectively. Pulse peak current, pulse on-time and concentration of aluminium powder are taken as the process parameters. The output response considered is white layer thickness (WLT. The experiments are planned using face centered central composite design procedure. Empirical model is developed for WLT using response surface methodology (RSM to study the effect ofprocess parameters. Optical microscopy results show that low thickness of white-layer 17.14 μm is obtained at high concentration of powder of 4 g/l and low peak current of 6 A.

  5. Extension of a reactive distillation process design methodology: application to the hydrogen production through the Iodine-Sulfur thermochemical cycle; Generalisation d'une approche de conception de procedes de distillation reactive: application a la production d'hydrogene par le cycle thermochimique I-S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belaissaoui, B

    2006-02-15

    Reactive distillation is a promising way to improve classical processes. This interest has been comforted by numerous successful applications involving reactive systems in liquid phase but never in vapour phase. In this context, general design tools have been developed for the analysis of reactive distillation processes whatever the reactive phase. A general model for open condensation and evaporation of vapour or liquid reactive systems in chemical equilibrium has been written and applied to extend the feasibility analysis, synthesis and design methods of the sequential design methodology of R. Thery (2002). The extended design methodology is applied to the industrial production of hydrogen through the iodine-sulphur thermochemical cycle by vapour phase reactive distillation. A column configuration is proposed with better performance formerly published configuration. (author)

  6. Canonical Strangeness and Distillation Effects in Hadron Production

    CERN Document Server

    Toneev, V D

    2004-01-01

    Strangeness canonical ensemble for Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics is reconsidered for excited nuclear systems with non-vanishing net strangeness. A new recurrence relation method is applied to find the partition function. The method is first generalized to the case of quantum strangeness canonical ensemble. Uncertainties in calculation of the K+/pi+ excitation function are discussed. A new scenario based on the strangeness distillation effect is put forward for a possible explanation of anomalous strangeness production observed at the bombarding energy near 30 AGeV. The peaked maximum in the K+/pi+ ratio is considered as a sign of the critical end-point reached in evolution of the system rather than a latent heat jump emerging from the onset of the first order deconfinement phase transition.

  7. Exergetic and economic analysis of an industrial distillation column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. B. Araújo

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, applications of exergy and economic concepts to compression, heat exchange, and separation processes were used for calculation of the irreversibility rate, thermodynamic efficiency, and internal rate of return (IRR of the profitability. A case study based on a real process, the purification of 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE in a high-purity distillation column, is presented. This column has the highest steam flow rate in any vinyl chloride monomer (VCM plant. A configuration using a vapor compression heat pump is proposed for improvement of the energy efficiency without having to make important process modifications. Existing and proposed configurations were implemented using the Aspen Plus™ commercial simulator; the results of the existing configuration were validated with data extracted from the plant. The objective of this work was to compare the existing configuration with the proposed one, using a thermodynamic and an economic approach.

  8. Cascade Distillation System Design for Safety and Mission Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarguisingh, Miriam; Callahan, Michael R.; Okon, Shira

    2015-01-01

    Per the NASA Human Health, Life Support and Habitation System Technology Area 06 report "crewed missions venturing beyond Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) will require technologies with improved reliability, reduced mass, self-sufficiency, and minimal logistical needs as an emergency or quick-return option will not be feasible".1 To meet this need, the development team of the second generation Cascade Distillation System (CDS 2.0) chose a development approach that explicitly incorporate consideration of safety, mission assurance, and autonomy. The CDS 2.0 preliminary design focused on establishing a functional baseline that meets the CDS core capabilities and performance. The critical design phase is now focused on incorporating features through a deliberative process of establishing the systems failure modes and effects, identifying mitigation strategies, and evaluating the merit of the proposed actions through analysis and test. This paper details results of this effort on the CDS 2.0 design.

  9. Direct Contact Membrane Distillation of Dairy Process Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, Angela; Sanciolo, Peter; Vasiljevic, Todor; Ponnampalam, Elankovan; Quispe-Chavez, Nohemi; Weeks, Mike; Duke, Mikel

    2011-01-01

    Membrane distillation (MD) was applied for the concentration of a range of dairy streams, such as whole milk, skim milk and whey. MD of a pure lactose solution was also investigated. Direct contact MD (DCMD) mode experiments were carried out in continuous concentration mode, keeping the warm feed/retentate and cold permeate stream temperatures at 54 °C and 5 °C respectively. Performance in terms of flux and retention was assessed. The flux was found to decrease with an increase of dry-matter concentration in the feed. Retention of dissolved solids was found to be close to 100% and independent of the dry-matter concentration in the feed. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) of the fouled membranes confirms organics being present in the fouling layer. PMID:24957495

  10. Use of Reactive Distillation for Biodiesel Production: A Literature Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Dani Supardan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel has been shown to be the best substitute for fossil-based fuels to its environmental advantages and renewable resource availability. There is a great demand for the commercialization of biodiesel production, which in turn calls for a technically and economically reactor technology. The production of biodiesel in existing batch and continuous-flow processes requires excess alcohol, typically 100%, over the stoichiometric molar requirement in order to drive the chemical reaction to completion. In this study, a novel reactor system using a reactive distillation (RD technique was discussed for biodiesel production. RD is a chemical unit operation in which chemical reactions and separations occur simultaneously in one unit. It is an effective alternative to the classical combination of reactor and separation units especially when involving reversible or consecutive chemical reactions such as transesterication process in biodiesel production.

  11. Evaluation of Controller Tuning Methods Applied to Distillation Column Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim; W. Andersen, Henrik; Kümmel, Professor Mogens

    1998-01-01

    of this is to examine whether ZN and BLT design yield satisfactory control of distillation columns. Further, PI controllers are tuned according to a proposed multivariable frequency domain method. A major conclusion is that the ZN tuned controllers yield undesired overshoot and oscillation and poor stability robustness...... properties. BLT tuning removes the overshoot and oscillation, however, at the expense of a more sluggish response. We conclude that if a simple control design is to be used, the BLT method should be referred compared to the ZN method. The frequency domain design approach presented yields a more proper trade...... off between oscillation, response time and stability robustness. However, this method is more complicated to use than the ZN and BLT methods. Moreover, it is shown that properly tuned diagonal PI controllers can provide performance and robustness properties which equal well tuned PI controllers...

  12. Effectiveness of water desalination by membrane distillation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryta, Marek

    2012-07-17

    The membrane distillation process constitutes one of the possibilities for a new method for water desalination. Four kinds of polypropylene membranes with different diameters of capillaries and pores, as well as wall thicknesses were used in studied. The morphology of the membrane used and the operating parameters significantly influenced process efficiency. It was found that the membranes with lower wall thickness and a larger pore size resulted in the higher yields. Increasing both feed flow rate and temperature increases the permeate flux and simultaneously the process efficiency. However, the use of higher flow rates also enhanced heat losses by conduction, which decreases the thermal efficiency. This efficiency also decreases when the salt concentration in the feed was enhanced. The influence of fouling on the process efficiency was considered.

  13. Effectiveness of Water Desalination by Membrane Distillation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Gryta

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The membrane distillation process constitutes one of the possibilities for a new method for water desalination. Four kinds of polypropylene membranes with different diameters of capillaries and pores, as well as wall thicknesses were used in studied. The morphology of the membrane used and the operating parameters significantly influenced process efficiency. It was found that the membranes with lower wall thickness and a larger pore size resulted in the higher yields. Increasing both feed flow rate and temperature increases the permeate flux and simultaneously the process efficiency. However, the use of higher flow rates also enhanced heat losses by conduction, which decreases the thermal efficiency. This efficiency also decreases when the salt concentration in the feed was enhanced. The influence of fouling on the process efficiency was considered.

  14. Direct Contact Membrane Distillation of Dairy Process Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Weeks

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Membrane distillation (MD was applied for the concentration of a range of dairy streams, such as whole milk, skim milk and whey. MD of a pure lactose solution was also investigated. Direct contact MD (DCMD mode experiments were carried out in continuous concentration mode, keeping the warm feed/retentate and cold permeate stream temperatures at 54 °C and 5 °C respectively. Performance in terms of flux and retention was assessed. The flux was found to decrease with an increase of dry-matter concentration in the feed. Retention of dissolved solids was found to be close to 100% and independent of the dry-matter concentration in the feed. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR of the fouled membranes confirms organics being present in the fouling layer.

  15. Experimental magic state distillation for fault-tolerant quantum computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Alexandre M; Zhang, Jingfu; Ryan, Colm A; Laflamme, Raymond

    2011-01-25

    Any physical quantum device for quantum information processing (QIP) is subject to errors in implementation. In order to be reliable and efficient, quantum computers will need error-correcting or error-avoiding methods. Fault-tolerance achieved through quantum error correction will be an integral part of quantum computers. Of the many methods that have been discovered to implement it, a highly successful approach has been to use transversal gates and specific initial states. A critical element for its implementation is the availability of high-fidelity initial states, such as |0〉 and the 'magic state'. Here, we report an experiment, performed in a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) quantum processor, showing sufficient quantum control to improve the fidelity of imperfect initial magic states by distilling five of them into one with higher fidelity.

  16. Experimental magic state distillation for fault-tolerant quantum computing

    CERN Document Server

    Souza, Alexandre M; Ryan, Colm A; Laflamme, Raymond; 10.1038/ncomms1166

    2011-01-01

    Any physical quantum device for quantum information processing is subject to errors in implementation. In order to be reliable and efficient, quantum computers will need error correcting or error avoiding methods. Fault-tolerance achieved through quantum error correction will be an integral part of quantum computers. Of the many methods that have been discovered to implement it, a highly successful approach has been to use transversal gates and specific initial states. A critical element for its implementation is the availability of high-fidelity initial states such as |0> and the Magic State. Here we report an experiment, performed in a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) quantum processor, showing sufficient quantum control to improve the fidelity of imperfect initial magic states by distilling five of them into one with higher fidelity.

  17. Optimal operation of Petlyuk distillation: Steady-state behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivar J. Halvorsen

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The "Petlyuk" or "dividing-wall" or "fully thermally coupled" distillation column is an interesting alternative to the conventional cascaded binary columns for separation of multi-component mixtures. However, the industrial use has been limited, and difficulties in operation have been reported as one reason. With three product compositions controlled, the system has two degrees of freedom left for on-line optimization. We show that the steady-state optimal solution surface is quite narrow, and depends strongly on disturbances and design parameters. Thus it seems difficult to achieve the potential energy savings compared to conventional approaches without a good control strategy. We discuss candidate variables which may be used as feedback variables in order to keep the column operation close to optimal in a "self-optimizing" control scheme.

  18. Minimum Amount of Slop Cut in Batch Distillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The pulse-control operation technique which alternates between total reflux operation and total efflux operation in batch distillation was studied along with the minimum amount of slop cut.Total reflux time was confirmed by dynamic simulation, and total efflux time was adopted by statistic method. For the mixture of hexane and cyclohexane and the traditional constant reflux ratio operation strategy, the amount of slop cut is 1.8-2.1 times of the minimum amount of slop cut; whereas for the pulse-control operation strategy, it is 1.2-1.4 times of the minimum amount of slop cut. So compared with the traditional constant reflux ratio operation, the pulse-control operation can decrease the amount of slop cut and operation time, and meanwhile, enhance separation efficiency and yield.

  19. Effectiveness of Water Desalination by Membrane Distillation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryta, Marek

    2012-01-01

    The membrane distillation process constitutes one of the possibilities for a new method for water desalination. Four kinds of polypropylene membranes with different diameters of capillaries and pores, as well as wall thicknesses were used in studied. The morphology of the membrane used and the operating parameters significantly influenced process efficiency. It was found that the membranes with lower wall thickness and a larger pore size resulted in the higher yields. Increasing both feed flow rate and temperature increases the permeate flux and simultaneously the process efficiency. However, the use of higher flow rates also enhanced heat losses by conduction, which decreases the thermal efficiency. This efficiency also decreases when the salt concentration in the feed was enhanced. The influence of fouling on the process efficiency was considered. PMID:24958289

  20. Polyazole hollow fiber membranes for direct contact membrane distillation

    KAUST Repository

    Maab, Husnul

    2013-08-07

    Porous hollow fiber membranes were fabricated from fluorinated polyoxadiazole and polytriazole by a dry-wet spinning method for application in desalination of Red Sea water by direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD). The data were compared with commercially available hollow fiber MD membranes prepared from poly(vinylidene fluoride). The membranes were characterized by electron microscopy, liquid entry pressure (LEP), and pore diameter measurements. Finally, the hollow fiber membranes were tested for DCMD. Salt selectivity as high as 99.95% and water fluxes as high as 35 and 41 L m -2 h-1 were demonstrated, respectively, for polyoxadiazole and polytriazole hollow fiber membranes, operating at 80 C feed temperature and 20 C permeate. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  1. Soft sensing of system parameters in membrane distillation

    KAUST Repository

    Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2017-03-23

    Various examples of methods and systems are provided for soft sensing of system parameters in membrane distillation (MD). In one example, a system includes a MD module comprising a feed side and a permeate side separated by a membrane boundary layer; and processing circuitry configured to estimate feed solution temperatures and permeate solution temperatures of the MD module using monitored outlet temperatures of the feed side and the permeate side. In another example, a method includes monitoring outlet temperatures of a feed side and a permeate side of a MD module to determine a current feed outlet temperature and a current permeate outlet temperature; and determining a plurality of estimated temperature states of a membrane boundary layer separating the feed side and the permeate side of the MD module using the current feed outlet temperature and the current permeate outlet temperature.

  2. Irreversibility analysis in the process of solar distillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez, S.; Terres, H.; Lizardi, A.; López, R.; Lara, A.

    2017-01-01

    In this work an irreversibility analysis for the thermal process of solar distillation of three different substances is presented, for which it employs a solar still of a slope where three experimental tests with 5.5 L of brine, river water and MgCl2 were performed. Temperature data principally in the glass cover, absorber plate, fluid, environment and the incident solar radiation on the device were obtained. With measurements of temperature, solar radiation and exergetic balance, irreversibilities are found on the device. The results show that the highest values of irreversibilities are concentrated in the absorber plate with an average of 321 W, 342 W and 276 W, followed by the cover glass with an average of 75.8 W, 80.4 W and 86.7 W and finally the fluid with 15.3 W, 15.9 W and 16 W, for 5.5 L of brine, river water and MgCl2.

  3. Upgrading of coker distillate under variable hydrotreating operating conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. Elsayed

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies on hydrotreating coker distillates, produced from a delayed coker unit were done using a commercially available CoMo/γ-Al2O3 catalyst, on which 0.2 wt% P2O5 was added in order to improve its characteristics. The experimental studies were conducted in a fixed-bed continuous-reactor (cata-test unit at temperatures (300–400 °C and total hydrogen pressure (40–65 bar. These conditions have affected the feedstock characteristics and great reduction of sulfur, aromatics and boiling ranges. Other improvements were obtained in diesel index (DI due to hydrogenation reaction of aromatics and desulfurization of its sulfur contents.

  4. Experimental study of a rotating packed bed distillation column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. V. S. Nascimento

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to study the mass transfer performance of rotating packed beds applying the "Higee" process. The operations were carried out with the n-hexane/n-heptane distilling system at atmospheric pressure and under total reflux conditions. The rotating speed could be varied between 300 and 2500 rpm, which provided centrifugal forces from 5 to 316 times the Earth's gravity. The effects of concentration, vapor velocity, rotating speed and packing type (two different Raschig ring sizes and structured wire mesh packing on mass transfer behavior were analyzed. Experimental results showed that the mass transfer coefficient depends on the liquid flow rates and rotating speed. The equipment had high separation efficiency in a reduced bed volume.

  5. Fabrication of electrospun nanofibrous membranes for membrane distillation application

    KAUST Repository

    Francis, Lijo

    2013-02-01

    Nanofibrous membranes of Matrimid have been successfully fabricated using an electrospinning technique under optimized conditions. Nanofibrous membranes are found to be highly hydrophobic with a high water contact angle of 130°. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and pore size distribution analysis revealed the big pore size structure of electrospun membranes to be greater than 2 μm and the pore size distribution is found to be narrow. Flat sheet Matrimid membranes were fabricated via casting followed by phase inversion. The morphology, pore size distribution, and water contact angle were measured and compared with the electrospun membranes. Both membranes fabricated by electrospinning and phase inversion techniques were tested in a direct contact membrane distillation process. Electrospun membranes showed high water vapor flux of 56 kg/m2-h, which is very high compared to the casted membrane as well as most of the fabricated and commercially available highly hydrophobic membranes. ©2013 Desalination Publications.

  6. Electrospun superhydrophobic membranes with unique structures for membrane distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yuan; Loh, Chun-Heng; Wang, Rong; Fane, Anthony G

    2014-09-24

    With modest temperature demand, low operating pressure, and high solute rejection, membrane distillation (MD) is an attractive option for desalination, waste treatment, and food and pharmaceutical processing. However, large-scale practical applications of MD are still hindered by the absence of effective membranes with high hydrophobicity, high porosity, and adequate mechanical strength, which are important properties for MD permeation fluxes, stable long-term performance, and effective packing in modules without damage. This study describes novel design strategies for highly robust superhydrophobic dual-layer membranes for MD via electrospinning. One of the newly developed membranes comprises a durable and ultrathin 3-dimensional (3D) superhydrophobic skin and porous nanofibrous support whereas another was fabricated by electrospinning 3D superhydrophobic layers on a nonwoven support. These membranes exhibit superhydrophobicity toward distilled water, salty water, oil-in-water emulsion, and beverages, which enables them to be used not only for desalination but also for other processes. The superhydrophobic dual-layer membrane #3S-N with nanofibrous support has a competitive permeation flux of 24.6 ± 1.2 kg m(-2) h(-1) in MD (feed and permeate temperate were set as 333 and 293 K, respectively) due to the higher porosity of the nanofibrous scaffold. Meanwhile, the membranes with the nonwoven support exhibit greater mechanical strength due to this support combined with better long-term performance because of the thicker 3D superhydrophobic layers. The morphology, pore size, porosity, mechanical properties, and liquid enter pressure of water of these superhydrophobic composite membranes with two different structures are reported and compared with commercial polyvinylidene fluoride membranes.

  7. Low grade bioethanol for fuel mixing on gasoline engine using distillation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abikusna, Setia; Sugiarto, Bambang; Suntoro, Dedi; Azami

    2017-03-01

    Utilization of renewable energy in Indonesia is still low, compared to 34% oil, 20% coal and 20% gas, utilization of energy sources for water 3%, geothermal 1%, 2% biofuels, and biomass 20%. Whereas renewable energy sources dwindling due to the increasing consumption of gasoline as a fuel. It makes us have to look for alternative renewable energy, one of which is bio ethanol. Several studies on the use of ethanol was done to the researchers. Our studies using low grade bio ethanol which begins with the disitillation independently utilize flue gas heat at compact distillator, produces high grade bio ethanol and ready to be mixed with gasoline. Stages of our study is the compact distillator design of the motor dynamic continued with good performance and emission testing and ethanol distilled. Some improvement is made is through the flue gas heat control mechanism in compact distillator using gate valve, at low, medium, and high speed engine. Compact distillator used is kind of a batch distillation column. Column design process using the shortcut method, then carried the tray design to determine the overall geometry. The distillation is done by comparing the separator with a tray of different distances. As well as by varying the volume of the feed and ethanol levels that will feed distilled. In this study, we analyzed the mixing of ethanol through variation between main jet and pilot jet in the carburetor separately interchangeably with gasoline. And finally mixing mechanism bio ethanol with gasoline improved with fuel mixer for performance.

  8. 27 CFR 19.241 - Operations bond-distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. 19.241 Section 19.241 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... wine cellar. (a) General. A wine cellar under the provisions of 27 CFR part 24 shall be treated as... subpart G for the production of distilled spirits; and (2) Such wine cellar and distilled spirits plant...

  9. Prototype of an Interface for Hyphenating Distillation with Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ya-Ru; Yang, Hui-Hsien; Urban, Pawel L.

    2017-01-01

    Chemical analysis of complex matrices—containing hundreds of compounds—is challenging. Two-dimensional separation techniques provide an efficient way to reduce complexity of mixtures analyzed by mass spectrometry (MS). For example, gasoline is a mixture of numerous compounds, which can be fractionated by distillation techniques. However, coupling conventional distillation with other separations as well as MS is not straightforward. We have established an automatic system for online coupling of simple microscale distillation with gas chromatography (GC) and electron ionization MS. The developed system incorporates an interface between the distillation condenser and the injector of a fused silica capillary GC column. Development of this multidimensional separation (distillation-GC-MS) was preceded by a series of preliminary off-line experiments. In the developed technique, the components with different boiling points are fractionated and instantly analyzed by GC-MS. The obtained data sets illustrate dynamics of the distillation process. An important advantage of the distillation-GC-MS technique is that raw samples can directly be analyzed without removal of the non-volatile matrix residues that could contaminate the GC injection port and the column. Distilling the samples immediately before the injection to the GC column may reduce possible matrix effects—especially in the early phase of separation, when molecules with different volatilities co-migrate. It can also reduce losses of highly volatile components (during fraction collection and transfer). The two separation steps are partly orthogonal, what can slightly increase selectivity of the entire analysis. PMID:28337400

  10. Arkose: A Prototype Mechanism and Tool for Collaborative Information Generation and Distillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Kevin Kyung

    2010-01-01

    The goals of this thesis have been to gain a better understanding of collaborative knowledge sharing and distilling and to build a prototype collaborative system that supports flexible knowledge generation and distillation. To reach these goals, I have conducted two user studies and built two systems. The first system, Arkose 1.0, is a…

  11. Quick assessment of binary distillation efficiency using a heat engine perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blahusiak, M.; Kiss, A.A.; Kersten, S.R.A.; Schuur, B.

    2016-01-01

    With emphasis on close boiling, (near-)ideal VLE mixtures, this paper links the efficiency of distillation to the binary feed composition and thermal properties of the compounds. The proposed approach, treating the process as a heat engine, allows to directly quantify distillation performance (in te

  12. 78 FR 12591 - Amendment to the Standards of Identity for Distilled Spirits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ..., produced at less than 190 proof in such manner that the distillate possesses the taste, aroma and... the use of statements of age on wine labels for rum, brandy, and Tequila. Section 5.40(b) states, in... by-products, produced at less than 190 proof in such manner that the distillate possesses the...

  13. 27 CFR 19.204 - Alternation of distilled spirits plant and taxpaid wine bottling house premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits plant and taxpaid wine bottling house premises. 19.204 Section 19.204 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... distilled spirits plant and taxpaid wine bottling house premises. (a) General. A proprietor of a distilled spirits plant operating a contiguous taxpaid wine bottling house desiring to alternate the use of...

  14. Memstill® - Low cost membrane distillation technology for seawater desalination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanemaaijer, J.H.

    2004-01-01

    Despite widespread research and development efforts during the last 25 years, membrane distillation still is not an accepted process for seawater desalination. A consortium of nine parties is presently developing a modified air gap membrane distillation (AGMD) process, aiming at presenting a low-cos

  15. A review on process intensification in internally heat-integrated distillation columns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiss, Anton Alexandru; Olujic, Zarko

    2014-01-01

    Internally heat-integrated distillation column (HIDiC) is the most radical approach of a heat pump design, making efficient use of internal heat-integration: the rectifying section of a distillation column operating at a higher pressure becomes the heat source, while the stripping part of the column

  16. Theoretical and experimental study of integrated membrane / distillation processes for industrial applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perez, P.

    2007-01-01

    In industrial practice the separation of an azeotropic mixture usually involves adding a third component to the distillation process to break the azeotrope. The major disadvantages of this so called azeotropic and extractive distillation are the relatively high capital and high energy costs and the

  17. Membrane distillation with porous metal hollow fibers for the concentration of thermo-sensitive solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shukla, S.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents an original approach for the concentration of thermo-sensitive solutions: the Sweep Gas Membrane Distillation (SGMD) process. A new membrane contactor with metallic hollow fibers has been designed and allows the distillation process to be operational at low temperature. Heat is

  18. Quick assessment of binary distillation efficiency using a heat engine perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blahusiak, Marek; Kiss, Anton Alexandru; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Schuur, Boelo

    2016-01-01

    With emphasis on close boiling, (near-)ideal VLE mixtures, this paper links the efficiency of distillation to the binary feed composition and thermal properties of the compounds. The proposed approach, treating the process as a heat engine, allows to directly quantify distillation performance (in

  19. A review on process intensification in internally heat-integrated distillation columns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiss, Anton A.; Olujic, Zarko

    2014-01-01

    Internally heat-integrated distillation column (HIDiC) is the most radical approach of a heat pump design, making efficient use of internal heat-integration: the rectifying section of a distillation column operating at a higher pressure becomes the heat source, while the stripping part of the column

  20. 75 FR 11147 - Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive Patent License; Distilled Solutions, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Navy Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive Patent License; Distilled Solutions, LLC AGENCY... intent to grant to Distilled Solutions, LLC a revocable, nonassignable, exclusive license to practice...

  1. A new technological approach proposed for distillate production using immobilized cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukatos, Paul; Kanellaki, Maria; Komaitis, Michael; Athanasiadis, Ilias; Koutinas, Athanasios A

    2003-01-01

    A new technological approach to distillate production using immobilized cells was investigated. The effect of temperature on the main volatile by-products in distillates was determined. Wines produced by delignified cellulose-, gluten- and kissiris-supported biocatalysis were used as starting materials. The produced distillates were analyzed for ethanol, methanol, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, propanol-1, isobutanol and amyl alcohol content. The results showed that distillates from delignified cellulosic material (DCM) at 16 degrees C contained smaller amounts of amyl alcohols, 57% of that produced by gluten and 32% of that produced by kissiris. The ethyl acetate content of distillates from DCM improved the aroma of distillates. These results agree with those of sensory evaluation. Subsequently, the scale-up for low-temperature distillate production at 16 degrees C using DCM was further investigated. A new version of an industrial multi-stage fixed bed tower (MFBT) bioreactor with a capacity of 11,000 l proved to be suitable for continuous fermentation by DCM-supported biocatalysis. Economic analysis showed a reduction in the cost of almost 30% for distillate production and 78% for wine production.

  2. Memstill® - Low cost membrane distillation technology for seawater desalination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanemaaijer, J.H.

    2004-01-01

    Despite widespread research and development efforts during the last 25 years, membrane distillation still is not an accepted process for seawater desalination. A consortium of nine parties is presently developing a modified air gap membrane distillation (AGMD) process, aiming at presenting a low-cos

  3. Arkose: A Prototype Mechanism and Tool for Collaborative Information Generation and Distillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Kevin Kyung

    2010-01-01

    The goals of this thesis have been to gain a better understanding of collaborative knowledge sharing and distilling and to build a prototype collaborative system that supports flexible knowledge generation and distillation. To reach these goals, I have conducted two user studies and built two systems. The first system, Arkose 1.0, is a…

  4. Applications of membrane distillation technology in energy transformation process-basis and prospect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG ZanShe; GU ZhaoLin; FENG ShiYu; LI Yun

    2009-01-01

    Membrane distillation technology is a new type of efficient separation technology that combines traditional distillation technology and membrane separation technology.In the study,applications of membrane distillation technology in thermal engineering and refrigerating engineering with typical energy transformation process were presented.Desorption and regeneration process of saline solution by vacuum membrane distillation was proposed on the basis of the concentration and separation properties of membrane distillation.Membrane distillation technology could be used in lithium bromide absorption refrigeration system,energy storage system,and the regeneration process of liquid desiccant solution in temperature-humidity independent control air-conditioning system.The aim of the applications was to use the low-grade energy such as waste heat,solar energy and geothermal energy adequately and to improve the available temperature difference of heat source.According to latent heat transfer and thermal conduction across the membrane in direct contact membrane distillation process,a novel membrane heat exchanger with both heat transfer and mass transfer processes was proposed.The heat exchanger could be used as the solution heat exchanger of lithium bromide absorption refrigeration system and as the special heat exchanger that recovered heat and pure water simultaneously.Some feasible process flows about the applications of membrane distillation technology to energy transformation process were listed and analyzed.Finally,future research emphases were indicated.

  5. 27 CFR 27.1 - Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., wines, and beer. 27.1 Section 27.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Scope of Regulations § 27.1 Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer. This part, “Importation...

  6. 27 CFR 27.48 - Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., wines, and beer. 27.48 Section 27.48 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Collection of Internal Revenue Taxes § 27.48...

  7. 27 CFR 19.643 - Brand name, kind, alcohol content, and State of distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Brand name, kind, alcohol... Bottle and Label Requirements Bottle Label Requirements § 19.643 Brand name, kind, alcohol content, and State of distillation. (a) Brand name and kind. The label of distilled spirits shall state the...

  8. Facial Toner Preparation Using Distilled Fragrant Compounds of Natural Herbal Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wayne C.; Lien, Ching-Yi

    2011-01-01

    This experiment is designed to teach entry-level, nonchemistry-major students some basic organic chemistry through the procedure for making cosmetics. The experiment combines facial toner preparation with distillation techniques to create a stimulating learning environment. During the experiment, students perform a distillation to collect some…

  9. A multiscale methodology for CFD simulation of catalytic distillation bale packings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Huidian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A multiscale model for simulating the hydrodynamic behavior of catalytic bale packings has been proposed. This model combines computational fluid dynamics (CFD and macroscopic calculation. At small scale calculation, the CFD model includes 3-D volume-of-fluid (VOF simulation within representative elementary unit (REU under unsteady-state conditions. The REU constitutes gauze and catalyst domain, and porous media model is applied. At large scale calculation, a new mechanistic model deduced from the unit network model is employed. Based on liquid split proportion from small scale calculation, liquid distribution of the entire bale packing can be predicted. To evaluate different packing design, three common bale arrangements, i.e. one-bale, nine-bales and seven-bales, are compared. The area-weighted Christiansen uniformity coefficient is introduced to assess the distribution performance. A comparison between simulation and experimental results is made to validate the multiscale model. The present methodology is proved to be effective to analysis and design of catalytic distillation columns.

  10. Don't Forget Product Recovery in Catalysis Research-Check the Distillation Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Jean-Paul

    2017-01-10

    When investigating a new catalytic reaction, scientists may wonder if the crude reaction product can be easily separated and purified. We present here a new concept-distillation resistance-to assess the potential of distillation as a purification technique and to guide catalyst formulation or operation at the very early stage of the research. Distillation resistance, which has been developed from the analysis of 15 industrial distillation trains, can be quickly calculated with knowledge of only the product composition and atmospheric boiling points of the components. It can be directly converted into a preliminary distillation cost that considers investment and energy cost. Its application and its potential guidance in catalysis research are illustrated through a few cases studies derived from biorefinery processes. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Characterization and differentiation of monovarietal grape pomace distillate from native varieties of Galicia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Vázquez, Cristina; Bollaín, María Herminia; Moser, Sergio; Orriols, Ignacio

    2010-09-08

    Monovarietal grape pomace distillates (orujo) of six native varieties of Vitis vinifera L. from Galicia (Albarino, Treixadura, Godello, Loureira, Dona Branca, and Torrontes) have been thoroughly analyzed considering esters, alcohols, major aldehydes, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, norisoprenoids, and diterpenes. Albarino and Loureira distillates showed similar profiles of terpenic compounds, with the Loureira products having higher contents of monoterpenols. Native Torrontes distillate from Galicia is principally characterized by marked levels of some sesquiterpenes such as cadinene isomers and epizonarene. On the other hand, Treixadura, Godello, and Dona Branca grape pomace distillates seem not to have any marked terpenic content, and their single separation is difficult. PCA data treatments showed a good separation among the terpenic-rich varieties. Also, the p-menthen-9-al isomers, typical flavors in honey citrus and dill herb (derived from 8-hydroxylinalool), are reported for the first time in grape pomace distillate.

  12. Calculation Method to Determine the Group Composition of Vacuum Distillate with High Content of Saturated Hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazarova Galina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Calculation method to determine the group composition of the heavy fraction of vacuum distillate with high content of saturated hydrocarbons, obtained by vacuum distillation of the residue from the West Siberian oil with subsequent hydrotreating, are given in this research. The method is built on the basis of calculation the physico-chemical characteristics and the group composition of vacuum distillate according to the fractional composition and density considering with high content of saturated hydrocarbons in the fraction. Calculation method allows to determine the content of paraffinic, naphthenic, aromatic hydrocarbons and the resins in vacuum distillate with high accuracy and can be used in refineries for rapid determination of the group composition of vacuum distillate.

  13. Distillation Parameters for Pilot Plant Production of Laurus nobilis Essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temel Özek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils have increasing importance in flavour and fragrance industries. They are obtained by distillation techniques. In order to produce an oil with market potential its optimum production parameters have to be well known prior to its commercial production. Determination of the steam distillation parameters of commercially available Laurel leaves oil in pilot plant scale is described. The effect of steam rate and processing time play a major role in distillation of essential oils. Distillation speed was high in the beginning of the process, then gradually reduced as the distillation proceeded. The main component of the oil of Laurel leaf oil was 1,8-cineole accumulating significantly in the early fractions.

  14. A Novel Operation Policy for Dilute Component Separation Quasi-batch Distillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗祎青; 袁希钢; 杨祖杰; 刘春江

    2005-01-01

    A new operation policy--quasi-batch distillation for recovering infinitesimal amounts species existing in a mixture is presented. In quasi-batch distillation operation, feed is introduced with a constant flow rate onto the feed stage of the column, and the flow rate of the distillate is the same as that of the feed, whereas the bottom product is withdrawn periodically. The behavior of quasi-batch distillation is simulated and analyzed through an example on heavy water separation. Comparing with continuous or batch distillation, the new operation policy is more reliable and efficient to achieve higher recovery of dilute component. This is especially suitable for separating small amount of precious species from large amount of raw material.

  15. Reduction of the thickness of the boundary film at rectification of hydrocarbonic mixes with application of dry distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakirjan Salimov

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a negative impact of water vapor from the distillation of hydrocarbon mixtures. It is substantiated a promising method of primary distillation process for oil and raw materials.

  16. Composition-Explicit Distillation Curves of Waste Lubricant Oils and Resourced Crude Oil: A Diagnostic for Re-Refining and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Starkey Ott

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Problem statement: We have recently introduced several important improvements in the measurement of distillation curves for complex fluids. The modifications include a composition-explicit data channel for each distillate fraction and temperature measurements that are true thermodynamic state points that can be modeled with an equation of state. The composition-explicit information is achieved with a sampling approach that allows precise qualitative as well as quantitative analyses of each fraction, on the fly. We have applied the method (called the advanced distillation curve technique to a variety of fluids, including simple n-alkanes, rocket propellants, gasoline, jet fuels, diesel and biodiesel fuels and crude oils (both petroleum-and bio-derived crude oils. Approach: In this study, we present the application of the method to new, recycled and resourced heavy oils. The ultimate purpose of this work is waste reduction and energy utilization, by placing the reprocessing steps on a more fundamental footing. First, we present measurements on four unused automotive crankcase oils and then four samples of used oils: automotive oil, cutting oil, transformer oil and a commingled lubricant waste stream. Using the advanced distillation curve metrology, we can distinguish between the different weights (viscosity ranges of crankcase oils and compare them to the sample of used crankcase oil. The distillation curves also provide valuable information regarding the presence or absence of low-boiling contaminants in the recycled automotive oil, such as water and gasoline. Results: Additionally, we demonstrate the evaluation of all four used lubricant oils. Then, we apply the advanced distillation curve method to a sample of crude oil prepared using a plastic waste stream from an automotive plant. Conclusion: Overall, we conclude that the composition-explicit advanced distillation curve metrology is important for understanding the boiling behavior

  17. 内部热耦合精馏塔基于混合优化算法的RBF神经网络内模控制策略%Internal thermally coupled distillation column based on RBF neural network of internal model control by hybrid optimization algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡坤; 刘兴高

    2012-01-01

    内部热耦合精馏(ITCDIC)是迄今为止所提出的四大精馏节能技术中节能效果最高,但唯一没有商业化的节能技术,比常规精馏要节能40%以上,没有商业化的主要种类基于减聚类、K-means原因之一在于该过程具有较强的非线性、复杂动态特性以及耦合性,给控制方案的设计带来了诸多困难.由于径向基(RBF)神经网络具有快速学习并能逼近任意非线性函数的优点,本文提出了一种基于RBF神经网络内模控制的混合优化算法,是一种粒子群优化的混合优化算法,以苯-甲苯物系作为研究实例,并与国际公开报道的结果进行了详细比较,研究结果表明基于混合优化算法的RBF神经网络内模控制相比于传统的PID、常规RBF算法和国际公开报道有着更好的控制效果.%Internal thermally coupled distillation is the most promising of four major distillation energy-saving technologies, which can save more than 40 % energy compared with traditional distillation process, but it has not been widely used. The bottleneck that prevents the process from being commercialized is the operational difficulties due to the nonlinearity, complex dynamics and interactive nature of the process. The radial basis(RBF) neural network has fast learning and can identify any nonlinear function. We presented a hybrid optimization algorithm for RBF neural network, which is based on particle swarm optimization, gradient descent method, K-means clustering and subtractive clustering algorithm. Take the benzene-toluene system as a research case and compared with the international public reporting results. The hybrid optimization algorithm for RBF neural network is more reliable than PID algorithm, conventional RBF and the international public reporting results.

  18. Considering Process Nonlinearity in Dual-Point Composition Control of a High-Purity Ideal Heat Integrated Distillation Column

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Dual-point composition control for a high-purity ideal heat integrated distillation column (HIDiC) is addressed in this work. Three measures are suggested and combined for overcoming process inherent nonlinearities:(1) variable scaling; (2) multi-model representation of process dynamics and (3) feedforward compensation. These strategies can offer the developed control systems with several distinct advantages: (1) capability of dealing with severe disturbances; (2) tight tuning of controller parameters and (3) high robustness with respect to variation of operating conditions. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  19. Integrated membrane distillation-crystallization: process design and cost estimations for seawater treatment and fluxes of single salt solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creusen, R.J.M.; Medevoort, J. van; Roelands, C.P.M.; Renesse van Duivenbode, J.A.D. van; Hanemaaijer, J.H.; Leerdam, R.C. van

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this research is to design an integrated membrane distillation-crystallization (MDC) process for desalination of seawater with pure water and dry salts as the only products. The process is based on a combination of membrane distillation (MD) and osmotic distillation (OD) steps with

  20. 41 CFR 102-41.205 - Do we report all forfeited distilled spirits, wine, and beer to GSA for disposal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... forfeited distilled spirits, wine, and beer to GSA for disposal? 102-41.205 Section 102-41.205 Public..., and Beer § 102-41.205 Do we report all forfeited distilled spirits, wine, and beer to GSA for disposal? (a) Yes, except do not report distilled spirits, wine, and beer not fit for human consumption or...

  1. 27 CFR 28.41 - Evidence of lading for use on vessels or aircraft: distilled spirits and wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence of lading for use on vessels or aircraft: distilled spirits and wine. 28.41 Section 28.41 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... vessels or aircraft: distilled spirits and wine. The lading of distilled spirits or wine for use...

  2. Solar membrane distillation: desalination for the Navajo Nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanikola, Vasiliki; Corral, Andrea F; Mette, Patrick; Jiang, Hua; Arnoldand, Robert G; Ela, Wendell P

    2014-01-01

    Provision of clean water is among the most serious, long-term challenges in the world. To an ever increasing degree, sustainable water supply depends on the utilization of water of impaired initial quality. This is particularly true in developing nations and in water-stressed areas such as the American Southwest. One clear example is the Navajo Nation. The reservation covers 27,000 square miles, mainly in northeastern Arizona. Low population density coupled with water scarcity and impairment makes provision of clean water particularly challenging. The Navajos rely primarily on ground water, which is often present in deep aquifers or of brackish quality. Commonly, reverse osmosis (RO) is chosen to desalinate brackish ground water, since RO costs are competitive with those of thermal desalination, even for seawater applications. However, both conventional thermal distillation and RO are energy intensive, complex processes that discourage decentralized or rural implementation. In addition, both technologies demand technical experience for operation and maintenance, and are susceptible to scaling and fouling unless extensive feed pretreatment is employed. Membrane distillation (MD), driven by vapor pressure gradients, can potentially overcome many of these drawbacks. MD can operate using low-grade, sub-boiling sources of heat and does not require extensive operational experience. This presentation discusses a project on the Navajo Nation, Arizona (Native American tribal lands) that is designed to investigate and deploy an autonomous (off-grid) system to pump and treat brackish groundwater using solar energy. Βench-scale, hollow fiber MD experiment results showed permeate water fluxes from 21 L/m2·d can be achieved with transmembrane temperature differences between 40 and 80˚C. Tests run with various feed salt concentrations indicate that the permeate flux decreases only about 25% as the concentration increases from 0 to 14% (w/w), which is four times seawater salt

  3. Treatment of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) red water by vacuum distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Quanlin; Ye, Zhengfang; Zhang, Mohe

    2010-08-01

    2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) red water from Chinese explosive industry was treated by vacuum distillation. The water quality before and after distillation was evaluated using high performance liquid chromatograph, UV-vis spectroscopy, Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectroscopy (GC/MS) and other physical and chemical analyses. The acute toxicity of TNT red water and its distillate was evaluated by determining the luminescence inhibition of Vibrio qinghaiensis sp. Nov. The results showed that the parameters except pH of the distillate met the criterion specified by the Chinese discharge standard for water pollutants from ordnance industry. Distillation removed chemical oxygen demand almost completely and the chrominance was reduced from 100,000 degrees to 17 degrees . The concentrations of 2,4-dinitrotoluene-3-sulfonate and 2,4-dinitrotoluene-5-sulfonate decreased from 20 x 10(3) and 31 x 10(3)mg L(-1) to 1.3 and 1.8 mg L(-1), respectively. GC/MS results showed that most of the organic components of TNT red water can be removed by distillation. The acute toxicity of water sample after distillation reduced 96%, compared with that of unprocessed TNT red water. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Bark essential oil of Cedrelopsis grevei from Madagascar: investigation of steam-distillation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakotobe, Miarantsoa; Menut, Chantal; Andrianoelisoa, Hanitriniaina Sahondra; Rahajanirina, Voninavoko; Tsy, Jean Michel Leong Pock; Rakotoarimanana, Vonjison; Ramavovololona, Perle; Danthu, Pascal

    2014-02-01

    The effect of the distillation time on the yield and chemical composition of the bark essential oil of Cedrelopsis grevei Baill. was investigated. Distillation kinetics were determined for three batches of bark sampled from two sites, i.e., Itampolo (batches IT1 and IT2) and Salary (SAL), located in a region in the south of Madagascar with characteristically large populations of C. grevei. The bark samples were subjected to steam distillation, and the essential oil was collected at 3-h intervals. The total yield (calculated after 14 h of distillation) varied from 0.9 to 1.7%, according to the batch tested. Moreover, the essential oils obtained were characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. During the course of the distillation, the relative percentages of the most volatile components (monoterpenes and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons) diminished progressively, whereas the least volatile ones (oxygenated derivatives) increased at a consistent rate. Principal component analysis (PCA) and agglomerative hierarchical clustering analysis (AHC) of the results, performed on 13 principal components, allowed distinguishing three chemical groups, corresponding to the three batches, irrespective of the distillation time. This indicated that the chemical variability currently observed with commercial samples is not mainly linked to the experimental conditions of the extraction process, as the distillation time did not significantly alter the chemical composition of the essential oils.

  5. Chemical and biological effects of heavy distillate recycle in the SRC-II process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, B.W.; Pelroy, R.A.; Anderson, R.P.; Freel, J.

    1983-12-01

    Recent work from the Merriam Laboratory continuous coal liquefaction units shows that heavy distillate from the SRC-II process can be recycled to extinction, and hence a distillate product boiling entirely below 310/sup 0/C (590/sup 0/F) (or other selected boiling points) is feasible. In these runs distillate yield was not reduced; gas make was unaffected; and hydrogen consumption was increased only slightly, in keeping with the generally higher hydrogen content of lighter end products. Total distillate yield (C/sub 5/-590/sup 0/F) was 56 wt %, MAF coal in runs with subbituminous coal from the Amax Belle Ayr mine. Product endpoint is well below 371/sup 0/C (700/sup 0/F), the temperature above which coal distillates appear to become genotoxic; and the product was shown to be free of mutagenic activity in the Ames test. Chemical analyses showed both the < 270/sup 0/C (< 518/sup 0/F) and the < 310/sup 0/C (< 590/sup 0/F) distillates to be essentially devoid of several reference polycyclic compounds known to be carcinogenic in laboratory animals. Tests for tumorigenic or carcinogenic activity were not carried out on these materials. However, a comparison of chemical data from the Merriam heavy distillate samples with data on the other SRC-II distillates where carcinogenesis or tumorigenesis data is available leads to the expectation that < 371/sup 0/C (< 700/sup 0/F) materials from the Merriam Laboratory will have greatly reduced tumorigenic and carcinogenic activity in skin painting tests. Other studies suggest the product should be more readily upgraded than full-range (C/sub 5/-900/sup 0/F) distillate.

  6. Displacement-enhanced entanglement distillation of single-mode-squeezed entangled states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tipsmark, Anders; Neergaard-Nielsen, Jonas Schou; Andersen, Ulrik Lund

    2013-01-01

    It has been shown that entanglement distillation of Gaussian entangled states by means of local photon subtraction can be improved by local Gaussian transformations. Here we show that a similar effect can be expected for the distillation of an asymmetric Gaussian entangled state that is produced...... by a single squeezed beam. We show that for low initial entanglement, our largely simplified protocol generates more entanglement than previous proposed protocols. Furthermore, we show that the distillation scheme also works efficiently on decohered entangled states as well as with a practical photon...

  7. Online ^{222}Rn removal by cryogenic distillation in the XENON100 experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprile, E.; Aalbers, J.; Agostini, F.; Alfonsi, M.; Amaro, F. D.; Anthony, M.; Arneodo, F.; Barrow, P.; Baudis, L.; Bauermeister, B.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; Berger, T.; Breur, P. A.; Brown, A.; Brown, E.; Bruenner, S.; Bruno, G.; Budnik, R.; Bütikofer, L.; Calvén, J.; Cardoso, J. M. R.; Cervantes, M.; Cichon, D.; Coderre, D.; Colijn, A. P.; Conrad, J.; Cussonneau, J. P.; Decowski, M. P.; de Perio, P.; Gangi, P. Di; Giovanni, A. Di; Diglio, S.; Duchovni, E.; Eurin, G.; Fei, J.; Ferella, A. D.; Fieguth, A.; Franco, D.; Fulgione, W.; Gallo Rosso, A.; Galloway, M.; Gao, F.; Garbini, M.; Geis, C.; Goetzke, L. W.; Grandi, L.; Greene, Z.; Grignon, C.; Hasterok, C.; Hogenbirk, E.; Itay, R.; Kaminsky, B.; Kessler, G.; Kish, A.; Landsman, H.; Lang, R. F.; Lellouch, D.; Levinson, L.; Calloch, M. Le; Lin, Q.; Lindemann, S.; Lindner, M.; Lopes, J. A. M.; Manfredini, A.; Maris, I.; Undagoitia, T. Marrodán; Masbou, J.; Massoli, F. V.; Masson, D.; Mayani, D.; Meng, Y.; Messina, M.; Micheneau, K.; Miguez, B.; Molinario, A.; Murra, M.; Naganoma, J.; Ni, K.; Oberlack, U.; Orrigo, S. E. A.; Pakarha, P.; Pelssers, B.; Persiani, R.; Piastra, F.; Pienaar, J.; Piro, M.-C.; Pizzella, V.; Plante, G.; Priel, N.; Rauch, L.; Reichard, S.; Reuter, C.; Rizzo, A.; Rosendahl, S.; Rupp, N.; Saldanha, R.; dos Santos, J. M. F.; Sartorelli, G.; Scheibelhut, M.; Schindler, S.; Schreiner, J.; Schumann, M.; Lavina, L. Scotto; Selvi, M.; Shagin, P.; Shockley, E.; Silva, M.; Simgen, H.; Sivers, M. v.; Stein, A.; Thers, D.; Tiseni, A.; Trinchero, G.; Tunnell, C.; Upole, N.; Wang, H.; Wei, Y.; Weinheimer, C.; Wulf, J.; Ye, J.; Zhang, Y.; Cristescu, I.

    2017-06-01

    We describe the purification of xenon from traces of the radioactive noble gas radon using a cryogenic distillation column. The distillation column was integrated into the gas purification loop of the XENON100 detector for online radon removal. This enabled us to significantly reduce the constant ^{222}Rn background originating from radon emanation. After inserting an auxiliary ^{222}Rn emanation source in the gas loop, we determined a radon reduction factor of R > 27 (95% C.L.) for the distillation column by monitoring the ^{222}Rn activity concentration inside the XENON100 detector.

  8. Integrated Process Design and Control of Multi-element Reactive Distillation Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansouri, Seyed Soheil; Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted

    2016-01-01

    In this work, integrated process design and control of reactive distillation processes involving multi-elements is presented. The reactive distillation column is designed using methods and tools which are similar in concept to non-reactive distillation design methods, such as driving force approach......-state analysis it is shown that it has the least energy consumption and carbon footprint. Next, through analytical and dynamic analysis it is verified that the control structure, disturbance rejection and the controllability at the maximum driving force is the best compared to any other design alternative which...

  9. Secret Key Distillation for Continuous Variable Quantum Key Distribution against Gaussian Classical Eve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yi-Bo; HAN Zheng-Fu; CHEN Jin-Jian; GU You-Zhen; GUO Guang-Can

    2008-01-01

    The continuous variable quantum key distribution is expected to provide high secret key rate without single photon source and detector, while the lack of the effective key distillation method makes it unpractical under the high loss condition. Here we present a single-bit-reverse-reconciliation protocol against Gaussian classical Eve,which can distill the secret key through practical imperfect error correction with high efficiency. The simulation results show that this protocol can distill secret keys even when the transmission fibre is longer than 150 km,which may make the continuous variable scheme to outvie the single photon one.

  10. Online {sup 222}Rn removal by cryogenic distillation in the XENON100 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aprile, E.; Anthony, M.; De Perio, P.; Gao, F.; Goetzke, L.W.; Greene, Z.; Lin, Q.; Messina, M.; Plante, G.; Rizzo, A.; Zhang, Y. [Columbia University, Physics Department, New York, NY (United States); Aalbers, J.; Breur, P.A.; Brown, A.; Colijn, A.P.; Decowski, M.P.; Hogenbirk, E.; Tiseni, A. [Nikhef and the University of Amsterdam, Science Park, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Agostini, F. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso and Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); University of Bologna, Department of Physics and Astrophysics, Bologna (Italy); INFN-Bologna (Italy); Alfonsi, M.; Geis, C.; Grignon, C.; Oberlack, U.; Scheibelhut, M.; Schindler, S. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Physik and Exzellenzcluster PRISMA, Mainz (Germany); Amaro, F.D.; Cardoso, J.M.R.; Lopes, J.A.M.; Orrigo, S.E.A.; Santos, J.M.F. dos; Silva, M. [University of Coimbra, Department of Physics, Coimbra (Portugal); Arneodo, F.; Benabderrahmane, M.L.; Di Giovanni, A.; Maris, I. [New York University Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Barrow, P.; Baudis, L.; Franco, D.; Galloway, M.; Kessler, G.; Kish, A.; Mayani, D.; Pakarha, P.; Piastra, F.; Wei, Y.; Wulf, J. [University of Zurich, Physik-Institut, Zurich (Switzerland); Bauermeister, B. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Physik and Exzellenzcluster PRISMA, Mainz (Germany); Stockholm University, AlbaNova, Department of Physics, Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm (Sweden); Berger, T.; Brown, E.; Piro, M.C. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Department of Physics, Applied Physics and Astronomy, Troy, NY (United States); Bruenner, S.; Cichon, D.; Eurin, G.; Hasterok, C.; Lindner, M.; Undagoitia, T.M.; Pizzella, V.; Rauch, L.; Rupp, N.; Schreiner, J.; Simgen, H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Bruno, G.; Gallo Rosso, A.; Molinario, A. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso and Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); Budnik, R.; Duchovni, E.; Itay, R.; Landsman, H.; Lellouch, D.; Levinson, L.; Manfredini, A.; Priel, N. [Weizmann Institute of Science, Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Rehovot (Israel); Buetikofer, L.; Coderre, D.; Kaminsky, B.; Schumann, M.; Sivers, M. v. [Universitaet Freiburg, Physikalisches Institut, Freiburg (Germany); Calven, J.; Conrad, J.; Ferella, A.D.; Pelssers, B. [Stockholm University, AlbaNova, Department of Physics, Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm (Sweden); Cervantes, M.; Lang, R.F.; Masson, D.; Pienaar, J.; Reichard, S.; Reuter, C. [Purdue University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Cussonneau, J.P.; Diglio, S.; Le Calloch, M.; Masbou, J.; Micheneau, K.; Persiani, R.; Thers, D. [Universite de Nantes, SUBATECH, Ecole des Mines de Nantes, CNRS/In2p3, Nantes (France); Di Gangi, P.; Garbini, M.; Massoli, F.V.; Sartorelli, G.; Selvi, M. [University of Bologna, Department of Physics and Astrophysics, Bologna (Italy); INFN, Bologna (Italy); Fei, J.; Ni, K.; Ye, J. [University of California, Department of Physics, San Diego, CA (United States); Fieguth, A.; Murra, M.; Rosendahl, S.; Weinheimer, C. [Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Muenster (Germany); Fulgione, W. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso and Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); INFN-Torino (Italy); Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, Turin (Italy); Grandi, L.; Saldanha, R.; Shockley, E.; Upole, N. [University of Chicago, Department of Physics and Kavli Institute of Cosmological Physics, Chicago, IL (United States); Lindemann, S. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Universitaet Freiburg, Physikalisches Institut, Freiburg (Germany); Meng, Y.; Stein, A.; Wang, H. [University of California, Physics and Astronomy Department, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Miguez, B.; Trinchero, G. [INFN-Torino (Italy); Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, Turin (Italy); Naganoma, J.; Shagin, P. [Rice University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Houston, TX (United States); Lavina, L.S. [LPNHE, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Universite Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, Paris (France); Tunnell, C. [Nikhef and the University of Amsterdam, Science Park, Amsterdam (Netherlands); University of Chicago, Department of Physics and Kavli Institute of Cosmological Physics, Chicago, IL (United States); Cristescu, I. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Collaboration: XENON Collaboration

    2017-06-15

    We describe the purification of xenon from traces of the radioactive noble gas radon using a cryogenic distillation column. The distillation column was integrated into the gas purification loop of the XENON100 detector for online radon removal. This enabled us to significantly reduce the constant {sup 222}Rn background originating from radon emanation. After inserting an auxiliary {sup 222}Rn emanation source in the gas loop, we determined a radon reduction factor of R > 27 (95% C.L.) for the distillation column by monitoring the {sup 222}Rn activity concentration inside the XENON100 detector. (orig.)

  11. Preparation of high-purity bismuth by sulphur deleadization in vacuum distillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊利芝; 何则强; 刘文萍; 麻成金; 戴永年

    2004-01-01

    The feasibility of separation of impurities in refined bismuth and sulphur deleadization with vacuum distillation was studied theoretically. Experimental studies on sulphur deleadization were carried out under vacuum.The influences of amount of sulphur, distillation temperature, vacuum degree and distillation time on deleadization were investigated and an optimal technical condition was achieved. The content of lead in refined bismuth can be decreased from 30 μg/g to 0.21 μg/g, which has reached the level of "5N" high-purity bismuth. Other impurities in refined bismuth can be also removed effectively under certain conditions.

  12. Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy for analysis of wine and wine distillates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, Ya.; Borisova, E.; Genova, Ts.; Zhelyazkova, Al.; Avramov, L.

    2015-01-01

    Wine and brandies are multicomponent systems and conventional fluorescence techniques, relying on recording of single emission or excitation spectra, are often insufficient. In such cases synchronous fluorescence spectra can be used for revealing the potential of the fluorescence techniques. The technique is based on simultaneously scanning of the excitation and emission wavelength with constant difference (Δλ) maintained between them. In this study the measurements were made using FluoroLog3 spectrofluorimeter (HORIBA Jobin Yvon, France) and collected for excitation and emission in the wavelength region 220 - 700 nm using wavelength interval Δλ from 10 to 100 nm in 10 nm steps. This research includes the results obtained for brandy and red wine samples. Fluorescence analysis takes advantage in the presence of natural fluorophores in wines and brandies, such as gallic, vanillic, p-coumaric, syringic, ferulic acid, umbelliferone, scopoletin and etc. Applying of synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy for analysis of these types of alcohols allows us to estimate the quality of wines and also to detect adulteration of brandies like adding of a caramel to wine distillates for imitating the quality of the original product aged in oak casks.

  13. Distillation sequence for the purification and recovery of hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyneke, Rian; Foral, Michael; Papadopoulos, Christos G.; Logsdon, Jeffrey S.; Eng, Wayne W. Y.; Lee, Guang-Chung; Sinclair, Ian

    2007-12-25

    This invention is an improved distillation sequence for the separation and purification of ethylene from a cracked gas. A hydrocarbon feed enters a C2 distributor column. The top of the C2 distributor column is thermally coupled to an ethylene distributor column, and the bottoms liquid of a C2 distributor column feeds a deethanizer column. The C2 distributor column utilizes a conventional reboiler. The top of the ethylene distributor is thermally coupled with a demethanizer column, and the bottoms liquid of the ethylene distributor feeds a C2 splitter column. The ethylene distributor column utilizes a conventional reboiler. The deethanizer and C2 splitter columns are also thermally coupled and operated at a substantially lower pressure than the C2 distributor column, the ethylene distributor column, and the demethanizer column. Alternatively, a hydrocarbon feed enters a deethanizer column. The top of the deethanizer is thermally coupled to an ethylene distributor column, and the ethylene distributor column utilizes a conventional reboiler. The top of the ethylene distributor column is thermally coupled with a demethanizer column, and the bottoms liquid of the ethylene distributor column feeds a C2 splitter column. The C2 splitter column operates at a pressure substantially lower than the ethylene distributor column, the demethanizer column, and the deethanizer column.

  14. Biofouling and microbial communities in membrane distillation and reverse osmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zodrow, Katherine R; Bar-Zeev, Edo; Giannetto, Michael J; Elimelech, Menachem

    2014-11-18

    Membrane distillation (MD) is an emerging desalination technology that uses low-grade heat to drive water vapor across a microporous hydrophobic membrane. Currently, little is known about the biofilms that grow on MD membranes. In this study, we use estuarine water collected from Long Island Sound in a bench-scale direct contact MD system to investigate the initial stages of biofilm formation. For comparison, we studied biofilm formation in a bench-scale reverse osmosis (RO) system using the same feedwater. These two membrane desalination systems expose the natural microbial community to vastly different environmental conditions: high temperatures with no hydraulic pressure in MD and low temperature with hydraulic pressure in RO. Over the course of 4 days, we observed a steady decline in bacteria concentration (nearly 2 orders of magnitude) in the MD feed reservoir. Even with this drop in planktonic bacteria, significant biofilm formation was observed. Biofilm morphologies on MD and RO membranes were markedly different. MD membrane biofilms were heterogeneous and contained several colonies, while RO membrane biofilms, although thicker, were a homogeneous mat. Phylogenetic analysis using next-generation sequencing of 16S rDNA showed significant shifts in the microbial communities. Bacteria representing the orders Burkholderiales, Rhodobacterales, and Flavobacteriales were most abundant in the MD biofilms. On the basis of the results, we propose two different regimes for microbial community shifts and biofilm development in RO and MD systems.

  15. Hydrotreater/Distillation Column Hazard Analysis Report Rev. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, Peter P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wagner, Katie A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-04-15

    This project Hazard and Risk Analysis Report contains the results of several hazard analyses and risk assessments. An initial assessment was conducted in 2012, which included a multi-step approach ranging from design reviews to a formal What-If hazard analysis. A second What-If hazard analysis was completed during February 2013 to evaluate the operation of the hydrotreater/distillation column processes to be installed in a process enclosure within the Process Development Laboratory West (PDL-West) facility located on the PNNL campus. The qualitative analysis included participation of project and operations personnel and applicable subject matter experts. The analysis identified potential hazardous scenarios, each based on an initiating event coupled with a postulated upset condition. The unmitigated consequences of each hazardous scenario were generally characterized as a process upset; the exposure of personnel to steam, vapors or hazardous material; a spray or spill of hazardous material; the creation of a flammable atmosphere; or an energetic release from a pressure boundary.

  16. Desalination of brackish groundwater by direct contact membrane distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, D Y; Wang, J; Qu, D; Luan, Z K; Zhao, C W; Ren, X J

    2010-01-01

    The direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) applied for desalination of brackish groundwater with self-made polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes was presented in the paper. The PVDF membrane exhibited high rejection of non-volatile inorganic salt solutes and a maximum permeate flux 24.5 kg m(-2) h(-1) was obtained with feed temperature at 70 degrees C. The DCMD experimental results indicated that the feed concentration had no significant influence on the permeate flux and the rejection of solute. When natural groundwater was used directly as the feed, the precipitation of CaCO(3) would be formed and clog the hollow fibre inlets with gradual concentration of the feed, which resulted in a rapid decline of the module efficiency. The negative influence of scaling could be eliminated by acidification of the feed. Finally, a 250 h DCMD continuous desalination experiment of acidified groundwater with the concentration factor at constant 4.0 was carried out. The permeate flux kept stable and the permeate conductivity was less than 7.0 microS cm(-1) during this process. Furthermore, there was no deposit observed on the membrane surface. All of these demonstrated that DCMD could be efficiently used for production of high-quality potable water from brackish groundwater with water recovery as high as 75%.

  17. Neutralization of Soybean Oil Deodorizer Distillate for Vitamin Supplement Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibelem Iribarrem Benites

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybean oil deodorizer distillate (SODD, a byproduct of the soybean oil refining process, is a complex mixture of compounds, such as free fatty acids (FFA, hydrocarbons, and sterols, such as tocopherols, a class of major natural antioxidants with vitamin E activity. As the utilization of SODD for tocopherol extraction is shown to be not economically viable, SODD in the semirefined form (neutral is an interesting alternative to animal and possibly human diet enrichment. This study aimed to evaluate the SODD neutralization process varying the alkali (Na2CO3 concentration, temperature, and homogenization time. The optimal conditions for the neutralizing process, in order to obtain the greatest reduction in FFA content, the lowest leaching of tocopherols, and the greatest yield, were the following: Na2CO2 concentration of 4.34 N, temperature of 45.8°C, and homogenization time of 3 min 20 s. The FFA content was reduced from 53.4% to 6.1% after the initial neutralization, thus requiring a second neutralization step. The final FFA content was of 1.8% and total tocopherol (TT accounted for about 11% of SODD.

  18. Comparative dermal carcinogenesis of shale and petroleum-derived distillates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, C R; Walter, M K; Ferguson, P W; Katchen, M

    1988-03-01

    Ten test materials derived from petroleum or hydrotreated shale oils were applied 3 times/week for up to 105 weeks to the shaved skin of 25 male and 25 female C3H/HeN mice per group. Mineral oil and benzo(a) pyrene (0.15%) were control materials. Clinical observations were recorded during the study. At death, histopathologic examination was conducted on skin, internal organs and any gross lesions. Exposures to some materials were ended midway in the study due to severe irritation. Chronic toxicity of all materials was limited to inflammatory and degenerative skin changes. Significant increases over control incidence of skin tumors (squamous cell carcinoma and fibrosarcoma) occurred with both petroleum and shale-derived naphtha (21%, 50%), Jet A (26%, 28%), JP-4 (26%, 50%), and crude oils (84%, 54%). Severely hydrotreated shale oil and petroleum and shale-derived diesel distillates were not considered tumorigenic. Results indicate that toxicity of comparable petroleum and shale-derived fractions was qualitatively similar and confirm earlier findings that hydrotreating reduces or eliminates carcinogenicity of raw shale oil.

  19. Advanced purification of petroleum refinery wastewater by catalytic vacuum distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Long; Ma, Hongzhu; Wang, Bo; Mao, Wei; Chen, Yashao

    2010-06-15

    In our work, a new process, catalytic vacuum distillation (CVD) was utilized for purification of petroleum refinery wastewater that was characteristic of high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and salinity. Moreover, various common promoters, like FeCl(3), kaolin, H(2)SO(4) and NaOH were investigated to improve the purification efficiency of CVD. Here, the purification efficiency was estimated by COD testing, electrolytic conductivity, UV-vis spectrum, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and pH value. The results showed that NaOH promoted CVD displayed higher efficiency in purification of refinery wastewater than other systems, where the pellucid effluents with low salinity and high COD removal efficiency (99%) were obtained after treatment, and the corresponding pH values of effluents varied from 7 to 9. Furthermore, environment estimation was also tested and the results showed that the effluent had no influence on plant growth. Thus, based on satisfied removal efficiency of COD and salinity achieved simultaneously, NaOH promoted CVD process is an effective approach to purify petroleum refinery wastewater. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterization of petroleum heavy distillates using HPLC and spectroscopic methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarowha, S.L.S.; Sharma, B.K.; Sharma, C.D.; Bhagat, S.D. [Indian Institute of Petroleum, Dehradun (India)

    1997-05-01

    Petroleum heavy distillates find wide application as feedstocks for upgrading through secondary conversion processes. Compositional data on such feedstocks provide useful information to the refiners for selecting processing parameters to achieve product selectivity, quality, and yield. A HPLC method has been optimized to estimate hydrocarbon group types in five lubricating oil base stocks using refractive index (RI) and UV detectors. Data generated at two wavelengths (210 and 254 nm) indicated best results for monoaromatics at 210 nm due to enhanced response and compared well with mass spectrometry data. RI data revealed that saturate content decreases from spindel oil (56%) to heavy oil (42%) which is corroborated by MS data measured for three samples. NMR data exhibited that light oil is more paraffinic (63%) in nature as indicated by branchiness index (0.478). UV data revealed an increasing trend of monoaromatics from spindle (16%) to deasphalted oil (DAO) (20%) and this is supported by MS data, while DAO and heavy oil indicated higher values of diaromatics. 17 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.