WorldWideScience

Sample records for model male gender

  1. Male Gender Role Dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Daig, Isolde

    2010-01-01

    Background: Men have a higher alcohol and cigarette consumption than women, they use more drugs, they have twice as high a suicide rate and only a minority of men attend on preventive medical checkups. Hypotheses: The central questions of the present study pertained to the identification of dysfunctional aspects of a male self concept and the possible correlations with risk behaviour of men in different age stages. One possible explanation for this high risk behaviour may be higher mascul...

  2. Modeling the population-level effects of male circumcision as an HIV-preventive measure: a gendered perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Dushoff

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence from biological, epidemiological, and controlled intervention studies has demonstrated that male circumcision (MC protects males from HIV infection, and MC is now advocated as a public-health intervention against HIV. MC provides direct protection only to men, but is expected to provide indirect protection to women at risk of acquiring HIV from heterosexual transmission. How such indirect protection interacts with the possibility that MC campaigns will lead to behavior changes, however, is not yet well understood. Our objective here is to investigate the link between individual-level effects of MC campaigns and long-term population-level outcomes resulting from disease dynamics, looking at both genders separately, over a broad range of parameters. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We use simple mathematical models of heterosexual transmission to investigate the potential effects of a circumcision scale-up, combined with possible associated behavioral disinhibition. We examine patterns in expected long-term prevalence using a simple equilibrium model based on transmission factors, and validate our results with ODE-based simulations, focusing on the link between effects on females and those on males.We find that the long-term population-level effects on females and males are not strongly linked: there are many possible ways in which an intervention which reduces prevalence in males might nonetheless increase prevalence in females. CONCLUSIONS: Since an intervention that reduces long-term male prevalence could nonetheless increase long-term female prevalence, MC campaigns should explicitly consider both the short-term and long-term effects of MC interventions on females. Our findings strongly underline the importance of pairing MC programs with education, support programs and HIV testing and counseling, together with other prevention measures.

  3. Male Teachers Talk about Gender Violence: "Zulu Men Demand Respect"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhana, Deevia; de Lange, Naydene; Mitchell, Claudia

    2009-01-01

    In South Africa, the centrality of gender-based violence in the spread of HIV/AIDS has led to many educational efforts to address it. The particular social values that male teachers hold around gender-based violence have been less examined. By focusing on African male teachers' understandings of gender-based violence, this paper highlights the…

  4. Male Teachers Talk about Gender Violence: "Zulu Men Demand Respect"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhana, Deevia; de Lange, Naydene; Mitchell, Claudia

    2009-01-01

    In South Africa, the centrality of gender-based violence in the spread of HIV/AIDS has led to many educational efforts to address it. The particular social values that male teachers hold around gender-based violence have been less examined. By focusing on African male teachers' understandings of gender-based violence, this paper highlights the…

  5. Gender-Atypical Mental Illness as Male Gender Threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michniewicz, Kenneth S; Bosson, Jennifer K; Lenes, Joshua G; Chen, Jason I

    2016-07-01

    The present study examined whether men view gender-atypical (i.e., feminine) psychological disorders as threats to their gender status. Men and women (N = 355) rated their expectations of gender status loss, feelings of distress, and help-seeking intentions in response to 10 different stereotypically masculine and feminine psychological disorders. Men as compared to women expected greater gender status loss for, and reported more distress to, gender-atypical versus gender-typical disorders. Expectations of gender status loss partially mediated the link between participant gender and distress at the thought of gender-atypical disorders. These findings suggest that feminine disorders pose more powerful gender status threats for men than masculine disorders do and that men's expectations of gender status loss for feminine disorders drive their negative reactions to these mental illnesses. The discussion emphasizes the importance of considering the gender-typicality of disorders, and the implications of these findings for clinical interventions.

  6. Modelling Gender Pay Gaps

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARYIntroductionThere has been little change in the full-time gender pay gap since the mid 1990s andin the female part-time/male full-time pay gap since the mid 1970s. The gender gapin hourly earnings for those employed full-time in Britain in 2003 was 18 per cent,while that between women working part-time and men working full-time was 40 percent.This research uses statistical methods to identify how much of the gender pay gap isassociated with different factors. The data set ana...

  7. Male Gender Role Conflict and Multiculturalism: Implications for Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wester, Stephen R.

    2008-01-01

    The new multicultural guidelines reemphasized the importance of developing knowledge of, and skills in working with, individuals outside of the majority group. In this article, the author will detail recent advances in understanding how identified consequences of male gender role socialization, specifically male gender role conflict (GRC),…

  8. Male Gender Role Conflict and Multiculturalism: Implications for Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wester, Stephen R.

    2008-01-01

    The new multicultural guidelines reemphasized the importance of developing knowledge of, and skills in working with, individuals outside of the majority group. In this article, the author will detail recent advances in understanding how identified consequences of male gender role socialization, specifically male gender role conflict (GRC),…

  9. Schizophrenia and the influence of male gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remington, G; Seeman, M V

    2015-12-01

    Adolescent boys are the demographic group most likely to receive a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Before adulthood, boys accumulate more potential brain hazards than girls, and this may predispose them to disordered neurodevelopment during adolescence. Hormonal and immune gender differences that emerge at this time likely play an additional and significant role. Very recently, gender differences can be examined even before the onset of full-blown illness, in individuals at "clinically high risk."

  10. Male Therapists' Clinical Bias: Influence of Client Gender Roles and Therapist Gender Role Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisch, Andrew F.; Mahalik, James R.

    1999-01-01

    Examines male therapists' gender-role conflict, client sexual orientation, and client emotional expression as they interrelate with clinical judgments about male clients. Results indicate that therapist gender-role-conflict factors, in combination with client sexual orientation and emotional expression, were associated with therapists' ratings of…

  11. Mouths Wide Shut: Gender-Quiet Teenage Males on Gender-Bending, Gender-Passing and Masculinities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Samuel M.

    2009-11-01

    Through individual narratives, three adolescent males of colour reflect on their fluid masculinities in relation to ethnicity, spirituality and sexuality. The self-described gender benders examine their complex relationships and hybrid identities, which cross the various boundaries of heteronormativity routinely legitimatised through peer norms and educational practices. They voice experiences and gender performances in context of the reshaping of the school's official and unofficial heterosexist climate in which gender-bending males are often marginalised.

  12. Gender Socialization: Differences between Male and Female Youth in India and Associations with Mental Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usha Ram

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes patterns of gender socialization among youth in India and evaluates how these patterns are associated with their mental health. Data come from the Youth in India: Situation and Needs Study (N=44,769, a subnationally representative survey conducted during 2006–2008. Descriptive results underscored the gendered nature of socialization experiences, showing that male and female youth inhabit different social worlds. Female youth expressed more gender-egalitarian attitudes than male youth but reported greater restrictions to their independence than male youth. Male youth recognized more gender-discriminatory practices within their households than did the female youth. Poisson models revealed that female youth experienced more mental health problems when their households engaged in practices that favoured males over females, even as these same practices were associated with fewer mental health problems among male youth. Family violence and restrictions to independence were associated with mental health problems for both male and female youth. When males and females engaged in behaviours contravening sex-specific gender norms, there were corresponding increases in mental health problems for both sexes. Together, these findings suggest that gender inequality permeates family life in India, with corresponding consequences for the mental well-being of male and female youth.

  13. Gender identity disorder and anorexia nervosa in male monozygotic twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, Urs; Milos, Gabriella; Braun-Scharm, Hellmuth

    2004-03-01

    Male identical twins with gender identity disorder (GID) in childhood and anorexia nervosa (AN) are presented. Etiologic aspects and the relationship among gender identity, sexual orientation, body dissatisfaction, and AN are discussed. Case reports and a review of the literature are reported. In childhood, both twins showed an atypical gender behavior. Whereas one of the twins later developed a transsexual gender identity and asked for sex reassignment, the other developed a male identity but his appearance and clothing are effeminate. According to their biologic sex, they are concordant in regard to their homosexual orientation. In adolescence, both developed AN. Monozygotism was proved by DNA analysis. GID in childhood could be at least partly hereditary, whereas the development of the later phenotype of the gender identification is more determined by environmental factors. GID might be a risk factor for the development of AN. Copyright 2004 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 35: 239-243, 2004.

  14. Gender, male-typicality, and social norms predicting adolescent alcohol intoxication and marijuana use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalik, James R; Lombardi, Caitlin McPherran; Sims, Jacqueline; Coley, Rebekah Levine; Lynch, Alicia Doyle

    2015-10-01

    This study examined the direct and interactive effects of gender, male-typicality, and social norms in predicting the initiation and longitudinal patterns of alcohol intoxication and marijuana use in U.S. youth. Data were drawn from a longitudinal survey of 10,588 youth who participated in the in-home survey of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Multilevel growth modeling used data from three time points to assess trajectories of substance use from adolescence to young adulthood. Analyses indicated that gender, male-typicality, as well as home availability, friend social norms, and schoolmate social norms predicted initial levels of intoxication and marijuana use, with gender, friend norms, and schoolmate norms also predicting differential rates of growth over time in intoxication and marijuana use. Interaction results indicated that gender moderated male-typicality's relationship to both substance use variables, and home availability's relationship to alcohol intoxication. These findings extend the literatures regarding interrelations among gender, gender roles, social norms, and health risk behaviors by (a) locating the genesis of those effects in adolescence, (b) identifying gender and social norms to be salient in terms of both initiation and growth of substance use over time, (c) suggesting that gender differences should be understood as moderated by other social-contextual variables, and (d) arguing that prevention efforts should address gender and gender roles more explicitly in programming. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Male gender identity in complete androgen insensitivity syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    T'Sjoen, Guy; De Cuypere, Griet; Monstrey, Stan; Hoebeke, Piet; Freedman, F Kenneth; Appari, Mahesh; Holterhus, Paul-Martin; Van Borsel, John; Cools, Martine

    2011-06-01

    Women and girls with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) invariably have a female typical core gender identity. In this case report, we describe the first case of male gender identity in a CAIS individual raised female leading to complete sex reassignment involving both androgen treatment and phalloplasty. CAIS was diagnosed at age 17, based on an unambiguously female phenotype, a 46,XY karyotype, and a 2660delT androgen receptor (AR) gene mutation, leading to a premature stop in codon 807. Bilateral gonadectomy was performed but a short period of estrogen treatment induced a negative emotional reaction and treatment was stopped. Since the age of 3, childhood-onset cross gender behavior had been noticed. After a period of psychotherapy, persisting male gender identity was confirmed. There was no psychiatric co-morbidity and there was an excellent real life experience. Testosterone substitution was started, however without inducing any of the desired secondary male characteristics. A subcutaneous mastectomy was performed and the patient received phalloplasty by left forearm free flap and scrotoplasty. Testosterone treatment was continued, without inducing virilization, and bone density remained normal. The patient qualifies as female-to-male transsexual and was treated according to the Standards of Care by the World Professional Association for Transgender Health with good outcome. However, we do not believe that female sex of rearing as a standard procedure should be questioned in CAIS. Our case challenges the role of a functional AR pathway in the development of male gender identity.

  16. The Gender Role Perceptions of Male Students at a Prestigious, Single-Gender, Catholic High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Franklin T.; Austin, William P.

    2010-01-01

    This study utilized a data set of categorical responses measuring the gender role views of students (N = 701) from a prestigious, Midwestern, all-male, Catholic high school. Incongruence between student self-perceptions and the realities of gender role miseducation and the embracement of sexist ideology were readily apparent. Findings suggest that…

  17. The Gender Role Perceptions of Male Students at a Prestigious, Single-Gender, Catholic High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Franklin T.; Austin, William P.

    2010-01-01

    This study utilized a data set of categorical responses measuring the gender role views of students (N = 701) from a prestigious, Midwestern, all-male, Catholic high school. Incongruence between student self-perceptions and the realities of gender role miseducation and the embracement of sexist ideology were readily apparent. Findings suggest that…

  18. Disentangling recoding processes and evaluative associations in a gender attitude implicit association test among adult males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zheng

    2016-11-01

    The course of male development of implicit gender attitudes between young age (N = 30, age 17-26 years) and old age (N = 34, age 56-78 years) was investigated. The findings demonstrated that younger males had a stronger implicit preference for females relative to males than did older participants, shedding light on the nature of age differences in gender attitudes in regard to implicit measures. Although younger and older participants demonstrated different levels of gender bias on an implicit association test (IAT), the application of the ReAL model [Meissner, F., & Rothermund, K. (2013). Estimating the contributions of associations and recoding in the implicit association test: The ReAL model for the IAT. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 104(1), 45-69.] showed that evaluative associations of both female and male were activated at equivalent levels among both the young and old age groups, but younger males were more able to recode the female gender and a positive evaluation into common categories. Thus, the differences in attitudinal responses between younger and older males exaggerated the differences in the underlying evaluative associations with respect to gender and concealed the differences in recoding processes. These findings have important implications for the measurement and interpretation of implicit gender attitudes.

  19. Discriminating male and female voices: differentiating pitch and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latinus, Marianne; Taylor, Margot J

    2012-04-01

    Gender is salient, socially critical information obtained from faces and voices, yet the brain processes underlying gender discrimination have not been well studied. We investigated neural correlates of gender processing of voices in two ERP studies. In the first, ERP differences were seen between female and male voices starting at 87 ms, in both spatial-temporal and peak analyses, particularly the fronto-central N1 and P2. As pitch differences may drive gender differences, the second study used normal, high- and low-pitch voices. The results of these studies suggested that differences in pitch produced early effects (27-63 ms). Gender effects were seen on N1 (120 ms) with implicit pitch processing (study 1), but were not seen with manipulations of pitch (study 2), demonstrating that N1 was modulated by attention. P2 (between 170 and 230 ms) discriminated male from female voices, independent of pitch. Thus, these data show that there are two stages in voice gender processing; a very early pitch or frequency discrimination and a later more accurate determination of gender at the P2 latency.

  20. Gender Recognition Using Cognitive Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagertun, Jens; Andersen, Tobias; Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we use cognitive modeling to estimate the ”gender strength” of frontal faces, a continuous class variable, superseding the traditional binary class labeling. To incorporate this continuous variable we suggest a novel linear gender classification algorithm, the Gender Strength Regres...

  1. Perception of Male Gender Preference Among Pregnant Igbo Women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Male gender preference is a dominant feature of Igbo culture and could be ... inferential statistical analyses were carried out with statistical significance .... The research design was approved by the Research Ethics. Committee of NAUTH, Nnewi. Data collected were analyzed using the Statistical Package for.

  2. Masculinity, male development, gender, and identity: modern and postmodern meanings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Debby A

    2006-05-01

    Modern and postmodern scholars are addressing the crisis in masculinity by questioning the meaning of masculinity and by rethinking masculinity, male development, gender, and identity. This article explicates current modern humanist positions and postmodern positions on these topics. The first section summarizes contemporary theories advanced by scholars in the relatively new discipline of men's studies. The second section presents postmodern positions exploring sex as a biological given, the emerging critiques of differentiating sex and gender, and poststructural psychoanalytic positions on simultaneous production of individual subjectivity (sense of self), masculine identity, and society. Implications of these perspectives are identified.

  3. Gender empowerment and female-to-male smoking prevalence ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Geoffrey T

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine whether in countries with high gender empowerment the female-to-male smoking prevalence ratio is also higher. Methods Bivariate and multiple regression analyses were performed to explore the relation between the United Nations Development Programme’s gender empowerment measure (GEM) and the female-to-male smoking prevalence ratio (calculated from the 2008 WHO global tobacco control report). Because a country’s progression through the various stages of the tobacco epidemic and its gender smoking ratio (GSR) are thought to be influenced by its level of development, we explored this correlation as well, with economic development defined in terms of gross national income (GNI) per capita and income inequality (Gini coefficient). Findings The GSR was significantly and positively correlated with the GEM (r = 0.680; P empowerment can take place without a corresponding increase in smoking among women remains to be seen. Strong tobacco control measures are needed in countries where women are being increasingly empowered. PMID:21379415

  4. Writing the fairy Huckleberry Finn: William Goyen's and Truman Capote's genderings of male homosexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, G

    1998-01-01

    After rehearsing persisting representations of same-sex desire in the Southern Renaissance's literary production, this essay charts how novels by Truman Capote and William Goyen reveal contradictory genderings of male homosexuality. Capote's Other Voices, Other Rooms collapses male gay identity with effeminacy, while Goyen's The House of Breath replicates this model but also contrasts it with a coexisting and competing one in which masculine men can physically act upon gay desire. Thus, contrary to the theorizations of Michel Foucault and David Halperin, these representations suggest the absence of a unified model of mid-twentieth-century male homosexuality.

  5. Gender difference of alanine aminotransferase elevation may be associated with higher hemoglobin levels among male adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Chih-Cheng Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To explore the gender difference of ALT elevation and its association with high hemoglobin levels. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 3547 adolescents (2005 females, mean age of 16.5?.3 years who were negative for hepatitis B surface antigen received health checkups in 2006. Body mass index (BMI, levels of hemoglobin, ALT and cholesterol were measured. ALT >42 U/L was defined as elevated ALT. Elevated ALT levels were detected in 112 of the 3547 participants (3.3%, more prevalent in males than in females (5.4% vs. 1.4%, p11 g/dl in females or >13.5 g/dl in males, but the cumulative cases of elevated ALT increased more quickly in males. Proportion of elevated ALT increased as either the BMI or hemoglobin level rise, more apparent in male adolescents. Logistic regression modeling showed odds ratio (95% confidence interval were 24.7 (15.0-40.6 for BMI ≥27 kg/m(2; 5.5 (2.9-10.4 for BMI 24-27 kg/m(2; 2.7 (1.3-5.5 for Q5 (top 20th percentile hemoglobin level; and 2.6 (1.6-4.1 for male gender. Further separately fitting the logistic models for two genders, the significance of Q5 hemoglobin level only appeared in the males. CONCLUSIONS: High hemoglobin level is a significant risk factor of ALT elevation after control hepatitis B, obesity and gender. Males have greater risk of abnormal liver function which may be associated with higher hemoglobin levels.

  6. The Male Librarian and the Feminine Image: A Survey of Stereotype, Status, and Gender Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, James V., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Reviews the literature on gender issues in librarianship and reports results of a survey of male librarians that examined reasons for entering the profession, family support for this decision, awareness of and attitude toward male librarian stereotypes, career goals, effects of gender on advancement, and other gender-related issues. (67…

  7. 3D gender recognition using cognitive modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagertun, Jens; Andersen, Tobias; Hansen, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    We use 3D scans of human faces and cognitive modeling to estimate the “gender strength”. The “gender strength” is a continuous class variable of the gender, superseding the traditional binary class labeling. To visualize some of the visual trends humans use when performing gender classification, ...

  8. Does it pay to break male gender stereotypes in advertising? A comparison of advertisement effectiveness between the United Kingdom, Poland and South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Zawisza, Magdalena; Russell, Luyt; Zawadzka, Anna Maria; Buczny, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    Advertisers shy away from using non-traditional (vs traditional) male gender portrayals even though theory suggests they may be more effective cross-nationally. Two main hypotheses were tested cross-nationally for the first time. H1: ‘paternalistic’ male stereotypes (e.g. Househusband) would be more effective than ‘envious’ male stereotypes (e.g. Businessman) across countries confirming the Stereotype Content Model. H2: the match between initial male gender role attitudes and advertisement ty...

  9. Do Teachers Equate Male and Masculine with Lower Academic Engagement? How Students' Gender Enactment Triggers Gender Stereotypes at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyder, Anke; Kessels, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    Girls presently outperform boys in overall academic success. Corresponding gender stereotypes portray male students as lazy and troublesome and female students as diligent and compliant. The present study investigated whether these stereotypes impact teachers' perceptions of students and whether students' visible enactment of their gender at…

  10. Do Teachers Equate Male and Masculine with Lower Academic Engagement? How Students' Gender Enactment Triggers Gender Stereotypes at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyder, Anke; Kessels, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    Girls presently outperform boys in overall academic success. Corresponding gender stereotypes portray male students as lazy and troublesome and female students as diligent and compliant. The present study investigated whether these stereotypes impact teachers' perceptions of students and whether students' visible enactment of their gender at…

  11. Interdependent mechanisms for processing gender and emotion:The special status of angry male faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A Harris

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available While some models of how various attributes of a face are processed have posited that face features, invariant physical cues such as gender or ethnicity as well as variant social cues such as emotion, may be processed independently (e.g., Bruce & Young, 1986, other models suggest a more distributed representation and interdependent processing (e.g., Haxby, Hoffman, & Gobbini, 2000. Here we use a contingent adaptation paradigm to investigate if mechanisms for processing the gender and emotion of a face are interdependent and symmetric across the happy-angry emotional continuum and regardless of the gender of the face. We simultaneously adapted participants to angry female faces and happy male faces (Experiment 1 or to happy female faces and angry male faces (Experiment 2. In Experiment 1 we found evidence for contingent adaptation, with simultaneous aftereffects in opposite directions: male faces were biased towards angry while female faces were biased towards happy. Interestingly, in the complementary Experiment 2 we did not find evidence for contingent adaptation, with both male and female faces biased towards angry. Our results highlight that evidence for contingent adaptation and the underlying interdependent face processing mechanisms that would allow for contingent adaptation may only be evident for certain combinations of face features. Such limits may be especially important in the case of social cues given how maladaptive it may be to stop responding to threatening information, with male angry faces considered to be the most threatening. The underlying neuronal mechanisms that could account for such asymmetric effects in contingent adaptation remain to be elucidated.

  12. Gender and information and communication technologies (ICT) anxiety: male self-assurance and female hesitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broos, Agnetha

    2005-02-01

    This article presents the results of a quantitative study (n = 1,058) of the gender divide in ICT attitudes. In general, females had more negative attitudes towards computers and the Internet than did men. Results indicate a positive relationship between ICT experience and ICT attitudes. This experience is measured by period of time using a computer and self-perceived computer and Internet experience. Further analyses on the impact of gender on this correlation of ICT experience and ICT attitudes were conducted by means of a multivariate model. General Linear Model (GLM) analysis revealed that there was a significant effect of gender, computer use, and self-perceived computer experience on computer anxiety attitudes, as well as several significant interaction effects. Males were found to have less computer anxiety than females; respondents who have used computers for a longer period of time and respondents with a higher self-perception of experience also show less computer anxiety. However, the GLM plot shows that the influence of computer experience works in different ways for males and females. Computer experience has a positive impact on decreasing computer anxiety for men, but a similar effect was not found for women. The model was also tested for computer liking and Internet-liking factors.

  13. Syndemics and gender affirmation: HIV sexual risk in female-to-male trans masculine adults reporting sexual contact with cisgender males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisner, Sari L; White Hughto, Jaclyn M; Pardee, Dana; Sevelius, Jae

    2016-10-01

    Female-to-male trans masculine adults who have sex with cisgender (non-transgender) males (TMSM) represent an understudied population in relation to HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk. This study examined the role of syndemic conditions and social gender affirmation processes (living full-time in one's identified gender) in potentiating sexual risk among TMSM adults in Massachusetts, US. Cross-sectional data were restricted to TMSM who reported lifetime sexual behaviour with a cisgender male (n = 173; mean age = 29.4, SD = 9.6; 18.5% people of colour; 93.1% non-heterosexual identity; 56.1% hormones/surgery). Sexual risk outcomes were: lifetime STI diagnoses, three or more sexual partners in the previous six months, and condomless anal/vaginal sex at last encounter with a cisgender male. Age- and survey mode-adjusted logistic regression models regressed sexual risk outcomes on the main effect of syndemics (six indicators summed: binge drinking, substance use, depression, anxiety, childhood abuse, intimate partner violence), followed by the interaction of syndemics and social gender affirmation. Syndemics were associated with increased odds of all sexual risk indicators (adjusted odds ratios [aORs] = 1.32-1.55; p Social gender affirmation moderated the association between syndemics and condomless anal/vaginal sex at last encounter with a cisgender male (p socially affirmed their gender (aOR = 1.79; 95% CI = 1.42-2.25; p socially gender affirmed as for cisgender MSM. Integration of syndemics and gender affirmation frameworks is recommended in interventions to address TMSM sexual risk. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. 男性公务员职业发展模式研究:社会性别与生涯阶段%Study on Career Development Model of Male Civil Servants:Gender and Stages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁本荣

    2015-01-01

    男性公务员的职业发展是社会性别和职业生涯研究的重要领域。依据职业生涯阶段理论,通过内容分析研究方法,构建男性公务员在探索期、转型稳定期、上升期、维持期与退出期的职业发展模式。男性公务员不同阶段发展模式在政治资源、经济资源、社会资源、自我价值实现与工作家庭平衡方面表现不同特征。同时,不同阶段面临不同问题:探索期的现实震动强烈;转型与稳定期职业发展被动;上升期遭遇职业发展瓶颈;维持期职业倦怠与职业高原现象突出;退出期心理失落等。因而,加强不同阶段个人同组织相互配合是促进男性公务员职业发展的有效路径。%Male civil servants Career development is an important field of gender and career research. Learn career stage theory, application content analysis research methods to construct male civil servants career development model in the exploration phase (25 to 29 years old),transition (30 to 34 years old),increased stage (35 to 45 years),the maintenance phase(46 to 56 years old) and the exit period (57 to 60 years old). There stage development model has shown different in.political resources, economic re-sources, social resources, self-worth and work-family balance. In addition, different career stages of male civil servants also face different career highlight issues such as reality shock strongly in the exploration stage, the career development of passive in the transformation and stabilization period,the rise of the career development bottlenecks encountered in the rising stage, career prominent phenomenon of burnout and career plateau in the maintenance stage, psychological lost in the exit stage and so on.. Therefore,to promote male civil servants career development,individuals and organizations should be cooperate with each other.

  15. Autism spectrum disorders: toward a gendered embodiment model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheslack-Postava, Keely; Jordan-Young, Rebecca M

    2012-06-01

    One of the most consistent observations in the epidemiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is the preponderance of male cases. A few hypotheses have been put forth which attempt to explain this divergence in terms of sex-linked biology, with limited success. Feminist epidemiologists suggest the importance of investigating specific mechanisms for male-female differences in health outcomes, which may include sex-linked biology and/or gender relations, as well as complex biosocial interactions. Neither domain has been systematically investigated for autism, and the possible role of gender has been particularly neglected. In this article, we posit hypotheses about how social processes based on perception of persons as male or female, particularly patterns of social and physical interaction in early development, may affect the observed occurrence and diagnosis of ASD. We gesture toward an embodiment model, incorporating hypotheses about initial biological vulnerabilities to autism--which may or may not be differentially distributed in relation to sex biology--and their interactions with gender relations, which are demonstrably different for male and female infants. Toward building such a model, we first review the epidemiology of ASD with an eye toward male-female differences, then present a theory of gender as a "pervasive developmental environment" with relevance for the excess burden of autism among males. Finally, we suggest research strategies to further investigate this issue.

  16. Anorexia nervosa and gender identity disorder in biologic males: a report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Anthony P; Acharya, Sudha; Chaudhuri, Shreemantee; Fellowes, Lynette

    2004-07-01

    Gender identity disorder is a rare disorder of uncertain etiology. The emphasis on body shape in this disorder suggests that there may be an association with anorexia nervosa. We report two cases of anorexia nervosa and gender identity disorder in biologic males who presented to an eating disorders service. One was treated successfully as an outpatient and subsequently underwent gender reassignment surgery. The other patient required admission and prolonged psychotherapy. Differences between the two cases are discussed. Issues of gender identity should be considered in the assessment of male patients presenting with anorexia nervosa. Copyright 2004 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Male-female discrimination: an analysis of gender gap and its determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Quintano

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the occupational dynamics have brought in significant innovations in Italy, as the increased participation of women in the labour market, that have stimulated studies about the gender wage gap, concerning the different remuneration reserved to male and female workers. In this work the Authors, following Oaxaca and Blinder approach, estimate the gap for Italian employers and proceed to its decomposition, one part due to differences in individual characteristics (endowment effect and another part due to the different returns on the same characteristics (coefficient effect, related to discrimination. Then, the gender wage gap and its decomposition is analyzed with reference to Italian macro-areas considered separately with the aim to highlight the different fundamental dynamics. The model has also been modified using the Heckmann correction to eliminate the bias due to self-selection; i.e. the different propensity to work for men and women.

  18. The Extreme Male Brain Theory and Gender Role Behaviour in Persons with an Autism Spectrum Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauder, J. E. A.; Cornet, L. J. M.; Ponds, R. W. H. M.

    2011-01-01

    According to the Extreme Male Brain theory persons with autism possess masculinised cognitive traits. In this study masculinisation of gender role behaviour is evaluated in 25 persons with an autism spectrum condition (ASC) and matched controls with gender role behaviour as part of a shortened version of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality…

  19. Using Gender Role Conflict Theory in Counseling Male-to-Female Transgender Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wester, Stephen R.; McDonough, Tracy A.; White, Maureen; Vogel, David L.; Taylor, Lareena

    2010-01-01

    Ignoring gender socialization while counseling transgender clients neglects a significant aspect of the transgender experience. To address this, the authors review the literature on gender role conflict (GRC) theory as it pertains to the transgender experience of biological males whose authentic self is female. They explore the main types of…

  20. The Extreme Male Brain Theory and Gender Role Behaviour in Persons with an Autism Spectrum Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauder, J. E. A.; Cornet, L. J. M.; Ponds, R. W. H. M.

    2011-01-01

    According to the Extreme Male Brain theory persons with autism possess masculinised cognitive traits. In this study masculinisation of gender role behaviour is evaluated in 25 persons with an autism spectrum condition (ASC) and matched controls with gender role behaviour as part of a shortened version of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality…

  1. Using Gender Role Conflict Theory in Counseling Male-to-Female Transgender Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wester, Stephen R.; McDonough, Tracy A.; White, Maureen; Vogel, David L.; Taylor, Lareena

    2010-01-01

    Ignoring gender socialization while counseling transgender clients neglects a significant aspect of the transgender experience. To address this, the authors review the literature on gender role conflict (GRC) theory as it pertains to the transgender experience of biological males whose authentic self is female. They explore the main types of…

  2. Priming of Non-Speech Vocalizations in Male Adults: The Influence of the Speaker's Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecteau, Shirley; Armony, Jorge L.; Joanette, Yves; Belin, Pascal

    2004-01-01

    Previous research reported a priming effect for voices. However, the type of information primed is still largely unknown. In this study, we examined the influence of speaker's gender and emotional category of the stimulus on priming of non-speech vocalizations in 10 male participants, who performed a gender identification task. We found a…

  3. The Separate Spheres Model of Gendered Inequality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea L Miller

    Full Text Available Research on role congruity theory and descriptive and prescriptive stereotypes has established that when men and women violate gender stereotypes by crossing spheres, with women pursuing career success and men contributing to domestic labor, they face backlash and economic penalties. Less is known, however, about the types of individuals who are most likely to engage in these forms of discrimination and the types of situations in which this is most likely to occur. We propose that psychological research will benefit from supplementing existing research approaches with an individual differences model of support for separate spheres for men and women. This model allows psychologists to examine individual differences in support for separate spheres as they interact with situational and contextual forces. The separate spheres ideology (SSI has existed as a cultural idea for many years but has not been operationalized or modeled in social psychology. The Separate Spheres Model presents the SSI as a new psychological construct characterized by individual differences and a motivated system-justifying function, operationalizes the ideology with a new scale measure, and models the ideology as a predictor of some important gendered outcomes in society. As a first step toward developing the Separate Spheres Model, we develop a new measure of individuals' endorsement of the SSI and demonstrate its reliability, convergent validity, and incremental predictive validity. We provide support for the novel hypotheses that the SSI predicts attitudes regarding workplace flexibility accommodations, income distribution within families between male and female partners, distribution of labor between work and family spheres, and discriminatory workplace behaviors. Finally, we provide experimental support for the hypothesis that the SSI is a motivated, system-justifying ideology.

  4. The Separate Spheres Model of Gendered Inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Andrea L; Borgida, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    Research on role congruity theory and descriptive and prescriptive stereotypes has established that when men and women violate gender stereotypes by crossing spheres, with women pursuing career success and men contributing to domestic labor, they face backlash and economic penalties. Less is known, however, about the types of individuals who are most likely to engage in these forms of discrimination and the types of situations in which this is most likely to occur. We propose that psychological research will benefit from supplementing existing research approaches with an individual differences model of support for separate spheres for men and women. This model allows psychologists to examine individual differences in support for separate spheres as they interact with situational and contextual forces. The separate spheres ideology (SSI) has existed as a cultural idea for many years but has not been operationalized or modeled in social psychology. The Separate Spheres Model presents the SSI as a new psychological construct characterized by individual differences and a motivated system-justifying function, operationalizes the ideology with a new scale measure, and models the ideology as a predictor of some important gendered outcomes in society. As a first step toward developing the Separate Spheres Model, we develop a new measure of individuals' endorsement of the SSI and demonstrate its reliability, convergent validity, and incremental predictive validity. We provide support for the novel hypotheses that the SSI predicts attitudes regarding workplace flexibility accommodations, income distribution within families between male and female partners, distribution of labor between work and family spheres, and discriminatory workplace behaviors. Finally, we provide experimental support for the hypothesis that the SSI is a motivated, system-justifying ideology.

  5. Language and gender variance: constructing gender beyond the male/female binary

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Corwin, Anna I

    2009-01-01

    .... This paper draws on ethnographic data including participant observation, open-ended interviews, and naturally occurring dialogue to examine how genderqueer individuals perform uniquely non-binary genders...

  6. Achieving Masculinity: A Review of the Literature on Male Gender Identity Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puls, Daniel W.

    Distinctions between males and females arise as a result of a complex developmental process involving biological, psychological, and sociological forces. Much research on male gender identity development has spurred from the increased interest in the etiology of homosexuality over the last two decades. Political, religious, and moral issues often…

  7. Penalties for success: reactions to women who succeed at male gender-typed tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilman, Madeline E; Wallen, Aaron S; Fuchs, Daniella; Tamkins, Melinda M

    2004-06-01

    A total of 242 subjects participated in 3 experimental studies investigating reactions to a woman's success in a male gender-typed job. Results strongly supported the authors' hypotheses, indicating that (a) when women are acknowledged to have been successful, they are less liked and more personally derogated than equivalently successful men (Studies 1 and 2); (b) these negative reactions occur only when the success is in an arena that is distinctly male in character (Study 2); and (c) being disliked can have career-affecting outcomes, both for overall evaluation and for recommendations concerning organizational reward allocation (Study 3). These results were taken to support the idea that gender stereotypes can prompt bias in evaluative judgments of women even when these women have proved themselves to be successful and demonstrated their competence. The distinction between prescriptive and descriptive aspects of gender stereotypes is considered, as well as the implications of prescriptive gender norms for women in work settings. (c) 2004 APA

  8. Male Gender and Arterial Hypertension are Plaque Predictors at Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Joselina Luzia Menezes; Hirata, Mario Hiroyuki; Sousa, Amanda Guerra de Moraes Rego; Gabriel, Fabíola Santos; Hirata, Thiago Dominguez Crespo; Tavares, Irlaneide da Silva; Melo, Luiza Dantas; Dória, Fabiana de Santana; Sousa, Antônio Carlos Sobral; Pinto, Ibraim Masciarelli Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Background Systemic Arterial Hypertension (SAH) is one of the main risk factors for Coronary Artery Disease (CAD), in addition to male gender. Differences in coronary artery lesions between hypertensive and normotensive individuals of both genders at the Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography (CCTA) have not been clearly determined. Objective To Investigate the calcium score (CS), CAD extent and characteristics of coronary plaques at CCTA in men and women with and without SAH. Methods Prospective cross-sectional study of 509 patients undergoing CCTA for CAD diagnosis and risk stratification, from November 2011 to December 2012, at Instituto de Cardiologia Dante Pazzanese. Individuals were stratified according to gender and subdivided according to the presence (HT +) or absence (HT-) of SAH. Results HT+ women were older (62.3 ± 10.2 vs 57.8 ± 12.8, p = 0.01). As for the assessment of CAD extent, the HT+ individuals of both genders had significant CAD, although multivessel disease is more frequent in HT + men. The regression analysis for significant CAD showed that age and male gender were the determinant factors of multivessel disease and CS ≥ 100. Plaque type analysis showed that SAH was a predictive risk factor for partially calcified plaques (OR = 3.9). Conclusion Hypertensive men had multivessel disease more often than women. Male gender was a determinant factor of significant CAD, multivessel disease, CS ≥ 100 and calcified and partially calcified plaques, whereas SAH was predictive of partially calcified plaques. PMID:25861034

  9. ATHLETES ENGAGEMENT MODEL: A GENDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Martins

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Investigation from a diversity of theoretical perspectives displays that one of the best predictors of children’s continuing involvement in sports is the development of positive feelings for sport involvement (e.g. Martins, Rosado, Ferreira & Biscaia, 2014. In sport, the concept of engagement reflects the energy in action, the connection between the person and the activity, and it is considered as a form of active involvement between the individual and the task (Russell, Ainley, & Frydenberg, 2005. In sport, the concept of athletes’ engagement reflects a relatively stable and long lasting experience that is generically characterized through positive emotions and cognitions when engaged in the act of practicing the given activity (Lonsdale, Hodge, & Raedeke, 2007. Therefore, the analysis of experiences related to engagement is important in order to understand sport participation, and how its different levels can condition the social involvement. In addition, these studies failed to examine potentially important gender differences in engagement among athletes. Therefore, the study of athletes by evaluating their engagement levels comparing genders, can contribute towards shedding light on decisive aspects pertaining to its social involvement within ethical dimensions as well as personal and social responsibility, on which research is still lacking. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of gender on engagement in a sport scenario among youth athletes.

  10. Thinking about gender types: Cognitive organization of female and male types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, R.; Ashmore, R.D.

    2003-01-01

    We examined the content and dimensional structure of a large and representative sample of gender types. In Study 1, using an open-ended procedure, participants generated 306 different labels for female types (e.g. housewife, feminist, femme fatale, secretary, slob) and 310 for male types (e.g. worka

  11. Adolescents' Judgments of Homophobic Harassment toward Male and Female Victims: The Role of Gender Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Katherine E.; Horn, Stacey S.

    2017-01-01

    One hundred and fifty-six adolescents, drawn from a high school in a Midwestern suburb, provided judgments of a hypothetical incident of homophobic harassment with either a male or female victim. Participants also completed a revised version of the Macho Scale, measuring their endorsement of gender stereotypes (a = 0.75). Without the interaction…

  12. Test Administrator's Gender Affects Female and Male Students' Self-Estimated Verbal General Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortner, Tuulia M.; Vormittag, Isabella

    2011-01-01

    Effects of test administrator's gender on test takers' self-estimated verbal general knowledge and de facto verbal general knowledge were investigated. Based on three theories previously applied in research dealing with the effects of test administrator's ethnicity, it was expected male and female test takers to show higher scores under female…

  13. Thinking about gender types: Cognitive organization of female and male types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, R.; Ashmore, R.D.

    2003-01-01

    We examined the content and dimensional structure of a large and representative sample of gender types. In Study 1, using an open-ended procedure, participants generated 306 different labels for female types (e.g. housewife, feminist, femme fatale, secretary, slob) and 310 for male types (e.g. worka

  14. Female vs. Male Ampelmännchen-Gender-Specific Reaction Times to Male and Female Traffic Light Figures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil, Farid I; Olk, Bettina; Hilgetag, Claus C

    2017-01-01

    Traffic signs are important visual guiding signals for the safe navigation through complex road traffic. Interestingly, there is little variation in the traffic signs for cars around the world. However, remarkable variation exists for pedestrian traffic signs. Following up from an earlier study, we investigated the visual efficacy of female vs. male German Ampelmännchen pedestrian traffic signs. In a Stroop-like test, 30 subjects were presented with female and male go and no-go traffic light figures that were shown either in the corresponding or opposing color. Subjects had to indicate, based either solely on the form or the color of the figure, whether they were allowed to go. Accuracy and response times across all subjects did not differ for the female vs. male signs, indicating that Ampelfrau and Ampelmann signs have equal visual efficacy. However, subjects responded faster to signs of their own vs. the opposite gender. This preference for signs of one's own gender is in accordance with effects in social psychology described by social learning theory. An introduction of such novel traffic lights may, thus, contribute to higher compliance with the traffic sign signals.

  15. Parental role models, gender and educational choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryler, H

    1998-09-01

    Parental role models are often put forward as an explanation for the choice of gender-atypical educational routes. This paper aims to test such explanations by examining the impact of family background variables like parental education and occupation, on choice of educational programme at upper secondary school. Using a sample of around 73,000 Swedish teenagers born between 1972 and 1976, girls' and boys' gender-atypical as well as gender-typical educational choices are analysed by means of logistic regression. Parents working or educated within a specific field increase the probability that a child will make a similar choice of educational programme at upper secondary school. This same-sector effect appeared to be somewhat stronger for fathers and sons, while no such same-sex influence was confirmed for girls. No evidence was found that, in addition to a same-sector effect, it matters whether parents' occupations represent gender-traditional or non-traditional models. Parents of the service classes or highly educated parents--expected to be the most gender egalitarian in attitudes and behaviours--have a positive influence upon children's choice of gender-atypical education.

  16. Perspectives of Suicide Bereaved Individuals on Military Suicide Decedents' Life Stressors and Male Gender Role Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, A Graham; Bakalar, Jennifer L; Perera, Kanchana U; DeYoung, Kathryn A; Harrington-LaMorie, Jill; Haigney, Diana; Ghahramanlou-Holloway, Marjan

    2017-01-02

    The objective of this study was to pilot the newly developed Male Gender Role Stressor Inventory (MGRSI) in military suicide bereaved (i.e., decedents' family members and significant others) and to determine the association between Male Gender Role Stress (MGRS) and other life stressors observed by survivors. Sixty-five survivors attending a national survivor seminar completed original surveys, reporting demographic information about themselves and the decedent and observations of the decedent's life stressors during the 1-month and 1-year periods prior to death. The MGRSI obtained acceptable internal reliability (α = .76) and indicated that factors including honor, strength, and achievement were the most commonly reported sources of MGRS. Correlational and regression analyses revealed that legal- and trauma-related stressors 1 month prior to suicide were significantly associated with MGRSI score. MGRS may contribute to a better understanding of military male suicide. The Department of Defense and the Veterans Administration may benefit from suicide prevention programs targeting rigid male gender role beliefs and male-specific stressors.

  17. Characterizing, modeling, and addressing gender disparities in introductory college physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kost-Smith, Lauren Elizabeth

    2011-12-01

    The underrepresentation and underperformance of females in physics has been well documented and has long concerned policy-makers, educators, and the physics community. In this thesis, we focus on gender disparities in the first- and second-semester introductory, calculus-based physics courses at the University of Colorado. Success in these courses is critical for future study and careers in physics (and other sciences). Using data gathered from roughly 10,000 undergraduate students, we identify and model gender differences in the introductory physics courses in three areas: student performance, retention, and psychological factors. We observe gender differences on several measures in the introductory physics courses: females are less likely to take a high school physics course than males and have lower standardized mathematics test scores; males outscore females on both pre- and post-course conceptual physics surveys and in-class exams; and males have more expert-like attitudes and beliefs about physics than females. These background differences of males and females account for 60% to 70% of the gender gap that we observe on a post-course survey of conceptual physics understanding. In analyzing underlying psychological factors of learning, we find that female students report lower self-confidence related to succeeding in the introductory courses (self-efficacy) and are less likely to report seeing themselves as a "physics person". Students' self-efficacy beliefs are significant predictors of their performance, even when measures of physics and mathematics background are controlled, and account for an additional 10% of the gender gap. Informed by results from these studies, we implemented and tested a psychological, self-affirmation intervention aimed at enhancing female students' performance in Physics 1. Self-affirmation reduced the gender gap in performance on both in-class exams and the post-course conceptual physics survey. Further, the benefit of the self

  18. Understanding gendered expectations and exemptions experienced by male double-duty caregivers: a qualitative secondary analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjos, Ana Paula; Ward-Griffin, Catherine; Leipert, Beverly

    2012-09-01

    There is growing evidence that family caregivers who are also employed face challenges in balancing the multiple demands associated with family caregiving. Health professionals who are family caregivers, defined in this study as double-duty caregivers (DDCs), are expected to use their professional knowledge in the provision of family care. The purpose of this qualitative secondary analysis was to explore how gendered expectations and exemptions affect the caregiving experiences and personal health of male nurses caring for family members. Being a male DDC created intersecting gendered expectations and exemptions. These coexisting and at times conflicting expectations and exemptions, constituted by the overarching theme of the determinants of care, directly influenced the health of male DDCs as they experienced tension when negotiating their dual role. The findings have direct implications for health-care policy and practice, research, and theory development.

  19. The Gender and Race Composition of Jobs and the Male/Female, White/Black Pay Gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaskovic-Devey, Donald

    1993-01-01

    Analysis of North Carolina survey data indicates that females' average hourly wages were 71% of males', and blacks' wages were 78% of whites'. Human capital factors (educational attainment and occupational experience) explained 31% and 3% of the racial and gender gaps, respectively. Job gender composition explained 56% of the gender gap; job…

  20. Changing (S)Expectations: How Gender Fair Job Descriptions Impact Children's Perceptions and Interest regarding Traditionally Male Occupations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervecken, Dries; Hannover, Bettina; Wolter, Ilka

    2013-01-01

    Children's occupational interests and their perceptions of the divergent occupational successes of women and men reflect cultural gender norms. Since language is a vehicle for transporting gender cues and gender norms, we tested the premise that children's perceptions of stereotypically male jobs can be influenced by the linguistic form used to…

  1. Gender differences in the evaluation of physical attractiveness ideals for male and female body builds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salusso-Deonier, C J; Markee, N L; Pedersen, E L

    1993-06-01

    The purposes of this research were (1) to explore gender differences in the evaluation of physical attractiveness stimuli developed to represent commonly occurring real builds, (2) to identify observers' concepts of physical attractiveness ideals promoted by the media, and (3) to begin cross-validation of these stimuli as representations of observers' concepts of ideal physical attractiveness for male and female builds. Responses included (1) open-ended descriptions of ideal male and ideal female build, (2) ratings of relative attractiveness of 12 male and 15 female stimuli, (3) selections of stimulus types which best represented ideal builds, and (4) selections of stimulus types perceived to be promoted by the media. Analysis showed strong cross-validation among modes of response. Ideal male build included average/balanced type (small and medium), lean/broad-shouldered type (large), and muscular bulk type (medium). Ideal female body build included average/balanced type (small and medium) and lean/broad-shouldered type (small and medium). Gender differences were in emphasis only. Women emphasized lean/broad-shouldered and average/balanced male types. Men emphasized the muscular bulk male type. Body types perceived to be media-promoted highlighted stereotypic male muscularity and female leanness.

  2. Eyewitness Testimony for a Simulated Juvenile Crime by Male and Female Criminals with Consistent or Inconsistent Gender-Role Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Lauren R.

    2009-01-01

    Eyewitness recall by 60 adolescents and 60 young adults in Experiment 1 and by 64 children and 63 preadolescents in Experiment 2 for a simulated theft in which gender-role characteristics and sex of criminal were manipulated (i.e., masculine male, feminine male, feminine female, masculine female) was investigated. Gender-role flexibility impacted…

  3. Eyewitness Testimony for a Simulated Juvenile Crime by Male and Female Criminals with Consistent or Inconsistent Gender-Role Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Lauren R.

    2009-01-01

    Eyewitness recall by 60 adolescents and 60 young adults in Experiment 1 and by 64 children and 63 preadolescents in Experiment 2 for a simulated theft in which gender-role characteristics and sex of criminal were manipulated (i.e., masculine male, feminine male, feminine female, masculine female) was investigated. Gender-role flexibility impacted…

  4. Effects of gender-related domain violations and sexual orientation on perceptions of male and female targets: an analogue study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blashill, Aaron J; Powlishta, Kimberly K

    2012-10-01

    The current study examined factors that influenced heterosexual male and female raters' evaluations of male and female targets who were gay or heterosexual, and who displayed varying gender roles (i.e., typical vs. atypical) in multiple domains (i.e., activities, traits, and appearance). Participants were 305 undergraduate students from a private, midwestern Jesuit institution who read vignettes describing one of 24 target types and then rated the target on possession of positive and negative characteristics, psychological adjustment, and on measures reflecting the participants' anticipated behavior toward or comfort with the target. Results showed that gender atypical appearance and activity attributes (but not traits) were viewed more negatively than their gender typical counterparts. It was also found that male participants in particular viewed gay male targets as less desirable than lesbian and heterosexual male targets. These findings suggest a nuanced approach for understanding sexual prejudice, which incorporates a complex relationship among sex, gender, sexual orientation, and domain of gendered attributes.

  5. Should male gender assignment be considered in the markedly virilized patient With 46,XX and congenital adrenal hyperplasia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Peter A; Houk, Christopher P; Husmann, Douglas A

    2010-10-01

    We assess the outcome in 46,XX men with congenital adrenal hyperplasia who were born with Prader 4 or 5 genitalia and assigned male gender at birth. After receiving institutional review board approval and subject consent we reviewed the medical records of 12 men 35 to 69 years old with 46,XX congenital adrenal hyperplasia, of whom 6 completed social and gender issue questionnaires. All subjects were assigned male gender at birth, were diagnosed with virilizing congenital adrenal hyperplasia at age greater than 3 years and indicated a male gender identity with sexual orientation to females. Ten of the 12 subjects had always lived as male and 2 who were reassigned to female gender in childhood subsequently self-reassigned as male. Nine of the 12 men had long-term female partners, including 7 married 12 years or more. The 3 subjects without a long-term female partner included 1 priest, 1 who was reassigned female gender, married, divorced and self-reassigned as male, and 1 with a girlfriend and sexual activity. All except the priest and the subject who was previously married when female indicated a strong libido and frequent orgasmic sexual activity. Responses to self-esteem, masculinity, body image, social adjustment and symptom questionnaires suggested adjustments related to the extent of familial and social support. Outcome data on severely masculinized 46,XX patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia who were assigned male gender at birth indicate male gender identity in adulthood with satisfactory male sexual function in those retaining male genitalia. In men who completed questionnaires results were poorer in those lacking familial/social support. Male gender of rearing may be a viable option for parents whose children are born with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, a 46,XX karyotype and male genitalia, although positive parental and other support, and counseling are needed for adjustment. Copyright © 2010 American Urological Association Education and Research

  6. Male Prison Inmates With Gender Dysphoria: When Is Sex Reassignment Surgery Appropriate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Cynthia S; Lawrence, Anne A

    2016-10-01

    Gender dysphoria (GD), a feeling of persistent discomfort with one's biologic sex or assigned gender, is estimated to be more prevalent in male prison inmates than in nonincarcerated males; there may be 3000-4000 male inmates with GD in prisons in the United States. An increasing number of U.S. prison systems now offer gender dysphoric inmates diagnostic evaluation, psychotherapy, cross-sex hormone therapy, and opportunities, albeit limited, to enact their preferred gender role. Sex reassignment surgery (SRS), however, has not been offered to inmates except in response to litigation. In the first case of its kind, the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation recently agreed to provide SRS to an inmate and developed policy guidelines for its future provision. In other recent cases, U.S. courts have ruled that male inmates with GD are entitled to SRS when it is medically necessary. Although these decisions may facilitate the provision of SRS to inmates in the future, many U.S. prison systems will probably remain reluctant to offer SRS unless legally compelled to do so. In this review, we address the medical necessity of SRS for male inmates with GD. We also discuss eligibility criteria and the practical considerations involved in providing SRS to inmates. We conclude by offering recommendations for physicians, mental health professionals, and prison administrators, designed to facilitate provision of SRS to inmates with GD in a manner that provides humane treatment, maximizes the likelihood of successful outcomes, minimizes risk of regret, and generates data that can help inform future decisions.

  7. Male and female juveniles arrested for murder: a comprehensive analysis of U.S. data by offender gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heide, Kathleen M; Roe-Sepowitz, Dominique; Solomon, Eldra P; Chan, Heng Choon Oliver

    2012-05-01

    Murders committed by juveniles remain a serious concern in the United States. Most studies on juvenile homicide offenders (JHOs) have used small samples and have concentrated on male offenders. As a result, little is known about female JHOs and how they differ from their male counterparts on a national level. This study utilized the Supplementary Homicide Report (SHR) database to examine more than 40,000 murders committed by male and female juvenile offenders from 1976 to 2005. This research effort, the most expansive to date, replicated previous findings with respect to gender differences using bivariate and multivariate analyses. As predicted, six variables used to test eight hypotheses with respect to male and female JHOs in single-victim incidents were significant (victim age, victim-offender relationship, murder weapon, offender count, victim gender, and homicide circumstance). Regression analysis revealed that all variables remained significant when entered into the model. This article concludes with a discussion of our findings and directions for future research.

  8. Neural Correlates of Psychosis and Gender Dysphoria in an Adult Male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Karine; Fontanari, Anna Martha Vaitses; Mueller, Andressa; Soll, Bianca; da Silva, Dhiordan Cardoso; Salvador, Jaqueline; Zucker, Kenneth J; Schneider, Maiko Abel; Lobato, Maria Inês Rodrigues

    2016-04-01

    Gender dysphoria (GD) (DSM-5) or transsexualism (ICD-10) refers to the marked incongruity between the experience of one's gender and the sex at birth. In this case report, we describe the use of LSD as a triggering factor of confusion in the gender identity of a 39-year-old male patient, with symptoms of psychosis and 25 years of substance abuse, who sought psychiatric care with the desire to undergo sex reassignment surgery. The symptoms of GD/psychosis were resolved by two therapeutic measures: withdrawal of psychoactive substances and use of a low-dose antipsychotic. We discuss the hypothesis that the superior parietal cortical area may be an important locus for body image and that symptoms of GD may be related to variations underlying this brain region. Finally, this case report shows that some presentations of GD can be created by life experience in individuals who have underlying mental or, synonymously, neurophysiological abnormalities.

  9. Gender, Reflexivity, and Positionality in Male Research in One's Own Community With Filipino Seafarers' Wives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderick G. Galam

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects on the epistemological, methodological, and ethical issues related to undertaking a cross-gender research (male researcher with female participants in one's own community. It also examines issues of analysis and representation germane to taking a gendered perspective in this study of the lives and experiences of left-behind women. The article frames the discussion of these issues within four interrelated sites or levels of reflexivity: theoretical reflexivity, gender and fieldwork relations, positionality and the insider/outsider dynamic, and representation. The conclusion reflects on the ethical obligation a researcher conducting a study in one's own community bears and the consequences of this ethical burden on representation. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1503139

  10. Thinking about gender types: cognitive organization of female and male types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonk, Roos; Ashmore, Richard D

    2003-06-01

    We examined the content and dimensional structure of a large and representative sample of gender types. In Study 1, using an open-ended procedure, participants generated 306 different labels for female types (e.g. housewife, feminist, femme fatale, secretary, slob) and 310 for male types (e.g. workaholic, family man, sissy, womanizer, labourer). In Study 2A, a multidimensional configuration of 229 of these male and female types was derived from a free sorting task among a new set of participants. In Study 2B, a subset of types was judged on several dimensions of meaning, which were then fitted into the configuration of types. The most important dimensions in describing the structure of gender types were: young-old, masculine-feminine and traditional-modern. The masculine-feminine dimension showed that the male and female types were largely separated from each other; within each gender category, the types were ordered by their position on the masculine-feminine dimension. Several other aspects of current thinking about men and women are discussed.

  11. In vivo models for male reproductive toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyl, Rochelle W

    2002-05-01

    In Vivo Models for Male Reproductive Toxicology (Rochelle W. Tyl, Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina). Assessment of male reproductive function requires a specific set of evaluations of the various steps in successful mating from sperm production to copulation to fertilization to production of a viable litter. This unit outlines the measurements that are standard for determining the effects of treatment with toxicant on the reproductive capacity of male mice and rats.

  12. Degrees of Intersectionality: Male Rap Artists in Sweden Negotiating Class, Race and Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalle Berggren

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available “Intersectionality” has become a highly influential concept in gender research over the last 25 years. Debates have focused on differences and power asymmetries between women, in terms of race but also addressing class, age, sexuality, ability and nation. However, intersectional paradigms have been used to a much lesser extent in gender studies on men. This article seeks to contribute to an emerging discussion about intersectionality and masculinity by analyzing rap lyrics in Swe-dish songs. The data consists of a broad sample of rap lyrics by male artists 1991-2011, which is analyzed through poststructuralist discourse analysis and queer phenomenology. The analysis shows how classed discourses can be described in terms of orientation and flow, how racialization is articulated in terms of place, and the role of normative notions of gender and sexuality in anti-racist discourses. It is argued that this interconnectedness – class being related to race, which in turn is profoundly gendered – is neither well captured by the prevailing notion of “masculinities” in gender studies on men, nor by the “constitution” vs. “addition” dichotomy in intersectionality debates. Instead, it is suggested that degrees of in-tersectionality might be a more fruitful way of theorizing intersectionality in rela-tion to men.

  13. Model Sinergitas Pengarusutamaan Gender dalam Mewujudkan Keadilan dan Kesetaraan Pendidikan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nursini Tawakkal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to: (1 to analyze the causes of the gender gap in education, (2 to analyze the extent to which respondents’ knowledge about gender and gender responsive education, (3 to build model gender mainstreaming to achieve gender justice and equality in education. The data used are primary and secondary data which were analyzed descriptively. Locations of the study are the village Pabiringa and Biringkassi in Jeneponto and Tompobalang in Gowa, South Sulawesi Province The result showed that: (1 the causes the gender gap in education is a factor of participation, access, control, and culture, (2 understanding the respondents about gender and gender-minded education is still low, (3 the model was developed to achieve gender justice and equality in education is a model institutional strengthening of gender mainstreaming based-synergy between teachers, Parents, and the Department of Education

  14. Gender-Associated Genomic Differences in Colorectal Cancer: Clinical Insight from Feminization of Male Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rola H. Ali

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Gender-related differences in colorectal cancer (CRC are not fully understood. Recent studies have shown that CRC arising in females are significantly associated with CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP-high. Using array comparative genomic hybridization, we analyzed a cohort of 116 CRCs (57 males, 59 females for chromosomal copy number aberrations (CNA and found that CRC in females had significantly higher numbers of gains involving chromosome arms 1q21.2–q21.3, 4q13.2, 6p21.1 and 16p11.2 and copy number losses of chromosome arm 11q25 compared to males. Interestingly, a subset of male CRCs (46% exhibited a "feminization" phenomenon in the form of gains of X chromosomes (or an arm of X and/or losses of the Y chromosome. Feminization of cancer cells was significantly associated with microsatellite-stable CRCs (p-value 0.003 and wild-type BRAF gene status (p-value 0.009. No significant association with other clinicopathological parameters was identified including disease-free survival. In summary, our data show that some CNAs in CRC may be gender specific and that male cancers characterized by feminization may constitute a specific subset of CRCs that warrants further investigation.

  15. Gender-associated genomic differences in colorectal cancer: clinical insight from feminization of male cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Rola H; Marafie, Makia J; Bitar, Milad S; Al-Dousari, Fahad; Ismael, Samar; Bin Haider, Hussain; Al-Ali, Waleed; Jacob, Sindhu P; Al-Mulla, Fahd

    2014-09-29

    Gender-related differences in colorectal cancer (CRC) are not fully understood. Recent studies have shown that CRC arising in females are significantly associated with CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP-high). Using array comparative genomic hybridization, we analyzed a cohort of 116 CRCs (57 males, 59 females) for chromosomal copy number aberrations (CNA) and found that CRC in females had significantly higher numbers of gains involving chromosome arms 1q21.2-q21.3, 4q13.2, 6p21.1 and 16p11.2 and copy number losses of chromosome arm 11q25 compared to males. Interestingly, a subset of male CRCs (46%) exhibited a "feminization" phenomenon in the form of gains of X chromosomes (or an arm of X) and/or losses of the Y chromosome. Feminization of cancer cells was significantly associated with microsatellite-stable CRCs (p-value 0.003) and wild-type BRAF gene status (p-value 0.009). No significant association with other clinicopathological parameters was identified including disease-free survival. In summary, our data show that some CNAs in CRC may be gender specific and that male cancers characterized by feminization may constitute a specific subset of CRCs that warrants further investigation.

  16. Male perpetration of teen dating violence: associations with neighborhood violence involvement, gender attitudes, and perceived peer and neighborhood norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Elizabeth; Silverman, Jay G; Raj, Anita; Decker, Michele R; Miller, Elizabeth

    2011-04-01

    This study aims to examine the link between male perpetration of teen dating violence (TDV) and neighborhood violence, as well as associations with gender attitudes and perceived peer and neighborhood norms related to violence among a sample of urban adolescent boys. Participants of this cross-sectional study (N = 275) were between the ages of 14 and 20 years and recruited from urban community health centers. Crude and adjusted logistic and linear regression models were used to examine TDV perpetration in relation to (a) neighborhood violence involvement, (b) perceptions of peer violence, (c) perceptions of neighborhood violence, and (d) gender attitudes. Slightly more than one in four (28%) boys reported at least one form of TDV perpetration; among boys who have ever had sex, almost half (45%) reported at least one form of TDV perpetration. In logistic and linear regression models adjusted for demographics, boys who reported TDV perpetration were more likely to report involvement in neighborhood violence (odds ratio (OR) = 3.1; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.7-5.5), beliefs that their friends have perpetrated TDV (OR = 2.7; 95%CI = 1.4-5.1), perceptions of violent activity within their neighborhood (OR = 3.0; 95%CI = 1.4-6.3), and greater support of traditional gender norms (β = 3.2, p = 0.002). The findings suggest that efforts are needed to address boys' behaviors related to the perpetration of multiple forms of violence and require explicit efforts to reduce perceived norms of violence perpetration as well as problematic gender attitudes (e.g., increasing support for gender equity) across boys' life contexts.

  17. The effect of gender equality on happiness: Statistical modeling and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Ge

    2017-02-01

    In this article, the researcher presents linear regression models that describe how five gender-equality indexes affect individuals' perceptions of well-being and happiness, controlling for their economic income and weighed by the population of the countries that contribute to the models. The logical premise of this study is that gender equality is not only favorable for women, but it is also conducive to fostering the greatest level of happiness for all people. The researcher believes that most findings confirmed this assumption and the opinion of John Stuart Mill regarding gender equality, while two exceptions are explained by social quality theory and the male breadwinner model.

  18. A Masculine Perspective of Gendered Topics in the Research Literature on Males and Females with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nathan J.; Parmenter, Trevor R.; Stancliffe, Roger J.; Shuttleworth, Russell P.; Parker, Desrae

    2010-01-01

    Background: A focus on male social pathologies may have evolved within parts of the intellectual disability research literature. This article explores this notion and makes some connections between mainstream gender theory about hegemonic masculinity and the current gendered discourse in intellectual disability research. Method: We conducted a…

  19. Mouse models in male fertility research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duangporn Jamsai; Moira K O'Bryan

    2011-01-01

    Limited knowledge of the genetic causes of male infertility has resulted in few treatment and targeted therapeutic options.Although the ideal approach to identify infertility causing mutations is to conduct studies in the human population,this approach has progressed slowly due to the limitations described herein.Given the complexity of male fertility,the entire process cannot be modeled in vitro.As such,animal models,in particular mouse models,provide a valuable alternative for gene identification and experimentation.Since the introduction of molecular biology and recent advances in animal model production,there has been a substantial acceleration in the identification and characterization of genes associated with many diseases,including infertility.Three major types of mouse models are commonly used in biomedical research,including knockout/knockin/gene-trapped,transgenic and chemical-induced point mutant mice.Using these mouse models,over 400 genes essential for male fertility have been revealed.It has,however,been estimated that thousands of genes are involved in the regulation of the complex process of male fertility,as many such genes remain to be characterized.The current review is by no means a comprehensive list of these mouse models,rather it contains examples of how mouse models have advanced our knowledge of post-natal germ cell development and male fertility regulation.

  20. [Gender-inclusive care of victims of violence : The model project "Gender Gewaltkonzept" at the University Hospital Aachen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evler, A; Scheller, M; Wagels, L; Bergs, R; Clemens, B; Kohn, N; Pütz, A; Voss, B; Schneider, F; Habel, U

    2016-07-01

    Violence is a topic of great social relevance, frequently causing tremendous health consequences for those affected and high consequential costs for health care and the national economy. The established consulting and assistance services are usually restricted to offers for ambulant supply, mainly from private agencies or societies. As a result, there is no identification and care for patients who have experienced violence and who are treated in hospital. Another deficiency is the identification and care of male victims of violence. Despite wide-ranging offers of assistance, only very few gender-specific consulting and support services have been available to date.Therefore, the model project "Gender Gewaltkonzept" was initiated at Aachen University Hospital to assess the prevalence of violence and the potential consequences of the violence experienced on the patients' health. In addition, we investigated whether males and females are in need of different supply requirements.Based on the results of the project "Gender Gewaltkonzept" so far, and on prevalence estimates proving that there is a high rate of violent experiences in both males and females, this overview is aimed at presenting the aid and protection concepts available for victims of violence, in addition to the existing deficiencies of the care system. We present approaches to resolving these deficiencies to be able to establish all-encompassing gender-appropriate support for victims of violence.

  1. THE CHALLENGES FACED BY THE MALE GENDER EXECUTIVE SECRETARY PROFESSIONAL IN CONTEMPORARY ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conceição de Maria Pinheiro Barros

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Professional Executive Secretary has been occupying space increasingly evident in the labor market and organizational structure, both because of market demand, the needs of dynamism in the modern administration that demonstrates the growth of the reference to it. It has sought in his field vision and attitude of performance excellence with fulfilling its role with its own characteristics. This study aims to investigate the general challenges for the Executive Secretariat professional male in contemporary organizations. We defined the following objectives: to analyze the insertion of the male in the profession of Executive Secretary and identify the challenges faced by the Executive Secretary of the males to their development and professional growth. To this end, we performed a literature search, followed by a field survey. It is a qualitative research because data collected, and then make a qualitative analysis of results from selected literature. The survey was conducted in organizations from the public and private, state of Ceará. The sample was represented by professional male graduates in the executive secretariat at the Federal University of Ceará and working in the area. After analyzing the data it was concluded that despite the obstacles to be overcome, the tendency is that these opportunities work for the professional male grow, requiring that all actors in the field to seek gender equity in the profession.

  2. Constructing Gender: Contradictions in the Life of a Male Elementary Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fordice, Debrah J.; Nielsen, Lynn E.

    2013-01-01

    Drawing upon observations, written communications, and monthly interviews spanning the participant's first year of teaching, this case study reveals contradictions men face as elementary teachers. Entering teaching with a "male" advantage, Brad was isolated within a "female" profession. Becoming the male role model he always…

  3. [Perceiving gender or profession: the practical experience of male nursing students in the obstetrics and gynecology ward].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ya-Fen; Yang, Yu-O; Tu, Chia-Ling

    2013-06-01

    The impact of general gender stereotypes on nursing is severe and influential, especially with regard to male nursing students working in obstetrics and gynecology wards. This study examined the experience of male nursing students in obstetrics and gynecology wards. We used a phenomenological qualitative research approach and a sample of 10 male nursing students currently studying at a nursing college in central Taiwan. All participants had obstetrics and gynecology ward experience. Individual interviews were transcribed into the procedural record. Colaizzi content analysis analyzed and categorized research data. Based on participants practical experiences in the obstetrics and gynecology ward, the main stages of participants professional development through their internship experience included: (1) Unbalanced self-role recognition; (2) being defined by the gender framework (gender stereotypes); (3) the difference between male doctor and male nurse; (4) learning appropriate communication techniques; (5) mutual and empathetic understanding of the female psychology during childbirth; (6) gaining sources for positive feedback; (7) releasing the shackles of gender and gaining full insight into and comprehension of nursing functions; and (8) given the opportunity to learn. Through ongoing examination and learning, participant internships in the obstetrics and gynecology wards were significant and essential learning experiences that validated their necessity. Nursing schools and internship institutions alike must realize the importance of gender-equality education to the nursing profession. Medical institutions are encouraged to offer equal learning opportunities to male and female nursing students and provide targeted assistance to males to help them master clinical nursing care practices in the obstetrics and gynecology department.

  4. Examining the Relationship between Male Rape Myth Acceptance, Female Rape Myth Acceptance, Victim Blame, Homophobia, Gender Roles, and Ambivalent Sexism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Michelle; Gilston, Jennifer; Rogers, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between male rape myth acceptance, female rape myth acceptance, attitudes toward gay men, a series of gender role and sexism measures, victim blame and assault severity were investigated. It was predicted that men would display more negative, stereotypical attitudes than women and that male rape myth endorsement would be related…

  5. Examining the Relationship between Male Rape Myth Acceptance, Female Rape Myth Acceptance, Victim Blame, Homophobia, Gender Roles, and Ambivalent Sexism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Michelle; Gilston, Jennifer; Rogers, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between male rape myth acceptance, female rape myth acceptance, attitudes toward gay men, a series of gender role and sexism measures, victim blame and assault severity were investigated. It was predicted that men would display more negative, stereotypical attitudes than women and that male rape myth endorsement would be related…

  6. Measurement of lower canine clinical crown index in male and female for gender identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Dewi Handayani

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to acquire the value index of clinical crown lower jaw canine male and female, and to prove whether the index of male's canine is bigger than female's. The samples of the research was the students of Faculty of Dentistry Universitas Padjadjaran class of 1998 until 2001 by using proportional random sampling method according to the criteria and also adjust with the numbers of male and female composition in per class. The characteristic of the research was analytical descriptive with survey technique. The result of t test statistic measurement was that index of clinical crown tower jaw canine of mate was 1.50 and female was 1.21, by using reliance 95%. The inference of the research showed that the index of clinical crown lower jaw canine of male was significantly bigger than female's. The result of the research can be used as auxiliary data from the techniques to process gender identification in odontology forensic.

  7. Gender representation on gender-targeted television channels: A comparison of female- and male-targeted TV channels in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daalmans, S.; Kleemans, M.; Sadza, A.J.C.

    2017-01-01

    The current study investigated the differences in the representation of gender on male- and female-targeted channels with regard to recognition (i.e., the actual presence of men and women) and respect (i.e., the nature of that representation or portrayal). To this end, the presence of men and women

  8. Behavioural and cognitive sex/gender differences in autism spectrum condition and typically developing males and females

    OpenAIRE

    Hull, L; Mandy, W; Petrides, K.

    2016-01-01

    Studies assessing sex/gender differences in autism spectrum conditions often fail to include typically developing control groups. It is, therefore, unclear whether observed sex/gender differences reflect those found in the general population or are particular to autism spectrum conditions. A systematic search identified articles comparing behavioural and cognitive characteristics in males and females with and without an autism spectrum condition diagnosis. A total of 13 studies were included ...

  9. Male perpetrators, the gender symmetry debate, and the rejection-abuse cycle: implications for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jac

    2012-07-01

    This review article examined the gender symmetry debate in light of recent research relating to the feminist and family research perspectives on intimate partner violence, providing a context for rethinking perpetrator programs. The concept of coercive control is considered as an explanatory factor in an attempt to integrate the feminist and family research perspectives. The limited effectiveness of perpetrator programs is examined. Research highlighting potential factors that could improve the effectiveness of perpetrator programs is introduced, followed by a discussion of the rejection-abuse cycle, one attempt to incorporate current research into a more inclusive program. The rejection-abuse cycle identifies a pattern of perpetrator behavior, which links rejection, threat to self, defense against threat, and abuse. Finally, suggestions for changing perpetrator programs are elaborated, incorporating past research, which would make them appropriate for both male and female perpetrators. These implications are contextualized within a meta-theory to provide greater clarity for the development of future perpetrator programs.

  10. Prolonged anorexia nervosa associated with female-to-male gender dysphoria: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Şenol; Poyraz, Cana Aksoy; Duran, Alaattin

    2015-08-01

    Transsexual (TS) individuals seem to display an increased risk in having eating disorders. Several case reports describe TS individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN). In order to understand better the impact of gender dysphoria (GD) and hormonal/surgical treatments on the occurrence and course of eating disorders in TS patients long term follow-up studies are needed. We present here a 41-year-old female-to-male TS patient suffering from AN. History revealed that pathological eating habits could strongly be associated with her GD. Hormonal and surgical treatments resulted in substantial improvement in the given eating disorder. The impact of GD on the development and treatment of eating disorder is discussed in this report. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. The impact of male migration from Morocco to Europe on women: a gender approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Sadiqi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a gender approach to the impact of male migrationfrom Morocco to Europe on women left behind. The pertinence of the topic stems from the fact that very few studies have been conducted on the subject. It is believed that such studies will help in the understanding of the the phenomenon of migration and help to find solutions for some of the problems it poses. More and more Moroccan women suffer as a result of the migration of their husbands, sons,fathers, etc. Their suffering is not only due to separation from the loved ones but also to the dire economic and social conditions that a heavily patriarchal context does not help to alleviate.

  12. Ageing, deep vein thrombosis and male gender predict poor outcome after acute Achilles tendon rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arverud, E Domeij-; Anundsson, P; Hardell, E; Barreng, G; Edman, G; Latifi, A; Labruto, F; Ackermann, P W

    2016-12-01

    Patients with an acute Achilles tendon rupture (ATR) take a long time to heal, have a high incidence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and widely variable functional outcomes. This variation in outcome may be explained by a lack of knowledge of adverse factors, and a subsequent shortage of appropriate interventions. A total of 111 patients (95 men, 16 women; mean age 40.3, standard deviation 8.4) with an acute total ATR were prospectively assessed. At one year post-operatively a uniform outcome score, Achilles Combined Outcome Score (ACOS), was obtained by combining three validated, independent, outcome measures: Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score, heel-rise height test, and limb symmetry heel-rise height. Predictors of ACOS included treatment; gender; age; smoking; body mass index; time to surgery; physical activity level pre- and post-injury; symptoms; quality of life and incidence of DVT. There were three independent variables that correlated significantly with the dichotomised outcome score (ACOS), while there was no correlation with other factors. An age of less than 40 years old was the strongest independent predictor of a good outcome one year after ATR (odds ratio (OR) 0.20, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.08 to 0.51), followed by female gender (OR) 4.18, 95% CI 1.01 to 17.24). Notably, patients who did not have a DVT while immobilised post-operatively had a better outcome (OR 0.31, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.80). Over the age of 40 years, male gender and having a DVT while immobilised are independent negative predictors of outcome in patients with an acute ATR. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B:1635-41. ©2016 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  13. Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauer, Kit

    1996-01-01

    This publication focuses on the theme "Gender." Articles include: (1) "Sex! Violence! Death! Art Education for Boys" (Riita Vira; Finland); (2) "Pedagogy for a Gender Sensitive Art Practice" (Rita Irwin; Canada); (3) "Women's Conscientiousness of Gender in Art and Art Education in Brazil" (Ana Mae Barbosa; Brazil); (4) "Gender Issues in United…

  14. The Gender-Linked Language Effect: An Empirical Test of a General Process Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulac, Anthony; Giles, Howard; Bradac, James J.; Palomares, Nicholas A.

    2013-01-01

    The gender-linked language effect (GLLE) is a phenomenon in which transcripts of female communicators are rated higher on Socio-Intellectual Status and Aesthetic Quality and male communicators are rated higher on Dynamism. This study proposed and tested a new general process model explanation for the GLLE, a central mediating element of which…

  15. Emotional Intelligence and Negative Feelings: A Gender Specific Moderated Mediation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakus, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to clarify the effect of emotional intelligence (EI) on negative feelings (stress, anxiety, burnout and depression) in a gender specific model. Four hundred and twenty-five primary school teachers (326 males, 99 females) completed the measures of EI, stress, anxiety, burnout and depression. The multi-group analysis was performed…

  16. Gender Representation on Gender-Targeted Television Channels: A Comparison of Female- and Male-Targeted TV Channels in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daalmans, Serena; Kleemans, Mariska; Sadza, Anne

    2017-01-01

    The current study investigated the differences in the representation of gender on male- and female-targeted channels with regard to recognition (i.e., the actual presence of men and women) and respect (i.e., the nature of that representation or portrayal). To this end, the presence of men and women on two female- and two male-targeted Dutch channels (N = 115 programs, N = 1091 persons) were compared via content analysis. The expectation that men's channels would portray a less equal and more traditional image of gender than women's channels was generally supported by the results. Regardless of genre as well as country of origin of the program, women were underrepresented on men's channels, while gender distribution on women's channels was more equal. The representation of women in terms of age and occupation was more stereotypical on men's channels than on women's channels, whereas men were represented in more contra-stereotypical ways (e.g., performing household tasks) on women's channels. Since television viewing contributes to the learning and maintenance of stereotyped perceptions, the results imply that it is important to strengthen viewers' defenses against the effects of gender stereotyping when watching gendered television channels, for instance through media literacy programs in schools.

  17. A guide for the estimation of gender and sexual orientation effects in dyadic data: an actor-partner interdependence model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Tessa V; Popp, Danielle; Kenny, David A

    2008-03-01

    The study of gender differences is a pervasive topic in relationship science. However, there are several neglected issues in this area that require special care and attention. First, there is not just one gender effect but rather three gender effects: gender of the respondent, gender of the partner, and the gender of respondent by gender of the partner interaction. To separate these three effects, the dyadic research design should ideally have three different types of dyads: male-female, male-male, and female-female. Second, the analysis of gender differences in relational studies could benefit from the application of recent advances in the analysis of dyadic data, most notably the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model. Third, relationship researchers need to consider the confounding, mediating, and moderating effects of demographic variables. We use the American Couples (Blumstein & Schwartz, 1983) data set to illustrate these points.

  18. Gender differences and the definition of success: male and female veterinary students' career and work performance expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Lori R; McConnell, Sherry L; Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina

    2004-01-01

    This article addresses the challenges that gender performance expectations create within the veterinary profession. An investigation of veterinary students' perceptions of the essential characteristics that define successful veterinarians and veterinary students, and the gender differences within these definitions, is described. Because previous research supports the premise that the standards required for success differ for males and females, it is likely that male and female veterinary students possess different career expectations and definitions of career success. The ramifications of these differences are explored, and proposed strategies to address this issue, in the form of student support services, are discussed.

  19. Mathematics: A Female, Male or Gender-Neutral Domain? A Study of Attitudes among Students at Secondary Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandell, Gerd; Staberg, Else-Marie

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the current study is to investigate whether Swedish secondary school students perceive mathematics as a female, male or gender-neutral domain. A sample of 1300 students in two age groups, 15- and 17- years, answered a questionnaire and about 50 students participated in interviews. The main part of the inquiry form consists of "Who and…

  20. A theoretical model for analysing gender bias in medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansson Eva E

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During the last decades research has reported unmotivated differences in the treatment of women and men in various areas of clinical and academic medicine. There is an ongoing discussion on how to avoid such gender bias. We developed a three-step-theoretical model to understand how gender bias in medicine can occur and be understood. In this paper we present the model and discuss its usefulness in the efforts to avoid gender bias. In the model gender bias is analysed in relation to assumptions concerning difference/sameness and equity/inequity between women and men. Our model illustrates that gender bias in medicine can arise from assuming sameness and/or equity between women and men when there are genuine differences to consider in biology and disease, as well as in life conditions and experiences. However, gender bias can also arise from assuming differences when there are none, when and if dichotomous stereotypes about women and men are understood as valid. This conceptual thinking can be useful for discussing and avoiding gender bias in clinical work, medical education, career opportunities and documents such as research programs and health care policies. Too meet the various forms of gender bias, different facts and measures are needed. Knowledge about biological differences between women and men will not reduce bias caused by gendered stereotypes or by unawareness of health problems and discrimination associated with gender inequity. Such bias reflects unawareness of gendered attitudes and will not change by facts only. We suggest consciousness-rising activities and continuous reflections on gender attitudes among students, teachers, researchers and decision-makers.

  1. Sex typing and the social perception of gender stereotypic and nonstereotypic behavior: the uniqueness of feminine males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobel, T E

    1994-02-01

    The social perception of masculine, feminine, androgynous and undifferentiated males was examined. Preadolescent boys (n = 251) were shown a video film portraying a male target playing either a masculine game with boys, a feminine game with girls, a neutral game with boys, or a neutral game with girls and were required to make a variety of inferences about him. All 4 groups made similar cognitive stereotypic inferences that varied in accordance with the gender stereotypic nature of the target's behavior. However, for the affective judgments (e.g., liking the target and wanting to engage in activities with him), the feminine males showed a pattern of inferences that was not only different from other sex role orientations, but often the reverse. The implications of these results for S. L. Bem's gender schema theory (1981) and H. Markus's self schema theory (H. Markus, M. Crane, S. L. Bernstein, & M. Siladi, 1982) are discussed.

  2. Gender Inequality and Role-Strained among Male Nursing Students in Selected Nursing Institution, Lagos, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folami, Florence F.

    2017-01-01

    Gender discrimination remains problem in the world as a whole and unfortunately, nursing profession is not immune to this problem. Gender discrimination is rejection or restriction made on the basis of socially constructed gender roles which prevents a person from relishing full human rights. Role strain has been defined as when an individual is…

  3. Gender-dependence of bone structure and properties in adult osteogenesis imperfecta murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xiaomei; Carleton, Stephanie M; Kettle, Arin D; Melander, Jennifer; Phillips, Charlotte L; Wang, Yong

    2013-06-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a dominant skeletal disorder characterized by bone fragility and deformities. Though the oim mouse model has been the most widely studied of the OI models, it has only recently been suggested to exhibit gender-dependent differences in bone mineralization. To characterize the impact of gender on the morphometry/ultra-structure, mechanical properties, and biochemical composition of oim bone on the congenic C57BL/J6 background, 4-month-old oim/oim, +/oim, and wild-type (wt) female and male tibiae were evaluated using micro-computed tomography, three-point bending, and Raman spectroscopy. Dramatic gender differences were evident in both cortical and trabecular bone morphological and geometric parameters. Male mice had inherently more bone and increased moment of inertia than genotype-matched female counterparts with corresponding increases in bone biomechanical strength. The primary influence of gender was structure/geometry in bone growth and mechanical properties, whereas the mineral/matrix composition and hydroxyproline content of bone were influenced primarily by the oim collagen mutation. This study provides evidence of the importance of gender in the evaluation and interpretation of potential therapeutic strategies when using mouse models of OI.

  4. Queering Constructs: Proposing a Dynamic Gender and Sexuality Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourian, T. J.

    2015-01-01

    Higher education educators commonly understand social identities, including gender, to be fluid and dynamic. Lev's (2004) model of four components of sexual identity is commonly used to demonstrate the fluidity of sex, gender, and sexuality for individuals, but it does little to address the fixedness of those constructs. Through a multipronged…

  5. Queering Constructs: Proposing a Dynamic Gender and Sexuality Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourian, T. J.

    2015-01-01

    Higher education educators commonly understand social identities, including gender, to be fluid and dynamic. Lev's (2004) model of four components of sexual identity is commonly used to demonstrate the fluidity of sex, gender, and sexuality for individuals, but it does little to address the fixedness of those constructs. Through a multipronged…

  6. Perspectives of Survivors on Military Suicide Decedents’ Life Stressors and Male Gender Role Stress using the Male Gender Role Stressor Inventory (MGRSI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    satisfaction has been correlated with MGRC (Campbell & Snow, 1992). MGRC has been negatively correlated with extraversion and agreeableness, two...men who endorse traditional gender perspectives prior to joining the service and (2) military training amplifies traditionally masculine attributes...having completed high school, 4.6% (n = 3) with a graduate school training or degree, and 1.5% (n = 1) missing information on education. Military. In

  7. Influence of gender constancy and social power on sex-linked modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussey, K; Bandura, A

    1984-12-01

    Competing predictions derived from cognitive-developmental theory and social learning theory concerning sex-linked modeling were tested. In cognitive-developmental theory, gender constancy is considered a necessary prerequisite for the emulation of same-sex models, whereas according to social learning theory, sex-role development is promoted through a vast system of social influences with modeling serving as a major conveyor of sex role information. In accord with social learning theory, even children at a lower level of gender conception emulated same-sex models in preference to opposite-sex ones. Level of gender constancy was associated with higher emulation of both male and female models rather than operating as a selective determinant of modeling. This finding corroborates modeling as a basic mechanism in the sex-typing process. In a second experiment we explored the limits of same-sex modeling by pitting social power against the force of collective modeling of different patterns of behavior by male and female models. Social power over activities and rewarding resources produced cross-sex modeling in boys, but not in girls. This unexpected pattern of cross-sex modeling is explained by the differential sex-typing pressures that exist for boys and girls and socialization experiences that heighten the attractiveness of social power for boys.

  8. Differences in wage rates for males and females in the health sector: a consideration of unpaid overtime to decompose the gender wage gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vecchio Nerina

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Australia a persistent and sizable gender wage gap exists. In recent years this gap has been steadily widening. The negative impact of gender wage differentials is the disincentive to work more hours. This implies a substantial cost on the Australian health sector. This study aimed to identify the magnitude of gender wage differentials within the health sector. The investigation accounts for unpaid overtime. Given the limited availability of information, little empirical evidence exists that accounts for unpaid overtime. Methods Information was collected from a sample of 10,066 Australian full-time employees within the health sector. Initially, ordinary least-squares regression was used to identify the gender wage gap when unpaid overtime was included and then excluded from the model. The sample was also stratified by gender and then by occupation to allow for comparisons. Later the Blinder–Oaxaca decomposition method was employed to identify and quantify the contribution of individual endowments to wage differentials between males and females. Results The analyses of data revealed a gender wage gap that varied across occupations. The inclusion of unpaid overtime in the analysis led to a slight reduction in the wage differential. The results showed an adjusted wage gap of 16.7%. Conclusions Unpaid overtime made a significant but small contribution to wage differentials. Being female remained the major contributing factor to the wage gap. Given that wage differentials provide a disincentive to work more hours, serious attempts to deal with the skilled labour shortage in the health sector need to address the gender wage gap.

  9. Differences in wage rates for males and females in the health sector: a consideration of unpaid overtime to decompose the gender wage gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchio, Nerina; Scuffham, Paul A; Hilton, Michael F; Whiteford, Harvey A

    2013-02-25

    In Australia a persistent and sizable gender wage gap exists. In recent years this gap has been steadily widening. The negative impact of gender wage differentials is the disincentive to work more hours. This implies a substantial cost on the Australian health sector. This study aimed to identify the magnitude of gender wage differentials within the health sector. The investigation accounts for unpaid overtime. Given the limited availability of information, little empirical evidence exists that accounts for unpaid overtime. Information was collected from a sample of 10,066 Australian full-time employees within the health sector. Initially, ordinary least-squares regression was used to identify the gender wage gap when unpaid overtime was included and then excluded from the model. The sample was also stratified by gender and then by occupation to allow for comparisons. Later the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition method was employed to identify and quantify the contribution of individual endowments to wage differentials between males and females. The analyses of data revealed a gender wage gap that varied across occupations. The inclusion of unpaid overtime in the analysis led to a slight reduction in the wage differential. The results showed an adjusted wage gap of 16.7%. Unpaid overtime made a significant but small contribution to wage differentials. Being female remained the major contributing factor to the wage gap. Given that wage differentials provide a disincentive to work more hours, serious attempts to deal with the skilled labour shortage in the health sector need to address the gender wage gap.

  10. Unequal on top: Gender profiling and the income gap among high earner male and female professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merluzzi, Jennifer; Dobrev, Stanislav D

    2015-09-01

    We develop a comprehensive, multi-level model of income inequality between high earner men and women during the early career stages. We argue that young women are routinely subjected to "gender profiling" by employers-women's potential contribution to the organization is interpreted through the lens of social stereotypes and cultural norms that attribute to them weaker labor market commitment than men. We investigate two specific mechanisms that arise from this profiling and lead to income inequality: First, women have diminished access to resources and advancement opportunities within the firm which results in lower returns to tenure for women than for men. Second, external mobility is greatly beneficial for men but much less so for women because it reinforces the image of weak commitment. Salary regressions of early career history data of young MBA alumni of a prestigious U.S. business school accord with our conjectures.

  11. A Model for Assessing the Gender Aspect in Economic Policy

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    Ona Rakauskienė

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research is to develop a conceptual model for assessing the impact of the gender aspect on economic policy at macro– and microeconomic levels. The research methodology is based on analysing scientific approaches to the gender aspect in economics and gender–responsive budgeting as well as determining the impact of the gender aspect on GDP, foreign trade, the state budget and the labour market. First, the major findings encompass the main idea of a conceptual model proposing that a socio–economic picture of society can be accepted as completed only when, alongside public and private sectors, includes the care/reproductive sector that is dominated by women and creating added value in the form of educated human resources; second, macroeconomics is not neutral in terms of gender equality. Gender asymmetry is manifested not only at the level of microeconomics (labour market and business but also at the level of macroeconomics (GDP, the state budget and foreign trade, which has a negative impact on economic growth and state budget revenues. In this regard, economic decisions, according to the principles of gender equality and in order to achieve gender equality in economics, must be made, as the gender aspect has to be also implemented at the macroeconomic level.

  12. Gender change from female to male in classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Bahlburg, H F; Gruen, R S; New, M I; Bell, J J; Morishima, A; Shimshi, M; Bueno, Y; Vargas, I; Baker, S W

    1996-12-01

    The psychoendocrinology of the development of normal gender identity and its variations is poorly understood. Studies of gender development in individuals born with endocrinologically well-characterized intersex conditions are heuristically valuable for the disaggregation of factors that are acting in concert during normal development. Four 46,XX individuals with classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) and atypical gender identity entered a comprehensive research protocol including systematic interviews and self-report inventories on gender role behavior and identity, sexual history, and psychiatric history. Some of the data on gender variables were compared to data from 12 CAH women with the salt-wasting variant (CAH-SW) with female gender identity. The four patients (ages 28, 35, 38, and 30 years) represented three different subtypes of classical early-onset CAH: 21-OH deficiency, simple virilizing (CAH-SV); 21-OH deficiency, salt-wasting (CAH-SW); and 11-beta-OH deficiency. Their medical histories were characterized by delay beyond infancy or lack of surgical feminization of the external genitalia and progressive virilization with inconsistent or absent glucocorticoid replacement therapy. Although three patients had undergone one or more genital surgeries, all had retained at least some orgasmic capacity. In regard to childhood gender-role behavior, the four gender-change patients tended to be more masculine or less feminine than (behaviorally masculinized) CAH-SW controls. All patients were sexually attracted to females only. The process of gender change was gradual and extended well into adulthood. The most plausible factors contributing to cross-gender identity development in these patients appeared to be neither a particular genotype or endocrinotype nor a sex-typing bias on the part of the parents but a combination of a gender-atypical behavioral self-image, a gender-atypical body image, and the development of erotic attraction to women. Implications

  13. Gender inequity norms are associated with increased male-perpetrated rape and sexual risks for HIV infection in Botswana and Swaziland.

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    Kate Shannon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is limited empirical research on the underlying gender inequity norms shaping gender-based violence, power, and HIV risks in sub-Saharan Africa, or how risk pathways may differ for men and women. This study is among the first to directly evaluate the adherence to gender inequity norms and epidemiological relationships with violence and sexual risks for HIV infection. METHODS: Data were derived from population-based cross-sectional samples recruited through two-stage probability sampling from the 5 highest HIV prevalence districts in Botswana and all districts in Swaziland (2004-5. Based on evidence of established risk factors for HIV infection, we aimed 1 to estimate the mean adherence to gender inequity norms for both men and women; and 2 to model the independent effects of higher adherence to gender inequity norms on a male sexual dominance (male-controlled sexual decision making and rape (forced sex; b sexual risk practices (multiple/concurrent sex partners, transactional sex, unprotected sex with non-primary partner, intergenerational sex. FINDINGS: A total of 2049 individuals were included, n = 1255 from Botswana and n = 796 from Swaziland. In separate multivariate logistic regression analyses, higher gender inequity norms scores remained independently associated with increased male-controlled sexual decision making power (AORmen = 1.90, 95%CI:1.09-2.35; AORwomen = 2.05, 95%CI:1.32-2.49, perpetration of rape (AORmen = 2.19 95%CI:1.22-3.51, unprotected sex with a non-primary partner (AORmen = 1.90, 95%CI:1.14-2.31, intergenerational sex (AORwomen = 1.36, 95%CI:1.08-1.79, and multiple/concurrent sex partners (AORmen = 1.42, 95%CI:1.10-1.93. INTERPRETATION: These findings support the critical evidence-based need for gender-transformative HIV prevention efforts including legislation of women's rights in two of the most HIV affected countries in the world.

  14. The contribution of gender-role orientation, work factors and home stressors to psychological well-being and sickness absence in male- and female-dominated occupational groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Olga; Steptoe, Andrew

    2002-02-01

    The associations of work stress, types of work and gender-role orientation with psychological well-being and sickness absence were investigated in a questionnaire survey of 588 male and female nurses and 387 male and female accountants. We hypothesised that health might be impaired among women working in the male-dominated occupation (accountancy), and men in the female-dominated occupation (nursing), but that effects might be moderated by job strain (perceptions of high demand and low control), work and home hassles, and traditional male (instrumentality) and female (expressivity) psychological characteristics. Responses were analysed from 172 female and 61 male nurses, and from 53 female and 81 male commercial accountants. Female accountants were more likely than other groups to have high anxiety scores on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales, while male nurses had the highest rates of sickness absence. Male nurses and female accountants also reported more work-related hassles than did female nurses and male accountants. Men and women in the same occupation did not differ in job strain or job social support, but nurses reported greater job strain than accountants, due to higher ratings of demands and lower skill utilisation. After adjusting for age, sex, occupation, paid work hours and a measure of social desirability bias, risk of elevated anxiety was independently associated with higher job strain, lower job social support, more work hassles, more domestic responsibility, lower instrumentality and higher expressivity. The association between sex and anxiety was no longer significant after instrumentality had been entered into the regression model. Sickness absence of more than three days over the past 12 months was independently associated with higher job strain, more work hassles, lower instrumentality and higher expressivity. The results suggest that when men and women occupy jobs in which they are in the cultural and numerical minority, there may be

  15. Outcome and preferences in female-to-male subjects with gender dysphoria: Experience from Eastern India

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    Anirban Majumder

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Awareness of gender dysphoria (GD and its treatment is increasing. There is paucity of scientific data from India regarding the therapeutic options being used for alleviating GD, which includes psychotherapy, hormone, and surgical treatments. Aim: To study the therapeutic options including psychotherapy, hormone, and surgical treatments used for alleviating GD. Settings and Design: This is a retrospective study of treatment preferences and outcome in 18 female-to-male (FTM transgender subjects who presented to the endocrine clinic. Results: The mean follow-up was 1.6 years and only one subject was lost to follow-up after a single visit. All subjects desiring treatment had regular counseling and medical monitoring. All FTM subjects were cross-dressing. Seventeen (94.4% FTM subjects were receiving cross-sex hormone therapy, in the form of testosterone only (61.1% or gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH agonist in combination with testosterone (11.1% or medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA depot in combination with testosterone (22.2%. FTM subjects preferred testosterone or testosterone plus MPA; very few could afford GnRH therapy. Testosterone esters injection was preferred by most (72.2% subjects as it was most affordable while 22.2% chose 3 monthly injections of testosterone undecanoate for convenience and better symptomatic improvement, but it was more expensive. None preferred testosterone gels because of cost and availability concerns. About 33.3% of our subjects underwent mastectomy, 38.9% had hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and only one subject underwent phalloplasty. About 16.7% of FTM subjects presented with prior mastectomy depicting a high prevalence of unsupervised or poorly supervised surgeries not following protocol wise approach. Conclusion: Notwithstanding of advances in Standards of Care in the Western world, there is lack of awareness and acceptance in the FTM subjects, about proper and timely protocol

  16. Effects of age, gender, and gonadectomy on neurochemistry and behavior in animal models of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamás, Andrea; Lubics, Andrea; Lengvári, István; Reglodi, Dóra

    2006-04-01

    The effects of aging and gender on the neurochemistry of the dopaminergic system have been studied extensively; however, data on comparative behavioral consequences of lesions of the dopaminergic system in aging and in female animals are limited. This study presents experimental results on the behavioral and morphological outcome in young, aging, and gonadectomized male and female rats in the 6-OHDA model of Parkinson's disease. Both young and aging male animals were more susceptible to 6-OHDA than females: female rats had significantly less dopaminergic cell loss and showed a higher degree of behavioral recovery. Although the dopaminergic cell loss was only slightly more in the aging rats of the same sex, they showed more severe behavioral deficits in both gender groups. Ovariectomy did not significantly influence the dopaminergic cell loss, but behavioral recovery was worse when compared to non-ovariectomized females. In contrast, castrated males had significantly less dopaminergic cell loss than non-castrated males, but the behavioral recovery was not significantly better. The obtained results are discussed in light of the available literature on the age and gender differences in animals models of Parkinson's disease.

  17. Rethinking the Influence of Male Teachers: Investigating Gendered and Raced Authority in an Elementary School in Toronto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Wayne; Rezai-Rashti, Goli

    2012-01-01

    Within the context of debates about male teacher shortage, a powerful discourse about the influence of male and minority teachers as role models has acquired a particular legitimacy in the popular imaginary. In short, the call for more male teachers functions as a common-sense justification for their necessary recruitment and has been tied to a…

  18. Association between self-concept and body weight, gender, and pubertal development among male and female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dea, J A; Abraham, S

    1999-01-01

    This study examined the effects and interactions of gender, pubertal status, and body weight on the self-concept of 462 young adolescent Australian students from two different schools. All students enrolled in Years 7 and 8 completed the Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents, which includes several self-concept subscales and ratings of the importance of each subscale. The self-concept subscales ranked as most important by male and female students were Close Friendship, Scholastic Competence, and Job Competence. Females rated their ability to form close friendships significantly higher and of greater importance than did males. Standard body weight was related to students' Physical Appearance subscale scores, with higher weight students having lower self-concept, and postmenarcheal females having the poorest opinion of their physical appearance. Higher body weight males had lower scores on Athletic Competence, Job Competence, and Behavioral Conduct than did other males. Overweight females and normal weight males considered athletic competence to be more important than did other students. Pubertal status was related to students' scores on Athletic Competence, with postpubertal males who were not overweight scoring highest, and on Physical Appearance, with postmenarcheal females having the lowest opinion of their appearance. The mean self-concept score was significantly related to students' standard body weight, and there was an interaction between gender and puberty, with postpubertal males having the highest and postmenarcheal females the lowest self-concept score. The discrepancy score suggested that females felt they had failed to meet their ideal self-concept significantly more than did males. The results suggest that school programs should be implemented to provide exercise and job skill training suitable for all students, especially those who are overweight. These programs, while taking into account students' pubertal status, should aim to improve self

  19. "I Mean, We're Guys": Constructing Gender at an All-Male Trade School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbeit, Miriam R.; Hershberg, Rachel M.; Johnson, Sara K.; Lerner, Jacqueline V.; Lerner, Richard M.

    2017-01-01

    For young men, the transition to adulthood may be a time of heightened adherence to traditional gender roles and norms of masculinity. However, recent research with young men in gender-specific contexts has indicated that some contexts support a construction of masculinity that is more inclusive. Through a theoretical thematic analysis of…

  20. "I Mean, We're Guys": Constructing Gender at an All-Male Trade School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbeit, Miriam R.; Hershberg, Rachel M.; Johnson, Sara K.; Lerner, Jacqueline V.; Lerner, Richard M.

    2017-01-01

    For young men, the transition to adulthood may be a time of heightened adherence to traditional gender roles and norms of masculinity. However, recent research with young men in gender-specific contexts has indicated that some contexts support a construction of masculinity that is more inclusive. Through a theoretical thematic analysis of…

  1. ``Pirates Can Be Male or Female'': Investigating Gender-Inclusivity in a Years 2/3 Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennie, Léonie J.

    2003-08-01

    The term gender-inclusive has become well known in Australian education since the late 1980s. In policy terms, it is associated with an education structured to value girls and women, their knowledge and experience, equally with that of boys and men. This paper reports an analysis of the gender-inclusivity of teaching and learning activities in a combined Year 2/3 class studying an integrated, science and technology topic themed about pirates. The data include field notes from class visits, interviews with the teacher, informal conversations with children, a videotape recording of one class and inspection of children's work. The content of an inherently gendered topic, like pirates, provides teachers with opportunities to challenge the structure of gender in ways that enable children to begin to understand how males and females are positioned in the prevailing discourse and how some groups are privileged over others. In this Year 2/3 class, the teacher was able to help children to develop different views of, in this case, who pirates are, what they might do, and what a more socially just pirate existence might be like. Opportunities to challenge the gendered way we think about things, even pirates, are taken too infrequently in our classrooms.

  2. Occupational segregation, gender essentialism and male primacy as major barriers to equity in HIV/AIDS caregiving: Findings from Lesotho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoae Lucia

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gender segregation of occupations, which typically assigns caring/nurturing jobs to women and technical/managerial jobs to men, has been recognized as a major source of inequality worldwide with implications for the development of robust health workforces. In sub-Saharan Africa, gender inequalities are particularly acute in HIV/AIDS caregiving (90% of which is provided in the home, where women and girls make up the informal (and mostly unpaid workforce. Men's and boy's entry into HIV/AIDS caregiving in greater numbers would both increase the equity and sustainability of national and community-level HIV/AIDS caregiving and mitigate health workforce shortages, but notions of gender essentialism and male primacy make this far from inevitable. In 2008 the Capacity Project partnered with the Lesotho Ministry of Health and Social Welfare in a study of the gender dynamics of HIV/AIDS caregiving in three districts of Lesotho to account for men's absence in HIV/AIDS caregiving and investigate ways in which they might be recruited into the community and home-based care (CHBC workforce. Methods The study used qualitative methods, including 25 key informant interviews with village chiefs, nurse clinicians, and hospital administrators and 31 focus group discussions with community health workers, community members, ex-miners, and HIV-positive men and women. Results Study participants uniformly perceived a need to increase the number of CHBC providers to deal with the heavy workload from increasing numbers of patients and insufficient new entries. HIV/AIDS caregiving is a gender-segregated job, at the core of which lie stereotypes and beliefs about the appropriate work of men and women. This results in an inequitable, unsustainable burden on women and girls. Strategies are analyzed for their potential effectiveness in increasing equity in caregiving. Conclusions HIV/AIDS and human resources stakeholders must address occupational segregation

  3. "Maybe She Was Provoked": Exploring Gender Stereotypes About Male and Female Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarduzio, Jennifer A; Carlyle, Kellie E; Harris, Kate Lockwood; Savage, Matthew W

    2017-01-01

    The current study is concerned with the different types of gender stereotypes that participants may draw upon when exposed to news stories about intimate partner violence (IPV). We qualitatively analyzed open-ended responses examining four types of gender stereotypes-aggression, emotional, power and control, and acceptability of violence. We offer theoretical implications that extend past research on intimate terrorism and situational couple violence, the gender symmetry debate, and how stereotypes are formed. We also discuss practical implications for journalists who write stories about IPV and individuals who provide services to victims and perpetrators.

  4. Relationship between Physical Disability and Depression by Gender: A Panel Regression Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Jin-Won; Kwon, Young Dae; Park, Jumin; Oh, In-Hwan; Kim, Jinseok

    2016-01-01

    Depression in persons with physical disabilities may be more common than in the general population. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between physical disability and depression by gender among adults, using a large, nationally representative sample. This study used data from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging, Wave one through four, and ran a series of random effect panel regression models to test the relationship between physical disability status and depression by gender. We tested the moderating effect of gender on the relationship between disability status and depression level by examining the significance of the cross-product term between disability status and gender. After controlling for self-rated health, marital status, employment status, education, and age, subjects who were female or diagnosed as having any disability presented higher levels of depression scores. Further, the difference in terms of their depression level measured by Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression Scale (CES-D 10) scores between those who were diagnosed as having any disability and those who were not was greater for females than for their male counterparts. This study reaffirmed that disability is the risk factor of depression, using longitudinal data. In addition, female gender is the effect modifier rather than the risk factor. The effect of gender in the non-disability group, mostly composed of older persons, is limited. On the contrary, the female disability group showed more depressive symptoms than the male disability group. The gender difference in the disability group and the role of culture on these differences need further research.

  5. The liver and kidney expression of sulfate anion transporter sat-1 in rats exhibits male-dominant gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzica, Hrvoje; Breljak, Davorka; Krick, Wolfgang; Lovrić, Mila; Burckhardt, Gerhard; Burckhardt, Birgitta C; Sabolić, Ivan

    2009-04-01

    The sulfate anion transporter (sat-1, Slc26a1) has been cloned from rat liver, functionally characterized, and localized to the sinusoidal membrane in hepatocytes and basolateral membrane (BLM) in proximal tubules (PT). Here, we confirm previously described localization of sat-1 protein in rat liver and kidneys and report on gender differences (GD) in its expression by immunochemical, transport, and excretion studies in rats. The approximately 85-kDa sat-1 protein was localized to the sinusoidal membrane in hepatocytes and BLM in renal cortical PT, with the male-dominant expression. However, the real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction data indicated no GD at the level of sat-1 mRNA. In agreement with the protein data, isolated membranes from both organs exhibited the male-dominant exchange of radiolabeled sulfate for oxalate, whereas higher oxalate in plasma and 24-h urine indicated higher oxalate production and excretion in male rats. Furthermore, the expression of liver, but not renal, sat-1 protein was: unaffected by castration, upregulated by ovariectomy, and downregulated by estrogen or progesterone treatment in males. Therefore, GD (males > females) in the expression of sat-1 protein in rat liver (and, possibly, kidneys) are caused by the female sex-hormone-driven inhibition at the posttranscriptional level. The male-dominant abundance of sat-1 protein in liver may conform to elevated uptake of sulfate and extrusion of oxalate, causing higher plasma oxalate in males. Oxalate is then excreted by the kidneys via the basolateral sat-1 (males > females) and the apical CFEX (Slc26a6; GD unknown) in PT and eliminated in the urine (males > females), where it may contribute to the male-prevailing development of oxalate urolithiasis.

  6. Engaging Male Students in Career Planning: How Practitioners Can Bridge the Gender Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Neil

    2002-01-01

    Discusses evidence showing that career planning services are often extraordinarily underused my male students. In this article, a veteran career cervices director considers the issue of participation in career planning activities by male students. (GCP)

  7. Tie-breaker: Using language models to quantify gender bias in sports journalism

    CERN Document Server

    Fu, Liye; Lee, Lillian

    2016-01-01

    Gender bias is an increasingly important issue in sports journalism. In this work, we propose a language-model-based approach to quantify differences in questions posed to female vs. male athletes, and apply it to tennis post-match interviews. We find that journalists ask male players questions that are generally more focused on the game when compared with the questions they ask their female counterparts. We also provide a fine-grained analysis of the extent to which the salience of this bias depends on various factors, such as question type, game outcome or player rank.

  8. Family support and acceptance, gay male identity formation, and psychological adjustment: a path model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizur, Y; Ziv, M

    2001-01-01

    While heterosexist family undermining has been demonstrated to be a developmental risk factor in the life of persons with same-gender orientation, the issue of protective family factors is both controversial and relatively neglected. In this study of Israeli gay males (N = 114), we focused on the interrelations of family support, family acceptance and family knowledge of gay orientation, and gay male identity formation, and their effects on mental health and self-esteem. A path model was proposed based on the hypotheses that family support, family acceptance, family knowledge, and gay identity formation have an impact on psychological adjustment, and that family support has an effect on gay identity formation that is mediated by family acceptance. The assessment of gay identity formation was based on an established stage model that was streamlined for cross-cultural practice by defining three basic processes of same-gender identity formation: self-definition, self-acceptance, and disclosure (Elizur & Mintzer, 2001). The testing of our conceptual path model demonstrated an excellent fit with the data. An alternative model that hypothesized effects of gay male identity on family acceptance and family knowledge did not fit the data. Interpreting these results, we propose that the main effect of family support/acceptance on gay identity is related to the process of disclosure, and that both general family support and family acceptance of same-gender orientation play a significant role in the psychological adjustment of gay men.

  9. Dynamic impact of social stratification and social influence on smoking prevalence by gender: An agent-based model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Dingding; Hashimoto, Hideki; Kondo, Naoki

    2015-12-01

    Smoking behavior is tightly related to socioeconomic status and gender, though the dynamic and non-linear association of smoking prevalence across socioeconomic status and gender groups has not been fully examined. With a special focus on gender-bound differences in the susceptibility to social influence of surrounding others' behaviors, we developed an agent-based model to explore how socioeconomic disparity between and within gender groups affects changes in smoking prevalence. Our developed base model reasonably reproduced the actual trend changes by gender groups over the past 5 years in Japan. Counterfactual experiments with the developed model revealed that closing within- and between-gender disparities in socioeconomic status had a limited impact on reducing smoking prevalence. To the contrary, greater socioeconomic disparity facilitated the reduction in prevalence among males, but it impeded that reduction in females. The counterfactual scenario with equalizing gender-bound susceptibility to social influence among women to men's level showed a dramatic reduction in female prevalence without changing the reduction in male prevalence. Simulation results may provide alternative explanation of the growing disparity in smoking prevalence despite improved welfare equality observed in many developed countries, and suggest that redistribution policies may have side effects of widening health gap. Instead, social policy to reduce social pressures to smoking and support interventions to enhance resilience to the pressure targeting the vulnerable population (in this study, women) would be a more effective strategy in combating the tobacco epidemic and closing the health gap.

  10. Gendered sexuality: a new model and measure of attraction and intimacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starks, Tyrel J; Gilbert, Brenda O; Fischer, Ann R; Weston, Rebecca; DiLalla, David L

    2009-01-01

    Currently, the literature related to sexual orientation is ambiguous with regard to the relationship of sexual orientation, sexual identity, attraction, and intimacy. In order to explore the relationships of self-identified categorical sexual identity (which is the most popular method of sexual orientation assessment) with attraction and intimacy, it is imperative that researchers have access to a reliable and valid measure of the latter. The present study proposes a model for conceptualizing attraction and intimacy, termed gendered sexuality, and examines the factor structure of a measure designed to assess the construct. Results suggest that four factors adequately accounted for the variance in gendered sexuality in a large sample of young adults. These factors assess attraction to females, attraction to males, intimacy with females, and intimacy with males. Exploratory analyses provided preliminary evidence of potential construct validity and suggested that discrepancies between desired and available behavior predict dissatisfaction in interpersonal role as measured by the Outcome Questionnaire 45.2.

  11. Sperm competition games: A general model for precopulatory male-male competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parker, G.A.; Lessells, C.M.; Simmons, L.W.

    2013-01-01

    Reproductive males face a trade-off between expenditure on precopulatory male–male competition—increasing the number of females that they secure as mates—and sperm competition—increasing their fertilization success with those females. Previous sperm allocation models have focused on scramble competi

  12. Gender Role Attitudes and Male Adolescent Dating Violence Perpetration: Normative Beliefs as Moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, H Luz McNaughton; Foshee, Vangie A; Niolon, Phyllis Holditch; Reidy, Dennis E; Hall, Jeffrey E

    2016-02-01

    Commonly used dating violence prevention programs assume that promotion of more egalitarian gender role attitudes will prevent dating violence perpetration. Empirical research examining this assumption, however, is limited and inconsistent. The current study examined the longitudinal association between gender role attitudes and physical dating violence perpetration among adolescent boys (n = 577; 14 % Black, 5 % other race/ethnicity) and examined whether injunctive (i.e., acceptance of dating violence) and descriptive (i.e., beliefs about dating violence prevalence) normative beliefs moderated the association. As expected, the findings suggest that traditional gender role attitudes at T1 were associated with increased risk for dating violence perpetration 18 months later (T2) among boys who reported high, but not low, acceptance of dating violence (injunctive normative beliefs) at T1. Descriptive norms did not moderate the effect of gender role attitudes on dating violence perpetration. The results suggest that injunctive norms and gender role attitudes work synergistically to increase risk for dating violence perpetration among boys; as such, simultaneously targeting both of these constructs may be an effective prevention approach.

  13. Cisgender male and transgender female sex workers in South Africa: gender variant identities and narratives of exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samudzi, Zoe; Mannell, Jenevieve

    2016-01-01

    Sex workers are often perceived as possessing 'deviant' identities, contributing to their exclusion from health services. The literature on sex worker identities in relation to health has focused primarily on cisgender female sex workers as the 'carriers of disease', obscuring the experiences of cisgender male and transgender sex workers and the complexities their gender identities bring to understandings of stigma and exclusion. To address this gap, this study draws on 21 interviews with cisgender male and transgender female sex workers receiving services from the Sex Workers Education and Advocacy Taskforce in Cape Town, South Africa. Our findings suggest that the social identities imposed upon sex workers contribute to their exclusion from public, private, discursive and geographic spaces. While many transgender female sex workers described their identities using positive and empowered language, cisgender male sex workers frequently expressed shame and internalised stigma related to identities, which could be described as 'less than masculine'. While many of those interviewed felt empowered by positive identities as transgender women, sex workers and sex worker-advocates, disempowerment and vulnerability were also linked to inappropriately masculinised and feminised identities. Understanding the links between gender identities and social exclusion is crucial to creating effective health interventions for both cisgender men and transgender women in sex work.

  14. Gender effect on neurodegeneration and myelin markers in an animal model for multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massella Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple sclerosis (MS varies considerably in its incidence and progression in females and males. In spite of clinical evidence, relatively few studies have explored molecular mechanisms possibly involved in gender-related differences. The present study describes possible cellular- and molecular-involved markers which are differentially regulated in male and female rats and result in gender-dependent EAE evolution and progression. Attention was focused on markers of myelination (MBP and PDGFαR and neuronal distress and/or damage (GABA synthesis enzymes, GAD65 and GAD67, NGF, BDNF and related receptors, in two CNS areas, i.e. spinal cord and cerebellum, which are respectively severely and mildly affected by inflammation and demyelination. Tissues were sampled during acute, relapse/remission and chronic phases and results were analysed by two-way ANOVA. Results 1. A strong gender-dependent difference in myelin (MBP and myelin precursor (PDGFαR marker mRNA expression levels is observed in control animals in the spinal cord, but not in the cerebellum. This is the only gender-dependent difference in the expression level of the indicated markers in healthy animals; 2. both PDGFαR and MBP mRNAs in the spinal cord and MBP in the cerebellum are down-regulated during EAE in gender-dependent manner; 3. in the cerebellum, the expression profile of neuron-associated markers (GAD65, GAD67 is characterized by a substantial down-regulation during the inflammatory phase of the disease, which does not differ between male and female rats (two-way ANOVA; 4. there is an up-regulation of NGF, trkA and p75 mRNA expression in the early phases of the disease (14 and 21 days post-immunization, which is not different between male and female. Conclusions It is reported herein that the regulation of markers involved in demyelination and neuroprotection processes occurring during EAE, a well-established MS animal model, is gender- and time

  15. Male Social Workers Working with Men Who Batter: Dilemmas in Gender Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Benjamin; Buchbinder, Eli; Eisikovits, Zvi

    2011-01-01

    Research into the impact of dealing with intimate partner violence has focused mainly on women who treated victims. The present article explores the interaction between male social workers and battering men. The sample included 15 male social workers who worked with battering men in social services. Data collection was performed through…

  16. Community History as a Male-Constructed Space: Challenging Gendered Memories among South African Muslim Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Doria

    2009-01-01

    The post-Apartheid community history is a male-constructed space, narrated into present-day consciousness by male community leaders and history writers. The patriarchal worldview disparages women's contributions and activisms. This article reports on how Muslim women from a small fishing village in South Africa in the early 1900s strategized to…

  17. A missed diagnosis of acromegaly during a female-to-male gender transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerink, S.; Marsman, D.; Bon, A. van; Netea-Maier, R.T.

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of a 46-year-old transgender male who, during his female-to-male transition, presented with a pituitary apoplexy at the emergency department of a general hospital in the Netherlands. During admission, it turned out that he also suffered from acromegaly due to a growth hormone secre

  18. Male Social Workers Working with Men Who Batter: Dilemmas in Gender Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Benjamin; Buchbinder, Eli; Eisikovits, Zvi

    2011-01-01

    Research into the impact of dealing with intimate partner violence has focused mainly on women who treated victims. The present article explores the interaction between male social workers and battering men. The sample included 15 male social workers who worked with battering men in social services. Data collection was performed through…

  19. Occupational gender segregation: index measurement and econometric modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, M

    1998-11-01

    Empirical studies of gender segregation by occupation must be founded on rigorous measurement procedures. There appears to be a consensus that any index used in the analysis of time-series or international cross-section employment data must be either margin-free or decomposable to yield a margin-free component. On the other hand, Charles and Grusky (1995) advocate the use of multiplicative log models from which a margin-free odds ratio can be derived. In this paper, I contrast the construction and interpretation of the index of dissimilarity and the Karmel-MacLachlan index with the multiplicative modeling of gender segregation and the associated log index.

  20. The Effects of Sex and Gender Role Orientation on Mentorship in Male-Dominated Occupations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scandura, Terri A.; Ragins, Belle Rose

    1993-01-01

    Responses from 608 certified public accountants who had mentors showed that biological sex was not related to mentoring, but gender role orientation was. Those with androgynous sex role orientation reported more mentoring functions than did those with masculine or feminine orientations. (SK)

  1. Gender-role stereotypes and interpersonal behavior: How addicted patients view their ideal male and female therapist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, Jirza; Jong, C.A.J. de; Weert-van Oene, G.H. de; Gijs, L.A.C.L.

    2000-01-01

    This study focuses on the influences of self-perceived interpersonal behavior of addicted inpatients (n = 107) on the stereotypes of their ideal male and female therapist. Based on the interpersonal model of personality patients were asked to describe their ideal male and female therapist.

  2. Is the distant relationship of fathers and homosexual sons related to the sons' erotic preference for male partners, or to the sons' atypical gender identity, or to both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, K; Blanchard, R

    1983-01-01

    Study 1 compared the retrospectively reported father-son relationships of four groups of adult males: (a) Gynephiles (males who erotically prefer physically mature females), (b) androphiles (who prefer physically mature males), (c) a combined group of heterosexual pedophiles and pedohebephiles (the latter being attracted to pubescent as well as prepubescent females), and (d) a combined group of homosexual pedophiles and pedohebephiles (the latter attracted to pubescent as well as prepubescent males). The gynephiles were paid volunteers; the latter three groups were patients. The androphiles, the only group among those compared known to exhibit a measurably greater degree of cross gender identity in childhood, were also the only group to report significantly poorer father-son relations. The homosexual pedo/pedohebephiles, who also prefer male partners but who exhibit typical male gender identity in childhood, did not differ in father-son relations from the gynephiles or the heterosexual pedo/pedohebephiles. Study 2 showed that, within a sample of nonpatient volunteer androphiles, those individuals who reported the greatest degree of cross gender behavior in childhood also tended to report the worst relationships with their fathers. This correlation was replicated within a sample of androphilic patients in Study 3. The consistent pattern of results obtained from these three studies suggests that the emotionally distant relationships of fathers and androphilic sons relate to the sons' atypical childhood gender identity (or observable gender role behavior) rather than to the sons' erotic preference for male partners per se.

  3. Gender Differences in Animal Models of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagit Cohen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies report higher prevalence rates of stress-related disorders such as acute stress disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD in women than in men following exposure to trauma. It is still not clear whether this greater prevalence in woman reflects a greater vulnerability to stress-related psychopathology. A number of individual and trauma-related characteristics have been hypothesized to contribute to these gender differences in physiological and psychological responses to trauma, differences in appraisal, interpretation or experience of threat, coping style or social support. In this context, the use of an animal model for PTSD to analyze some of these gender-related differences may be of particular utility. Animal models of PTSD offer the opportunity to distinguish between biological and socio-cultural factors, which so often enter the discussion about gender differences in PTSD prevalence.

  4. Female perspectives of a male narrator: Gender question in the Cyro dos Anjos’ novel O Amanuense Belmiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROSILENE SILVA SANTOS

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the different female representations in the novel O Amanuense Belmiro, by Cyro dos Anjos. The narrator-character, besides focusing on the conflict of male and female genders, formulates four sets of female profiles in order to understand the changes in a phallocentric society. Among the four sets of female representations, one of them is built by a single figure: Jandira, who reverses the ventriloquism game that takes place in the male utterance in the Brazilian literature, whose main representative is Machado de Assis, in his novel Dom Casmurro. It was possible to conclude that in the novel O Amanuense Belmiro the confrontation between these sets of female representations, passing from conservative to mythical and challenging, denounces the tensions that underlie the narrative of the novel, whose style was seen, up to now, as slowed by moderation of literary chronicle and mitigated by the conformed spirit of the narrator-character.

  5. Are Universities Role Models for Communities? A Gender Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia Cornelia MACARIE

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper explores the degree in which universities could/should serve as role models for communities from the perspective of gender integration. Although the theoretical/ moral answer would be affirmative (universities should be in such a position that would allow local communities to regard them as role models of gender integration, the primary empirical analysis leads to another conclusion. A brief theoretical review (that connects gender discrimination, sustainable development, universities and local communities is followed by an empirical analysis that compares the management structures of 12 Romanian Universities of Advanced Research and Education (the best Romanian universities according to a national ranking with those of four local communities where they are located (as geographic proximity would lead to a better diffusion of best practices. Contrary to initial expectations, even in higher education institutions, women are underrepresented both in executive and legislative positions. Since universities are subject to the same major patterns of gender discrimination (such as role theory, glass ceiling and glass elevator as private and public organizations, they lose the moral high ground that theory would suggest. However, medicine and pharmacy universities that can be connected with the traditional roles attributed to women provide better gender integration, but glass escalator phenomena remain present even in these limited fields.

  6. Male-to-Female Transgender Individuals Building Social Support and Capital From Within a Gender-Focused Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Rogério M; Melendez, Rita M; Spector, Anya Y

    2008-09-01

    The literature on male-to-female transgender (MTF) individuals lists myriad problems such individuals face in their day-to-day lives, including high rates of HIV/AIDS, addiction to drugs, violence, and lack of health care. These problems are exacerbated for ethnic and racial minority MTFs. Support available from their social networks can help MTFs alleviate these problems. This article explores how minority MTFs, specifically in an urban environment, develop supportive social networks defined by their gender and sexual identities. Using principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR), 20 African American and Latina MTFs were recruited at a community-based health care clinic. Their ages ranged from 18 to 53. Data were coded and analyzed following standard procedure for content analysis. The qualitative interviews revealed that participants formed their gender and sexual identities over time, developed gender-focused social networks based in the clinic from which they receive services, and engaged in social capital building and political action. Implications for using CBPR in research with MTFs are discussed.

  7. Effects of Role Models and Gender on Students’ Entrepreneurial Intentions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karimi, S.; Biemans, H.J.A.; Lans, T.; Chizari, M.; Mulder, M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to, drawing on the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), explore the effects of entrepreneurial role models on entrepreneurial intention (EI) and its antecedents and examines the question of whether the effects vary by gender. Design/methodology/approach – Data were collected

  8. Medical Students’ First Male Urogenital Examination: Investigating the Effects of Instruction and Gender on Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa D. Howley

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the effect that standardized instruction of the male urogenital examination had on the anxiety levels of students and to determine what influence, if any, the gender of the student had on this experience. Methods: One hundred thirty six second year medical students were asked to report their level of anxiety before and after participation in a small group teaching session on the male urogenital examination. We gathered both qualitative and quantitative information to better understand students’ anxiety surrounding this instruction. Results: Students had significantly lower state-anxiety scores following the instruction than before (F(1, 76=102.353, p=.000, eta2=.574 and female students were more likely to have greater state-anxiety than male students (F=6.952, p=.010, eta2=.084. Ninety-nine percent of students reported that the teaching associates successfully reduced their anxiety. This decrease was attributed predominantly to the personal qualities of the teaching associates and to the format of the instruction. Conclusions: This study provides both quantitative and qualitative evidence that the use of male teaching associates to provide standardized instruction on the urogenital exam is effective at reducing students’ anxiety, particularly with regard to female students. Added standardized instruction may lead to increased confidence, skill, and future compliance with intimate physical exam screening practices

  9. What is a typical rape? Effects of victim and participant gender in female and male rape perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Irina

    2007-03-01

    The study had three research aims: (1) to examine the current perception of female rape. Given recent changes in public awareness of female rape, it was predicted that respondents would conceptualize a typical female rape as an acquaintance rape rather than as the stranger rape stereotype; (2) to examine whether these perceptions differ according to respondents' gender; (3) to examine the 'cultural lag' theory of male rape, where it was hypothesized that if the public perception of male rape lags behind female rape, then a typical male rape will be conceptualized as the classic stranger rape stereotype. Findings showed that contrary to predictions, a typical female rape was conceptualized according to the stranger rape stereotype. It was also found that instead of lagging behind female rape along the stranger-acquaintance rape dimension, male rape was viewed predominantly in terms of 'other' factors (factors not found on the stranger-acquaintance dimension, e.g. victim/rapist sexual orientation, rapist calls victim names), which were erroneous, sexualizing and homophobic.

  10. Towards a gender perspective in qualitative research on voluntary medical male circumcision in east and southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Pérez, Guillermo; Triviño Durán, Laura; Gasch, Angel; Desmond, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization endorsed voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) in 2007 as an effective method to provide partial protection against heterosexual female-to-male transmission of HIV in regions with high rates of such transmission, and where uptake of VMMC is low. Qualitative research conducted in east and southern Africa has focused on assessing acceptability, barriers to uptake of VMMC and the likelihood of VMMC increasing men's adoption of risky sexual behaviours. Less researched, however, have been the perceptions of women and sexual minorities towards VMMC, even though they are more vulnerable to HIV/AIDS transmission than are heterosexual men. The purpose of this paper is to identify core areas in which a gendered perspective in qualitative research might improve the understanding and framing of VMMC in east and southern Africa. Issues explored in this analysis are risk compensation, the post-circumcision appearance of the penis, inclusion of men who have sex with men as study respondents and the antagonistic relation between VMMC and female genital cutting. If biomedical and social science researchers explore these issues in future qualitative inquiry utilising a gendered perspective, a more thorough understanding of VMMC can be achieved, which could ultimately inform policy and implementation.

  11. How the Human Capital Model Explains Why the Gender Wage Gap Narrowed

    OpenAIRE

    Solomon W. Polachek

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores secular changes in women?s pay relative to men?s pay. It shows how the human capital model predicts a smaller gender wage gap as male-female lifetime work expectations become more similar. The model explains why relative female wages rose almost unabated from 1890 to the early-1990s in the United States (with the exception of about 1940-1980), and why this relative wage growth tapered off since 1993. In addition to the US, the paper presents evidence from nine other countr...

  12. Modeling migration attempts and the role of gender in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litchfield Julie

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the 2002 Albanian Living Standards Measurement Survey to model whether an individual has attempted to migrate conditional on having previously considered migrating. The study addresses the methodological concerns that arise from potential selection bias and empirical issues associated with gender differences. We test for the presence of selection bias using a bivariate probit and apply an Oaxaca-style decomposition technique to analyze gender differentials in the conditional probability of attempted migration. We focus on the roles an individual's living standard, geographic location and local labour market conditions exert on the attempt to migrate. Our empirical findings suggest that there are significant differences in both the conditional probability of attempting to migrate and the relative importance of determining factors across gender.

  13. Is gender policy related to the gender gap in external cause and circulatory disease mortality? A mixed effects model of 22 OECD countries 1973–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Backhans Mona

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gender differences in mortality vary widely between countries and over time, but few studies have examined predictors of these variations, apart from smoking. The aim of this study is to investigate the link between gender policy and the gender gap in cause-specific mortality, adjusted for economic factors and health behaviours. Methods 22 OECD countries were followed 1973–2008 and the outcomes were gender gaps in external cause and circulatory disease mortality. A previously found country cluster solution was used, which includes indicators on taxes, parental leave, pensions, social insurances and social services in kind. Male breadwinner countries were made reference group and compared to earner-carer, compensatory breadwinner, and universal citizen countries. Specific policies were also analysed. Mixed effect models were used, where years were the level 1-units, and countries were the level 2-units. Results Both the earner-carer cluster (ns after adjustment for GDP and policies characteristic of that cluster are associated with smaller gender differences in external causes, particularly due to an association with increased female mortality. Cluster differences in the gender gap in circulatory disease mortality are the result of a larger relative decrease of male mortality in the compensatory breadwinner cluster and the earner-carer cluster. Policies characteristic of those clusters were however generally related to increased mortality. Conclusion Results for external cause mortality are in concordance with the hypothesis that women become more exposed to risks of accident and violence when they are economically more active. For circulatory disease mortality, results differ depending on approach – cluster or indicator. Whether cluster differences not explained by specific policies reflect other welfare policies or unrelated societal trends is an open question. Recommendations for further studies are made.

  14. From Child Maltreatment to Violent Offending: An Examination of Mixed-Gender and Gender-Specific Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topitzes, James; Mersky, Joshua P.; Reynolds, Arthur J.

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that child maltreatment predicts juvenile violence, but it is uncertain whether the effects of victimization persist into adulthood or differ across gender. Furthermore, we know little about the mechanisms underlying the victim-perpetrator cycle for males and females. Consequently, this study analyzed associations between child…

  15. Is it a (fe)male pain? Portuguese nurses' and laypeople's gendered representations of common pains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardes, S F; Silva, S A; Carvalho, H; Costa, M; Pereira, S

    2014-04-01

    Although many studies have explored gender role expectations of pain behaviours in different cultures, only a few authors have tried to explore whether certain pains are more associated with the typical man or woman. Hence, this study aimed at exploring, among Portuguese laypeople and nurses, patterns of common pains more strongly associated with the typical man or woman, and their relationship with health-care training and personal pain experiences. A total of 68 nurses (76% women) and 55 laypeople (62% women) were asked to identify, through free association, the most frequent common pains that people in general associate with the typical man and woman, respectively, and also to report their personal past pain experiences. A content analysis was used to categorize and quantify participants' responses. A multiple correspondence analysis was performed to identify gendered patterns of common pains, followed by a cluster analysis to classify participants according to their endorsed patterns. Findings showed that while 'back and musculoskeletal pains' was the only pattern associated with the typical man, more differentiated patterns of pains were associated with the typical woman, namely (1) headaches; (2) abdominal, back and musculoskeletal pains; and (3) pains due to hormonal cycles, labour/puerperium and from the urinary/reproductive system. These representations were shared by laypeople and nurses and were only significantly associated with personal experiences of pains from the urinary/reproductive system. This study identified different gendered patterns of common pains, which may have important implications for (wo)men's pain experiences and how these are interpreted by others. © 2013 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  16. Writing Gender in Revolutionary Times: Male Identity and Ideology in Dulce Chacon's "La voz dormida"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Inma Civico

    2009-01-01

    The historical content of "La voz dormida" by Dulce Chacon gives us unique insight into the formation of male subjectivities during the ideological and physical struggle that followed the establishment of Franco's regime. The second part of the novel which centers around the figure of the "maquis," allows us to investigate the construction of a…

  17. Writing Gender in Revolutionary Times: Male Identity and Ideology in Dulce Chacon's "La voz dormida"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Inma Civico

    2009-01-01

    The historical content of "La voz dormida" by Dulce Chacon gives us unique insight into the formation of male subjectivities during the ideological and physical struggle that followed the establishment of Franco's regime. The second part of the novel which centers around the figure of the "maquis," allows us to investigate the construction of a…

  18. Feminist Pedagogy Meets Male Sports: A Workshop on Gender Sensitivity for the Men's Rugby Club.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Jennifer

    1994-01-01

    Discusses a workshop that used feminist pedagogy to challenge students' deeply ingrained sexism, promote their appreciation of differences, and encourage them to change their behavior voluntarily. Participants involved a group of male students undergoing punishment in the campus judicial system. Workshop results are discussed. (GR)

  19. Increasing gender and ethnic diversity in the health care workforce: The case of Arab male nurses in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popper-Giveon, Ariela; Keshet, Yael; Liberman, Ido

    2015-01-01

    Despite recent attempts at increasing health care workforce diversity, a measure that was found to reduce health disparities, men remain a minority in the traditionally female occupation of nursing. One exception to this observation is the Arab ethnic minority in Israel that includes numerous male nurses. Determining the percentage of Arab male nurses in the Israeli health care system and understanding how they perceive and negotiate their masculinity. We used both quantitative and qualitative methodologies. Quantitative statistics were obtained from the 2011 to 2013 Labor Force Survey conducted by the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics and qualitative data derived from 13 semi-structured, in-depth interviews with Arab nurses working in Israeli public hospitals, conducted during 2014. Nursing constitutes a prominent employment path for Arab men in Israel and is more prominent as an employment path for Arab men than that for Jewish men. A total of 38.6% of all Arab nurses were men and only 7.5% of Jews and others. Quantitative data thus reveal that men do not constitute a minority among Arab nurses. Similarly, qualitative findings show that Arab male nurses do not manifest marginal masculinity but rather demonstrate many elements of hegemonic masculinity. Arab male nurses distinguish themselves and differentiate their roles from those of female nurses, expressing their motives for choosing the nursing profession in terms of hegemonic gender roles for men in Arab society in Israel. Although nursing is a traditionally female occupation, it offers an opportunity for Arab men to demonstrate their masculinity. Arab male nurses choose nursing as a means rather than an end, however, meaning that many of them might not remain in the profession. This observation is significant because of the importance of retaining men from ethnic minorities in nursing, especially in multicultural societies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Male social workers working with men who batter: dilemmas in gender identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Benjamin; Buchbinder, Eli; Eisikovits, Zvi

    2011-06-01

    Research into the impact of dealing with intimate partner violence has focused mainly on women who treated victims. The present article explores the interaction between male social workers and battering men. The sample included 15 male social workers who worked with battering men in social services. Data collection was performed through semistructured interviews. The main theme emerging from the interviews describes the reconstruction and renegotiation of the worker's professional and personal self in light of his experiences with violent clients. Two major motifs describing their experience emerged: The first is self-doubt arising from adopting a broad definition of violence, thus creating increased sensitization to and inclusion of a wide range of behaviors under the term violence . The second motif is related to compromising with reality by renegotiating their identity as aggressive, at times, but not violent. Findings were discussed in the light of the constructionist perspective.

  1. Male Gender Assignment of a Child with Aphallia and Associated Complex Urological Anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, Satish Kumar Kolar; Babu, P. R.; Joseph, T. P.; Varma, Karthikeya K.

    2017-01-01

    A 2-year-old male child presented to us with aphallia. At birth, he was passing urine from the anus and had undergone emergency colostomy and pyelostomy for urinary sepsis at 1 week of life. After a complete evaluation, the child underwent perineal urethrostomy and scrotal phalloplasty followed by buccal mucosal tube urethroplasty in the second stage, which was completed before the child started schooling. PMID:28082775

  2. Overweight in young males reduce fertility in rabbit model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Francisco Marco-Jiménez; José Salvador Vicente

    2017-01-01

    ... parameters and fertility success in randomized controlled trial in a rabbit model. Fourteen male rabbits were randomly assigned to a control group in which nutritional requirements were satisfied or a group fed...

  3. Modelling Gender Differences in the Economic and Social Influences of Obesity in Australian Young People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulay Avsar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In Australia, as in many other developed economies, the prevalence of obesity has risen significantly in all age groups and especially in young males and females over the past decade. Using data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA Survey, this paper investigates the influence of economic, personality and social factor demographics on the incidence of obesity in Australian youths. The study uses two random parameters logit models, including one that allows for gender-specific differences in the conditioning variables. The models reveal notable differences between the most important variables affecting the incidence of obesity amongst females compared to males. These differences are notable to consider for policy and intervention programs aimed at reducing the problem of obesity.

  4. Automatic age and gender classification using supervised appearance model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukar, Ali Maina; Ugail, Hassan; Connah, David

    2016-11-01

    Age and gender classification are two important problems that recently gained popularity in the research community, due to their wide range of applications. Research has shown that both age and gender information are encoded in the face shape and texture, hence the active appearance model (AAM), a statistical model that captures shape and texture variations, has been one of the most widely used feature extraction techniques for the aforementioned problems. However, AAM suffers from some drawbacks, especially when used for classification. This is primarily because principal component analysis (PCA), which is at the core of the model, works in an unsupervised manner, i.e., PCA dimensionality reduction does not take into account how the predictor variables relate to the response (class labels). Rather, it explores only the underlying structure of the predictor variables, thus, it is no surprise if PCA discards valuable parts of the data that represent discriminatory features. Toward this end, we propose a supervised appearance model (sAM) that improves on AAM by replacing PCA with partial least-squares regression. This feature extraction technique is then used for the problems of age and gender classification. Our experiments show that sAM has better predictive power than the conventional AAM.

  5. Modeling of causes of Sina Weibo Continuance Intention with mediation of gender effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingyu eWang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sina Weibo is a Twitter-like social networking site and one of the most popular microblogging services in China. This study aims to examine the factors that influence the intentions of users to continue using this site. This paper synthesizes the expectation confirmation model (ECM, constructs of habit and perceived critical mass, and the gender effect to construct a theoretical model to explain and predict these user intentions. The model is then tested via an online survey of 498 Sina Weibo users and partial least squares (PLS modeling. The results indicate that the continuance intention of users is directly predicted by their perceived usefulness of the service (β=0.299, their satisfaction (β=0.208, and their habits (β=0.389, which jointly explain 65.9% of the variance in intention. In addition to the effects of these predictors on the continuance intentions of Sina Weibo users, an assessment of the moderating effect of gender suggests that habit plays a more important role for females than for males in continuance intention, but perceived usefulness seems to be more important for males than for females. The implications of these findings are then discussed.

  6. Gender consequences of a national performance-based funding model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mathias Wullum

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates the extent to which the Danish Bibliometric Research Indicator (BRI) reflects the performance of men and women differently. The model is based on a differentiated counting of peer-reviewed publications, awarding three and eight points for contributions to ‘well-regarded’...... privileges collaborative research, which disadvantages women due to gender differences in collaborative network relations.......This article investigates the extent to which the Danish Bibliometric Research Indicator (BRI) reflects the performance of men and women differently. The model is based on a differentiated counting of peer-reviewed publications, awarding three and eight points for contributions to ‘well......-regarded’ and highly selective journals and book publishers, and 1 and 5 points for equivalent scientific contributions via ‘normal level’ channels. On the basis of bibliometric data, the study shows that the BRI considerably widens the existing gender gap in researcher performance, since men on average receive more...

  7. Confirmatory factor analytic investigation of variance composition, gender invariance, and validity of the Male Role Norms Inventory-Adolescent-revised (MRNI-A-r).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levant, Ronald F; McDermott, Ryon C; Hewitt, Amber A; Alto, Kathleen M; Harris, Kyle T

    2016-10-01

    Confirmatory factor analysis of responses to the Male Role Norms Inventory-Adolescent-revised (MRNI-A-r) from 384 middle school students (163 boys, 221 girls) indicated that the best fit to the data was a bifactor model incorporating the hypothesized 3-factor structure while explicitly modeling an additional, general factor. Specifically, each item-level indicator loaded simultaneously on 2 factors: a general traditional masculinity ideology factor and a specific factor corresponding to 1 of the 3 hypothesized masculine norms for adolescents: Emotionally Detached Dominance, Toughness, and Avoidance of Femininity. Invariance testing across gender supported metric invariance for the general factor only. Although item loadings on the general factor were similar across boys and girls, the specific factor loadings varied substantially, with many becoming nonsignificant in the presence of the general factor for girls. A structural regression analysis predicting latent variables of the Meanings of Adolescent Masculinity Scale (MAMS), the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, and the Discipline, School Difficulties, and Positive Behavior Scale (DSDPBS) indicated that the general factor was a strong predictor of MAMS for both genders and DSDPBS for girls. Findings indicate that the MRNI-A-r general factor is a valid and reliable indicator of overall internalization of traditional masculinity ideology in adolescents; however, the specific factors may have different meanings for boys as compared with girls and lack validity in the presence of the general factor. These findings are consistent with a developmental perspective of gender ideology that views adolescence as a time when a differentiated cognitive schema of masculine norms is beginning to develop. (PsycINFO Database Record

  8. Male-typical visuospatial functioning in gynephilic girls with gender dysphoria — organizational and activational effects of testosterone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Sarah M.; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P.C.; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T.; Veltman, Dick J.; Klink, Daniel T.; Bakker, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Background Sex differences in performance and regional brain activity during mental rotation have been reported repeatedly and reflect organizational and activational effects of sex hormones. We investigated whether adolescent girls with gender dysphoria (GD), before and after 10 months of testosterone treatment, showed male-typical brain activity during a mental rotation task (MRT). Methods Girls with GD underwent fMRI while performing the MRT twice: when receiving medication to suppress their endogenous sex hormones before onset of testosterone treatment, and 10 months later during testosterone treatment. Two age-matched control groups participated twice as well. Results We included 21 girls with GD, 20 male controls and 21 female controls in our study. In the absence of any group differences in performance, control girls showed significantly increased activation in frontal brain areas compared with control boys (pFWE = 0.012). Girls with GD before testosterone treatment differed significantly in frontal brain activation from the control girls (pFWE = 0.034), suggesting a masculinization of brain structures associated with visuospatial cognitive functions. After 10 months of testosterone treatment, girls with GD, similar to the control boys, showed increases in brain activation in areas implicated in mental rotation. Limitations Since all girls with GD identified as gynephilic, their resemblance in spatial cognition with the control boys, who were also gynephilic, may have been related to their shared sexual orientation rather than their shared gender identity. We did not account for menstrual cycle phase or contraceptive use in our analyses. Conclusion Our findings suggest atypical sexual differentiation of the brain in natal girls with GD and provide new evidence for organizational and activational effects of testosterone on visuospatial cognitive functioning. PMID:27070350

  9. Vulnerabilidade de gênero para a paternidade em homens adolescentes Gender vulnerability for parenthood among male adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anecy de Fátima Faustino Almeida

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar as relações de gênero vivenciadas por adolescentes do sexo masculino e como elas contribuem para torná-los vulneráveis à gravidez na adolescência. MÉTODOS: Estudo qualitativo realizado em Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, em 2003. Participaram 13 adolescentes masculinos com menos de 20 anos, com um único filho de até 11 meses, cuja mãe estava na mesma faixa etária do pai. Realizaram-se entrevistas semi-estruturadas gravadas. Após transcrição, procedeu-se à análise temática de conteúdo. RESULTADOS: Identificaram-se estereótipos de gênero em que se destacavam papéis de líder, provedor e ativo sexualmente, bem como a rejeição a ser cuidador. Esses papéis apareceram consolidados principalmente na perspectiva dos entrevistados acerca do trabalho como marcador de sua condição de homem e provedor da família. A liderança dos adolescentes prevaleceu no relacionamento com a mãe de seu filho, notadamente na iniciativa das relações sexuais e no uso de contraceptivos. A gravidez foi considerada por eles como "por acaso" e inesperada, mas a paternidade foi vivenciada como uma prova final de sua condição de homens adultos. CONCLUSÕES: Verificou-se a condição de vulnerabilidade dos adolescentes para a paternidade em virtude da socialização de gênero nos moldes tradicionais. Isso foi evidenciado com a ausência dos papéis relativos ao cuidado consigo próprio e com os outros, com a incorporação precoce de papéis de dominação sexual masculina e de trabalhador e pai, ou seja, deixar de ser criança e alcançar a condição de homem.OBJECTIVE: To analyze gender relations perceived by male adolescents and how they contribute to making them more vulnerable to pregnancy during adolescence. METHODS: Qualitative study carried out in Campo Grande, Midwestern Brazil, in 2003. Subjects were 13 male adolescents under 20 years of age, fathers of an only child aged up to 11 months whose mother was in the same

  10. Age and gender specific biokinetic model for strontium in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shagina, N. B.; Tolstykh, E. I.; Degteva, M. O.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2015-03-01

    A biokinetic model for strontium in humans is necessary for quantification of internal doses due to strontium radioisotopes. The ICRP-recommended biokinetic model for strontium has limitation for use in a population study, because it is not gender specific and does not cover all age ranges. The extensive Techa River data set on 90Sr in humans (tens of thousands of measurements) is a unique source of data on long-term strontium retention for men and women of all ages at intake. These, as well as published data, were used for evaluation of age- and gender-specific parameters for a new compartment biokinetic model for strontium (Sr-AGe model). The Sr-AGe model has similar structure as the ICRP model for the alkaline earth elements. The following parameters were mainly reevaluated: gastro-intestinal absorption and parameters related to the processes of bone formation and resorption defining calcium and strontium transfers in skeletal compartments. The Sr-AGe model satisfactorily describes available data sets on strontium retention for different kinds of intake (dietary and intravenous) at different ages (0–80 years old) and demonstrates good agreement with data sets for different ethnic groups. The Sr-AGe model can be used for dose assessment in epidemiological studies of general population exposed to ingested strontium radioisotopes.

  11. Conceptual physics differences by pedagogy and gender: Questioning the deficit model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majors, Twanelle Deann Walker

    The differences in physics performance between males and females have been studied extensively (Blue & Heller, 2003; Coletta, 2015; Madsen, McKagan, & Sayre 2013; McCullough, 2002, 2004, 2011; Pollock, Finkelstein, & Kost, 2007; Zohar & Sela, 2003). The purpose of this study was to look at the ways teaching methods and assessment choices have fabricated a gender gap. Deficit ways of thinking have further marginalized women by renegotiating prior acts of power that initiated and perpetuated marginalization. Outside of the deficit model, the blame for the underperformance of females has been attributed to discourses of power as well as less-than-critical ways of evaluating learning and schooling. Students in introductory algebra-based physics courses from 2008-2014 at Tennessee Technological University were self-enrolled in PHYS2010 sections that were taught using either a traditional or constructivist, interactive-engagement Learner-centered Environment for Algebra-based Physics (LEAP) pedagogy. Propensity scoring on all feasible and relevant independent variables was used to adjust for the probability of students choosing either LEAP or traditional sections. The Force Concept Inventory (FCI) and Gender Force Concept Inventory (GFCI) were used as the measures to gauge students' performance on physics concepts. The results showed that there were no differences in the FCI or GFCI performance of males and females. Results also showed that when accounting for pretest performance and the likelihood of choosing a LEAP section, LEAP pedagogy accounted for roughly 30% of performance differences. Not only was this true on the average, it was true for both genders. This meant that the main effect of LEAP pedagogy was even stronger and more generalizable. Gender did not moderate pedagogy, indicating that a pedagogy gap focus was more appropriate for evaluating physics learners.

  12. Instructor Gender and Student Confidence in the Sciences: A Need for More Role Models?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotner, Sehoya; Ballen, Cissy; Brooks, D. Christopher; Moore, Randy

    2011-01-01

    Women are underrepresented in most scientific disciplines, with achievement gaps expanding throughout the career trajectory. Gender differences in perceptions of scientific competence are evident at an early age. We examined the extent to which college-level instructor gender affects the confidence of males and females in their scientific…

  13. Gender Equality? Attitudes towards Equal Opportunity for Women in Higher Education among Israeli Muslim Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Soen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The basic assumption of the paper is that Israel is practically a bi-national State, where the Arab minority constitutes approximately 20% of the population. The Arab minority is now in an interim state – it is passing from a traditional, collective way of life to a modern, individualistic one. Israeli Arabs recognize the fact that education is the key to socio-economic status. Part of the social change is the growing dominance of women in secondary and higher education in the Arab sector. Women now constitute approximately two thirds of Arab students in the Israeli institutions of higher education. The article sets out to explore the impact of education and religiosity of Israeli Muslim males on their attitudes towards women’s right to pursue higher education. The main finding of the research is the wide support for women’s right to higher education. Religiosity and education of the interviewees have been found to impact their attitudes.

  14. Dose-response analysis of testosterone replacement therapy in patients with female to male gender identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Aya; Watanabe, Masami; Sugimoto, Morito; Sako, Tomoko; Mahmood, Sabina; Kaku, Haruki; Nasu, Yasutomo; Ishii, Kazushi; Nagai, Atsushi; Kumon, Hiromi

    2013-01-01

    Gender identity disorder (GID) is a conflict between a person's actual physical gender and the one they identify him or herself with. Testosterone is the key agent in the medical treatment of female to male GID patients. We conducted a dose-response analysis of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) in 138 patients to determine the onset of the therapeutic effects. The TRT consisted of intramuscular injection of testosterone enanthate and patients were divided into three groups; 250 mg every two weeks, 250 mg every three weeks and 125 mg every two weeks. The onset of deepening of voice, increase in facial hair and cessation of menses was evaluated in each group. At one month after the start of TRT, the onset of these physical changes was more prevalent in the group receiving the higher dose of testosterone, and there were dose-dependent effects observed between the three treatment groups. On the other hand, at six months after the start of TRT, most of the patients had achieved treatment responses and there were no dose-dependent effects with regard to the percentage of patients with therapeutic effects. No significant side effects were observed in any of the treatment groups. We demonstrated that the early onset of the treatment effects of TRT is dose-dependent, but within six months of starting TRT, all three doses were highly effective. Current study provides useful information to determine the initial dose of TRT and to suggest possible changes that should be made in the continuous dosage for long term TRT.

  15. Description of the male of Phoebe ornator (Tippmann, 1960) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Lamiinae: Hemilophini), analysis of the species biogeography, and first observation of chromatic gender dimorphism in Hemilophini.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perger, Robert; Santos-Silva, Antonio; Guerra, Fernando

    2017-04-06

    The male of Phoebe ornator (Tippmann, 1960) is described. Chromatic gender dimorphism is also reported for the first time in the Hemilophini. In addition, new records are presented for P. ornator for the Brazilian states of Amazonas, Mato Grosso, Rondônia and São Paulo, and the Bolivian department of La Paz. The biogeography of P. ornator is analyzed.

  16. He's a Laker; She's a "Looker": The Consequences of Gender- Stereotypical Portrayals of Male and Female Athletes by the Print Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Jennifer L.; Giuliano, Traci A.

    2001-01-01

    Investigated how gender-consistent and -inconsistent portrayals of athletes would affect people's perceptions. College students read fictitious newspaper articles that focused on either a male or female Olympic athlete's physical attractiveness or athleticism. Respondents had neither favorable impressions of nor liked articles about female and…

  17. Construction and Validation of a Survey Instrument to Determine the Gender-Related Challenges Faced by Pre-Service Male Primary Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruickshank, Vaughan; Pedersen, Scott; Hill, Allen; Callingham, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    The gender-related challenges facing males entering the primary-school teaching profession have been well documented in the academic literature over recent decades. The majority of these data have come about through qualitative reports. Whilst qualitative methods provide important perspectives into these issues, the use of valid and reliable…

  18. Saving Our Sons: The Impact of a Single Gender Public School on the Social, Emotional and Academic Progress of Young African American Males from Low Socioeconomic Urban Neighborhoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    African American males consistently perform at significantly lower academic levels, than their peers, at every age level and on almost every national assessment (Lewis, Simon, Uzzell, Horwitz, & Casserly, 2010; Harvey, 2010; Tsoi-A-Fatt, 2010; Fergus & Noguera, 2010), and of all racial/ethnic and gender groups, African American males…

  19. Being "Good in Bed"-Body Concerns, Self-Perceptions, and Gender Expectations Among Swedish Heterosexual Female and Male Senior High-School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmerstig, Eva; Wijma, Barbro; Årestedt, Kristofer; Swahnberg, Katarina

    2017-05-19

    We investigated gender differences regarding body perceptions, self-perceptions, values and expectations in sexual situations, and factors associated with expectations, among Swedish heterosexual female and male high-school students. A total of 2,765 students (aged 18 to 22) completed questionnaires. Women reported lower satisfaction with themselves and their body appearance (p expectations (p expectations during sex.

  20. Gender Discrimination in Death Reportage: Reconnoitering Disparities through a Comparative Analysis of Male and Female Paid Obituaries of Pakistani English Newspapers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Sajid M.; Christopher, Anne A.; Krishnasamy, Hariharan A/L N.

    2014-01-01

    The study examines the issue of gender discrimination in the post death scenario of obituarial discourse. It aims to identify the way Pakistani newspaper obituaries recognize and project males and females after their deaths. A total of 601 paid obituaries published in a year's time span in Pakistani English newspapers were evaluated for the…

  1. On Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, James Q.

    1993-01-01

    Explores differences between males and females and their manifestation in biology and culture. Cultures differ, not in whether they cope with the socialization of males to invest in child rearing, but in how they deal with this problem. Issues of gender and power and gender and child rearing are discussed. (SLD)

  2. Troubling Gender Equality: Revisiting Gender Equality Work in the Famous Nordic Model Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edström, Charlotta; Brunila, Kristiina

    2016-01-01

    This article concerns gender equality work, that is, those educational and workplace activities that involve the promotion of gender equality. It is based on research conducted in Sweden and Finland, and focuses on the period during which the public sector has become more market-oriented and project-based all over the Nordic countries. The…

  3. Sexuality After Cancer: A Model for Male Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Anne; Dizon, Don S

    2016-01-01

    For men with cancer, sexual dysfunction is a common issue and has a negative impact on quality of life, regardless of whether he has a partner. In general, sexuality encompasses much more than intercourse; it involves body image, identity, romantic and sexual attraction, and sexual thoughts and fantasies. Acknowledging that cancer affects multiple physical and psychosocial domains in patients, the authors propose that such changes also inform sexual function for the male survivor. An in-depth review of the literature describing alterations to sexual functioning in men with cancer was undertaken. Based on this and the clinical expertise of the authors, a new model was created and is presented. This biopsychosocial model is intended to expand the understanding of male sexuality beyond a purely biomedical model that addresses dysfunction as distinct from the context of a man's life and sexual identity. Most data on sexual dysfunction in men with cancer are derived from those with a history of prostate cancer, although other data suggest that men with other types of malignancies are similarly affected. Unfortunately, male sexuality is often reduced to aspects of erection and performance. Acknowledging that cancer affects multiple physical and psychosocial domains in patients, the authors propose that such changes also inform sexual function for the male survivor. This biopsychosocial model might form the basis for interventions for sexual problems after cancer that includes a man and his partner as a complex whole. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Toward a Dialectical Model of Family Gender Discourse: Body, Identity, and Sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume, Libby Balter; Blume, Thomas W.

    2003-01-01

    Proposes a dialectical model representing gender discourse in families. A brief review of literature in sociology, psychology, and gender studies focuses on three dialectical issues: nature versus culture, similarity versus difference, and stability versus fluidity. Deconstructing gender theories from a postmodern feminist perspective, the authors…

  5. TROUBLING GENDER EQUALITY: REVISITING GENDER EQUALITY WORK IN THE FAMOUS NORDIC MODEL COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotta Edström

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns gender equality work, that is, those educational and workplace activities that involve the promotion of gender equality. It is based on research conducted in Sweden and Finland, and focuses on the period during which the public sector has become more market-oriented and project-based all over the Nordic countries. The consequences of this development on gender equality work have not yet been thoroughly analysed. Our joint empirical analysis is based on discourse-analytic methodology and two previous empirical studies. By analysing interviews conducted with people involved in gender equality work, this article emphasises the effects of market-oriented and project-based gender equality work in education and working life in Sweden and in Finland. The findings highlight an alliance between projectisation and heteronormativity that acts to regulate how gender equality ought to be talked about in order for its issues to be heard. A persistently constructed ‘remedy’ to ‘the gender equality problem’ is that girls and women are positioned as ‘needing’ to change more than boys and men, by adopting more traditionally ‘masculine manners’ and choosing to work in more ‘masculine sectors’. The findings also show that the constitutive forces of these discourses provide little leeway for critical perspectives.

  6. Male imitations : a look at gender performance and the representation of masculinity in The O.C.

    OpenAIRE

    Tenden, Per Aubrey Bugge

    2007-01-01

    This thesis examines teen soap The O.C. s representation of gender and masculinity. The study employs a social constructivist view of gender, particularly inspired by Judith Butler s work. Moreover, theories on masculinity, masquerade and melodrama, feminist theory and the work of Camille Paglia also make up important theoretical groundwork which this thesis rests on. The main question I structure my thesis around is how gender and masculinity are represented in The O.C through the characters...

  7. The male heart and the female mind: a study in the gendering of antidepressants and cardiovascular drugs in advertisements in Irish medical publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Phillip; O'Brien, Marita

    2006-04-01

    Stereotypes which suggest that cardiovascular disease and depression are related to gender can have consequences for the mental and physical health outcomes of both men and women. This study examines how these stereotypes may be reinforced by medical publications advertising for cardiovascular and antidepressant medication. A random sample of 61 (with no repeats) advertisements which appeared in Irish medical publications between July 2001 and December 2002 were analysed using both content and semiotic analysis. Results indicate that the meanings created by advertisers for cardiovascular drugs and antidepressants did in fact gender these products. Women were depicted as the predominant users of antidepressants and men as the main users of cardiovascular drugs. The images used identified two stereotyped patients: the 'male' heart patient and the depressed 'female' patient. Furthermore, the imagery and language used to promote the two categories of medication tended to strengthen gendered associations.

  8. Patients' Priorities Regarding Female-to-Male Gender Affirmation Surgery of the Genitalia-A Pilot Study of 47 Patients in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsson, Josephine; Andréasson, My; Kölby, Lars; Elander, Anna; Selvaggi, Gennaro

    2017-06-01

    No surgical technique is reported to be the best option for gender-affirmation surgery (GAS) of the genitalia in transmen. Although patients' preferences are central when choosing a surgical technique, no studies have evaluated this factor. To investigate transmen's priorities and preferences regarding GAS of the genitalia. From November 2015 to March 2016, 54 transmen with the diagnosis of gender dysphoria who were referred to Sahlgrenska University Hospital for discussion of therapeutic steps (surgery and hormonal treatments) were asked to complete a questionnaire on different attributes achievable with GAS, such as sexual and urinary function and appearance. Forty-seven patients (87%) completed the questionnaire. Age ranged from 18 to 52 years (mean = 26 years, SD = 7.4 years). At the time of interview, no patient had undergone GAS of the genitalia. Answers to completed questionnaires. Seventy-six percent of patients identified themselves as male, and 24% wrote other terms such as "mostly male," "inter-gender" and "non-binary." Gender identity had a significant impact on patients' preferences for two questions: the importance of vaginal removal and the importance of having a penis that would be passable in places such as male dressing rooms. These items were more important to patients identifying themselves as male. The most important attributes requested were preserved orgasm ability and tactile sensation. The least important attribute was removal of the vagina, followed by having a penis of human material, minimal scarring, and size. The ability to urinate while standing was considered a high priority by some and a low priority by others. All answers ranged from "unimportant" to "imperative." This series of patients demonstrates a considerable heterogeneity among transmen in their gender identity and preferences regarding GAS of the genitalia, which supports the need for several techniques. Patients must be accurately informed on the different techniques and

  9. An Examination of the Gender Inclusiveness of Current Theories of Sexual Violence in Adulthood: Recognizing Male Victims, Female Perpetrators, and Same-Sex Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchik, Jessica A; Hebenstreit, Claire L; Judson, Stephanie S

    2016-04-01

    Although the majority of adulthood sexual violence involves a male perpetrator and a female victim, there is also substantial evidence that members of both genders can be victims and perpetrators of sexual violence. As an alternative to viewing sexual violence within gender-specific terms, we advocate for the use of a gender inclusive conceptualization of sexual aggression that takes into account the factors that contribute to sexual victimization of, and victimization by, both men and women. The goal of the current review is to examine the need and importance of a gender inclusive conceptualization of sexual violence and to discuss how compatible our current theories are with this conceptualization. First, we examine evidence of how a gender-specific conceptualization of sexual violence aids in obscuring assault experiences that are not male to female and how this impacts victims of such violence. We specifically discuss this impact regarding research, law, public awareness, advocacy, and available victim treatment and resources. Next, we provide an overview of a number of major sexual violence theories that are relevant for adult perpetrators and adult victims, including neurobiological and integrated biological theories, evolutionary psychology theory, routine activity theory, feminist theory, social learning and related theories, typology approaches, and integrated theories. We critically examine these theories' applicability to thinking about sexual violence through a gender inclusive lens. Finally, we discuss further directions for research, clinical interventions, and advocacy in this area. Specifically, we encourage sexual violence researchers and clinicians to identify and utilize appropriate theoretical frameworks and to apply these frameworks in ways that incorporate a full range of sexual violence.

  10. Modelling the Progression of Male Swimmers’ Performances through Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilo J. Dormehl

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Insufficient data on adolescent athletes is contributing to the challenges facing youth athletic development and accurate talent identification. The purpose of this study was to model the progression of male sub-elite swimmers’ performances during adolescence. The performances of 446 males (12–19 year olds competing in seven individual events (50, 100, 200 m freestyle, 100 m backstroke, breaststroke, butterfly, 200 m individual medley over an eight-year period at an annual international schools swimming championship, run under FINA regulations were collected. Quadratic functions for each event were determined using mixed linear models. Thresholds of peak performance were achieved between the ages of 18.5 ± 0.1 (50 m freestyle and 200 m individual medley and 19.8 ± 0.1 (100 m butterfly years. The slowest rate of improvement was observed in the 200 m individual medley (20.7% and the highest in the 100 m butterfly (26.2%. Butterfly does however appear to be one of the last strokes in which males specialise. The models may be useful as talent identification tools, as they predict the age at which an average sub-elite swimmer could potentially peak. The expected rate of improvement could serve as a tool in which to monitor and evaluate benchmarks.

  11. The impact of gender demography on male and female role interpretations and contributions: A qualitative study of non-executive directors of Icelandic boards

    OpenAIRE

    Jonsdottir, Thoranna

    2010-01-01

    This thesis, submitted for the Cranfield DBA programme, examines and explores the impact of gender demography on male and female director’s role interpretations and contributions. The study was inspired by the scarcity of females on corporate boards and a desire to seek an understanding of how women and men contribute to boards. The study brings together the literature on females on boards, and on board roles and processes, revealing that both bodies of literature could benefit from more in-...

  12. Behavioural and Cognitive Sex/Gender Differences in Autism Spectrum Condition and Typically Developing Males and Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Laura; Mandy, William; Petrides, K. V.

    2017-01-01

    Studies assessing sex/gender differences in autism spectrum conditions often fail to include typically developing control groups. It is, therefore, unclear whether observed sex/gender differences reflect those found in the general population or are particular to autism spectrum conditions. A systematic search identified articles comparing…

  13. Gender Identity in a Second Language: The Use of First Person Pronouns by Male Learners of Japanese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lucien; Cheek, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    This is a qualitative sociocultural study examining how five advanced-level learners of Japanese from the United States use gendered first person pronouns to negotiate their identities. Japanese does not have a ubiquitous pronoun such as English "I." Instead, the language contains forms that are marked for formality and gender, including…

  14. Gender differences in multiple sclerosis : induction of estrogen signaling in male and progesterone signaling in female lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luchetti, Sabina; van Eden, Corbert G; Schuurman, Karianne; van Strien, Miriam E; Swaab, Dick F; Huitinga, Inge

    2014-01-01

    The basis of gender differences in the prevalence and clinical progression of multiple sclerosis (MS) is not understood. Here, we identify gender-specific responses in steroid synthesis and signaling in the brains of MS patients as possible contributors to these differences. We investigated gene exp

  15. COUNTRY-LEVEL SOCIOECONOMIC INDICATORS ASSOCIATED WITH SURVIVAL PROBABILITY OF BECOMING A CENTENARIAN AMONG OLDER EUROPEAN ADULTS: GENDER INEQUALITY, MALE LABOUR FORCE PARTICIPATION AND PROPORTIONS OF WOMEN IN PARLIAMENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong In; Kim, Gukbin

    2017-03-01

    This study confirms an association between survival probability of becoming a centenarian (SPBC) for those aged 65 to 69 and country-level socioeconomic indicators in Europe: the gender inequality index (GII), male labour force participation (MLP) rates and proportions of seats held by women in national parliaments (PWP). The analysis was based on SPBC data from 34 countries obtained from the United Nations (UN). Country-level socioeconomic indicator data were obtained from the UN and World Bank databases. The associations between socioeconomic indicators and SPBC were assessed using correlation coefficients and multivariate regression models. The findings show significant correlations between the SPBC for women and men aged 65 to 69 and country-level socioeconomic indicators: GII (r=-0.674, p=0.001), MLP (r=0.514, p=0.002) and PWP (r=0.498, p=0.003). The SPBC predictors for women and men were lower GIIs and higher MLP and PWP (R 2=0.508, p=0.001). Country-level socioeconomic indicators appear to have an important effect on the probability of becoming a centenarian in European adults aged 65 to 69. Country-level gender equality policies in European counties may decrease the risk of unhealthy old age and increase longevity in elders through greater national gender equality; disparities in GII and other country-level socioeconomic indicators impact longevity probability. National longevity strategies should target country-level gender inequality.

  16. A cognitive-perceptual model of symptom perception in males and females: the roles of negative affect, selective attention, health anxiety and psychological job demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Laura; Fairclough, Stephen H; Poole, Helen M

    2013-06-01

    Kolk et al.'s model of symptom perception underlines the effects of trait negative affect, selective attention and external stressors. The current study tested this model in 263 males and 498 females from an occupational sample. Trait negative affect was associated with symptom reporting in females only, and selective attention and psychological job demands were associated with symptom reporting in both genders. Health anxiety was associated with symptom reporting in males only. Future studies might consider the inclusion of selective attention, which was more strongly associated with symptom reporting than negative affect. Psychological job demands appear to influence symptom reporting in both males and females.

  17. Male and Female Sexual Dysfunction in a Rapidly Changing Cultural Environment: Addressing Gender Equality versus Equivalence in the Bedroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Marianne; Morgentaler, Abraham

    2016-04-01

    The socio-sexual climate in Western cultures is changing at an astounding rate. Never before have societal expectations about gender roles shifted so radically, transforming our understanding of what it means to be a sexual man or woman today. We have observed that confusion regarding masculine and feminine roles within long-term committed relationships can represent challenges for the treatment of sexual dysfunction. Despite the relevance to sexual medicine, sexual medicine specialists have largely avoided this controversial topic. To review the current literature relating to heterosexual gender roles and sexual intimacy, to offer perspective and context on this issue, and to propose an approach to the man, woman, or couple based in evolutionary theory that we have found useful in our extensive clinical experiences. We reviewed the English-language peer-reviewed literature, primarily from 2000 through 2015, that addressed the impact of heterosexual gender role expression on sexual intimacy in long-term committed relationships. Main outcomes include a review of the applicable literature and an assessment of the literature's relevance for patients and practitioners of sexual medicine. An alternative context for understanding heterosexual gender expression grounded in evolutionary theory is provided, as is a new treatment perspective based on our work as a sex therapist and an urologist. The impact of gender expression on sexual experience might be impossible to ascertain fully because it is difficult to quantify in research, independently and especially in combination. Furthermore, existing research is fraught with challenges and inadequacies. Although we acknowledge and affirm the critical importance of gender equality, modern conceptualizations of gender in the literature ignore pertinent evolutionary adaptations and might be minimally applicable to sexual medicine patients. More research is needed. We propose that equality of genders does not necessarily mean

  18. Scientist Role Models in the Classroom: How Important Is Gender Matching?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Laura D. Carsten; Danielson, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Gender-matched role models are often proposed as a mechanism to increase identification with science among girls, with the ultimate aim of broadening participation in science. While there is a great deal of evidence suggesting that role models can be effective, there is mixed support in the literature for the importance of gender matching. We used…

  19. Mathematics and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennema, Elizabeth, Ed.; Leder, Gilah C., Ed.

    This book reports on various studies that have increased our understanding of why females and males learn different kinds and amounts of mathematics. In particular, this book explicates the Autonomous Learning Behavior model, proposed by Fennema and Peterson, which is a possible explanation of the development of gender differences in mathematics.…

  20. Birth weight and two possible types of maternal effects on male sexual orientation: a clinical study of children and adolescents referred to a Gender Identity Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderLaan, Doug P; Blanchard, Ray; Wood, Hayley; Garzon, Luisa C; Zucker, Kenneth J

    2015-01-01

    This study tested predictions regarding two hypothesized maternal immune responses influencing sexual orientation: one affecting homosexual males with high fraternal birth order and another affecting firstborn homosexual individuals whose mothers experience repeated miscarriage after the birth of the first child. Low birth weight was treated as a marker of possible exposure to a maternal immune response during gestation. Birth weight was examined relative to sibship characteristics in a clinical sample of youth (N = 1,722) classified as heterosexual or homosexual based on self-reported or probable sexual orientation. No female sexual orientation differences in birth weight were found. Homosexual, compared to heterosexual, males showed lower birth weight if they had one or more older brothers--and especially two or more older brothers--or if they were an only-child. These findings support the existence of two maternal immune responses influencing male sexual orientation and possibly also cross-gender behavior and identity. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Experimental autoimmune orchitis as a model of immunological male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Munekazu; Terayama, Hayato; Hirai, Shuichi; Qu, Ning; Lustig, Livia; Itoh, Masahiro

    2012-12-01

    Clinically, 60-75% of male infertility cases are categorized as idiopathic spermatogenic disturbance. In previous studies of this condition, lymphocytic infiltration and immune deposits were present in several testis biopsy specimens, indicating that inflammatory or immunological factors contribute to the occurrence of the lesions. However, there is currently little evidence regarding immunological infertility in men. Previously, we established an immunological infertility model, experimental autoimmune orchitis (EAO), that can be induced in mice by two subcutaneous injections of viable syngeneic testicular germ cells without the use of any adjuvant. In this EAO model, lymphocytes surround the tubuli recti and then induce spermatogenic disturbance. In addition, after the active inflammation stage of this model, the seminiferous epithelium is damaged irreversibly, resembling the histopathology of human male idiopathic spermatogenic disturbance. In the majority of patients with testicular autoimmunity, there is a chronic and asymptomatic development of the inflammatory reaction. Therefore, this disease is very difficult to diagnose at the ongoing stage, and it is possible that the histopathology of idiopathic spermatogenic disturbance in the clinic is reported at the post-active inflammation stage of autoimmune orchitis. In this review, the histopathology of EAO before and after inflammation is discussed, comparing it with human orchitis.

  2. The Role Model Effect on Gender Equity: How are Female College Students Influenced by Female Teaching Assistants in Science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Darilyn

    The gender gap of women in science is an important and unresolved issue in higher education and occupational opportunities. The present study was motivated by the fact that there are typically fewer females than males advancing in science, and therefore fewer female science instructor role models. This observation inspired the questions: Are female college students influenced in a positive way by female science teaching assistants (TAs), and if so how can their influence be measured? The study tested the hypothesis that female TAs act as role models for female students and thereby encourage interest and increase overall performance. To test this "role model" hypothesis, the reasoning ability and self-efficacy of a sample of 724 introductory college biology students were assessed at the beginning and end of the Spring 2010 semester. Achievement was measured by exams and course work. Performance of four randomly formed groups was compared: 1) female students with female TAs, 2) male students with female TAs, 3) female students with male TAs, and 4) male students with male TAs. Based on the role model hypothesis, female students with female TAs were predicted to perform better than female students with male TAs. However, group comparisons revealed similar performances across all four groups in achievement, reasoning ability and self-efficacy. The slight differences found between the four groups in student exam and coursework scores were not statistically significant. Therefore, the results did not support the role model hypothesis. Given that both lecture professors in the present study were males, and given that professors typically have more teaching experience, finer skills and knowledge of subject matter than do TAs, a future study that includes both female science professors and female TAs, may be more likely to find support for the hypothesis.

  3. Why Are Males Bad for Females? Models for the Evolution of Damaging Male Mating Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lessells, C.M.

    2005-01-01

    One explanation for the cost to mating for females caused by damaging male mating behavior is that this causes the females to adaptively modify their subsequent life histories in a way that also increases male fitness. This might occur because the reduction in residual reproductive value of the fema

  4. Communicating under medical patriarchy: gendered doctor-patient communication between female patients with overactive bladder and male urologists in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Judy Yuen-Man

    2015-05-29

    Gender differences between patients and doctors markedly influence the quality of communication in treatment processes. Previous studies have shown that communication between patients and doctors of the same gender is usually more satisfactory, particularly for female patients. However, in Hong Kong, where urology is a male-dominated specialty, female patients typically require medical care from male doctors for diseases such as overactive bladder (OAB). The literature about gender-related doctor-patient communication predominantly involves people in non-Chinese communities, with few studies conducted with Chinese populations. However, the differences between Western and Chinese cultures are expected to result in different treatment and communication experiences. Furthermore, OAB has received little attention in many Chinese communities; few studies in the literature address the communication quality between OAB patients and their urologists in Chinese communities, particularly regarding female OAB patients' experiences when seeking treatment from male urologists. This study, therefore, investigated the doctor-patient communication between female OAB patients and male urologists in Hong Kong. This study adopted a qualitative research approach by conducting semistructured interviews with 30 female OAB patients on an individual basis from April 2012 to July 2012. The participants were purposively sampled from a patient self-help group for OAB patients in Hong Kong. The participants' communication experiences with male urologists were unpleasant. Embarrassment, feelings of not being treated seriously, not being understood, and not being given the autonomy to choose treatment approaches prevailed among the participants. Furthermore, the perceived lack of empathy from their urologists made the participants' communication experiences unpleasant. The gender and power differential between the participants and their urologists, which was contributed by the social and

  5. Gender equality and women's absolute status: a test of the feminist models of rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Kimberly; Vieraitis, Lynne M; Britto, Sarah

    2006-04-01

    Feminist theory predicts both a positive and negative relationship between gender equality and rape rates. Although liberal and radical feminist theory predicts that gender equality should ameliorate rape victimization, radical feminist theorists have argued that gender equality may increase rape in the form of male backlash. Alternatively, Marxist criminologists focus on women's absolute socioeconomic status rather than gender equality as a predictor of rape rates, whereas socialist feminists combine both radical and Marxist perspectives. This study uses factor analysis to overcome multicollinearity limitations of past studies while exploring the relationship between women's absolute and relative socioeconomic status on rape rates in major U.S. cities using 2000 census data. The findings indicate support for both the Marxist and radical feminist explanations of rape but no support for the ameliorative hypothesis. These findings support a more inclusive socialist feminist theory that takes both Marxist and radical feminist hypotheses into account.

  6. Syntactic Gender Processing in the Human Brain: A Review and a Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    Despite the increasing number of neuroimaging studies of syntactic gender processing no model is currently available that includes data from visual and auditory language comprehension and language production. This paper provides a systematic review of the neural correlates of syntactic gender processing. Based on anatomical information from…

  7. "Someone like Me Can Be Successful": Do College Students Need Same-Gender Role Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Penelope

    2006-01-01

    Two studies examined the extent to which matching on gender determines the impact of career role models on the self. Because women face negative stereotypes regarding their competence in the workplace, they may derive particular benefit from the example of an outstanding woman who illustrates the possibility of overcoming gender barriers to…

  8. "Someone like Me Can Be Successful": Do College Students Need Same-Gender Role Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Penelope

    2006-01-01

    Two studies examined the extent to which matching on gender determines the impact of career role models on the self. Because women face negative stereotypes regarding their competence in the workplace, they may derive particular benefit from the example of an outstanding woman who illustrates the possibility of overcoming gender barriers to…

  9. Biographic Characteristics and Factors Perceived as Affecting Female and Male Careers in Academic Surgery: The Tenured Gender Battle to Make It to the Top.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Laura; Sippel, Sonia; Entwistle, Andrew; Hell, Anna Kathrin; Koenig, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Given the high attrition rate in the field of academic surgery, we aimed to characterise the professional and personal situations of female and male academic surgeons as well as to gather data on their respective perceptions of career advancement and work satisfaction. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in Germany, inviting all identifiable academically highly qualified female surgeons and their male counterparts in a 1:2 ratio to participate. An anonymous 103-item online questionnaire was designed and the data collected between July and September 2014. The questionnaire was sent to 93 female and 200 male surgeons, of whom 63 women (67.7%) and 70 men (35.0%) replied. The average age was 47.5 and 47.1 years, respectively. Respondents identified 'high degree of expertise', 'ambition', and 'clarity of one's professional aims' as important factors affecting professional career development. Both groups felt 'workload', 'working hours/shifts', and 'gender' to be a hindrance, the latter of significantly greater importance to female surgeons. The mean work satisfaction scores were high in both female (69.5%) and male (75.7%) surgeons. The predictors 'support from superiors' (standardised β coefficient = 0.41) and 'manual aptitude' (β = 0.41) contributed incrementally to the variance in 'high degree of work satisfaction' (90-100%) observed for female surgeons. However, childcare provided by 'kindergarten/crèche/after-school care' had the greatest negative predictive value (β = -1.33). Although there are many parallels, female faculty members experience the culture of academic surgery to some extent differently from their male counterparts, especially when impacted by parenthood and childcare. Faculty development programmes need to develop strategies to improve perceived equality in career opportunities by respecting individuals' requirements as well as offering gender-appropriate career guidance. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Highly sensitive C-reactive protein and male gender are independently related to the severity of coronary disease in patients with metabolic syndrome and an acute coronary event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M.C. Monteiro

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Patients with metabolic syndrome are at high-risk for development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events. The objective of this study was to examine the major determinants of coronary disease severity, including those coronary risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome, during the early period after an acute coronary episode. We tested the hypothesis that inflammatory markers, especially highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP, are related to coronary atherosclerosis, in addition to traditional coronary risk factors. Subjects of both genders aged 30 to 75 years (N = 116 were prospectively included if they had suffered a recent acute coronary syndrome (acute myocardial infarction or unstable angina pectoris requiring hospitalization and if they had metabolic syndrome diagnosed according to the National Cholesterol Education Program/Adult Treatment Panel III. Patients were submitted to a coronary angiography and the burden of atherosclerosis was estimated by the Gensini score. The severity of coronary disease was correlated (Spearman’s or Pearson’s coefficient with gender (r = 0.291, P = 0.008, age (r = 0.218, P = 0.048, hsCRP (r = 0.256, P = 0.020, ApoB/ApoA ratio (r = 0.233, P = 0.041, and carotid intima-media thickness (r = 0.236, P = 0.041. After multiple linear regression, only male gender (P = 0.046 and hsCRP (P = 0.012 remained independently associated with the Gensini score. In this high-risk population, male gender and high levels of hsCRP, two variables that can be easily obtained, were associated with more extensive coronary disease, identifying patients with the highest potential of developing new coronary events.

  11. Characterization of a behaviorally active, gender-specific volatile compound from the male asparagus fly Plioreocepta poeciloptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibout, E; Arnault, I; Auger, J; Petersen, K S; Oliver, J E

    2005-04-01

    Adult male asparagus flies exhibit typical calling behaviors (suggestive of pheromone production) during which they emit a single volatile compound that was identified as isopropyl (S)-5-hydroxyhexanoate. In laboratory bioassays, synthetic samples elicited an arrestant response in females, but did not appear to attract females. On the other hand, the synthetic material attracted conspecific males in olfactometer bioassays.

  12. Gender and Linguistic Ideology: A Re-Examination of Directive Usage by Japanese Male Superiors in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Junko

    2009-01-01

    This study examines Japanese male superiors' linguistic practices in an institutional setting in Japan, in particular focusing on directive usage. It quantitatively and qualitatively elucidates how seven male superiors in a workplace, which is located in the Tokyo area, employ diverse linguistic resources in directive discourse so as to persuade…

  13. A Mediational Model Explaining the Connection Between Religiosity and Anti-Homosexual Attitudes in Italy: The Effects of Male Role Endorsement and Homosexual Stereotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piumatti, Giovanni

    2017-01-31

    This study aimed to better understand the relationship between religiosity and anti-homosexual attitudes in Italy by examining the mediation effects of male role endorsement and homosexual stereotyping. A sample of 5,522 Italian residents (age range = 18-74) was drawn from a cross-sectional national representative survey carried out in 2011. Measures included general religiosity, male role endorsement, homosexual stereotyping, social acceptance of homosexuality, and homosexual rights endorsement. Structural equation modeling was used to test the mediational effects of male role endorsement and homosexual stereotyping on the relationship between general religiosity and attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. Results showed that both male role endorsement and homosexual stereotyping partially mediated the relationship. In a model where religiosity and both mediators positively explained anti-homosexual attitudes, male role endorsement was the strongest mediator. Endorsement of gender role beliefs and homosexual stereotyping may thus exacerbate the connection between religiosity and anti-homosexual attitudes among Italians.

  14. Cultural Differences in Face-ism: Male Politicians Have Bigger Heads in More Gender-Equal Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrath, Sara; Au, Josephine; Ramsey, Laura R.

    2012-01-01

    Women are visually depicted with lower facial prominence than men, with consequences for perceptions of their competence. The current study examines the relationship between the size of this "face-ism" bias (i.e., individual or micro-level sexism) and a number of gender inequality indicators (i.e., institutional or macro-level sexism) at the…

  15. Male-typical visuospatial functioning in gynephilic girls with gender dysphoria - organizational and activational effects of testosterone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burke, Sarah M; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Veltman, Dick J; Klink, Daniel T; Bakker, J.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sex differences in performance and regional brain activity during mental rotation have been reported repeatedly and reflect organizational and activational effects of sex hormones. We investigated whether adolescent girls with gender dysphoria (GD), before and after 10 months of testoste

  16. Varieties of male-sexual-identity development in clinical practice: a neuropsychoanalytic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stortelder, Frans

    2014-01-01

    Variations of sexual identity development are present in all cultures, as well as in many animal species. Freud - founding father of psychoanalysis - believed that all men have an inherited, bisexual disposition, and that many varieties of love and desire are experienced as alternative pathways to intimacy. In the neuropsychoanalytic model, psychic development starts with the constitutional self. The constitutional self is comprised of the neurobiological factors which contribute to sexual identity development. These neurobiological factors are focused on biphasic sexual organization in the prenatal phase, based on variations in genes, sex hormones, and brain circuits. This psychosocial construction of sexual identity is determined through contingent mirroring by the parents and peers of the constitutional self. The development of the self-or personal identity-is linked with the development of sexual identity, gender-role identity, and procreative identity. Incongruent mirroring of the constitutional self causes alienation in the development of the self. Such alienation can be treated within the psychoanalytic relationship. This article presents a contemporary, neuropsychoanalytic, developmental theory of male-sexual identity relating to varieties in male-sexual-identity development, with implications for psychoanalytic treatment, and is illustrated with three vignettes from clinical practice.

  17. Never Quit: The Complexities of Promoting Social and Academic Excellence at a Single-Gender School for Urban African American Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon C. James

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the experiences of urban African American males at a first year single-gender charter school in the Southern region of the United States. The present case study was based on interviews and focus groups with parents, teachers, students, and the school administrator, and a participant observation of Excel Academy [pseudonym]. The findings of this study suggest that there were four critical instructional complexities that emerged: expectations dissonance, disguised engagement, differential engagement, and expectations overload. Remarkably, these issues were being addressed by a school value created by students and institutionalized by teachers--To Never Quit. Recommendations to address each instructional complexity are explored.

  18. Engaging men and women as allies: a workplace curriculum module to challenge gender norms about domestic violence, male bullying and workplace violence and encourage ally behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, K C; Yates, Diane; Walcott, Quentin

    2012-01-01

    This post-hoc analysis discusses a replicable workplace behavior change module called Men and Women As Allies, that was designed and implemented by a team of labor, management and community anti-violence educators at a private sector telecommunications employer. A job site-specific educational seminar linked issues of domestic violence to male bullying and workplace violence. It challenged social stereotypes about gender, taught skills to engage ally peer behavior and provided information on how to seek assistance from union, workplace and external community resources.

  19. On the Leaky Math Pipeline: Comparing Implicit Math-Gender Stereotypes and Math Withdrawal in Female and Male Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, Melanie C.; Jelenec, Petra; Noack, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Many models assume that habitual human behavior is guided by spontaneous, automatic, or implicit processes rather than by deliberate, rule-based, or explicit processes. Thus, math-ability self-concepts and math performance could be related to implicit math-gender stereotypes in addition to explicit stereotypes. Two studies assessed at what age…

  20. On the Leaky Math Pipeline: Comparing Implicit Math-Gender Stereotypes and Math Withdrawal in Female and Male Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, Melanie C.; Jelenec, Petra; Noack, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Many models assume that habitual human behavior is guided by spontaneous, automatic, or implicit processes rather than by deliberate, rule-based, or explicit processes. Thus, math-ability self-concepts and math performance could be related to implicit math-gender stereotypes in addition to explicit stereotypes. Two studies assessed at what age…

  1. Metabolomic profiles are gender, disease and time specific in the interleukin-10 gene-deficient mouse model of inflammatory bowel disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor K Tso

    Full Text Available Metabolomic profiling can be used to study disease-induced changes in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD. The aim of this study was to investigate the difference in the metabolomic profile of males and females as they developed IBD. Using the IL-10 gene-deficient mouse model of IBD and wild-type mice, urine at age 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, and 20 weeks was collected and analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy. Multivariate data analysis was employed to assess differences in metabolomic profiles that occurred as a consequence of IBD development and severity (at week 20. These changes were contrasted to those that occurred as a consequence of gender. Our results demonstrate that both IL-10 gene-deficient and wild-type mice exhibit gender-related changes in urinary metabolomic profile over time. Some male-female separating metabolites are common to both IL-10 gene-deficient and control wild-type mice and, therefore, appear to be related predominantly to gender maturation. In addition, we were able to identify gender-separating metabolites that are unique for IL-10 gene-deficient and wild-type mice and, therefore, may be indicative of a gender-specific involvement in the development and severity of the intestinal inflammation. The comparison of the gender-separating metabolomic profile from IL-10 gene-deficient mice and wild-type mice during the development of IBD allowed us to identify changes in profile patterns that appear to be imperative in the development of intestinal inflammation, but yet central to gender-related differences in IBD development. The knowledge of metabolomic profile differences by gender and by disease severity has potential clinical implications in the design of both biomarkers of disease as well as the development of optimal therapies.

  2. Agricultural Technology, Risk, and Gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Tarp, Finn

    2000-01-01

    Interactions between agricultural technology improvements, risk-reducing behavior, and gender roles in agricultural production in Mozambique are examined. The analysis employs a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model that explicitly incorporates key features of the economy. These include......: detailed accounting of marketing margins, home consumption, risk, and gender roles in agricultural production. Our results show that agricultural technology improvements benefit both male and female occupants of rural households. Due to economic interactions, agricultural technology improvements...

  3. Using the Job-Demands-Resources model to predict turnover in the information technology workforce – General effects and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hoonakker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available High employee turnover has always been a major issue for Information Technology (IT. In particular, turnover of women is very high. In this study, we used the Job Demand/Resources (JD-R model to examine the relationship between job demands and job resources, stress/burnout and job satisfaction/commitment, and turnover intention and tested the model for gender differences. Data were collected in five IT companies. A sample of 624 respondents (return rate: 56%; 54% males; mean age: 39.7 years was available for statistical analyses. Results of our study show that relationships between job demands and turnover intention are mediated by emotional exhaustion (burnout and relationships between job resources and turnover intention are mediated by job satisfaction. We found noticeable gender differences in these relationships, which can explain differences in turnover intention between male and female employees. The results of our study have consequences for organizational retention strategies to keep men and women in the IT work force.

  4. The Dynamic Range for Korean Standard Sentence Material: A Gender Comparison in a Male and a Female Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyeong-Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives The purpose of this study was to identify differences between the dynamic ranges (DRs) of male and female speakers using Korean standard sentence material. Consideration was especially given to effects within the predefined segmentalized frequency-bands. Materials and Methods We used Korean standard sentence lists for adults as stimuli. Each sentence was normalized to a root-mean-square of 65 dB sound pressure level. The sentences were then modified to ensure there were no pauses, and the modified sentences were passed through a filter bank in order to perform the frequency analysis. Finally, the DR was quantified using a histogram that showed the cumulative envelope distribution levels of the speech in each frequency band. Results In DRs that were averaged across all frequency bands, there were no significant differences between the male and the female speakers. However, when considering effects within the predefined frequency bands, there were significant differences in several frequency bands between the DRs of male speech and those of female speech. Conclusions This study shows that the DR of speech for the male speaker differed from the female speaker in nine frequency bands among 21 frequency bands. These observed differences suggest that a standardized DR of male speech in the band-audibility function of the speech intelligibility index may differ from that of female speech derived in the same way. Further studies are required to derive standardized DRs for Korean speakers. PMID:26413576

  5. The effects of stereotypes of women's performance in male-dominated hierarchies: Stereotype threat activation and reduction through role models

    OpenAIRE

    Latu, V.; Schmid Mast, M.

    2015-01-01

    Despite recent progress in increasing gender equality in organizations, workplace hierarchies remain male-dominated in most domains. We discuss how gender stereotypes contribute to holding women back in leadership and workplace domains and how we can reduce the negative effects of gender stereotypes. In the first part of the chapter we discuss how awareness of negative stereotypes of women in leadership can decrease women's performance and self-related cognitions in leadership tasks such as m...

  6. Effect of Meat Price on Race and Gender Disparities in Obesity, Mortality and Quality of Life in the US: A Model-Based Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, Allison; Bendavid, Eran

    2017-01-01

    Introduction There are large differences in the burden and health implications of obesity by race and gender in the US. It is unclear to what extent policies modifying caloric consumption change the distribution of the burden of obesity and related health outcomes. Meat is a large component of the American diet. We investigate how changing meat prices (that may result from policies or from exogenous factors that reduce supply) might impact the burden of obesity by race and gender. Methods We construct a microsimulation model that evaluates the 15-year body-mass index (BMI) and mortality impact of changes in meat price (5, 10, 25, and 50% increase) in the US adult population stratified by age, gender, race, and BMI. Results Under each price change evaluated, relative to the status quo, white males, black males, and black females are expected to realize more dramatic reduction in 2030 obesity prevalence than white females. Life expectancy gains are also projected to differ by subpopulation, with black males far less likely to benefit from an increase in meat prices than other groups. Conclusions Changing meat prices has considerable potential to affect population health differently by race and gender. In designing interventions that alter the price of foods to consumers, it is not sufficient to assess health effects based solely on the population as a whole, since differential effects across subpopulations may be substantial. PMID:28045931

  7. Local Feature based Gender Independent Bangla ASR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulbul Ahamed

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an automatic speech recognition (ASR for Bangla (widely used as Bengali by suppressing the speaker gender types based on local features extracted from an input speech. Speaker-specific characteristics play an important role on the performance of Bangla automatic speech recognition (ASR. Gender factor shows adverse effect in the classifier while recognizing a speech by an opposite gender, such as, training a classifier by male but testing is done by female or vice-versa. To obtain a robust ASR system in practice it is necessary to invent a system that incorporates gender independent effect for particular gender. In this paper, we have proposed a Gender-Independent technique for ASR that focused on a gender factor. The proposed method trains the classifier with the both types of gender, male and female, and evaluates the classifier for the male and female. For the experiments, we have designed a medium size Bangla (widely known as Bengali speech corpus for both the male and female.The proposed system has showed a significant improvement of word correct rates, word accuracies and sentence correct rates in comparison with the method that suffers from gender effects using. Moreover, it provides the highest level recognition performance by taking a fewer mixture component in hidden Markov model (HMMs.

  8. Modeling Manhood: Reimagining Black Male Identities in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givens, Jarvis R.; Nasir, Na'ilah; ross, kihana; de Royston, Maxine McKinney

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the process by which stereotypical mainstream representations of black males (as hard, as anti-school, and as disconnected from the domestic sphere) were reimagined in all-black, all-male manhood development classes for 9th graders in urban public high schools. Findings show that instructors debunked stereotypes and created new…

  9. Gender discrimination, gender disparities in obesity and human development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, Fabrizio; Mariani, Michele

    2017-03-01

    Measuring gender inequality and women's empowerment is essential to understand the determinants of gender gaps, evaluate policies and monitor countries' progress. With this aim, over the past two decades, research has mainly been directed towards the development of composite indices. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new and interdisciplinary perspective to the current debate on measuring gender inequality in human development. As a starting point, we develop a simple macroeconomic model of the interdependence between human development and gender inequality. We then introduce a biometric indicator, based on the ratio of female to male body mass index, to measure women's empowerment at the country level. Finally, by using the latest available data, we examine the ability of this biometric indicator to capture countries' performance in achieving gender equality. We obtain five main results: 1) we provide a theoretical framework to explain the joint determination of human development and gender inequality; 2) we show how to use this framework to simulate the impact of exogenous shocks or policy changes; 3) we demonstrate that exogenous changes have a direct and a multiplier effect on human development and gender inequality; 4) we find that the distribution of obesity between the female and male populations represents a useful proxy variable for measuring gender equality at the country level; 5) finally, we use these results to integrate and develop existing knowledge on the 'ecological' approach to the overweight and obesity pandemic.

  10. Bridging Multidimensional Models of Ethnic-Racial and Gender Identity Among Ethnically Diverse Emerging Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Antoinette R; Leaper, Campbell

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to integrate and validate a multidimensional model of ethnic-racial identity and gender identity borrowing constructs and measures based on social identity and gender identity theories. Participants included 662 emerging adults (M age  = 19.86 years; 75 % female) who self-identified either as Asian American, Latino/a, or White European American. We assessed the following facets separately for ethnic-racial identity and gender identity: centrality, in-group affect, in-group ties, self-perceived typicality, and felt conformity pressure. Within each identity domain (gender or ethnicity/race), the five dimensions generally indicated small-to-moderate correlations with one another. Also, correlations between domains for each dimension (e.g., gender typicality and ethnic-racial typicality) were mostly moderate in magnitude. We also noted some group variations based on participants' ethnicity/race and gender in how strongly particular dimensions were associated with self-esteem. Finally, participants who scored positively on identity dimensions for both gender and ethnic-racial domains indicated higher self-esteem than those who scored high in only one domain or low in both domains. We recommend the application of multidimensional models to study social identities in multiple domains as they may relate to various outcomes during development.

  11. The Lure of Hegemonic Masculinity: Investigating the Dynamics of Gender Relations in Two Male Elementary School Teachers' Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    This paper is based on an investigation into the dynamics of masculinity in two male elementary school teachers' lives. It draws on a poststructuralist approach to empirical analysis that is informed by Sondergaard who argues for the need to attend to the "constitution of social practices and cultural patterns" through which subjects…

  12. Gender differences in self-reported physical and psychosocial exposures in jobs with both female and male workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooftman, W.E.; Beek, A.J. van der; Bongers, P.M.; Mechelen, W. van

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The aim was to determine whether men and women with the same job are equally exposed to work-related physical and psychosocial risk factors for musculoskeletal complaints. Methods: Men (n = 491) and women (n = 342) in 8 jobs with both female and male workers completed a questionnaire on e

  13. Procrastination and suicide proneness: A moderated-mediation model for cognitive schemas and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klibert, Jeffrey; LeLeux-LaBarge, Kayla; Tarantino, Nicholas; Yancey, Thresa; Lamis, Dorian A

    2016-07-01

    This study examined the direct and indirect paths between procrastination and suicide proneness while considering gender differences. Participants included 547 undergraduates from a southeastern university. Procrastination was positively related to suicide proneness for both genders, although this relation was stronger for women. Moderated-mediation analyses with bootstrapping highlighted insufficient self-control schemas as a mediator in the relation between procrastination and suicide proneness. However, indirect pathways did not vary by gender. Results represent an extension of the Procrastination-Health Model by highlighting the contribution of cognitive factors in explaining the relation between procrastination and suicide proneness.

  14. Genetic-gonadal-genitals sex (3G-sex and the misconception of brain and gender, or, why 3G-males and 3G-females have intersex brain and intersex gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Daphna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The categorization of individuals as “male” or “female” is based on chromosome complement and gonadal and genital phenotype. This combined genetic-gonadal-genitals sex, here referred to as 3G-sex, is internally consistent in ~99% of humans (i.e., one has either the “female” form at all levels, or the “male” form at all levels. About 1% of the human population is identified as “intersex” because of either having an intermediate form at one or more levels, or having the “male” form at some levels and the “female” form at other levels. These two types of “intersex” reflect the facts, respectively, that the different levels of 3G-sex are not completely dimorphic nor perfectly consistent. Using 3G-sex as a model to understand sex differences in other domains (e.g., brain, behavior leads to the erroneous assumption that sex differences in these other domains are also highly dimorphic and highly consistent. But parallel lines of research have led to the conclusion that sex differences in the brain and in behavior, cognition, personality, and other gender characteristics are for the most part not dimorphic and not internally consistent (i.e., having one brain/gender characteristic with the “male” form is not a reliable predictor for the form of other brain/gender characteristics. Therefore although only ~1% percent of humans are 3G-“intersex”, when it comes to brain and gender, we all have an intersex gender (i.e., an array of masculine and feminine traits and an intersex brain (a mosaic of “male” and “female” brain characteristics.

  15. MODEL PEMBERDAYAAN PEREMPUAN DAN PENGARUSUTAMAAN GENDER MELALUI LAYANAN PENDIDIKAN MASYARAKAT PADA PUSAT KEGIATAN BELAJAR MASYARAKAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anan Sutisna

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan model pemberdayaan perempuan dan pengarusutamaan gender melalui layanan pendidikan masyarakat pada Pusat Kegiatan Belajar Masyarakat di DKI Jakarta. Penelitian menggunakan metode survei, teknik pengumpulan data melalui penyebaran angket, dan teknik analisis data menggunakan statistik deskriptif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan hal-hal sebagai berikut. (1 Layanan program pendidikan masyarakat yang paling banyak diikuti oleh responden adalah pendidikan kesetaraan (61,4%, dan jenis kelamin responden dalam penelitian ini adalah perempuan (75,8%. (2 Pemberdayaan perempuan dan pengarusutamaan gender melalui pendidikan masyarakat (61,5%. (3 Model pemberdayaan perempuan dan pengarusutamaan gender melaui pendidikan masyarakat, dipandang strategis dengan pengintegrasian berbagai program yang direncanakan oleh pemerintah dengan program life skill sehingga akan menghasilkan sumberdaya manusia yang berakhalak mulia, cerdas, terampil dan mandiri. Kata Kunci: model pemberdayaan perempuan, layanan Pendidikan masyarakat A MODEL OF WOMAN EMPOWERMENT AND GENDER MAINSTREMING THROUGH COMMUNITY EDUCATIONAL SERVICE IN THE COMMUNITY LEARNING ACTIVITY CENTER Abstract: This study was aimed to describe a model of woman empowerment and gender mainstreaming through the community educational service in the community learning activity center in Greater Jakarta Special Capital Region. This study employed the survey method. The data were collected through questionnaires and were analyzed using the descriptive statistics. The findings showed the following: (1 the community educational program service mostly joined by the respondents was the equality education (61.4%, and most of the respondents were female (75.8%. (2 The woman empowerment and gender mainstreaming was carried out through the community education (61.5%. (3 The model of woman empowerment and gender mainstreaming through the community education is considered as

  16. Toward an Integrated Gender-Linked Model of Aggression Subtypes in Early and Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrov, Jamie M.; Godleski, Stephanie A.

    2010-01-01

    An integrative model is proposed for understanding the development of physical and relational aggression in early and middle childhood. The central goal was to posit a new theoretical framework that expands on existing social-cognitive and gender schema models (i.e., Social Information-Processing Model of Children's Adjustment [N. R. Crick & K. A.…

  17. [Male identity, sport and health : Starting points for gender-sensitive support of boys and young men].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomberg, Christoph; Neuber, Nils

    2016-08-01

    Sport is highly relevant in the life of boys and young men. It is not only one of the most common and important leisure activities, but also helps male self-assurance through physical conflicts and competitions as well as through physical proximity and social involvement. At the same time, sport is an ambivalent area that preserves health, but can also be dangerous to it. By considering the development of male identity, the specific possibilities of sport, as well as an overview of the health situation of boys, this article develops starting points for lifestyle-oriented health promotion of boys and young men in the area of exercise, games and sport. In sports, physical practices are learned that can have long-term effects as somatic cultures on health behavior. The work with boys in sports can be health-promoting if opportunities and risks are reflected upon and considered in the didactic planning and execution.

  18. Male-to-Female Transgender Individuals Building Social Support and Capital From Within a Gender-Focused Network

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Rogério M.; Melendez, Rita M.; Spector, Anya Y.

    2008-01-01

    The literature on male-to-female transgender (MTF) individuals lists myriad problems such individuals face in their day-to-day lives, including high rates of HIV/AIDS, addiction to drugs, violence, and lack of health care. These problems are exacerbated for ethnic and racial minority MTFs. Support available from their social networks can help MTFs alleviate these problems. This article explores how minority MTFs, specifically in an urban environment, develop supportive social networks defined...

  19. Gender minority stress, mental health, and relationship quality: A dyadic investigation of transgender women and their cisgender male partners

    OpenAIRE

    Gamarel, Kristi E.; Reisner, Sari L.; Laurenceau, Jean-Philippe; Nemoto, Tooru; Operario, Don

    2014-01-01

    Research has demonstrated associations between experiences of discrimination, relationship quality, and mental health. However, critical questions remain unanswered with regard to how stigma enacted and experienced at the dyadic-level influences relationship quality and mental health for transgender women and their cisgender (non-transgender) male partners. The present study sought to examine how experiences of transgender-related discrimination (i.e., unfair treatment, harassment) and relati...

  20. Sex difference in urocortin production is contributory to the gender disparity in a rat model of vasculitis induced by sodium laurate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Rong; Jin, Lai; Zhu, Chao; Liu, Yunxin; Li, Li; Guo, Rui; Li, Shengnan

    2013-12-01

    Cardiovascular diseases, the most common leading death diseases, occur more in men than women of the same ages. Increasing evidence shows that urocortin (Ucn1), an autocrine or paracrine pro-inflammatory factor, can be regulated by sex hormones. The purpose of the study is to investigate the role of Ucn1 in gender disparity in a sodium laurate-induced vasculitis model. Rats exhibited visible signs of vasculitis on the 14th day after sodium laurate injection. Inflammatory states of the rat femoral artery were observed by histological examination. Significant gender disparity, with the symptoms much grosser in males than females, was seen. In males, the serum levels of Ucn1, prostaglandin estradiol, and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and the expressions of Ucn1, cyclooxygenase-2, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in femoral artery were higher than those in females. Orchidectomy significantly ameliorated the symptoms of vasculitis accompanied with a decrease in the plasma Ucn1 level. However, estradiol supplement after orchidectomy failed to improve the inflammatory states further. In females, ovariectomy and/or dihydrotestosterone supplement significantly increased Ucn1 level and exacerbated symptoms of vasculitis. Furthermore, ip administration of rabbit antiserum to Ucn1 almost abolished the gender differences in vasculitis. These results demonstrated that vasculitis of this model is androgen-responsive and hormonal manipulation by surgical orchidectomy could substantially attenuate the symptoms of vasculitis. Moreover, Ucn1 is a contributory factor to the gender disparity in vasculitis and dihydrotestosterone-promoted Ucn1 secretion exacerbated the development of vasculitis.

  1. Project on Elite Athlete Commitment (PEAK): III. An examination of the external validity across gender, and the expansion and clarification of the Sport Commitment Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlan, Tara K; Russell, David G; Magyar, T Michelle; Scanlan, Larry A

    2009-12-01

    The Sport Commitment Model was further tested using the Scanlan Collaborative Interview Method to examine its generalizability to New Zealand's elite female amateur netball team, the Silver Ferns. Results supported or clarified Sport Commitment Model predictions, revealed avenues for model expansion, and elucidated the functions of perceived competence and enjoyment in the commitment process. A comparison and contrast of the in-depth interview data from the Silver Ferns with previous interview data from a comparable elite team of amateur male athletes allowed assessment of model external validity, tested the generalizability of the underlying mechanisms, and separated gender differences from discrepancies that simply reflected team or idiosyncratic differences.

  2. Does violence affect one gender more than the other? The mental health impact of violence among male and female university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romito, Patrizia; Grassi, Michele

    2007-09-01

    The impact of violence on health has been studied mostly among women. While the studies including men show that violence is detrimental for them also, knowledge concerning gender differences is scarce. This study explores whether violence has a different impact on males and females in a sample of 502 Italian university students, responding to a self-administered questionnaire. We considered violence by family members, witnessed family violence, peers/school violence, intimate partner violence, and sexual violence. Mental health outcomes included: depression, panic attacks, heavy alcohol use, eating problems, suicidal ideation and attempts, and self-evaluation of health. Both males and females reported similar rates of experienced and witnessed family violence as well as of intimate partner violence, to which women reacted more negatively than men. Peers/school violence was more common among men. Sexual violence was more common and more severe among females. Among mental health effects, panic attacks were more common among females, and alcohol problems among males. We considered the cumulative impact of violence, calculating the odds ratios (ORs) for reporting each health outcome after having experienced zero, one, two, three or four/five types of violence. For both men and women, the more violence, the higher the risk of health problems; however, the real jump in the risk of mental suffering occurred between three and four /five types of violence, the latter category more often female. Moreover, we obtained ORs for the relationships between health outcome and each type of violence, after adjustment for the other types of violence. For experienced and witnessed family violence, the health impact was similar for males and females; for intimate partner violence, sexual violence, and peer/school violence it was larger for females. In the literature, women report more violence-related health problems than men. Results of the present study imply that the excess health

  3. Ten years of cerebral venous thrombosis: male gender and myeloproliferative neoplasm is associated with thrombotic recurrence in unprovoked events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, H Y; Ng, C; Donnan, G; Nandurkar, H; Ho, Prahlad

    2016-10-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a rare venous thrombotic event. We review our local experience in the management of CVT in comparison to other venous thromboembolism (VTE) with specific focus on risk factors for thrombotic recurrence. Retrospective evaluation of consecutive CVT presentations from January 2005 to June 2015, at two major tertiary hospitals in Northeast Melbourne, Australia. This population was compared to a separate audit of 1003 consecutive patients with DVT and PE. Fifty-two patients (30 female, 22 male) with a median age of 40 (18-83) years, presented with 53 episodes of CVT. Twenty-nine episodes (55 %) were associated with an underlying risk factor, with hormonal risk factors in females being most common. The median duration of anticoagulation was 6 months with 11 receiving life-long anticoagulation. Eighty-one percent had residual thrombosis on repeat imaging, which was not associated with recurrence at the same or distant site. Nine (17 %) had CVT-related haemorrhagic transformation with two resultant CVT-related deaths (RR 22.5; p = 0.04). All three VTE recurrences occured in males with unprovoked events (RR 18.2; p = 0.05) who were subsequently diagnosed with myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN). Compared to the non-cancer VTE population, non-cancer CVT patients were younger, had similar rate of provoked events and VTE recurrence, although with significantly higher rate of MPN diagnosis (RR 9.30 (2.29-37.76); p = 0.002) CVT is a rare thrombotic disorder. All recurrences in this audit occurred in male patients with unprovoked events and subsequent diagnosis of MPN, suggesting further evaluation for MPN may be warranted in patients with unprovoked CVT.

  4. An integral projection model with YY-males and application to evaluating grass carp control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Richard A.; Eager, Eric A.; Brey, Marybeth; Hansen, Michael J.; Kocovsky, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Invasive fish species disrupt ecosystems and cause economic damage. Several methods have been discussed to control populations of invasive fish including the release of YY-males. YY-males are fish that have 2 male chromosomes compared to a XY-male. When YY-males mate, they only produce male (XY) offspring. This decreases the female proportion of the population and can, in theory, eradicate local populations by biasing the sex-ratio. YY-males have been used as a population control tool for brook trout in montane streams and lakes in Idaho, USA. The YY-male control method has been discussed for grass carp in Lake Erie, North America. We developed and presented an integral projection model for grass carp to model the use of YY-males as a control method for populations in this lake. Using only the YY-male control method, we found that high levels of YY-males would need to be release annually to control the species. Specifically, these levels were the same order of magnitude as the baseline adult population (e.g., 1000 YY-males needed to be released annual for 20 years to control a baseline adult population of 2500 grass carp). These levels may not be reasonable or obtainable for fisheries managers given the impacts of YY-males on aquatic vegetation and other constraints of natural resource management.

  5. Testing a Dual Process Model of Gender-Based Violence: A Laboratory Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berke, Danielle S; Zeichner, Amos

    2016-01-01

    The dire impact of gender-based violence on society compels development of models comprehensive enough to capture the diversity of its forms. Research has established hostile sexism (HS) as a robust predictor of gender-based violence. However, to date, research has yet to link men's benevolent sexism (BS) to physical aggression toward women, despite correlations between BS and HS and between BS and victim blaming. One model, the opposing process model of benevolent sexism (Sibley & Perry, 2010), suggests that, for men, BS acts indirectly through HS to predict acceptance of hierarchy-enhancing social policy as an expression of a preference for in-group dominance (i. e., social dominance orientation [SDO]). The extent to which this model applies to gender-based violence remains untested. Therefore, in this study, 168 undergraduate men in a U. S. university participated in a competitive reaction time task, during which they had the option to shock an ostensible female opponent as a measure of gender-based violence. Results of multiple-mediation path analyses indicated dual pathways potentiating gender-based violence and highlight SDO as a particularly potent mechanism of this violence. Findings are discussed in terms of group dynamics and norm-based violence prevention.

  6. Effect of the Sport Education Tactical Model on Coeducational and Single Gender Game Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Tony; McCollum, Starla; Sundal, Jacqueline; Colquit, Gavin

    2014-01-01

    Physical education teachers are faced with a decision when teaching physical activities in schools. What type of instructional model should be used, and should classes be coeducational or single gender? The current study had two purposes. The first purpose investigated the effectiveness of the sport education tactical model (SETM) during game play…

  7. Testing Measurement Invariance of the Students' Affective Characteristics Model across Gender Sub-Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Ergül

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the aim was to construct a significant structural measurement model comparing students' affective characteristics with their mathematic achievement. According to this model, the aim was to test the measurement invariances between gender sub-groups hierarchically. This study was conducted as basic and descriptive research. Secondary…

  8. Students with Minoritized Identities of Sexuality and Gender in Campus Contexts: An Emergent Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccaro, Annemarie; Russell, E. I. Annie; Koob, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes a new model for understanding college students with minoritized identities of sexuality and gender (MIoSG) within sociopolitical, institutional/campus, homeplace, and time contexts. The MIoSG Students and Contexts Model can be adopted and adapted by educators working in a variety of postsecondary settings.

  9. Psychopharmacology of male rat sexual behavior: modeling human sexual dysfunctions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivier, B.; Chan, J.S.; Pattij, T.; Jong, T.R. de; Oosting, R.S.; Veening, J.G.; Waldinger, M.D.

    2006-01-01

    Most of our current understanding of the neurobiology, neuroanatomy and psychopharmacology of sexual behavior and ejaculatory function has been derived from preclinical studies in the rat. When a large population of male rats is tested on sexual activity during a number of successive tests, over tim

  10. Metoprolol Dose Equivalence in Adult Men and Women Based on Gender Differences: Pharmacokinetic Modeling and Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy R. Eugene

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent meta-analyses and publications over the past 15 years have provided evidence showing there are considerable gender differences in the pharmacokinetics of metoprolol. Throughout this time, there have not been any research articles proposing a gender stratified dose-adjustment resulting in an equivalent total drug exposure. Metoprolol pharmacokinetic data was obtained from a previous publication. Data was modeled using nonlinear mixed effect modeling using the MONOLIX software package to quantify metoprolol concentration–time data. Gender-stratified dosing simulations were conducted to identify equivalent total drug exposure based on a 100 mg dose in adults. Based on the pharmacokinetic modeling and simulations, a 50 mg dose in adult women provides an approximately similar metoprolol drug exposure to a 100 mg dose in adult men.

  11. Parker's sneak-guard model revisited: why do reproductively parasitic males heavily invest in testes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Kazutaka; Kohda, Masanori; Hori, Michio; Sato, Tetsu

    2011-10-01

    Alternative reproductive tactics are widespread in males and may cause intraspecific differences in testes investment. Parker's sneak-guard model predicts that sneaker males, who mate under sperm competition risk, invest in testes relatively more than bourgeois conspecifics that have lower risk. Given that sneakers are much smaller than bourgeois males, sneakers may increase testes investment to overcome their limited sperm productivity because of their small body sizes. In this study, we examined the mechanism that mediates differential testes investment across tactics in the Lake Tanganyika cichlid fish Lamprologus callipterus. In the Rumonge population of Burundi, bourgeois males are small compared with those in other populations and have a body size close to sneaky dwarf males. Therefore, if differences in relative testis investment depend on sperm competition, the rank order of relative testis investment should be dwarf males > bourgeois males in Rumonge = bourgeois males in the other populations. If differences in relative testis investment depend on body size, the rank order of relative testes investment should be dwarf males > bourgeois males in Rumonge > bourgeois males in the other populations. Comparisons of relative testis investment among the three male groups supported the role of sperm competition, as predicted by the sneak-guard model. Nevertheless, the effects of absolute body size on testes investment should be considered to understand the mechanisms underlying intraspecific variation in testes investment caused by alternative reproductive tactics.

  12. Blood thiamine, zinc, selenium, lead and oxidative stress in a population of male and female alcoholics: clinical evidence and gender differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna Mancinelli

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. Long term alcohol abuse is associated with deficiencies in essential nutrients and minerals that can cause a variety of medical consequences including accumulation of toxic metals. Aim. The aim of this research is to get evidence-based data to evaluate alcohol damage and to optimize treatment. Thiamine and thiamine diphosphate (T/TDP, zinc (Zn, selenium (Se, lead (Pb and oxidative stress in terms of reactive oxygen metabolites (ROMs were examined in blood samples from 58 alcohol dependent patients (17 females and 41 males. RESULTS. T/TDP concentration in alcoholics resulted significantly lower than controls (p < 0.005 for both sexes. Serum Zn and Se did not significantly differ from reference values. Levels of blood Pb in alcoholics resulted significantly higher (p < 0.0001 than Italian reference values and were higher in females than in males. ROMs concentration was significantly higher than healthy population only in female abusers (p = 0.005. CONCLUSION. Alcoholics show a significant increase in blood oxidative stress and Pb and decrease in thiamine. Impairment occurs mainly in female abusers confirming a gender specific vulnerability.

  13. MODEL DAN MATERI PENDIDIKAN SEKS ANAK USIA DINI PERSPEKTIF GENDER UNTUK MENGHINDARKAN SEXUAL ABUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Endang Jatmikowati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak: Kekerasan seksual yang menimpa siswa PAUD/TK Jakarta International School beberapa waktu yang lalu menyadarkan kita akan pentingnya mengembangkan materi pendidikan seks untuk anak usia dini. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk menemukan model dan materi pendidikan seks anak usia dini perspektif gender. Sumber data primer penelitian adalah guru-guru TK/PAUD. Langkah penelitian meliputi identifikasi permasalahan sexual abuse anak usia dini, identifikasi kebutuhan, potensi, pendidikan seks anak usia dini perspektif gender, dan FGD workshop model dan materi pendidikan seks anak usia dini perspektif gender. Uji model dan materi oleh psikolog anak dan ahli pendidikan. Ada pun materi pokok pendidikan seks anak usia dini meliputi tema-tema: (1 Aku dan Tubuhku; (2 Aku dan Pakaianku; (3 Keluarga dan Orang di Sekitarku; dan (4 Cara Merawat dan Menjaga Tubuh. Model pembelajaran dengan menggunakan sentra bermain peran. Hasil pengembangan materi ajar divalidasi oleh pakar dengan menghasilkan nilai “Baik” untuk bahan yang menyangkut ranah kognitif, afektif, dan psikomotrik. Kata Kunci: pendidikan seks, perspektif gender, anak usia dini, sexual abuse A MODEL AND MATERIAL OF SEX EDUCATION FOR EARLY-AGED-CHILDREN OF GENDER PERSPERCTIVE TO PREVENT SEXUAL ABUSE Abstract: Sexual abuse occurring on the early-aged student of Jakarta International School made us realize on the importance of developing sex education materials for early-aged child. This study was aimed to find a model and material for sex education for early-aged children of gender perspective. The data source was the teachers of kindergartens. The steps of the study was identifying sexual abuse on the early-aged children; identifying needs, potentials, sex education of early-aged children of gender perspective; conducting FGD workshop model. The model and material were validated by involving psychologists and education experts. The findings showed that the material of sex education for earlyaged

  14. Gender stereotype susceptibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina A Pavlova

    Full Text Available Gender affects performance on a variety of cognitive tasks, and this impact may stem from socio-cultural factors such as gender stereotyping. Here we systematically manipulated gender stereotype messages on a social cognition task on which no initial gender gap has been documented. The outcome reveals: (i Stereotyping affects both females and males, with a more pronounced impact on females. Yet an explicit negative message for males elicits a striking paradoxical deterioration in performance of females. (ii Irrespective of gender and directness of message, valence of stereotype message affects performance: negative messages have stronger influence than positive ones. (iii Directness of stereotype message differentially impacts performance of females and males: females tend to be stronger affected by implicit than explicit negative messages, whereas in males this relationship is opposite. The data are discussed in the light of neural networks underlying gender stereotyping. The findings provide novel insights into the sources of gender related fluctuations in cognition and behavior.

  15. Gender stereotype susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Marina A; Weber, Susanna; Simoes, Elisabeth; Sokolov, Alexander N

    2014-01-01

    Gender affects performance on a variety of cognitive tasks, and this impact may stem from socio-cultural factors such as gender stereotyping. Here we systematically manipulated gender stereotype messages on a social cognition task on which no initial gender gap has been documented. The outcome reveals: (i) Stereotyping affects both females and males, with a more pronounced impact on females. Yet an explicit negative message for males elicits a striking paradoxical deterioration in performance of females. (ii) Irrespective of gender and directness of message, valence of stereotype message affects performance: negative messages have stronger influence than positive ones. (iii) Directness of stereotype message differentially impacts performance of females and males: females tend to be stronger affected by implicit than explicit negative messages, whereas in males this relationship is opposite. The data are discussed in the light of neural networks underlying gender stereotyping. The findings provide novel insights into the sources of gender related fluctuations in cognition and behavior.

  16. Gender Stereotype Susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Marina A.; Weber, Susanna; Simoes, Elisabeth; Sokolov, Alexander N.

    2014-01-01

    Gender affects performance on a variety of cognitive tasks, and this impact may stem from socio-cultural factors such as gender stereotyping. Here we systematically manipulated gender stereotype messages on a social cognition task on which no initial gender gap has been documented. The outcome reveals: (i) Stereotyping affects both females and males, with a more pronounced impact on females. Yet an explicit negative message for males elicits a striking paradoxical deterioration in performance of females. (ii) Irrespective of gender and directness of message, valence of stereotype message affects performance: negative messages have stronger influence than positive ones. (iii) Directness of stereotype message differentially impacts performance of females and males: females tend to be stronger affected by implicit than explicit negative messages, whereas in males this relationship is opposite. The data are discussed in the light of neural networks underlying gender stereotyping. The findings provide novel insights into the sources of gender related fluctuations in cognition and behavior. PMID:25517903

  17. RF dosimetry: a comparison between power absorption of female and male numerical models from 0.1 to 4 GHz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandrini, L; Vaccari, A; Malacarne, C; Cristoforetti, L; Pontalti, R [ITC-irst-Bioelectromagnetism Lab., FCS Department, 38050 Povo (Trento) (Italy)

    2004-11-21

    Realistic numerical models of human subjects and their surrounding environment represent the basic points of radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic dosimetry. This also involves differentiating the human models in men and women, possibly with different body shapes and postures. In this context, the aims of this paper are, firstly, to propose a female dielectric anatomical model (fDAM) and, secondly, to compare the power absorption distributions of a male and a female model from 0.1 to 4 GHz. For realizing the fDAM, a magnetic resonance imaging tomographer to acquire images and a recent technique which avoids the discrete segmentation of body tissues into different types have been used. Simulations have been performed with the FDTD method by using a novel filtering-based subgridding algorithm. The latter is applied here for the first time to dosimetry, allowing an abrupt mesh refinement by a factor of up to 7. The results show that the whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate (WBA-SAR) of the female model is higher than that of the male counterpart, mainly because of a thicker subcutaneous fat layer. In contrast, the maximum averaged SAR over 1 g (1gA-SAR) and 10 g (10gA-SAR) does not depend on gender, because it occurs in regions where no subcutaneous fat layer is present.

  18. Gender Discrimination, Education and Economic Growth in a Generalized Uzawa-Lucas Two-Sector Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Wei-Bin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is mainly concerned with relationships between economic growth and gender discrimination in labor markets and education. Although discrimination in different fields has well been addresses and modelled in the economic literature, there are only a few growth models with endogenous wealth and human capital accumulation, gender time distribution between work, leisure and education under gender (positive or negative discrimination. The production and economic structures, human capital accumulation are based on the Uzawa-Lucas model, while the utility function and gender division of labor, leisure time and study time are based on the model by Zhang. The model takes account of learning by education in modeling human capital accumulation. We simulate the model to demonstrate the existence of equilibrium points and motion of the national economy. We also conduct a comparative dynamic analysis in regard to changes in discrimination in the education sector, women’s propensity to stay at home, women’s propensity to receive education, women’s knowledge utilization efficiency, and the propensity to save.

  19. Improving models of democracy: the example of lagged effects of economic development, education, and gender equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaev, Mikhail

    2014-07-01

    The author examines how time delayed effects of economic development, education, and gender equality influence political democracy. Literature review shows inadequate understanding of lagged effects, which raises methodological and theoretical issues with the current quantitative studies of democracy. Using country-years as a unit of analysis, the author estimates a series of OLS PCSE models for each predictor with a systematic analysis of the distributions of the lagged effects. The second set of multiple OLS PCSE regressions are estimated including all three independent variables. The results show that economic development, education, and gender have three unique trajectories of the time-delayed effects: Economic development has long-term effects, education produces continuous effects regardless of the timing, and gender equality has the most prominent immediate and short term effects. The results call for the reassessment of model specifications and theoretical setups in the quantitative studies of democracy.

  20. Gender differences in recreational and transport cycling: a cross-sectional mixed-methods comparison of cycling patterns, motivators, and constraints

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heesch, Kristiann C; Sahlqvist, Shannon; Garrard, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Gender differences in cycling are well-documented. However, most analyses of gender differences make broad comparisons, with few studies modeling male and female cycling patterns separately for recreational and transport cycling...

  1. Mel-frequencies Stochastic Model for Gender Classification based on Pitch and Formant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syifaun Nafisah

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Speech recognition applications are becoming more and more useful nowadays. Before this technology is applied, the first step is test the system to measure the reliability of system.  The reliability of system can be measured using accuracy to recognize the speaker such as speaker identity or gender.  This paper introduces the stochastic model based on mel-frequencies to identify the gender of speaker in a noisy environment.  The Euclidean minimum distance and back propagation neural networks were used to create a model to recognize the gender from his/her speech signal based on formant and pitch of Mel-frequencies. The system uses threshold technique as identification tool. By using this threshold value, the proposed method can identifies the gender of speaker up to 94.11% and the average of processing duration is 15.47 msec. The implementation result shows a good performance of the proposed technique in gender classification based on speech signal in a noisy environment.

  2. The Effect of Physical Attractiveness of Models on Advertising Effectiveness for Male and Female Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chia-Ching; Chang, Chih-Hsiang

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of advertising with physically attractive models on male and female adolescents. The findings suggest that highly attractive models are less effective than those who are normally attractive. Implications of social comparison are discussed.

  3. The Effect of Physical Attractiveness of Models on Advertising Effectiveness for Male and Female Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chia-Ching; Chang, Chih-Hsiang

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of advertising with physically attractive models on male and female adolescents. The findings suggest that highly attractive models are less effective than those who are normally attractive. Implications of social comparison are discussed.

  4. An Elaborated Model of Student Support to Allow for Gender Considerations in Asian Distance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Insung; Seongyoun, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Research indicates that distance education (DE) students regard learner support systems as the key element in quality provision. This study sought to identify the key concerns of Asian DE students regarding support provision in different types of DE and dual-mode providers and formulate a student support model which took account of gender issues.…

  5. A Dual Process Motivational Model of Ambivalent Sexism and Gender Differences in Romantic Partner Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibley, Chris G.; Overall, Nickola C.

    2011-01-01

    We tested a dual process motivational model of ambivalent sexism and gender differences in intimate partner preferences. Meta-analysis of 32 samples (16 with men, 16 with women; N = 5,459) indicated that Benevolent Sexism (BS) in women was associated with greater preferences for high-resource partners (r = 0.24), whereas Hostile Sexism (HS) in men…

  6. Hong Kong Secondary School Students' Attitudes towards Science: A Study of Structural Models and Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Zhi Hong; Lee, John Chi Kin

    2017-01-01

    This study explored two under-researched areas on students' attitudes towards science, that is, the structural models representing these attitudes and the role played by school bands in moderating the gender differences in such attitudes. The participants were 360 ninth graders in Hong Kong from 3 school bands. The structural equation modelling…

  7. Gender Differences When Parenting Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Multilevel Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Leah; Totsika, Vasiliki; Hastings, Richard P.; Petalas, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Parenting a child with autism may differentially affect mothers and fathers. Existing studies of mother-father differences often ignore the interdependence of data within families. We investigated gender differences within-families using multilevel linear modeling. Mothers and fathers of children with autism (161 couples) reported on their own…

  8. Invariance of an Extended Technology Acceptance Model Across Gender and Age Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Tunku Badariah Tunku; Madarsha, Kamal Basha; Zainuddin, Ahmad Marzuki; Ismail, Nik Ahmad Hisham; Khairani, Ahmad Zamri; Nordin, Mohamad Sahari

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined the likelihood of a TAME (extended technology acceptance model), in which the interrelationships among computer self-efficacy, perceived usefulness, intention to use and self-reported use of computer-mediated technology were tested. In addition, the gender- and age-invariant of its causal structure were evaluated. The…

  9. Why don’t urban youth in Zambia use condoms? The influence of gender and marriage on non-use of male condoms among young adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinchoff, Jessie; Boyer, Christopher B.; Mutombo, Namuunda; Chowdhuri, Rachna Nag; Ngo, Thoai D.

    2017-01-01

    Background Zambia experiences high unmet need for family planning and high rates of HIV, particularly among youth. While male condoms are widely available and 95% of adults have heard of them, self-reported use in the past 12 months is low among young adults (45%). This study describes factors associated with non-use of male condoms among urban young adults in Zambia. Methods A household cross-sectional survey in four urban districts was conducted from November 2015 to January 2016 among sexually active young adults ages 18–24 years. A random walk strategy was implemented in urban areas; eligible, enrolled participants were administered a survey on household characteristics, health access, and knowledge, attitudes and practices related to contraception. Relative risk regression models were built to determine factors associated with the decision to not use a male condom (non-use) at most recent sexual intercourse. Results A total of 2,388 individuals were interviewed; 69% were female, 35% were married, and average lifetime sex partners was 3.45 (SD±6.15). Non-use of male condoms was 59% at most recent sexual intercourse. In a multivariate model, women were more likely to report non-use of a male condom compared with men (aRR = 1.24 [95% CI: 1.11, 1.38]), married individuals were more likely to report non-use compared with unmarried individuals (aRR = 1.59 [1.46, 1.73]), and those residing in the highest poverty wards were more likely to report non-use compared with those in the lowest poverty wards (aRR = 1.31 [1.16, 1.48]). Those with more negative perceptions of male condom use were 6% more likely to report non-use (aRR = 1.06 [1.03, 1.09]). Discussion regarding contraception with a partner decreased non-use 13% (aRR = 0.87 [0.80, 0.95]) and agreement regarding male condom use with a partner decreased non-use 16% (aRR = 0.84 [0.77, 0.91)]). Discussion Non-use of male condoms is high among young, married adults, particularly women, who may be interested in

  10. Assortative mating and the reversal of gender inequality in education in europe: an agent-based model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Grow

    Full Text Available While men have always received more education than women in the past, this gender imbalance in education has turned around in large parts of the world. In many countries, women now excel men in terms of participation and success in higher education. This implies that, for the first time in history, there are more highly educated women than men reaching the reproductive ages and looking for a partner. We develop an agent-based computational model that explicates the mechanisms that may have linked the reversal of gender inequality in education with observed changes in educational assortative mating. Our model builds on the notion that individuals search for spouses in a marriage market and evaluate potential candidates based on preferences. Based on insights from earlier research, we assume that men and women prefer partners with similar educational attainment and high earnings prospects, that women tend to prefer men who are somewhat older than themselves, and that men prefer women who are in their mid-twenties. We also incorporate the insight that the educational system structures meeting opportunities on the marriage market. We assess the explanatory power of our model with systematic computational experiments, in which we simulate marriage market dynamics in 12 European countries among individuals born between 1921 and 2012. In these experiments, we make use of realistic agent populations in terms of educational attainment and earnings prospects and validate model outcomes with data from the European Social Survey. We demonstrate that the observed changes in educational assortative mating can be explained without any change in male or female preferences. We argue that our model provides a useful computational laboratory to explore and quantify the implications of scenarios for the future.

  11. Assortative mating and the reversal of gender inequality in education in europe: an agent-based model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grow, André; Van Bavel, Jan

    2015-01-01

    While men have always received more education than women in the past, this gender imbalance in education has turned around in large parts of the world. In many countries, women now excel men in terms of participation and success in higher education. This implies that, for the first time in history, there are more highly educated women than men reaching the reproductive ages and looking for a partner. We develop an agent-based computational model that explicates the mechanisms that may have linked the reversal of gender inequality in education with observed changes in educational assortative mating. Our model builds on the notion that individuals search for spouses in a marriage market and evaluate potential candidates based on preferences. Based on insights from earlier research, we assume that men and women prefer partners with similar educational attainment and high earnings prospects, that women tend to prefer men who are somewhat older than themselves, and that men prefer women who are in their mid-twenties. We also incorporate the insight that the educational system structures meeting opportunities on the marriage market. We assess the explanatory power of our model with systematic computational experiments, in which we simulate marriage market dynamics in 12 European countries among individuals born between 1921 and 2012. In these experiments, we make use of realistic agent populations in terms of educational attainment and earnings prospects and validate model outcomes with data from the European Social Survey. We demonstrate that the observed changes in educational assortative mating can be explained without any change in male or female preferences. We argue that our model provides a useful computational laboratory to explore and quantify the implications of scenarios for the future.

  12. A model for group counseling with male pedophiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zessen, G

    1990-01-01

    Group treatment programs for pedophiles are often designed for populations of convicted men in closed institutions with limited application to other populations. Treatment is usually focused on reducing the "deviant" sexual arousal and/or acquiring heterosocial skills and eventually establishing the ability to engage in adult heterosexual relationships. A six-week, highly structured program is presented to five men in a non-residential setting. In addition to individual psychotherapy, group counseling is offered. Male pedophiles are trained to talk effectively about common problems surrounding man-boy relationships. Counseling is based on the notion that the emotional, erotic and sexual attraction to boys per se does not need to be legitimized or modified. The attraction, however, can be a source of psychological and social problems that can be handled by using a social support system. Social support for pedophile problems can be obtained from and in interaction with other pedophiles.

  13. Stressors affect the response of male and female rats to clomipramine in a model of behavioral despair (forced swim test).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consoli, Daniele; Fedotova, Julia; Micale, Vincenzo; Sapronov, Nikolay S; Drago, Filippo

    2005-09-27

    blunted the hormonal response. However, severe shocks were followed by a surge of plasma corticosterone levels in both male and female clomipramine-treated rats. These results demonstrate that duration and intensity of stressful stimuli may deeply affect the behavioral response of rats in forced swim test and influence clomipramine effect in this behavioral model depending on gender-based variables, probably of the hormonal type. Plasma corticosterone levels correlate with the behavioral response to clomipramine treatment suggesting that reactivity of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis to stress may be involved in the antidepressant effect of this drug.

  14. Muscle wasting in male TNF-α blocker naïve ankylosing spondylitis patients: a comparison of gender differences in body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez Vodnizza, Sebastián; Visman, Ingrid M; van Denderen, Christiaan; Lems, Willem F; Jaime, Francisca; Nurmohamed, Michael T; van der Horst-Bruinsma, Irene E

    2017-09-01

    To assess gender differences in body composition (BC) in a cohort of AS patients naïve to TNF-α blockers. Patients included fulfilled the Modified New York criteria for AS. Demographic information and disease activity measures (ASDAS and BASDAI) were reported. BC was measured by whole body DXA. Body fat percentage (BF%), fat mass index (FMI), fat free mass index (FFMI) and android/gynoid fat ratio were reported and compared between men and women and with the reference population (percentiles). Seventy consecutive patients were included; 60% were men. Demographic variables were similar, except for dyslipidaemia (57.1% of men; 14.3% of women). Women had significantly more fat (BF%, FMI), and less muscle (FFMI) than men, but below the median of the reference population. Male AS patients had a markedly low FFMI (31.7th percentile) compared with the reference population. In the whole group, after multivariate analysis, an ASDAS CRP >3.5 was related to lower fat free mass content. In men, a significant relationship between having a high disease activity (ASDAS, BASDAI) and lower BF% or FMI percentile was found, but in women it was the opposite. Muscle wasting, measured as low FFMI compared with the reference population, was found in male TNF-α blocker naïve AS patients, especially in those with active disease. Women had higher volumes of body fat than men, but near the median of the reference population. The relationships between fat content and disease activity support the complex association between adipose tissue and inflammation.

  15. Myelin basic protein-primed T cells of female but not male mice induce nitric-oxide synthase and proinflammatory cytokines in microglia: implications for gender bias in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Subhajit; Jana, Malabendu; Liu, Xiaojuan; Pahan, Kalipada

    2005-09-23

    Females are more susceptible than males to multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the underlying mechanism behind this gender difference is poorly understood. Because the presence of neuroantigen-primed T cells within the CNS is necessary for the development of MS, the present study was undertaken to investigate the activation of microglia by myelin basic protein (MBP)-primed T cells of male, female, and castrated male mice. Interestingly, MBP-primed T cells isolated from female and castrated male but not from male mice induced the expression of inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) and proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), IL-1alpha, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha) in microglia by cell-cell contact. Again there was no apparent defect in male microglia, because MBP-primed T cells isolated from female and castrated male but not male mice were capable of inducing the production of NO in male primary microglia. Inhibition of female T cell contact-mediated microglial expression of proinflammatory molecules by dominant-negative mutants of p65 and C/EBPbeta suggest that female MBP-primed T cells induce microglial expression of proinflammatory molecules through the activation of NF-kappaB and C/EBPbeta. Interestingly, MBP-primed T cells of male, female, and castrated male mice were able to induce microglial activation of NF-kappaB. However, MBP-primed T cells of female and castrated male but not male mice induced microglial activation of C/EBPbeta. These studies suggest that microglial activation of C/EBPbeta but not NF-kappaB by T cell:microglial contact is a gender-specific event and that male MBP-primed T cells are not capable of inducing microglial expression of proinflammatory molecules due to their inability to induce the activation of C/EBPbeta in microglia. This novel gender-sensitive activation of microglia by neuroantigen-primed T cell contact could be one of the mechanisms behind the female-loving nature of MS.

  16. Gender-specific behavioral and immunological alterations in an animal model of autism induced by prenatal exposure to valproic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Tomasz; Roman, Adam; Basta-Kaim, Agnieszka; Kubera, Marta; Budziszewska, Bogusława; Schneider, Karolina; Przewłocki, Ryszard

    2008-07-01

    Autism is a severe behavioral disorder characterized by pervasive impairments in social interactions, deficits in verbal and non-verbal communication, and stereotyped behaviors, with a four times higher incidence in boys than in girls. The core symptoms are frequently accompanied by a spectrum of neurobehavioral and immunological derangements, including: aberrant sensitivity to sensory stimulation, anxiety, and decreased cellular immune capacity. Recently, a new potential rodent model of autism induced by prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA rats) has been proposed. In order to determine if gender has an influence on alterations observed in VPA rats, male and female rats have been evaluated in a battery of behavioral, immunological, and endocrinological tests. A plethora of aberrations has been found in male VPA rats: lower sensitivity to pain, increased repetitive/stereotypic-like activity, higher anxiety, decreased level of social interaction, increased basal level of corticosterone, decreased weight of the thymus, decreased splenocytes proliferative response to concanavaline A, lower IFN-gamma/IL-10 ratio, and increased production of NO by peritoneal macrophages. Female VPA rats exhibited only increased repetitive/stereotypic-like activity and decreased IFN-gamma/IL-10 ratio. Sexual dimorphism characteristics for measured parameters have been observed in both groups of animals, except social interaction in VPA rats. Our results confirm existence of similarities between the observed pattern of aberrations in VPA rats and features of disturbed behavior and immune function in autistic patients, and suggest that they are gender-specific, which is intriguing in light of disproportion in boys to girls ratio in autism.

  17. A Research Brief: A Novel Characteristic of Role Model Choice by Black Male College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, B. J.; Davis, R.; Harris, A.; Brown, K.; Wood, P.; Jones, D. R.; Spencer, S.; Nelson, L.; Brown, J.; Waddell, T.; Jones, C. B.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the present research brief is to report a novel characteristic of role model choice that may be unreported in the literature for black males and to assess this finding in relation to perceived attractiveness of self and a member of the opposite sex. The study found that the proportion of males choosing themselves as their own role…

  18. The Awareness of Gender Care in Chinese Male Magazines%中国男性杂志中的性别关怀意识

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宁

    2012-01-01

    近年来,以男性为明确服务受众的男性杂志正面临着前所未有的商业和文化机遇。在性别观照的广度和深度上此类杂志表现出快速生长期特有的两重性。杂志突破了传统文化对两性特质的规约,多样的生活方式和审美取向得到了尊重和肯定,充满个性色彩的男性媒介形象日益丰富;但是,性别窠臼仍表现出强大的现实干预力量:夸大男性的性能力、贬低女性的职业能力并将之物质化、迷恋暴力细节等现象普遍存在,模式化的性别形象塑造正成为男性杂志创新性发展的瓶颈。%In recent years, male magazine, whose audience is specifically men, is facing unprecedented economic and cul- tural opportunities in rapid growth period. This type of magazines shows particular duality in extent and depth in the growth period in the aspect of gender observation. The magazines break the stipulations on men in traditional culture. Living methods and aesthetic appreciation in diversity get respect and affirmation. The male media images full of individuality become more and more colorful. However, the set pattern of sex displays powerful intervention in reality, paying special attention to men potency and womenprofessional capacity and materializes it, and being infatuated with violent details. The stereotype shaping of men proves to be the bottleneck in the innovation development of male magazines.

  19. Analysis of gender differences in genetic risk: association of TNFAIP3 polymorphism with male childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus in the Japanese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Kadota

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is a systemic multisystem autoimmune disorder influenced by genetic background and environmental factors. Our aim here was to replicate findings of associations between 7 of the implicated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in IRF5, BLK, STAT4, TNFAIP3, SPP1, TNIP1 and ETS1 genes with susceptibility to childhood-onset SLE in the Japanese population. In particular, we focused on gender differences in allelic frequencies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The 7 SNPs were genotyped using TaqMan assays in 75 patients with childhood-onset SLE and in 190 healthy controls. The relationship between the cumulative number of risk alleles and SLE manifestations was explored in childhood-onset SLE. Logistic regression was used to test the effect of each polymorphism on susceptibility to SLE, and Wilcoxon rank sum testing was used for comparison of total risk alleles. Data on rs7574865 in the STAT4 gene and rs9138 in SPP1 were replicated for associations with SLE when comparing cases and controls (corrected P values ranging from 0.0043 to 0.027. The rs2230926 allele of TNFAIP3 was associated with susceptibility to SLE in males, but after Bonferroni correction there were no significant associations with any of the other four SNPs in IRF5, BLK, TNIP1 and ETS1 genes. The cumulative number of risk alleles was significantly increased in childhood-onset SLE relative to healthy controls (P = 0.0000041. Male SLE patients had a slightly but significantly higher frequency of the TNFAIP3 (rs2230926G risk allele than female patients (odds ratio [OR] = 4.05, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] = 1.46-11.2 P<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Associations of polymorphisms in STAT4 and SPP1 with childhood-onset SLE were confirmed in a Japanese population. Although these are preliminary results for a limited number of cases, TNFAIP3 rs2230926G may be an important predictor of disease onset in males. We also replicated findings that the

  20. The Pattern of Sexual Interest of Female-to-Male Transsexual Persons With Gender Identity Disorder Does Not Resemble That of Biological Men: An Eye-Tracking Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, Akira; Kiuchi, Hiroshi; Soda, Tetsuji; Takezawa, Kentaro; Fukuhara, Shinichiro; Takao, Tetsuya; Sekiguchi, Yuki; Iwasa, Atsushi; Nonomura, Norio; Miyagawa, Yasushi

    2017-09-01

    Very little has been elucidated about sexual interest in female-to-male (FtM) transsexual persons. To investigate the sexual interest of FtM transsexual persons vs that of men using an eye-tracking system. The study included 15 men and 13 FtM transsexual subjects who viewed three sexual videos (clip 1: sexy clothed young woman kissing the region of the male genitals covered by underwear; clip 2: naked actor and actress kissing and touching each other; and clip 3: heterosexual intercourse between a naked actor and actress) in which several regions were designated for eye-gaze analysis in each frame. The designation of each region was not visible to the participants. Visual attention was measured across each designated region according to gaze duration. For clip 1, there was a statistically significant sex difference in the viewing pattern between men and FtM transsexual subjects. Longest gaze time was for the eyes of the actress in men, whereas it was for non-human regions in FtM transsexual subjects. For clip 2, there also was a statistically significant sex difference. Longest gaze time was for the face of the actress in men, whereas it was for non-human regions in FtM transsexual subjects, and there was a significant difference between regions with longest gaze time. The most apparent difference was in the gaze time for the body of the actor: the percentage of time spent gazing at the body of the actor was 8.35% in FtM transsexual subjects, whereas it was only 0.03% in men. For clip 3, there were no statistically significant differences in viewing patterns between men and FtM transsexual subjects, although longest gaze time was for the face of the actress in men, whereas it was for non-human regions in FtM transsexual subjects. We suggest that the characteristics of sexual interest of FtM transsexual persons are not the same as those of biological men. Tsujimura A, Kiuchi H, Soda T, et al. The Pattern of Sexual Interest of Female-to-Male Transsexual Persons

  1. Investigating the role of male advantage and female disadvantage in explaining the discrimination effect of the gender pay gap in the Cameroon labor market. Oaxaca-Ransom decomposition approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dickson Thomas NDAMSA

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper assesses the sources of gender-based wage differentials and investigates the relative importance of the endowment effect, female disadvantage and male advantage in explaining gender-based wage differentials in the Cameroon labor market. Use is made of the Ordinary Least Square technique and the Oaxaca-Ransom decomposition. Oaxaca-Ransom decomposition results show that primary education, secondary education, tertiary education and professional training are sources of the gender pay gap. Our results also underline the importance of working experience, formal sector employment and urban residency in explaining wage differentials between male and female workers in the Cameroon labour market. Our findings reveal that education human capital explains a greater portion of the endowment effect and contributes little to the discrimination effect. Essentially, we observe that the discrimination effect has a worsening effect on the gender pay gap compared to the mitigating role of the endowment effect. Again, our results show that a greater part of the discrimination effect of the gender pay gap is attributed to female disadvantage in the Cameroon labor market.

  2. Gender Diversities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Lise Rolandsen; Siim, Birte

    2014-01-01

    The article analyses the European Year for Combating Poverty and Social Exclusion (2010) (EY 2010) with the aim of identifying the nature of gender diversities in EU policies. We argue that the EU handles issues related to gender and diversity in particular ways; this approach is characterized...... by non-citizen/citizen and redistribution/recognition divisions. Employing intersectionality as the methodological approach to gender diversities, the article shows how gender and ethnicity are articulated in the policy-making process which led to the adoption of EY 201, the activities undertaken during...... the EY 2010, and the evaluation of EY 2010. The case study is suitable for developing a dynamic multi-level model for analysing gendered diversities at the transnationmal level: It illustrates how the EU policy frame interacts with particular national contexts in promoting or hundering the advancement...

  3. Gender Differences in College Leisure Time Physical Activity: Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior and Integrated Behavioral Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beville, Jill M.; Umstattd Meyer, M. Renée; Usdan, Stuart L.; Turner, Lori W.; Jackson, John C.; Lian, Brad E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: National data consistently report that males participate in leisure time physical activity (LTPA) at higher rates than females. This study expanded previous research to examine gender differences in LTPA of college students using the theory of planned behavior (TPB) by including 2 additional constructs, descriptive norm and…

  4. Gender Differences in College Leisure Time Physical Activity: Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior and Integrated Behavioral Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beville, Jill M.; Umstattd Meyer, M. Renée; Usdan, Stuart L.; Turner, Lori W.; Jackson, John C.; Lian, Brad E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: National data consistently report that males participate in leisure time physical activity (LTPA) at higher rates than females. This study expanded previous research to examine gender differences in LTPA of college students using the theory of planned behavior (TPB) by including 2 additional constructs, descriptive norm and…

  5. A study of male reproductive form and function in a rat model

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Daniel Wilson

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This investigation was undertaken in the hope of delineating the effects of four different treatments on male reproductive biology in a rat model. The effect of cryptorchidism, gonadectomy, pharmacological ablation of Leydig cell function and androgen-treatment was examined; these four treatments illustrate four different factors influencing and controlling male sexual function in a reproducible animal model. Methods: Total body weight, androgen concentration, gonad weight and s...

  6. Body composition by a three compartment model in adult Indian male and female subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgonha, S; Kuriyan, R; Shetty, P; Ferro-Luzzi, A; Kurpad, A V

    1997-07-01

    The body composition of 10 adult Indian male and female subjects was investigated by a three compartment model, using measurements of Total Body Water (TBW) by deuterium dilution, and of body density by hydrodensitometry. The three compartment model yielded significantly different (P hydrodensitometry, was 1.107+/-0.014 in the males and 1.101+/-0.001 in the females with no significant differences between the groups. This study demonstrates differences in body composition between BMI matched healthy adult male and female subjects. Although there are significant differences for % Fat and FFM between the sexes, there are no significant differences in the hydration fraction and the density of the FFM.

  7. Demographic model of the Swiss cattle population for the years 2009-2011 stratified by gender, age and production type.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Schärrer

    Full Text Available Demographic composition and dynamics of animal and human populations are important determinants for the transmission dynamics of infectious disease and for the effect of infectious disease or environmental disasters on productivity. In many circumstances, demographic data are not available or of poor quality. Since 1999 Switzerland has been recording cattle movements, births, deaths and slaughter in an animal movement database (AMD. The data present in the AMD offers the opportunity for analysing and understanding the dynamic of the Swiss cattle population. A dynamic population model can serve as a building block for future disease transmission models and help policy makers in developing strategies regarding animal health, animal welfare, livestock management and productivity. The Swiss cattle population was therefore modelled using a system of ordinary differential equations. The model was stratified by production type (dairy or beef, age and gender (male and female calves: 0-1 year, heifers and young bulls: 1-2 years, cows and bulls: older than 2 years. The simulation of the Swiss cattle population reflects the observed pattern accurately. Parameters were optimized on the basis of the goodness-of-fit (using the Powell algorithm. The fitted rates were compared with calculated rates from the AMD and differed only marginally. This gives confidence in the fitted rates of parameters that are not directly deductible from the AMD (e.g. the proportion of calves that are moved from the dairy system to fattening plants.

  8. Does attractiveness sell? Women's attitude toward a product as a function of model attractiveness, gender priming, and social comparison orientation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, Abraham (Bram); Dijkstra, Pieternel

    In the present experiment, 85 female undergraduate students were presented with an advertisement for chewing gum, featuring an attractive or a moderately attractive same-sex model. Participants were either primed on their gender or not. Results showed that gender-primed women were willing to pay

  9. Relationship between Physical Disability and Depression by Gender: A Panel Regression Model

    OpenAIRE

    Noh, Jin-Won; Kwon, Young Dae; Park, Jumin; Oh, In-Hwan; Kim, Jinseok

    2016-01-01

    Background Depression in persons with physical disabilities may be more common than in the general population. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between physical disability and depression by gender among adults, using a large, nationally representative sample. Methods This study used data from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging, Wave one through four, and ran a series of random effect panel regression models to test the relationship between physical disability stat...

  10. Study of Bias in 2012-Placement Test through Rasch Model in Terms of Gender Variable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkan, Azmi; Cetin, Bayram

    2017-01-01

    Validity and reliability are among the most crucial characteristics of a test. One of the steps to make sure that a test is valid and reliable is to examine the bias in test items. The purpose of this study was to examine the bias in 2012 Placement Test items in terms of gender variable using Rasch Model in Turkey. The sample of this study was…

  11. Male Asian international students' perceived racial discrimination, masculine identity, and subjective masculinity stress: a moderated mediation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Y Joel; Tsai, Pei-Chun; Liu, Tao; Zhu, Qingqing; Wei, Meifen

    2014-10-01

    This study examined male Asian international college students' perceptions of racial discrimination, subjective masculinity stress, centrality of masculine identity, and psychological distress by testing a moderated mediation model. Participants were 160 male Asian international college students from 2 large public universities. Participants' perceived racial discrimination was positively related to their subjective masculinity stress only at high (but not low) levels of masculine identity centrality. Additionally, subjective masculinity stress was positively related to psychological distress, although this association was stronger among those who reported high levels of masculine identity centrality. The authors also detected a moderated mediation effect in which subjective masculinity stress mediated the relationship between perceived racial discrimination and psychological distress only at high (but not low) levels of masculine identity centrality. These findings contribute to the counseling psychology literature by highlighting the connections between race- and gender-related stressors as well as the relevance of masculine identity to an understanding of men's mental health. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Gender Equality, Patriarchal Cultural Norms, and Perpetration of Intimate Partner Violence: Comparison of Male University Students in Asian and European Cultural Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Reiko; Otis, Melanie D

    2016-07-03

    This study examined the relationship between patriarchal cultural norms and violence perpetration by male partners using a subsample of university students in Asia (n = 784) and Europe (n = 575) from the International Dating Violence Study (IDVS) data set. Bivariate analyses indicated Asian students scored significantly higher than Europeans on dominance, hostility to women, jealousy, negative attribution, and violence approval as well as perpetration of severe physical assault in dating relationships. Logistic regression models demonstrated that dominance and violence approval were significant predictors of severe physical and psychological aggression against dating partners. Implications for culturally relevant programming for intimate partner violence prevention are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Gender determination in populus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLetchie, D.N. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Tuskan, G.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Gender, the expression of maleness or femaleness, in dioecious plants has been associated with changes in morphology, physiology, ecological position, and commercial importance of several species, including members of the Salicaceae family. Various mechanisms have been proposed to explain the expression of gender in Salicaceae, including sex chromosomes, simple Mendelian genes, quantitative genes, environment, and genotype-by-environment interactions. Published reports would favor a genetic basis for gender. The objective of this study was to identify molecular markers associated with gender in a segregating family of hybrid poplars. Bulked segregant analysis and chi-squared analysis were used to test for the occurrence of sex chromosomes, individual loci, and chromosome ratios (i.e., ploidy levels) as the mechanisms for gender determination. Examination of 2488 PCR based RAPD markers from 1219 primers revealed nine polymorphic bands between male and female bulked samples. However, linkage analysis indicated that none of these markers were significantly associated with gender. Chisquared results for difference in male-to-female ratios between diploid and triploid genotypes also revealed no significant differences. These findings suggest gender is not controlled via sex chromosomes, simple Mendelian loci or ratios of autosome to gender-determining loci. It is possible that gender is determined genetically by regions of the genome not sampled by the tested markers or by a complex of loci operating in an additive threshold manner or in an epistatic manner. It is also possible that gender is determined environmentally at an early zygote stage, canalizing gender expression.

  14. TRANSCENDENTAL ASPECTS OF GENDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr V. Khmel

    2014-06-01

    various approaches to feminism philosophy leads more to complementarity of male and female principles of humanity with further acceptance of gender roles that reflect more complicated panorama of spiritual life.

  15. A logistic regression model of Coronary Artery Disease among Male Patients in Punjab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohail Chand

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available This is a cross-sectional retrospective study of 308 male patients, who were presented first time for coronary angiography at the Punjab Institute of Cardiology. The mean age was 50.97 + 9.9 among male patients. As the response variable coronary artery disease (CAD was a binary variable, logistic regression model was fitted to predict the Coronary Artery Disease with the help of significant risk factors. Age, Chest pain, Diabetes Mellitus, Smoking and Lipids are resulted as significant risk factors associated with CAD among male population.

  16. Gender variations in the optical properties of skin in murine animal models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabro, Katherine; Curtis, Allison; Galarneau, Jean-Rene; Krucker, Thomas; Bigio, Irving J.

    2011-01-01

    Gender is identified as a significant source of variation in optical reflectance measurements on mouse skin, with variation in the thickness of the dermal layer being the key explanatory variable. For three different mouse strains, the thickness values of the epidermis, dermis, and hypodermis layers, as measured by histology, are correlated to optical reflectance measurements collected with elastic scattering spectroscopy (ESS). In all three strains, males are found to have up to a 50% increase in dermal thickness, resulting in increases of up to 80% in reflectance values and higher observed scattering coefficients, as compared to females. Collagen in the dermis is identified as the primary source of these differences due to its strong scattering nature; increased dermal thickness leads to a greater photon path length through the collagen, as compared to other layers, resulting in a larger scattering signal. A related increase in the observed absorption coefficient in females is also observed. These results emphasize the importance of considering gender during experimental design in studies that involve photon interaction with mouse skin. The results also elucidate the significant impact that relatively small thickness changes can have on observed optical measurements in layered tissue.

  17. Males Are Not as Active as Females in Online Discussion: Gender Differences in Face-to-Face and Online Discussion Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Meng-Jung; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Hou, Huei-Tse; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the gender difference in students' perceived discussion strategies in face-to-face and online asynchronous contexts. A survey of 363 university students and follow-up interviews of 20 participants was conducted to examine any gender differences within each context and between the two contexts. The Discussion Strategies Scale…

  18. Are Boys Better Off with Male and Girls with Female Teachers? A Multilevel Investigation of Measurement Invariance and Gender Match in Teacher-Student Relationship Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilt, Jantine L.; Koomen, Helma M. Y.; Jak, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Although research consistently points to poorer teacher-student relationships for boys than girls, there are no studies that take into account the effects of teacher gender and control for possible measurement non-invariance across student and teacher gender. This study addressed both issues. The sample included 649 primary school teachers (182…

  19. Are boys better off with male and girls with female teachers? A multilevel investigation of measurement invariance and gender match in teacher-student relationship quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spilt, J.L.; Koomen, H.M.Y.; Jak, S.

    2012-01-01

    Although research consistently points to poorer teacher-student relationships for boys than girls, there are no studies that take into account the effects of teacher gender and control for possible measurement non-invariance across student and teacher gender. This study addressed both issues. The sa

  20. Modeling of pheromone communication system of forest Lepidopterous insects. II. Model of female searching by male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kovalev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose an agent­based simulation model search. This model allows us to evaluate the effectiveness of different males­females pheromone search strategies for Lepidoptera. In the model, we consider the simplest case of the search, when the pheromone has only one chemical component. It is assumed that the insects are able to detect the pheromone molecules and the sensory cells generate action potentials in contact with the pheromone for some time. Thereafter pheromone molecule is inactivated. This behavior can be regarded as a memory of individual. Proportion of individuals who have reached the source is selected as an integral indicator of the search efficiency. To evaluate the effectiveness, numeric experiments were performed in different conditions: random walk, search algorithm without memory, and algorithm with memory and return mechanism. The resulting effectiveness of source localization by insects for flight in turbulent flows is ~ 70 %, which corresponds to experiments with live specimens in literature. In this case, proposed pheromone search algorithm is quite simple, which makes it biologically correct. Conducted modeling calculations can be the starting point for planning of field observations and pest monitoring systems using pheromone traps.

  1. The naming of gender-marked pronouns supports interactivity in models of lexical access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Costa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available When a speaker names an object using a gender-marked pronominal form, the referent word corresponding to the target object has to be selected in order to access the grammatical gender. By contrast, the phonological content of the referent word is not needed. In two picture-naming interference experiments we explored whether the lexical selection of a referent word is affected by its phonological properties. In Experiment 1, Spanish participants named pictures using a sentence with a noun or a pronoun while ignoring words semantically or phonologically related. The results showed a semantic interference effect and a Phonological Facilitation Effect (PFE in both type of utterances. In Experiment 2 the PFE was replicated with Italian participants in a different pronominal utterance. The PFE suggests that the lexical selection of the referent word is facilitated by the presentation of a distractor word phonologically related. These findings are consistent with the predictions of interactive models of lexical access.

  2. Gender stereotypes among road users

    OpenAIRE

    Dontsov, Alexander; Kabalevskaya, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the mechanism of stereotyping as exemplified by gender stereotypes of road users. Gender stereotypes are not only viewed as an a priori image of a percept, but also examined ‘in action’ at the very moment of their actualization with road users. In the paper we have identified the content of road users’ gender stereotypes; analyzed the behaviour of male and female drivers, pinpointing a number of gender-specific behavioural features; demonstrated that male and female driv...

  3. Assortative Mating and the Reversal of Gender Inequality in Education in Europe: An Agent-Based Model: e0127806

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    André Grow; Jan Van Bavel

    2015-01-01

    .... We develop an agent-based computational model that explicates the mechanisms that may have linked the reversal of gender inequality in education with observed changes in educational assortative mating...

  4. Assortative mating and the reversal of gender inequality in education in europe: an agent-based model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grow, André; Van Bavel, Jan

    2015-01-01

    .... We develop an agent-based computational model that explicates the mechanisms that may have linked the reversal of gender inequality in education with observed changes in educational assortative mating...

  5. Linking community, parenting, and depressive symptom trajectories: testing resilience models of adolescent agency based on race/ethnicity and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Amanda L; Merten, Michael J

    2014-09-01

    Family stress models illustrate how communities affect youth outcomes through effects on parents and studies consistently show the enduring effects of early community context. The present study takes a different approach identifying human agency during adolescence as a potentially significant promotive factor mediating the relationship between community, parenting, and mental health. While agency is an important part of resilience, its longitudinal effects are unknown, particularly based on gender and race/ethnicity. The purpose of this research was to model the long-term effects of community structural adversity and social resources as predictors of adolescent depressive symptom trajectories via indirect effects of parental happiness, parent-child relationships, and human agency. Latent growth analyses were conducted with 1,796 participants (53% female; 56% White) across four waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health spanning adolescence (Wave 1) through adulthood (Wave 4). The results identified agency as an important promotive factor during adolescence with long-term mental health benefits, but only for White and male participants. For these individuals, community social resources and the quality of the parent-child relationship were related to higher levels of agency and more positive mental health trajectories. Although community social resources similarly benefitted parenting and agency among females and non-White participants, there were no significant links between agency and depressive symptoms for these youth. The results suggest that agency remains an important, but poorly understood concept and additional work is necessary to continue unpacking its meaning for diverse groups of youth.

  6. Steroid Tumor Environment in Male and Female Mice Model of Canine and Human Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Caceres

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Canine inflammatory mammary cancer (IMC shares clinical and histopathological characteristics with human inflammatory breast cancer (IBC and has been proposed as a good model for studying the human disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the capacity of female and male mice to reproduce IMC and IBC tumors and identify the hormonal tumor environment. To perform the study sixty 6–8-week-old male and female mice were inoculated subcutaneously with a suspension of 106 IPC-366 and SUM149 cells. Tumors and serum were collected and used for hormonal analysis. Results revealed that IPC-366 reproduced tumors in 90% of males inoculated after 2 weeks compared with 100% of females that reproduced tumor at the same time. SUM149 reproduced tumors in 40% of males instead of 80% of females that reproduced tumors after 4 weeks. Both cell lines produce distant metastasis in lungs being higher than the metastatic rates in females. EIA analysis revealed that male tumors had higher T and SO4E1 concentrations compared to female tumors. Serum steroid levels were lower than those found in tumors. In conclusion, IBC and IMC male mouse model is useful as a tool for IBC research and those circulating estrogens and intratumoral hormonal levels are crucial in the development and progression of tumors.

  7. Participatory modeling to support gender equality : The importance of including stakeholders in interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleijenbergh, I.L.; van Engen, Marloes

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Interventions to support gender equality in organisations are often unsuccessful. Stakeholders disagree about the causes and problem definition of gender equality or pay lip service to the principle of gender equality, but fail to implement gender equality in practice. The purpose of this

  8. Participatory modeling to support gender equality: The importance of including stakeholders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleijenbergh, I.L.; Engen, M. van

    2015-01-01

    - Purpose – Interventions to support gender equality in organisations are often unsuccessful. Stakeholders disagree about the causes and problem definition of gender equality or pay lip service to the principle of gender equality, but fail to implement gender equality in practice. The purpose of

  9. Factorial invariance of the Five-Factor Model Rating Form across gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Douglas B; South, Susan C; Griffin, Sarah A

    2015-02-01

    The Five-Factor Model Rating Form (FFMRF) provides a brief, one-page assessment of the Five-Factor Model. An important and unique aspect of the FFMRF is that it is the only brief measure that includes scales for the 30 facets proposed by Costa and McCrae. The current study builds on existing validity support for the FFMRF by evaluating its factorial invariance across gender within a sample of 699 undergraduate students. Consistent with other measures of the Five-Factor Model, men scored lower than women on the domains of neuroticism, extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness but slightly higher on openness. The novel contribution of the current study is the use of exploratory structural equation modeling to determine that the FFMRF displayed a five-factor structure that demonstrated strong measurement invariance across gender. This factorial invariance adds important support for the validity of the FFMRF as a self-report measure as it indicates that the scores assess the same latent constructs in men and women. Although future work is needed to clarify some facet-level findings and evaluate for potential predictive biases, the present results add to the increasing body of research supporting the validity of the FFMRF as a self-report measure of personality. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. An evaluation of gender equity in different models of primary care practices in Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Grant

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization calls for more work evaluating the effect of health care reforms on gender equity in developed countries. We performed this evaluation in Ontario, Canada where primary care models resulting from reforms co-exist. Methods This cross sectional study of primary care practices uses data collected in 2005-2006. Healthcare service models included in the study consist of fee for service (FFS based, salaried, and capitation based. We compared the quality of care delivered to women and men in practices of each model. We performed multi-level, multivariate regressions adjusting for patient socio-demographic and economic factors to evaluate vertical equity, and adjusting for these and health factors in evaluating horizontal equity. We measured seven dimensions of health service delivery (e.g. accessibility and continuity and three dimensions of quality of care using patient surveys (n = 5,361 and chart abstractions (n = 4,108. Results Health service delivery measures were comparable in women and men, with differences ≤ 2.2% in all seven dimensions and in all models. Significant gender differences in the health promotion subjects addressed were observed. Female specific preventive manoeuvres were more likely to be performed than other preventive care. Men attending FFS practices were more likely to receive influenza immunization than women (Adjusted odds ratio: 1.75, 95% confidence intervals (CI 1.05, 2.92. There was no difference in the other three prevention indicators. FFS practices were also more likely to provide recommended care for chronic diseases to men than women (Adjusted difference of -11.2%, CI -21.7, -0.8. A similar trend was observed in Community Health Centers (CHC. Conclusions The observed differences in the type of health promotion subjects discussed are likely an appropriate response to the differential healthcare needs between genders. Chronic disease care is non equitable in FFS but

  11. Characterization of mammary adenocarcinomas in male rats after N-methyl-N-nitrosourea exposure--Potential for human male breast cancer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizawa, Katsuhiko; Yuki, Michiko; Kinoshita, Yuichi; Emoto, Yuko; Yuri, Takashi; Shikata, Nobuaki; Elmore, Susan A; Tsubura, Airo

    2016-05-01

    The frequency of breast cancer in men is extremely rare, reported to be less than 1% and there is currently no available animal model for male mammary tumors. We compared the characteristics of various immunohistochemical markers in N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced mammary adenocarcinomas in male and female Crj:CD(SD)IGS rats including: estrogen receptor α (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR), androgen receptor (AR), receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-2 (HER2), GATA binding protein 3 (GATA3), and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Female mammary adenocarcinomas were strongly positive in the nuclei of tumor cells for PCNA and ER (100%) with only 60% and 53% expressing PgR and GATA3, respectively. 100% of male adenocarcinomas also exhibited strongly positive expression in the nuclei of tumor cells for PCNA, with 25% expressing AR and only 8% showing positivity for ER. Male carcinomas did not express PgR or GATA3 and none of the tumors, male or female, were positive for HER2. Based on the observed ER and PgR positivity and HER2 negativity within these tumors, MNU-induced mammary adenocarcinomas in female rats appear to be hormonally dependent, similar to human luminal A type breast cancer. In contrast, MNU-induced mammary adenocarcinomas in male rats showed no reactivity for ER, PgR, HER2 or GATA3, suggesting no hormonal dependency. Both male and female adenocarcinomas showed high proliferating activity by PCNA immunohistochemistry. Based on our literature review, human male breast cancers are mainly dependent on ER and/or PgR, therefore the biological pathogenesis of MNU-induced male mammary cancer in rats may differ from that of male breast cancer in humans.

  12. Modeling the suppression of sea lamprey populations by use of the male sex pheromone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, Waldemar; Adams, Jean V.; Twohey, Michael B.

    2005-01-01

    The suppression of sea lamprey populations, Petromyzon marinus (Linnaeus), was modeled using four different applications of the male sex pheromone: (1) pheromone-baited traps that remove females from the spawning population, (2) pheromone-baited decoys that exhaust females before they are able to spawn, (3) pheromone-enhanced sterile males that increase the proportion of non-fertile matings, and (4) camouflaging of the pheromone emitted by calling males to make it difficult for females to find a mate. The models indicated that thousands of traps or hundreds of thousands of decoys would be required to suppress a population of 100,000 animals. The potential efficacy of pheromone camouflages is largely unknown, and additional research is required to estimate how much pheromone is needed to camouflage the pheromone plumes of calling males. Pheromone-enhanced sterile males appear to be a promising application in the Great Lakes. Using this technique for three generations each of ca. 7 years duration could reduce sea lamprey populations by 90% for Lakes Huron and Ontario and by 98% for Lake Michigan, based on current trapping operations that capture 20 to 30% of the population each year.

  13. Male sexual strategies modify ratings of female models with specific waist-to-hip ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brase, Gary L; Walker, Gary

    2004-06-01

    Female waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) has generally been an important general predictor of ratings of physical attractiveness and related characteristics. Individual differences in ratings do exist, however, and may be related to differences in the reproductive tactics of the male raters such as pursuit of short-term or long-term relationships and adjustments based on perceptions of one's own quality as a mate. Forty males, categorized according to sociosexual orientation and physical qualities (WHR, Body Mass Index, and self-rated desirability), rated female models on both attractiveness and likelihood they would approach them. Sociosexually restricted males were less likely to approach females rated as most attractive (with 0.68-0.72 WHR), as compared with unrestricted males. Males with lower scores in terms of physical qualities gave ratings indicating more favorable evaluations of female models with lower WHR. The results indicate that attractiveness and willingness to approach are overlapping but distinguishable constructs, both of which are influenced by variations in characteristics of the raters.

  14. Decision making and age differences among gay male couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harry, J

    1982-01-01

    There appear to have been three major historical forms for male homosexual relationships: the Latin American model patterned after gender-roles, the Greek model involving a mature adult male and an adolescent male, and the modern form between males of approximately equal ages. The patterning of attractions among men of various ages is explored in a sample of 1,556 Chicago area homosexual males. The dominant trend found was for attraction towards persons of similar ages. Age differences between partners in liaisons were found to be associated with differences in decision making.

  15. The Social Role Conflict of the Male Nurses from the Angle of Gender%从社会性别角度看待男护士的社会角色冲突

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦颖; 李乐之

    2011-01-01

    社会性别理论是女权主义的智慧结晶.这一概念将三次女权主义浪潮的胜利成果从实践上升到理论,并扩展到社会生活的多个方面.从社会性别理论浅谈当今中国社会中存在的社会性别、社会性别分工与护士女性化间的矛盾,剖析由此产生的男性护士就业尴尬的原因和并提出应对策略.%Gender theory is essence of feminist. This concept made the victory of feminism movement rise from practice to theory, and extended to various aspects of daily life. In this paper, from the angle of gender theory, I discuss the conflict between gender or gender- based division of labor and the feminization of nursing professions, which is the existence in contemporary Chinese society. At last, in this article, I analyze the reasons for the embarrassment of the male nurses'employment and propose the corresponding strategies.

  16. Biomimetic agent based modelling using male Frog calling behaviour as a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Søren V.; Demazeau, Yves; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob;

    2014-01-01

    A new agent-based modelling tool has been developed to allow the modelling of populations of individuals whose interactions are characterised by tightly timed dynamics. The tool was developed to model male frog calling dynamics, to facilitate research into what local rules may be employed...... Frog, E. coqui, is implemented as a case study for the presentation and discussion of the tool, and results from this model are presented. RANA, in its present stage of development, is shown to be able to handle the problem of modelling calling frogs, and several fruitful extensions are proposed...

  17. Male sex aggravates the phenotype in mouse models of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maass, AH; Maier, SKG

    2005-01-01

    The authors have created transgenic mouse models of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with mutations in either cardiac troponin T or myosin heavy chain. Mice mutant in myosin heavy chain develop significant cardiac hypertrophy at young adult age. Female mice keep that hypertrophic state, whereas male mice

  18. Male sex aggravates the phenotype in mouse models of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maass, AH; Maier, SKG

    2005-01-01

    The authors have created transgenic mouse models of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with mutations in either cardiac troponin T or myosin heavy chain. Mice mutant in myosin heavy chain develop significant cardiac hypertrophy at young adult age. Female mice keep that hypertrophic state, whereas male mice

  19. Gender affects skin wound healing in plasminogen deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønø, Birgitte; Engelholm, Lars Henning; Lund, Leif Røge;

    2013-01-01

    functional plasmin thus display decreased tumor growth in a variety of cancer models. Interestingly, this role of plasmin has, in regard to skin cancer, been shown to be restricted to male mice. It remains to be clarified whether gender also affects other phenotypic characteristics of plasmin deficiency...... or if this gender effect is restricted to skin cancer. To investigate this, we tested the effect of gender on plasmin dependent immune cell migration, accumulation of hepatic fibrin depositions, skin composition, and skin wound healing. Gender did not affect immune cell migration or hepatic fibrin accumulation...... in neither wildtype nor plasmin deficient mice, and the existing differences in skin composition between males and females were unaffected by plasmin deficiency. In contrast, gender had a marked effect on the ability of plasmin deficient mice to heal skin wounds, which was seen as an accelerated wound...

  20. Morphological Alterations in Gastrocnemius and Soleus Muscles in Male and Female Mice in a Fibromyalgia Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Alejandro Bonaterra

    Full Text Available Fibromyalgia (FM is a chronic musculoskeletal pain disorder, characterized by chronic widespread pain and bodily tenderness and is often accompanied by affective disturbances, however often with unknown etiology. According to recent reports, physical and psychological stress trigger FM. To develop new treatments for FM, experimental animal models for FM are needed to be development and characterized. Using a mouse model for FM including intermittent cold stress (ICS, we hypothesized that ICS leads to morphological alterations in skeletal muscles in mice.Male and female ICS mice were kept under alternating temperature (4 °C/room temperature [22 °C]; mice constantly kept at room temperature served as control. After scarification, gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were removed and snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen-cooled isopentane or fixed for electron microscopy.In gastrocnemius/soleus muscles of male ICS mice, we found a 21.6% and 33.2% decrease of fiber cross sectional area (FCSA, which in soleus muscle concerns the loss of type IIa and IIx FCSA. This phenomenon was not seen in muscles of female ICS mice. However, this loss in male ICS mice was associated with an increase in gastrocnemius of the density of MIF+ (8.6%-, MuRF+ (14.7%-, Fbxo32+ (17.8%-cells, a 12.1% loss of capillary contacts/muscle fiber as well as a 30.7% increase of damaged mitochondria in comparison with male control mice. Moreover, significant positive correlations exist among densities (n/mm(2 of MIF+, MuRF+, Fbxo32+-cells in gastrocnemius/ soleus muscles of male ICS mice; these cell densities inversely correlate with FCSA especially in gastrocnemius muscle of male ICS mice.The ICS-induced decrease of FCSA mainly concerns gastrocnemius muscle of male mice due to an increase of inflammatory and atrogenic cells. In soleus muscle of male ICS and soleus/gastrocnemius muscles of female ICS mice morphological alterations seem to occur not at all or delayed. The sex-specificity of

  1. Morphological Alterations in Gastrocnemius and Soleus Muscles in Male and Female Mice in a Fibromyalgia Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oezel, Lisa; Schwarzbach, Hans; Ocker, Matthias; Thieme, Kati; Di Fazio, Pietro; Kinscherf, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Background Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic musculoskeletal pain disorder, characterized by chronic widespread pain and bodily tenderness and is often accompanied by affective disturbances, however often with unknown etiology. According to recent reports, physical and psychological stress trigger FM. To develop new treatments for FM, experimental animal models for FM are needed to be development and characterized. Using a mouse model for FM including intermittent cold stress (ICS), we hypothesized that ICS leads to morphological alterations in skeletal muscles in mice. Methods Male and female ICS mice were kept under alternating temperature (4°C/room temperature [22°C]); mice constantly kept at room temperature served as control. After scarification, gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were removed and snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen–cooled isopentane or fixed for electron microscopy. Results In gastrocnemius/soleus muscles of male ICS mice, we found a 21.6% and 33.2% decrease of fiber cross sectional area (FCSA), which in soleus muscle concerns the loss of type IIa and IIx FCSA. This phenomenon was not seen in muscles of female ICS mice. However, this loss in male ICS mice was associated with an increase in gastrocnemius of the density of MIF+ (8.6%)-, MuRF+ (14.7%)-, Fbxo32+ (17.8%)-cells, a 12.1% loss of capillary contacts/muscle fiber as well as a 30.7% increase of damaged mitochondria in comparison with male control mice. Moreover, significant positive correlations exist among densities (n/mm2) of MIF+, MuRF+, Fbxo32+-cells in gastrocnemius/ soleus muscles of male ICS mice; these cell densities inversely correlate with FCSA especially in gastrocnemius muscle of male ICS mice. Conclusion The ICS-induced decrease of FCSA mainly concerns gastrocnemius muscle of male mice due to an increase of inflammatory and atrogenic cells. In soleus muscle of male ICS and soleus/gastrocnemius muscles of female ICS mice morphological alterations seem to occur not at all or

  2. Characterizing the gender gap in introductory physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kost, Lauren E.; Pollock, Steven J.; Finkelstein, Noah D.

    2009-06-01

    Previous research [S. J. Pollock , Phys. Rev. ST Phys. Educ. Res. 3, 1 (2007)] showed that despite the use of interactive engagement techniques, the gap in performance between males and females on a conceptual learning survey persisted from pretest to post-test at the University of Colorado at Boulder. Such findings were counter to previously published work [M. Lorenzo , Am. J. Phys. 74, 118 (2006)]. This study begins by identifying a variety of other gender differences. There is a small but significant difference in the course grades of males and females. Males and females have significantly different prior understandings of physics and mathematics. Females are less likely to take high school physics than males, although they are equally likely to take high school calculus. Males and females also differ in their incoming attitudes and beliefs about physics. This collection of background factors is analyzed to determine the extent to which each factor correlates with performance on a conceptual post-test and with gender. Binned by quintiles, we observe that males and females with similar pretest scores do not have significantly different post-test scores (p>0.2) . The post-test data are then modeled using two regression models (multiple regression and logistic regression) to estimate the gender gap in post-test scores after controlling for these important prior factors. These prior factors account for about 70% of the observed gender gap. The results indicate that the gender gap exists in interactive physics classes at our institution but is largely associated with differences in previous physics and math knowledge and incoming attitudes and beliefs.

  3. Characterizing the gender gap in introductory physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J. Pollock

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous research [S. J. Pollock et al., Phys. Rev. ST Phys. Educ. Res. 3, 1 (2007] showed that despite the use of interactive engagement techniques, the gap in performance between males and females on a conceptual learning survey persisted from pretest to post-test at the University of Colorado at Boulder. Such findings were counter to previously published work [M. Lorenzo et al., Am. J. Phys. 74, 118 (2006]. This study begins by identifying a variety of other gender differences. There is a small but significant difference in the course grades of males and females. Males and females have significantly different prior understandings of physics and mathematics. Females are less likely to take high school physics than males, although they are equally likely to take high school calculus. Males and females also differ in their incoming attitudes and beliefs about physics. This collection of background factors is analyzed to determine the extent to which each factor correlates with performance on a conceptual post-test and with gender. Binned by quintiles, we observe that males and females with similar pretest scores do not have significantly different post-test scores (p>0.2 . The post-test data are then modeled using two regression models (multiple regression and logistic regression to estimate the gender gap in post-test scores after controlling for these important prior factors. These prior factors account for about 70% of the observed gender gap. The results indicate that the gender gap exists in interactive physics classes at our institution but is largely associated with differences in previous physics and math knowledge and incoming attitudes and beliefs.

  4. Biomimetic agent based modelling using male Frog calling behaviour as a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Søren V.; Demazeau, Yves; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    by individuals to generate their observed population behaviour. A number of existing agent-modelling frameworks are considered, but none have the ability to handle large numbers of time-dependent event-generating agents; hence the construction of a new tool, RANA. The calling behaviour of the Puerto Rican Tree......A new agent-based modelling tool has been developed to allow the modelling of populations of individuals whose interactions are characterised by tightly timed dynamics. The tool was developed to model male frog calling dynamics, to facilitate research into what local rules may be employed...

  5. Effects of sugar rich diet on brain serotonin, hyperphagia and anxiety in animal model of both genders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inam, Qurrat-ul-Aen; Ikram, Huma; Shireen, Erum; Haleem, Darakhshan Jabeen

    2016-05-01

    Lower levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) in the brain elicit sugar craving, while ingestion of sugar rich diet improves mood and alleviates anxiety. Gender differences occur not only in brain serotonin metabolism but also in a serotonin mediated functional responses. The present study was therefore designed to investigate gender related differences on the effects of long term consumption of sugar rich diet on the metabolism of serotonin in the hypothalamus and whole brain which may be relevant with the hyperphagic and anxiety reducing effects of sugar rich diet. Male and female rats were fed freely on a sugar rich diet for five weeks. Hyperphagic effects were monitored by measuring total food intake and body weights changes during the intervention. Anxiolytic effects of sugar rich diet was monitored in light-dark transition test. The results show that ingestion of sugar rich diet decreased serotonin metabolism more in female than male rats. Anxiolytic effects were elicited only in male rats. Hyperphagia was comparable in both male and female rats. Finings would help in understanding the role of sugar rich diet-induced greater decreases of serotonin in sweet craving in women during stress.

  6. Finding the most appropriate mouse model of juvenile CLN3 (Batten disease for therapeutic studies: the importance of genetic background and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila D. Kovács

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the CLN3 gene cause a fatal neurodegenerative disorder: juvenile CLN3 disease, also known as juvenile Batten disease. The two most commonly utilized mouse models of juvenile CLN3 disease are Cln3-knockout (Cln3−/− and Cln3Δex7/8-knock-in mice, the latter mimicking the most frequent disease-causing human mutation. To determine which mouse model has the most pronounced neurological phenotypes that can be used as outcome measures for therapeutic studies, we compared the exploratory activity, motor function and depressive-like behavior of 1-, 3- and 6-month-old Cln3−/− and Cln3Δex7/8-knock-in mice on two different genetic backgrounds (129S6/SvEv and C57BL/6J. Although, in many cases, the behavior of Cln3−/− and Cln3Δex7/8 mice was similar, we found genetic-background-, gender- and age-dependent differences between the two mouse models. We also observed large differences in the behavior of the 129S6/SvEv and C57BL/6J wild-type strains, which highlights the strong influence that genetic background can have on phenotype. Based on our results, Cln3−/− male mice on the 129S6/SvEv genetic background are the most appropriate candidates for therapeutic studies. They exhibit motor deficits at 1 and 6 months of age in the vertical pole test, and they were the only mice to show impaired motor coordination in the rotarod test at both 3 and 6 months. Cln3−/− males on the C57BL/6J background and Cln3Δex7/8 males on the 129S6/SvEv background also provide good outcome measures for therapeutic interventions. Cln3−/− (C57BL/6J males had serious difficulties in climbing down (at 1 and 6 months and turning downward on (at 1, 3 and 6 months the vertical pole, whereas Cln3Δex7/8 (129S6/SvEv males climbed down the vertical pole drastically slower than wild-type males at 3 and 6 months of age. Our study demonstrates the importance of testing mouse models on different genetic backgrounds and comparing males and females in order to

  7. Beyond the mouse monopoly: studying the male germ line in domestic animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Raquel; Dobrinski, Ina

    2015-01-01

    Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) are the foundation of spermatogenesis and essential to maintain the continuous production of spermatozoa after the onset of puberty in the male. The study of the male germ line is important for understanding the process of spermatogenesis, unravelling mechanisms of stemness maintenance, cell differentiation, and cell-to-cell interactions. The transplantation of SSCs can contribute to the preservation of the genome of valuable individuals in assisted reproduction programs. In addition to the importance of SSCs for male fertility, their study has recently stimulated interest in the generation of genetically modified animals because manipulations of the male germ line at the SSC stage will be maintained in the long term and transmitted to the offspring. Studies performed mainly in the mouse model have laid the groundwork for facilitating advancements in the field of male germ line biology, but more progress is needed in nonrodent species in order to translate the technology to the agricultural and biomedical fields. The lack of reliable markers for isolating germ cells from testicular somatic cells and the lack of knowledge of the requirements for germ cell maintenance have precluded their long-term maintenance in domestic animals. Nevertheless, some progress has been made. In this review, we will focus on the state of the art in the isolation, characterization, culture, and manipulation of SSCs and the use of germ cell transplantation in domestic animals.

  8. MODELING FOR DEMOGRAPHIC AND REGIONAL PREVALENCE AND TRENDS OF SMOKING IN THAI MALES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Apiradee; McNeil, Don

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to describe using national survey data the demographic and regional prevalence and trends of smoking in Thai males during the past 25 years. Data from eight national surveys conducted by the National Statistics Office from 1986 to 2011 were used to examine the prevalence of smoking. Males aged 15 and older were included in this study. Logistic regression was used to model smoking patterns, according to year of survey, age group, urbanization, and Public Health Area (PHA). The prevalence of smoking among males aged 15 years and older in 2011 was 38.4%. Sharply increasing smoking prevalence was found in the 15-24 years-old age group in all surveys. Before survey year 1999, the prevalence of smoking started to level off near retirement age, and subsequently, it leveled off after 40 years of age. The prevalence of smoking in all age groups decreased after 1986 except in the 15-19 years-old age group. Higher prevalence of smoking was found in rural areas. Males from the Northeast and the lower South regions had the highest prevalence. More effective anti-smoking policies should focus on males aged below 25 years to reduce the increasing prevalence of smoking in this group.

  9. Growth curve by Gompertz nonlinear regression model in female and males in tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mello, Fernanda; Oliveira, Carlos A L; Ribeiro, Ricardo P; Resende, Emiko K; Povh, Jayme A; Fornari, Darci C; Barreto, Rogério V; McManus, Concepta; Streit, Danilo

    2015-01-01

    Was evaluated the pattern of growth among females and males of tambaqui by Gompertz nonlinear regression model. Five traits of economic importance were measured on 145 animals during the three years, totaling 981 morphometric data analyzed. Different curves were adjusted between males and females for body weight, height and head length and only one curve was adjusted to the width and body length. The asymptotic weight (a) and relative growth rate to maturity (k) were different between sexes in animals with ± 5 kg; slaughter weight practiced by a specific niche market, very profitable. However, there was no difference between males and females up to ± 2 kg; slaughter weight established to supply the bigger consumer market. Females showed weight greater than males (± 280 g), which are more suitable for fish farming purposes defined for the niche market to larger animals. In general, males had lower maximum growth rate (8.66 g / day) than females (9.34 g / day), however, reached faster than females, 476 and 486 days growth rate, respectively. The height and length body are the traits that contributed most to the weight at 516 days (P <0.001).

  10. Estereótipos de gênero e sexismo ambivalente em adolescentes masculinos de 12 a 16 anos Ambivalent sexism and gender stereotyping in male adolescents aged 12 to 16 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Mesquita Filho

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A discriminação e a violência contra o gênero feminino associam-se a representações distorcidas da mulher. Este trabalho tem o objetivo de mensurar a existência de preconceitos nas manifestações dos estereótipos de gênero e sexismo ambivalente, em adolescentes masculinos de 12 a 16 anos. Em um estudo transversal, aplicaram-se três questionários (sociodemográfico, Gender stereotyping, Inventário do Sexismo Ambivalente a 787 estudantes de 11 escolas públicas. Nos resultados, detectou-se a presença de estereótipos de gênero. Houve diferença significante entre alunos de escolas estaduais e municipais e também nos alunos que estudavam em bairros de poder aquisitivo elevado em relação aos demais. O sexismo, também presente, apresentou-se significantemente mais benévolo que hostil. O escore para o componente benévolo variou conforme a escola cursada. O hostil não foi influenciado pelas variáveis estudadas. Os achados corroboram a existência de estereótipos de gênero e sexismo ambivalente nos adolescentes masculinos e a necessidade de desenvolvimento de ações e políticas para sua erradicação.Discrimination and violence against the female gender are associated with distorted representation of women. This paper aims at measuring the existence of prejudice in the manifestations of ambivalent sexism and gender stereotypes in male adolescents aged 12 to 16 years. Three questionnaires (socio-demographic, Gender stereotyping, Ambivalent Sexism Inventory were applied to 787 students of 11 public schools in a cross-sectional study. The results pointed out to the presence of gender stereotypes. There was a significant difference between students of state and city schools and also between those who studied in neighborhoods presenting a higher economic status in comparison to the others. Sexism presented itself significantly more benevolent than hostile. The score to the benevolent component varied according to the attended

  11. Does Gender Make a Difference? Results from the German "Tandem Study" on the Pedagogical Activity of Female and Male ECE Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandes, Holger; Andrä, Markus; Röseler, Wenke; Schneider-Andrich, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Based on an everyday quasi-experimental situation with multiple materials, the behavior of male and female early childhood education (ECE) workers is recorded and compared. The research is based on a sample of 41 female and 41 male ECE workers, who in each case work together in tandem in a kindergarten class, as well as a control group of 12…

  12. Modelling Gender Differences in the Economic and Social Influences of Obesity in Australian Young People

    OpenAIRE

    Gulay Avsar; Roger Ham; W. Kathy Tannous

    2017-01-01

    In Australia, as in many other developed economies, the prevalence of obesity has risen significantly in all age groups and especially in young males and females over the past decade. Using data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey, this paper investigates the influence of economic, personality and social factor demographics on the incidence of obesity in Australian youths. The study uses two random parameters logit models, including one that allows for g...

  13. Gender Based Emotion Recognition System for Telugu Rural Dialects Using Hidden Markov Models

    CERN Document Server

    D, Prasad Reddy P V G; Srinivas, Y; Brahmaiah, P

    2010-01-01

    Automatic emotion recognition in speech is a research area with a wide range of applications in human interactions. The basic mathematical tool used for emotion recognition is Pattern recognition which involves three operations, namely, pre-processing, feature extraction and classification. This paper introduces a procedure for emotion recognition using Hidden Markov Models (HMM), which is used to divide five emotional states: anger, surprise, happiness, sadness and neutral state. The approach is based on standard speech recognition technology using hidden continuous markov model by selection of low level features and the design of the recognition system. Emotional Speech Database from Telugu Rural Dialects of Andhra Pradesh (TRDAP) was designed using several speaker's voices comprising the emotional states. The accuracy of recognizing five different emotions for both genders of classification is 80% for anger-emotion which is achieved by using the best combination of 39-dimensioanl feature vector for every f...

  14. Increasing Risk in the "Scary" World of Work? Male and Female Resistance to Crossing Gender Lines in Apprenticeships in England and Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Vanessa; Fuller, Alison; Unwin, Lorna

    2006-01-01

    This paper is based on research conducted as part of the Equal Opportunities Commission's General Formal Investigation into gender segregation in the United Kingdom labour market. The project comprised a survey of and focus groups with 14/15 year-olds in eight English schools in spring 2004 and a survey of 15/16 year-olds in four Welsh schools in…

  15. The Impact of Gender and Family Processes on Mental Health and Substance Use Issues in a Sample of Court-Involved Female and Male Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavazzi, Stephen M.; Lim, Ji-Young; Yarcheck, Courtney M.; Bostic, Jennifer M.; Scheer, Scott D.

    2008-01-01

    Greater empirical attention directed toward gender-sensitive assessment strategies that concentrate on family-specific factors is thought to be both timely and necessary, especially with regard to outcome variables associated with mental health and substance abuse in at-risk adolescent populations. A sample of 2,646 court-involved adolescents was…

  16. Do We Think Children Need a Mom and Dad?: Understanding How Gender Ideology Impact Attitudes Toward Same-Gender Parent Family Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Stephanie N; Chonody, Jill M; Kavanagh, Phillip S

    2017-09-06

    Research and opinion polls demonstrate that attitudes toward same-gender parent families have been improving in recent years among Western countries; however, the history of oppression toward, and misconceptions about, same-gender parent families continue to be demonstrated in Australian family rights policies. Common misconceptions include the belief that children need both male and female role models, and this could be influencing peoples' support for same-gender family rights and having a wider impact on legislation change. Yet a dearth of research exists exploring a connection between gender role beliefs and support for same-gender family rights using a broad international sample, including Australia. To investigate this connection, a sample (N = 615) from 18 English-speaking countries responded to a series of questions to determine the importance of gender norm beliefs on same-gender family prejudice. Regression analysis demonstrated that people with traditional beliefs about gender norms were more likely to endorse a negative attitude toward same-gender marriage and same-gender parenting. Findings suggest a link between socially prescribed gender norms and prejudice toward same-gender parent families that may be fueling arguments against same-gender family rights policies. The implications of these findings on same-gender parent families and their rights require future investigation.

  17. Evidence that gendered wording in job advertisements exists and sustains gender inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaucher, Danielle; Friesen, Justin; Kay, Aaron C

    2011-07-01

    Social dominance theory (Sidanius & Pratto, 1999) contends that institutional-level mechanisms exist that reinforce and perpetuate existing group-based inequalities, but very few such mechanisms have been empirically demonstrated. We propose that gendered wording (i.e., masculine- and feminine-themed words, such as those associated with gender stereotypes) may be a heretofore unacknowledged, institutional-level mechanism of inequality maintenance. Employing both archival and experimental analyses, the present research demonstrates that gendered wording commonly employed in job recruitment materials can maintain gender inequality in traditionally male-dominated occupations. Studies 1 and 2 demonstrated the existence of subtle but systematic wording differences within a randomly sampled set of job advertisements. Results indicated that job advertisements for male-dominated areas employed greater masculine wording (i.e., words associated with male stereotypes, such as leader, competitive, dominant) than advertisements within female-dominated areas. No difference in the presence of feminine wording (i.e., words associated with female stereotypes, such as support, understand, interpersonal) emerged across male- and female-dominated areas. Next, the consequences of highly masculine wording were tested across 3 experimental studies. When job advertisements were constructed to include more masculine than feminine wording, participants perceived more men within these occupations (Study 3), and importantly, women found these jobs less appealing (Studies 4 and 5). Results confirmed that perceptions of belongingness (but not perceived skills) mediated the effect of gendered wording on job appeal (Study 5). The function of gendered wording in maintaining traditional gender divisions, implications for gender parity, and theoretical models of inequality are discussed.

  18. The effect of antineoplastic drugs in a male spontaneous mammary tumor model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie N Shishido

    Full Text Available Male breast cancer is a rare disease. The limited number of clinical cases has led to the primary treatments for men being derived from female breast cancer studies. Here the transgenic strain FVB/N-Tg(MMTV-PyVT634Mul/J (also known as PyVT was used as a model system for measuring tumor burden and drug sensitivity of the antineoplastic drugs tamoxifen, cisplatin, and paclitaxel on tumorigenesis at an early stage of mammary carcinoma development in a male mouse model. Cisplatin treatment significantly reduced tumor volume, while paclitaxel and tamoxifen did not attenuate tumor growth. Cisplatin treatment was shown to induce apoptosis, grossly observed by reduced tumor formation, through reduced Bcl-2 and survivin protein expression levels with an increase in caspase 3 expression compared to control tumors. Tamoxifen treatment significantly altered the hormone receptor expression levels of the tumor, while additionally upregulating Bcl-2 and Cyclin D1. This suggests an importance in hormonal signaling in male breast cancer pathogenesis. The results of this study provide valuable information toward the better understanding of male breast cancer and may help guide treatment decisions.

  19. From Flexicurity to FlexicArity? Gendered perspectives on the Danish Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lise Lotte

    2007-01-01

    In Europe, flexicurity is seen as a way to develop labour markets so they will stay or be more competitive and at the same time secure the European welfare tradition. The Danish welfare society builds on a division of work and co-operation between the labour market and the welfare state. This div......In Europe, flexicurity is seen as a way to develop labour markets so they will stay or be more competitive and at the same time secure the European welfare tradition. The Danish welfare society builds on a division of work and co-operation between the labour market and the welfare state....... This division and co-operation also applies to the Danish flexicurity model which this article focuses on from a gender perspective. The analysis presented here relates to the labor market, the welfare state, and the active labor market policy. The article shows that welfare policies on public care...... as men's and it is therefore suggested that further research into the gendered consequences of the active labor market policy should be undertaken....

  20. Mechanical Characterization and Constitutive Modeling of Human Trachea: Age and Gender Dependency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Safshekan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Tracheal disorders can usually reduce the free lumen diameter or wall stiffness, and hence limit airflow. Trachea tissue engineering seems a promising treatment for such disorders. The required mechanical compatibility of the prepared scaffold with native trachea necessitates investigation of the mechanical behavior of the human trachea. This study aimed at mechanical characterization of human tracheas and comparing the results based on age and gender. After isolating 30 human tracheas, samples of tracheal cartilage, smooth muscle, and connective tissue were subjected to uniaxial tension to obtain force-displacement curves and calculate stress-stretch data. Among several models, the Yeoh and Mooney-Rivlin hyperelastic functions were best able to describe hyperelastic behavior of all three tracheal components. The mean value of the elastic modulus of human tracheal cartilage was calculated to be 16.92 ± 8.76 MPa. An overall tracheal stiffening with age was observed, with the most considerable difference in the case of cartilage. Consistently, we noticed some histological alterations in cartilage and connective tissue with aging, which may play a role in age-related tracheal stiffening. No considerable effect of gender on the mechanical behavior of tracheal components was observed. The results of this study can be applied in the design and fabrication of trachea tissue engineering scaffolds.

  1. High-School Chemistry Students' Performance and Gender Differences in a Computerized Molecular Modeling Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnea, Nitza; Dori, Yehudit J.

    1999-12-01

    Computerized molecular modeling (CMM) contributes to the development of visualization skills via vivid animation of three dimensional representations. Its power to illustrate and explore phenomena in chemistry teaching stems from the convenience and simplicity of building molecules of any size and color in a number of presentation styles. A new CMM-based learning environment for teaching and learning chemistry in Israeli high schools has been designed and implemented. Three tenth grade experimental classes used this discovery CMM approach, while two other classes, who studied the same topic in the customary approach, served as a control group. We investigated the effects of using molecular modeling on students' spatial ability, understanding of new concepts related to geometric and symbolic representations and students' perception of the model concept. Each variable was examined for gender differences. Students of the experimental group performed better than control group students in all three performance aspects. Experimental group students scored higher than the control group students in the achievement test on structure and bonding. Students' spatial ability improved in both groups, but students from the experimental group scored higher. For the average students in the two groups the improvement in all three spatial ability sub-tests —paper folding, card rotation, and cube comparison—was significantly higher for the experimental group. Experimental group students gained better insight into the model concept than the control group and could explain more phenomena with the aid of a variety of models. Hence, CMM helps in particular to improve the examined cognitive aspects of the average student population. In most of the achievement and spatial ability tests no significant differences between the genders were found, but in some aspects of model perception and verbal argumentation differences still exist. Experimental group females improved their model

  2. Sentir-se pai: a vivência masculina sob o olhar de gênero Fatherhood: the male experience from a gender focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waglânia de Mendonça Faustino e Freitas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O pouco envolvimento de parceiros com filhos(as desde a gestação é freqüentemente relatado por mulheres grávidas e puérperas que resultam em tensões e conflitos. Frente a essa realidade, foi realizado um estudo com o objetivo de compreender a emergência do sentimento de paternidade em homens que a vivenciam. A pesquisa foi desenvolvida sob abordagem qualitativa e enfoque teórico de gênero. O universo empírico do estudo foi constituído por dez homens, contactados em ambulatório de puericultura, sendo os dados produzidos por meio de entrevista semi-estruturada. Os depoimentos dos sujeitos do estudo foram analisados pela técnica de análise do discurso, cujo princípio básico é reconhecer no texto seus níveis mais abstratos, identificados por temas que, organizados em blocos de significação, permitem a construção de categorias empíricas. A posição social dos sujeitos do estudo frente ao momento em que se sentiram pais revela que o modelo em que homens assumem-se como pais pela função de provedor convive com o modelo do homem que busca ser um "novo pai", cujo vínculo afetivo com o(a filho(a se inicia na gestação, representando ruptura com a paternidade tradicional.Pregnant and postpartum women frequently complain about the limited involvement of their partners with their children, beginning in pregnancy. The current study thus aimed to understand men's feelings towards fatherhood during this period of their lives. The research adopted a qualitative approach and a gender-theory focus. The universe included men whose children were being treated at a pediatric outpatient clinic, and data were collected through semi-structured home interviews. Subjects' testimony was analyzed using discourse analysis, the basic principle of which is to recognize the most abstract levels of the text, identified by themes organized in blocks of meaning and allowing the construction of empirical categories. Study subjects' social position

  3. Measurement Invariance of Second-Order Factor Model of the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) across K-12 Principal Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lihua; Wubbena, Zane; Stewart, Trae

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factor structure and the measurement invariance of the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) across gender of K-12 school principals (n=6,317) in the USA. Design/methodology/approach: Nine first-order factor models and four second-order factor models were tested using confirmatory…

  4. Multivariate Models of Parent-Late Adolescent Gender Dyads: The Importance of Parenting Processes in Predicting Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Cliff; Renk, Kimberly

    2008-01-01

    Although parent-adolescent interactions have been examined, relevant variables have not been integrated into a multivariate model. As a result, this study examined a multivariate model of parent-late adolescent gender dyads in an attempt to capture important predictors in late adolescents' important and unique transition to adulthood. The sample…

  5. Measurement Invariance of Second-Order Factor Model of the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) across K-12 Principal Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lihua; Wubbena, Zane; Stewart, Trae

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factor structure and the measurement invariance of the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) across gender of K-12 school principals (n=6,317) in the USA. Design/methodology/approach: Nine first-order factor models and four second-order factor models were tested using confirmatory…

  6. Influence of Gender and Computer Teaching Efficacy on Computer Acceptance among Malaysian Student Teachers: An Extended Technology Acceptance Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kung-Teck; Teo, Timothy; Russo, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to validate the technology acceptance model (TAM) in an educational context and explore the role of gender and computer teaching efficacy as external variables. From the literature, it appeared that only limited studies had developed models to explain statistically the chain of influence of computer teaching efficacy…

  7. Perceived Gender Ratings for High and Low Scorers on the Autism-Spectrum Quotient Consistent with the Extreme Male Brain Account of Autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Weiting Tan

    Full Text Available The Extreme Male Brain (EMB theory posits that autistic traits are linked to excessive exposure to testosterone in utero. While findings from a number of studies are consistent with this theory, other studies have produced contradictory results. For example, some findings suggest that rather than being linked to hypermasculinization for males, or defeminization for females, elevated levels of autistic traits are instead linked to more androgynous physical features. The current study provided further evidence relevant to the EMB and androgony positions by comparing groups of males selected for high or low scores on the Autism-spectrum Quotient (AQ as to the rated masculinity of their faces and voices, and comparable groups of females as to the rated femininity of their faces and voices. The voices of High-AQ males were rated as more masculine than those of Low-AQ males, while the faces of High-AQ females were rated as less feminine than those of Low-AQ females. There was no effect of AQ group on femininity ratings for female voices or on masculinity ratings for male faces. The results thus provide partial support for a link between high levels of autistic-like traits and hypermasculinization for males and defeminization for females, consistent with the EMB theory.

  8. Review of Outcome Information in 46,XX Patients with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Assigned/Reared Male: What Does It Say about Gender Assignment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee PeterA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available There is ample historical verification of 46,XX congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH patients being born with essentially male genitaliawhile outcome information is scant. Prior to glucocorticoid therapy, most patients died very young from adrenal insufficiency. Most available reports from laterchildhood, contain little information concerning sexual identity. Reports on older individuals lack adequate information about sexual identity and quality of life. The difficulty in assessing the relative impact of multiple dynamic environmental factors on the development of sexual identity, self- and body esteem and overall adjustment to life is clear. Nevertheless, it remains unclear whether those infants whose masculine genitalia at birth resulted in an initial male assignment would have enjoyed a better adult outcome had they been allowed to remain male rather than the female reassignment that most received. Further, one could ask whether a male sex of rearing should be considered in 46,XX CAH infants with male external genitalia. After reviewing available literature, we conclude that because those extremely virlized 46,XX CAH patients who were reared male with healthy social support demonstrated satisfactory levels of social and sexual function as adults a male sex assignment should be considered in these types of infants when social and cultural environment are supportive.

  9. Review of Outcome Information in 46,XX Patients with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Assigned/Reared Male: What Does It Say about Gender Assignment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Peter A; Houk, Christopher P

    2010-01-01

    There is ample historical verification of 46,XX congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) patients being born with essentially male genitaliawhile outcome information is scant. Prior to glucocorticoid therapy, most patients died very young from adrenal insufficiency. Most available reports from laterchildhood, contain little information concerning sexual identity. Reports on older individuals lack adequate information about sexual identity and quality of life. The difficulty in assessing the relative impact of multiple dynamic environmental factors on the development of sexual identity, self- and body esteem and overall adjustment to life is clear. Nevertheless, it remains unclear whether those infants whose masculine genitalia at birth resulted in an initial male assignment would have enjoyed a better adult outcome had they been allowed to remain male rather than the female reassignment that most received. Further, one could ask whether a male sex of rearing should be considered in 46,XX CAH infants with male external genitalia. After reviewing available literature, we conclude that because those extremely virlized 46,XX CAH patients who were reared male with healthy social support demonstrated satisfactory levels of social and sexual function as adults a male sex assignment should be considered in these types of infants when social and cultural environment are supportive.

  10. Testing causal models of the relationship between childhood gender atypical behaviour and parent-child relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanko, Katarina; Santtila, Pekka; Salo, Benny; Jern, Patrik; Johansson, Ada; Sandnabba, N Kenneth

    2011-06-01

    An association between childhood gender atypical behaviour (GAB) and a negative parent-child relationship has been demonstrated in several studies, yet the causal relationship of this association is not fully understood. In the present study, different models of causation between childhood GAB and parent-child relationships were tested. Direction of causation modelling was applied to twin data from a population-based sample (n= 2,565) of Finnish 33- to 43-year-old twins. Participants completed retrospective self-report questionnaires. Five different models of causation were then fitted to the data: GAB → parent-child relationship, parent-child relationship → GAB, reciprocal causation, a bivariate genetic model, and a model assuming no correlation. It was found that a model in which GAB and quality of mother-child, and father-child relationship reciprocally affect each other best fitted the data. The findings are discussed in light of how we should understand, including causality, the association between GAB and parent-child relationship.

  11. Can gender-fair language reduce gender stereotyping and discrimination?

    OpenAIRE

    Sabine eSczesny; Magdalena eFormanowicz; Franziska eMoser

    2016-01-01

    Gender-fair language (GFL) aims at reducing gender stereotyping and discrimination. Two principle strategies have been employed to make languages gender-fair and to treat women and men symmetrically: neutralization and feminization. Neutralization is achieved, for example, by replacing male-masculine forms (policeman) with gender-unmarked forms (police officer), whereas feminization relies on the use of feminine forms to make female referents visible (i.e., the applicant… he or she instead of...

  12. Reproductive toxicity and gender differences induced by cadmium telluride quantum dots in an invertebrate model organism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Si-Qi; Xing, Rui; Zhou, Yan-Feng; Li, Kai-Le; Su, Yuan-Yuan; Qiu, Jian-Feng; Zhang, Yun-Hu; Zhang, Ke-Qin; He, Yao; Lu, Xiao-Ping; Xu, Shi-Qing

    2016-09-01

    Sexual glands are key sites affected by nanotoxicity, but there is no sensitive assay for measuring reproductive toxicity in animals. The aim of this study was to investigate the toxic effects of cadmium telluride quantum dots (CdTe-QDs) on gonads in a model organism, Bombyx mori. After dorsal vein injection of 0.32 nmol of CdTe-QDs per individual, the QDs passed through the outer membranes of gonads via the generation of ROS in the membranes of spermatocysts and ovarioles, as well as internal germ cells, thereby inducing early germ cell death or malformations via complex mechanisms related to apoptosis and autophagy through mitochondrial and lysosomal pathways. Histological observations of the gonads and quantitative analyses of germ cell development showed that the reproductive toxicity was characterized by obvious male sensitivity. Exposure to QDs in the early stage of males had severe adverse effects on the quantity and quality of sperm, which was the main reason for the occurrence of unfertilized eggs. Ala- or Gly-conjugated QDs could reduce the nanotoxicity of CdTe-QDs during germ cell development and fertilization of their offspring. The results demonstrate that males are preferable models for evaluating the reproductive toxicity of QDs in combined in vivo/in vitro investigations.

  13. Reproductive toxicity and gender differences induced by cadmium telluride quantum dots in an invertebrate model organism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Si-Qi; Xing, Rui; Zhou, Yan-Feng; Li, Kai-Le; Su, Yuan-Yuan; Qiu, Jian-Feng; Zhang, Yun-Hu; Zhang, Ke-Qin; He, Yao; Lu, Xiao-Ping; Xu, Shi-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Sexual glands are key sites affected by nanotoxicity, but there is no sensitive assay for measuring reproductive toxicity in animals. The aim of this study was to investigate the toxic effects of cadmium telluride quantum dots (CdTe-QDs) on gonads in a model organism, Bombyx mori. After dorsal vein injection of 0.32 nmol of CdTe-QDs per individual, the QDs passed through the outer membranes of gonads via the generation of ROS in the membranes of spermatocysts and ovarioles, as well as internal germ cells, thereby inducing early germ cell death or malformations via complex mechanisms related to apoptosis and autophagy through mitochondrial and lysosomal pathways. Histological observations of the gonads and quantitative analyses of germ cell development showed that the reproductive toxicity was characterized by obvious male sensitivity. Exposure to QDs in the early stage of males had severe adverse effects on the quantity and quality of sperm, which was the main reason for the occurrence of unfertilized eggs. Ala- or Gly-conjugated QDs could reduce the nanotoxicity of CdTe-QDs during germ cell development and fertilization of their offspring. The results demonstrate that males are preferable models for evaluating the reproductive toxicity of QDs in combined in vivo/in vitro investigations. PMID:27669995

  14. Gender Stereotypes among Road Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabalevskaya, Alexandra I.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the mechanism of stereotyping as exemplified by gender stereotypes of road users. Gender stereotypes are not only viewed as an a priori image of a percept, but also examined ‘in action’ — at the very moment of their actualization with road users. In the paper we have identified the content of road users’ gender stereotypes; analyzed the behaviour of male and female drivers, pinpointing a number of gender-specific behavioural features; demonstrated that male and female driving differ from each other in terms of speed, intensity and roughness; and identified the conditions and mechanisms underlying the actualization of gender stereotypes. Based on video and audio materials, we have found that drivers’ gender-specific behavioural features are perceivable to road users: such features trigger the actualization of gender stereotypes as attributive schemes, which determine the interaction between road users, while also laying the foundation for gender stereotypes.

  15. Youth, gender and sexual practices in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Heilborn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on a survey developed in three Brazilian state capitals, this paper presents data and interpretations about the sexual practices and management of sexual desire among male and female youth. The findings indicate a close connection between gender and sexuality in modeling individuals' sexual trajectories and subjectivities. There is a higher acceptance of practices formerly considered to be deviant, revealing that sexual morality among youth has acquired a more modern configuration. This paper argues that there is a differentiated modernization of sexual values: gender disparities were detected in the answers of respondents in all social environments. The increasing flexibility of individual trajectories does not necessarily lead to gender equality. The affirmation that the individualizing process coexists with the persistence of traditional gender ideology entails the recognition that men and women's, and different generations' and social segments' modernization paths do not evolve in the same way.

  16. DETERMINATION OF AGE AND GENDER DIFFERENCES IN BIOCHEMICAL PROCESSES AFFECTING THE DISPOSITION OF 2-BUTOXYETHANOL AND ITS METABOLITES IN MICE AND RATS TO IMPROVE PBPK MODELING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corley, Rick A.; Grant, Donna M.; Farris, Elizabeth; Weitz, Karl K.; Soelberg, Jolen J.; Thrall, K D.; Poet, Torka S.

    2005-03-28

    2-Butoxyethanol (BE) is the most widely used glycol ether solvent. BE's major metabolite, butoxyacetic acid (BAA), causes hemolysis with significant species differences in sensitivity. Several PBPK models have been developed over the past two decades to describe the disposition of BE and BAA in male rats and humans to refine health risk assessments. More recent efforts by Lee et al. (1998) to describe the kinetics of BE and BAA in the National Toxicology Program (NTP) chronic inhalation studies required the use of several assumptions to extrapolate model parameters from earlier PBPK models developed for young male rats to include female F344 and both sexes of B6C3F1 mice and the effects of aging. To replace these assumptions, studies were conducted to determine the impact of age, gender and species on the metabolism of BE, and the tissue partitioning, renal acid transport and plasma protein binding of BAA. In the current study, the Lee et al. PBPK model was updated and expanded to include the further metabolism of BAA and the salivary excretion of BE and BAA which may contribute to the forestomach irritation observed in mice in the NTP study. The revised model predicted that peak blood concentrations of BAA achieved following 6-hr inhalation exposures are greatest in young adult female rats at concentrations up to 300 ppm. This is not the case predicted for old (>18 months) animals, where peak blood concentrations of BAA in male and female mice were similar to or greater than female rats. The revised model serves as a quantitative tool for integrating an extensive pharmacokinetic and mechanistic database into a format that can readily be used to compare internal dosimetry across dose, route of exposure and species.

  17. Modeling the suppression of sea lamprey populations by the release of sterile males or sterile females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, Waldemar; Adams, Jean V.; Twohey, Michael B.

    2004-01-01

    The suppressive effects of trapping adult sea lampreys, Petromyzon marinus Linnaeus, and releasing sterile males (SMRT) or females (SFRT) into a closed system were expressed in deterministic models. Suppression was modeled as a function of the proportion of the population removed by trapping, the number of sterile animals released, the reproductive rate and sex ratio of the population, and (for the SFRT) the rate of polygyny. Releasing sterile males reduced populations more quickly than did the release of sterile females. For a population in which 30% are trapped, sterile animals are initially released at ratio of 10 sterile to 1 fertile animal, 5 adult progeny are produced per fertile mating, 60% are male, and males mate with an average of 1.65 females, the initial population is reduced 87% by SMRT and 68% by SFRT in one generation. The extent of suppression achieved is most sensitive to changes in the initial sterile release ratio. Given the current status of sea lamprey populations and trapping operations in the Great Lakes, the sterile-male-release technique has the best chance for success on a lake-wide basis if implemented in Lake Michigan. The effectiveness of the sterile-female-release technique should be investigated in a controlled study. Advancing trapping technology should be a high priority in the near term, and artificial rearing of sea lampreys to the adult stage should be a high priority in the long term. The diligent pursuit of sea lamprey suppression over a period of several decades can be expected to yield great benefits.

  18. "They Were Really Looking for a Male Leader for the Building": Gender, Identity and Leadership Development in a Principal Preparation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Laura J; Weiner, Jennie M

    2016-01-01

    This study utilized a comparative case study analysis to investigate how gender influenced the experiences of participants in a leadership development program (principal preparation program) designed to lead public K-12 schools identified as requiring turnaround. We closely focused on two participants, a man and a woman, and compared the ways each participant made meaning of his/her experiences as developing leaders in the program. Although both participants conceptualized effective leadership in similar communally-oriented ways, the way they came to construct their identities as leaders varied greatly. These differences were largely influenced by different and, what appeared to be, gendered feedback occurring during the program and when participants entered the job market.

  19. They were really looking for a male leader for the building: Gender, identity and leadership development in a principal preparation program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura J Burton

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study utilized a comparative case study analysis to investigate how gender influenced the experiences of participants in a leadership development program (principal preparation program designed to lead public K-12 schools identified as requiring turnaround. We closely focused on two participants, a man and a woman, and compared the ways each participant made meaning of his/her experiences as developing leaders in the program. Although both participants conceptualized effective leadership in similar communally-oriented ways, the way they came to construct their identities as leaders varied greatly. These differences were largely influenced by different and, what appeared to be, gendered feedback occurring during the program and when participants entered the job market.

  20. Local Signaling Environments and Human Male Infertility: What Can Be Learned from Mouse Models

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Infertility is one of the most prevalent public health problems facing young adult males in today’s society. A clear, treatable cause of infertility cannot be determined in a large number of these patients, and a growing body of evidence suggests that infertility in many of these men may be due to genetic causes. Studies utilizing animal models, and most importantly, mouse knockout technology, have been integral not only for the study of normal spermatogenesis but also for identifying protein...

  1. Construct validity evidence for the Male Role Norms Inventory-Short Form: A structural equation modeling approach using the bifactor model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levant, Ronald F; Hall, Rosalie J; Weigold, Ingrid K; McCurdy, Eric R

    2016-10-01

    The construct validity of the Male Role Norms Inventory-Short Form (MRNI-SF) was assessed using a latent variable approach implemented with structural equation modeling (SEM). The MRNI-SF was specified as having a bifactor structure, and validation scales were also specified as latent variables. The latent variable approach had the advantages of separating effects of general and specific factors and controlling for some sources of measurement error. Data (N = 484) were from a diverse sample (38.8% men of color, 22.3% men of diverse sexualities) of community-dwelling and college men who responded to an online survey. The construct validity of the MRNI-SF General Traditional Masculinity Ideology factor was supported for all 4 of the proposed latent correlations with: (a) Male Role Attitudes Scale; (b) general factor of Conformity to Masculine Norms Inventory-46; (c) higher-order factor of Gender Role Conflict Scale; and (d) Personal Attributes Questionnaire-Masculinity Scale. Significant correlations with relevant other latent factors provided concurrent validity evidence for the MRNI-SF specific factors of Negativity toward Sexual Minorities, Importance of Sex, Restrictive Emotionality, and Toughness, with all 8 of the hypothesized relationships supported. However, 3 relationships concerning Dominance were not supported. (The construct validity of the remaining 2 MRNI-SF specific factors-Avoidance of Femininity and Self-Reliance through Mechanical Skills was not assessed.) Comparisons were made, and meaningful differences noted, between the latent correlations emphasized in this study and their raw variable counterparts. Results are discussed in terms of the advantages of an SEM approach and the unique characteristics of the bifactor model. (PsycINFO Database Record

  2. Bonesetters and curers in a Mexican community: conceptual models, status, and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, B R; Anderson, R

    1996-05-01

    In the indigenous Mexican village of Hueyapan, there is a clear contrast between the supernatural beliefs curers use to explain illness and the naturalistic assumptions made by this community's bonesetters. In addition to employing different conceptual models, the two types of healers differ with respect to their manner of recruitment, training, types of illnesses treated, social status, and gender. These differences add up to a seeming enigma: in a community where men largely control political, economic, and religious affairs, the higher status role of curer is undertaken most frequently by women and the lower status specialty of bonesetter by men. Hueyapan's health care system becomes less problematical, however, when it is recognized that recruitment to the bonesetter and curer roles is shaped by pragmatic considerations of role continuity and compatibility independent of the social status of these two occupations.

  3. Analysis of current gender stereotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Rosario Castillo-Mayén; Beatriz Montes-Berges

    2014-01-01

    Gender stereotypes are beliefs about attributes associated to women and men that reveal gender discrimination. In order to identify changes of gender discrimination, the study of the stereotypes that prevail nowadays is essential. With this in mind, a scale consisting of 258 stereotypic characteristics was elaborated. This scale comprised two versions, one for female and one for male, which permits the understanding of how each gender is perceived currently. Both versions were filled out by 1...

  4. Analysis of current gender stereotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Rosario Castillo-Mayén; Beatriz Montes-Berges

    2014-01-01

    Gender stereotypes are beliefs about attributes associated to women and men that reveal gender discrimination. In order to identify changes of gender discrimination, the study of the stereotypes that prevail nowadays is essential. With this in mind, a scale consisting of 258 stereotypic characteristics was elaborated. This scale comprised two versions, one for female and one for male, which permits the understanding of how each gender is perceived currently. Both versions were filled out by 1...

  5. Development of a simplified finite element model of the 50th percentile male occupant lower extremity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Doron; Moreno, Daniel P; Stitzel, Joel D; Gayzik, F Scott

    2014-01-01

    A simplified lower extremity model was developed using the geometry from the Global Human Body Models Consortium (GHBMC) 50th percentile male occupant model v4.1.1 (M50) as a base. This simplified model contains 31.4x103 elements and has structures that represent bone (assumed rigid) and soft tissue. This element total is substantially reduced compared to 117.7x103 elements in the original M50 lower extremity. The purpose of this simplified computational model is to output rapid kinematic and kinetic data when detailed structural response or injury prediction data is not required. The development process included evaluating the effects of element size, material properties, and contact definitions on total run time and response. Two simulations were performed to analyze this model; a 4.9 m/s knee bolster impact and a 6.9 m/s lateral knee impact using LS-DYNA R6.1.1. The 40 ms knee bolster impact and lateral knee impact tests required 5 and 7 minutes to run, respectively on 4 cores. The original detailed M50 lower extremity model required 94 and 112 minutes to run the same boundary conditions, on the same hardware, representing a reduction in run time of on average 94%. A quantitative comparison was made by comparing the peak force of the impacts between the two models. This simplified leg model will become a component in a simplified full body model of the seated, 50th percentile male occupant. The significantly reduced run time will be valuable for parametric studies with a full body finite element model.

  6. Modelling Socio-Economic Differences in the Mortality of Danish Males Using a New Affluence Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cairns, Andrew J.G.; Kallestrup-Lamb, Malene; Rosenskjold, Carsten Paysen T.

    We investigate and model how the mortality of Danish males aged 55-94 has changed over the period 1985-2012. We divide the population into ten socio-economic subgroups using a new measure of affluence that combines wealth and income reported on the Statistics Denmark national register database...... possible without losing the essential character of the raw data. The model produces bio-demographically reasonable forecasts of mortality rates that preserve the sub-group rankings at all ages. It also satisfies reasonableness criteria related to the term structure of correlations across ages and over time...

  7. A rear-end collision risk assessment model based on drivers' collision avoidance process under influences of cell phone use and gender-A driving simulator based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaomeng; Yan, Xuedong; Wu, Jiawei; Radwan, Essam; Zhang, Yuting

    2016-12-01

    Driver's collision avoidance performance has a direct link to the collision risk and crash severity. Previous studies demonstrated that the distracted driving, such as using a cell phone while driving, disrupted the driver's performance on road. This study aimed to investigate the manner and extent to which cell phone use and driver's gender affected driving performance and collision risk in a rear-end collision avoidance process. Forty-two licensed drivers completed the driving simulation experiment in three phone use conditions: no phone use, hands-free, and hand-held, in which the drivers drove in a car-following situation with potential rear-end collision risks caused by the leading vehicle's sudden deceleration. Based on the experiment data, a rear-end collision risk assessment model was developed to assess the influence of cell phone use and driver's gender. The cell phone use and driver's gender were found to be significant factors that affected the braking performances in the rear-end collision avoidance process, including the brake reaction time, the deceleration adjusting time and the maximum deceleration rate. The minimum headway distance between the leading vehicle and the simulator during the rear-end collision avoidance process was the final output variable, which could be used to measure the rear-end collision risk and judge whether a collision occurred. The results showed that although cell phone use drivers took some compensatory behaviors in the collision avoidance process to reduce the mental workload, the collision risk in cell phone use conditions was still higher than that without the phone use. More importantly, the results proved that the hands-free condition did not eliminate the safety problem associated with distracted driving because it impaired the driving performance in the same way as much as the use of hand-held phones. In addition, the gender effect indicated that although female drivers had longer reaction time than male drivers in

  8. The Establishment of Metabolic Syndrome Model by Induction of Fructose Drinking Water in Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norshalizah Mamikutty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Metabolic syndrome can be caused by modification of diet by means of consumption of high carbohydrate and high fat diet such as fructose. Aims. To develop a metabolic syndrome rat model by induction of fructose drinking water (FDW in male Wistar rats. Methods. Eighteen male Wistar rats were fed with FDW 20% and FDW 25% for a duration of eight weeks. The physiological changes with regard to food and fluid intake, as well as calorie intake, were measured. The metabolic changes such as obesity, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, and hyperglycaemia were determined. Data was presented in mean ± SEM subjected to one-way ANOVA. Results. Male Wistar rats fed with FDW 20% for eight weeks developed significant higher obesity parameters compared to those fed with FDW 25%. There was hypertrophy of adipocytes in F20 and F25. There were also systolic hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, and hyperglycemia in both groups. Conclusion. We conclude that the metabolic syndrome rat model is best established with the induction of FDW 20% for eight weeks. This was evident in the form of higher obesity parameter which caused the development of the metabolic syndrome.

  9. The gender earnings gap among pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal, Manuel J; Armayor, Graciela M; Deziel, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    A gender earnings gap exists across professions. Compared with men, women earn consistently lower income levels. The determinants of wages and salaries should be explored to assess whether a gender earnings gap exists in the pharmacy profession. The objectives of this study were to (1) compare the responses of male and female pharmacists' earnings with human-capital stock, workers' preferences, and opinion variables and (2) assess whether the earnings determination models for male and female pharmacists yielded similar results in estimating the wage-and-salary gap through earnings projections, the influence of each explanatory variable, and gender differences in statistical significance. Data were collected through the use of a 37-question survey mailed to registered pharmacists in South Florida, United States. Earnings functions were formulated and tested separately for male and female pharmacists using unlogged and semilog equation forms. Number of hours worked, human-capital stock, job preferences, and opinion variables were hypothesized to explain wage-and-salary differentials. The empirical evidence led to 3 major conclusions: (1) men's and women's earnings sometimes were influenced by different stimuli, and when they responded to the same variables, the effect often was different; (2) although the influence of some explanatory variables on earnings differed in the unlogged and semilog equations, the earnings projections derived from both equation forms for male and female pharmacists were remarkably similar and yielded nearly identical male-female earnings ratios; and (3) controlling for number of hours worked, human-capital stock, job preferences, and opinion variables reduced the initial unadjusted male-female earnings ratios only slightly, which pointed toward the presence of gender bias. After controlling for human-capital stock, job-related characteristics, and opinion variables, male pharmacists continued to earn higher income levels than female

  10. Over-Expression of Porcine Myostatin Missense Mutant Leads to A Gender Difference in Skeletal Muscle Growth between Transgenic Male and Female Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dezun Ma

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Myostatin, a transforming growth factor-β family member, is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle development and growth. Piedmontese cattle breeds have a missense mutation, which results in a cysteine to tyrosine substitution in the mature myostatin protein (C313Y. This loss-of-function mutation in myostatin results in a double-muscled phenotype in cattle. Myostatin propeptide is an inhibitor of myostatin activity and is considered a potential agent to stimulate muscle growth in livestock. In this study, we generated transgenic mice overexpressing porcine myostatin missense mutant (pmMS, C313Y, and wild-type porcine myostatin propeptide (ppMS, respectively, to examine their effects on muscle growth in mice. Enhanced muscle growth was observed in both pmMS and ppMS transgenic female mice and also in ppMS transgenic male mice. However, there was no enhanced muscle growth observed in pmMS transgenic male mice. To explore why there is such a big difference in muscle growth between pmMS and ppMS transgenic male mice, the expression level of androgen receptor (AR mutant AR45 was measured by Western blot. Results indicated that AR45 expression significantly increased in pmMS transgenic male mice while it decreased dramatically in ppMS transgenic male mice. Our data demonstrate that both pmMS and ppMS act as myostatin inhibitors in the regulation of muscle growth, but the effect of pmMS in male mice is reversed by an increased AR45 expression. These results provide useful insight and basic theory to future studies on improving pork quality by genetically manipulating myostatin expression or by regulating myostatin activity.

  11. Over-Expression of Porcine Myostatin Missense Mutant Leads to A Gender Difference in Skeletal Muscle Growth between Transgenic Male and Female Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dezun; Gao, Pengfei; Qian, Lili; Wang, Qingqing; Cai, Chunbo; Jiang, Shengwang; Xiao, Gaojun; Cui, Wentao

    2015-08-24

    Myostatin, a transforming growth factor-β family member, is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle development and growth. Piedmontese cattle breeds have a missense mutation, which results in a cysteine to tyrosine substitution in the mature myostatin protein (C313Y). This loss-of-function mutation in myostatin results in a double-muscled phenotype in cattle. Myostatin propeptide is an inhibitor of myostatin activity and is considered a potential agent to stimulate muscle growth in livestock. In this study, we generated transgenic mice overexpressing porcine myostatin missense mutant (pmMS), C313Y, and wild-type porcine myostatin propeptide (ppMS), respectively, to examine their effects on muscle growth in mice. Enhanced muscle growth was observed in both pmMS and ppMS transgenic female mice and also in ppMS transgenic male mice. However, there was no enhanced muscle growth observed in pmMS transgenic male mice. To explore why there is such a big difference in muscle growth between pmMS and ppMS transgenic male mice, the expression level of androgen receptor (AR) mutant AR45 was measured by Western blot. Results indicated that AR45 expression significantly increased in pmMS transgenic male mice while it decreased dramatically in ppMS transgenic male mice. Our data demonstrate that both pmMS and ppMS act as myostatin inhibitors in the regulation of muscle growth, but the effect of pmMS in male mice is reversed by an increased AR45 expression. These results provide useful insight and basic theory to future studies on improving pork quality by genetically manipulating myostatin expression or by regulating myostatin activity.

  12. [Structural equation modeling on contraception behavior of unmarried men and women in Korea: gender difference].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Shin Woo; Chung, Chae Weon

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to test and validate a model to predict contraception behavior in unmarried men and women. Data were collected from a questionnaire survey of 180 unmarried men and 186 unmarried women 20 years of age or over who had sexual relationships in the past 6 months. Participants were from Seoul, Kyunggi, Daegu, and Busan and data collection was done from February 19 to April 16, 2013. Model fit indices for the hypotheoretical model fitted to the recommended levels. Out of 15 paths, 11 were statistically significant in both. Predictors of contraception behavior in unmarried men and women were intention to use contraception and self-efficacy for contraception. Exposure to sexual content was directly significant to the intention in men only. Self-efficacy for contraception was affected by perceived threat of pregnancy and gender role attitude. In women, the two predictors were also significant except for the effect of exposure to sexual contents. Results indicate that an intervention program which increases self-efficacy in unmarried men and women contributes to effective contraception behavior. In addition, proper sexual education programs using positive aspect of mass media can help develop active participation for contraception behavior.

  13. Naughty or Nice?: Equity, Gender and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Pamela Ray; Steelman, Lala Carr; Mulkey, Lynn; Catsambis, Sophia

    2008-01-01

    We review the debate over behavior, gender and classroom placement in ability groups for kindergartners. Using vignettes we vary children's gender in three ways; male, female, or unspecified gender and also describe them as behaving well, average, or misbehaving. Our aim is to probe how much gender and behavior matter with respect to mock reading…

  14. The Effect of 3D-Modeling Training on Students' Spatial Reasoning Relative to Gender and Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šafhalter, Andrej; Vukman, Karin Bakracevic; Glodež, Srecko

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research was to establish whether gender and age have an impact on spatial reasoning and its development through the use of 3D modeling. The study was conducted on a sample of 196 children from sixth to ninth grade, of whom 95 represented the experimental group and 101 the control group. The experimental group received 3D modeling…

  15. Asian and Pacific Islander Women Scientists and Engineers: A Narrative Exploration of Model Minority, Gender, and Racial Stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, Pauline W. U.

    2002-01-01

    Uses narrative methodology in a qualitative study to understand what becoming a scientist or engineer entails for women stereotyped as model minorities. Narratives revealed that Confucian cultural scripts shaped gender expectations even in families several generations in America. (Author/MM)

  16. Construction of an extended library of adult male 3D models: rationale and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broggio, D.; Beurrier, J.; Bremaud, M.; Desbrée, A.; Farah, J.; Huet, C.; Franck, D.

    2011-12-01

    In order to best cover the possible extent of heights and weights of male adults the construction of 25 whole body 3D models has been undertaken. Such a library is thought to be useful to specify the uncertainties and relevance of dosimetry calculations carried out with models representing individuals of average body heights and weights. Representative 3D models of Caucasian body types are selected in a commercial database according to their height and weight, and 3D models of the skeleton and internal organs are designed using another commercial dataset. A review of the literature enabled one to fix volume or mass target values for the skeleton, soft organs, skin and fat content of the selected individuals. The composition of the remainder tissue is fixed so that the weight of the voxel models equals the weight of the selected individuals. After mesh and NURBS modelling, volume adjustment of the selected body shapes and additional voxel-based work, 25 voxel models with 109 identified organs or tissue are obtained. Radiation transport calculations are carried out with some of the developed models to illustrate potential uses. The following points are discussed throughout this paper: justification of the fixed or obtained models' features regarding available and relevant literature data; workflow and strategy for major modelling steps; advantages and drawbacks of the obtained library as compared with other works. The construction hypotheses are explained and justified in detail since future calculation results obtained with this library will depend on them.

  17. "Who Do You Want Me to Be?" An Exploration of Female and Male Perceptions of "Imposed" Gender Roles in the Early Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownhill, Simon; Oates, Ruby

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides an exploratory discussion surrounding the views and experiences of women and men who work/train in the early years (0-8 years) by bringing together select findings from two independent doctoral research projects. In an effort to weave together the voices of females and males working/training in the early years sector, this…

  18. Male Role Norms Inventory--Short Form (MRNI-SF): Development, Confirmatory Factor Analytic Investigation of Structure, and Measurement Invariance across Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levant, Ronald F.; Hall, Rosalie J.; Rankin, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    The current study reports the development from the Male Role Norms Inventory-Revised (MRNI-R; Levant, Rankin, Williams, Hasan, & Smalley, 2010) of the 21-item MRNI-Short Form (MRNI-SF). Confirmatory factor analysis of MRNI-SF responses from a sample of 1,017 undergraduate participants (549 men, 468 women) indicated that the best fitting "bifactor"…

  19. Gender dimorphism and age of onset in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor preclinical models and human patients

    OpenAIRE

    Shurell, Elizabeth; Tran, Linh M.; Nakashima, Jonathan; Smith, Kathleen B.; Tam, Brenna M.; Li, Yunfeng; Dry, Sarah M.; Federman, Noah; Tap, William D; Wu, Hong; Eilber, Fritz C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Gender-based differences in disease onset in murine models of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) and in patients with Neurofibromatosis type-1-(NF-1)-associated or spontaneous MPNST has not been well studied. Methods Forty-three mGFAP-Cre+;Pten loxp/+;LSL-K-ras G12D/+ mice were observed for tumor development and evaluated for gender disparity in age of MPNST onset. Patient data from the prospectively collected UCLA sarcoma database (1974–2011, n = 113 MPNST patients) a...

  20. Asian and Pacific Islander women scientists and engineers: A narrative exploration of model minority, gender, and racial stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, Pauline W. U.

    2002-04-01

    This qualitative study uses narrative methodology to understand what becoming a scientist or engineer entails for women stereotyped as model minorities. Interviews with four Chinese and Japanese women focused on the social contexts in which science is encountered in classrooms, families, and community. Interpretation was guided by theories that individuals construct personal narratives mediated by cultural symbolic systems to make meaning of experiences. Narratives revealed that Confucian cultural scripts shaped gender expectations even in families several generations in America. Regardless of parents' level of education, country of birth, and number of children, educational expectations, and resources were lower for daughters. Parents expected daughters to be compliant, feminine, and educated enough to be marriageable. Findings suggest K-12 gender equity science practices encouraged development of the women's interests and abilities but did not affect parental beliefs. The author's 1999 study of Hawaiians/Pacific Islander and Filipina female engineers is included in implications for teacher education programs sensitive to gender, culture, ethnicity, and language.

  1. Analysis of male reproductive parameters in a murine model of mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Cinthia Castro; Junior, Odair Aguiar; D'Almeida, Vânia

    2014-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) I is a lysosomal storage disorder (LSD) that is characterised by alpha-L-iduronidase (Idua) deficiency and continuous deposition of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), which consequently interferes with cell signalling mechanisms and results in multisystemic and progressive symptoms. The animal model of MPS I (Idua-/-) has been widely studied to elucidate the consequences and progression of the disorder; however, studies specifically assessing the male reproductive tract are lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate some of the reproductive characteristics of male MPS I mice in two phases of life. Reproductive organ biometry, sperm counts, sperm morphological evaluation, plasma testosterone measurements and histopathological, histomorphometrical and immunohistochemical analysis were performed in 3- and 6-month-old C57BL/6 Idua+/+ and Idua-/- mice. Seminal vesicle weights were decreased in both the 3- and 6-month-old Idua-/- mice. Decrease in sperm counts and the majority of the histopathological signs were observed in the 6-month-old Idua-/- mice. No differences were detected in the sperm morphological analysis. Immunohistochemistry revealed that seminiferous tubules from 3-month-old Idua-/- mice were more intensely stained with anti-caspase-3 than 3-month-old Idua+/+ mice, but no difference was found at 6 months. These results suggest that MPS I interferes with male reproductive parameters both in 3 and 6-month-old animals and histopathological signs are more pronounced in 6-month-old mice, indicating that the effects of the disorder may intensify with the disease progression.

  2. Effects of the model androgen methyltestosterone on vitellogenin in male and female eelpout, Zoarces viviparus (L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsgaard, B

    2006-07-01

    In the present experiment male and female eelpout, Zoarces viviparus were exposed to different doses of the model androgen 17alpha-methyltestosterone (MT) and the effects on the plasma level of vitellogenin and the gonadosomatic index were investigated. In females exposed to different doses of MT (nominal concentrations 10, 25, 50, 100 and 500 ng/L) in the ambient seawater, the concentrations of the circulating yolk-precursor protein vitellogenin (vtg) were shown to decrease in all groups but only significantly in the MT-100 group when compared to controls. No significant effects could be observed on the GSI during early vitellogenesis (April/May). Males exposed to E2 under flow through conditions during 10 days showed an induced synthesis of vtg as depicted by a high level of circulating vtg. When the estrogen-exposed males were subsequently exposed to different doses of MT only, during another 10 days, the levels of vtg decreased significantly in three of the MT-treated groups when compared with the level of vtg in plasma of the estrogen-treated group after the first 10 days. The gonadosomatic index was observed to decrease by the estradiol-treatment but to increase in a dose-dependent manner in the MT-exposed groups, indicating that MT had the capacity to override the effect of the preceding exposure to estradiol-17beta.

  3. A New Model of Development: Between Empowerment of the Community and Gender Equality Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminiţa Gabriela POPESCU

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to contribute to the actual debates concerning the need to support the economic growth in Romania, and the reforming process that complied with requirements of reducing gender-based, age-based, and socialbased inequities in producing and accessing welfare. This research tries to answer an actual question, namely how prepared is the Romanian society to adopt this model of development? The answer to this question involves directing the research along two perspectives: (1 one provided by the new concept of development, and (2 one that focuses on public policies designed under a larger framework than the one provided by the European requirements of equal opportunity for men and women. Pragmatically, the achievement of such a structural model implies overcoming a variety of challenges. On the one hand, are the members of the community aware of the importance of their commitment? Are they truly motivated to take part in such a structure? On the other hand, how prepared are political representatives and public authorities to accept co-operation with different categories of persons? This research will try to find the answers to all these questions.

  4. Modeling predictors of risky drug use behavior among male street laborers in urban Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Van Huy; Dunne, Michael P; Debattista, Joseph

    2013-05-07

    The application of theoretical frameworks for modeling predictors of drug risk among male street laborers remains limited. The objective of this study was to test a modified version of the IMB (Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills Model), which includes psychosocial stress, and compare this modified version with the original IMB model in terms of goodness-of-fit to predict risky drug use behavior among this population. In a cross-sectional study, social mapping technique was conducted to recruit 450 male street laborers from 135 street venues across 13 districts of Hanoi city, Vietnam, for face-to-face interviews. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to analyze data from interviews. Overall measures of fit via SEM indicated that the original IMB model provided a better fit to the data than the modified version. Although the former model was able to predict a lesser variance than the latter (55% vs. 62%), it was of better fit. The findings suggest that men who are better informed and motivated for HIV prevention are more likely to report higher behavioral skills, which, in turn, are less likely to be engaged in risky drug use behavior. This was the first application of the modified IMB model for drug use in men who were unskilled, unregistered laborers in urban settings. An AIDS prevention program for these men should not only distribute information and enhance motivations for HIV prevention, but consider interventions that could improve self-efficacy for preventing HIV infection. Future public health research and action may also consider broader factors such as structural social capital and social policy to alter the conditions that drive risky drug use among these men.

  5. Modeling the Impact of Uganda's Safe Male Circumcision Program: Implications for Age and Regional Targeting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine Kripke

    Full Text Available Uganda aims to provide safe male circumcision (SMC to 80% of men ages 15-49 by 2016. To date, only 2 million men have received SMC of the 4.2 million men required. In response to age and regional trends in SMC uptake, the country sought to re-examine its targets with respect to age and subnational region, to assess the program's progress, and to refine the implementation approach.The Decision Makers' Program Planning Tool, Version 2.0 (DMPPT 2.0, was used in conjunction with incidence projections from the Spectrum/AIDS Impact Module (AIM to conduct this analysis. Population, births, deaths, and HIV incidence and prevalence were used to populate the model. Baseline male circumcision prevalence was derived from the 2011 AIDS Indicator Survey. Uganda can achieve the most immediate impact on HIV incidence by circumcising men ages 20-34. This group will also require the fewest circumcisions for each HIV infection averted. Focusing on men ages 10-19 will offer the greatest impact over a 15-year period, while focusing on men ages 15-34 offers the most cost-effective strategy over the same period. A regional analysis showed little variation in cost-effectiveness of scaling up SMC across eight regions. Scale-up is cost-saving in all regions. There is geographic variability in program progress, highlighting two regions with low baseline rates of circumcision where additional efforts will be needed.Focusing SMC efforts on specific age groups and regions may help to accelerate Uganda's SMC program progress. Policy makers in Uganda have already used model outputs in planning efforts, proposing males ages 10-34 as a priority group for SMC in the 2014 application to the Global Fund's new funding model. As scale-up continues, the country should also consider a greater effort to expand SMC in regions with low MC prevalence.

  6. Optimizing a Male Reproductive Aging Mouse Model by d-Galactose Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Hou Liao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The d-galactose (d-gal-injected animal model, which is typically established by administering consecutive subcutaneous d-gal injections to animals for approximately six or eight weeks, has been frequently used for aging research. In addition, this animal model has been demonstrated to accelerate aging in the brain, kidneys, liver and blood cells. However, studies on aging in male reproductive organs that have used this animal model remain few. Therefore, the current study aimed to optimize a model of male reproductive aging by administering d-gal injections to male mice and to determine the possible mechanism expediting senescence processes during spermatogenesis. In this study, C57Bl/6 mice were randomized into five groups (each containing 8–10 mice according to the daily intraperitoneal injection of vehicle control or 100 or 200 mg/kg dosages of d-gal for a period of six or eight weeks. First, mice subjected to d-gal injections for six or eight weeks demonstrated considerably decreased superoxide dismutase activity in the serum and testis lysates compared to those in the control group. The lipid peroxidation in testis also increased in the d-gal-injected groups. Furthermore, the d-gal-injected groups exhibited a decreased ratio of testis weight/body weight and sperm count compared to the control group. The percentages of both immotile sperm and abnormal sperm increased considerably in the d-gal-injected groups compared to those of the control group. To determine the genes influenced by the d-gal injection during murine spermatogenesis, a c-DNA microarray was conducted to compare testicular RNA samples between the treated groups and the control group. The d-gal-injected groups exhibited RNA transcripts of nine spermatogenesis-related genes (Cycl2, Hk1, Pltp, Utp3, Cabyr, Zpbp2, Speer2, Csnka2ip and Katnb1 that were up- or down-regulated by at least two-fold compared to the control group. Several of these genes are critical for forming sperm

  7. Heterosexual male perpetrators of childhood sexual abuse: a preliminary neuropsychiatric model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Lisa J; Nikiforov, Konstantin; Gans, Sniezyna; Poznansky, Olga; McGeoch, Pamela; Weaver, Carrie; King, Enid Gertmanian; Cullen, Ken; Galynker, Igor

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents data from a series of preliminary neuropsychiatric studies, including neuropsychological, personality, sexual history, plethysmographic and neuroimaging investigations, on a sample of 22 male, heterosexual, nonexclusive pedophiles and 24 demographically similar healthy controls. A psychobiological model of pedophilia is proposed, positing that early childhood sexual abuse leads to neurodevelopmental abnormalities in the temporal regions mediating sexual arousal and erotic discrimination and the frontal regions mediating the cognitive aspects of sexual desire and behavioral inhibition. In this way, pedophiles develop deviant pedophilic arousal. Subsequently, if there is comorbid personality pathology, specifically sociopathy and cognitive distortions, there will be failure to inhibit pedophilic behavior.

  8. Gender Preference in Primary School Enrolment among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-05-01

    May 1, 2017 ... Male children are also found to be the most preferred gender for primary ...... Gender differences in time use among children in rural Bangladesh (online). Working Paper No. 17. .... Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).

  9. Review of Outcome Information in 46,XX Patients with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Assigned/Reared Male: What Does It Say about Gender Assignment?

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Peter A; Houk, Christopher P.

    2010-01-01

    There is ample historical verification of 46,XX congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) patients being born with essentially male genitaliawhile outcome information is scant. Prior to glucocorticoid therapy, most patients died very young from adrenal insufficiency. Most available reports from laterchildhood, contain little information concerning sexual identity. Reports on older individuals lack adequate information about sexual identity and quality of life. The difficulty in assessing the relat...

  10. Review of Outcome Information in 46,XX Patients with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Assigned/Reared Male: What Does It Say about Gender Assignment?

    OpenAIRE

    Lee PeterA; Houk ChristopherP

    2010-01-01

    There is ample historical verification of 46,XX congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) patients being born with essentially male genitaliawhile outcome information is scant. Prior to glucocorticoid therapy, most patients died very young from adrenal insufficiency. Most available reports from laterchildhood, contain little information concerning sexual identity. Reports on older individuals lack adequate information about sexual identity and quality of life. The difficulty in assessing the rela...

  11. Corona glans clitoroplasty and urethropreputial vestibuloplasty in male-to-female transsexuals: the vulval aesthetic refinement by the Andalusia Gender Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, Francisco; Esteva, Isabel; Bergero, Trinidad; Cano, Guadalupe; González, Carlos; Salinas, Pablo; Rivada, Eva; Lara, José S; Soriguer, Federico

    2004-11-01

    For more than a decade the pedicled island neurovascular flap of the glans penis has been the standard procedure for clitoroplasty in intersex anomalies and in male-to-female genital sex reassignment surgery. Most authors focusing on genitoperineal reconstructions have used the island neurovascular flap of the dorsal shaft of the penis, including a variable-sized dorsal chip of the glans penis as the distal and functional portion of the flap. Although this dorsal glans clitoroplasty technique for neoclitoral reconstruction is well known, it nevertheless deserves scientific revision, with a view to improving several neglected aesthetic and functional points. The authors describe a new method for reconstruction of the neoclitoris in male-to-female transsexuals, the corona glans clitoroplasty. It is based on a modification of the original pedicled island neurovascular flap of the glans penis. The main difference compared with the dorsal glans clitoroplasty is that, distally, this method includes a bifid dorsolateral coronal flap designed in the shape of an open lotus flower or a bull's horns. Furthermore, a semicircular preputial flap is retained, attached to the bifid coronal flap of the glans, to improve the cosmetic appearance of the vestibulum and avoid growth of hair around the neoclitoris. Finally, a small dorsal flap of the spongiomucosa urethra designed in the shape of a pencil tip is added to improve the cosmetic appearance of the vestibulum between the neoclitoris and the urethral neomeatus. Since October of 1999, the authors have performed more than 30 genital sex reassignment surgeries in male-to-female transsexuals, of whom 16 underwent their technique of corona glans clitoroplasty. The authors describe and discuss the anatomic basis and clinical implications of this technique and its cosmetic and potential functional advantages. They also consider the anatomic differences among four distal designs of the pedicled island neurovascular flap of the glans

  12. Neural correlates of face gender discrimination learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Junzhu; Tan, Qingleng; Fang, Fang

    2013-04-01

    Using combined psychophysics and event-related potentials (ERPs), we investigated the effect of perceptual learning on face gender discrimination and probe the neural correlates of the learning effect. Human subjects were trained to perform a gender discrimination task with male or female faces. Before and after training, they were tested with the trained faces and other faces with the same and opposite genders. ERPs responding to these faces were recorded. Psychophysical results showed that training significantly improved subjects' discrimination performance and the improvement was specific to the trained gender, as well as to the trained identities. The training effect indicates that learning occurs at two levels-the category level (gender) and the exemplar level (identity). ERP analyses showed that the gender and identity learning was associated with the N170 latency reduction at the left occipital-temporal area and the N170 amplitude reduction at the right occipital-temporal area, respectively. These findings provide evidence for the facilitation model and the sharpening model on neuronal plasticity from visual experience, suggesting a faster processing speed and a sparser representation of face induced by perceptual learning.

  13. Response to Male and female in the church – gender in the ordained ministries by Douw G. Breed, Fika J. van Rensburg, and Gert J.C. Jordaan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. Archbald

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available “Male and female in the church” (2008, by Breed, J. van Rens- burg and Jordaan, is reviewed as to its treatment of the regu- lative principle and its exegesis of 1 Timothy 2-3. The reformed and puritan version of the regulative principle, reflected in the writings of John Calvin and in the major reformed confessions, implies that proponents of women in the ecclesiastical office must do more than question the traditional exegesis of key passages used in the debate. They must provide Biblical war- rant for the practice. “Male and female in the church” outlines an option that defends the traditional exegesis of 1 Timothy 2-3. It also provides another option that seeks to explain 1 Timothy 2:8-15 in terms of the marriage-relationship rather than male and female in the church. The exegesis in the latter option is found to be tenuous. Similarly, the option that views 1 Timothy 3:11 as referring to ordained deaconesses is found to be unconvincing. No clear Biblical warrant is found in these pas- sages for the practice of ordaining women in the ecclesiastical office.

  14. Gender Identity: Intersex Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilhame Khabar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available According to past beliefs and social norms, society has been taught that their has only been two types of biological structures regarding the ideal male and female. The majority of society has also believed that gender identity was specific only to those structures, as most have had a very fixed perspective of men and women and the sexual organs that are associated. In today's society, there has been an observed increase of many variations in sexual orientation, gender identity, gender expression, and sex anatomy. Awareness has been subtle, yet growing on gender identity and intersex individuals; however, some studies and popular media stories have also shown that many of these individuals have experienced trauma and hardship due to their ambiguous genitalia and how it has affected their gender identity.

  15. Is the Gap More than Gender? A Longitudinal Analysis of Gender, Gender Role Orientation, and Earnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Timothy A.; Livingston, Beth A.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships among gender, gender role orientation (i.e., attitudes toward the gendered separation of roles at work and at home), and earnings. A multilevel model was conceptualized in which gender role orientation and earnings were within-individual variables that fluctuate over time (although predictors of…

  16. Is the Gap More than Gender? A Longitudinal Analysis of Gender, Gender Role Orientation, and Earnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Timothy A.; Livingston, Beth A.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships among gender, gender role orientation (i.e., attitudes toward the gendered separation of roles at work and at home), and earnings. A multilevel model was conceptualized in which gender role orientation and earnings were within-individual variables that fluctuate over time (although predictors of…

  17. Modelling the public health impact of male circumcision for HIV prevention in high prevalence areas in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses Stephen

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent clinical trials in Africa, in combination with several observational epidemiological studies, have provided evidence that male circumcision can reduce HIV female-to-male transmission risk by 60% or more. However, the public health impact of large-scale male circumcision programs for HIV prevention is unclear. Methods Two mathematical models were examined to explore this issue: a random mixing model and a compartmental model that distinguishes risk groups associated with sex work. In the compartmental model, two scenarios were developed, one calculating HIV transmission and prevalence in a context similar to the country of Botswana, and one similar to Nyanza Province, in western Kenya. Results In both models, male circumcision programs resulted in large and sustained declines in HIV prevalence over time among both men and women. Men benefited somewhat more than women, but prevalence among women was also reduced substantially. With 80% male circumcision uptake, the reductions in prevalence ranged from 45% to 67% in the two "countries", and with 50% uptake, from 25% to 41%. It would take over a decade for the intervention to reach its full effect. Conclusion Large-scale uptake of male circumcision services in African countries with high HIV prevalence, and where male circumcision is not now routinely practised, could lead to substantial reductions in HIV transmission and prevalence over time among both men and women.

  18. Validation of artificial neural network models for predicting biochemical markers associated with male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickram, A S; Kamini, A Rao; Das, Raja; Pathy, M Ramesh; Parameswari, R; Archana, K; Sridharan, T B

    2016-08-01

    Seminal fluid is the secretion from many glands comprised of several organic and inorganic compounds including free amino acids, proteins, fructose, glucosidase, zinc, and other scavenging elements like Mg(2+), Ca(2+), K(+), and Na(+). Therefore, in the view of development of novel approaches and proper diagnosis to male infertility, overall understanding of the biochemical and molecular composition and its role in regulation of sperm quality is highly desirable. Perhaps this can be achieved through artificial intelligence. This study was aimed to elucidate and predict various biochemical markers present in human seminal plasma with three different neural network models. A total of 177 semen samples were collected for this research (both fertile and infertile samples) and immediately processed to prepare a semen analysis report, based on the protocol of the World Health Organization (WHO [2010]). The semen samples were then categorized into oligoasthenospermia (n=35), asthenospermia (n=35), azoospermia (n=22), normospermia (n=34), oligospermia (n=34), and control (n=17). The major biochemical parameters like total protein content, fructose, glucosidase, and zinc content were elucidated by standard protocols. All the biochemical markers were predicted by using three different artificial neural network (ANN) models with semen parameters as inputs. Of the three models, the back propagation neural network model (BPNN) yielded the best results with mean absolute error 0.025, -0.080, 0.166, and -0.057 for protein, fructose, glucosidase, and zinc, respectively. This suggests that BPNN can be used to predict biochemical parameters for the proper diagnosis of male infertility in assisted reproductive technology (ART) centres. AAS: absorption spectroscopy; AI: artificial intelligence; ANN: artificial neural networks; ART: assisted reproductive technology; BPNN: back propagation neural network model; DT: decision tress; MLP: multilayer perceptron; PESA: percutaneous

  19. Detection of transgenerational spermatogenic inheritance of adult male acquired CNS gene expression characteristics using a Drosophila systems model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhay Sharma

    Full Text Available Available instances of inheritance of epigenetic transgenerational phenotype are limited to environmental exposures during embryonic and adult gonadal development. Adult exposures can also affect gametogenesis and thereby potentially result in reprogramming of the germline. Although examples of epigenetic effects on gametogenesis exist, it is notable that transgenerational inheritance of environment-induced adult phenotype has not yet been reported. Epigenetic codes are considered to be critical in neural plasticity. A Drosophila systems model of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ induced long-term brain plasticity has recently been described. In this model, chronic PTZ treatment of adult males causes alterations in CNS transcriptome. Here, we describe our search for transgenerational spermatogenic inheritance of PTZ induced gene expression phenotype acquired by adult Drosophila males. We generated CNS transcriptomic profiles of F(1 adults after treating F(0 adult males with PTZ and of F(2 adults resulting from a cross between F(1 males and normal females. Surprisingly, microarray clustering showed F(1 male profile as closest to F(1 female and F(0 male profile closest to F(2 male. Differentially expressed genes in F(1 males, F(1 females and F(2 males showed significant overlap with those caused by PTZ. Interestingly, microarray evidence also led to the identification of upregulated rRNA in F(2 males. Next, we generated microarray expression profiles of adult testis from F(0 and F(1 males. Further surprising, clustering of CNS and testis profiles and matching of differentially expressed genes in them provided evidence of a spermatogenic mechanism in the transgenerational effect observed. To our knowledge, we report for the first time detection of transgenerational spermatogenic inheritance of adult acquired somatic gene expression characteristic. The Drosophila systems model offers an excellent opportunity to understand the epigenetic mechanisms underlying

  20. Considerations of correlated fertility between genders on genetic diversity: the Pinus densiflora seed orchard as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, K.-S.; El-Kassaby, A.

    2002-12-01

    The correlation between 99 clone female and male fertilities in a first generation seed orchard of Pinus densiflora was studied over 6 years. The effective number of the parent ( N(p)) and the variance effective population number [ N(e)((v))] were used to assess the impact of total (Psi(T)), female (psi(f)) and male (psi(m)) fertility variation. A theoretical framework was developed to account for female and male fertility correlations as well as the impact of possible pollen contamination. Total fertility variation was described by the sibling coefficient (Psi(T): the probability that two genes randomly chosen from the gamete gene pool originate from the same parent), which was further subdivided into psi(f) and psi(m). These parameters were compared under various conditions including the total seed harvest, imposing on equal seed harvest among the orchard's clones and two contamination scenarios ( M = 0 and 20%). Fertility variations among females, males and clones were observed within and among years. Sibling coefficients (Psi(T)) were lower, but the effective number of parent ( N(p)) and variance effective population number ( N(e)((v))) were higher in years with moderate female and good male strobilus production. N(p) for female and male reproductive outputs varied from 49 to 82 and from 57 to 93, respectively. N(p) was higher for males than females. When the crop of the 6 years was pooled, N(p) for female, male and the clone were 73, 87 and 85, respectively. The impact of female-male fertility correlation for conditions with no-, positive- and negative-correlations were assessed and their impact on Psi(T), N(p) and N(e)((v)) was also evaluated. It was demonstrated that the practice of equal seed harvesting from every clone, or the mixing of seeds from several years, would substantially improve the genetic diversity and the genetic representation of the seed orchard population when a positive correlation between gender fertilities was observed. The relevance of

  1. Local Signaling Environments and Human Male Infertility: What Can Be Learned from Mouse Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalam, Roopa L.; Matzuk, Martin M.

    2011-01-01

    Infertility is one of the most prevalent public health problems facing young adult males in today’s society. A clear, treatable cause of infertility cannot be determined in a large number of these patients, and a growing body of evidence suggests that infertility in many of these men may be due to genetic causes. Studies utilizing animal models, and most importantly, mouse knockout technology, have been integral not only for the study of normal spermatogenesis but also for identifying proteins essential for this process, which in turn are candidate genes for causing human male infertility. Successful spermatogenesis depends on a delicate balance of local signaling factors, and this review focuses specifically on the genes that encode these factors. Normal functioning of all testicular cell types is not only essential for normal fertility but, as recently hypothesized, may also be crucial to prevent germ cell oncogenesis. Analysis of these processes using mouse models in vivo has provided investigators with an invaluable tool to effectively translate basic science research to the research of human disease and infertility. PMID:20456819

  2. Male sexual tourism in Costa Rica: team spirit, peer dialogue and gender roles in a large sample of Internet forum posts

    OpenAIRE

    Monge-Nájera, Julián

    2016-01-01

     There are few scientific studies about sexual tourism in Costa Rica. The most important study about male tourists, done by Megan Rivers-Moore, presented a series of hypotheses. Here I analyze all forum posts in the InternationalSexGuide.info from 2002 through 2015, and compare them with Rivers-Moore’s hypotheses, the Intimacy Prism categories of Milrod and Weitzer and with female sex tourists (as reported in the literature). The 4 409 reports show that men interact in peer dialogues in which...

  3. A model of destination-language acquisition: application to male immigrants in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiswick, B R; Miller, P W

    2001-08-01

    We develop a model using human capital theory and an immigrant adjustment process to generate hypotheses on the acquisition of destination-language skills among immigrants. The model is tested for adult male immigrants in the 1991 Census of Canada. Use of English or French is greater, the younger the age at migration, the longer the duration of residence, the higher the educational attainment, the farther the country of origin from Canada, and the linguistically closer the mother tongue to English or French, and among those who are not refugees, those from a former British, French, or American colony, and those who live in an area where fewer people speak the respondent's mother tongue. The explanatory variables based on birthplace have behavioral interpretations and possess almost as much explanatory power as the birthplace dummy variables.

  4. MODEL MUSYAWARAH RENCANA AKSI PEREMPUAN (MUSRENA RESPONSIF GENDER DI KOTA BANDA ACEH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oberlin Silalahi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Partisipasi perempuan dalam perencaanaan pembangunan dan penganggaran dalam Musyawarah Perencanaan Pembangunan (Musrenbang selama ini ternyata masih memiliki hambatan. Sebagai upaya penyelesaiannya, Pemerintah Kota Banda Aceh merumuskan strategi baru berupa Musyawarah Rencana Aksi Perempuan (Musrena yang memberikan kesempatan partisipasi penuh pada perempuan sebagai upaya pengarusutamaan gender (PUG dan Anggaran Responsif Gender (ARG dari tingkat yang paling rendah yaitu desa/gampong. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengelaborasi secara komprehensif tentang inovasi Musrena di Kota Banda Aceh. Melalui pendekatan kualitatif, data dalam penelitian ini didapatkan dari Focused Group Discussion (FGD, wawancara mendalam (Indepth-interview dan desk-study (studi dokumen/dokumentasi. Hasil penelitian ini adalah: 1. Tumbuhnya motivasi dan kesadaran wanita di tingkat Gampong, kota/kabupaten untuk ikut berpartisipasi dalam perencaanaan pembangunan dan penganggaran yang responsif gender. 2. Musrena berbasis prinsip kesetaraan, anggaran yang berkeadilan gender, musyawarah dialogis, anti dominasi, keberpihakan kepada kelompok rentan, anti diskriminasi, dan pembangunan secara holistik.   Based on the lack of women participation in development planning and budgeting within the Development Planning Meeting (Musrenbang, the government of Banda Aceh formulate a new strategy in the form of Council Action Plan for Women (Musrena which provides an opportunity and full participation for women as gender mainstreaming (PUG and the Gender Responsive Budgeting (ARG on the lowest level; the village (gampong. This study aims to elaborate comprehensively on innovation of Musrena in Banda Aceh. Through a qualitative approach, the data in this study was obtained from Focused Group Discussion (FGD, interview (in depth-interview and desk-study (documentation. The results of this study are: 1. Growth of motivation and awareness level of women in the village, city /county to

  5. The Closing of the Gender Gap as a Roy Model Illusion

    OpenAIRE

    Casey B. Mulligan; Yona Rubinstein

    2004-01-01

    Rising wage inequality within-gender since 1975 has created the illusion of rising wage equality between genders. In the 1970's, women were relatively equal (to each other) in terms of their earnings potential, so that nonwage factors may have dominated female labor supply decisions and nonworking women actually had more earnings potential than working women. By 1990, wages had become unequal enough that they dominated nonwage factors, so that nonworking women tended to be the ones with less ...

  6. "Gender-into-Teaching" at the Vienna University of Technology. Experiences and Reflections on an Austrian Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Bente; Ratzer, Brigitte

    2009-01-01

    "Gender-into-teaching" is the first Austrian project to develop strategies on how to implement gender topics at a technical university. This project can really be qualified as a model for other universities and as unique in Austria. Up to now, there are many more males in higher-level positions in the university hierarchies. The--very…

  7. Dopamine D4 Receptor Gene and Religious Affiliation Correlate with Dictator Game Altruism in Males and not Females: Evidence for Gender-sensitive Gene x Culture Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yushi eJiang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available On a large sample of 2288 Han Chinese undergraduates, we investigated how religion and DRD4 are related to human altruistic giving behavior as measured with the Andreoni-Miller Dictator Game. This game enables us to clearly specify (non-selfishness, efficiency, and fairness motives for sharing. Participants were further classified into religious categories (Christian, Buddhist-Tao, and No Religion based on self-reports, and genotyped for the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4 gene exon III VNTR. Our analysis revealed a significant interaction between religion and DRD4 correlated with giving behavior solely among males: Whereas no significant association between religion and sharing decisions was observed in the majority 4R/4R genotype group, a significant difference in giving behavior between Christian and non-Christian males was seen in the non-4R/4R group, with Christian men being overall more altruistic (less selfish and fairer than non-Christian men. These results support the vantage sensitivity hypothesis regarding DRD4 that the non-4R/4R ‘susceptibility’ genotype is more responsive to a positive environment provided by some religions.

  8. The effect of gender on eye colour variation in European populations and an evaluation of the IrisPlex prediction model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pietroni, Carlotta; Andersen, Jeppe D.; Johansen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    , we investigate the role of gender as a factor that contributes to eye colour variation and suggest that the gender effect on eye colour is population specific. A total of 230 Italian individuals were typed for the six IrisPlex SNPs (rs12913832, rs1800407, rs12896399, rs1393350, rs16891982 and rs......In two recent studies of Spanish individuals [1,2], gender was suggested as a factor that contributes to human eye colour variation. However, gender did not improve the predictive accuracy on blue, intermediate and brown eye colours when gender was included in the IrisPlex model [3]. In this study...... eye colour independently of ancestry. Furthermore, we found gender to be significantly associated with quantitative eye colour measurements in the Italian population sample. We found that the association was statistically significant only among Italian individuals typed as heterozygote GA for HERC2 rs...

  9. The effect of gender on eye colour variation in European populations and an evaluation of the IrisPlex prediction model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pietroni, Carlotta; Andersen, Jeppe D.; Johansen, Peter;

    2014-01-01

    , we investigate the role of gender as a factor that contributes to eye colour variation and suggest that the gender effect on eye colour is population specific. A total of 230 Italian individuals were typed for the six IrisPlex SNPs (rs12913832, rs1800407, rs12896399, rs1393350, rs16891982 and rs......In two recent studies of Spanish individuals [1,2], gender was suggested as a factor that contributes to human eye colour variation. However, gender did not improve the predictive accuracy on blue, intermediate and brown eye colours when gender was included in the IrisPlex model [3]. In this study...... eye colour independently of ancestry. Furthermore, we found gender to be significantly associated with quantitative eye colour measurements in the Italian population sample. We found that the association was statistically significant only among Italian individuals typed as heterozygote GA for HERC2 rs...

  10. Listening and Learning from Gender-Nonconforming Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrensaft, Diane

    2014-01-01

    The twenty-first century brings to our clinical doorsteps increasing numbers of children exploring and questioning their gender identities and expressions. This paper begins with a reassessment of the psychoanalytic thinking about gender and then outlines a clinical and developmental model of gender adapted from D. W. Winnicott's concepts of true self, false self, and individual creativity. The underlying premise is that gender nonconformity, when the core psychological issue, is not a sign of pathology but rather a reflection of healthy variations on gender possibilities. Working from that premise, composite clinical material from the author's practice as a psychoanalytic gender specialist is presented of a gender-nonconforming child transitioning from female to male, to demonstrate the psychoanalytic tools applied, including listening, mirroring, play, and interpretation, with the goal of facilitating a child's authentic gender self. Emphasis is placed on learning from the patient, working collaboratively with the family and social environments, and remaining suspended in a state of ambiguity and not-knowing as the child explores and solidifies a True Gender Self.

  11. From gender bias to gender awareness in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonk, Petra; Benschop, Yvonne W M; de Haes, Hanneke C J M; Lagro-Janssen, Toine L M

    2009-03-01

    Gender is an essential determinant of health and illness. Gender awareness in doctors contributes to equity and equality in health and aims towards better health for men and women. Nevertheless, gender has largely been ignored in medicine. First, it is stated that medicine was 'gender blind' by not considering gender whenever relevant. Secondly, medicine is said to be 'male biased' because the largest body of knowledge on health and illness is about men and their health. Thirdly, gender role ideology negatively influences treatment and health outcomes. Finally, gender inequality has been overlooked as a determinant of health and illness. The uptake of gender issues in medical education brings about specific challenges for several reasons. For instance, the political-ideological connotations of gender issues create resistance especially in traditionalists in medical schools. Secondly, it is necessary to clarify which gender issues must be integrated in which domains. Also, some are interdisciplinary issues and as such more difficult to integrate. Finally, schools need assistance with implementation. The integration of psychosocial issues along with biomedical ones in clinical cases, the dissemination of literature and education material, staff education, and efforts towards structural embedding of gender in curricula are determining factors for successful implementation. Gender equity is not a spontaneous process. Medical education provides specific opportunities that may contribute to transformation for medical schools educate future doctors for future patients in future settings. Consequently, future benefits legitimize the integration of gender as a qualitative investment in medical education.

  12. Animal models of physiologic markers of male reproduction: genetically defined infertile mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chubb, C.

    1987-10-01

    The present report focuses on novel animal models of male infertility: genetically defined mice bearing single-gene mutations that induce infertility. The primary goal of the investigations was to identify the reproductive defects in these mutant mice. The phenotypic effects of the gene mutations were deciphered by comparing the mutant mice to their normal siblings. Initially testicular steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis were investigated. The physiologic markers for testicular steroidogenesis were steroid secretion by testes perifused in vitro, seminal vesicle weight, and Leydig cell histology. Spermatogenesis was evaluated by the enumeration of homogenization-resistant sperm/spermatids in testes and by morphometric analyses of germ cells in the seminiferous epithelium. If testicular function appeared normal, the authors investigated the sexual behavior of the mice. The parameters of male sexual behavior that were quantified included mount patency, mount frequency, intromission latency, thrusts per intromission, ejaculation latency, and ejaculation duration. Females of pairs breeding under normal circumstances were monitored for the presence of vaginal plugs and pregnancies. The patency of the ejaculatory process was determined by quantifying sperm in the female reproductive tract after sexual behavior tests. Sperm function was studied by quantitatively determining sperm motility during videomicroscopic observation. Also, the ability of epididymal sperm to function within the uterine environment was analyzed by determining sperm capacity to initiate pregnancy after artificial insemination. Together, the experimental results permitted the grouping of the gene mutations into three general categories. They propose that the same biological markers used in the reported studies can be implemented in the assessment of the impact that environmental toxins may have on male reproduction.

  13. Personality Traits and Examination Anxiety: Moderating Role of Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghari, Arezou; Abdul.Kadir, Rusnani bte; Elias, Habibah bte; Baba, Maznah bte

    2013-01-01

    This study is aimed at examining the moderating effect of gender on the relationship between personality traits and state anxiety. The participants were 375 Iranian high school students (193 males and 182 females). The instruments used were the NEO-FFI-3 Inventory and State Anxiety Inventory. Results of the structural model showed that from the…

  14. Students' Gender-Related Choices and Achievement in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jugovic, Ivana

    2017-01-01

    The goal of the research was to explore the role of motivation, gender roles and stereotypes in the explanation of students' educational outcomes in a stereotypically male educational domain: physics. Eccles and colleagues' expectancy-value model was used as a theoretical framework for the research. The research sample included 736 grammar school…

  15. Gender Differences in Lunar-Related Scientific and Mathematical Understandings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports an examination on gender differences in lunar phases understanding of 123 students (70 females and 53 males). Middle-level students interacted with the Moon through observations, sketching, journalling, two-dimensional and three-dimensional modelling, and classroom discussions. These lunar lessons were adapted from the Realistic…

  16. Gender Differences in Coping with Involuntary White Collar Job Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eby, Lillian T.; Buch, Kimberly

    Corporate restructuring has resulted in involuntary job loss for a significant number of white collar workers. This study investigated gender differences in reaction to involuntary job loss and tested a model of career gorwth through job loss. Former clients, 456 males and 62 females, of a nationwide outplacement firm completed a questionnaire…

  17. Gender affects skin wound healing in plasminogen deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitte Rønø

    Full Text Available The fibrinolytic activity of plasmin plays a fundamental role in resolution of blood clots and clearance of extravascular deposited fibrin in damaged tissues. These vital functions of plasmin are exploited by malignant cells to accelerate tumor growth and facilitate metastases. Mice lacking functional plasmin thus display decreased tumor growth in a variety of cancer models. Interestingly, this role of plasmin has, in regard to skin cancer, been shown to be restricted to male mice. It remains to be clarified whether gender also affects other phenotypic characteristics of plasmin deficiency or if this gender effect is restricted to skin cancer. To investigate this, we tested the effect of gender on plasmin dependent immune cell migration, accumulation of hepatic fibrin depositions, skin composition, and skin wound healing. Gender did not affect immune cell migration or hepatic fibrin accumulation in neither wildtype nor plasmin deficient mice, and the existing differences in skin composition between males and females were unaffected by plasmin deficiency. In contrast, gender had a marked effect on the ability of plasmin deficient mice to heal skin wounds, which was seen as an accelerated wound closure in female versus male plasmin deficient mice. Further studies showed that this gender effect could not be reversed by ovariectomy, suggesting that female sex-hormones did not mediate the accelerated skin wound healing in plasmin deficient female mice. Histological examination of healed wounds revealed larger amounts of fibrotic scars in the provisional matrix of plasmin deficient male mice compared to female mice. These fibrotic scars correlated to an obstruction of cell infiltration of the granulation tissue, which is a prerequisite for wound healing. In conclusion, the presented data show that the gender dependent effect of plasmin deficiency is tissue specific and may be secondary to already established differences between genders, such as skin

  18. Chronic subordinate colony housing (CSC as a model of chronic psychosocial stress in male rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kewir D Nyuyki

    Full Text Available Chronic subordinate colony housing (CSC is an adequate and reliable mouse model of chronic psychosocial stress, resulting in reduced body weight gain, reduced thymus and increased adrenal weight, long-lasting anxiety-like behaviour, and spontaneous colitis. Furthermore, CSC mice show increased corticotrophin (ACTH responsiveness to acute heterotypic stressors, suggesting a general mechanism which allows a chronically-stressed organism to adequately respond to a novel threat. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to extend the CSC model to another rodent species, namely male Wistar rats, and to characterize relevant physiological, immunological, and behavioural consequences; placing particular emphasis on changes in hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis responsiveness to an acute heterotypic stressor. In line with previous mouse data, exposure of Wistar rats to 19 days of CSC resulted in a decrease in body weight gain and absolute thymus mass, mild colonic barrier defects and intestinal immune activation. Moreover, no changes in stress-coping behaviour or social preference were seen; again in agreement with the mouse paradigm. Most importantly, CSC rats showed an increased plasma corticosterone response to an acute heterotypic stressor (open arm, 5 min despite displaying similar basal levels and similar basal and stressor-induced plasma ACTH levels. In contrast to CSC mice, anxiety-related behaviour and absolute, as well as relative adrenal weights remained unchanged in CSC rats. In summary, the CSC paradigm could be established as an adequate model of chronic psychosocial stress in male rats. Our data further support the initial hypothesis that adrenal hyper-responsiveness to ACTH during acute heterotypic stressors represents a general adaptation, which enables a chronically-stressed organism to adequately respond to novel challenges.

  19. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN ENTREPRENEURSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVIA POPESCU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study of female entrepreneurship traditionally has been inspired by gender equality issues. Female entrepreneurs were assumed to experience gender-related discrimination and to experience more difficulties when starting up and running a business than their male counterparts. Today research and policy have been more and more fuelled by the idea that female entrepreneurs are important for economic progress. Even when issues such as barriers and obstacles to female entrepreneurs are raised in the gender and entrepreneurship debate, this is usually done from the perspective that female entrepreneurs are an untapped resource and have potential to contribute to a country’s economic performance. Indeed, although gender equality is one of the arguments underlying the support for female entrepreneurs within the European Union, the argument that female entrepreneurs (have the potential tocontribute to economic performance continues to play a role here. The global growth of female entrepreneurship in the last decades has been accompanied by an increase in the number of studies on female entrepreneurship. Unlike most existing studies, which focus primarily upon female entrepreneurship in Western European countries, the present thesis investigates gender differences in entrepreneurship in the Eastern European countries. Different aspects of entrepreneurship are studied including the individual, the organization and the environment. A systematic distinction is made between direct and indirect gender effects on entrepreneurship to be able to disentangle ‘pure’ gender effects from effects of factors that are correlated with gender.

  20. Mathematical human body models representing a mid size male and a small female for frontal, lateral and rearward impact loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Happee, R.; Morsink, P.L.J.; Lange, R. de; Bours, R.; Ridella, S.; Nayef, A.; Hoof, J. van

    2000-01-01

    A human body model representing a mid size male has been presented at the 1998 STAPP conference. A combination of modeling techniques was applied using rigid bodies for most segments, but describing the thorax as a deformable structure. In this paper, this modeling strategy was employed to also deve

  1. Molecular evolution of candidate male reproductive genes in the brown algal model Ectocarpus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipinska, Agnieszka P; Van Damme, Els J M; De Clerck, Olivier

    2016-01-05

    Evolutionary studies of genes that mediate recognition between sperm and egg contribute to our understanding of reproductive isolation and speciation. Surface receptors involved in fertilization are targets of sexual selection, reinforcement, and other evolutionary forces including positive selection. This observation was made across different lineages of the eukaryotic tree from land plants to mammals, and is particularly evident in free-spawning animals. Here we use the brown algal model species Ectocarpus (Phaeophyceae) to investigate the evolution of candidate gamete recognition proteins in a distant major phylogenetic group of eukaryotes. Male gamete specific genes were identified by comparing transcriptome data covering different stages of the Ectocarpus life cycle and screened for characteristics expected from gamete recognition receptors. Selected genes were sequenced in a representative number of strains from distant geographical locations and varying stages of reproductive isolation, to search for signatures of adaptive evolution. One of the genes (Esi0130_0068) showed evidence of selective pressure. Interestingly, that gene displayed domain similarities to the receptor for egg jelly (REJ) protein involved in sperm-egg recognition in sea urchins. We have identified a male gamete specific gene with similarity to known gamete recognition receptors and signatures of adaptation. Altogether, this gene could contribute to gamete interaction during reproduction as well as reproductive isolation in Ectocarpus and is therefore a good candidate for further functional evaluation.

  2. Mesenchymal stem cells from human umbilical cord ameliorate testicular dysfunction in a male rat hypogonadism model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Yuan Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Androgen deficiency is a physical disorder that not only affects adults but can also jeopardize children′s health. Because there are many disadvantages to using traditional androgen replacement therapy, we have herein attempted to explore the use of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells for the treatment of androgen deficiency. We transplanted CM-Dil-labeled human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells into the testes of an ethane dimethanesulfonate (EDS-induced male rat hypogonadism model. Twenty-one days after transplantation, we found that blood testosterone levels in the therapy group were higher than that of the control group (P = 0.037, and using immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry, we observed that some of the CM-Dil-labeled cells expressed Leydig cell markers for cytochrome P450, family 11, subfamily A, polypeptide 1, and 3-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. We then recovered these cells and observed that they were still able to proliferate in vitro. The present study shows that mesenchymal stem cells from human umbilical cord may constitute a promising therapeutic modality for the treatment of male hypogonadism patients.

  3. 46,XX Male Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekir Uçan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available 46, XX male syndrome – testicular disorder of sexual differentiation (DSD is a rare condition characterized by a spectrum of clinical presentations, ranging from ambiguous to normal male genitalia. These cases are diagnosed more easily in childhood. In adults, the diagnosis can be difficult due to the current normal gender development. Here, we report hormonal, molecular and cytogenetic results in an adult male patient with primary hypogonadism who was diagnosed with 46, XX male syndrome in our clinic. Turk Jem 2013; 17: 46-8

  4. Despotic societies, sexual attraction and the emergence of male 'tolerance': An agent-based model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemelrijk, C.K.

    2002-01-01

    During the period when females are sexually attractive - but only then - males of certain species of primates, such as chimpanzees, allow females access to resources. Because males are usually dominant over females, such male 'tolerance' is explained as a special, reproductive strategy to gain

  5. The alarm pheromone in male rats as a unique anxiety model: psychopharmacological evidence using anxiolytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Hideaki; Kiyokawa, Yasushi; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji

    2010-02-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that an alarm pheromone released from male donor Wistar rats evoked anxiety-related physiological and behavioral responses in recipient rats. Thus, we believe that this pheromone may increase anxiety levels in rats. In the current study, we evaluated the predictive validity of this alarm pheromone-induced anxiogenic effect in detail by investigating whether six types of human anxiolytics, each of which has a different mechanism of action, were efficacious in reducing anxiety, using changes in the acoustic startle reflex (ASR) as an index. The alarm pheromone-enhanced ASR was not affected by vehicle pretreatment but was dose-dependently attenuated by pretreatment with midazolam, phenelzine, propranolol, clonidine, and CP-154,526-although not buspirone. These results may reflect some aspects of the predictive validity of the alarm pheromone-induced anxiety in rats as an animal model of human anxiety.

  6. Sex and cognition: gender and cognitive functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Janet S

    2016-06-01

    Gender stereotypes hold that males outperform females in mathematics and spatial tests, and females outperform males on verbal tests. According to meta-analyses, however, among both children and adults, females perform equally to males on mathematics assessments. The gender difference in verbal skills is small and varies depending on the type of skill assessed (e.g., vocabulary, essay writing). The gender difference in 3D mental rotation shows a moderate advantage for males, but this gender difference occurs in the absence of a spatial curriculum in the schools. Meta-analyses of gender differences across a wide array of psychological qualities support the Gender Similarities Hypothesis, which states that males and females are quite similar on most-but not all-psychological variables.

  7. Societal Conditions and the Gender Difference in Well-Being: Testing a Three-Stage Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, Miron; Li, Chen; Diener, Edward F

    2017-03-01

    Findings from a meta-analysis on gender differences in self-esteem (Zuckerman et al., 2016) suggest that the relation between the degree to which societal conditions are favorable to women and gender difference in self-esteem might be quadratic; when conditions improve, women's self-esteem (relative to that of men) trends downward but when conditions continue to improve, women's self-esteem begins to trend upward. Testing whether these relations generalize to subjective well-being, the present study found a quadratic relation between improving societal conditions and the gender difference in life satisfaction and positive affect (women are lower than men when societal conditions are moderately favorable compared to when they are at their worst and at their best); the relation was linear for negative emotion (women report more negative emotions than men when societal conditions are better). Directions for future research that will address potential explanations for these results are proposed.

  8. Gender and Acceptance of E-Learning: A Multi-Group Analysis Based on a Structural Equation Model among College Students in Chile and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Correa, Patricio E; Arenas-Gaitán, Jorge; Rondán-Cataluña, F Javier

    2015-01-01

    The scope of this study was to evaluate whether the adoption of e-learning in two universities, and in particular, the relationship between the perception of external control and perceived ease of use, is different because of gender differences. The study was carried out with participating students in two different universities, one in Chile and one in Spain. The Technology Acceptance Model was used as a theoretical framework for the study. A multi-group analysis method in partial least squares was employed to relate differences between groups. The four main conclusions of the study are: (1) a version of the Technology Acceptance Model has been successfully used to explain the process of adoption of e-learning at an undergraduate level of study; (2) the finding of a strong and significant relationship between perception of external control and perception of ease of use of the e-learning platform; (3) a significant relationship between perceived enjoyment and perceived ease of use and between results demonstrability and perceived usefulness is found; (4) the study indicates a few statistically significant differences between males and females when adopting an e-learning platform, according to the tested model.

  9. A stylized computational model of the head for the reference Japanese male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, M; Ishikawa, M; Hoshi, M

    2005-01-01

    Computational models of human anatomy, along with Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations, have been used by Snyder et al. [MIRD Pamphlet No. 5, revised (The Society of Nuclear Medicine, New York, 1978)], Cristy and Eckerman [ORNL/TM-8381/VI, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (1987)] and Zubal et al. [Med. Phys. 21, 299-302 (1994)] to estimate internal organ doses from internal and external radiation sources. These were created using physiological data from Caucasoid subjects but not from other races. There is a need for research to determine whether the obvious differences from the Caucasoid anatomy make these models unsuitable for estimating the absorbed dose in other races such as the Mongoloid. We used the cranial region of the adult Japanese male to represent the Mongoloid race. This region contains organs that are highly sensitive to radiation. The cranial region of a physical phantom produced by KYOTO KAGAKU Co., LTD. using numerical data from a Japanese Reference Man [Tanaka, Nippon Acta. Radiol. 48, 509-513 (1988)] was used to supply the data for the geometry of a stylized computational model. Our computational model was constructed with equations rather than voxel-based, in order to deal with as small a number of parameters as possible in the computer simulation experiment. The accuracy of our computational model was checked by comparing simulated experimental results obtained with MCNP4C with actual doses measured with thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) inside the physical phantom from which our computational model was constructed. The TLDs, whose margin of error is less than +/-10%, were arranged at six positions. Co-60 was used as the radiation source. The irradiated dose was 2 Gy in terms of air kerma. In the computer simulation experiments, we used our computational model and Cristy's computational model, whose component data are those of the tissue substitute materials and of the human body as published in ICRU Report 46. The

  10. Respiratory Tract Lung Geometry and Dosimetry Model for Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Frederick J.; Asgharian, Bahman; Schroeter, Jeffry D.; Price, Owen; Corley, Richard A.; Einstein, Daniel R.; Jacob, Rick E.; Cox, Timothy C.; Kabilan, Senthil; Bentley, Timothy

    2015-07-24

    While inhalation toxicological studies of various compounds have been conducted using a number of different strains of rats, mechanistic dosimetry models have only had tracheobronchial (TB) structural data for Long-Evans rats, detailed morphometric data on the alveolar region of Sprague-Dawley rats and limited alveolar data on other strains. Based upon CT imaging data for two male Sprague-Dawley rats, a 15-generation, symmetric typical path model was developed for the TB region. Literature data for the alveolar region of Sprague-Dawley rats were analyzed to develop an eight-generation model, and the two regions were joined to provide a complete lower respiratory tract model for Sprague-Dawley rats. The resulting lung model was used to examine particle deposition in Sprague-Dawley rats and to compare these results with predicted deposition in Long-Evans rats. Relationships of various physiologic variables and lung volumes were either developed in this study or extracted from the literature to provide the necessary input data for examining particle deposition. While the lengths, diameters and branching angles of the TB airways differed between the two Sprague-Dawley rats, the predicted deposition patterns in the three major respiratory tract regions were very similar. Between Sprague-Dawley and Long-Evans rats, significant differences in TB and alveolar predicted deposition fractions were observed over a wide range of particle sizes, with TB deposition fractions being up to 3- to 4-fold greater in Sprague-Dawley rats and alveolar deposition being significantly greater in Long-Evans rats. Thus, strain-specific lung geometry models should be used for particle deposition calculations and interspecies dose comparisons.

  11. Structural equation modeling identifies markers of damage and function in the aging male Fischer 344 rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunz-Borgmann, Elizabeth A; Nichols, LaNita A; Wiedmeyer, Charles E; Spagnoli, Sean; Trzeciakowski, Jerome P; Parrish, Alan R

    2016-06-01

    The male Fischer 344 rat is an established model to study progressive renal dysfunction that is similar, but not identical, to chronic kidney disease (CKD) in humans. These studies were designed to assess age-dependent alterations in renal structure and function at late-life timepoints, 16-24 months. Elevations in BUN and plasma creatinine were not significant until 24 months, however, elevations in the more sensitive markers of function, plasma cystatin C and proteinuria, were detectable at 16 and 18 months, respectively. Interestingly, cystatin C levels were not corrected by caloric restriction. Urinary Kim-1, a marker of CKD, was elevated as early as 16 months. Klotho gene expression was significantly decreased at 24 months, but not at earlier timepoints. Alterations in renal structure, glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis, were noted at 16 months, with little change from 18 to 24 months. Tubulointerstitial inflammation was increased at 16 months, and remained similar from 18 to 24 months. A SEM (structural equation modeling) model of age-related renal dysfunction suggests that proteinuria is a marker of renal damage, while urinary Kim-1 is a marker of both damage and function. Taken together, these results demonstrate that age-dependent nephropathy begins as early as 16 months and progresses rapidly over the next 8 months.

  12. Specificity of Metabolic Syndrome Model Reproduction at Pubertal and Adult Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondarenko Larysa Borysivna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Comparative estimation of metabolic syndrome (MS mediated changes of blood, cardio-vascular system, liver, pancreas and kidneys morphologic structure in adult and pubertal rats. Materials and Methods: Wistar albino male rats of two age categories (young animals of 21 days age (50-70g and adults (160-180g were divided into 4 groups (8 animals in each: 1 - Control 1 (intact young rats; 2 - Control 2 (intact adult rats; 3 - MS3 (young rats with MS and 4 - MS4 (adult rats with MS. The metabolic syndrome model was induced by full replacement of drinking water with 20% fructose solution (200g/l. After 60 days of MS modeling, determination of rat hematological and serum biochemical parameters, glucose tolerance, blood pressure, liver rates of lipid peroxydation and chromatin DNA fragmentation, as well as morphological macroscopic and microscopic studies were carried out. Results: In pubertal rats, glucose tolerance, hypertension, blood clotting disturbances, DNAfragmentation and lipid peroxydation rates were affected more profoundly, while mature rats showed greater Pseudo Pelger-Huet anomaly development, serum cholesterol and lipoproteins increases, liver and kidney morphology changes. Conclusions: Our current data combined with previous results of other authors allow us to conclude that an animal model (Wistar rats of MS is quite easily obtained in a full age range, from juvenile to mature rats.

  13. Modeling the genetic and environmental association between peer group deviance and cannabis use in male twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Nathan A; Neale, Michael C; Jacobson, Kristen; Kendler, Kenneth S

    2009-01-01

    Background Peer group deviance (PGD) is strongly linked to liability to drug use including cannabis. Our aim was to model the genetic and environmental association, including direction of causation, between PGD and cannabis use (CU). Method Results were based on 1753 adult males from the Mid-Atlantic Twin Registry with complete CU and PGD data measured retrospectively at three time intervals between 15 and 25 years using a life-history calendar. Results At all ages, multivariate modeling showed that familial aggregation in PGD was explained by a combination of additive genetic and shared environmental effects, Moreover the significant PGD-CU association was best explained by a CU to PGD causal model in which large portions of the additive genetic (50% to 78%) and shared environmental variance (25% to 73%) in PGD were explained by CU. Conclusions Until recently PGD was assumed to be an environmental, upstream risk factor for CU. Our data are not consistent with this hypothesis. Rather, they suggest that the liability to affiliate with deviant peers is better explained by a combination of genetic and environmental factors that are indexed by CU which sits as a “risk indicator” in the causal pathway between genetic and environmental risks and the expression of PGD. This is consistent with a process of social selection by which the genetic and environmental risks in CU largely drive the propensity to affiliate with deviant peers. PMID:19207350

  14. Investigation of the mass distribution of a detailed seated male finite element model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavalle, Nicholas A; Thompson, A Bradley; Hayes, Ashley R; Moreno, Daniel P; Stitzel, Joel D; Gayzik, F Scott

    2014-06-01

    Accurate mass distribution in computational human body models is essential for proper kinematic and kinetic simulations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mass distribution of a 50th percentile male (M50) full body finite element model (FEM) in the seated position. The FEM was partitioned into 10 segments, using segment planes constructed from bony landmarks per the methods described in previous research studies. Body segment masses and centers of gravity (CGs) of the FEM were compared with values found from these studies, which unlike the present work assumed homogeneous body density. Segment masses compared well to literature while CGs showed an average deviation of 6.0% to 7.0% when normalized by regional characteristic lengths. The discrete mass distribution of the FEM appears to affect the mass and CGs of some segments, particularly those with low-density soft tissues. The locations of the segment CGs are provided in local coordinate systems, thus facilitating comparison with other full body FEMs and human surrogates. The model provides insights into the effects of inhomogeneous mass on the location of body segment CGs.

  15. Gender sensitive design practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rommes, E.W.M.

    2006-01-01

    To what extent and in what ways do companies take gender into account in their design decisions? In the past, commerce has been criticized for designing for the dominant group in society--the notorious young, white, able-bodied, highly educated male--to the exclusion of user groups who do not fit

  16. Gender sensitive design practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rommes, E.W.M.

    2006-01-01

    To what extent and in what ways do companies take gender into account in their design decisions? In the past, commerce has been criticized for designing for the dominant group in society--the notorious young, white, able-bodied, highly educated male--to the exclusion of user groups who do not fit th

  17. Gender Object Identification Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmon, Scott B.

    This test was designed primarily for the purpose of assisting social psychologists in researching sex roles and/or sex differences when a nonverbal instrument is desired. The hypothesis was that some objects would be easier for members of one gender to name. The subjects were 30 female and 20 male undergraduate students. Pictures of 65 commercial…

  18. Gender dysphoria and gender change in chromosomal females with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessens, Arianne B; Slijper, Froukje M E; Drop, Stenvert L S

    2005-08-01

    This article reviews the literature on studies and case reports on gender identity and gender identity problems, gender dysphoria, and gender change in chromosomal females with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, raised male or female. The large majority (94.8%) of the patients raised female (N= 250) later developed a gender identity as girls and women and did not feel gender dysphoric. But 13 (5.2%) patients had serious problems with their gender identity. This percentage is higher than the prevalence of female-to-male transsexuals in the general population of chromosomal females. Among patients raised male, serious gender identity problems were reported in 4 (12.1%) out of 33 patients. From these observations, we conclude that the assignment to the female gender as a general policy for 46,XX patients with CAH appears justified, even in severely masculinized 46,XX newborns with CAH (Prader stage IV or V).

  19. Men and women with bisexual identities show bisexual patterns of sexual attraction to male and female "swimsuit models".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippa, Richard A

    2013-02-01

    Do self-identified bisexual men and women actually show bisexual patterns of sexual attraction and interest? To answer this question, I studied bisexual men's and women's sexual attraction to photographed male and female "swimsuit models" that varied in attractiveness. Participants (663 college students and gay pride attendees, including 14 self-identified bisexual men and 17 self-identified bisexual women) rated their degree of sexual attraction to 34 male and 34 female swimsuit models. Participants' viewing times to models were unobtrusively assessed. Results showed that bisexual men and women showed bisexual patterns of attraction and viewing times to photo models, which strongly distinguished them from same-sex heterosexual and homosexual participants. In contrast to other groups, which showed evidence of greater male than female category specificity, bisexual men and women did not differ in category specificity. Results suggest that there are subsets of men and women who display truly bisexual patterns of sexual attraction and interest.

  20. Male-initiated partner abuse during marital separation prior to divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toews, Michelle L; McKenry, Patrick C; Catlett, Beth S

    2003-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess predictors of male-initiated psychological and physical partner abuse during the separation process prior to divorce among a sample of 80 divorced fathers who reported no physical violence during their marriages. The predictor variables examined were male gender-role identity, female-initiated divorces, dependence on one's former wife, depression, anxiety, and coparental conflict. Through ordinary least square (OLS) regression techniques, it was found that male gender-role identity was positively related to male-initiated psychological abuse during separation. Logistic regression analyses revealed that male-initiated psychological abuse, anxiety level, coparental conflict, and dependence on one's former spouse increased the odds of a man engaging in physical abuse. However, depression decreased the odds of separation physical abuse. The models predicting both male-initiated psychological abuse (F = 2.20, p separation process were significant (Model chi2 = 35.00, df= 7, p < .001).

  1. Roles in violent interactions in early adolescence: Relations with personality traits, friendship and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolović Petar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the relations between roles in violent interactions and personality traits (congruent to dimensions of Big Seven lexical model, number of friends, and gender. The study was conducted on a sample of 1095 elementary school students from Serbia (51.4% female, aged 11-14. The results revealed that membership in the victims group corresponds to smaller number of friends, low Extraversion, high Neuroticism and Conscientiousness and male gender, while higher Aggressiveness, Negative and Positive Valence, lower Neuroticism, and male gender increase the odds of membership in the bullies group. The role of bully-victims corresponds to smaller number of friends, higher Negative Valence and Neuroticism, and male gender. The results point to differences between roles in violent interaction with regard to patterns of personality traits and social behavior. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. ON179006: Psychological foundations of mental health: hereditary and environmental factors

  2. Learning and Talking about Politics: Gender Dynamics, Interaction and Success in NFL Model Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Cindy Simon; Rosenthal, James A.

    Certain kinds of extracurricular activities develop interpersonal, leadership, and participatory skills that are important to citizenship and politics. In this research, the focus is on simulated legislative debate and the question is how such activities might contribute to persistent gender differences observed in elite political participation in…

  3. Still a Perfect Model? The Gender Impact of Vocational Training in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haasler, Simone R.; Gottschall, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Reconstructing the parallel structure of "dual" and "school-based" vocational routes reveals the close connection between the German vocational training system and the segmentation of the labour market by gender. The example of jobs in childcare and pre-primary education shows that the legacy of semi-professionalism in these…

  4. Relationship between Physical Disability and Depression by Gender : A Panel Regression Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noh, Jin-Won; Kwon, Young Dae; Park, Jumin; Oh, In-Hwan; Kim, Jinseok

    2016-01-01

    Background Depression in persons with physical disabilities may be more common than in the general population. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between physical disability and depression by gender among adults, using a large, nationally representative sample. Methods This

  5. Modelling cross-gender and sexual relations : Exploring the Soul Buddyz Edutainment Initiative in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Cousins (Laura)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractHIV/AIDS among youth is a serious problem in South Africa. Cross-gender relations and associated constructs surrounding masculinity/femininity and sexuality are increasingly recognized as at the heart of the issue. Growing attention has thus been given to developing initiatives geared

  6. Modelling cross-gender and sexual relations : Exploring the Soul Buddyz Edutainment Initiative in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Cousins (Laura)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractHIV/AIDS among youth is a serious problem in South Africa. Cross-gender relations and associated constructs surrounding masculinity/femininity and sexuality are increasingly recognized as at the heart of the issue. Growing attention has thus been given to developing initiatives geared to

  7. Perceived Playfulness, Gender Differences and Technology Acceptance Model in a Blended Learning Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Melendez, Antonio; del Aguila-Obra, Ana Rosa; Garrido-Moreno, Aurora

    2013-01-01

    The importance of technology for education is increasing year-by-year at all educational levels and particularly for Universities. This paper reexamines one important determinant of technology acceptance and use, such as perceived playfulness in the context of a blended learning setting and reveals existing gender differences. After a literature…

  8. Differences in gender performance on competitive physics selection tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Wilson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] We have investigated gender differences in performance over the past eight years on the Australian Science Olympiad Exam (ASOE for physics, which is taken by nearly 1000 high school students each year. The ASOE, run by Australian Science Innovations (ASI, is the initial stage of the process of selection of teams to represent Australia at the Asian and International Physics Olympiads. Students taking the exam are generally in their penultimate year of school and selected by teachers as being high performing in physics. Together with the overall differences in facility, we have investigated how the content and presentation of multiple-choice questions (MCQs affects the particular answers selected by male and female students. Differences in the patterns of responses by male and female students indicate that males and females might be modeling situations in different ways. Some strong patterns were found in the gender gaps when the questions were categorized in five broad dimensions: content, process required, difficulty, presentation, and context. Almost all questions saw male students performing better, although gender differences were relatively small for questions with a more abstract context. Male students performed significantly better on most questions with a concrete context, although notable exceptions were found, including two such questions where female students performed better. Other categories that showed consistently large gaps favoring male students include questions with projectile motion and other two-dimensional motion or forces content, and processes involving interpreting diagrams. Our results have important implications, suggesting that we should be able to reduce the gender gaps in performance on MCQ tests by changing the way information is presented and setting questions in contexts that are less likely to favor males over females. This is important as MCQ

  9. Differences in gender performance on competitive physics selection tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kate; Low, David; Verdon, Matthew; Verdon, Alix

    2016-12-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] We have investigated gender differences in performance over the past eight years on the Australian Science Olympiad Exam (ASOE) for physics, which is taken by nearly 1000 high school students each year. The ASOE, run by Australian Science Innovations (ASI), is the initial stage of the process of selection of teams to represent Australia at the Asian and International Physics Olympiads. Students taking the exam are generally in their penultimate year of school and selected by teachers as being high performing in physics. Together with the overall differences in facility, we have investigated how the content and presentation of multiple-choice questions (MCQs) affects the particular answers selected by male and female students. Differences in the patterns of responses by male and female students indicate that males and females might be modeling situations in different ways. Some strong patterns were found in the gender gaps when the questions were categorized in five broad dimensions: content, process required, difficulty, presentation, and context. Almost all questions saw male students performing better, although gender differences were relatively small for questions with a more abstract context. Male students performed significantly better on most questions with a concrete context, although notable exceptions were found, including two such questions where female students performed better. Other categories that showed consistently large gaps favoring male students include questions with projectile motion and other two-dimensional motion or forces content, and processes involving interpreting diagrams. Our results have important implications, suggesting that we should be able to reduce the gender gaps in performance on MCQ tests by changing the way information is presented and setting questions in contexts that are less likely to favor males over females. This is important as MCQ tests are

  10. Objective Gender and Age Recognition from Speech Sentences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima K. Faek

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, an automatic gender and age recognizer from speech is investigated. The relevant features to gender recognition are selected from the first four formant frequencies and twelve MFCCs and feed the SVM classifier. While the relevant features to age has been used with k-NN classifier for the age recognizer model, using MATLAB as a simulation tool. A special selection of robust features is used in this work to improve the results of the gender and age classifiers based on the frequency range that the feature represents. The gender and age classification algorithms are evaluated using 114 (clean and noisy speech samples uttered in Kurdish language. The model of two classes (adult males and adult females gender recognition, reached 96% recognition accuracy. While for three categories classification (adult males, adult females, and children, the model achieved 94% recognition accuracy. For the age recognition model, seven groups according to their ages are categorized. The model performance after selecting the relevant features to age achieved 75.3%. For further improvement a de-noising technique is used with the noisy speech signals, followed by selecting the proper features that are affected by the de-noising process and result in 81.44% recognition accuracy.

  11. Gender Differences in Metabolic Disorders and Related Diseases in Spontaneously Diabetic Torii-Leprfa Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Ohta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Spontaneously Diabetic Torii Leprfa (SDT fatty rat is a novel type 2 diabetic model wherein both male and female rats develop glucose and lipid abnormalities from a young age. In this study, we investigated gender differences in abnormalities and related complications in SDT fatty rats. Food intake was higher in males compared to female rats; however, body weight was not different between genders. Progression of diabetes, including increases in blood glucose and declines in blood insulin, was observed earlier in male rats than in females, and diabetic grade was more critical in male rats. Blood lipids tended to increase in female rats. Gonadal dysfunction was observed in both male and female rats with aging. Microangiopathies, such as nephropathy, retinopathy, neuropathy, and osteoporosis, were seen in both genders, and pathological grade and progression were more significant in males. Qualitative and quantitative changes were observed for metabolic disease gender differences in SDT fatty rats. The SDT fatty rat is a useful model for researching gender differences in metabolic disorders and related diseases in diabetes with obesity.

  12. Language and Gender

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈忠祥

    2009-01-01

    @@ The definitions of gender in Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary (on line) are as follows:1.the fact of being male or female.2.(Grammar) (in some languages) each of the classes (masculine,feminine and sometimes neuter) into which nouns,pronouns and adjectives are divided.It is hardly a matter of dispute that male and female are different.One major genetic difference is that females have two X chromosomes while males have an X and a Y.The book,Men are from Mars and Women are from Venus,asserts the notion that men and women are as different as beings from other planets.

  13. The effect of gender on eye colour variation in European populations and an evaluation of the IrisPlex prediction model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pietroni, Carlotta; Andersen, Jeppe D.; Johansen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    In two recent studies of Spanish individuals [1,2], gender was suggested as a factor that contributes to human eye colour variation. However, gender did not improve the predictive accuracy on blue, intermediate and brown eye colours when gender was included in the IrisPlex model [3]. In this stud...... and their corresponding predictive values using the IrisPlex prediction model [4]. The results suggested that maximum three (rs12913832, rs1800407, rs16891982) of the six IrisPlex SNPs are useful in practical forensic genetic casework....

  14. Integrative rodent models for assessing male reproductive toxicity of environmental endocrine active substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Auger

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present review, we first summarize the main benefits, limitations and pitfalls of conventional in vivo approaches to assessing male reproductive structures and functions in rodents in cases of endocrine active substance (EAS exposure from the postulate that they may provide data that can be extrapolated to humans. Then, we briefly present some integrated approaches in rodents we have recently developed at the organism level. We particularly focus on the possible effects and modes of action (MOA of these substances at low doses and in mixtures, real-life conditions and at the organ level, deciphering the precise effects and MOA on the fetal testis. It can be considered that the in vivo experimental EAS exposure of rodents remains the first choice for studies and is a necessary tool (together with the epidemiological approach for understanding the reproductive effects and MOA of EASs, provided the pitfalls and limitations of the rodent models are known and considered. We also provide some evidence that classical rodent models may be refined for studying the multiple consequences of EAS exposure, not only on the reproductive axis but also on various hormonally regulated organs and tissues, among which several are implicated in the complex process of mammalian reproduction. Such models constitute an interesting way of approaching human exposure conditions. Finally, we show that organotypic culture models are powerful complementary tools, especially when focusing on the MOA. All these approaches have contributed in a combinatorial manner to a better understanding of the impact of EAS exposure on human reproduction.

  15. Biosorption of Ni(II) by Fig Male: Optimization and Modeling Using a Full Factorial Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madjene, F; Chergui, A; Trari, M

    2016-06-01

    The fig male (FM) is successfully used as biosorbent for Ni(2+) removal. The maximum removal efficiency (96.6%) is obtained at pH ~ 5 for a concentration of 1.70 mmol L(-1) and catalyst dose of 5 g L(-1) in less than 10 minutes. The Ni(2+) uptake follows a pseudo-second-order kinetic, the rate constants increase with increasing temperature, and an activation energy of 55.48 kJ mol(-1) is found. The thermodynamic parameters indicate a spontaneous endothermic bisorption. The isotherm data are fitted by the Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich models. The former indicates a maximum Ni(2+) uptake of 0.459 mmol g(-1), which is higher than that of most biosorbents investigated to date. The FTIR spectra reveal the biosorption mechanism between Ni(2+) and FM functional groups. An empirical modeling is performed by using a 2(3) full factorial design, and a regression equation for Ni(2+) biosorption is determined. The biosorbent mass and pH are the most significant parameters affecting the Ni(2+) biosorption.

  16. Linkages between gender equity and intimate partner violence among urban Brazilian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Anu Manchikanti; Speizer, Ilene S; Moracco, Kathryn E

    2011-10-01

    Gender inequity is a risk factor for intimate partner violence (IPV), although there is little research on this relationship that focuses on youth or males. Using survey data collected from 240 male and 198 female youth aged 15-24 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, we explore the association between individual-level support for gender equity and IPV experiences in the past 6 months and describe responses to and motivations for IPV. Factor analysis was used to construct gender equity scales for males and females. Logistic and multinomial logistic regression models were used to examine the relationship between gender equity and IPV. About half of female youth reported some form of recent IPV, including any victimization (32%), any perpetration (40%), and both victimization and perpetration (22%). A total of 18% of male youth reported recently perpetrating IPV. In logistic regression models, support for gender equity had a protective effect against any female IPV victimization and any male IPV perpetration and was not associated with female IPV perpetration. Female victims reported leaving the abusive partner, but later returning to him as the most frequent response to IPV. Male perpetrators said the most common response of their victims was to retaliate with violence. Jealousy was the most frequently reported motivation of females perpetrating IPV. Gender equity is an important predictor of IPV among youth. Examining the gendered context of IPV will be useful in the development of targeted interventions to promote gender equity and healthy relationships and to help reduce IPV among youth. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The effects of exposure to muscular male models among men: exploring the moderating role of gym use and exercise motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliwell, Emma; Dittmar, Helga; Orsborn, Amber

    2007-09-01

    This study examines the effects of exposure to the muscular male body ideal on body-focused negative affect among male gym users and non-exercisers. As hypothesized, the impact of media exposure depended on men's exercise status. Non-exercisers (n = 58) reported greater body-focused negative affect after exposure to images of muscular male models than after neutral images (no model controls), whereas gym users (n = 58) showed a tendency for less body-focused negative affect after the model images than after the control images. Furthermore, the extent to which gym users were motivated to increase strength and muscularity moderated these exposure effects; men who reported stronger strength and muscularity exercise motivation reported a greater degree of self-enhancement after exposure to the muscular ideal. The findings are interpreted with respect to likely differences in motives for social comparisons.

  18. A model-based analysis of chemical and temporal patterns of cuticular hydrocarbons in male Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement Kent

    Full Text Available Drosophila Cuticular Hydrocarbons (CH influence courtship behaviour, mating, aggregation, oviposition, and resistance to desiccation. We measured levels of 24 different CH compounds of individual male D. melanogaster hourly under a variety of environmental (LD/DD conditions. Using a model-based analysis of CH variation, we developed an improved normalization method for CH data, and show that CH compounds have reproducible cyclic within-day temporal patterns of expression which differ between LD and DD conditions. Multivariate clustering of expression patterns identified 5 clusters of co-expressed compounds with common chemical characteristics. Turnover rate estimates suggest CH production may be a significant metabolic cost. Male cuticular hydrocarbon expression is a dynamic trait influenced by light and time of day; since abundant hydrocarbons affect male sexual behavior, males may present different pheromonal profiles at different times and under different conditions.

  19. Gender differences in knowledge and attitude towards biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Richard M

    2010-11-01

    The relationship between gender, knowledge of biotechnology, attitudes toward biotechnology, and various socio-demographic variables was investigated using the Eurobarometer 52.1. It was found that neither socio-demographics, nor differing levels of scientific knowledge could explain females' greater probability of being pessimistic toward biotechnology. After running separate models for males and females, it was discovered that, for males, more knowledge of biotechnology decreased their probability of being pessimistic about science, but for females more knowledge of biotechnology actually lead to a greater probability of being pessimistic. Further, a gender-education interaction was discovered that revealed that, for males, education and knowledge of biotechnology have independent effects on attitudes, but for females education has no effect on attitudes towards biotechnology when knowledge is controlled. The results for females complicate the deficit model of social support for science, which posits that more knowledge of science always leads to more positive attitudes.

  20. Perinatal administration of aromatase inhibitors in rodents as animal models of human male homosexuality: similarities and differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olvera-Hernández, Sandra; Fernández-Guasti, Alonso

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter we briefly review the evidence supporting the existence of biological influences on sexual orientation. We focus on basic research studies that have affected the estrogen synthesis during the critical periods of brain sexual differentiation in male rat offspring with the use of aromatase inhibitors, such as 1,4,6-androstatriene-3,17 (ATD) and letrozole. The results after prenatal and/or postnatal treatment with ATD reveal that these animals, when adults, show female sexual responses, such as lordosis or proceptive behaviors, but retain their ability to display male sexual activity with a receptive female. Interestingly, the preference and sexual behavior of these rats vary depending upon the circadian rhythm.Recently, we have established that the treatment with low doses of letrozole during the second half of pregnancy produces male rat offspring, that when adults spend more time in the company of a sexually active male than with a receptive female in a preference test. In addition, they display female sexual behavior when forced to interact with a sexually experienced male and some typical male sexual behavior when faced with a sexually receptive female. Interestingly, these males displayed both sexual behavior patterns spontaneously, i.e., in absence of exogenous steroid hormone treatment. Most of these features correspond with those found in human male homosexuals; however, the "bisexual" behavior shown by the letrozole-treated rats may be related to a particular human population. All these data, taken together, permit to propose letrozole prenatal treatment as a suitable animal model to study human male homosexuality and reinforce the hypothesis that human sexual orientation is underlied by changes in the endocrine milieu during early development.

  1. Deference or Interrogation? Contrasting Models for Reconciling Religion, Gender and Equality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moira Dustin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Since the late 1990s, the extension of the equality framework in the United Kingdom has been accompanied by the recognition of religion within that framework and new measures to address religious discrimination. This development has been contested, with many arguing that religion is substantively different to other discrimination grounds and that increased protection against religious discrimination may undermine equality for other marginalized groups – in particular, women and lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT people. This paper considers these concerns from the perspective of minoritized women in the UK. It analyses two theoretical approaches to reconciling religious claims with gender equality – one based on privileging, the other based on challenging religious claims – before considering which, if either, reflects experiences in the UK in recent years and what this means for gender equality.

  2. The gender problem in radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Lars [Nobel Inst. of Physics, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-07-01

    Gender is a range of characteristics used to distinguish between males and females, particularly in the cases of men and women and the masculine and feminine attributes assigned to them. While the social sciences sometimes approach gender as a social construct, and some gender studies particularly do, research in the natural and medical sciences investigates whether biological differences in males and females influence the development of gender in humans. Radiation protection regulations also take into account the possibly different radiation risks of males and females. The following contribution investigates how far this is justified, and what are the consequences. (orig.)

  3. Determinación de sesgo de no respuesta en una encuesta probabilística de hogares de comportamiento sexual con personas del mismo género Assessment of non-response bias in a probability household survey of male same-gender sexual behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Izazola-Licea

    2000-04-01

    encuesta. La selección cuidadosa del personal de campo y la capacitación de los entrevistadores podría haber coadyuvado en minimizar el sesgo potencial.OBJECTIVE: To assess non-participation bias in a survey of male sexual behavior. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A household survey was carried out in 19921993 using a probability sampling frame in Mexico City. Demographic variables were available for all eligible men. The extent of non-participation bias was estimated using a version of the Heckman method, which utilizes two equations, one to predict participation and the other to predict reports of same-gender sexual behavior. RESULTS: A total of 8 068 of the 13 713 eligible men completed a face-to-face questionnaire (response rate 59%; 173 men (2.1% reported bisexual behavior in their lifetime, and 37 (0.4% reported only male partners. Survey participation was predicted using demographic variables: 67% of the observations were correctly predicted by a probit regression model: 82% of participants and 53% of non-participants (pseudo-r²=0.13. Same-gender sexual behavior was predicted by variables indicating attachment to gay/bisexual social networks, history of sexually transmitted diseases, positive attitudes towards gay and bisexual males, and lack of support from male relatives. Ninety-seven per cent of the cases was correctly predicted by the probit model (pseudo-r²=0.14. The correlation between these two equations was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that prevalence estimates of same-gender sexual behavior among Mexico City men were not biased by selective survey participation. Careful selection and training of household interviewers may have assisted in minimizing potential bias.

  4. Prosocial behaviour and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Paz eEspinosa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study revisits different experimental data sets that explore social behavior in economic games and uncovers that many treatment effects may be gender-specific. In general, men and women do not differ in neutral baselines. However, we find that social framing tends to reinforce prosocial behavior in women but not men, whereas encouraging reflection decreases the prosociality of males but not females. The treatment effects are sometimes statistically different across genders and sometimes not but never go in the opposite direction. These findings suggest that (i the social behavior of both sexes is malleable but each gender responds to different aspects of the social context, and (ii gender differences observed in some studies might be the result of particular features of the experimental design. Our results contribute to the literature on prosocial behavior and may improve our understanding of the origins of human prosociality. We discuss the possible link between the observed differential treatment effects across genders and the differing male and female brain network connectivity, documented in recent neural studies.

  5. Gender-based model comparisons of maternal values, monitoring, communication, and early adolescent risk behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, Lesley; Yu, Shuli; Liu, Hongjie; Deveaux, Lynette; Lunn, Sonja; Bain, Rosa Mae; Stanton, Bonita

    2007-10-01

    To examine the relationships among maternal values, monitoring knowledge, parent-adolescent communication, and adolescent risk involvement based on adolescent gender. Parental reports of their personal values, monitoring knowledge, and communication with their children were compared with adolescent reports of risk involvement using information gathered from 647 Bahamian mother-adolescent (9-13 years) dyads. Parental values of conservation (e.g., conformity) were positively associated with greater parent-adolescent communication and communication was significantly associated with greater monitoring knowledge for both genders. Among mother-son dyads only, group-based parental values of self-transcendence (e.g., universalism) were significantly associated with greater perceived parental monitoring knowledge; individualized self-enhancement values (e.g., hedonism) were negatively associated with open and supportive parent-adolescent communication. Parental values influence other parenting processes such as monitoring and communication. Parental monitoring, in turn, inversely influences adolescent risk involvement. These influences appear to differ based on the adolescent's gender, as many of the relationships were stronger among mother-son dyads. These findings highlight a need to better understand the nature of the relationship between maternal values, parent-adolescent interactions, and adolescents' risk decisions.

  6. Should Test Anxiety Be Measured Differently for Males and Females? Examination of Measurement Bias across Gender on Measures of Test Anxiety for Middle and High School, and College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined measurement invariance across gender and gender differences on two measures of test anxiety developed for U.S. middle and high school, and college students. It was hypothesized that measurement invariance and gender differences would be found on the two measures of test anxiety, suggesting no separate scoring system is…

  7. Knowledge Extraction for Discriminating Male and Female in Logical Reasoning from Student Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. E. ElAlfi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The learning process is a process of communication and interaction between the teacher and his students on one side and between the students and each others on the other side. Interaction of the teacher with his students has a great importance in the process of learning and education. The pattern and style of this interaction is determined by the educational situation, trends and concerns, and educational characteristics. Classroom interaction has an importance and a big role in increasing the efficiency of the learning process and raising the achievement levels of students. Students need to learn skills and habits of study, especially at the university level. The effectiveness of learning is affected by several factors that include the prevailing patterns of interactive behavior in the classroom. These patterns are reflected in the activities of teacher and learners during the learning process. The effectiveness of learning is also influenced by the cognitive and non cognitive characteristics of teacher that help him to succeed, the characteristics of learners, teaching subject, and the teaching methods. This paper presents a machine learning algorithm for extracting knowledge from student model. The proposed algorithm utilizes the inherent characteristic of genetic algorithm and neural network for extracting comprehensible rules from the student database. The knowledge is used for discriminating male and female levels in logical reasoning as a part of an expert system course.

  8. Aphrodisiac activity of polyherbal formulation in experimental models on male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Bhusan Sahoo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the aphrodisiac potential of polyherbal formulations prepared from different parts of Tribulus terrestris, Curculigo orchioides, Allium tuberosum, Cucurbita pepo, Elephant creeper, Mucuna pruriens, and Terminalia catappa in Albino rats in specified ratio as suspension. Materials and Methods: The different concentrations of prepared polyherbal formulations i.e. 150, 300, and 600 mg/kg and sildenafil citrate as standard (5 mg/kg and vehicle (control were administered orally to rats (n = 6 animals per group for 3 weeks. Mating behavior parameters in male rats was monitored in first week and third week week of treatment pairing with receptive females. After termination of drug treatment, the mating performance, hormonal analysis, sperm count, and testes-body weight ratio were also evaluated. Results: The polyherbal formulation showed a significant increase in mating behavior as well as mating performance, serum hormonal levels, sperm count, and testes-body weight ratio with dose-dependent relationship as compared to vehicle control. But the dose of 600 mg/kg of polyherbal formulation assumes closer resemblance of above parameters with the standard used. Conclusion: The results of the study strongly suggest that the polyherbal formulations have a good aphrodisiac activity on rats in the above experimental models, which may be an alternative weapon for various sexual dysfunctions in future.

  9. Prolyl Hydroxylase Domain-2 Inhibition Improves Skeletal Muscle Regeneration in a Male Murine Model of Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indranil Sinha

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Obesity leads to a loss of muscle mass and impaired muscle regeneration. In obese individuals, pathologically elevated levels of prolyl hydroxylase domain enzyme 2 (PHD2 limit skeletal muscle hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF expression. Loss of local VEGF may further impair skeletal muscle regeneration. We hypothesized that PHD2 inhibition would restore vigorous muscle regeneration in a murine model of obesity. Adult (22-week-old male mice were fed either a high-fat diet (HFD, with 60% of calories derived from fat, or a regular diet (RD, with 10% of calories derived from fat, for 16 weeks. On day 5 following cryoinjury to the tibialis anterior muscle, newly regenerated muscle fiber cross-sectional areas were significantly smaller in mice fed an HFD as compared to RD, indicating an impaired regenerative response. Cryoinjured gastrocnemius muscles of HFD mice also showed elevated PHD2 levels (twofold higher and reduced VEGF levels (twofold lower as compared to RD. Dimethyloxalylglycine, a cell permeable competitive inhibitor of PHD2, restored VEGF levels and significantly improved regenerating myofiber size in cryoinjured mice fed an HFD. We conclude that pathologically increased PHD2 in the obese state drives impairments in muscle regeneration, in part by blunting VEGF production. Inhibition of PHD2 over activity in the obese state normalizes VEGF levels and restores muscle regenerative potential.

  10. Modeling Longitudinal Changes in 5 m Sprinting Performance Among Young Male Tennis Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Tamara; Valente-Dos-Santos, João; Coelho-E-Silva, Manuel J; Malina, Robert M; Huijgen, Barbara C H; Smith, Joanne; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T; Visscher, Chris

    2016-02-01

    Year-to-year changes in sprinting in youth tennis players were examined in a mixed-longitudinal study (256 male players, aged 10-15 years: 993 measurements). Height (h), body mass (BM), lower limb explosive strength (LLES), and a 5-m sprint were measured over five years. During that period, players were classified as elite or sub-elite. To account for the repeated measurements within the individual nature of longitudinal data, multilevel random effects regression analyses were used. Sprint performance improved with age at each additional 1 year of age, thus predicting ∼.016 sec improvement in five-meter sprint time by all variables of the model. It was possible to predict the performance of elite tennis players in the 5-m sprint (sec) for elite players (1.1493 - (0.0159 ċ centered age) - (0.009 ċ BM) - (0.044 ċ LLES) and sub-elite players (1.1493 - (0.0159 ċ centered age) + 0.0135 - (0.009 ċ BM) - (0.044 ċ LLES) - (0.0557 ċ centered age). Sprint performance differences between elite and sub-elite players was related to longitudinal changes in body size and lower limb strength up until age 13.

  11. Gender Ratios for Reading Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawke, Jesse L.; Olson, Richard K.; Willcut, Erik G.; Wadsworth, Sally J.; DeFries, John C.

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of reading difficulties is typically higher in males than females in both referred and research-identified samples, and the ratio of males to females is greater in more affected samples. To explore possible gender differences in reading performance, we analysed data from 1133 twin pairs in which at least one member of each pair had…

  12. Association between maternal smoking, gender, and cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, Daniella Reis Barbosa; Coletta, Ricardo D; Oliveira, Eduardo A; Swerts, Mário Sérgio Oliveira; Rodrigues, Laíse A Mendes; Oliveira, Maria Christina; Martelli Júnior, Hercílio

    2015-01-01

    Cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P) represent the most common congenital anomalies of the face. To assess the relationship between maternal smoking, gender and CL/P. This is an epidemiological cross-sectional study. We interviewed 1519 mothers divided into two groups: mothers of children with CL/P (n=843) and mothers of children without CL/P (n=676). All mothers were classified as smoker or non-smoker subjects during the first trimester of pregnancy. To determine an association among maternal smoking, gender, and CL/P, odds ratios were calculated and the adjustment was made by a logistic regression model. An association between maternal smoking and the presence of cleft was observed. There was also a strong association between male gender and the presence of cleft (OR=3.51; 95% CI 2.83-4.37). By binary logistic regression analysis, it was demonstrated that both variables were independently associated with clefts. In a multivariate analysis, male gender and maternal smoking had a 2.5- and a 1.5-time greater chance of having a cleft, respectively. Our findings are consistent with a positive association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and CL/P in male gender. The results support the importance of smoking prevention and introduction of cessation programs among women with childbearing potential. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. Association between maternal smoking, gender, and cleft lip and palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella Reis Barbosa Martelli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P represent the most common congenital anomalies of the face. OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between maternal smoking, gender and CL/P. METHODS: This is an epidemiological cross-sectional study. We interviewed 1519 mothers divided into two groups: Cases: mothers of children with CL/P (n = 843 and Controls: mothers of children without CL/P (n = 676. All mothers were classified as smoker or non-smoker subjects during the first trimester of pregnancy. To determine an association among maternal smoking, gender, and CL/P, odds ratios were calculated and the adjustment was made by a logistic regression model. RESULTS: An association between maternal smoking and the presence of cleft was observed. There was also a strong association between male gender and the presence of cleft (OR = 3.51; 95% CI 2.83-4.37. By binary logistic regression analysis, it was demonstrated that both variables were independently associated with clefts. In a multivariate analysis, male gender and maternal smoking had a 2.5- and a 1.5-time greater chance of having a cleft, respectively. CONCLUSION: Our findings are consistent with a positive association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and CL/P in male gender. The results support the importance of smoking prevention and introduction of cessation programs among women with childbearing potential.

  14. The materiality of gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, N A

    1999-01-01

    SUMMARY Lesbian and transgender histories often recuperate the same historical figures; however, many lesbian spaces (like the Michigan Womyn's Music Festival) have excluded lesbian-identified male-to-female transsexuals. Through an analysis of historical inclusion and socio-political exclusion, this essay examines the relationship between "birth bodies," gender and sexuality. It argues that the lesbian body appears in history through the naturalization of "birth-bodies" and the recuperation of cross-gender behavior. In this way, the body becomes a template for lesbian historical recuperation and an organizing principle for contemporary lesbian communities.

  15. A maleness gene in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzywinska, Elzbieta; Dennison, Nathan J; Lycett, Gareth J; Krzywinski, Jaroslaw

    2016-07-01

    The molecular pathways controlling gender are highly variable and have been identified in only a few nonmammalian model species. In many insects, maleness is conferred by a Y chromosome-linked M factor of unknown nature. We have isolated and characterized a gene, Yob, for the M factor in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae Yob, activated at the beginning of zygotic transcription and expressed throughout a male's life, controls male-specific splicing of the doublesex gene. Silencing embryonic Yob expression is male-lethal, whereas ectopic embryonic delivery of Yob transcripts yields male-only broods. This female-killing property may be an invaluable tool for creation of conditional male-only transgenic Anopheles strains for malaria control programs.

  16. Assortative Mating and the Reversal of Gender Inequality in Education in Europe: An Agent-Based Model

    OpenAIRE

    Grow, André; Van Bavel, Jan

    2015-01-01

    While men have always received more education than women in the past, this gender imbalance in education has turned around in large parts of the world. In many countries, women now excel men in terms of participation and success in higher education. This implies that, for the first time in history, there are more highly educated women than men reaching the reproductive ages and looking for a partner. We develop an agent-based computational model that explicates the mechanisms that may have li...

  17. Gendered education in a gendered world: looking beyond cosmetic solutions to the gender gap in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnes, Astrid T.; Løken, Marianne

    2014-06-01

    Young people in countries considered to be at the forefront of gender equity still tend to choose very traditional science subjects and careers. This is particularly the case in science, technology, engineering and mathematics subjects (STEM), which are largely male dominated. This article uses feminist critiques of science and science education to explore the underlying gendered assumptions of a research project aiming to contribute to improving recruitment, retention and gender equity patterns in STEM educations and careers. Much research has been carried out to understand this gender gap phenomenon as well as to suggest measures to reduce its occurrence. A significant portion of this research has focused on detecting the typical "female" and "male" interest in science and has consequently suggested that adjustments be made to science education to cater for these interests. This article argues that adjusting science subjects to match perceived typical girls' and boys' interests risks being ineffective, as it contributes to the imposition of stereotyped gender identity formation thereby also imposing the gender differences that these adjustments were intended to overcome. This article also argues that different ways of addressing gender issues in science education themselves reflects different notions of gender and science. Thus in order to reduce gender inequities in science these implicit notions of gender and science have to be made explicit. The article begins with an overview of the current situation regarding gender equity in some so- called gender equal countries. We then present three perspectives from feminist critiques of science on how gender can be seen to impact on science and science education. Thereafter we analyze recommendations from a contemporary research project to explore which of these perspectives is most prevalent.

  18. The origin of gender dimorphism in animal-dispersed plants: disruptive selection in a model of social evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biernaskie, Jay M

    2010-06-01

    Dioecy (separate sexes) in plants is associated with animal fruit dispersal, but hypotheses for a role of dispersal in the origin of gender dimorphism have received little support. Here, I present a patch-structured model to explore the conditions that favor dimorphism when dispersal is coupled with sex allocation. The model shows that if the proportion of fruits dispersed from a cosexual plant increases with its allocation to fruits (causing accelerating fitness returns from dispersed fruits), disruptive selection can arise when the cost of dispersal is minimal and the correlation among patchmates (i.e., relatedness) is high. In reality, however, the proportion of fruits dispersed from a plant's patch may decline with further allocation to fruits. Even in this case, novel contexts that lead to disruptive selection on sex allocation are discovered, occurring when dispersal costs are high and relatedness is low, which causes accelerating returns from nondispersed fruits. Hence, surprisingly, gender dimorphism can evolve because female specialists are better able to escape local competition or to succeed in it. Building on the few existing models of disruptive selection on social traits, the mechanisms here show that selection for relaxed local competition (cooperation) can sometimes facilitate diversification and sometimes prevent it.

  19. What adult worker model? A critical look at recent social policy reform in Europe from a gender and family perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Analyses regularly feature claims that European welfare states are in the process of creating an adult worker model. The theoretical and empirical basis of this argument is examined here by looking first at the conceptual foundations of the adult worker model formulation and then at the extent to which social policy reform in western Europe fits with the argument. It is suggested that the adult worker formulation is under-specified. A framework incorporating four dimensions—the treatment of individuals vis-à-vis their family role and status for the purposes of social rights, the treatment of care, the treatment of the family as a social institution, and the extent to which gender inequality is problematized—is developed and then applied. The empirical analysis reveals a strong move towards individualization as social policy promotes and valorizes individual agency and self-sufficiency and shifts some childcare from the family. Yet evidence is also found of continued (albeit changed) familism. Rather than an unequivocal move to an individualized worker model then, a dual earner, gender-specialized, family arrangement is being promoted. The latter is the middle way between the old dependencies and the new “independence.” This makes for complexity and even ambiguity in policy, a manifestation of which is that reform within countries involves concurrent moves in several directions.

  20. Characteristics Related to Female & Male Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Agnes M.

    2004-01-01

    The following research investigated gender and the leadership role and determined if there are differences in leadership styles, behaviors, traits, and characteristics between female leaders and male leaders. Literature suggests there are specific gender leadership differences between males and females in leadership styles, behaviors, traits, and…

  1. Male-specific alteration in excitatory post-synaptic development and social interaction in pre-natal valproic acid exposure model of autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Chan; Kim, Pitna; Go, Hyo Sang; Choi, Chang Soon; Park, Jin Hee; Kim, Hee Jin; Jeon, Se Jin; Dela Pena, Ike Campomayor; Han, Seol-Heui; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Shin, Chan Young

    2013-03-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a pervasive developmental disorder characterized by three main behavioral symptoms including social deficits, impaired communication, and stereotyped and repetitive behaviors. ASD prevalence shows gender bias to male. Prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA), a drug used in epilepsy and bipolar disorder, induces autistic symptoms in both human and rodents. As we reported previously, prenatally VPA-exposed animals at E12 showed impairment in social behavior without any overt reproductive toxicity. Social interactions were not significantly different between male and female rats in control condition. However, VPA-exposed male offspring showed significantly impaired social interaction while female offspring showed only marginal deficits in social interaction. Similar male inclination was observed in hyperactivity behavior induced by VPA. In addition to the ASD-like behavioral phenotype, prenatally VPA-exposed rat offspring shows crooked tail phenotype, which was not different between male and female groups. Both male and female rat showed reduced GABAergic neuronal marker GAD and increased glutamatergic neuronal marker vGluT1 expression. Interestingly, despite of the similar increased expression of vGluT1, post-synaptic marker proteins such as PSD-95 and α-CAMKII expression was significantly elevated only in male offspring. Electron microscopy showed increased number of post-synapse in male but not in female at 4 weeks of age. These results might suggest that the altered glutamatergic neuronal differentiation leads to deranged post-synaptic maturation only in male offspring prenatally exposed to VPA. Consistent with the increased post-synaptic compartment, VPA-exposed male rats showed higher sensitivity to electric shock than VPA-exposed female rats. These results suggest that prenatally VPA-exposed rats show the male preponderance of ASD-like behaviors including defective social interaction similar to human autistic patients, which

  2. All-male discussion forums for expectant fathers: evaluation of a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedewald, Mark; Fletcher, Richard; Fairbairn, Hedy

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes an all-male discussion forum for expectant fathers led by a male facilitator. The 617 participants completed an evaluation form and were unanimous in their agreement about the benefits of the forum, in particular the opportunity to discuss issues of importance to them with others in a similar situation. The results should encourage those developing antenatal education programs to be more inclusive of expectant fathers and to acknowledge their feelings, unique role, and contribution.

  3. Coping strategies, satisfaction with life, and quality of life in Crohn's disease: A gender perspective using structural equation modeling analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarid, O; Slonim-Nevo, V; Pereg, A; Friger, M; Sergienko, R; Schwartz, D; Greenberg, D; Shahar, I; Chernin, E; Vardi, H; Eidelman, L; Segal, A; Ben-Yakov, G; Gaspar, N; Munteanu, D; Rozental, A; Mushkalo, A; Dizengof, V; Abu-Freha, N; Fich, A; Odes, S

    2017-01-01

    To identify coping strategies and socio-demographics impacting satisfaction with life and quality of life in Crohn's disease (CD). 402 patients completed the Patient Harvey-Bradshaw Index, Brief COPE Inventory, Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Short Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire (SIBDQ). We performed structural equation modeling (SEM) of mediators of quality of life and satisfaction with life. The cohort comprised: men 39.3%, women 60.1%; P-HBI 4.75 and 5.74 (p = 0.01). In inactive CD (P-HBI≤4), both genders had SWLS score 23.8; men had SIBDQ score 57.4, women 52.6 (p = 0.001); women reported more use of emotion-focused, problem-focused and dysfunctional coping than men. In active CD, SWLS and SIBDQ scores were reduced, without gender differences; men and women used coping strategies equally. A SEM model (all patients) had a very good fit (X2(6) = 6.68, p = 0.351, X2/df = 1.114, SRMR = 0.045, RMSEA = 0.023, CFI = 0.965). In direct paths, economic status impacted SWLS (β = 0.39) and SIBDQ (β = 0.12), number of children impacted SWLS (β = 0.10), emotion-focused coping impacted SWLS (β = 0.11), dysfunctional coping impacted SWLS (β = -0.25). In an indirect path, economic status impacted dysfunctional coping (β = -0.26), dysfunctional coping impacted SIBDQ (β = -0.36). A model split by gender and disease activity showed that in active CD economic status impacted SIBDQ in men (β = 0.43) more than women (β = 0.26); emotional coping impacted SWLS in women (β = 0.36) more than men (β = 0.14). Gender differences in coping and the impacts of economic status and emotion-focused coping vary with activity of CD. Psychological treatment in the clinic setting might improve satisfaction with life and quality of life in CD patients.

  4. Voluntary medical male circumcision: modeling the impact and cost of expanding male circumcision for HIV prevention in eastern and southern Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Njeuhmeli

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is strong evidence showing that voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC reduces HIV incidence in men. To inform the VMMC policies and goals of 13 priority countries in eastern and southern Africa, we estimate the impact and cost of scaling up adult VMMC using updated, country-specific data. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We use the Decision Makers' Program Planning Tool (DMPPT to model the impact and cost of scaling up adult VMMC in Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe, and Nyanza Province in Kenya. We use epidemiologic and demographic data from recent household surveys for each country. The cost of VMMC ranges from US$65.85 to US$95.15 per VMMC performed, based on a cost assessment of VMMC services aligned with the World Health Organization's considerations of models for optimizing volume and efficiencies. Results from the DMPPT models suggest that scaling up adult VMMC to reach 80% coverage in the 13 countries by 2015 would entail performing 20.34 million circumcisions between 2011 and 2015 and an additional 8.42 million between 2016 and 2025 (to maintain the 80% coverage. Such a scale-up would result in averting 3.36 million new HIV infections through 2025. In addition, while the model shows that this scale-up would cost a total of US$2 billion between 2011 and 2025, it would result in net savings (due to averted treatment and care costs amounting to US$16.51 billion. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that rapid scale-up of VMMC in eastern and southern Africa is warranted based on the likely impact on the region's HIV epidemics and net savings. Scaling up of safe VMMC in eastern and southern Africa will lead to a substantial reduction in HIV infections in the countries and lower health system costs through averted HIV care costs.

  5. Gendered Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milwertz, Cecilia Nathansen; Cai, Yiping

    2017-01-01

    Both the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and Nordic countries (Sweden, Iceland, Denmark, Norway and Finland) view gender equality as a social justice issue and are politically committed towards achieving gender equality nationally and internationally. Since China has taken a proactive position o...... on globalization and global governance, gender equality is possibly an area that China may wish to explore in collaboration with the Nordic countries....

  6. Gender Analysis of Risk in Innovation System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayinde, Ope; Muchie, Mammo; Abaniyan, E. O.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzed risk by gender in innovation in Kwara state, Nigeria, using downy mildew resistant maize production as case study. The study employed primary and secondary data. The primary data were collected from well-structured questionnaires administered to both male and female producing...... the new maize variety. The analytical tools used include descriptive statistics, regression model; risk utility functions and risk parameter analysis. The result showed that invasion by animals, disease and pest, lack of access to credit wind and price fluctuation were the major risk facing the maize...... producers in the area in the usage of the new innovation. The study also revealed that male producers were willing to take risk in the new maize variety production than the female, while the females were more indifferent to the risk involved in the new maize production variety than males. None...

  7. Associations of Sexual Victimization, Depression, and Sexual Assertiveness with Unprotected Sex: A Test of the Multifaceted Model of HIV Risk Across Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morokoff, Patricia J.; Redding, Colleen A.; Harlow, Lisa L.; Cho, Sookhyun; Rossi, Joseph S.; Meier, Kathryn S.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Koblin, Beryl; Brown-Peterside, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether the Multifaceted Model of HIV Risk (MMOHR) would predict unprotected sex based on predictors including gender, childhood sexual abuse (CSA), sexual victimization (SV), depression, and sexual assertiveness for condom use. A community-based sample of 473 heterosexually active men and women, aged 18–46 years completed survey measures of model variables. Gender predicted several variables significantly. A separate model for women demonstrated excellent fit, while the model for men demonstrated reasonable fit. Multiple sample model testing supported the use of MMOHR in both men and women, while simultaneously highlighting areas of gender difference. Prevention interventions should focus on sexual assertiveness, especially for CSA and SV survivors, as well as targeting depression, especially among men. PMID:25018617

  8. Attachment and personality predicts engagement in sexual harassment by male and female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mènard, Kim S; Shoss, Naomi E; Pincus, Aaron L

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine a trait model of personality (Five-Factor Model) as a mediator of the relationship between attachment styles and sexually harassing behavior in a sample of male (N = 148) and female (N = 278) college students. We found that gender (male) and low Agreeableness predicted engaging in sexual harassment and all three of its subtypes; gender harassment, unwanted sexual attention, and sexual coercion. Further, low Conscientiousness predicted overall sexual harassment, gender harassment, and unwanted sexual attention. Personality traits mediated the relationship between insecure attachment styles (Preoccupation with Relationships and Relationships as Secondary) and sexually harassing behaviors. Thus, factors beyond gender can help predict students' propensity to sexually harass others.

  9. Gender reassignment surgery for male primary transsexuals

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    treatment of primary transsexualism remains ... of surgical complications and improved results. With ... postoperative pain and discomfort they could expect, and the vital .... operation which initially seemed successful was due to .... intervention.

  10. Gender and Software Effects in Computer-Based Problem Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littleton, Karen; And Others

    Whether gender differences in performance using computer software are due to sex stereotyping or gender differentiation in the programs was investigated in two studies. An adventure game, "King and Crown," with all male characters, and a gender neutral game, "Honeybears," were played by 26 female and 26 male 11- and 12-year-olds in Milton Keynes…

  11. 由“男尊女卑”到“男女平等”:“十七年文学”中两性伦理观的嬗变%From “Male Superiority to Female ” to “Gender Equality”:The Transformations of Gender Ethics in“Seventeen-Year Literature”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕海琛

    2016-01-01

    The transformations of gender ethics in Seventeen-Year Literature are as follows.The independent consciousness of women was awoken,from “not leaving their homes”to “going out of the boudoir”,indicating women’s transfer from family to society.The establishment of the new regime and the promulgation of the new marriage law provided the external guarantee for women in seeking love freely. As a result,the traditional arranged marriage came to an end.The traditional value of chastity was severely impacted by the regime change and its fall conformed to the principles of class struggle.The traditional family structure that “you follow who you have married”was replaced by the new relationship of mutual help,which gradually disappeared.Consequently,the idea of “gender equality”with “putting politics in command”broke the traditional idea of “male superiority to female”,and the gender characteristics tended to converge.%“十七年文学”中两性伦理观的转变主要有:在女性独立意识的觉醒方面,由“足不出户”到走出“闺房”,女性开始从家庭走向社会;新政权的建立、新《婚姻法》的颁布,为女性追求自由婚恋提供了外部保障,传统包办婚姻形式被打破;传统贞操观在新旧政权交替过程中受到严重冲击,但“牌坊”的倒掉也必须符合阶级斗争的原则;一种“互帮互助”的新型夫妻关系,开始取代“夫唱妇随”的旧秩序,传统家庭格局逐步瓦解。至此,政治挂帅下的“男女平等”颠覆了传统“男尊女卑”的伦理秩序,并呈现出两性性别特征趋同的倾向。

  12. Gender determination by odontometric method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litha; Girish, H C; Murgod, Sanjay; Savita, J K

    2017-01-01

    Gender determination is central in establishing personal identification from human skeletal remains. The study was conducted to find out the accuracy with which gender can be determined by odontometric methods. To investigate the mesiodistal (MD) and buccolingual (BL) dimensions of all the teeth of permanent dentition to find new parameters to differentiate between male and female teeth and to assess whether each type of linear measurement can be used independently in odontometric sex differentiation. The study was conducted at a dental college on a composite group of 500 individuals comprising 250 males and 250 females. Impressions of upper and lower jaws were made with alginate impression material and casts prepared with dental stone. A digital Vernier calliper was used to measure the BL and MD dimensions of all the upper teeth except the third molars. The results were subjected to statistical analysis using univariate analysis and linear stepwise discriminant function analysis to find the variables which discriminate gender significantly. The MD and BL dimensions between males and females were statistically significant. The predicted value for correct classification of gender was also statistically significant. The ability to differentiate gender in the population using stepwise discriminant functions was found to be very high with 99.8% accuracy with males showing statistically larger teeth than females. This is similar to the near 100% success in gender determination using pelvic and skull bones.

  13. Advantages of using the CRISPR/Cas9 system of genome editing to investigate male reproductive mechanisms using mouse models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha A. M. Young

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene disruption technology has long been beneficial for the study of male reproductive biology. However, because of the time and cost involved, this technology was not a viable method except in specialist laboratories. The advent of the CRISPR/Cas9 system of gene disruption has ushered in a new era of genetic investigation. Now, it is possible to generate gene-disrupted mouse models in very little time and at very little cost. This Highlight article discusses the application of this technology to study the genetics of male fertility and looks at some of the future uses of this system that could be used to reveal the essential and nonessential genetic components of male reproductive mechanisms.

  14. Gender in the allocation of organs in kidney transplants: meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Erika Vieira Almeida e; Silveira, Micheline Rosa; de Araújo, Vânia Eloisa; Farah, Katia de Paula; Acurcio, Francisco de Assis; Ceccato, Maria das Graças Braga

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze whether gender influence survival results of kidney transplant grafts and patients. METHODS Systematic review with meta-analysis of cohort studies available on Medline (PubMed), LILACS, CENTRAL, and Embase databases, including manual searching and in the grey literature. The selection of studies and the collection of data were conducted twice by independent reviewers, and disagreements were settled by a third reviewer. Graft and patient survival rates were evaluated as effectiveness measurements. Meta-analysis was conducted with the Review Manager® 5.2 software, through the application of a random effects model. Recipient, donor, and donor-recipient gender comparisons were evaluated. RESULTS : Twenty-nine studies involving 765,753 patients were included. Regarding graft survival, those from male donors were observed to have longer survival rates as compared to the ones from female donors, only regarding a 10-year follow-up period. Comparison between recipient genders was not found to have significant differences on any evaluated follow-up periods. In the evaluation between donor-recipient genders, male donor-male recipient transplants were favored in a statistically significant way. No statistically significant differences were observed in regards to patient survival for gender comparisons in all follow-up periods evaluated. CONCLUSIONS The quantitative analysis of the studies suggests that donor or recipient genders, when evaluated isolatedly, do not influence patient or graft survival rates. However, the combination between donor-recipient genders may be a determining factor for graft survival. PMID:26465666

  15. Effects of male sex hormones on gender identity,sexual behavior, and cognitive function%雄激素对男性性别、行为和认知的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱院山; 蔡力群

    2006-01-01

    Androgens, the male sex hormones, play an essential role in male sexual differentiation and development. However, the influence of these sex hormones extends beyond their roles in sexual differentiation and development. In many animal species, sex hormones have been shown to be essential for sexual differentiation of the brain during development and for maintaining sexually dimorphic behavior throughout life. The principals of sex determination in humans have been demonstrated to be similar to other mammals. However, the hormonal influence on sexual dimorphic differences in the nervous system in humans, sex differences in behaviors, and its correlations with those of other mammals is still an emerging field. In this review, the roles of androgens in gender and cognitive function are discussed with the emphasis on subjects with androgen action defects including complete androgen insensitivity due to androgen receptor mutations and 5α-reductase-2 deficiency syndromes due to 5α-reductase-2 gene mutations. The issue of the complex interaction of nature versus nurture is addressed.%雄激素即男性激素对男性性别的分化和发育起重要作用.但雄激素的作用远不止于此.动物实验表明,雄激素对大脑性别差异的发育,以及对维持两性行为和认知的差异都非常重要.现已了解,决定人性别的基本要素与其它哺乳动物相似.但是,性激素对两性神经系统、两性行为、认知差异的影响,以及其与哺乳动物的相互关系还不甚了解, 是一门吸引众多科学家研究的新兴领域.本综述通过对雄激素受体突变引起的雄激素不敏感综合症和5α-还原酶-2突变引起的5α-还原酶-2缺乏症的探讨,深入阐述了雄激素在男性性别、行为和认知中所起的作用;同时强调了先天与后天因素相互作用的重要性.

  16. Gendering of day center occupations as perceived by people with psychiatric disabilities in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widerberg, Stefan; Eklund, Mona

    2017-06-08

    The aim was to explore the experiences and views of people attending day centers for people with psychiatric disabilities concerning the occurrence and nature of gendering of the occupations performed there. Twenty-five day center attendees were interviewed regarding occupational choices at the day centers, whether they would describe day center occupations as gendered, and if so what the consequences were of the gendering of occupations. The transcribed texts were analyzed by thematic analysis. Three main themes were identified: Thinking and doing gender; Understandings of gendering of day center occupations; and Consequences of gendered occupation. The participants were more open-minded in their reasoning than in what they were doing. They understood gendering to be a result of traditions, role models from childhood, ideas about typically male and female innate capacities, lack of knowledge and low self-confidence. Doing seemed to reproduce gender, but being in a group of the same sex could shape unity and a relaxed atmosphere. The findings could be understood as a set of gender frames, which might prevent either of the sexes from developing their full potentials and transgress into e.g. the employment market. Gendering should be highlighted and debated in psychosocial rehabilitation.

  17. Eyeglasses and gender stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, R L

    1989-10-01

    Under the guise of forming impressions of a job applicant in a hiring interview, subjects rated a videotaped male or female stimulus person (SP) on several gender stereotypical and task relevant traits. In one condition, the SP's wore eyeglasses, and in the other condition they did not. Eyeglasses, especially when worn by the stimulus male, were associated with feminine stereotypes and positive task relevant attributes. The results were interpreted to suggest that men who wear eyeglasses may be the target of some negative social judgments but also redeeming task relevant attributes, whereas women who wear eyeglasses are more likely to be the target of only negative social judgments.

  18. [Gender in view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-01

    A manual recently published by Mexico¿s National System for Integral Development of the Family, ¿The gender perspective: a tool for constructing equity between men and women¿, is intended to put into practice the Cairo accords. The gender perspective has been applied in recent years to interpretation of the situation of women in past and present societies. Gender is not sex; it is the manner in which societies have symbolized and understood relations between men and women. The manual concludes that the main difference between the sexes beyond the obvious genital differences is in the greater musculature and strength of males. In contemporary societies, these attributes are less needed than technical knowledge and skills, which may be obtained by either sex. Economic evolution has led increasing numbers of women to work outside their homes. The gender roles assigned for millennia, and accepted as the natural order, are no longer adequate. The power of men has been preserved by attributing the gigantic cultural differences resulting from specialization into male and female roles to the small physical differences between the sexes. Governments have slowly established legal equity, but discrimination against women has not disappeared in the workplace, public offices, or any other social sphere, and their incorporation into the work force has left them with the double workday as they continue to perform the great bulk of domestic work. It is therefore necessary to seek equity as well as equality, understood as the creation of equivalent opportunities for men and women.

  19. Gender differences in the adverse events’ profile registered in seven observational studies of a wide gender-medicine (MetaGeM project: the MetaGeM safety analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colombo D

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Delia Colombo,1 Emanuela Zagni,1 Mihaela Nica,1 Sara Rizzoli,2 Alessandra Ori,2 Gilberto Bellia1 1Patient Access, Novartis Farma S.p.A., Origgio, Varese, 2MediNeos Observational Research, Modena, Italy Background: MetaGeM is a wide gender-medicine project comprising post hoc and meta-analyses by gender of clinical outcomes, therapeutic approaches, and safety data from previously conducted observational studies to explore possible gender differences in real-life clinical settings. We report the results of the safety meta-analysis of seven MetaGeM studies, evaluating gender differences in adverse event (AE incidence and severity. Methods: Data were collected between February 2002 and July 2013. Male and female patients were compared for the main safety variables, using Student’s t-test, χ² test, or Fisher’s exact test as appropriate. As supportive analysis, a logistic regression model was estimated to evaluate associations between gender and outcome. Results: In total, 4,870 patients (46% females, 54% males were included in the analysis; age was higher for females (mean ± standard deviation 61.2±18.3 years than males (56.3±16.6 years. Overall, 264 AEs were reported (59.1% in males. There were no significant gender differences in the percentage of patients with at least one AE: 3.0% for females versus 3.9% for males, χ² test P>0.05. According to the logistic regression model results, no association between gender and AEs occurrence seems to exist. A statistically significant gender difference in the percentage of drug-related AEs emerged (37.6% in females vs 20.8% in males, χ² P=0.0039. Slightly significantly more AEs in females were addressed with treatment compared with males (78.1% vs 66.7%, χ² P=0.0485. Total serious AEs (SAEs were 47 (72% in males. The frequency of patients with ≥1 SAE was 0.6% in females versus 1.2% in males (χ² test P=0.0246. Conclusion: This safety analysis on a large sample of almost 5,000 patients with

  20. Gender Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffman, Erving

    A heavily illustrated discussion of the ways in which men and women are portrayed in advertisements is presented. The three essays which precede the 56 pages of illustrations discuss gender expressions, characteristics of public and private pictures, and gender commercials. The author notes that advertisements do not depict how men and women…