WorldWideScience

Sample records for model main effects

  1. Wildfire Risk Main Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The model combines three modeled fire behavior parameters (rate of spread, flame length, crown fire potential) and one modeled ecological health measure (fire regime...

  2. [Stability analysis of allelopathic effects of Panax notoginseng on main crops by AMMI model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zi-long; Hou, Jun-ling; Wang, Wen-quan

    2015-01-01

    This paper is aimed to study the differences of allelopathic effects of Panax notoginseng under different allelopathic chemicals resources and selection of appropriate rotation crops. The additive main effects and multiplicative interaction ( AMMI) model had been used to evaluate the stability of allelopathic effects of P. notoginseng on the varieties of corn, wheat and rice properly. The model could use not only to evaluate the stability of non-regional trial data but also explore the interaction between the rotation crop genotypes and donor substances more efficiently. Meanwhile, correspondence analysis can be used in the AMMI to evaluate genotype stability and donor substances. Ejingza No. 1 (g6) had stronger allelopathic effects with high stability, but Yunrui No. 1 (g9) which was appropriate rotation crop genotype, had weaker allelopathic effects with high stability. These findings will aid in choosing appropriate rotation crops and establishing proper rotation system.

  3. [Analysis of genetic models and gene effects on main agronomy characters in rapeseed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J; Qiu, J; Tang, Z; Shen, L

    1992-01-01

    According to four different genetic models, the genetic patterns of 8 agronomy traits were analysed by using the data of 24 generations which included positive and negative cross of 81008 x Tower, both of the varieties are of good quality. The results showed that none of 8 characters could fit in with additive-dominance models. Epistasis was found in all of these characters, and it has significant effect on generation means. Seed weight/plant and some other main yield characters are controlled by duplicate interaction genes. The interaction between triple genes or multiple genes needs to be utilized in yield heterosis.

  4. Choosing components in the additive main effect and multiplicative interaction (AMMI models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dias Carlos Tadeu dos Santos

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The additive main effect and multiplicative interaction (AMMI models allows analysts to detect interactions between rows and columns in a two-way table. However, there are many methods proposed in the literature to determine the number of multiplicative components to include in the AMMI model. These methods typically give different results for any particular data set, so the user needs some guidance as to which methods to use. In this paper we compare four commonly used methods using simulated data based on real experiments, and provide some general recommendations.

  5. Fragmentation Main Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The fragmentation model combines patch size and patch continuity with diversity of vegetation types per patch and rarity of vegetation types per patch. A patch was...

  6. NCACO-score: An effective main-chain dependent scoring function for structure modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Xiaoxi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Development of effective scoring functions is a critical component to the success of protein structure modeling. Previously, many efforts have been dedicated to the development of scoring functions. Despite these efforts, development of an effective scoring function that can achieve both good accuracy and fast speed still presents a grand challenge. Results Based on a coarse-grained representation of a protein structure by using only four main-chain atoms: N, Cα, C and O, we develop a knowledge-based scoring function, called NCACO-score, that integrates different structural information to rapidly model protein structure from sequence. In testing on the Decoys'R'Us sets, we found that NCACO-score can effectively recognize native conformers from their decoys. Furthermore, we demonstrate that NCACO-score can effectively guide fragment assembly for protein structure prediction, which has achieved a good performance in building the structure models for hard targets from CASP8 in terms of both accuracy and speed. Conclusions Although NCACO-score is developed based on a coarse-grained model, it is able to discriminate native conformers from decoy conformers with high accuracy. NCACO is a very effective scoring function for structure modeling.

  7. Some effects of quiet geomagnetic field changes upon values used for main field modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, W.H.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of three methods of data selection upon the assumed main field levels for geomagnetic observatory records used in main field modeling were investigated for a year of very low solar-terrestrial activity. The first method concerned the differences between the year's average of quiet day field values and the average of all values during the year. For H these differences were 2-3 gammas, for D they were -0.04 to -0.12???, for Z the differences were negligible. The second method of selection concerned the effects of the daytime internal Sq variations upon the daily mean values of field. The midnight field levels when the Sq currents were a minimum deviated from the daily mean levels by as much as 4-7 gammas in H and Z but were negligible for D. The third method of selection was designed to avoid the annual and semi-annual quiet level changes of field caused by the seasonal changes in the magnetosphere. Contributions from these changes were found to be as much as 4-7 gammas in quiet years and expected to be greater than 10 gammas in active years. Suggestions for improved methods of improved data selection in main field modeling are given. ?? 1987.

  8. Application of SWAT model for assessing effect on main functions of watershed ecosystem in Headwater, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Sudjarit

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT is a well prediction accuracy of agricultural watershed ecosystem depends on how well model input spatial parameters describe the characteristics of watershed. The aim of this study was to assess the effects on watershed ecosystem main functions in terms of water and sediment yield. It was calibrated and validated for streamflow in the watershed to evaluate alternative management scenarios and estimate their effects on watershed functions. The goodness of the calibration results was assessed by the coefficient of determination (R2. Results indicated that the average annual rainfall and streamflow estimations were quite satisfactory. On a daily scale R2 was about 0.69 and a monthly scale was 0.97 which can be considered as acceptable. However, using for the case study of an intensive agricultural watershed ecosystem, it was shown that model versions are able to appropriately reproduce the water balance, nutrients balance, carbon balance, and energy balance. Crop yield, total streamflow and total suspended sediment (TSS losses calibration were performed using field survey information and data during 2008-2012. This study showed that SWAT model was able to apply for simulating and assessing streamflow, sediment, and nutrients successfully and can be used to study the effects of land use practices on water balance, nutrient balance, carbon balance and energy balance in the small scale of sub-watershed ecosystem as well.

  9. Modelling the effect of coating on the stresses and microstructure evolution in chill casting of wind turbine main shafts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Mads Rostgaard; Thorborg, J.; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2017-01-01

    . Simulations of the casting process are performed with four different heat transfer coefficients (HTCs) between the casting and the chill, and the resulting transient stress fields are reported in the chill. The microstructural evolution in the casting in terms of the nodule count is also modelled...... the HTC from 2000 to 500 W m−2 K−1. These results indicate that the lifetime of the chill will not be significantly improved by adding a thicker layer of coating. The microstructure evolution is not very much affected by the HTC value with a maximum reduction in nodule count of 6.5%. Therefore......The purpose of the present work is to quantify the effect of the inside coating on chills for casting of large wind turbine main shafts with respect to the evolution of internal stresses. These are known to affect the lifetime of the chills, and this is a major cost for the foundries today...

  10. EVALUATION OF MARKETABLE LEAF YIELD OF FLUTED PUMPKIN IN DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS USING ADDITIVE MAIN EFFECTS AND MULTIPLICATIVE INTERACTION (AMMI MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayeun L. Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the yield stability and to analyse the Genotype by Environment Interaction (GEI of twenty five genotypes of fluted pumpkin genotypes. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications under four environments using Additive Main effects and Multiplicative Interaction (AMMI analysis. The mean squares of the analysis of variance revealed significant genotype, environment and GEI on marketable leaf yield per plant. AMMI analysis revealed that the major contributions to treatment sum of squares were environments (3.24%, GEI (46.90% and genotypes (49.70%, respectively, suggesting that the marketable leaf yield of the genotypes were under the major genotypic effects of GEI. The first two principal component axes (PCA 1 and 2 cumulatively contributed 93.50% of the total GEI and were significant (p ≤ 0.01. The biplot accounted for 85.82% of the total variation. The AMMI model identified genotypes Ftn44, Ftk20, and Fts34 as most stable, while Fta39 with highest yield (398.80g/plant had the largest negative interaction. The best genotype with respect to Abeokuta location was Ftw21 while Fta39 was the best for Akure area. Therefore, these genotypes can be recommended according to their specific adaptation areas. Abeokuta in the 2012 and 2013 had positive interaction values of 14.38 and 9.46 respectively whereas Akure in 2012 and 2013 recorded negative interaction values of -5.03 and -18.81 respectively. Akure 2013 was the most discriminating environment and had the highest mean yield thus it is considered as a very good environment for cultivation of fluted pumpkin for marketable leaf yield.

  11. Studying and Modeling the Effect of Graphite Powder Mixing Electrical Discharge Machining on the Main Process Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed N. Al-Khazraji

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerned with study the effect of a graphite micro powder mixed in the kerosene dielectric fluid during powder mixing electric discharge machining (PMEDM of high carbon high chromium AISI D2 steel. The type of electrode (copper and graphite, the pulse current and the pulse-on time and mixing powder in kerosene dielectric fluid are taken as the process main input parameters. The material removal rate MRR, the tool wear ratio TWR and the work piece surface roughness (SR are taken as output parameters to measure the process performance. The experiments are planned using response surface methodology (RSM design procedure. Empirical models are developed for MRR, TWR and SR, using the analysis of variance (ANOVA.The best results for the productivity of the process (MRR obtained when using the graphite electrodes, the pulse current (22 A, the pulse on duration (120 µs and using the graphite powder mixing in kerosene dielectric reaches (82.84mm³/min. The result gives an improvement in material removal rate of (274% with respect to the corresponding value obtained when copper electrodes with kerosene dielectric alone. The best results for the tool wear ratio (TWR of the process obtained when using the copper electrodes, the pulse current (8 A, the pulse on duration (120 µs and using the kerosene dielectric alone reaches (0.31 %. The use of graphite electrodes, the kerosene dielectric with 5g/l graphite powder mixing, the pulse current (8 A, the pulse on duration (40 µs give the best surface roughness of a value (2.77 µm.This result yields an improvement in SR by (141% with respect to the corresponding value obtained when using copper electrodes and the kerosene dielectric alone with the same other parameters and machining conditions.

  12. Effects of blast wave to main steam piping under high energy line break condition by TNT model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Hyun; Lee, Eung Seok; Chang, Yoon Suk [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The aim of this study is to examine effect of the blast wave according to pipe break position through FE (Finite Element) analyses. If HELB (High Energy Line Break) accident occurs in nuclear power plants, not only environmental effect such as release of radioactive material but also secondary structural defects should be considered. Sudden pipe rupture causes ejection of high temperature and pressure fluid, which acts as a blast wave around the break location. The blast wave caused by the HELB has a possibility to induce structural defects around the components such as safe-related injection pipes and other structures.

  13. Bar Harbor, Maine Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  14. Portland, Maine Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  15. Portland, Maine Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Portland, Maine Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model. MOST...

  16. Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS): Main Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) 7-day, 3-hourly forecast for the region surrounding the main Hawaiian islands at approximately 4-km resolution. While...

  17. Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS): Main Hawaiian Islands: Data Assimilating

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) 3-day, 3-hourly data assimilating hindcast for the region surrounding the main Hawaiian islands at approximately 4-km...

  18. Genotype Main Effect and Genotype x Environment (GGE Bi-Plot Model of Multi-Environmental Trial of Melon (Citrullus lanatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.O. Olaniyi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of yield data of eighteen accessions of "egusi" melon across four environments was determined. Genotype main effects and genotype x environment interaction (GGE biplot method has been described as a very efficient tool for the analyses of multi-environment yield trial of crop varieties, especially where there exists a genotype x environment interaction. Thus, eighteen accessions of “egusi” melon (Citrullus lanatus were evaluated in four environments in Southwest Nigeria. Strong genotype x environment interaction was confirmed. Among the accessions, DL99/75, DL 99/76 and DD98/506 performed best in Abeokuta 2 environment while L1, DD98/4, DD98/3, 131DA and L4 performed best in Abeokuta 1, Ilaro 1 and Ilaro 2. Accession DD98/550, DD98/7, DD98/533, DD98/511, DD95/549, L3, DL99/71, V2, L2 and L6 did not perform well in all the environments. GGE biplot also ranked the accessions in their order of greater value. Accession DL99/75 was ranked first followed by DD98/506 and the least performed accession was DD98/511.

  19. Integrated Main Propulsion System Performance Reconstruction Process/Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Eduardo; Elliott, Katie; Snell, Steven; Evans, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The Integrated Main Propulsion System (MPS) Performance Reconstruction process provides the MPS post-flight data files needed for postflight reporting to the project integration management and key customers to verify flight performance. This process/model was used as the baseline for the currently ongoing Space Launch System (SLS) work. The process utilizes several methodologies, including multiple software programs, to model integrated propulsion system performance through space shuttle ascent. It is used to evaluate integrated propulsion systems, including propellant tanks, feed systems, rocket engine, and pressurization systems performance throughout ascent based on flight pressure and temperature data. The latest revision incorporates new methods based on main engine power balance model updates to model higher mixture ratio operation at lower engine power levels.

  20. NOC model of the earth's main magnetic field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU; Wenyao(徐文耀)

    2003-01-01

    The method of natural orthogonal components (NOC) is used to analyze the earth's main magnetic field IGRF 1900-2000, and the NOC model of the field is established. The first step of the analysis is to calculate eigen modes of the field from the Gauss coefficients of IGRF 1900-2000. Then the magnetic field for each epoch is expanded in a series at the basic function set constructed by the eigen modes, and the intensity coefficients of the eigen modes are calculated. Test of the convergency and stability of the NOC model shows that the model has very short series and much rapid convergency in comparison with the conventional spherical harmonic models of IGRF. Comparison of the eigen modes obtained from different IGRF model groups indicates that the low-degree eigen modes are rather stable, while the high-degree modes show a relatively large variability. The physical meaning of the eigen modes in the NOC model is discussed, and an interesting relationship is found between the spatial structure of the main field and its secular variation.

  1. Main Idea Comprehension: Training Teachers and Effects on Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriedo, N.; Alonso-Tapia, J.

    1996-01-01

    Investigates the effectiveness of main idea identification training by teachers who had been successfully trained in such identification. Finds that the experimental group of students (in grades six, seven, and eight) performed better than the control group on main idea identification and knowledge of strategies related to that process. Discusses…

  2. A Multifactorial Model for the Etiology of Anxiety in Non-Clinical Adolescents: Main and Interactive Effects of Behavioral Inhibition, Attachment and Parental Rearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Brakel, Anna M. L.; Muris, Peter; Bogels, Susan M.; Thomassen, Charlotte

    2006-01-01

    There has been limited research examining the additive and interactive effects of multiple factors on the development of anxiety symptoms and anxiety disorders in youths. This study was an attempt to examine the reciprocal connections among temperament, attachment, and rearing style, and their unique and interactive relations to anxiety symptoms.…

  3. Modelling Dynamics of Main Economic Indicators of an Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherstennykov Yurii V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article develops an economic and mathematical model of dynamics of main economic indicators of an enterprise, reflected in six book-keeping accounts with consideration of logistics and interrelation with current market characteristics and needs of products consumers. It applies this model for a quantitative study of influence of an advertising campaign and seasonality upon quantitative indicators of economic activity of the enterprise. The enterprise operation programme includes internal financial and economic procedures, which ensure the production process, and also connection with suppliers and buyers (customers. When setting different initial conditions, it is possible to trace transitional processes and enterprise entering (under favourable conditions the stationary mode of operation or its laying-off (in case of insufficiency of circulating funds. The developed model contains many parameters, which allow not only study of dependence of enterprise operation on alteration of one of them but also optimisation of economic conditions of functioning.

  4. Rutin, a Flavonoid That Is a Main Component of Saussurea involucrata, Attenuates the Senescence Effect in D-Galactose Aging Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Chen Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Saussurea involucrata (Kar. et Kir., known as the snow lotus, grows in the Tian Shan and A’er Tai areas of China. It has recently been reported that the ethyl acetate extract of S. involucrata (SI-2 can inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in PC-3 human prostate cancer cells. This study investigated the protective effect of ethyl acetate extract of S. involucrata (SI-2 or rutin, a flavonoid extracted from ethyl acetate extract of S. involucrata (SI-2, on D-galactose- (D-gal- induced brain injury in mice. Administering SI-2 or rutin (30 mg/kg/d and 30 mg/kg/d for 6 weeks, concomitant with D-gal injection, significantly increased superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities and decreased the MDA level in plasma. Furthermore, the result showed that the percentages of cleaved caspase-3 and PARP in the D-gal-treated mice were much higher than those in the control. Pretreatment using SI-2 or rutin decreased the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 via downregulation of NF-kappaB, resulting in a decrease in lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, our results also showed that oral administration of rutin to these mice significantly improved behavioral performance in a step-through passive avoidance task and these results suggest that SI-2 or rutin exerts potent antiaging effects on D-gal in mice via antioxidative mechanisms.

  5. Stellar Winds on the Main-Sequence I: Wind Model

    CERN Document Server

    Johnstone, C P; Lüftinger, T; Toth, G; Brott, I

    2015-01-01

    Aims: We develop a method for estimating the properties of stellar winds for low-mass main-sequence stars between masses of 0.4 and 1.1 solar masses at a range of distances from the star. Methods: We use 1D thermal pressure driven hydrodynamic wind models run using the Versatile Advection Code. Using in situ measurements of the solar wind, we produce models for the slow and fast components of the solar wind. We consider two radically different methods for scaling the base temperature of the wind to other stars: in Model A, we assume that wind temperatures are fundamentally linked to coronal temperatures, and in Model B, we assume that the sound speed at the base of the wind is a fixed fraction of the escape velocity. In Paper II of this series, we use observationally constrained rotational evolution models to derive wind mass loss rates. Results: Our model for the solar wind provides an excellent description of the real solar wind far from the solar surface, but is unrealistic within the solar corona. We run ...

  6. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON MAIN SOLVENCY ASSESSMENT MODELS FOR INSURANCE FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Nicoleta SAHLIAN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available During the recent financial crisis of insurance domain, there were imposed new aspects that have to be taken into account concerning the risks management and surveillance activity. The insurance societies could develop internal models in order to determine the minimum capital requirement imposed by the new regulations that are to be adopted on 1 January 2016. In this respect, the purpose of this research paper is to offer a real presentation and comparing with the main solvency regulation systems used worldwide, the accent being on their common characteristics and current tendencies. Thereby, we would like to offer a better understanding of the similarities and differences between the existent solvency regimes in order to develop the best regime of solvency for Romania within the Solvency II project. The study will show that there are clear differences between the existent Solvency I regime and the new approaches based on risk and will also point out the fact that even the key principles supporting the new solvency regimes are convergent, there are a lot of approaches for the application of these principles. In this context, the question we would try to find the answer is "how could the global solvency models be useful for the financial surveillance authority of Romania for the implementation of general model and for the development of internal solvency models according to the requirements of Solvency II" and "which would be the requirements for the implementation of this type of approach?". This thing makes the analysis of solvency models an interesting exercise.

  7. Modeled future peak streamflows in four coastal Maine rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgkins, Glenn A.; Dudley, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    To safely and economically design bridges and culverts, it is necessary to compute the magnitude of peak streamflows that have specified annual exceedance probabilities (AEPs). Annual precipitation and air temperature in the northeastern United States are, in general, projected to increase during the 21st century. It is therefore important for engineers and resource managers to understand how peak flows may change in the future. This report, prepared in cooperation with the Maine Department of Transportation (MaineDOT), presents modeled changes in peak flows at four basins in coastal Maine on the basis of projected changes in air temperature and precipitation. To estimate future peak streamflows at the four basins in this study, historical values for climate (temperature and precipitation) in the basins were adjusted by different amounts and input to a hydrologic model of each study basin. To encompass the projected changes in climate in coastal Maine by the end of the 21st century, air temperatures were adjusted by four different amounts, from -3.6 degrees Fahrenheit (ºF) (-2 degrees Celsius (ºC)) to +10.8 ºF (+6 ºC) of observed temperatures. Precipitation was adjusted by three different percentage values from -15 percent to +30 percent of observed precipitation. The resulting 20 combinations of temperature and precipitation changes (includes the no-change scenarios) were input to Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) watershed models, and annual daily maximum peak flows were calculated for each combination. Modeled peak flows from the adjusted changes in temperature and precipitation were compared to unadjusted (historical) modeled peak flows. Annual daily maximum peak flows increase or decrease, depending on whether temperature or precipitation is adjusted; increases in air temperature (with no change in precipitation) lead to decreases in peak flows, whereas increases in precipitation (with no change in temperature) lead to increases in peak flows. As

  8. Review Study on Main Models of Market Integration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Feng

    2008-01-01

    With the endless strengthening of the economic globalization trend, the world market gradually steps into a new turn of the market integration period. Market integration in China is always the key study field of academic communities, but it is developed late, whatever content system or methodology shall be greatly improved as expected. This paper aims at summarizing and reviewing the study on the content system and main demonstrations of market integration in order to provide theoretical guide and methodological basis for related studies.

  9. Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) for the main 8 Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Digital elevation model (DEM) data are arrays of regularly spaced elevation values referenced horizontally either to a Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM)...

  10. Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) for the main 8 Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Digital elevation model (DEM) data are arrays of regularly spaced elevation values referenced horizontally either to a Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) projection...

  11. Mathematical modeling of wiped-film evaporators. [MAIN codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommerfeld, J.T.

    1976-05-01

    A mathematical model and associated computer program were developed to simulate the steady-state operation of wiped-film evaporators for the concentration of typical waste solutions produced at the Savannah River Plant. In this model, which treats either a horizontal or a vertical wiped-film evaporator as a plug-flow device with no backmixing, three fundamental phenomena are described: sensible heating of the waste solution, vaporization of water, and crystallization of solids from solution. Physical property data were coded into the computer program, which performs the calculations of this model. Physical properties of typical waste solutions and of the heating steam, generally as analytical functions of temperature, were obtained from published data or derived by regression analysis of tabulated or graphical data. Preliminary results from tests of the Savannah River Laboratory semiworks wiped-film evaporators were used to select a correlation for the inside film heat transfer coefficient. This model should be a useful aid in the specification, operation, and control of the full-scale wiped-film evaporators proposed for application under plant conditions. In particular, it should be of value in the development and analysis of feed-forward control schemes for the plant units. Also, this model can be readily adapted, with only minor changes, to simulate the operation of wiped-film evaporators for other conceivable applications, such as the concentration of acid wastes.

  12. A Model Community Skin Cancer Prevention Project in Maine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine A. Hayden

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our program was to create and test a community skin cancer prevention project for replication throughout the state of Maine. The project was a collaborative effort of the Maine Cancer Consortium, American Cancer Society (ACS, and the City of Portland, Health and Human Services Department, Public Health Division. Portland, Me, served as the pilot site. The National Cancer Institute (NCI defines skin cancer as a disease in which abnormal cells divide uncontrollably in the outer layers of the skin (1. The American Cancer Society's Facts and Figures 2001 (the latest year for which these figures are available estimated that more than 1 million cases of highly curable basal cell or squamous cell cancers would be diagnosed in the United States that year (2. An estimated 9800 U.S. deaths from cancer were projected as well: 7800 from melanoma, the most serious form of skin cancer, and 2000 from other skin cancers. Melanoma was expected to be diagnosed in about 51,400 Americans in 2001. The incidence rate of melanoma has increased about 3% per year on average since 1981. In 2002, NCI announced that researchers showed for the first time that individual risk of melanoma is associated with the intensity of sunlight that a person receives over a lifetime (3. Target audiences for our program were newborns and their parents, children between 5 and 14 years old and their caregivers, and all people living in the Portland area. Protecting skin from excess sun exposure during childhood and adolescence is important in reducing the risk of all types of skin cancer during adulthood. From our anecdotal evidence, many parents of newborns are unaware that sunscreen is not recommended for babies under 6 months of age, and they need better information about how to protect their newborns from the sun. Teaching children and their caregivers to follow ACS guidelines will help protect their skin for years to come. It will also help children to develop healthy

  13. Stellar Models of Multiple Populations in Globular Clusters. I. The Main Sequence of NGC 6752

    CERN Document Server

    Dotter, Aaron; Conroy, Charlie; Milone, A P; Marino, A F; Yong, David

    2014-01-01

    We present stellar atmosphere and evolution models of main sequence stars in two stellar populations of the Galactic globular cluster NGC 6752. These populations represent the two extremes of light-element abundance variations in the cluster. NGC 6752 is a benchmark cluster in the study of multiple stellar populations because of the rich array of spectroscopic abundances and panchromatic Hubble Space Telescope photometry. The spectroscopic abundances are used to compute stellar atmosphere and evolution models. The synthetic spectra for the two populations show significant differences in the ultraviolet and, for the coolest temperatures, in the near-infrared. The stellar evolution models exhibit insignificant differences in the H-R diagram except on the lower main sequence. The appearance of multiple sequences in the colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) of NGC 6752 is almost exclusively due to spectral effects caused by the abundance variations. The models reproduce the observed splitting and/or broadening of sequ...

  14. 2D edge plasma modeling extended up to the main chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dekeyser, W., E-mail: wouter.dekeyser@mech.kuleuven.be [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 300A, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Baelmans, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 300A, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Reiter, D.; Boerner, P.; Kotov, V. [Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, EURATOM-Association, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2011-08-01

    Far SOL plasma flow, and hence main chamber recycling and plasma surface interaction, are today still only very poorly described by current 2D fluid edge codes, such as B2, UEDGE or EDGE2D, due to a common technical limitation. We have extended the B2 plasma fluid solver in the current ITER version of B2-EIRENE (SOLPS4.3) to allow plasma solutions to be obtained up to the 'real vessel wall', at least on the basis of ad hoc far SOL transport models. We apply here the kinetic Monte Carlo Code EIRENE on such plasma solutions to study effects of this model refinement on main chamber fluxes and sputtering, for an ITER configuration. We show that main chamber sputtering may be significantly modified both due to thermalization of CX neutrals in the far SOL and poloidally highly asymmetric plasma wall contact, as compared to hitherto applied teleportation of particle fluxes across this domain.

  15. Reduction of Marine Magnetic Data for Modeling the Main Field of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, R. T.; Ridgway, J. R.; Davis, W. M.

    1992-01-01

    The marine data set archived at the National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) consists of shipborne surveys conducted by various institutes worldwide. This data set spans four decades (1953, 1958, 1960-1987), and contains almost 13 million total intensity observations. These are often less than 1 km apart. These typically measure seafloor spreading anomalies with amplitudes of several hundred nanotesla (nT) which, since they originate in the crust, interfere with main field modeling. The source for these short wavelength features are confined within the magnetic crust (i.e., sources above the Curie isotherm). The main field, on the other hand, is of much longer wavelengths and originates within the earth's core. It is desirable to extract the long wavelength information from the marine data set for use in modeling the main field. This can be accomplished by averaging the data along the track. In addition, those data which are measured during periods of magnetic disturbance can be identified and eliminated. Thus, it should be possible to create a data set which has worldwide data distribution, spans several decades, is not contaminated with short wavelengths of the crustal field or with magnetic storm noise, and which is limited enough in size to be manageable for the main field modeling. The along track filtering described above has proved to be an effective means of condensing large numbers of shipborne magnetic data into a manageable and meaningful data set for main field modeling. Its simplicity and ability to adequately handle varying spatial and sampling constraints has outweighed consideration of more sophisticated approaches. This filtering technique also provides the benefits of smoothing out short wavelength crustal anomalies, discarding data recorded during magnetically noisy periods, and assigning reasonable error estimates to be used in the least square modeling. A useful data set now exists which spans 1953-1987.

  16. Amplitude model for beam oscillations in the main Linac of CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Pfingstner, Jürgen; Schmickler, Hermann; Hofbaur, Michael

    2010-01-01

    To achieve the challenging goal of ultra-low emittance preservation in the main linac of CLIC, different techniques are used. The according algorithms often rely on an accurate, fast and efficient to compute model of the amplitude behavior of the beam oscillations in the beam line. In this paper such a model is developed, considering the accelerator design as well as the effect of filamentation. Filamentation is especially important, due to the high energy spread of the according beam and the large total phase advance of the lattice. Therefore a general model to describe filamentation is adapted to the properties of the beam in the main linac of CLIC. At the beginning of the linac, where made assumptions are not valid, this basic model is supported by a fit to simulation data. An accuracy evaluation of the produced data shows that the quadratic error is around 4 %. Therefore, the developed model delivers a fast and efficient procedure, to precisely predict the beam envelope behavior in the main linac of CLIC.

  17. Main control computer security model of closed network systems protection against cyber attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymen, Bilal

    2014-06-01

    The model that brings the data input/output under control in closed network systems, that maintains the system securely, and that controls the flow of information through the Main Control Computer which also brings the network traffic under control against cyber-attacks. The network, which can be controlled single-handedly thanks to the system designed to enable the network users to make data entry into the system or to extract data from the system securely, intends to minimize the security gaps. Moreover, data input/output record can be kept by means of the user account assigned for each user, and it is also possible to carry out retroactive tracking, if requested. Because the measures that need to be taken for each computer on the network regarding cyber security, do require high cost; it has been intended to provide a cost-effective working environment with this model, only if the Main Control Computer has the updated hardware.

  18. An algal model for predicting attainment of tiered biological criteria of Maine's streams and rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, Thomas J.; Loftin, Cyndy; Tsomides, Leonidas; DiFranco, Jeanne L.; Connors, Beth; Courtemanch, David L.; Drummond, Francis; Davies, Susan

    2012-01-01

    State water-quality professionals developing new biological assessment methods often have difficulty relating assessment results to narrative criteria in water-quality standards. An alternative to selecting index thresholds arbitrarily is to include the Biological Condition Gradient (BCG) in the development of the assessment method. The BCG describes tiers of biological community condition to help identify and communicate the position of a water body along a gradient of water quality ranging from natural to degraded. Although originally developed for fish and macroinvertebrate communities of streams and rivers, the BCG is easily adapted to other habitats and taxonomic groups. We developed a discriminant analysis model with stream algal data to predict attainment of tiered aquatic-life uses in Maine's water-quality standards. We modified the BCG framework for Maine stream algae, related the BCG tiers to Maine's tiered aquatic-life uses, and identified appropriate algal metrics for describing BCG tiers. Using a modified Delphi method, 5 aquatic biologists independently evaluated algal community metrics for 230 samples from streams and rivers across the state and assigned a BCG tier (1–6) and Maine water quality class (AA/A, B, C, nonattainment of any class) to each sample. We used minimally disturbed reference sites to approximate natural conditions (Tier 1). Biologist class assignments were unanimous for 53% of samples, and 42% of samples differed by 1 class. The biologists debated and developed consensus class assignments. A linear discriminant model built to replicate a priori class assignments correctly classified 95% of 150 samples in the model training set and 91% of 80 samples in the model validation set. Locally derived metrics based on BCG taxon tolerance groupings (e.g., sensitive, intermediate, tolerant) were more effective than were metrics developed in other regions. Adding the algal discriminant model to Maine's existing macroinvertebrate discriminant

  19. Retrospective analysis of main and interaction effects in genetic association studies of human complex traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Qihua; Christiansen, Lene; Brasch-Andersen, Charlotte;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The etiology of multifactorial human diseases involves complex interactions between numerous environmental factors and alleles of many genes. Efficient statistical tools are demanded in identifying the genetic and environmental variants that affect the risk of disease development....... This paper introduces a retrospective polytomous logistic regression model to measure both the main and interaction effects in genetic association studies of human discrete and continuous complex traits. In this model, combinations of genotypes at two interacting loci or of environmental exposure...... regression model can be used as a convenient tool for assessing both main and interaction effects in genetic association studies of human multifactorial diseases involving genetic and non-genetic factors as well as categorical or continuous traits....

  20. Cable Magnetization Effects in the LHC Main Dipole Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Bottura, L; Walckiers, L; Wolf, R

    1998-01-01

    Several short (1 m) and long (10 m) dipole models have been tested within the scope of the on-going R&D programme for LHC at CERN. We report here the results of measurements of field quality in these dipoles, focussing on the contribution of cable magnetization. We show that the results obtained over a significant (> 10) number of magnets at 1.8 and 4.2 K are in reasonable agreement with calculati ons of the dependence of allowed harmonics on field. The calculations are based on the Bean model of filament magnetization and assume an approximate Jc(B) dependence, calibrated against low field mea surements of strand magnetization. The field quality measurements at low field also correlate satisfactorily to measurements of cable critical current at high field and geometric filament diameter.

  1. Modelling IHE Main Charge Initiation Trains based on HMX and TATB based Booster Charges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Rodney; Maisey, Matthew

    2015-06-01

    There is always a requirement to reduce the size of initiation trains. However, as the size is reduced the performance characteristics may be compromised. To enable compact and robust initiation trains to be designed requires a detailed science-based understanding of the processes (for example, growth to detonation) which determine the performance characteristics. A numerical modelling study has been performed to understand the designs of initiation trains comprising flyer plate detonator, booster charge and an IHE main charge. The effect of the flyer plate diameter on the distance required to establish uniformly diverging detonation waves in HMX and TATB based booster charges has been studied. Numerical simulations have also examined the effect of the relative sizes of the booster and IHE main charge on the distance required for a stable detonation front to be established in the main charge for both HMX and TATB based booster charges. The implications of the numerical simulations are discussed in terms of the design of initiation trains for IHE main charge systems.

  2. Predictive modeling of spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) resting habitat in the main Hawaiian Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Lesley H; Johnston, David W; Urban, Dean L; Tyne, Julian; Bejder, Lars; Baird, Robin W; Yin, Suzanne; Rickards, Susan H; Deakos, Mark H; Mobley, Joseph R; Pack, Adam A; Chapla Hill, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Predictive habitat models can provide critical information that is necessary in many conservation applications. Using Maximum Entropy modeling, we characterized habitat relationships and generated spatial predictions of spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) resting habitat in the main Hawaiian Islands. Spinner dolphins in Hawai'i exhibit predictable daily movements, using inshore bays as resting habitat during daylight hours and foraging in offshore waters at night. There are growing concerns regarding the effects of human activities on spinner dolphins resting in coastal areas. However, the environmental factors that define suitable resting habitat remain unclear and must be assessed and quantified in order to properly address interactions between humans and spinner dolphins. We used a series of dolphin sightings from recent surveys in the main Hawaiian Islands and a suite of environmental variables hypothesized as being important to resting habitat to model spinner dolphin resting habitat. The model performed well in predicting resting habitat and indicated that proximity to deep water foraging areas, depth, the proportion of bays with shallow depths, and rugosity were important predictors of spinner dolphin habitat. Predicted locations of suitable spinner dolphin resting habitat provided in this study indicate areas where future survey efforts should be focused and highlight potential areas of conflict with human activities. This study provides an example of a presence-only habitat model used to inform the management of a species for which patterns of habitat availability are poorly understood.

  3. Predictive modeling of spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris resting habitat in the main Hawaiian Islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley H Thorne

    Full Text Available Predictive habitat models can provide critical information that is necessary in many conservation applications. Using Maximum Entropy modeling, we characterized habitat relationships and generated spatial predictions of spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris resting habitat in the main Hawaiian Islands. Spinner dolphins in Hawai'i exhibit predictable daily movements, using inshore bays as resting habitat during daylight hours and foraging in offshore waters at night. There are growing concerns regarding the effects of human activities on spinner dolphins resting in coastal areas. However, the environmental factors that define suitable resting habitat remain unclear and must be assessed and quantified in order to properly address interactions between humans and spinner dolphins. We used a series of dolphin sightings from recent surveys in the main Hawaiian Islands and a suite of environmental variables hypothesized as being important to resting habitat to model spinner dolphin resting habitat. The model performed well in predicting resting habitat and indicated that proximity to deep water foraging areas, depth, the proportion of bays with shallow depths, and rugosity were important predictors of spinner dolphin habitat. Predicted locations of suitable spinner dolphin resting habitat provided in this study indicate areas where future survey efforts should be focused and highlight potential areas of conflict with human activities. This study provides an example of a presence-only habitat model used to inform the management of a species for which patterns of habitat availability are poorly understood.

  4. Transient beam-loading model and compensation in Compact Linear Collider main linac

    CERN Document Server

    Kononenko, O

    2011-01-01

    A new model to compensate for the transient beam loading in the CLIC main linac is developed. It takes into account the CLIC specific power generation scheme and the exact 3D geometry of the accelerating structure including couplers. A new method of calculating unloaded and loaded voltages during the transient is proposed and a dedicated optimization scheme of the rf pulse to compensate the transient beam-loading effect is presented. It is demonstrated that the 0.03% limit on the rms relative bunch-to-bunch energy spread in the main beam after acceleration can be reached. The optimization technique has been used to increase the rf to beam efficiency while preserving the CLIC requirements and to compensate for the energy spread caused by the Balakin-Novokhatski-Smirnov damping and transient process in the subharmonic buncher. Effects of charge jitters in the drive and main beams are studied. It is shown that within the 0.1% CLIC specification limit on the rms spread in beams charge the energy spread is not sig...

  5. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Maine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Maine. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Maine.

  6. Main ideas to consider in the elaboration of a new theoretical model of the clinical method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Corona Martínez

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article are exposed the main ideas that has been used for the elaboration of a new theoretical model of the clinical process, with the aim of being used as a teaching content in the Medicine career. Such ideas are: the necessity of a total correspondence between the process method and its objective, the conception of the medical attention process as a decision-taking process, the necessity of highlighting the human dimension of the medical practice, and the convenience of counting with a synthetic representation of the clinical method that facilitates its learning and comprehension. These elements will make possible that the clinical method model facilitates the learning and posterior performance of a more effective and efficient medical attention process, with the following betterment of the medical services’ quality and of the patients’ satisfaction.

  7. A Study on Logistics Cluster Competitiveness among Asia Main Countries using the Porter's Diamond Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Won Chung

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Measurement and discussions of logistics cluster competitiveness with a national approach are required to boost agglomeration effects and potentially create logistics efficiency and productivity. This study developed assessment criteria of logistics cluster competitiveness based on Porter's diamond model, calculated the weight of each criterion by the AHP method, and finally evaluated and discussed logistics cluster competitiveness among Asia main countries. The results indicate that there was a large difference in logistics cluster competitiveness among six countries. The logistics cluster competitiveness scores of Singapore (7.93, Japan (7.38, and Hong Kong (7.04 are observably different from those of China (5.40, Korea (5.08, and Malaysia (3.46. Singapore, with the highest competitiveness score, revealed its absolute advantage in logistics cluster indices. These research results intend to provide logistics policy makers with some strategic recommendations, and may serve as a baseline for further logistics cluster studies using Porter's diamond model.

  8. Modeling of the Voltage Waves in the LHC Main Dipole Circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Ravaioli, E; Formenti, F; Steckert, J; Thiesen, H; Verweij, A

    2012-01-01

    When a fast power abort is triggered in the LHC main dipole chain, voltage transients are generated at the output of the power converter and across the energy-extraction switches. The voltage waves propagate through the chain of 154 superconducting dipoles and can have undesired effects leading to spurious triggering of the quench protection system and firing of the quench heaters. The phase velocity of the waves travelling along the chain changes due to the inhomogeneous AC behavior of the dipoles. Furthermore, complex phenomena of reflection and superposition are present in the circuit. For these reasons analytical calculations are not sufficient for properly analyzing the circuit behavior after a fast power abort. The transients following the switch-off of the power converter and the opening of the switches are analyzed by means of a complete electrical model, developed with the Cadence© suite (PSpice© based). The model comprises all the electrical components of the circuit, additional components simula...

  9. A study of a main-road cellular automata traffic flow model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄乒花; 孔令江; 刘慕仁

    2002-01-01

    A main-road cellular automata traffic flow model on two dimensions is presented based on the Biham-Middleton-Levine traffic model. Its evolution equations are given and the self-organization and organization cooperation phenomenain this model are also studied by using computer simulation.

  10. Precise Modeling of the Exoplanet Host Star and CoRoT Main Target HD 52265

    CERN Document Server

    Escobar, M E; Ballot, J; Charpinet, S; Dolez, N; Hui-Bon-Hoa, A; Vauclair, G; Gizon, L; Mathur, S; Quirion, P O; Stahn, T

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed and precise study of the characteristics of the Exoplanet Host Star and CoRoT main target HD 52265, as derived from asteroseismic studies. The results are compared with previous estimates, with a comprehensive summary and discussion. The basic method is similar to that previously used by the Toulouse group for solar-type stars. Models are computed with various initial chemical compositions and the computed p-mode frequencies are compared with the observed ones. All models include atomic diffusion and the importance of radiative accelerations is discussed. Several tests are used, including the usual frequency combinations and the fits of the \\'echelle diagrams. The possible surface effects are introduced and discussed. Automatic codes are also used to find the best model for this star (SEEK, AMP) and their results are compared with that obtained with the detailed method. We find precise results for the mass, radius and age of this star, as well as its effective temperature and lu...

  11. Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Regional Atmospheric Model: Main Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale numerical weather prediction model 7-day hourly forecast for the region surrounding the Main Hawaiian Islands (MHI)...

  12. Modeling Methods for the Main Switch of High Pulsed-Power Facilities Based on Transmission Line Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yixiang; Zeng, Jiangtao; Sun, Fengju; Wei, Hao; Yin, Jiahui; Cong, Peitian; Qiu, Aici

    2014-09-01

    Based on the transmission line code (TLCODE), a circuit model is developed here for analyses of main switches in the high pulsed-power facilities. With the structure of the ZR main switch as an example, a circuit model topology of the switch is proposed, and in particular, calculation methods of the dynamic inductance and resistance of the switching arc are described. Moreover, a set of closed equations used for calculations of various node voltages are theoretically derived and numerically discretized. Based on these discrete equations and the Matlab program, a simulation procedure is established for analyses of the ZR main switch. Voltages and currents at different key points are obtained, and comparisons are made with those of a PSpice L-C model. The comparison results show that these two models are perfectly in accord with each other with discrepancy less than 0.1%, which verifies the effectiveness of the TLCODE model to a certain extent.

  13. Sizes of main-belt asteroids by combining shape models and Keck adaptive aptics observations

    CERN Document Server

    Hanuš, J; Ďurech, J

    2013-01-01

    We select 50 main-belt asteroids with a diameter between 20 and 400 km for which we have (i) shape models derived by the lightcurve inversion method (LI) and (ii) resolved observations of good quality collected with the Keck II adaptive optics (AO) system in the near-infrared. We derive the size of these asteroids by minimizing the difference between the contours from deconvolved AO images and the projected silhouettes calculated from the shape model at the time of the AO observations. We compute the volume-equivalent diameters for 48 of these asteroids. For 15 of them, we remove the ambiguity of the pole orientation typical for shape models derived by the LI. We have found that our equivalent diameters are smaller by 3%, 7%, and 2% compared with the effective diameters derived from mid-IR photometric observations provided by IRAS, WISE and AKARI. For 40 asteroids with previously determined mass estimates, we compute their bulk densities and discuss the mass-density dependence with respect to taxonomic types.

  14. Rotating Massive Main-Sequence Stars I: Grids of Evolutionary Models and Isochrones

    CERN Document Server

    Brott, Ines; Cantiello, Matteo; Langer, Norbert; de Koter, Alex; Evans, Chris J; Hunter, Ian; Trundle, Carrie; Vink, Jorick S

    2011-01-01

    We present a dense grid of evolutionary tracks and isochrones of rotating massive main-sequence stars. We provide three grids with different initial compositions tailored to compare with early OB stars in the Small and Large Magellanic Clouds and in the Galaxy. Each grid covers masses ranging from 5 to 60 Msun and initial rotation rates between 0 and about 600 km/s. To calibrate our models we used the results of the VLT-FLAMES Survey of Massive Stars. We determine the amount of convective overshooting by using the observed drop in rotation rates for stars with surface gravities log g < 3.2 to determine the width of the main sequence. We calibrate the efficiency of rotationally induced mixing using the nitrogen abundance determinations for B stars in the Large Magellanic cloud. We describe and provide evolutionary tracks and the evolution of the central and surface abundances. In particular, we discuss the occurrence of quasi-chemically homogeneous evolution, i.e. the severe effects of efficient mixing of t...

  15. Inhibitory effects of active fraction and its main components of Shaofu Zhuyu decoction on uterus contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shulan; Hua, Yongqing; Duan, Jin-Ao; Zhou, Wei; Shang, Erxin; Tang, Yuping

    2010-01-01

    Shaofu Zhuyu decoction is a famous formula for treating primary dysmenorrhea in China since the Qing dynasty. In this paper, the inhibitory effects of active-guided fraction and its main bioactive components of Shaofu Zhuyu decoction on a model of non-pregnant mice uterine contraction induced by oxytocin in vitro were investigated. Qualitative and quantitative chemical analyses were used to correlate the chemical composition of active fraction with the spasmolytic effects. Seven ingredients in the active fraction were identified and quantified by HPLC-DAD. Three ingredients, ferulic acid, vanillic acid, and typhaneoside, were evaluated for their effects on mice isolated uterine contraction induced by oxytocin in vitro. The ED(50) of them were 63.0 microg/ml, 57.6 microg/ml, 109.7 microg/ml, respectively. Furthermore, the inhibitory activity of the combination of these three compounds was prior to the fraction and seven compounds group. The ED(50) was 65.5 microg/ml. The data stated that ferulic acid, vanillic acid, and typhaneoside were possibly the main active components in the bioactive fraction of Shaofu Zhuyu decoction. The study also implied that Shaofu Zhuyu decoction may have direct inhibitory effects on the contractility of the mice uterus and justified the traditional use of the prescription for treating the uterine cramping associated dysmenorrhea.

  16. Modelling and Simulation of Three Level Inverters for Main Drive of the Plate Mill Rolling Stand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasiyarov Vadim R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses a modelling and a simulation of three level inverters for main drive of the plate mill rolling stand. The main purpose of the article is to develop of a mathematical description of the three level voltage source inverter based on a space vector pulse width modulation and to simulate a consumption current by the main electric drive based on 18-pulse rectification circuit. A twelve-megawatt synchronous motor as a load has been used. The modelling results were simulated at the Matlab/Simulink program. It can allow us to estimate an electromagnetic compatibility of the main electric drive based on transients of the consumption current. The research results can be used to assess the electromagnetic compatibility of powerful three level natural point clamped converters with different types of the space vector pulse width modulation on a load or a grid.

  17. A six-part collisional model of the main asteroid belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulková, H.; Brož, M.; Benavidez, P. G.

    2014-10-01

    In this work, we construct a new model for the collisional evolution of the main asteroid belt. Our goals are to test the scaling law of Benz and Asphaug (Benz, W., Asphaug, E. [1999]. Icarus, 142, 5-20) and ascertain if it can be used for the whole belt. We want to find initial size-frequency distributions (SFDs) for the considered six parts of the belt (inner, middle, “pristine”, outer, Cybele zone, high-inclination region) and to verify if the number of synthetic asteroid families created during the simulation matches the number of observed families as well. We used new observational data from the WISE satellite (Masiero et al., 2011) to construct the observed SFDs. We simulate mutual collisions of asteroids with a modified version of the Boulder code (Morbidelli, A., et al. [2009]. Icarus, 204, 558-573), where the results of hydrodynamic (SPH) simulations of Durda et al. (Durda, D.D., et al. [2007]. Icarus, 498-516) and Benavidez et al. (Benavidez, P.G., et al. [2012]. 219, 57-76) are included. Because material characteristics can significantly affect breakups, we created two models - for monolithic asteroids and for rubble-piles. To explain the observed SFDs in the size range D=1 to 10 km we have to also account for dynamical depletion due to the Yarkovsky effect. The assumption of (purely) rubble-pile asteroids leads to a significantly worse fit to the observed data, so that we can conclude that majority of main-belt asteroids are rather monolithic. Our work may also serve as a motivation for further SPH simulations of disruptions of smaller targets (with a parent body size of the order of 1 km).

  18. Feasibility of a SinglePayer Health Plan Model for the State of Maine

    OpenAIRE

    Deborah Chollet; Glen Mays; January Angeles; RolMcDevitt; Ryan Lore

    2002-01-01

    Reports on the estimates produced by an interactive policy microsimulation model developed to help study the feasibility of a single-payer plan that would cover all Maine citizens and guarantee savings of 5 percent relative to existing health care costs. Notes that such a system appears to be economically feasible for Maine. Although the system would increase total health care spending, the increase would decline over time as savings were realized through global budgeting, reduced administrat...

  19. Feasibility of a Single-Payer Health Plan Model for the State of Maine.

    OpenAIRE

    Deborah Chollet; Glen Mays; January Angeles; Roland McDevitt; Ryan Lore

    2002-01-01

    Reports on the estimates produced by an interactive policy microsimulation model developed to help study the feasibility of a single-payer plan that would cover all Maine citizens and guarantee savings of 5 percent relative to existing health care costs. Notes that such a system appears to be economically feasible for Maine. Although the system would increase total health care spending, the increase would decline over time as savings were realized through global budgeting, reduced administrat...

  20. The effect of starspots on the radii of low-mass pre-main sequence stars

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, R J

    2014-01-01

    A polytropic model is used to investigate the effects of dark photospheric spots on the evolution and radii of magnetically active, low-mass (M<0.5Msun), pre-main sequence (PMS) stars. Spots slow the contraction along Hayashi tracks and inflate the radii of PMS stars by a factor of (1-beta)^{-N} compared to unspotted stars of the same luminosity, where beta is the equivalent covering fraction of dark starspots and N \\simeq 0.45+/-0.05. This is a much stronger inflation than predicted by the models of Spruit & Weiss (1986) for main sequence stars with the same beta, where N \\sim 0.2 to 0.3. These models have been compared to radii determined for very magnetically active K- and M-dwarfs in the young Pleiades and NGC 2516 clusters, and the radii of tidally-locked, low-mass eclipsing binary components. The binary components and ZAMS K-dwarfs have radii inflated by \\sim 10 per cent compared to an empirical radius-luminosity relation that is defined by magnetically inactive field dwarfs with interferometrica...

  1. COMPETENCE-BASED APPROACH TO MODELLING STRUCTURES OF THE MAIN EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Gerasimova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available By the analysis results of scientific works in the field of competence-based approach in education authors proved need of computer support of the planning and development stage of the main educational program, they developed the main educational program structure automatic formation model on the graphs basis, offered the integrated criterion of an discipline assessment and developed a strategic map of a discipline complex assessment. The executed theoretical researches are a basis for creation of the main educational program planning and development support automated system.

  2. Effect of rotational disruption on the size-frequency distribution of the Main Belt asteroid population

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobson, Seth A; Rossi, Alessandro; Scheeres, Daniel J; Davis, Donald R

    2014-01-01

    The size distribution of small asteroids in the Main Belt is assumed to be determined by an equilibrium between the creation of new bodies out of the impact debris of larger asteroids and the destruction of small asteroids by collisions with smaller projectiles. However, for a diameter less than 6 km we find that YORP-induced rotational disruption significantly contributes to the erosion even exceeding the effects of collisional fragmentation. Including this additional grinding mechanism in a collision evolution model for the asteroid belt, we generate size-frequency distributions from either an accretional (Weidenschilling, 2011) or an "Asteroids were born big" (Morbidelli, 2009) initial size-frequency distribution that are consistent with observations reported in Gladman et al. (2009). Rotational disruption is a new mechanism that must be included in all future collisional evolution models of asteroids.

  3. Modelling Dynamics of Main Indicators of Economic Activity of Households of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuk Mykola O.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article is the study of the structure of the system of economic activity of households in Ukraine and dynamics of interconnections between the main indicators of its functioning. In order to study dynamics of main indicators of the system of economic activity of households, the article uses tools of econometric vector-autoregression modelling (VAR models. Based on the existing statistical data and a developed VAR model, the article studies individual and aggregate influence of lag values of indicators upon their current values, system reaction on main indicators impulses, analyses dynamics of change of explanation of dispersion of some indicators with others, and conducts two types of forecasts that reflect a general tendency of development of economic activity of households in Ukraine. High accuracy of forecasts obtained with the help of the proposed econometric model testifies to a possibility of its practical application for assessment of the state of main indicators of economic activity of households of Ukraine. The article applies for the first time the tools of VAR modelling for the study of economic activity of households in Ukraine, which expands possibilities of use of mathematical and statistical methods and models in this field of economy.

  4. A new 6-part collisional model of the Main Asteroid Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broz, Miroslav; Cibulkova, H.

    2013-10-01

    In this work, we constructed a new model for the collisional evolution of the Main Asteroid Belt. Our goals are to test the scaling law from the work of Benz & Asphaug (1999) and ascertain if it can be used for the whole belt. We want to find initial size-frequency distributions (SFDs) for the considered six parts of the belt, and to verify if the number of asteroid families created during the simulation matches the number of observed families as well. We used new observational data from the WISE satellite (Masiero et al., 2011) to construct the observed SFDs. We simulated mutual collisions of asteroids with a modified Boulder code (Morbidelli et al., 2009), in which the results of hydrodynamic (SPH) simulations from the work of Durda et al. (2007) are included. Because material characteristics can affect breakups, we created two models - for monolithic asteroids and for rubble-piles (Benavidez et al., 2012). To explain the observed SFDs in the size range D = 1 to 10 km we have to also account for dynamical depletion due to the Yarkovsky effect. Our work may also serve as a motivation for further SPH simulations of disruptions of smaller targets (parent body size of the order of 1 km). The work of MB was supported by grant GACR 13-013085 of the Czech Science Foundation and the Research Programme MSM0021620860 of the Czech Ministry of Education.

  5. The 1995 revision of the joint US/UK geomagnetic field models. II: Main field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, J.M.; Coleman, R.J.; Macmillan, S.; Barraclough, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the 1995 main-field revision of the World Magnetic Model (WMM-95). It is based on Project MAGNET high-level (??? 15,000 ft.) vector aeromagnetic survey data collected between 1988 and 1994 and on scalar total intensity data collected by the Polar Orbiting Geomagnetic Survey (POGS) satellite during the period 1991 through 1993. The spherical harmonic model produced from these data describes that portion of the Earth's magnetic field generated internal to the Earth's surface at the 1995.0 Epoch. When combined with the spherical harmonic model of the Earth's secular variation described in paper I, the Earth's main magnetic field is fully characterized between the years 1995 and 2000. Regional magnetic field models for the conterminous United States, Alaska and, Hawaii were generated as by-products of the global modeling process.

  6. Effect of the tank main gun on the radiation pattern of the monopole antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Lj. Đorđević

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available For telecommunication purposes, a monopole antenna is usually positioned on the tank turret. At low frequencies the whole tank has to be treated as a part of the antenna system. In this paper a method for electromagnetic modeling of metallic structures is presented and applied to the analysis of radiation of a tank monopole antenna. Radiation simulations are performed at the frequency range from 1MHz to 30MHz. A special attention is given to the analysis of the effects of increased elevation of the tank main gun to the radiation pattern of the antenna. The analysis of the radiation of the tank monopole is performed with and without the presence of conducting ground. It is shown that the increase in the main gun elevation at certain frequencies can lead to degradation of uniformity of radiation in the horizontal plane. Introduction Informational technologies and reliable and secure communications are an important part of a modern military doctrine. Regarding telecommunications, armored vehicles and tanks in particular present a specific problem. In this paper, a theoretical basis of the electromagnetic analysis of metallic structures and a modeling technique will be presented. The effect of the tank on the radiation pattern will be investigated both for a tank in free space and above the conducting ground. Method of moments The method of moments (MoM is a method for an approximate solution of integral equations. This section presents the fundamentals of the MoM and the higher-order quadrilaterals as the basic elements used for geometry modeling. The currents in our method are approximated using high-order two-dimensional polynomials. Modeling of the tank geometry The tank is modeled using only 28 elements, out of which 10 bilinear quadrilaterals and 18 second-order surfaces. The monopole antenna is modeled using one straight wire segment. Results The use of the polynomial current approximation yields a reduction in the number of unknowns required

  7. THE QUADRUPLE PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE SYSTEM LkCa 3: IMPLICATIONS FOR STELLAR EVOLUTION MODELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Guillermo; Latham, David W. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Ruiz-Rodriguez, Dary; Prato, L.; Wasserman, Lawrence H. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Badenas, Mariona [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Schaefer, G. H. [CHARA Array of Georgia State University, Mount Wilson Observatory, Mount Wilson, CA 91023 (United States); Mathieu, Robert D., E-mail: gtorres@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2013-08-10

    We report the discovery that the pre-main-sequence (PMS) object LkCa 3 in the Taurus-Auriga star-forming region is a hierarchical quadruple system of M stars. It was previously known to be a close ({approx}0.''5) visual pair, with one component being a moderately eccentric 12.94 day single-lined spectroscopic binary. A re-analysis of archival optical spectra complemented by new near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy shows both visual components to be double lined; the second one has a period of 4.06 days and a circular orbit. In addition to the orbital elements, we determine optical and NIR flux ratios, effective temperatures, and projected rotational velocities for all four stars. Using existing photometric monitoring observations of the system that had previously revealed the rotational period of the primary in the longer-period binary, we also detect the rotational signal of the primary in the 4.06 day binary, which is synchronized with the orbital motion. With only the assumption of coevality, a comparison of all of these constraints with current stellar evolution models from the Dartmouth series points to an age of 1.4 Myr and a distance of 133 pc, consistent with previous estimates for the region and suggesting that the system is on the near side of the Taurus complex. Similar comparisons of the properties of LkCa 3 and the well-known quadruple PMS system GG Tau with the widely used models from the Lyon series for a mixing length parameter of {alpha}{sub ML} = 1.0 strongly favor the Dartmouth models.

  8. Influence of main variables modifications on accident transient based on AP1000-like MELCOR model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malicki, M.; Pieńkowski, L.

    2016-09-01

    Analysis of Severe Accidents (SA) is one of the most important parts of nuclear safety researches. MELCOR is a validated system code for severe accident analysis and as such it was used to obtain presented results. Analysed AP1000 model is based on publicly available data only. Sensitivity analysis was done for the main variables of primary reactor coolant system to find their influence on accident transient. This kind of analysis helps to find weak points of reactor design and the model itself. Performed analysis is a base for creation of Small Modular Reactor (SMR) generic model which will be the next step of the investigation aiming to estimate safety level of different reactors. Results clearly help to establish a range of boundary conditions for main the variables in future SMR model.

  9. Fractional-order mathematical model of an irrigation main canal pool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shlomi N. Calderon-Valdez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a fractional order model for an irrigation main canal is proposed. It is based on the experiments developed in a laboratory prototype of a hydraulic canal and the application of a direct system identification methodology. The hydraulic processes that take place in this canal are equivalent to those that occur in real main irrigation canals and the results obtained here can therefore be easily extended to real canals. The accuracy of the proposed fractional order model is compared by deriving two other integer-order models of the canal of a complexity similar to that proposed here. The parameters of these three mathematical models have been identified by minimizing the Integral Square Error (ISE performance index existing between the models and the real-time experimental data obtained from the canal prototype. A comparison of the performances of these three models shows that the fractional-order model has the lowest error and therefore the higher accuracy. Experiments showed that our model outperformed the accuracy of the integer-order models by about 25%, which is a significant improvement as regards to capturing the canal dynamics.

  10. Stellar models for very low mass main sequence stars the role of model atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Brocato, E; Castellani, V

    1997-01-01

    We present Very Low Mass stellar models as computed including non-grey model atmospheres for selected assumptions about the star metallicities. The role of atmospheres is discussed and the models are compared with models based on the Eddington approximation and with similar models appeared in the recent literature. Theoretical predictions concerning both the HR diagram location and the mass-luminosity relation are presented and discussed in terms of expectations in selected photometric bands. Comparison with available observational data concerning both galactic globular clusters and dwarfs in the solar neighborhood reveals a satisfactory agreement together with the existence of some residual mismatches.

  11. The Effect of Pre-Main Sequence Stars on Star Cluster Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Wiersma, R; Zwart, S P

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the effects of the addition of pre-main sequence evolution to star cluster simulations. We allowed stars to follow pre-main sequence tracks that begin at the deuterium burning birthline and end at the zero age main sequence. We compared our simulations to ones in which the stars began their lives at the zero age main sequence, and also investigated the effects of particular choices for initial binary orbital parameters. We find that the inclusion of the pre-main sequence phase results in a slightly higher core concentration, lower binary fraction, and fewer hard binary systems. In general, the global properties of star clusters remain almost unchanged, but the properties of the binary star population in the cluster can be dramatically modified by the correct treatment of the pre-main sequence stage.

  12. Simulink Model of the Ares I Upper Stage Main Propulsion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchett, Bradley T.

    2008-01-01

    A numerical model of the Ares I upper stage main propulsion system is formulated based on first principles. Equation's are written as non-linear ordinary differential equations. The GASP fortran code is used to compute thermophysical properties of the working fluids. Complicated algebraic constraints are numerically solved. The model is implemented in Simulink and provides a rudimentary simulation of the time history of important pressures and temperatures during re-pressurization, boost and upper stage firing. The model is validated against an existing reliable code, and typical results are shown.

  13. Photometry and models of selected main belt asteroids: IX. Introducing interactive service for asteroid models (ISAM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marciniak, A.; Bartczak, P.; Santana-Ros, T.

    2012-01-01

    from other observing/modelling techniques, we created an on-line service where we allow the inversion models to be orientated interactively. Results. Our sample of objects is quite representative, containing both relatively fast and slow rotators with highly and lowly inclined spin axes. With this work...... occultations, or space probe imaging. Aims. During our ongoing work to increase the set of asteroids with known spin and shape parameters, there appeared a need for displaying the model plane-of-sky orientations for specific epochs to compare models from different techniques. It would also be instructive...... to be able to track how the complex lightcurves are produced by various asteroid shapes. Methods. Basing our analysis on an extensive photometric observational dataset, we obtained eight asteroid models with the convex lightcurve inversion method. To enable comparison of the photometric models with those...

  14. Accountancy Modeling on Intangible Fixed Assets in Terms of the Main Provisions of International Accounting Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riana Iren RADU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Intangible fixed assets are of great importance in terms of progress of economic units. In recent years new approaches have been developed, additions to old standards so that intangible assets have gained a reputation both in the economic environment and in academia. We intend to develop a practical study on the main accounting approaches of the accounting modeling of the intangibles that impact on a company's brand development research PRORESEARCH SRL.

  15. Experimental investigation of weir instability in main vessel cooling system of 1/4 FBR model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thirumalai, M., E-mail: mtl@igcar.gov.i [Fast Reactor Technology Group, Department of Atomic Energy, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu (India); Anandaraj, M.; Kumar, P. Anup [Fast Reactor Technology Group, Department of Atomic Energy, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu (India); Prakash, V., E-mail: prakash@igcar.gov.i [Fast Reactor Technology Group, Department of Atomic Energy, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu (India); Anandbabu, C.; Kalyanasundaram, P.; Vaidyanathan, G. [Fast Reactor Technology Group, Department of Atomic Energy, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2010-01-15

    The 500 MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) is under construction at Kalpakkam, India. The main vessel of this pool type reactor acts as the primary containment in the reactor assembly. In order to keep the main vessel temperature below creep range and to reduce high temperature embrittlement and also to ensure its healthiness for 40 years of reactor life, a small fraction of core flow (0.5 m{sup 3}/s) is sent through an annular space formed between the main vessel and a cylindrical baffle (primary thermal baffle) to cool the vessel. The sodium after cooling the main vessel overflows the primary baffle (weir shell) and falls into another concentric pool of sodium separated from the cold pool by the secondary thermal baffle and then returned to cold pool. The weir shell, where the overflow of liquid sodium takes place, is a thin shell prone to flow induced vibrations due to instability caused by sloshing and fluid-structure interaction. A similar vibration phenomenon was first observed during the commissioning of Super-Phenix reactor. In order to understand the phenomenon and provide necessary experimental back up to validate the analytical models, weir instability experiments were conducted in a 1:4 scale stainless steel (SS) model installed in a water loop. The experiments were conducted with flow rate and fall height as the varying parameters. The experimental results showed that the instability of the weir shell was caused due to fluid structure interaction. This paper discusses the details of the model, the modeling laws, similitude criteria adopted, analytical prediction, the experimental results and conclusion.

  16. Modelling the Earth's Main Magnetic Field by the spinning Astrid-2 satellite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merayo, Jose Maria Garcia; Jørgensen, Peter Siegbjørn; Risbo, T.

    1999-01-01

    and therefore the mapping of the Earth's magnetic field may be possible. The spinning of the spacecraft about a certain axis makes the stabilisation in space possible. This fact and the well distributed data over the globe makes the magnetic data well suited for the estimation of the magnetic field model...... at the spacecraft altitude (circa 1000km). Several methods for field modelling are presented in this paper with the assumption that the direction of the spin axis is nearly constant. In any case the orientation of the magnetometer is to bedetermined simultaneously with the instrument calibration and main field...

  17. A systematic review of the main factors that determine agility in sport using structural equation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojka, Vladimir; Stastny, Petr; Rehak, Tomas; Gołas, Artur; Mostowik, Aleksandra; Zawart, Marek; Musálek, Martin

    2016-09-01

    While tests of basic motor abilities such as speed, maximum strength or endurance are well recognized, testing of complex motor functions such as agility remains unresolved in current literature. Therefore, the aim of this review was to evaluate which main factor or factor structures quantitatively determine agility. In methodological detail, this review focused on research that explained or described the relationships between latent variables in a factorial model of agility using approaches such as principal component analysis, factor analysis and structural equation modeling. Four research studies met the defined inclusion criteria. No quantitative empirical research was found that tried to verify the quality of the whole suggested model of the main factors determining agility through the use of a structural equation modeling (SEM) approach or a confirmatory factor analysis. From the whole structure of agility, only change of direction speed (CODS) and some of its subtests were appropriately analyzed. The combination of common CODS tests is reliable and useful to estimate performance in sub-elite athletes; however, for elite athletes, CODS tests must be specific to the needs of a particular sport discipline. Sprinting and jumping tests are stronger factors for CODS than explosive strength and maximum strength tests. The authors suggest the need to verify the agility factorial model by a second generation data analysis technique such as SEM.

  18. Main Models and Enlightenments of County Governance in France and Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Yi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study concerns the main models and enlightenments of county governance in France and Germany. The strength of a county's economic competitiveness is a direct reflection of the level of the county government's capability of governance, and the county’s governance capability, governance level and governance model are important factors that determine the county's economic competitiveness. As a developing country, the overall economic level of China is much lower compared with developed countries, and the county economy, as the primary level, has an even larger gap compared with that of foreign countries, therefore, it is necessary to study and borrow from the governance models of developed counties abroad. Hence, studying and learning governance models from developed countries, such as France and Germany where the county governance is more mature, will help improve the governance capability and level of the county governments in China.

  19. Photometry and models of selected main belt asteroids. IX. Introducing interactive service for asteroid models (ISAM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marciniak, A.; Bartczak, P.; Santana-Ros, T.; Michalowski, T.; Antonini, P.; Behrend, R.; Bembrick, C.; Bernasconi, L.; Borczyk, W.; Colas, F.; Coloma, J.; Crippa, R.; Esseiva, N.; Fagas, M.; Fauvaud, M.; Fauvaud, S.; Ferreira, D. D. M.; Hein - Bertelsen, R.P.; Higgins, D.; Hirsch, R.; Kajava, J. J. E.; Kaminski, K.; Kryszczynska, A.; Kwiatkowski, T.; Manzini, F.; Michalowski, J.; Michalowski, M. J.; Paschke, A.; Polinska, M.; Poncy, R.; Roy, R.; Santacana, G.; Sobkowiak, K.; Stasik, M.; Starczewski, S.; Velichko, F.; Wucher, H.; Zafar, T.

    Context. The shapes and spin states of asteroids observed with photometric techniques can be reconstructed using the lightcurve inversion method. The resultant models can then be confirmed or exploited further by other techniques, such as adaptive optics, radar, thermal infrared, stellar

  20. High-resolution modeling assessment of tidal stream resource in Western Passage of Maine, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhaoqing; Wang, Taiping; Feng, Xi; Xue, Huijie; Kilcher, Levi

    2017-04-01

    Although significant efforts have been taken to assess the maximum potential of tidal stream energy at system-wide scale, accurate assessment of tidal stream energy resource at project design scale requires detailed hydrodynamic simulations using high-resolution three-dimensional (3-D) numerical models. Extended model validation against high quality measured data is essential to minimize the uncertainties of the resource assessment. Western Passage in the State of Maine in U.S. has been identified as one of the top ranking sites for tidal stream energy development in U.S. coastal waters, based on a number of criteria including tidal power density, market value and transmission distance. This study presents an on-going modeling effort for simulating the tidal hydrodynamics in Western Passage using the 3-D unstructured-grid Finite Volume Community Ocean Model (FVCOM). The model domain covers a large region including the entire the Bay of Fundy with grid resolution varies from 20 m in the Western Passage to approximately 1000 m along the open boundary near the mouth of Bay of Fundy. Preliminary model validation was conducted using existing NOAA measurements within the model domain. Spatial distributions of tidal power density were calculated and extractable tidal energy was estimated using a tidal turbine module embedded in FVCOM under different tidal farm scenarios. Additional field measurements to characterize resource and support model validation were discussed. This study provides an example of high resolution resource assessment based on the guidance recommended by the International Electrotechnical Commission Technical Specification.

  1. Effects of YORP-induced rotational fission on the small size end of the Main Belt asteroid size distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Alessandro; Jacobson, S.; Marzari, F.; Scheeres, D.; Davis, D. R.

    2013-10-01

    From the results of a comprehensive asteroid population evolution model, we conclude that the YORP-induced rotational fission hypothesis has strong repercussions for the small size end of the Main Belt asteroid size frequency distribution. These results are consistent with observed asteroid population statistics. The foundation of this model is the asteroid rotation model of Marzari et al. (2011), which incorporates both the YORP effect and collisional evolution. This work adds to that model the rotational fission hypothesis (i.e. when the rotation rate exceeds a critical value, erosion and binary formation occur). The YORP effect timescale for large asteroids with diameters D > ~6 km is longer than the collision timescale in the Main Belt, thus the frequency of large asteroids is determined by a collisional equilibrium (e.g. Bottke 2005), but for small asteroids with diameters D Morbidelli 2009).

  2. Modeling air quality in main cities of Peninsular Malaysia by using a generalized Pareto model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masseran, Nurulkamal; Razali, Ahmad Mahir; Ibrahim, Kamarulzaman; Latif, Mohd Talib

    2016-01-01

    The air pollution index (API) is an important figure used for measuring the quality of air in the environment. The API is determined based on the highest average value of individual indices for all the variables which include sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), and suspended particulate matter (PM10) at a particular hour. API values that exceed the limit of 100 units indicate an unhealthy status for the exposed environment. This study investigates the risk of occurrences of API values greater than 100 units for eight urban areas in Peninsular Malaysia for the period of January 2004 to December 2014. An extreme value model, known as the generalized Pareto distribution (GPD), has been fitted to the API values found. Based on the fitted model, return period for describing the occurrences of API exceeding 100 in the different cities has been computed as the indicator of risk. The results obtained indicated that most of the urban areas considered have a very small risk of occurrence of the unhealthy events, except for Kuala Lumpur, Malacca, and Klang. However, among these three cities, it is found that Klang has the highest risk. Based on all the results obtained, the air quality standard in urban areas of Peninsular Malaysia falls within healthy limits to human beings.

  3. Polarization modeling for the main optics of Chinese Giant Solar Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shu; Fu, Yu; Jin, Zhenyu

    2016-07-01

    Chinese Giant Solar Telescope, which has a 8m diameter segmented primary mirror, is a plan for the next generation ground-based large solar telescope in China. A major scientific requirement for this telescope is the high accuracy polarimetry. In this paper, the instrumental polarization of the main optics is analyzed by polarization modeling, which is caused by off-axial field of view, spider asymmetry, nonuniform segment gap and segment coating. The result shows that the net polarization is sensitive to the asymmetrical spider leg widening and the uniformity of the segment optical property. For meeting the accuracy requirement, the extinction ratio and retardence error for each segment should be less than 0.3% and 0.8 degree, respectively. Generally, the ring segmented primary mirror have advantage in controlling the instrumental polarization for large main optics.

  4. Protoscolecidal Effect of Berberis vulgaris Root Extract and Its Main Compound, Berberine in Cystic Echinococcosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Mahmoudvand

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cystic echinococcosis (CE, a zoonotic parasitic infection caused by the metacestode (larvae stage of dog tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus and recognized as a major economic and public health concern in the world. This study aimed to investigate the in vitro scolicidal effect of methanolic extract of Berberis vulgaris L. roots and its main compound, berberine against protoscoleces of hydatid cysts.For this purpose, protoscoleces were aseptically aspirated from sheep livers having hydatid cysts. Various concentrations of the methanolic extract (0.25-2 mg/ml and berberine (0.062- 0.5 mg/ml were used for 5 to 30 min. Viability of protoscoleces was confirmed by eosin exclusive test.In the present study, all of the various concentrations of the B. vulgaris methanolic extract (0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2 mg/ml and berberine (0.062, 0.125, 0.25 and 0.5 mg/ml revealed significant (P<0.05 scolicidal effects against protoscoleces of E. granulosus in a dose-dependent manner. Both berberine and methanolic extract exhibited 100% inhibition against protoscoleces of E. granulosus at the concentration of 2.0 and 0.5 mg/ml after 10 min incubation, respectively.According to the results, both B. vulgaris methanolic extract and berberine alone demonstrated high scolicidal activities against protoscoleces of hydatid cysts in low concentration and short exposure time on in vitro model. However, in vivo efficacy of B. vulgaris and berberine also requires to be evaluated using an animal model with hydatid infection.

  5. Ecological Niche Modeling of main reservoir hosts of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholamrezaei, Mostafa; Mohebali, Mehdi; Hanafi-Bojd, Ahmad Ali; Sedaghat, Mohammad Mehdi; Shirzadi, Mohammad Reza

    2016-08-01

    Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL), caused by Leishmania major, is a common zoonotic vector-borne disease in Iran. Close contact with infected reservoir hosts increases the probability of transmission of Leishmania parasite infections to susceptible humans. Four gerbil species (Rodentia: Gerbillidae) serve as the main reservoir hosts for ZCL in different endemic foci of Iran. These species include Rhombomys opimus, Meriones libycus, Meriones hurrianae and Tatera indica; while notable infection has been reported in Nesokia indica as well. The purpose of this study is to model the distribution of these reservoirs to identify the risk areas of ZCL. A data bank was developed including all published data during the period of 1970-2015. Maximum entropy model was used to find the most appropriate ecological niches for each species. The areas under curve obtained were 0.961, 0.927, 0.922, 0.997 and 0.899, instead of 1, for training test in R. opimus, M. libycus, T. indica, M. hurrianae and N. indica, respectively. The environmental variable with the highest gain when used in isolation was slope for R. opimus and N. indica, annual mean temperature for M. libycus, and seasonal precipitation for T. indica and M. hurrianae. Summation of presence probabilities for three main species, i.e., R. opimus, M. libycus and T. indica revealed favorable ecological niches in wide areas of 16 provinces. This is the first study to predict the distribution of ZCL reservoir hosts in Iran. Climatology and topography variables had high contributions toward the prediction of potential distribution of the main reservoir species; therefore, as climate changes, the models should be updated periodically with novel data, and the results should be used in disease-monitoring programs.

  6. Determining the Effects of EMIC Waves on Precipitating MeV Electrons during Strom Main Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Theoretic studies have suggested that electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves can cause significant precipitation of ~MeV electrons, supposedly accounting for the fast dropouts of outer-belt electrons during storm main phases. Usually the resonance between left-hand polarized EMIC with electrons with moderate energy is unlikely due to their opposite polarizations, while resonance with highly relativistic electrons do occur and cause electrons to precipitate into the atmosphere through pitch-angle scattering. Several previous studies on observations find a close relation between the two phenomena, e.g., Cliverd et al. [2007], Sandanger et al. [2007], and Miyoshi et al. [2008], while others find otherwise, e.g., Meredith et al. [2011]; recently, more observational evidence supporting the connection has been reported (e.g., Li et al. [2014] and Blum et al. [2015]). However, whether and under what favoring conditions EMIC waves cause rapid dropouts of relativistic electrons during storm main phases remain unresolved questions. Here, using latest wave and electron data from multiple missions including Van Allen Probes, BARREL, and NOAA POES, we systemically examine the relation between EMIC waves and MeV electron precipitation. We first construct two independent event lists for intensified EMIC waves and enhancements of MeV electron precipitation, respectively. Then we cross check the two lists to identify if any significant correlation exists in between, and further characterize the wave effectiveness in terms of L-shell, MLT, resonance energy, as well as the background plasma conditions. Results from this study will advance our knowledge about the loss mechanism of outer-belt electrons, thus laying down another stepping stone towards high-fidelity physics-based models for radiation belts.

  7. The Construction of Intensive and Organized Agricultural Industrialization Model with Farmers as the Main Body

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The current agricultural conflicts of China are analyzed and the forms and drawbacks of current agricultural industrial structure are listed.The situations for intensifying the farmland with appropriate scale are analyzed from the aspects of policy,farmers,farms and modernization of agriculture.It is pointed out that the situations for the intensive use of land are becoming mature.Taking the single pig-breeding chain as an example,the agricultural industrialization model,which takes farmers as the main body,is expounded.Besides,its functions and significance in solving "the three agriculture problems" and facilitating the modernization of agriculture are discussed.

  8. A study of the effects of disk flexibility on the rotordynamics of the space shuttle main engine turbo-pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, George T.

    1989-01-01

    Rotor dynamical analyses are typically performed using rigid disk models. Studies of rotor models in which the effects of disk flexibility were included indicate that is may be an important effect for many systems. This issue is addressed with respect to the Space Shuttle Main Engine high pressure turbo-pumps. Finite element analyses have been performed for a simplified free-free flexible disk rotor model and the modes and frequencies compared to those of a rigid disk model. The simple model was then extended to a more sophisticated HPTOP rotor model and similar results were observed. Equations were developed that are suitable for modifying the current rotordynamical analysis program to account for disk flexibility. Some conclusions are drawn from the results of this work as to the importance of disk flexibility on the HPTOP rotordynamics and some recommendations are given for follow-up research in this area.

  9. MODELING MAIN BODY OF OVERCROSSING BRIDGE BASED ON VEHICLE-BORNE LASER SCANNING DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Chen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle-borne laser scanning (VBLS is widely used to collect urban data for various mapping and modelling systems. This paper proposes a strategy of feature extraction and 3d model reconstruction for main body of overcrossing bridges based on VBLS point clouds. As the bridges usually have a large span, and the clouds data is often affected by obstacles, we have to use round-trip cloud data to avoid missing part. To begin with, pick out the cloud of the bridge body by an interactive clip-box, and group points by scan-line, then sort the points by scanning angle on each scan line. Since the position under the vehicle have a fixed scan-angle, a virtual path can be obtained. Secondly, extract horizontal line segments perpendicular to the virtual path along adjacent scan-lines, and then cluster line segments into long line-strings, which represent the top and bottom edge. Finally, regularize the line-strings and build 3d surface model of the bridge body. Experimental studies have demonstrated its efficiency and accuracy in case of building bridge model. Modelling the stairs at the both end of the bridge will be the direction of the next step.

  10. Modelling the Earth's Main Magnetic Field by the spinning Astrid-2 satellite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merayo, Jose Maria Garcia; Jørgensen, Peter Siegbjørn; Risbo, T.;

    1999-01-01

    and therefore the mapping of the Earth's magnetic field may be possible. The spinning of the spacecraft about a certain axis makes the stabilisation in space possible. This fact and the well distributed data over the globe makes the magnetic data well suited for the estimation of the magnetic field model......The Swedish micro-satellite Astrid-2 was successfully launched into a near polar orbit last December 98. Despite the fact that its primary mission was the research of Auroral phenomena, the magnetic instrumentation has been designed to accomplish high resolution vector field magnetic measurements...... at the spacecraft altitude (circa 1000km). Several methods for field modelling are presented in this paper with the assumption that the direction of the spin axis is nearly constant. In any case the orientation of the magnetometer is to bedetermined simultaneously with the instrument calibration and main field...

  11. GPS DATA INVERSION OF KINEMATIC MODEL OF MAIN FAULTS IN YUNNAN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShenChongyang; WuYun; WangQi; YouXinzhao; QiaoXuejun

    2003-01-01

    On the basis of GPS observations in Yunnan from 1999 to 2001, we adopt the robust Bayesian least square estimation and multi-fault dislocation model to analyze the quantitative kinematics models of the main faults in Yunnan. The geodetic inversion suggests that, (1) The horizontal movement of crust in Yunnan is affected distinctly by fault activity whose characters are consistent with geological results; (2) The activity of the north segment of the Red River fault zone is maximum, in the middle segment is moderate, and in the south segment is minimum; (3)Among others, the Xiaojiang fault zone has the strongest activity, the secondary are the Lancang fault zone and the north segment of Nujiang fault zone, the Qujiang fault zone shows the characteristic of hinge fault; (4)Each fault could produce an earthquake of Ms=6 more or less per year; (5) The larger value of maximum shear strain are mostly located along the main active fault zones and their intersections; earthquakes did not occur at the place of maximum shear strain, and mostly take place at the higher gradient zones, especially at its corner.

  12. GPS DATA INVERSION OF KINEMATIC MODEL OF MAIN FAULTS IN YUNNAN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Chongyang; Wu Yun; Wang Qi; You Xinzhao; Qiao Xuejun

    2003-01-01

    On the basis of GPS observations in Yunnan from 1999 to 2001, we adopt the robust Bayesian least square estimation and multi-fault dislocation model to analyze the quantitative kinematics models of the main faults in Yunnan. The geodetic inversion suggests that: (1) The horizontal movement of crust in Yunnan is affected distinctly by fault activity whose characters are consistent with geological results; (2) The activity of the north segment of the Red River fault zone is maximum, in the middle segment is moderate, and in the south segment is minimum; (3)Among others, the Xiaojiang fault zone has the strongest activity, the secondary are the Lancang fault zone and the north segment of Nujiang fault zone, the Qujiang fault zone shows the characteristic of hinge fault; (4)Each fault could produce an earthquake of Ms=6 more or less per year; (5) The larger value of maximum shear strain are mostly located along the main active fault zones and their intersections; earthquakes did not occur at the place of maximum shear strain, and mostly take place at the higher gradient zones, especially at its corner.

  13. Tramadol: Effects on sexual behavior in male rats are mainly caused by its 5-HT reuptake blocking effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Jocelien D A; Esquivel Franco, Diana C; Oosting, Ronald; Waldinger, Marcel; Sarnyai, Zoltan; Olivier, Berend

    2017-04-01

    Tramadol is a well-known and effective analgesic. Recently it was shown that tramadol is also effective in human premature ejaculation. The inhibitory effect of tramadol on the ejaculation latency is probably due to its mechanism of action as a μ-opioid receptor agonist and noradrenaline/serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitor. In order to test this speculation, we tested several doses of tramadol in a rat model of male sexual behavior and investigated two types of drugs interfering with the μ-opioid and the 5-HT system. First the μ-opioid receptor agonist properties of tramadol were tested with naloxone, a μ-opioid receptor antagonist. Second, the effects of WAY100,635, a 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, were tested on the behavioral effects of tramadol. Finally the effects of paroxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, combined with naloxone or WAY100,635 treatment, were compared to the effects of tramadol combined with these drugs. Results showed that naloxone, at a sexually inactive dose, could only partially antagonize the inhibitory effect of tramadol. Moreover, low and behaviorally inactive doses of WAY100,635, strongly decreased sexual behavior when combined with a behaviorally inactive dose of tramadol. Finally we showed that the effects of paroxetine on sexual behavior resembled the effects of tramadol, indicating that tramadol's inhibitory effects on sexual behavior are primarily and mainly caused by its SSRI properties and that its μ-opioid receptor agonistic activity only contributes marginally. These findings support the hypothesis that tramadol exerts inhibition of premature ejaculations in men by its 5-HT reuptake inhibiting properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Main Memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Boncz (Peter); L. Liu (Lei); M. Tamer Özsu

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractPrimary storage, presently known as main memory, is the largest memory directly accessible to the CPU in the prevalent Von Neumann model and stores both data and instructions (program code). The CPU continuously reads instructions stored there and executes them. It is also called Random

  15. Effects of Direct Instruction and Metacomprehension Training on Finding Main Ideas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Anne W.

    1986-01-01

    Twenty-four learning disabled children (grades 5-8) with adequate decoding skills, but who demonstrated problems in reading comprehension, received training in finding the main idea. Among several findings was that metacomprehension (self-monitoring) plus direct instruction was more effective than direct instruction alone. (Author/JW)

  16. Effect of Magnetic Field on Enzyme Activities in Main Soils of Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUXIAOYI; YIYANLI; 等

    1996-01-01

    Soil enzyme activities as affected by applied magnetic field were studied with three main soils (brown soil,black soil and albic soil) collected from Northeast China,Appropriate intensities of magnetic field could obviously enhance the activities of hydrogen peroxidases,invertases,amylases and phosphatases in the three soils,although the effect varied with types and water regimes of the soils.Increasing times of magnetic treatment could multiple its good effect on the activities of hydrogen peroxidases in soils.

  17. MAIN REGULARITIES OF FAULTING IN LITHOSPHERE AND THEIR APPLICATION (BASED ON PHYSICAL MODELLING RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Bornyakov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Results of long-term experimental studies and modelling of faulting are briefly reviewed, and research methods and the-state-of-art issues are described. The article presents the main results of faulting modelling with the use of non-transparent elasto-viscous plastic and optically active models. An area of active dynamic influence of fault (AADIF is the term introduced to characterise a fault as a 3D geological body. It is shown that AADIF's width (М is determined by thickness of the layer wherein a fault occurs (Н, its viscosity (η and strain rate (V. Multiple correlation equations are proposed to show relationships between AADIF's width (М, H, η and V for faults of various morphological and genetic types. The irregularity of AADIF in time and space is characterised in view of staged formation of the internal fault structure of such areas and geometric and dynamic parameters of AADIF which are changeable along the fault strike. The authors pioneered in application of the open system conception to find explanations of regularities of structure formation in AADIFs. It is shown that faulting is a synergistic process of continuous changes of structural levels of strain, which differ in manifestation of specific self-similar fractures of various scales. Such levels are changeable due to self-organization processes of fracture systems. Fracture dissipative structures (FDS is the term introduced to describe systems of fractures that are subject to self-organization. It is proposed to consider informational entropy and fractal dimensions in order to reveal FDS in AADIF. Studied are relationships between structure formation in AADIF and accompanying processes, such as acoustic emission and terrain development above zones wherein faulting takes place. Optically active elastic models were designed to simulate the stress-and-strain state of AADIF of main standard types of fault jointing zones and their analogues in nature, and modelling results are

  18. Internal lecture: The dawn of the Standard Model's revolution | 6 June | Main Auditorium

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    "The dawn of the Standard Model's revolution", by Luigi di Lella and Alvaro de Rujula.   Alvaro de Rujula. 15:30 - 16:20: Lecture by Alvaro de Rujula (followed by 20 minutes of questions) Abstract In the few years around November 1974, particle physics changed very significantly and at a frantic pace. Practitioners began to get accustomed to the successful predictions of the Standard Model, which did not have many believers at that time. I shall recall the main experimental and theoretical advances, concerning in particular quarks as partons, the asymptotic freedom of QCD, charmonia and the first openly charmed particles. Career Alvaro de Rújula was at Harvard University during the Standard Model revolution. Before and after, amongst many other places, he worked at CERN.   16:40 - 17:00: Coffee break   Luigi di Lella. 17:00 - 17:50: Lecture by Luigi di Lella: Experiments at CERN in the decade 1964-1974 (followed by 20 minut...

  19. Roll Forming of AHSS: Numerical Simulation and Investigation of Effects of Main Process Parameters on Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonitis, Konstantinos; Paralikas, John; Chryssolouris, George

    The roll forming process is one of the main processes of producing straight profiles in many industrial sectors. The introduction of Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS), such as the DP and TRIP-series, into the production of roll-formed profiles has emerged new challenges. The combination of a higher yield strength with a lower total elongation of AHSS, brings new challenges to the roll forming process. In the current study, the numerical simulation of a V-section profile has been implemented. The effect of the main process parameters, such as the roll forming line velocity, rolls inter-distance, roll gap and rolls diameter on quality characteristics is investigated.

  20. Functional identity is the main driver of diversity effects in young tree communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobner, Cornelia M; Paquette, Alain; Gravel, Dominique; Reich, Peter B; Williams, Laura J; Messier, Christian

    2016-06-01

    Two main effects are proposed to explain biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships: niche complementarity and selection effects. Both can be functionally defined using the functional diversity (FD) and functional identity (FI) of the community respectively. Herein, we present results from the first tree diversity experiment that separated the effect of selection from that of complementarity by varying community composition in high-density plots along a gradient of FD, independent of species richness and testing for the effects of FD and community weighted means of traits (a proxy for FI) on stem biomass increment (a proxy for productivity). After 4 years of growth, most mixtures did not differ in productivity from the averages of their respective monocultures, but some did overyield significantly. Those positive diversity effects resulted mostly from selection effects, primarily driven by fast-growing deciduous species and associated traits. Net diversity effect did not increase with time over 4 years.

  1. A New Model for the Genesis of Natural Gases--Multi-source Overlap, Multi-stage Continuity, Type Controlled by Main Source and Nomenclature by Main Stage (Ⅰ)--Multi-source Overlap and Type Controlled by Main Source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐永昌; 沈平

    1994-01-01

    Based on the geochemical studies of natural gases in the past ten years in China, the authors have proposed a new model for their genesis--multi-source overlap, multi-stage continuity, main source-controlling type and nomenclature by the main stage.Multi-source refers to a diversity of material sources involved in the formation of natural gases, including abiogenic and biogenic material sources. In regard to biogenic sources, either oil-generating or coal-generating organic matter would produce gaseous hydrocarbon reservoirs of commercial importance. Generally, natural gases originating from these sources can overlap to form gas reservoirs. Under specific circumstances mantle-source abiogenic gases could overlap biogenic gases to form gas reservoirs. In nature, natural gases predominated by gaseous hydrocarbons may be formed from a single end-member source. However, multi-source overlap is more typical of the genesis of natural gases.

  2. Gastroprotective effect of the Mapuche crude drug Araucaria araucana resin and its main constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Astudillo, Luis; Rodríguez, Jaime; Theoduloz, Cristina; Yáñez, Tania

    2005-10-03

    The resin from the tree Araucaria araucana (Araucariaceae) has been used since pre-columbian times by the Mapuche amerindians to treat ulcers. The gastroprotective effect of the resin was assessed in the ethanol-HCl-induced gastric ulcer in mice showing a dose-dependent gastroprotective activity at 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg per os. The main three diterpene constituents of the resin, namely imbricatolic acid, 15-hydroxyimbricatolal and 15-acetoxyimbricatolic acid were isolated and evaluated for gastroprotective effect at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg. A dose-related gastroprotective effect with highly significant activity (PMapuche culture.

  3. Main Effect QTL with Dominance Determines Heterosis for Dynamic Plant Height in Upland Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Lianguang; Ma, Lingling; Wang, Yumei; Su, Ying; Wang, Xiaocui; Li, Yuhua; Abduweli, Abdugheni; Cai, Shihu; Liu, Fang; Wang, Kunbo; Hua, Jinping

    2016-10-13

    Plant height, which shows dynamic development and heterosis, is a major trait affecting plant architecture and has an indirect influence on economic yield related to biological yield in cotton. In the present study, we carried out dynamic analysis for plant height and its heterosis by quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping at multiple developmental stages using two recombinant inbred lines (RILs) and their backcross progeny. At the single-locus level, 47 QTL were identified at five developmental stages in two hybrids. In backcross populations, QTL identified at an early stage mainly showed partial effects and QTL detected at a later stage mostly displayed overdominance effects. At the two-locus level, we found that main effect QTL played a more important role than epistatic QTL in the expression of heterosis in backcross populations. Therefore, this study implies that the genetic basis of plant height heterosis shows dynamic character and main effect QTL with dominance determines heterosis for plant height in Upland cotton. Copyright © 2016 Shang et al.

  4. Main Effect QTL with Dominance Determines Heterosis for Dynamic Plant Height in Upland Cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianguang Shang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant height, which shows dynamic development and heterosis, is a major trait affecting plant architecture and has an indirect influence on economic yield related to biological yield in cotton. In the present study, we carried out dynamic analysis for plant height and its heterosis by quantitative trait loci (QTL mapping at multiple developmental stages using two recombinant inbred lines (RILs and their backcross progeny. At the single-locus level, 47 QTL were identified at five developmental stages in two hybrids. In backcross populations, QTL identified at an early stage mainly showed partial effects and QTL detected at a later stage mostly displayed overdominance effects. At the two-locus level, we found that main effect QTL played a more important role than epistatic QTL in the expression of heterosis in backcross populations. Therefore, this study implies that the genetic basis of plant height heterosis shows dynamic character and main effect QTL with dominance determines heterosis for plant height in Upland cotton.

  5. Model Development and Hindcast Simulations of NOAA’s Gulf of Maine Operational Forecast System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zizang Yang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The National Ocean Service (NOS of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration is developing an operational nowcast/forecast system for the Gulf of Maine (GoMOFS. The system aims to produce real-time nowcasts and short-range forecast guidance for water levels, 3-dimensional currents, water temperature, and salinity over the broad GoM region. GoMOFS will be implemented using the Regional Ocean Model System (ROMS. This paper describes the system setup and results from a one-year (2012 hindcast simulation. The hindcast performance was evaluated using the NOS standard skill assessment software. The results indicate favorable agreement between observations and model forecasts. The root-mean-squared errors are about 0.12 m for water level, less than 1.5 °C for temperature, less than 1.5 psu for salinity, and less than 0.2 m/s for currents. It is anticipated to complete the system development and the transition into operations in fiscal year 2017.

  6. Equilibrium model prediction for the scatter in the star-forming main sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Sourav; Davé, Romeel; Simha, Vimal; Finlator, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    The analytic `equilibrium model' for galaxy evolution using a mass balance equation is able to reproduce mean observed galaxy scaling relations between stellar mass, halo mass, star formation rate (SFR), and metallicity across the majority of cosmic time with a small number of parameters related to feedback. Here, we aim to test this data-constrained model to quantify deviations from the mean relation between stellar mass and SFR, i.e. the star-forming galaxy main sequence (MS). We implement fluctuation in halo accretion rates parametrized from merger-based simulations, and quantify the intrinsic scatter introduced into the MS under the assumption that fluctuations in star formation follow baryonic inflow fluctuations. We predict the 1σ MS scatter to be ˜0.2-0.25 dex over the stellar mass range 108-1011 M⊙ and a redshift range 0.5 ≲ z ≲ 3 for SFRs averaged over 100 Myr. The scatter increases modestly at z ≳ 3, as well as by averaging over shorter time-scales. The contribution from merger-induced star formation is generally small, around 5 per cent today and 10-15 per cent during the peak epoch of cosmic star formation. These results are generally consistent with available observations, suggesting that deviations from the MS primarily reflect stochasticity in the inflow rate owing to halo mergers.

  7. A six-part collisional model of the main asteroid belt

    CERN Document Server

    Cibulková, Helena; Benavidez, Paula G

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we construct a new model for the collisional evolution of the main asteroid belt. Our goals are to test the scaling law of Benz and Asphaug (1999) and ascertain if it can be used for the whole belt. We want to find initial size-frequency distributions (SFDs) for the considered six parts of the belt (inner, middle, 'pristine', outer, Cybele zone, high-inclination region) and to verify if the number of synthetic asteroid families created during the simulation matches the number of observed families as well. We used new observational data from the WISE satellite (Masiero et al., 2011) to construct the observed SFDs. We simulate mutual collisions of asteroids with a modified version of the Boulder code (Morbidelli et al., 2009), where the results of hydrodynamic (SPH) simulations of Durda et al. (2007) and Benavidez et al. (2012) are included. Because material characteristics can significantly affect breakups, we created two models - for monolithic asteroids and for rubble-piles. To explain the obse...

  8. Acoustic Measurements of a Large Civil Transport Main Landing Gear Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravetta, Patricio A.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Burdisso, Ricardo A.; Wisda, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Microphone phased array acoustic measurements of a 26 percent-scale, Boeing 777-200 main landing gear model with and without noise reduction fairings installed were obtained in the anechoic configuration of the Virginia Tech Stability Tunnel. Data were acquired at Mach numbers of 0.12, 0.15, and 0.17 with the latter speed used as the nominal test condition. The fully and partially dressed gear with the truck angle set at 13 degrees toe-up landing configuration were the two most extensively tested configurations, serving as the baselines for comparison purposes. Acoustic measurements were also acquired for the same two baseline configurations with the truck angle set at 0 degrees. In addition, a previously tested noise reducing, toboggan-shaped fairing was re-evaluated extensively to address some of the lingering questions regarding the extent of acoustic benefit achievable with this device. The integrated spectra generated from the acoustic source maps reconfirm, in general terms, the previously reported noise reduction performance of the toboggan fairing as installed on an isolated gear. With the recent improvements to the Virginia Tech tunnel acoustic quality and microphone array capabilities, the present measurements provide an additional, higher quality database to the acoustic information available for this gear model.

  9. Equilibrium model prediction for the scatter in the star-forming main sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Sourav; Davé, Romeel; Simha, Vimal; Finlator, Kristian

    2016-10-01

    The analytic "equilibrium model" for galaxy evolution using a mass balance equation is able to reproduce mean observed galaxy scaling relations between stellar mass, halo mass, star formation rate (SFR) and metallicity across the majority of cosmic time with a small number of parameters related to feedback. Here we aim to test this data-constrained model to quantify deviations from the mean relation between stellar mass and SFR, i.e. the star-forming galaxy main sequence (MS). We implement fluctuation in halo accretion rates parameterised from merger-based simulations, and quantify the intrinsic scatter introduced into the MS under the assumption that fluctuations in star formation follow baryonic inflow fluctuations. We predict the 1-σ MS scatter to be ˜0.2 - 0.25 dex over the stellar mass range 108M⊙ to 1011M⊙ and a redshift range 0.5⪉ z⪉ 3 for SFRs averaged over 100 Myr. The scatter increases modestly at z⪆ 3, as well as by averaging over shorter timescales. The contribution from merger-induced star formation is generally small, around 5% today and 10 - 15% during the peak epoch of cosmic star formation. These results are generally consistent with available observations, suggesting that deviations from the MS primarily reflect stochasticity in the inflow rate owing to halo mergers.

  10. VERA-CS Modeling and Simulation of PWR Main Steam Line Break Core Response to DNB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salko, Robert K [ORNL; Sung, Yixing [Westinghouse Electric Company, Cranberry Township; Kucukboyaci, Vefa [Westinghouse Electric Company, Cranberry Township; Xu, Yiban [Westinghouse Electric Company, Cranberry Township; Cao, Liping [Westinghouse Electric Company, Cranberry Township

    2016-01-01

    The Virtual Environment for Reactor Applications core simulator (VERA-CS) being developed by the Consortium for the Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) includes coupled neutronics, thermal-hydraulics, and fuel temperature components with an isotopic depletion capability. The neutronics capability employed is based on MPACT, a three-dimensional (3-D) whole core transport code. The thermal-hydraulics and fuel temperature models are provided by the COBRA-TF (CTF) subchannel code. As part of the CASL development program, the VERA-CS (MPACT/CTF) code system was applied to model and simulate reactor core response with respect to departure from nucleate boiling ratio (DNBR) at the limiting time step of a postulated pressurized water reactor (PWR) main steamline break (MSLB) event initiated at the hot zero power (HZP), either with offsite power available and the reactor coolant pumps in operation (high-flow case) or without offsite power where the reactor core is cooled through natural circulation (low-flow case). The VERA-CS simulation was based on core boundary conditions from the RETRAN-02 system transient calculations and STAR-CCM+ computational fluid dynamics (CFD) core inlet distribution calculations. The evaluation indicated that the VERA-CS code system is capable of modeling and simulating quasi-steady state reactor core response under the steamline break (SLB) accident condition, the results are insensitive to uncertainties in the inlet flow distributions from the CFD simulations, and the high-flow case is more DNB limiting than the low-flow case.

  11. FRED fuel behaviour code: Main models and analysis of Halden IFA-503.2 tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikityuk, K., E-mail: konstantin.mikityuk@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Shestopalov, A., E-mail: shest@dhtp.kiae.ru [RRC' Kurchatov Institute' , Kurchatov sq, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-15

    Highlights: > We developed a new fuel rod behaviour code named FRED. > Main models and assumptions are described. > The code was checked using the IFA-503.2 tests performed at the Halden reactor. - Abstract: The FRED fuel rod code is being developed for thermal and mechanical simulation of fast breeder reactor (FBR) and light-water reactor (LWR) fuel behaviour under base-irradiation and accident conditions. The current version of the code calculates temperature distribution in fuel rods, stress-strain condition of cladding, fuel deformation, fuel-cladding gap conductance, and fuel rod inner pressure. The code was previously evaluated in the frame of two OECD mixed plutonium-uranium oxide (MOX) fuel performance benchmarks and then integrated into PSI's FAST code system to provide the fuel rod temperatures necessary for the neutron kinetics and thermal-hydraulic modules in transient calculations. This paper briefly overviews basic models and material property database of the FRED code used to assess the fuel behaviour under steady-state conditions. In addition, the code was used to simulate the IFA-503.2 tests, performed at the Halden reactor for two PWR and twelve VVER fuel samples under base-irradiation conditions. This paper presents the results of this simulation for two cases using a code-to-data comparison of fuel centreline temperatures, internal gas pressures, and fuel elongations. This comparison has demonstrated that the code adequately describes the important physical mechanisms of the uranium oxide (UOX) fuel rod thermal performance under steady-state conditions. Future activity should be concentrated on improving the model and extending the validation range, especially to the MOX fuel steady-state and transient behaviour.

  12. Main Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Boncz, Peter; Liu, Lei; Özsu, Tamer, M.

    2008-01-01

    Primary storage, presently known as main memory, is the largest memory directly accessible to the CPU in the prevalent Von Neumann model and stores both data and instructions (program code). The CPU continuously reads instructions stored there and executes them. It is also called Random Access Memory (RAM), to indicate that load/store instructions can access data at any location at the same cost, is usually implemented using DRAM chips, which are connected to the CPU and other peripherals (di...

  13. Quantifying Main Trends in Lysozyme Nucleation: The Effects of Precipitant Concentration, Supersaturation and Impurities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Michael W.; Leardi, Riccardo; Judge, Russell A.; Pusey, Marc L.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Full factorial experimental design incorporating multi-linear regression analysis of the experimental data allows quick identification of main trends and effects using a limited number of experiments. In this study these techniques were employed to identify the effect of precipitant concentration, supersaturation, and the presence of an impurity, the physiological lysozyme dimer, on the nucleation rate and crystal dimensions of the tetragonal forin of chicken egg white lysozyme. Decreasing precipitant concentration, increasing supers aturation, and increasing impurity, were found to increase crystal numbers. The crystal axial ratio decreased with increasing precipitant concentration, independent of impurity.

  14. Main barriers to effective implementation of stroke care pathways in France: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gache, Kristel; Leleu, Henri; Nitenberg, Gérard; Woimant, France; Ferrua, Marie; Minvielle, Etienne

    2014-02-28

    Stroke Care Pathways (SCPs) aim to improve quality of care by providing better access to stroke units, rehabilitation centres, and home care for dependent patients. The objective of this study was to identify the main barriers to effective implementation of SCPs in France. We selected 4 types of SCPs currently implemented in France that differed in terms of geographical location, population size, socio-economic conditions, and available health care facilities. We carried out 51 semi-structured interviews of 44 key health professionals involved in these SCPs and used the interview data to (i) create a typology of the organisational barriers to effective SCP implementation by axial coding, (ii) define barrier contents by vertical coding. The typology was validated by a panel of 15 stroke care professionals. Four main barriers to effective SCP implementation were identified: lack of resources (31/44 interviewees), coordination problems among staff (14/44) and among facilities (27/44), suboptimal professional and organisational practices (16/44), and inadequate public education about stroke (13/44). Transposition of the findings onto a generic SCP highlighted alternative care options and identified 10 to 17 barriers that could disrupt continuity of care. Lack of resources was considered to be the chief obstacle to effective SCP implementation. However, the main weakness of existing SCPs was poor communication and cooperation among health professionals and among facilities. We intend to use this knowledge to construct a robust set of quality indicators for use in SCP quality improvement initiatives, in comparisons between SCPs, and in the assessment of the effective implementation of clinical practice guidelines.

  15. INVESTIGATIONS OF MAIN FACTORS AFFECTING TROPOSPHERIC NITRATE AEROSOL USING A COUPLING MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tijian Wang; Shu Li; Fei Jiang; Lijie Gao

    2006-01-01

    Factors affecting tropospheric nitrate aerosol formation were investigated through a number of sensitivity studies using the thermodynamic equilibrium model ISORROPIA and the condensed gas-phase chemistry model. Resuits indicate that the equilibrium concentration of nitrate aerosol varies with solar zenith angle, air temperature, relative humidity, initial SO2 concentration, initial NO2 concentration and initial NH3 concentration. NH3 concentration and solar zenith angle play the most important roles, followed by relative humidity and NO2 concentration. It seems that the relations between nitrate aerosol and these four factors, as well as air temperature, are strong and highly nonlinear due to the coupling effect. The influence of SO2 concentration on nitrate aerosol is near-linear and weak.

  16. Study of an effective structural system with rational parameters based on main energy principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toporkova Katerina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effective architectural and construction system with rational parameters based on main energy principles applied to construction of buildings and constructions with a small-step and large-step frames, representing the metal frame of full factory production collected in spatial system on high-strength bolts and previously strained combined prestressed concrete slabs which formed without timbering is proposed in this paper. The main constructive and technological features of the proposed frame, which allows reducing construction period, increasing working efficiency, and reducing labor intensity by using factory-made materials, quick erection of all process elements through the use of highstrength bolts is considered. The advantages of this constructive system in comparison with alternative systems are shown. The basic concepts of "rational decisions" to the design, namely, the objective of the optimal management of the structure parameters, which can not only improve its basic performance indicators, but also, and most importantly, improve operational reliability, is presented.

  17. Batch biodegradation of PAHs in mixture by Mycobacterium frederiksbergense: analysis of main and interaction effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahanty, Biswanath; Pakshirajan, Kannan; Dasu, Veeranki Venkata [IIT Guwahati, Department of Biotechnology, Guwahati, Assam (India)

    2010-08-15

    Biodegradation is an effective technique to remediate soil and water contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In the present experimental study, Mycobacterium frederiksbergense, a fast growing mycobacterium, was used to degrade anthracene, naphthalene and pyrene in mixture each at initial concentrations varying between 1 and 50 mg l{sup -1}. Experiments were conducted according to the 2{sup 3} factorial design at the low (1 mg l{sup -1}) and high (50 mg l{sup -1}) levels of the PAHs in combination, to identify the main and interaction effects of the compounds on their biodegradation. The results showed that the PAH removals varied 54-81% when each PAHs were at low concentrations in the mixture and 67-89% at their higher concentration combinations. Statistical analysis of the results in the form of ANOVA and Student t test indicated significant role played by the main effects of pyrene on its degradation. Similarly on anthracene degradation, interaction effect with pyrene was found to be highly significant with P value less than 0.1. (orig.)

  18. The quadruple pre-main sequence system LkCa3: Implications for stellar evolution models

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, Guillermo; Badenas, Mariona; Prato, L; Schaefer, G H; Wasserman, Lawrence H; Mathieu, Robert D; Latham, David W

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery that the pre-main sequence object LkCa3 in the Taurus-Auriga star-forming region is a hierarchical quadruple system of M stars. It was previously known to be a close (~0.5 arc sec) visual pair, with one component being a moderately eccentric 12.94-day single-lined spectroscopic binary. A re-analysis of archival optical spectra complemented with new near-infrared spectroscopy shows both visual components to be double-lined, the second one having a period of 4.06 days and a circular orbit. In addition to the orbital elements, we determine optical and near-infrared flux ratios, effective temperatures, and projected rotational velocities for all four stars. Using existing photometric monitoring observations of the system that had previously revealed the rotational period of the primary in the longer-period binary, we detect also the rotational signal of the primary in the 4.06-day binary, which is synchronized with the orbital motion. With only the assumption of coevality, a comparison of ...

  19. Modeling of Yield Estimation for The Main Crops in Iran Based on Mechanization Index (hp ha-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Abbasi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural mechanization is a method for transiting from traditional agriculture towards industrial and sustainable one. Due to the limitation of natural resources and increasing population we need to have economical production of agricultural crops. For reaching this destination; agricultural mechanization has a remarkable role. So it is necessary to have an extensive view for mechanization, because with the help of mechanization the agricultural inputs such as seeds, fertilizer and even water and soil can effectively be managed for an economical and sustainable production. This study has been carried out in many provinces of Iran. The data of agricultural tractors and cereal combine harvesters were firstly gathered by means of questionnaire. The tractors were categorized in four power levels of less than 45, 45 to 80, 80 to 110, and more than 110 hp. In addition, it was also carried out for cereal combine harvesters; it was in three power levels, i.e. between 100 to 110, 110 to 155 and 155 to 210 horse-power in 3 ages, i.e. less than 13, between 13 to 20, and more than 20 years. Information regarding to cultivation areas, production volume, and yield of main crops gathered from statistics of Ministry of Jihad-e-Agriculture. Then agriculture mechanization level index (hp ha-1 in each province was calculated. Four main crops including irrigated and rain-fed wheat and irrigated and rain-fed barley, which met the required criteria to be used in the model, were statistically analyzed. Correlation analysis was carried out in order to get an effective model between yield of the four main crops in Iran and agriculture mechanization level index. Pearson correlation index showed that there is a direct and significant correlation between these variables. Subsequently, outliers were identified in order to get a model with necessary efficiency to predict the yield through mechanization level index, by scatter diagram and estimating regression lines in 1

  20. The Effects of Pooling the Interaction and Within Components on the Alpha and Power for Main Effects Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlmann, John T.

    The Monte Carlo method was used, and the factors considered were (1) level of main effects in the population; (2) level of interaction effects in the population; (3) alpha level used in determining whether to pool; and (4) number of degrees of freedom. The results indicated that when the ratio degrees of freedom (axb)/degrees of freedom (within)…

  1. Effect of land fraction on weathering and tenure in the habitable zone of terrestrial planets around main-sequence stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbot, D. S.; Ciesla, F. J.; Pierrehumbert, R.; Archer, D. E.

    2011-12-01

    According to current models of volatile delivery, the water fraction of terrestrial planets in the habitable zone of main-sequence stars is likely to be highly variable. This will affect the continental land fraction, and consequently the functioning of weathering and the carbon cycle. We construct a low-order analytical model of climate, continental silicate weathering, and seafloor weathering to investigate, in a general sense, the effect of land fraction on the long-term carbon cycle. This model is useful for gaining physical insight, rather than for making specific predictions. Using our model, we reach the following conclusions: (1) The surface temperature increases with decreasing land fraction, with waterworlds 10's of K warmer than planets with 50% continental coverage. (2) There can be no weathering feedback on a waterworld. The tenure of a waterworld in the habitable zone is therefore likely to be much shorter than the tenure of a planet with some continent in the habitable zone. (3) The silicate weathering feedback is effective even at very low land fractions. The rate of change of a planet's surface temperature as the star it orbits evolves on the main sequence is similar if the land fraction is 0.3 or 0.01.

  2. Main-Sequence Effective Temperatures from a Revised Mass-Luminosity Relation Based on Accurate Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Eker, Z; Soydugan, E; Bilir, S; Gokce, E Yaz; Steer, I; Tuysuz, M; Senyuz, T; Demircan, O

    2015-01-01

    The mass-luminosity (M-L), mass-radius (M-R) and mass-effective temperature ($M-T_{eff}$) diagrams for a subset of galactic nearby main-sequence stars with masses and radii accurate to $\\leq 3\\%$ and luminosities accurate to $\\leq 30\\%$ (268 stars) has led to a putative discovery. Four distinct mass domains have been identified, which we have tentatively associated with low, intermediate, high, and very high mass main-sequence stars, but which nevertheless are clearly separated by three distinct break points at 1.05, 2.4, and 7$M_{\\odot}$ within the mass range studied of $0.38-32M_{\\odot}$. Further, a revised mass-luminosity relation (MLR) is found based on linear fits for each of the mass domains identified. The revised, mass-domain based MLRs, which are classical ($L \\propto M^{\\alpha}$), are shown to be preferable to a single linear, quadratic or cubic equation representing as an alternative MLR. Stellar radius evolution within the main-sequence for stars with $M>1M_{\\odot}$ is clearly evident on the M-R d...

  3. Effects of Simulated Acid Rain on Main Nutritional Indicators of Three Leafy Vegetables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG He; DONG De-ming; WANG Ju; YANG Kai-ning; TIAN Lei; SUN Wei; FANG Chun-sheng

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to identify content changes in the main nutritional indicators of three common leafy vegetables, and to provide a theoretical basis for the protection of leafy vegetables from acid rain. The experiment investigated the effects of simulated acid rain on four main nutritional indicators, including soluble sugar,total free amino acid, soluble protein and vitamin C during the application of simulated acid rain(SAR) in pakchoi( Brassica rapa chihensis), rape(Brassica campestris L.) and lettuce( Lactuca sativa Linn. var. ramnosa Hort). The vegetables were respectively exposed to SAR of pH=7.0, 5.6, 5.0, 4.0, 3.0 and a control level of pH=6.5. The concentrations of the four main nutritional indicators were determined at harvest. The results show that nutritional quality of the three leafy vegetable species decreased with the declining of pH values of SAR. The higher the acidity of SAR was, the more significant the inhibitions were. Nutritional quality of lettuce was the most affected by simulated acid rain, followed by pakchoi and rape. The change range of soluble protein content was higher than those of the other three indicators' contents, which indicates that soluble protein is most sensitive to simulated acid rain.

  4. Effects of Simulated Acid Rain on Main Nutritional Indicators of Three Leafy Vegetables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to identify content changes in the main nutritional indicators of three common leafy vegetables, and to provide a theoretical basis for the protection of leafy vegetables from acid rain. The experiment investigated the effects of simulated acid rain on four main nutritional indicators, including soluble sugar, total free amino acid, soluble protein and vitamin C during the application of simulated acid rain(SAR) in pakchoi(Brassica rapa chinensis), rape(Brassica campestris L.) and lettuce(Lactuca sativa Linn. var. ramosa Hort). The vegetables were respectively exposed to SAR of pH=7.0, 5.6, 5.0, 4.0, 3.0 and a control level of pH=6.5. The concentrations of the four main nutritional indicators were determined at harvest. The results show that nutritional quality of the three leafy vegetable species decreased with the declining of pH values of SAR. The higher the acidity of SAR was, the more significant the inhibitions were. Nutritional quality of lettuce was the most affected by simulated acid rain, followed by pakchoi and rape. The change range of soluble protein content was higher than those of the other three indicators' contents, which indicates that soluble protein is most sensitive to simulated acid rain.

  5. Antiinflammatory, Antioxidant, and Immunomodulatory Effects of Crocus sativus L. and its Main Constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein; Farkhondeh, Tahereh

    2016-07-01

    Crocus sativus L. (C. sativus), commonly known as saffron, is used as a food additive, preservative, and medicinal herb. Traditionally, it has been used as an alternative treatment for different diseases. C. sativus' medicinal effects are related to its major constituents like crocins, crocetin, and safranal. According to the literature, C. sativus and its constituents could be considered as an effective treatment for neurodegenerative disorders, coronary artery diseases, asthma, bronchitis, colds, fever, diabetes, and so on. Recently, numerous studies have reported such medicinal properties and found that the underlying mechanisms of action may be mediated by antioxidant, inflammatory, and immunomodulatory effects. C. sativus enhances the antioxidant capacity and acts as a free radical scavenger. As an antiinflammatory and immunomodulatory agent, it modulates inflammatory mediators, humoral immunity, and cell-mediated immunity responses. This review highlights in vitro and animal findings regarding antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory effects of C. sativus and its constituents. Present review found that the C. sativus and its main constituents such as safranal, crocins, and crocetin could be effective against various diseases because of their antioxidant, anti-inflammation, and immunomodulatory effects. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Modelling ELM heat flux deposition on the ITER main chamber wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kočan, M., E-mail: martin.kocan@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, F-13067 St Paul lez Durance Cedex (France); Pitts, R.A.; Lisgo, S.W.; Loarte, A. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, F-13067 St Paul lez Durance Cedex (France); Gunn, J.P. [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA/DSM/IRFM, Cadarache, 13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Fuchs, V. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Association EURATOM/IPP.CR, Praha 18200 (Czech Republic)

    2015-08-15

    The interaction of ELM filaments with the ITER beryllium first wall panels (FWPs) is studied using a simple ad-hoc fluid model of the filament parallel transport, taking into account the full, three-dimensional structure of the FWPs, including magnetic shadowing effects. The calculated ELM surface heat loads are used as input to the RACLETTE heat transfer code to estimate the FWP surface temperature rise. The results indicate that controlled ELMs in ITER during burning plasma operation (ΔW{sub ELM} ≈ 0.6 M J) will not lead to melting or significant evaporation of the beryllium surfaces, even in the case of high ELM broadening and the minimum allowable distance between the primary and secondary separatrices. The ELM-averaged steady-state heat load also stays below the maximum power handling capability of the FWPs.

  7. Evolutionary models for metal-poor low-mass stars lower main sequence of globular clusters and halo field stars

    CERN Document Server

    Baraffe, I; Allard, F; Hauschildt, P H; Baraffe, Isabelle; Chabrier, Gilles; Allard, France; Hauschildt, Peter

    1997-01-01

    We have performed evolutionary calculations of very-low-mass stars from 0.08 to 0.8 $\\msol$ for different metallicites from [M/H]= -2.0 to -1.0 and we have tabulated the mechanical, thermal and photometric characteristics of these models. The calculations include the most recent interior physics and improved non-grey atmosphere models. The models reproduce the entire main sequences of the globular clusters observed with the Hubble Space Telescope over the afore-mentioned range of metallicity. Comparisons are made in the WFPC2 Flight system including the F555, F606 and F814 filters, and in the standard Johnson-Cousins system. We examine the effects of different physical parameters, mixing-length, $\\alpha$-enriched elements, helium fraction, as well as the accuracy of the photometric transformations of the HST data into standard systems. We derive mass-effective temperature and mass-magnitude relationships and we compare the results with the ones obtained with different grey-like approximations. These latter ar...

  8. Intestinal bacteria activate estrogenic effect of main constituents puerarin and daidzin of Pueraria thunbergiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Kyung; Shin, Jieun; Bae, Eun-Ah; Lee, Young-Chul; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2006-12-01

    To understand the relationship between the metabolites and estrogenic activity of the main isoflavones puerarin and daidzin of the rhizome of Pueraria thunbergiana (PT, family Leguminosae), PT and its isoflavones were transformed by human intestinal bacteria and their estrogenic effects were investigated. All human fecal specimens hydrolyzed puerarin and daidzin to daidzein, but their hydrolyzing activities varied depending on the individuals. All intestinal bacteria isolated from human also hydrolyzed daidzin to daidzein, but a few bacteria transformed puerarin to daidzein. When the estrogenic effect of PT, puerarin and daidzin was compared with those of their metabolites, the metabolites more potently increased proliferation of MCF-7 cells than PT, puerarin and daidzin. The metabolite daidzein also potently increased estrogen-response c-fos mRNA and PR protein expressions. These findings suggest that intestinal bacteria, which can hydrolyze puerarin and/or daidzin, may activate a potent estrogenic activity of PT.

  9. A Collisional Model of the "Pristine Zone" of the Main Asteroid Belt and the Dynamics of LHB Families Located There

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broz, Miroslav; Cibulkova, H.; Rehak, M.

    2012-10-01

    Modifying the Boulder code (Morbidelli et al. 2009), we construct a new collisional model of the Main Asteroid Belt, which is divided to six parts (inner, middle, outer, pristine zone, Cybele region and high-inclination region) in order to study relations between them and check the number of families observed in each of them. We focus on the so-called "pristine zone" between 2.825 and 2.955 AU - bounded by the 5:2 and 7:3 resonances with Jupiter - because this region is relatively empty and we may thus spot very old/eroded families. We model long-term dynamical and collisional evolution of the Itha family (around the asteroid (918) Itha) and we interpreted it as an old, dispersed and comminutioned cluster, likely dated back to the Late Heavy Bombardment 3.8 Gyr ago. We thus extend our collisional models and include the effects of the LHB too. In the framework of the Nice model, the flux of comets during the LHB is mostly controlled by the original size-freqeuncy distribution of the cometary disk beyond Neptune and a rate at which comets disrupt when they approach the Sun. To this point we provide a related discussion of various cometary disruption laws.

  10. Modeling of the filling and cooling processes of hot fuel mains in Liquid Fuel Rocket Power Plant (LFRPP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prisnyakov, V. F.; Pokrishkin, V. V.; Serebryansky, V. N.

    A mathematical model of heat and mass exchange processes during filling and cooling of hot fuel mains of the Liquid Fuel Rocket Power Plant (LFRPP), which allows to define a mass consumption and distribution of two-phase flow parameters by the length of pipeline. Results of calculations are compared with experimental data, taken during filling of the main with a supply of liquid oxygen from the tank into the combustion chamber. Also, the results of modeling of hydrogen main dynamic characteristics of LFRPP in the same conditions are given.

  11. Candidate main-field models for producing the 9th generation IGRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandea, Mioara

    2005-12-01

    This paper presents the various candidate models used in deriving the 9th generation IGRF. Based on notes submitted to the IAGA working group V-MOD with the Gauss coefficients, a brief description of the data used and the method of modelling for each of the candidate models is given. The six candidate models for epoch 1995.0 and the five for epoch 2000.0 are presented. Improvements gained by the new models are also discussed.

  12. Gastrointestinal effects of Nigella sativa and its main constituent, thymoquinone: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Shakeri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal (GI diseases affect a large number of people all over the world. Uncontrolled acid secretion and occurrence of gastric ulcers are common disorders of GI tract which pose serious problems to human health. Many synthetic drugs have been used to treat GI disorders but a definite cure has not been discovered so far and the available medications cause several side effects. Nigella sativa (N. sativa (Ranunculacea has several therapeutic effects which are attributed to its constituents like nigellicine, nigellidine, thymoquinone, dithymoquinone, thymol and carvacrol. Several beneficial pharmacological properties of this plant such as anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-histaminic, anti-hypertensive, hypoglycemic, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and immunomodulatory effects were reported and different therapeutic properties such as reliving bronchial asthma, jaundice, hydrophobia, paralysis, conjunctivitis, piles, skin diseases, anorexia, headache, dysentery, infections, obesity, back pain, hypertension and gastrointestinal problems, have been described for the seeds of N. sativa and its oil. The present review provides a detailed summery of scientific researches regarding gastrointestinal effect of N. sativa and its main constituent, thymoquinone.

  13. Observation and modeling of main sequence star chromospheres. 3: Differential analysis of hydrogen lines versus activity level in M dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houdebine, E. R.; Doyle, J. G.; Koscielecki, M.

    1995-02-01

    We use the constraints at the extremes in magnetic activity level to simulate the effect of varying magnetic non-thermal heating in dM and dMe chromospheres by varying the transition region pressure and temperature minimum. We built four grids of model atmospheres with temperature minimum either at 2,660 K or 3,000 K, and a range of transition region pressure. We found that when decreasing the transition region pressure (i.e. the chromospheric temperature gradient), the Balmer lines change rapidly from emission to strong absorption, then the profiles weaken and become narrower until they disappear totally (zero Halpha stars). The Paschen and Brackett series exhibit a qualitatively similar behavior, but the `emission domain' is at a higher column mass. The Brackett lines never really develop a strong absorption. In opposition with other series, the Lyman lines show a monotonous decrease and even change to absorption for very low density models. These differences are useful spectral diagnostics for M dwarf atmospheres. All hydrogen series, except the Lyman series for intermediate and high pressures, are sensitive to the temperature minimum when large changes are considered. We also investigated the effect of the temperature break zone and found it is important only for high pressure atmospheres. Our grids of models successfully reproduce all type of observed Halpha profiles: (1) high activity with strong emission and weak self-reversal, (2) filled in intermediate activity with inner wings in emission and the core in absorption, (3) intermediate activity with strong and broad absorption, (4) low activity with weak and narrow absorption, (5) `zero activity' with an undetectable profile. We discuss the line characteristics over this wide range of physical conditions. We analyze the ionization fraction and electron density for our series of chromospheres. Changes in the ionization fraction are important throughout the pressure range. Heavy elements are the main electron

  14. Effects of Chlorophenoxy Herbicides and Their Main Transformation Products on DNA Damage and Acetylcholinesterase Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benfeito, Sofia; Silva, Tiago; Garrido, Jorge; Andrade, Paula B.; Sottomayor, M. J.; Borges, Fernanda; Garrido, E. Manuela

    2014-01-01

    Persistent pesticide transformation products (TPs) are increasingly being detected among different environmental compartments, including groundwater and surface water. However, there is no sufficient experimental data on their toxicological potential to assess the risk associated with TPs, even if their occurrence is known. In this study, the interaction of chlorophenoxy herbicides (MCPA, mecoprop, 2,4-D and dichlorprop) and their main transformation products with calf thymus DNA by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy has been assessed. Additionally, the toxicity of the chlorophenoxy herbicides and TPs was also assessed evaluating the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity. On the basis of the results found, it seems that AChE is not the main target of chlorophenoxy herbicides and their TPs. However, the results found showed that the transformation products displayed a higher inhibitory activity when compared with the parent herbicides. The results obtained in the DNA interaction studies showed, in general, a slight effect on the stability of the double helix. However, the data found for 4-chloro-2-methyl-6-nitrophenol suggest that this transformation product can interact with DNA through a noncovalent mode. PMID:24795892

  15. Effects of Chlorophenoxy Herbicides and Their Main Transformation Products on DNA Damage and Acetylcholinesterase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Benfeito

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Persistent pesticide transformation products (TPs are increasingly being detected among different environmental compartments, including groundwater and surface water. However, there is no sufficient experimental data on their toxicological potential to assess the risk associated with TPs, even if their occurrence is known. In this study, the interaction of chlorophenoxy herbicides (MCPA, mecoprop, 2,4-D and dichlorprop and their main transformation products with calf thymus DNA by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy has been assessed. Additionally, the toxicity of the chlorophenoxy herbicides and TPs was also assessed evaluating the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity. On the basis of the results found, it seems that AChE is not the main target of chlorophenoxy herbicides and their TPs. However, the results found showed that the transformation products displayed a higher inhibitory activity when compared with the parent herbicides. The results obtained in the DNA interaction studies showed, in general, a slight effect on the stability of the double helix. However, the data found for 4-chloro-2-methyl-6-nitrophenol suggest that this transformation product can interact with DNA through a noncovalent mode.

  16. Effects of chlorophenoxy herbicides and their main transformation products on DNA damage and acetylcholinesterase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benfeito, Sofia; Silva, Tiago; Garrido, Jorge; Andrade, Paula B; Sottomayor, M J; Borges, Fernanda; Garrido, E Manuela

    2014-01-01

    Persistent pesticide transformation products (TPs) are increasingly being detected among different environmental compartments, including groundwater and surface water. However, there is no sufficient experimental data on their toxicological potential to assess the risk associated with TPs, even if their occurrence is known. In this study, the interaction of chlorophenoxy herbicides (MCPA, mecoprop, 2,4-D and dichlorprop) and their main transformation products with calf thymus DNA by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy has been assessed. Additionally, the toxicity of the chlorophenoxy herbicides and TPs was also assessed evaluating the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity. On the basis of the results found, it seems that AChE is not the main target of chlorophenoxy herbicides and their TPs. However, the results found showed that the transformation products displayed a higher inhibitory activity when compared with the parent herbicides. The results obtained in the DNA interaction studies showed, in general, a slight effect on the stability of the double helix. However, the data found for 4-chloro-2-methyl-6-nitrophenol suggest that this transformation product can interact with DNA through a noncovalent mode.

  17. Evaluation of the antioxidant effects of four main theaflavin derivatives through chemiluminescence and DNA damage analyses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan-yuan WU; Wei LI; Yi XU; En-hui JIN; You-ying TU

    2011-01-01

    Theaflavins (TFs) are the dimers of a couple of epimerized catechins,which are specially formed during black tea fermentation.To explore the differences among four main TF derivatives (theaflavin (TF1),theaflavin3-gallate (TF2A),theaflavin-3′-gallate (TF2B),and theaflavin-3,3′-digallate (TF3)) in scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vitro,their properties of inhibiting superoxide,singlet oxygen,hydrogen peroxide,and the hydroxyl radical,and their effects on hydroxyl radical-induced DNA oxidative damage were systematically analyzed in the present study.The results show that,compared with (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG),TF derivatives were good antioxidants for scavenging ROS and preventing the hydroxyl radical-induced DNA damage in vitro.TF3 was the most positive in scavenging hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radical,and TF1 suppressed superoxide.Positive antioxidant capacities of TF2B on singlet oxygen,hydrogen peroxide,hydroxyl radical,and the hydroxyl radical-induced DNA damage in vitro were found.The differences between the antioxidant capacities of four main TF derivatives in relation to their chemical structures were also discussed.We suggest that these activity differences among TF derivatives would be beneficial to scavenge different ROS with therapeutic potential.

  18. EVOLUTION OF THE MAIN MODELS OF INTEGRATED MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS WHO HAVE THE ROLE TO INFLUENCE CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OANCEA OLIMPIA ELENA MIHAELA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The models of integrated marketing communication have become today a very useful tool, that can provide companies a sustainable competitive advantage. The integrated marketing communication identifies with today's market dynamics and learn organizations how easy it can be to prosper in an environment where there are produced changes in an alarming way. In an economy with a strong competition character, organizations must capitalize integrated marketing communication in a way more efficiently, for to ensure the creation and maintenance of longterm relationships with current and potential customers. A product or a brand exist in the consumer's mind there not only because of experience with it, but also due to the medium and long term effects on that a message built on base the wishes, expectations or consumer preferences is transmitted simultaneously through as many tools of communication. Building and managing relationships with consumers can have a direct and positive effect on efficiency of the results of communication of a company. Changes in the business environment, along with technological innovation, increasing consumer sophistication and changes in marketing communications practices, have led organizations to seek to improve relationships with their consumers, and to strive to deliver consistent messages to all stakeholders - consumers, employees, company partners, the state, local governments, suppliers - across a wide range of integrated marketing communications channels.Therefore, the purpose of this article is to identify and analyze the main models of integrated marketing communication that can influence the consumer behaviour.

  19. Effect of Generalized Uncertainty Principle on Main-Sequence Stars and White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Moussa, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the effect of generalized uncertainty principle, emerged by a different approaches of quantum gravity within Planck scale, on thermodynamic properties of photon, non-relativistic ideal gases and degenerate fermions. A modification in pressure, particle number and energy density are calculated. Astrophysical objects such as main sequence stars and white dwarfs are examined and discussed as an application. A modification in Lane-Emden equation due to a change in a polytropic relation caused by the presence of quantum gravity, is investigated. The applicable range of quantum gravity parameters is estimated. The bounds in the perturbed parameters are relatively large but it may be considered reasonable values in the astrophysical regime.

  20. Vibration effects of the space shuttle main engine high pressure oxidizer turbopump bellows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harp, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    A welded metal bellows was subjected to a series of vibration tests in a 400 psi oxygen environment to evaluate the effects of the bellows convolutes rubbing on the damper ring in the high pressure oxidizer turbopump of the space shuttle main engine. The bellows was subjected to approximately 2 million cycles at 0.007 in. double amplitude displacement during this series of tests, at a frequency of 400 Hz. Intrumentation of the test specimen revealed no significant heat buildup caused by the rubbing of the bellows convolutes on the damper ring. A final destruct test was made to determine if a fire would result if the bellows ruptured in the 400 psi oxygen environment, thus exposing a fresh metal surface. The vibration input was changed to 0.8 in. double amplitude displacement at 20 Hz to intentionally rupture the bellows. Failure occurred after 2.5 sec; no fire or heat buildup was encountered.

  1. Effect of Generalized Uncertainty Principle on Main-Sequence Stars and White Dwarfs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Moussa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the effect of generalized uncertainty principle, emerged from different approaches of quantum gravity within Planck scale, on thermodynamic properties of photon, nonrelativistic ideal gases, and degenerate fermions. A modification in pressure, particle number, and energy density are calculated. Astrophysical objects such as main-sequence stars and white dwarfs are examined and discussed as an application. A modification in Lane-Emden equation due to a change in a polytropic relation caused by the presence of quantum gravity is investigated. The applicable range of quantum gravity parameters is estimated. The bounds in the perturbed parameters are relatively large but they may be considered reasonable values in the astrophysical regime.

  2. From CoRoT 102899501 to the Sun. A time evolution model of chromospheric activity on the main sequence

    CERN Document Server

    Gondoin, P; Fridlund, M; Frasca, A; Guenther, E W; Hatzes, A; Deeg, H J; Parviainen, H; Eigmueller, P; Deleuil, M

    2012-01-01

    Using a model based on the rotational modulation of the visibility of active regions, we analyse the high-accuracy CoRoT lightcurve of the active young star CoRoT102899501. Spectroscopic follow-up observations are used to derive its fundamental parameters. We compare its chromospheric activity level with a model of chrosmospheric activity evolution established by combining relationships between the R'HK index and the Rossby number with a recent model of stellar rotation evolution on the main sequence. We measure the spot coverage of the stellar surface as a function of time, and find evidence for a tentative increase from 5-14% at the beginning of the observing run to 13-29% 35 days later. A high level of magnetic activity on CoRoT102899501 is corroborated by a strong emission in the Balmer and Ca II HK lines (logR'HK ~ -4). The starspots used as tracers of the star rotation constrain the rotation period to 1.625+/-0.002 days and do not show evidence for differential rotation. The effective temperature (Teff=...

  3. A review of Neuropharmacology Effects of Nigella sativa and Its Main Component, Thymoquinone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javidi, Soheila; Razavi, Bibi Marjan; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2016-08-01

    Neuropharmacology is the scientific study of drug effect on nervous system. In the last few years, different natural plants and their active constituents have been used in neurological therapy. The availability, lower price, and less toxic effects of herbal medicines compared with synthetic agents make them as simple and excellent choice in the treatment of nervous diseases. Nigella sativa, which belongs to the botanical family of Ranunculaceae, is a widely used medicinal plant all over the world. In traditional and modern medicines several beneficial properties have been attributed to N. sativa and its main component, thymoquinone (TQ). In this review, various studies in scientific databases regarding the neuropharmacological aspects of N. sativa and TQ have been introduced. Results of these studies showed that N. sativa and TQ have several properties including anticonvulsant, antidepressant, anxiolytic, anti-ischemic, analgesic, antipsychotic, and memory enhancer. Furthermore, its protective effects against neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer, Parkinson and multiple sclerosis have been discussed. Although there are many studies indicating the beneficial actions of this plant in nervous system, the number of research projects relating to the human reports is rare. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Effectiveness of experimental system in children’s mastering of main manual motor skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galamandjuk L. L.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: determine effectiveness of simulated system of pre-school age children motor functioning’s preventive development for mastering of main movements for manual skills. Material: in the research five years’ children (control group n=150 and experimental group n=120 participated. Results: it was determined that transition from uncomfortable to comfortable for a child conditions of exercises’ fulfillment facilitates quicker formation of required motor program. It is connected with the fact that, independent on orientation of manual motor asymmetry progressing of semi-spheres’ interaction takes place. This interaction is an important condition of increasing of child functioning’s effectiveness in different aspects. Achievement of such result was also facilitated by physical exercises, which children practiced at home. Functioning of physical culture instructor and kindergarten teachers was also important: they formed parents’ conscious position concerning importance of such trainings; recommended effective means and methods. Conclusions: application of the offered system ensures much better result than traditional approach to this problem. It is one of keys to prevention of negative tendencies in development of pre-school age children.

  5. Effects of main reproductive and health problems on the performance of dairy cows: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ghavi Hossein-Zadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on the potential effects of twinning, dystocia, stillbirth, abortion, retained placenta and metritis on the productive and reproductive performances in dairy cattle. These are diverse disorders that are similar in that they all can result in impaired performance of dairy cows. Reproductive problems occur frequently in lactating dairy cows and can dramatically affect reproductive efficiency in a dairy herd. Poor reproductive performance is a major cause of involuntary culling and therefore reduces the opportunity for voluntary culling and has a negative influence on the subsequent productivity of a dairy herd. Reproductive performance is influenced by the interactive effect of environment, management, health, and genetic factors. In addition, diseases mainly affect dairy cow productivity by decreasing reproductive efficiency, shortening the expected length of productive life and by lowering milk production. Deciding whether to breed, treat, or cull dairy cows showing one or more of these problems is a challenge for both veterinarians and dairy producers. In addition, there is considerable debate among dairy scientists and bovine practitioners regarding the economic impact of these problems in a dairy operation and the most effective management or therapeutic intervention for treating them. Because of this controversy, dairy managers should focus on prevention and control of risk factors associated with each problem rather than on prescriptive therapeutic interventions.

  6. Geomagnetic Storm Main Phase effect on the Equatorial Ionosphere as measured from GPS observations at Ile-Ife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olabode, Ayomide; Ariyibi, Emmanuel

    2016-07-01

    The effect of the main phase of two intense geomagnetic storm events which occurred on August 5-6 and September 26-27, 2011 on the equatorial ionosphere have been investigated using Global Positioning System (GPS) data obtained from an Ile-Ife station (geomagnetic lat. 9.84°N, long. 77.25°E). The WinTEC-P and GPS-TEC analysis software programs were used to process the GPS data to obtain Total Electron Content (TEC) and Scintillation Index (S4). TEC profiles during the main phase of the two geomagnetically disturbed days were compared with quiet time average profiles to examine the response of the equatorial ionosphere. International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) 2012 TEC model was also obtained from Virtual Ionosphere, Thermosphere, Mesosphere Observatory (VITMO) and the extents of deviation from measured GPS-derived TEC were examined for the main phase of the storm events. The results showed that the intensity of both storm events during the main phase which occurred at night-time correlated well with a strong southward direction of the z-component of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF-Bz) and Solar Wind Speed (Vsw), with the Disturbance storm time (Dst) profile showing multiple step development. TEC depletion was observed during the main phase of the August 5-6, 2011 storm event with TEC recording a maximum value of 9.31 TECU. A maximum TEC value of 55.8 TECU was recorded during the main phase of the September 26-27, 2011 storm event depicting TEC enhancement. Significant scintillation index value of 0.57 was observed when the main phase started on August 5-6, 2011 followed by a prolonged suppression while there was less significant scintillation impact on September 26-27, 2011 with a maximum value of 0.33. The study concluded that the intensification of the ring current during the main phase of geomagnetic storm events was responsible for the intensity of the storm events causing large variations in TEC and significant scintillation phenomenon.

  7. The Effects of Jiang-Zhi-Ning and Its Main Components on Cholesterol Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxin Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To examine how Jiang-Zhi-Ning (JZN regulates cholesterol metabolism and compare the role of its four main components. We established a beagle model of hyperlipidemia, fed with JZN extract and collected JZN-containing serum 0, 1, 2, 4, and 6 h later. Human liver cells Bel-7402 were stimulated with 10% JZN-containing serum as well as the four main components of JZN and Atorvastatin. The mRNA expression of LDL receptor (LDL-R, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMG-CoAR, cytochrome P450 7A1 (CYP7A1, and acetyl-Coenzyme A acetyltransferase 2 (ACAT2 was measured by real-time PCR. LDL-R surface expression and LDL-binding and internalization were examined by flow cytometry. The results showed that JZN-containing serum significantly increased the mRNA expression of LDL-R, HMG-CoAR, and CYP7A1 in Bel-7402 cells. All the four components significantly increased the mRNA and protein expression of LDL-R and HMG-CoAR and decreased the mRNA and protein expression of ACAT2 in Bel-7402 cells. Hyperinand chrysophanol also markedly increased the mRNA expression of CYP7A1. Stimulation with stilbene glycosidesignificantly increased the surface expression of LDL-R and the binding and internalization of LDL. In conclusion, JZN and its four components have close relationship with the process of cholesterol metabolism, emphasizing their promising application as new drug candidates in the treatment of hyperlipidemia.

  8. Monte Carlo modeling and analyses of YALINA-booster subcritical assembly part 1: analytical models and main neutronics parameters.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talamo, A.; Gohar, M. Y. A.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2008-09-11

    This study was carried out to model and analyze the YALINA-Booster facility, of the Joint Institute for Power and Nuclear Research of Belarus, with the long term objective of advancing the utilization of accelerator driven systems for the incineration of nuclear waste. The YALINA-Booster facility is a subcritical assembly, driven by an external neutron source, which has been constructed to study the neutron physics and to develop and refine methodologies to control the operation of accelerator driven systems. The external neutron source consists of Californium-252 spontaneous fission neutrons, 2.45 MeV neutrons from Deuterium-Deuterium reactions, or 14.1 MeV neutrons from Deuterium-Tritium reactions. In the latter two cases a deuteron beam is used to generate the neutrons. This study is a part of the collaborative activity between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) of USA and the Joint Institute for Power and Nuclear Research of Belarus. In addition, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has a coordinated research project benchmarking and comparing the results of different numerical codes with the experimental data available from the YALINA-Booster facility and ANL has a leading role coordinating the IAEA activity. The YALINA-Booster facility has been modeled according to the benchmark specifications defined for the IAEA activity without any geometrical homogenization using the Monte Carlo codes MONK and MCNP/MCNPX/MCB. The MONK model perfectly matches the MCNP one. The computational analyses have been extended through the MCB code, which is an extension of the MCNP code with burnup capability because of its additional feature for analyzing source driven multiplying assemblies. The main neutronics parameters of the YALINA-Booster facility were calculated using these computer codes with different nuclear data libraries based on ENDF/B-VI-0, -6, JEF-2.2, and JEF-3.1.

  9. Hospitality Invites Sociability, Which Builds Cohesion: a Model for the Role of Main Streets in Population Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izenberg, Jacob M; Fullilove, Mindy Thompson

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of main streets to community social cohesion, a factor important to health. Prior work suggests that casual contact in public space, which we call "sociability," facilitates more sustained social bonds in the community. We appropriate the term "hospitality" to describe a main street's propensity to support a density of such social interactions. Hospitality is a result of the integrity and complex contents of the main street and surrounding area. We examine this using a typology we term "box-circle-line" to represent the streetscape (the box), the local neighborhood (the circle), and the relationship to the regional network of streets (the line). Through field visits to 50 main streets in New Jersey and elsewhere, and a systematic qualitative investigation of main streets in a densely interconnected urban region (Essex County, New Jersey), we observed significant variation in main street hospitality, which generally correlated closely with sociability. Physical elements such as street wall, neighborhood elements such as connectivity, inter-community elements such as access and perceived welcome, and socio-political elements such as investment and racial discrimination were identified as relevant to main street hospitality. We describe the box-circle-line as a theoretical model for main street hospitality that links these various factors and provides a viable framework for further research into main street hospitality, particularly with regard to geographic health disparities.

  10. Estuary/ocean exchange and tidal mixing in a Gulf of Maine Estuary: A Lagrangian modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgili, Ata; Proehl, Jeffrey A.; Lynch, Daniel R.; Smith, Keston W.; Swift, M. Robinson

    2005-12-01

    A Lagrangian particle method embedded within a 2-D finite element code, is used to study the transport and ocean-estuary exchange processes in the well-mixed Great Bay Estuarine System in New Hampshire, USA. The 2-D finite element model, driven by residual, semi-diurnal and diurnal tidal constituents, includes the effects of wetting and drying of estuarine mud flats through the use of a porous medium transport module. The particle method includes tidal advection, plus a random walk model in the horizontal that simulates sub-grid scale turbulent transport processes. Our approach involves instantaneous, massive [O(500,000)] particle releases that enable the quantification of ocean-estuary and inter-bay exchanges in a Markovian framework. The effects of the release time, spring-neap cycle, riverine discharge and diffusion strength on the intra-estuary and estuary-ocean exchange are also investigated. The results show a rather dynamic interaction between the ocean and the estuary with a fraction of the exiting particles being caught up in the Gulf of Maine Coastal Current and swept away. Three somewhat different estimates of estuarine residence time are calculated to provide complementary views of estuary flushing. Maps of residence time versus release location uncover a strong spatial dependency of residence time within the estuary that has very important ramifications for local water quality. Simulations with and without the turbulent random walk show that the combined effect of advective shear and turbulent diffusion is very effective at spreading particles throughout the estuary relatively quickly, even at low (1 m 2/s) diffusivity. The results presented here show that a first-order Markov Chain approach has applicability and a high potential for improving our understanding of the mixing processes in estuaries.

  11. The Main Issues to Address in Modeling Plasma Spray Torch Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazelas, C.; Trelles, J. P.; Vardelle, A.

    2017-01-01

    The modeling of plasma torch operation has advanced greatly in the last 15 years due to a better understanding of the underlying physics, development of commercial, open-source computational fluid dynamics softwares, and access to high performance and cloud computing. However, the operation mode of the electric arc in plasma torches is controlled by dynamic, thermal, electromagnetic, acoustic and chemical phenomena that take place at different scales and whose interactions are not completely understood yet. Even though no single model of plasma torch operation fully addresses these phenomena, most of these models are useful tools for parametric studies, if their use is reinforced by knowledge of torch operation and the model predictions are validated against experimental data. To increase the level of predictability of the current models, several further steps are needed. This study examines the issues remaining to be addressed in the modeling of plasma spray torch operation and the current critical aspects of these.

  12. Thermal hydraulic similarity analysis of the integral effect test facility for main steam line break events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, K.Y.; Park, H.S.; Euh, D.J.; Kwon, T.S.; Baek, W.P. [Thermal Hydraulic Safety Research Division Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute 150 Dukjin-Dong, Yusong-Gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: A thermal-hydraulic integral effect test facility, ATLAS (Advanced Thermal-hydraulic Test Loop for Accident Simulation), is being constructed at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). The ATLAS is a 1/2 reduced height and 1/288 volume scaled test facility based on the design features of the APR1400, an evolutionary pressurized water reactor developed by Korean industry. The ATLAS will be used to get more realistic understanding of the thermal hydraulic phenomena following postulated events and to carry out performance evaluation and safety analysis of the reference plants. The MSLB (Main Steam Line Break) event is one of the representative non-LOCA events and thermalhydraulic phenomena following the event are to be investigated in the ATLAS. In this paper, thermal hydraulic similarity for MSLB events between the ATLAS and the prototype plant, APR1400 is assessed by using the MARS code, which is a multi-dimensional best-estimate thermal hydraulic code being developed by KAERI. Several cases including SLBFPLOOP and SLBFP are taken into account for similarity analysis in this paper. The neutronic effects such as moderator temperature coefficients and doppler reactivity in APR1400 are not considered in this study. The same control logics for the major sequence of events such as reactor trip, turbine trip, valve opening and actuation of the emergency cooling system are applied to the ATLAS and the APR1400. The present investigation is focused on the scaling and the reduced power effects on thermal hydraulic similarity after initiation of MSLB events. It is found that the ATLAS facility has the similar thermal hydraulic responses against the MSLB events. However, the initial high secondary pressure before the MSLB initiation resulted in different primary pressure and temperature progression from the APR1400. The break flow from the main steam line is found to be one of the most dominating parameters governing the transient

  13. The effect of disc inclination on the main sequence of star-forming galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morselli, L.; Renzini, A.; Popesso, P.; Erfanianfar, G.

    2016-11-01

    We use the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (York et al.) data base to explore the effect of the disc inclination angle on the derived star formation rate (SFR), hence on the slope and width of the main-sequence (MS) relation for star-forming galaxies. We find that SFRs for nearly edge-on discs are underestimated by factors ranging from ˜0.2 dex for low-mass galaxies up to ˜0.4 dex for high-mass galaxies. This results in a substantially flatter MS relation for high-inclination discs compared to that for less inclined ones, though the global effect over the whole sample of star-forming galaxies is relatively minor, given the small fraction of high-inclination discs. However, we also find that galaxies with high-inclination discs represent a non-negligible fraction of galaxies populating the so-called green valley, with derived SFRs intermediate between the MS and those of quenched, passively evolving galaxies.

  14. Synergistic anticancer effects of triptolide and celastrol, two main compounds from thunder god vine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qi-Wei; Cheng, Ke-Jun; Mei, Xiao-Long; Qiu, Jian-Ge; Zhang, Wen-Ji; Xue, You-Qiu; Qin, Wu-Ming; Yang, Yang; Zheng, Di-Wei; Chen, Yao; Wei, Meng-Ning; Zhang, Xu; Lv, Min; Chen, Mei-Wan; Wei, Xing; Shi, Zhi

    2015-10-20

    Triptolide and celastrol are two main active compounds isolated from Thunder God Vine with the potent anticancer activity. However, the anticancer effect of triptolide in combination with celastrol is still unknown. In the present study, we demonstrated that the combination of triptolide with celastrol synergistically induced cell growth inhibition, cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase and apoptosis with the increased intracellular ROS accumulation in cancer cells. Pretreatment with ROS scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine dramatically blocked the apoptosis induced by co-treatment with triptolide and celastrol. Treatment with celastrol alone led to the decreased expressions of HSP90 client proteins including survivin, AKT, EGFR, which was enhanced by the addition of triptolide. Additionally, the celastrol-induced expression of HSP70 and HSP27 was abrogated by triptolide. In the nude mice with xenograft tumors, the lower-dose combination of triptolide with celastrol significantly inhibited the growth of tumors without obvious toxicity. Overall, triptolide in combination with celastrol showed outstanding synergistic anticancer effect in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that this beneficial combination may offer a promising treatment option for cancer patients.

  15. Cost Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 for the State of Maine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of Maine. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.

  16. Effect of LA on the Growth and Development of the Main Organs in Female Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiuyuan; Lin, Feng; Li, Yongtao; Chen, Yuxia; Li, Jing; Guo, Linlin; Han, Xuelei; Song, Huan

    2017-01-01

    Effects of lead acetate (LA) on the growth and development of major organs in female mice were studied. Female mice were divided randomly into four treatment groups and one control group. In treatment groups, mice were injected with different concentrations of LA solution every 2 days; whereas control-group mice received equal volumes of sterile normal saline. Body weight (BW) and symptoms were recorded every 2 days. After LA exposure, mice were executed by cervical dislocation and main organs (heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney) collected for evaluation of morphologic and histologic changes. LA could greatly affect increases in BW, and BW decreased with increasing dose and time of exposure to LA. Compared with the control group, organ coefficients in treatment groups were of the order kidney and spleen > liver and lung > heart and demonstrated obvious dose-time effects. LA exposure could damage the heart, liver, spleen, lung, and kidney. Damage to the kidney and spleen was the most severe, followed by that to the liver, heart, and lung. Damage was aggravated with increasing doses and exposure time to LA in an obvious dose-time relationship; when LA dose was ≥20 mg/kg, the growth and development of mice were obviously inhibited. These results suggest that long-term exposure to low-dose LA can result in universal pathologic damage to mouse organs and that severity is dependent on the dose and duration of LA exposure.

  17. Models of cognitive behavior in nuclear power plant personnel. A feasibility study: main report. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, D.D.; Roth, E.M.; Hanes, L.F.

    1986-07-01

    This report contains the results of a feasibility study to determine if the current state of models human cognitive activities can serve as the basis for improved techniques for predicting human error in nuclear power plants emergency operations. Based on the answer to this questions, two subsequent phases of research are planned. Phase II is to develop a model of cognitive activities, and Phase III is to test the model. The feasibility study included an analysis of the cognitive activities that occur in emergency operations and an assessment of the modeling concepts/tools available to capture these cognitive activities. The results indicated that a symbolic processing (or artificial intelligence) model of cognitive activities in nuclear power plants is both desirable and feasible. This cognitive model can be built upon the computational framework provided by an existing artificial intelligence system for medical problem solving called Caduceus. The resulting cognitive model will increase the capability to capture the human contribution to risk in probabilistic risk assessments studies. Volume I summarizes the major findings and conclusions of the study. Volume II provides a complete description of the methods and results, including a synthesis of the cognitive activities that occur during emergency operations, and a literature review on cognitive modeling relevant to nuclear power plants. 112 refs., 10 figs.

  18. Models to Predict Flowering Time in the Main Saffron Production Regions of Khorasan Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behdani, M. A.; Koocheki, A.; Nassiri, M.; Rezvani, P.

    The objective of this study was to develop a thermal model that can be used for prediction of saffron flowering time. For this purpose, existing data on saffron flower emergence time were collected in a wide range of temperature regimes over the saffron production regions of Khorasan province, Iran. Linear second-order polynomial and 5-parameter beta models were used and statistically compared for their ability in predicting saffron flowering time as a function of temperature. The results showed a significant delay in flowering date across the temperature gradient. While beta model had a better statistical performance but the simple linear model also showed a good predicting ability and therefore, can be used as a reliable model.

  19. Demographic Characteristics of a Maine Woodcock Population and Effects of Habitat Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, T.J.; Sepik, G.F.; Derleth, E.L.; McAuley, D.G.

    1988-01-01

    A population of American woodcock (Scolopax minor) was studied on a 3,401-ha area of the Moosehorn National Wildlife Refuge in northeastern Maine from 1976 through 1985. During 1976-83, from 4 to 64 clearcuts were created each year, opening up large contiguous blocks of forest. A combination of mist nets, ground traps, nightlighting techniques, and trained dogs were used to capture and band 1,884 birds during the first 5 years. Capture and recapture data (totaling 3,009 observations) were used with both demographically closed and open population models to estimate population size and, for open population models, summer survival. Flying young, especially young males, represented the greatest proportion of all captures; analysis showed that young males were more prone to capture than young females. Male courtship began about 24 March each year, usually when there was still snow in wooded areas. Males ~2 years old dominated singing grounds during April each year, but this situation changed and first-year males dominated singing grounds in May. Singing males shifted from older established singing grounds to new clearcuts soon after we initiated forest management. Many males were subdominant at singing grounds despite an abundance of unoccupied openings. Three hundred adult females were captured and, except for 1978, the majority were ~2 years old. The year in which female homing rate was lowest(1979) was preceded by the year with the largest number of l-year-old brood female captures and a summer drought. Summer survival of young was lowest in 1978 and was attributed to summer drought. The year 1979 had an abnormally cool and wet spring, and was the poorest for production of young. Capture ratios of young-to-adult females obtained by nightlighting could be used to predict production on our study area. Closed population model estimates did not seem to fit either young or adult data sets well. Instead, a partially open capture-recapture model that allowed death but no

  20. The Study of Main and Interactive Effects of Attachment Dimension and Basic Personality Characteristics in Borderline Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammadzadeh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are models of the development of personality disorders which include individual differences in attachment relationships as causal factors contributed in explanation of these phenomena. The dimensional view of personality disorders represents these conditions as extreme variants of normal personality continua. This study investigated main and interactional effects of attachment styles and personality traits in relation to borderline characteristics. Materials and Methods: The current study was conducted in expo fact context. Randomly selected 603 participants (134 male  469 female from Tabriz Payam-e-Noor, Tarbait Moallem of Azarbaijan and Sarab Payam-e-Noor university students took part in this research. Participants answered to Borderline Personality Inventory (BPI, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised, Short form (EPQ-RS and Adult Attachment Inventory (AAI. Data were analyzed using two way analysis of variance method.Results: Results indicate main effects of attachment styles and personality traits, so, individual with ambivalent insecure attachment experience more intensity of borderline traits than individual with avoidant insecure and secure attachments. Individual with high psychoticim and neuroticism traits experience more intensity of borderline characteristics than individual with extraversion personality traits. Also, there are no interactional effects of attachment styles and personality traits in relation to borderline characteristics. Conclusion: These findings reiterate contribution of childhood risk factors in developing borderline personality disorder, especially in children with emotionally vulnerability.

  1. Personality Characteristics, Job Stressors, and Job Satisfaction: Main and Interaction Effects on Psychological and Physical Health Conditions of Italian Schoolteachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurlo, Maria Clelia; Pes, Daniela; Capasso, Roberto

    2016-08-01

    The study proposed an application of the transactional model of stress in teaching elaborated by Travers and Cooper in 1996, and aimed to investigate the influence of personality characteristics (coping strategies, type A behaviors), situational characteristics (sources of pressure), and perceived job satisfaction in the prediction of teachers' psychophysical health conditions. The Italian version of the Teacher Stress Questionnaire was administered to 621 teachers. Logistic regression was used to evaluate significant main and interaction effects of personality characteristics, situational characteristics, and perceived job satisfaction on teachers' self-reported psychophysical health conditions. The findings highlighted specific coping strategies (focused on the problem, on innovation, and on hobbies and pastimes) and dimensions of job satisfaction (related to intrinsic aspects of job and to employee relations) buffering the negative effects of several job stressors. Type A behaviors and coping strategies focused on mobilized social support, suppression of stress, and not confronting the situation had main and interactions with negative effects on psychophysical health. Findings confirmed the necessity to run multi-factor research to analyze the different combinations of individual and situational variables implicated in negative health outcomes and to highlight the most significant buffering or increasing associations. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Molecules and Models The molecular structures of main group element compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Haaland, Arne

    2008-01-01

    This book provides a systematic description of the molecular structures and bonding in simple compounds of the main group elements with particular emphasis on bond distances, bond energies and coordination geometries. The description includes the structures of hydrogen, halogen and methyl derivatives of the elements in each group, some of these molecules are ionic, some polar covalent. The survey of molecules whose structures conform to well-established trends is followed byrepresentative examples of molecules that do not conform. We also describe electron donor-acceptor and hydrogen bonded co

  3. Interactive High Resolution Force-on-Force Model. Main Battle Processor Source Code Listing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-01

    aewreucoPoet04¶)WangnC25C 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leav’e blank) 2?. REPORT DATE 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED lApril 1994 7 Technical October 1993-March94 4...mission profile of a future main battle tank for the year 2015. However, the software is sufficiently flexible to permit the analysis of tradeoffs involving...rsc~a FACTOR IO AHGI C C 17AC SRNSCLGFACTOR FO DIORECTION COMMONiGO?40XJJ SWALE SOFACT PREACT.WACT C AACT PRITER CAIN FACTOR FOREX DIRECTION COMiOOOiSU

  4. A model of the AGS based on stepwise ray-tracing through the measured field maps of the main magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutheil Y.; Meot, F.; Tsoupas, N.

    2012-05-20

    Two-dimensional mid-plane magnetic field maps of two of the main AGS magnets were produced, from Hall probe measurements, for a series of different current settings. The analysis of these data yielded the excitation functions [1] and the harmonic coefficients [2] of the main magnets which have been used so far in all the models of the AGS. The constant increase of the computation power makes it possible today to directly use a stepwise raytracing through these measured field maps with a reasonable computation time. We describe in detail how these field maps have allowed the generation of models of the 6 different types of AGS main magnets, and how they are being handled with the Zgoubi ray-tracing code [3]. We give and discuss a number of results obtained regarding both beam and spin dynamics in the AGS, and we provide comparisons with other numerical and analytical modelling methods.

  5. Empirical Tests of Pre-Main-Sequence Stellar Evolution Models with Eclipsing Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Stassun, Keivan G; Torres, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    We examine the performance of standard PMS stellar evolution models against the accurately measured properties of a benchmark sample of 26 PMS stars in 13 EB systems. We provide a definitive compilation of all fundamental properties for the EBs. We also provide a definitive compilation of the various PMS model sets. In the H-R diagram, the masses inferred for the individual stars by the models are accurate to better than 10% above 1 Msun, but below 1 Msun they are discrepant by 50-100%. We find evidence that the failure of the models to match the data is linked to the triples in the EB sample; at least half of the EBs possess tertiary companions. Excluding the triples, the models reproduce the stellar masses to better than ~10% in the H-R diagram, down to 0.5 Msun, below which the current sample is fully contaminated by tertiaries. We consider several mechanisms by which a tertiary might cause changes in the EB properties and thus corrupt the agreement with stellar model predictions. We show that the energies...

  6. Genome scan for nonadditive heterotic trait loci reveals mainly underdominant effects in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laiba, Efrat; Glikaite, Ilana; Levy, Yael; Pasternak, Zohar; Fridman, Eyal

    2016-04-01

    The overdominant model of heterosis explains the superior phenotype of hybrids by synergistic allelic interaction within heterozygous loci. To map such genetic variation in yeast, we used a population doubling time dataset of Saccharomyces cerevisiae 16 × 16 diallel and searched for major contributing heterotic trait loci (HTL). Heterosis was observed for the majority of hybrids, as they surpassed their best parent growth rate. However, most of the local heterozygous loci identified by genome scan were surprisingly underdominant, i.e., reduced growth. We speculated that in these loci adverse effects on growth resulted from incompatible allelic interactions. To test this assumption, we eliminated these allelic interactions by creating hybrids with local hemizygosity for the underdominant HTLs, as well as for control random loci. Growth of hybrids was indeed elevated for most hemizygous to HTL genes but not for control genes, hence validating the results of our genome scan. Assessing the consequences of local heterozygosity by reciprocal hemizygosity and allele replacement assays revealed the influence of genetic background on the underdominant effects of HTLs. Overall, this genome-wide study on a multi-parental hybrid population provides a strong argument against single gene overdominance as a major contributor to heterosis, and favors the dominance complementation model.

  7. THE EFFECT OF SEED TREATMENT ON THE MAIN PATHOGENS PRESENT IN WHEAT AGROECOSYSTEMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stef, R; Grozea, I; Puia, C; Carabet, A; Vlad, M; Manea, D

    2014-01-01

    Wheat crop (Triticum aestivum L.) from Poaceae family is affected by many diseases that cause yield losses. The present paper addresses a topic of economic, agrotechnics and social importance of wheat crop (occupying the first place among the Romanian cultivated crop, feeding 35 to 40% of world population). The study had as main objective product testing like Yunta 246 FS (imidacloprid 233 g/l + tebuconazol 13 g/l), Team Micorriza Plus (Glomus intraradices 150 spore/g + Glomus mosseae 150 spore/g + organic matter 56% and Rhizosphere Bacteria 107 UFC/g) and Condor (Trichoderma spp. 1 x 109 spore/g + Glomus sp. 10 spore/g + Rhizosphere Bacteria 1 x 107 UFC/g and organic matter 7%) applied in the pathosystem wheat/pathogens. The research was conducted in the western part of Romania, in 2010-2012, experience was placed after Latin rectangle method with 10 variants (they are different by product and dose applied) and the data were statistically interpreted. Results showed the presence of pathogens Septoria tritici, Drechslera tritici repentis and Drechslera teres in experimental variants. Statistical analysis showed that the most effective chemical mixture was imidacloprid + tebuconazol at the highest dose tested (3 l/t). Regarding the non-chemical product testing, the product Condor gave positive results. The highest values of quality parameters (protein and gluten) were obtained in the variants treated with Yunta 246 FS.

  8. Trust and team performance: A meta-analysis of main effects, moderators, and covariates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jong, Bart A; Dirks, Kurt T; Gillespie, Nicole

    2016-08-01

    Cumulating evidence from 112 independent studies (N = 7,763 teams), we meta-analytically examine the fundamental questions of whether intrateam trust is positively related to team performance, and the conditions under which it is particularly important. We address these questions by analyzing the overall trust-performance relationship, assessing the robustness of this relationship by controlling for other relevant predictors and covariates, and examining how the strength of this relationship varies as a function of several moderating factors. Our findings confirm that intrateam trust is positively related to team performance, and has an above-average impact (ρ = .30). The covariate analyses show that this relationship holds after controlling for team trust in leader and past team performance, and across dimensions of trust (i.e., cognitive and affective). The moderator analyses indicate that the trust-performance relationship is contingent upon the level of task interdependence, authority differentiation, and skill differentiation in teams. Finally, we conducted preliminary analyses on several emerging issues in the literature regarding the conceptualization and measurement of trust and team performance (i.e., referent of intrateam trust, dimension of performance, performance objectivity). Together, our findings contribute to the literature by helping to (a) integrate the field of intrateam trust research, (b) resolve mixed findings regarding the trust-performance relationship, (c) overcome scholarly skepticism regarding the main effect of trust on team performance, and (d) identify the conditions under which trust is most important for team performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Dynamic model building and simulation for mechanical main body of lunar lander

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shao-chun; DENG Zong-quan; HU Ming; GAO Hai-bo

    2005-01-01

    Focused on the dynamics problems of a lunar lander during landing process, the whole process was analysed in detail, and the linear elastic model of the moon soil was established by means of experiments-analogic method. Combining the way of elastic impact with the way of velocity replacement, the dynamics model of damping free vibration dynamics model with 3-degree of freedom(DOF) for lunar lander is obtained according to the vibration mechanics elementary theory. Based on Lagrange equations and the energy principle, the damping free vibration differential equations for the lunar lander with 3-DOF are derived and the equations are solved in simulation ways by means of ADAMS software. The conclusions obtained can be used for the design and manufacture of lunar lander.

  10. Polymer Main-Chain Substitution Effects on the Efficiency of Nonfullerene BHJ Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Firdaus, Yuliar

    2017-07-21

    “Nonfullerene” acceptors are proving effective in bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells when paired with selected polymer donors. However, the principles that guide the selection of adequate polymer donors for high-efficiency BHJ solar cells with nonfullerene acceptors remain a matter of some debate and, while polymer main-chain substitutions may have a direct influence on the donor–acceptor interplay, those effects should be examined and correlated with BHJ device performance patterns. This report examines a set of wide-bandgap polymer donor analogues composed of benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene (BDT), and thienyl ([2H]T) or 3,4-difluorothiophene ([2F]T) motifs, and their BHJ device performance pattern with the nonfullerene acceptor “ITIC”. Studies show that the fluorine- and ring-substituted derivative PBDT(T)[2F]T largely outperforms its other two polymer donor counterparts, reaching power conversion efficiencies as high as 9.8%. Combining several characterization techniques, the gradual device performance improvements observed on swapping PBDT[2H]T for PBDT[2F]T, and then for PBDT(T)[2F]T, are found to result from (i) notably improved charge generation and collection efficiencies (estimated as ≈60%, 80%, and 90%, respectively), and (ii) reduced geminate recombination (being suppressed from ≈30%, 25% to 10%) and bimolecular recombination (inferred from recombination rate constant comparisons). These examinations will have broader implications for further studies on the optimization of BHJ solar cell efficiencies with polymer donors and a wider range of nonfullerene acceptors.

  11. Bayesian framework to identify the main effects of long term climatic constraints on soil moisture decline in conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, M.; Vargas, R.

    2016-12-01

    We used a Bayesian regression framework based on Hamiltonian Monte Carlo simulations to identify the main effects of mean annual soil moisture, temperature, evapotranspiration, and precipitation, on long-term soil moisture decline across conterminous United States based on 36 years of remotely sensed available data. We found that mean soil moisture was a positive control of soil moisture decline in areas with long-term high precipitation but low evapotranspiration. Furthermore, mean soil moisture is a negative control on soil moisture decline in areas with long-term low precipitation and low evapotranspiration. In contrast, mean soil moisture had no effect on soil moisture decline in areas with long-term low precipitation and high evapotranspiration. These results highlight the importance of having accurate spatial soil moisture information to better inform earth system models to predict regional to global water balance and climate trends. These results support the current understanding of the basic physical mechanisms governing the coupling of soil moisture with temperature, precipitation, and evapotranspiration, but bring attention to high spatial heterogeneity in the constraints of soil moisture at the continental scale. The response of soil moisture to climate variability is considered to be one of the largest uncertainties for global land surface models, and resolving high spatial resolution of soil moisture is an ongoing challenge. Independent estimates of high spatial resolution of soil moisture could improve parameterizations of land surface models and cross-validate the current functions that mainly relay on precipitation, aerodynamic representation of the latent and sensible heat fluxes, and land surface cover type.

  12. Main field and secular variation candidate models for the 12th IGRF generation after 10 months of Swarm measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saturnino, Diana; Langlais, Benoit; Civet, François; Thébault, Erwan; Mandea, Mioara

    2015-06-01

    We describe the main field and secular variation candidate models for the 12th generation of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field model. These two models are derived from the same parent model, in which the main field is extrapolated to epoch 2015.0 using its associated secular variation. The parent model is exclusively based on measurements acquired by the European Space Agency Swarm mission between its launch on 11/22/2013 and 09/18/2014. It is computed up to spherical harmonic degree and order 25 for the main field, 13 for the secular variation, and 2 for the external field. A selection on local time rather than on true illumination of the spacecraft was chosen in order to keep more measurements. Data selection based on geomagnetic indices was used to minimize the external field contributions. Measurements were screened and outliers were carefully removed. The model uses magnetic field intensity measurements at all latitudes and magnetic field vector measurements equatorward of 50° absolute quasi-dipole magnetic latitude. A second model using only the vertical component of the measured magnetic field and the total intensity was computed. This companion model offers a slightly better fit to the measurements. These two models are compared and discussed.We discuss in particular the quality of the model which does not use the full vector measurements and underline that this approach may be used when only partial directional information is known. The candidate models and their associated companion models are retrospectively compared to the adopted IGRF which allows us to criticize our own choices.

  13. My Understanding of the Main Similarities and Differences between the Three Translation Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    支志

    2009-01-01

    In this paper,the author wants to prove that the three translation models not only have similarities but also have differences,with the similarities being that they all refer to faithful and free translation and the status of reader,the differences being that their focuses are quite different and their influence upon the present translation theory and practice vary.

  14. Photometry and models of selected main belt asteroids. III. 283 Emma, 665 Sabine, and 690 Wratislavia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michałowski, T.; Kaasalainen, M.; Polińska, M.; Marciniak, A.; Kwiatkowski, T.; Kryszczyńska, A.; Velichko, F. P.

    2006-11-01

    Photometric observations of 283 Emma (1998, 2000, 2001, 2004), 665 Sabine (1998, 1999, 2001, 2004, 2005), and 690 Wratislavia (1998, 2000, 2004, 2005-2006) carried out on 44 nights at two observatories are presented. Using all available lightcurves, the spin vectors, senses of rotation, and shape models for these three asteroids have been determined.

  15. Refining the model of barrier island formation along a paraglacial coast in the Gulf of Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Christopher J.; FitzGerald, Duncan M.; Carruthers, Emily A.; Stone, Byron D.; Barnhardt, Walter A.; Gontz, Allen M.

    2012-01-01

    Details of the internal architecture and local geochronology of Plum Island, the longest barrier in the Gulf of Maine, have refined our understanding of barrier island formation in paraglacial settings. Ground-penetrating radar and shallow-seismic profiles coupled with sediment cores and radiocarbon dates provide an 8000-year evolutionary history of this barrier system in response to changes in sediment sources and supply rates as well as variability in the rate of sea-level change. The barrier sequence overlies tills of Wisconsinan and Illinoian glaciations as well as late Pleistocene glaciomarine clay deposited during the post-glacial sea-level highstand at approximately 17 ka. Holocene sediment began accumulating at the site of Plum Island at 7–8 ka, in the form of coarse fluvial channel-lag deposits related to the 50-m wide erosional channel of the Parker River that carved into underlying glaciomarine deposits during a lower stand of sea level. Plum Island had first developed in its modern location by ca. 3.6 ka through onshore migration and vertical accretion of reworked regressive and lowstand deposits. The prevalence of southerly, seaward-dipping layers indicates that greater than 60% of the barrier lithosome developed in its modern location through southerly spit progradation, consistent with a dominantly longshore transport system driven by northeast storms. Thinner sequences of northerly, landward-dipping clinoforms represent the northern recurve of the prograding spit. A 5–6-m-thick inlet-fill sequence was identified overlying the lower stand fluvial deposit; its stratigraphy captures events of channel migration, ebb-delta breaching, onshore bar migration, channel shoaling and inlet infilling associated with the migration and eventual closure of the inlet. This inlet had a maximum cross-sectional area of 2800 m2 and was active around 3.5–3.6 ka. Discovery of this inlet suggests that the tidal prism was once larger than at present. Bay infilling

  16. Mathematical modeling of a non-Newtonian fluid flow in the main fracture inside permeable porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyasov, A. M.; Bulgakova, G. T.

    2016-08-01

    This paper describes a mathematical model of the main fracture isolation in porous media by water-based mature gels. While modeling injection, water infiltration from the gel pack through fracture walls is taking into account, due to which the polymer concentration changes and the residual water resistance factor changes as a consequence. The salutation predicts velocity and pressure fields of the non-Newtonian incompressible fluid filtration for conditions of a non-deformable formation as well as a gel front trajectory in the fracture. The mathematical model of agent injection into the main fracture is based on the fundamental laws of continuum mechanics conservation describing the flow of non-Newtonian and Newtonian fluids separated by an interface plane in a flat channel with permeable walls. The mathematical model is based on a one-dimensional isothermal approximation, with dynamic parameters pressure and velocity, averaged over the fracture section.

  17. Aqueous photochemical degradation of hydroxylated PAHs: Kinetics, pathways, and multivariate effects of main water constituents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, Linke; Na, Guangshui [Key Laboratory for Ecological Environment in Coastal Areas (SOA), National Marine Environmental Monitoring Center, Dalian 116023 (China); Chen, Chang-Er [Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Li, Jun [Key Laboratory for Ecological Environment in Coastal Areas (SOA), National Marine Environmental Monitoring Center, Dalian 116023 (China); College of Marine Science, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai 201306 (China); Ju, Maowei; Wang, Ying; Li, Kai [Key Laboratory for Ecological Environment in Coastal Areas (SOA), National Marine Environmental Monitoring Center, Dalian 116023 (China); Zhang, Peng, E-mail: pzhang@nmemc.org.cn [Key Laboratory for Ecological Environment in Coastal Areas (SOA), National Marine Environmental Monitoring Center, Dalian 116023 (China); Yao, Ziwei [Key Laboratory for Ecological Environment in Coastal Areas (SOA), National Marine Environmental Monitoring Center, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2016-03-15

    PAHs. • Hydroxylated PAHs intrinsically photodegrade fast in sunlit surface waters. • Reaction types and transformation pathways of 9-Hydroxyfluorene were clarified. • Photolysis kinetics was affected by multivariate effects of main water constituents. • The photomodified toxicity of 9-Hydroxyfluorene was examined using Vibrio fischeri.

  18. The spinning Astrid-2 satellite used for modeling the Earth's main magnetic field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merayo, José M.G.; Jørgensen, P.S.; Risbo, T.;

    2002-01-01

    , and therefore mapping of the Earth's magnetic field was possible. The spacecraft spins about a highly stable axis in space. This fact and the globally distributed data make the magnetic measurements well suited for the estimate of a magnetic field model at the spacecraft altitude (about 1000 km). This paper......The Swedish micro-satellite Astrid-2 was successfully launched into a near polar orbit in December 1998. Despite the fact that the primary science mission was auroral research, the magnetic instrument was designed to accomplish high-resolution and high-precision vector field magnetic measurements...... describes the initial analysis of the Astrid-2 magnetic data. As a result of the study of a single day (February 7, 1999), magnetically fairly quiet, it was possible to in-flight adjust the calibration of the magnetometer and find a magnetic field model fitting the scalar component of the measurements...

  19. Study on End Milling Generation Surface Model and Simulation in View of Main Axle s Tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In accordance with the relative movement between end-milling cutter and workpiece surface, a theoretical generation model for milled surface was established with the movement error of principal axle considered. Then the milled surfaces under various cutting condition were simulated, the results of which showed that end milled surfaces were of "vaulted profile", heights of surface irregularty at various points to be different with maximum value in the middle and smaller at both sides, the difference were ...

  20. Regulation models for district heating. Main report; Denmark; Reguleringsmodeller for fjernvarmen. Hovedrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-02-15

    With regard to choice of model for the regulation of district heating prices the report points out that a detailed analysis of a cost+ model could be considered. Such an analysis could provide further definition of the extended right to recoup the investment for heating companies, the shaping of the possibility of recognition of opportunity costs and the fixed cost allocation, and the clarified definition of necessary costs. The report also suggests that a price cap regulation or a completely free pricing in the entire sector is hardly appropriate forms of regulation. The report's analysis clearly shows that the choice of price regulation in the heat sector has impact on the incentives in terms of investment, green conversion, etc. It also appears that the different regulatory models have very different advantages and disadvantages, and lessons learned from other sectors and abroad show that changing price regulation rules can be a difficult and lengthy process with unintended consequences along the way. (LN)

  1. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis -- Late health effects uncertainty assessment. Volume 1: Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, M.P.; Muirhead, C.R. [National Radiological Protection Board (United Kingdom); Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P.; Cooke, R.M. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands); Harper, F.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hora, S.C. [Univ. of Hawaii, Hilo, HI (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the consequence from the accidental releases of radiological material from hypothesized accidents at nuclear installations. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Commission of the European Communities began cosponsoring a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of this joint effort was to systematically develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the respective code input variables. A formal expert judgment elicitation and evaluation process was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for these consequence parameters. This report focuses on the results of the study to develop distribution for variables related to the MACCS and COSYMA late health effects models.

  2. Meselect - A Rapid and Effective Method for the Separation of the Main Leaf Tissue Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svozil, Julia; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Baerenfaller, Katja

    2016-01-01

    Individual tissues of complex eukaryotic organisms have specific gene expression programs that control their functions. Therefore, tissue-specific molecular information is required to increase our understanding of tissue-specific processes. Established methods in plants to obtain specific tissues or cell types from their organ or tissue context typically require the enzymatic degradation of cell walls followed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) using plants engineered for localized expression of green fluorescent protein. This has facilitated the acquisition of valuable data, mainly on root cell type-specific transcript and protein expression. However, FACS of different leaf cell types is difficult because of chlorophyll autofluorescence that interferes with the sorting process. Furthermore, the cell wall composition is different in each cell type. This results in long incubation times for refractory cell types, and cell sorting itself can take several hours. To overcome these limitations, we developed Meselect (mechanical separation of leaf compound tissues), a rapid and effective method for the separation of leaf epidermal, vascular and mesophyll tissues. Meselect is a novel combination of mechanical separation and rapid protoplasting, which benefits from the unique cell wall composition of the different tissue types. Meselect has several advantages over cell sorting: it does not require expensive equipment such as a cell sorter and does not depend on specific fluorescent reporter lines, the use of blenders as well as the inherent mixing of different cell types and of intact and damaged cells can be avoided, and the time between wounding of the leaf and freezing of the sample is short. The efficacy and specificity of the method to enrich the different leaf tissue types has been confirmed using Arabidopsis leaves, but it has also been successfully used for leaves of other plants such as tomato or cassava. The method is therefore useful for plant

  3. Stent implantation of left main coronary artery stenosis in an infant: Effective long-term treatment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Paech

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery stenosis is a rare phenomenon in children. Coronary stent implantation is generally not considered a standard treatment option due to technical difficulties and potential complications in this group of patients. Nevertheless, several pediatric cases reporting successful implantation with acceptable short-term experiences have been described. The following case presents a successful stent implantation for left main coronary artery (LMCA stenosis early after surgery for anomalous left coronary artery from pulmonary artery (ALCAPA at the age of 6 months. The excellent mid-term results and notably the procedure′s potential as a long-term treatment in small children are highlighted. A 6-month-old infant underwent surgery for ALCAPA. Due to sudden postoperative deterioration, cardiac catheterization was performed. Coronary angiography revealed severe (90% ostial LMCA stenosis. A PROMUS drug-eluting stent (Promus Element AL3.0 Χ 8 mm, Boston Scientific, Natick, Massachusetts, USA was implanted. The procedure was performed without complications. Antiplatelet therapy with acetylsalicylic acid and clopidogrel was initiated. Subsequently, cardiac function improved slowly. Cardiac catheterization 3 years 8 months after stent implantation showed no restenosis with a proximal LMCA diameter still at the 50 th percentile for age. Neither were signs of heart failure reported at the last follow-up at 7 years of age. Presupposing normal growth, the implanted stent would thus provide sufficient myocardial perfusion with a LMCA lumen at the 40 th percentile at the age of 16 years. In selected cases, coronary stent implantation may be an effective mid- to long-term treatment of coronary artery stenosis even in very young children.

  4. Meselect – A rapid and effective method for the separation of the main leaf tissue types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Svozil

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Individual tissues of complex eukaryotic organisms have specific gene expression programs that control their functions. Therefore, tissue-specific molecular information is required to increase our understanding of tissue-specific processes. Established methods in plants to obtain specific tissues or cell types from their organ or tissue context typically require the enzymatic degradation of cell walls followed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS using plants engineered for localized expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP. This has facilitated the acquisition of valuable data, mainly on root cell type-specific transcript and protein expression. However, FACS of different leaf cell types is difficult because of chlorophyll autofluorescence that interferes with the sorting process. Furthermore, the cell wall composition is different in each cell type. This results in long incubation times for refractory cell types, and cell sorting itself can take several hours. To overcome these limitations, we developed Meselect (mechanical separation of leaf compound tissues, a rapid and effective method for the separation of leaf epidermal, vascular and mesophyll tissues. Meselect is a novel combination of mechanical separation and rapid protoplasting, which benefits from the unique cell wall composition of the different tissue types. Meselect has several advantages over cell sorting: it does not require expensive equipment such as a cell sorter and does not depend on specific fluorescent reporter lines, the use of blenders as well as the inherent mixing of different cell types and of intact and damaged cells can be avoided, and the time between wounding of the leaf and freezing of the sample is short. The efficacy and specificity of the method to enrich the different leaf tissue types has been confirmed using Arabidopsis leaves, but it has also been successfully used for leaves of other plants such as tomato or cassava. The method is therefore

  5. 三主体双轨道交互式护理干预模式在空巢老年慢性阻塞性肺气肿病人中的应用效果评价%Application effect evaluation on three main body double track interactive nursing model used for empty nester pa-tients with chronic obstructive pulmonary emphysema

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张婷雅; 赵楠

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To probe into the application effect of three main body double track interactive nursing model used for the empty nester patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary emphysema.Methods:A total of 132 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary emphysema diagnosed in our hospital from December 2013 to December 2015 were divided into experimental group and control group according to the simple random sam-pling method.Patients in control group were treated with routine nursing care:one call return visit service after discharge,which provided the knowledge of self management and education to the patients;patients in experi-mental group were treated with the three main body double track interactive nursing model to build two contin-uous nursing intervention tracks:one is between empty nester with chronic obstructive emphysema and hospital nurses,and the other one is between empty nester with chronic obstructive emphysema and community nurses to enhance the interaction of three main body double track.The quality of life score,SAS/SDS scores,efficiency and satisfaction degree of patients in the two groups were assessed after three months of intervention.Results:After intervention,the overall health score of patients in experimental group(61.6±4.6)was higher than that in control group(53.6±3.7);the SAS and SDS scores of patients in experimental group were lower than that in control group;the total efficiency score of patients in experimental group(92.4%)was higher than that in the control group(60.6%);the satisfaction of patients in the experimental group(97.0%)was higher than the con-trol group(72.7%);all the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05).Conclusions:Using the three main body double track interactive nursing model could stimulate the patient's subj ective initiative,improve the pa-tient’s psychological state and quality of life.%[目的]探讨三主体双轨道交互式护理干预模式在空巢老年慢性阻塞性肺气肿病人中

  6. Main Quality Attributes of Monoclonal Antibodies and Effect of Cell Culture Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torkashvand, Fatemeh; Vaziri, Behrouz

    2017-05-01

    The culture media optimization is an inevitable part of upstream process development in therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) production. The quality by design (QbD) approach defines the assured quality of the final product through the development stage. An important step in QbD is determination of the main quality attributes. During the media optimization, some of the main quality attributes such as glycosylation pattern, charge variants, aggregates, and low-molecular-weight species, could be significantly altered. Here, we provide an overview of how cell culture medium components affects the main quality attributes of the mAbs. Knowing the relationship between the culture media components and the main quality attributes could be successfully utilized for a rational optimization of mammalian cell culture media for industrial mAbs production.

  7. MONITORING AND MODELING OF THE MAIN TRENDS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF SCIENTIFIC ACTIVITY IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina U. Archipova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to monitoring of the scientific sphere in Russia in comparison to thedeveloped countries. Attention is paid especially to analysis of interrelation between scientifi c researches costs and the results of scientifi c activity,as well as to the modeling of innovative activityin Russia on the based on the systems of therecursive simultaneous equations. The conductedresearch allows to follow the diffusion of scientific knowledge and their influence on innovative activity in the country.

  8. THE MODEL OF IDENTIFICATION OF THE PROBLEM MAIN CAUSE SET OF VARIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Miric

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The term Lean has been widely used in today's product manufacturing and service delivery environments. In its fundamental nature the Lean Philosophy continuously strives for elimination of any kind of waste that exists in such environments. There are six basic strategies [1] related to the Lean Philosophy: Workplace Safety & Order & Cleanliness, JIT production, Six Sigma Quality, Empowered Teams, Visual Management and Pursuit of Perfection. On the journey of sustaining the lean supporting strategies there are many problems, or opportunities as Lean Practitioners call them. The value of some strategies highly depends on the efficiency of the problem solving techniques used to overcome the emerging issues. JIT production is difficult to imagine without a system that supports a high level of operational readiness with equipment uptime above 98%. Six Sigma level of quality, even when built into a product or system design, still undergoes the challenges of day to day operations and the variability brought with it. This variability is the source of waste and lean systems culture strives for continuous reduction of it. Empowered Teams properly trained to recognize the real cause of the problems and their Pursuit of Perfection culture are one of the corner stones of Lean Philosophy sustainability. Their ability to work with Problem Solvers and understand the difference between the "cure of the symptoms" approach versus "problem root cause identification" is one of the distinctions between Lean and Mass operations. Among the series of Statistical Engineering To ols this paper will show one of the techniques that proved to be powerful in the identification of the Set of Variation that contains the Main Cause of the new problems that arise in daily operations. This technique is called Multi - Vari. Multi - Vari is th e statistical engineering method used to analyze the set of data acquired in an organized manner. The set could be analyzed graphically or

  9. Main transition in the Pink membrane model: finite-size scaling and the influence of surface roughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Sina; Vink, R L C

    2012-06-01

    We consider the main transition in single-component membranes using computer simulations of the Pink model [D. A. Pink et al., Biochemistry 19, 349 (1980)]. We first show that the accepted parameters of the Pink model yield a main transition temperature that is systematically below experimental values. This resolves an issue that was first pointed out by Corvera and co-workers [Phys. Rev. E 47, 696 (1993)]. In order to yield the correct transition temperature, the strength of the van der Waals coupling in the Pink model must be increased; by using finite-size scaling, a set of optimal values is proposed. We also provide finite-size scaling evidence that the Pink model belongs to the universality class of the two-dimensional Ising model. This finding holds irrespective of the number of conformational states. Finally, we address the main transition in the presence of quenched disorder, which may arise in situations where the membrane is deposited on a rough support. In this case, we observe a stable multidomain structure of gel and fluid domains, and the absence of a sharp transition in the thermodynamic limit.

  10. Differential effects of main error correction versus secondary error correction on motor pattern of running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corte, Stefano; Cavedon, Valentina; Milanese, Chiara

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of how the run pattern varies as a consequence to main error correction versus secondary error correction. Twenty-two university students were randomly assigned to one of two training-conditions: 'main error' (ME) and 'secondary error' (SE) correction. The rear-foot strike at touchdown was hypothesized as the 'main error', whereas an incorrect shoulder position (i.e., behind the base of support) as the 'secondary error'. In order to evaluate any changes in run pattern at the foot touchdown instant, the ankle, knee and hip joint angles, the height of toe and heel (with respect to the ground), and the horizontal distance from the heel to the projected center of mass on the ground were measured. After the training-intervention, the ME group showed a significant improvement in the run pattern at the foot touchdown instant in all kinematic parameters, whereas no significant changes were found in the SE group. The results support the hypothesis that the main error can have a greater influence on the movement patterns than a secondary error. Furthermore, the findings highlight that a correct diagnosis and the correction of the 'main error' are fundamental for greater run pattern improvement.

  11. The distribution of salinity and main forcing effects in the Berre lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Bernard; Alekseenko, Elena; Chen, Paul Gang; Kharif, Christian; Kotarba, Richard; Fougere, Dominique

    2014-05-01

    The results from previous studies in lagoons and well mixed estuaries indicate that salt transport is primarily in response to advection associated with freshwater outflow, tidal diffusion, and to shear effects arising from spatial correlations of vertical and especially transverse deviations in salinity and current speed (Smith, 1994). Therefore, the inflow of fresh and salt water into coastal lagoons is an important factor influencing the structure and function of lagoonal ecosystems worldwide (Lirman et al., 2007). The predominance of marine or freshwater inflow leads to the different ecosystems. Among several lagoons located along the Mediterranean shore of France, the Berre lagoon has been under intense anthropogenic pressure for several decades (Delpy et al., 2012). Moreover, the salinity level of the Berre lagoon was varying dramatically from the 19th century up to now. In this work, a special attention is focused on the salinity variation in the Berre lagoon due to the three dominant abiotic forcing mechanisms, i.e., incoming sea tide, runoff from a hydropower and a strong wind. Four different model scenarios were considered in order to examine the impact of each forcing mechanism or combined effects, i.e. : (a) tide only, (b) runoff only, (c) combined tide and runoff, and (d) an N-NW wind, tide and runoff together. Numerical modeling and interpretation of numerical results are based on three-dimensional hydrodynamic model MARS3D. It is found that the strongest negative impact is related to the huge hydropower runoffs, inducing the desalinization of the surface and subsurface waters not only in the centre of the lagoon, but also in the entire water column in the coastal seagrass recolonization zones. In the absence of wind, the huge inputs of freshwater from the hydropower lead to a haline stratification and thus, to anoxic conditions, making most of the lagoon unproductive. On the contrary, strong winds play a positive role on the salinity level of the

  12. Intestinal Transportations of Main Chemical Compositions of Polygoni Multiflori Radix in Caco-2 Cell Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context. Polygoni Multiflori Radix (PMR is originated from the root of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. and used in oriental countries for centuries. However, little researches pay close attention to the absorption of its major constituents. Objective. Transepithelial transport of TSG, RL, PL, and four anthraquinones is carried out. Materials and Methods. Caco-2 cell monolayer, which represented a well-established model for the study of intestinal transport of nutrients and xenobiotics, was used in this paper. Results. The apparent permeability coefficients (Papp in the Caco-2 cell monolayers were TSG (2.372 × 10−9 < EG (2.391 × 10−9 < EN (2.483 × 10−9 < PL (4.917 × 10−9 < RN (1.707 × 10−8 < RL (1.778 × 10−8 < AE (1.952 × 10−8. Thus, RN, RL, and AE were considered partly absorbed, while other constituents were hardly absorbed. Discussion and Conclusion. Glycosides showed poor permeabilities than aglycones. In the meantime, TSG and EN gave out poor recovery rates in this assay, which indicated that TSG and EN may accumulate or metabolise in the Caco-2 cells. In silico prediction indicated that Gibbs energy (r=0.751, p<0.05 and heat of form (r=0.701, p<0.05 were strongly positively correlated with Papp.

  13. Modeling of water masses exchange between Brepolen and the main fjord in the Western Svalbard fjord - Hornsund

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakacki, Jaromir; Przyborska, Anna; Sunfjord, Arild; Albertsen, Jon; Białoskórski, Michał; Pliszka, Bartosz

    2016-04-01

    Hornsund is the southernmost fjord of the Svalbard archipelago island - Spitsbergen. It is under the influence of two main currents - the coastal Sørkapp Current (SC) carrying fresher and colder water masses from the Barents Sea and the West Spitsbergen Current (WSC), which is the branch of the Norwegian Atlantic Current (NwAC) and carries warm and salty waters from the North Atlantic. The main local forcing, which is tidal motion, brings shelf waters into the central fjord basin and then the transformed masses are carried into the easternmost part of the fjord, Brepolen. For the purpose of studying circulation and water exchange in this area a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model has been implemented and validated. The model is based on MIKE by DHI product and covers the Hornsund fjord with the shelf area, which is the fjord foreground. It is sigma a coordinate model (in our case 35 vertical levels) with variable horizontal resolution (mesh grid). The smallest cell has a horizontal dimension less than one hundred meters and the largest cells about 5 km. In spite of model limitations, the model reproduces the main circulation and water pathways in the Brepolen area. Seasonal and annual volume, heat and salt exchanges have been also estimated. The influence of freshwater discharge on shelf-fjord exchange will be also analyzed. The model results allow to study full horizontal and vertical fields of physical parameters (temperature, salinity, sea level variations and currents). The model integration covers only years 2005-2010 and the presented results will be based on this simulation. The project has been financed from the funds of the Leading National Research Centre (KNOW) received by the Centre for Polar Studies for the period 2014-2018

  14. Comparison Of The Global Analytic Models Of The Main Geomagnetic Field With The Stratospheric Balloon Magnetic Data 335

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsvetkov, Yu.; Filippov, S.; Frunze, A.

    2013-12-01

    Three global analytical models of a main geomagnetic field constructed by satellite data are used: model IGRF, Daily Mean Spherical Harmonic Models (DMSHM), and model EMM/2010, and also scalar data of geomagnetic field and its gradients, received in stratospheric balloon gradient magnetic surveys at altitudes of ~30 km. At these altitudes the regional magnetic field is formed from all sources of the Earth's crust. It enables to receive along lengthy routes of surveys the fullest data on regional and longwave-lenght magnetic anomalies. Model DMSHM is used at extracting of magnetic anomalies for elimination of a secular variation up to significant value 0,2 nT. The model can be constructed within the limits of ± 1 months from the moment stratospheric balloon surveys with beneficial day terms with magnetic activity up to Kp MFE equal ±5 нТл. It is possible at presence acting for the period of stratospheric balloon magnetic survey of the satellite, for example, Swarm. On stratospheric balloon data it is shown, that model EMM/2010 unsatisfactorily displays MFE at altitude of 30 km. Hence, the qualitative model of the constant (main and anomaly) magnetic field cannot be constructed only with use of satellite and ground data. The improved model constant MFE, constructed according to satellite and stratospheric balloon magnetic surveys, developed up to a degree and the order m=n=720, will have a reliable data about regional crust magnetic field, hence, and about deep magnetic structure of the Earth's crust. The use gradient magnetic surveys aboard stratospheric balloons allows to find the places alternating approximately through 3000 km in which there are no magnetic anomalies. In these places probably to supervise satellite magnetic models for a range of altitude of 20-40 km, timed to stratospheric balloon magnetic surveys.

  15. The Effect of Diffusion on Pulsations of Stars on the Upper Main Sequence. $\\delta$ Scuti and Metallic A Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Turcotte, S; Michaud, G; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J

    2000-01-01

    Recent dramatic improvements in the modeling of abundance evolution due to diffusion in A stars have been achieved with the help of monochromatic opacity tables from the OPAL group. An important result in the context of stellar pulsations is the substantial helium abundance shown to be left over in the driving region of delta Scuti-type pulsations in chemically peculiar Am stars. An accurate opacity profile in the entire stellar envelope including the full effect of heavy elements is also now available for the first time. Pulsations are shown to be excluded for young Am stars but occur naturally when these stars evolve off the ZAMS. The predicted variable metallic A stars all lie towards the red edge of the instability strip, in qualitative agreement with the observed variable delta Delphini and mild Am stars. Results show little direct excitation from iron-peak elements in A-type stars. The main abundance effect is due to the settling of helium, along with a marginal effect due to the enhancement of hydrogen...

  16. The nurse specialist as main care-provider for patients with type 2 diabetes in a primary care setting : effects on patient outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrijhoef, HJM; Diederiks, JPM; Spreeuwenberg, C; Wolffenbuttel, BHR; van Wilderen, LJGP

    2002-01-01

    A solution to safeguard high quality diabetes care may be to allocate care to the nurse specialist. By using a one group pretest-posttest design with additional comparisons, this study evaluated effects on patient outcomes of a shared care model with the diabetes nurse as main care-provider for pati

  17. Offshore Wind Turbines - Estimated Noise from Offshore Wind Turbine, Monhegan Island, Maine: Environmental Effects of Offshore Wind Energy Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aker, Pamela M.; Jones, Anthony M.; Copping, Andrea E.

    2010-11-23

    Deep C Wind, a consortium headed by the University of Maine will test the first U.S. offshore wind platforms in 2012. In advance of final siting and permitting of the test turbines off Monhegan Island, residents of the island off Maine require reassurance that the noise levels from the test turbines will not disturb them. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, at the request of the University of Maine, and with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy Wind Program, modeled the acoustic output of the planned test turbines.

  18. Main Effects of Diagnoses, Brain Regions, and their Interaction Effects for Cerebral Metabolites in Bipolar and Unipolar Depressive Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hai-Zhu; Li, Hui; Liu, Chen-Feng; Guan, Ji-Tian; Guo, Xiao-Bo; Wen, Can-Hong; Ou, Shao-Min; Zhang, Yin-Nan; Zhang, Jie; Xu, Chong-Tao; Shen, Zhi-Wei; Wu, Ren-Hua; Wang, Xue-Qin

    2016-11-01

    Previous studies suggested patients with bipolar depressive disorder (BDd) or unipolar depressive disorder (UDd) have cerebral metabolites abnormalities. These abnormalities may stem from multiple sub-regions of gray matter in brain regions. Thirteen BDd patients, 20 UDd patients and 20 healthy controls (HC) were enrolled to investigate these abnormalities. Absolute concentrations of 5 cerebral metabolites (glutamate-glutamine (Glx), N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline (Cho), myo-inositol (mI), creatine (Cr), parietal cortex (PC)) were measured from 4 subregions (the medial frontal cortex (mPFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), and parietal cortex (PC)) of gray matter. Main and interaction effects of cerebral metabolites across subregions of gray matter were evaluated. For example, the Glx was significantly higher in BDd compared with UDd, and so on. As the interaction analyses showed, some interaction effects existed. The concentrations of BDds’ Glx, Cho, Cr in the ACC and HCs’ mI and Cr in the PC were higher than that of other interaction effects. In addition, the concentrations of BDds’ Glx and Cr in the PC and HCs’ mI in the ACC were statistically significant lower than that of other interaction effects. These findings point to region-related abnormalities of cerebral metabolites across subjects with BDd and UDd.

  19. Effect of accretion on the pre-main-sequence evolution of low-mass stars and brown dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobyov, Eduard I.; Elbakyan, Vardan; Hosokawa, Takashi; Sakurai, Yuya; Guedel, Manuel; Yorke, Harold

    2017-09-01

    Aims: The pre-main-sequence evolution of low-mass stars and brown dwarfs is studied numerically starting from the formation of a protostellar or proto-brown dwarf seed and taking into account the mass accretion onto the central object during the initial several Myr of evolution. Methods: The stellar evolution was computed using the STELLAR evolution code with recent modifications. The mass accretion rates were taken from numerical hydrodynamics models by computing the circumstellar disk evolution starting from the gravitational collapse of prestellar cloud cores of various mass and angular momentum. The resulting stellar evolution tracks were compared with the isochrones and isomasses calculated using non-accreting models. Results: We find that mass accretion in the initial several Myr of protostellar evolution can have a strong effect on the subsequent evolution of young stars and brown dwarfs. The disagreement between accreting and non-accreting models in terms of the total stellar luminosity L∗, stellar radius R∗, and effective temperature Teff depends on the thermal efficiency of accretion, that is, on the fraction of accretion energy that is absorbed by the central object. The largest mismatch is found for the cold accretion case, in which essentially all accretion energy is radiated away. The relative deviations in L∗ and R∗ in this case can reach 50% for objects 1.0 Myr old, and they remain notable even for objects 10 Myr old. In the hot and hybrid accretion cases, in which a constant fraction of accretion energy is absorbed, the disagreement between accreting and non-accreting models becomes less pronounced, but still remains notable for objects 1.0 Myr old. These disagreements may lead to an incorrect age estimate for objects of (sub-)solar mass when using the isochrones that are based on non-accreting models, as has also been noted previously. We find that objects with strong luminosity bursts exhibit notable excursions in the L∗-Teff diagram

  20. Effects of Chlorophenoxy Herbicides and Their Main Transformation Products on DNA Damage and Acetylcholinesterase Activity

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Persistent pesticide transformation products (TPs) are increasingly being detected among different environmental compartments, including groundwater and surface water. However, there is no sufficient experimental data on their toxicological potential to assess the risk associated with TPs, even if their occurrence is known. In this study, the interaction of chlorophenoxy herbicides (MCPA, mecoprop, 2,4-D and dichlorprop) and their main transformation products with calf thymus DNA by UV-visibl...

  1. A New Semi-Empirical Technique For Computing Effective Temperatures For Main Sequence Stars From Their Mass And Radii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Gürkan; Soydugan, Faruk; Eker, Zeki; Bilir, Selçuk; Bakış, Volkan

    2016-07-01

    A semi-empirical technique of improving effective temperature for main sequence stars from their observed mass and radius based on the Stefan-Boltzmann law, was introduced and applied to 450 main-sequence stars with accurate parameters. The method requires a mass-luminosity relation (MLR) and theoretical predictions of radius and effective temperature for stars at zero age main-sequence and at terminal age main-sequence. The MLRs, which act as if a catalyst, are necessary but have no effect on the final result. The present sample of main-sequence stars, which are members of the detached double-lined eclipsing binaries in the solar neighborhood chosen from Eker et al. (2014), have an error histogram for the observed effective temperatures with a peak at 2-3%. Errors of refined effective temperatures by the present method are the propagated errors of the observed masses and radii, that is, the refined temperatures and associated errors are independent of the observational temperatures and their associated errors. The histogram of the refined temperature errors shows a peak at less than 1%. A refined sample of stars (270 out of 450) with masses and radii accurate up to 3% and their refined effective temperatures has been used in this study to improve the classical MLRs. One may prefer, however, to use improved classical MLRs, which allows one to compute effective temperatures as accurate as 3.5%.

  2. A comparison between Joint Regression Analysis and the Additive Main and Multiplicative Interaction model: the robustness with increasing amounts of missing data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Canas Rodrigues

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper joins the main properties of joint regression analysis (JRA, a model based on the Finlay-Wilkinson regression to analyse multi-environment trials, and of the additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI model. The study compares JRA and AMMI with particular focus on robustness with increasing amounts of randomly selected missing data. The application is made using a data set from a breeding program of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L., Durum Group conducted in Portugal. The results of the two models result in similar dominant cultivars (JRA and winner of mega-environments (AMMI for the same environments. However, JRA had more stable results with the increase in the incidence rates of missing values.

  3. Thermal Modeling of the Main Rings of Saturn through random distribution particle arrays and ray-tracing simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flandes, Alberto; Spilker, Linda; Déau, Estelle

    2016-10-01

    Saturn's rings are a complex collection of icy particles with diameters from 1 m to few meters. Their natural window of study is the infrared because its temperatures are between 40K and 120K. The main driver of the temperature of these rings is the direct solar radiation as well as the solar radiation reflected off Saturn's atmosphere. The second most important energy source is the infrared radiation coming from Saturn itself. The study of the variations of temperatures of the rings, or, in general, their thermal behavior, may provide important information on their composition, their structure and their dynamics. Models that consider these and other energy sources are able to explain, to a first approximation, the observed temperature variations of the rings. The challenge for these models is to accurately describe the variation of illumination on the rings, i. e., how the illuminated and non-illuminated regions of the ring particles change at the different observation geometries. This shadowing mainly depends on the optical depth, as well as the general structure of the rings.In this work, We show a semi-analytical model that considers the main energy sources of the rings and their average properties (e.g., optical depth, particle size range and vertical distribution). In order to deal with the shadowing at specific geometries, the model uses the ray-tracing technique. The goal is to describe the ring temperatures observed by the Composite Infrared Spectrometer, CIRS, onboard the Cassini spacecraft, which is in orbit around Saturn since 2004. So far, the model is able to reproduce some of the general features of specific regions of the A, B and C rings.

  4. An integrated model coupling open-channel flow, turbidity current and flow exchanges between main river and tributaries in Xiaolangdi Reservoir, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zenghui; Xia, Junqiang; Li, Tao; Deng, Shanshan; Zhang, Junhua

    2016-12-01

    The ever growing importance of sustainable management of reservoir sedimentation has promoted the development and applications of turbidity current models. However, there are few effective and practical models in literature for turbidity currents in a reservoir where the impounded area involves both the main river and its many tributaries. An integrated numerical model coupling open-channel flow, turbidity current and flow exchanges between main river and tributaries is proposed, which can simulate the complex flow and sediment transport in a reservoir where these three physical processes coexist. The model consists of two sets of governing equations for the open-channel flow and turbidity current, which are based on the modified St. Venant equations by taking into account the effect of lateral flow exchanges. These two sets of equations are solved in the finite volume method framework and the solutions are executed in an alternating calculation mode. Different methods are respectively proposed to calculate the discharge of flow exchange caused by free surface gradient and turbidity current intrusion. For the surface-gradient driven flow exchange, a storage cell method, which re-defines the relationship between water level and representative cross-sectional area, is used to update the water level at confluence. For the turbidity current intrusion, a discharge formula is proposed based on the analysis of the energy and momentum transformation in the intruding turbid water body. This formula differs from previous ones in that the effect of tributary bed slope is considered. Two events of water-sediment regulation conducted in the Xiaolangdi Reservoir in 2004 and 2006 were simulated to test the ability of this model. The predicted reservoir drawdown process, the turbidity current evolution and the sediment venting efficiency were in close agreement with the measurements. The necessity to couple the flow exchanges was demonstrated by comparing the performance of the

  5. Long-term effect of stenting in unprotected left main coronary artery disease in the elderly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Caiyi LU; Pinfa LIU; Jicai ZANG; Shiwen WANG; Lingling LIU; Qiao XUE; Xinli WU; Taohong HU; Pingshuan DONG; Zhiping WANG; Shenfang TIAN

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility, safety and efficacy of percutaneous stent implantation for treating left main coronary artery (LMCA) stenosis. Methods Consecutive patients with unprotected left main coronary artery disease treated by stent-based percutaneous intervention (PCI) at 6 medical centers in China were enrolled. Procedural data and clinical outcomes were obtained from all patients. Results From January 2001 to December 2004, 138 patients (79 males and 59 females; mean age: 69.7±5.8 years)underwent PCI for LMCA stenosis. Bare metal stents (BMS) were implanted in 51 patients with non-bifurcational lesions and in 5 patients with bifurcational lesions from January of 2001 to June of 2003 (BMS group);. Drug eluting stents (DES) were used unselectively to cover both bifurcational and non-bifurcational lesions in 86 patients from July of 2003 to December of 2004 (DES group). Procedural success rate of the 138 cases was 98% (135/138). One patient (0.7%) with bifurcation lesion who was treated with DES died from severe heart failure 2 weeks after the procedure. During a mean follow up period of 21.3 ± 5.6 months, one patient died from renal failure, one from sudden cardiac death, 4 underwent target lesion revascularization (TLR) in the BMS group, which all occurred in patients with bifurcational lesions; whereas in the DES group no deaths occurred and only one patient with bifurcational lesion had TLR. Conclusions (1) PCI is feasible and relatively safe to treat unprotected left main coronary artery disease in elderly patients at medical centers with experienced professionals. (2) BMS and DES have similar immediate and long-term efficacy in the treatment of ostium and shaft lesions of the LMCA. (3) DES are strongly suggested in the therapy of distal bifurcation lesion of unprotected LMCA.

  6. Effects of operation temperature on thermal expansion and main parameters of radial ball bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrović Radivoje M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The research of influence of operation temperature on the thermal expansion and main parameters of radial ball bearings is presented in this paper. The main bearing parameters are identified in accordance with the increasing requests concerning stability and load capacity. A series of Finite Element Analyses is performed for quasi-static analysis of all identified bearing parameters during contact period in referent temperature. Then, the dependence of bearing material characteristics on the operation temperature is discussed. Few series of Finite Element Analyses are performed for a particular radial ball bearing type, with characteristics in accordance with manufacturer specifications, for several operation temperatures. These two problems analyses include consideration of relation between the initial radial clearance, thermal expansion strains and contact deformations of the parts of the bearing assembly. The results for radial ball bearing parameters are monitored during a ball contact period for different temperatures and the appropriate discussion and conclusions are given. The conclusions about the contribution of developed procedure in defining the optimum operation temperature range are shown. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 35029 i br. OI 174001

  7. THEORETICAL FEATURES REGARDING THE EVOLUTION OVER TIME OF THE MAIN COMMUNICATION MODELS USED FOR THE STUDY OF MASS COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina IOSUB

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the context of increasingly accelerated development of technology and particularly of the Internet, mass communication acquires new meanings. This article proposes a brief theoretical approach to the study of mass communication as it was treated in the specific literature of the 50s and 60s, when there was little talk about new technologies. However, many features identified since then still retain their topicality and for this reason it is interesting to note the evolution over time of the main communication models that were and some of them still are used for the study of mass communication. They are relevant to the context in which a complete study of mass communication is required, not only from the perspective of the present, but also from the period in which it was outlined. Thus, this article is divided into three main sections: the first part represents the meaning of communication in a general sense, so that the second part to represent the mass communication process and its characteristics, and the last part to represent the main models of communication in the order in which they have occurred, and especially aiming at new features that each of them brought.

  8. Effect of anthropogenic landscape features on population genetic differentiation of Przewalski's gazelle: main role of human settlement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Yang

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic landscapes influence evolutionary processes such as population genetic differentiation, however, not every type of landscape features exert the same effect on a species, hence it is necessary to estimate their relative effect for species management and conservation. Przewalski's gazelle (Procapra przewalskii, which inhabits a human-altered area on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, is one of the most endangered antelope species in the world. Here, we report a landscape genetic study on Przewalski's gazelle. We used skin and fecal samples of 169 wild gazelles collected from nine populations and thirteen microsatellite markers to assess the genetic effect of anthropogenic landscape features on this species. For comparison, the genetic effect of geographical distance and topography were also evaluated. We found significant genetic differentiation, six genetic groups and restricted dispersal pattern in Przewalski's gazelle. Topography, human settlement and road appear to be responsible for observed genetic differentiation as they were significantly correlated with both genetic distance measures [F(ST/(1-F(ST and F'(ST/(1-F'(ST] in Mantel tests. IBD (isolation by distance was also inferred as a significant factor in Mantel tests when genetic distance was measured as F(ST/(1-F(ST. However, using partial Mantel tests, AIC(c calculations, causal modeling and AMOVA analysis, we found that human settlement was the main factor shaping current genetic differentiation among those tested. Altogether, our results reveal the relative influence of geographical distance, topography and three anthropogenic landscape-type on population genetic differentiation of Przewalski's gazelle and provide useful information for conservation measures on this endangered species.

  9. Comparing Main and Collateral Effects of Extinction and Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petscher, Erin Seligson; Bailey, Jon S.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects and collateral effects of extinction (EXT) and differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) interventions with inappropriate vocalizations and work refusal. Both interventions have been used frequently to reduce problem behaviors. The benefits of these interventions have been established yet may be…

  10. Towards the sustainable management of thuya (Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl.) Mast.) forests in Tunisia: models for main tree attributes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calama, R.; Sanchez-Gonzalez, M.; Garchi, S.; Ammari, Y.; Canellas, I.; Tahar, S.

    2012-11-01

    The thuya (Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl.) Mast.) forests are one of the most important ecosystems in semiarid environments in north-western Africa, providing important economic profit and social services to local populations. However, lack of tools aiding sustainable management of these forests is detected. In the present work models for the main tree attributes as total height, crown diameter, height to crown base and stem form are developed for the species, using data from a net of plots installed in JbelLattrech region, in the NE Tunisia. Presented models allow characterizing the actual state and timber production of forests by using variables measured in typical forest inventories and conform a preliminary step for the future development of dynamic growth models. (Author) 18 refs.

  11. Effective Temperatures of Selected Main-sequence Stars with Most Accurate Parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Soydugan, F; Soydugan, E; Bilir, S; Gökçe, E Yaz; Steer, I; Tüysüz, M; Şenyüz, T; Demircan, O

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the distributions of the double-lined detached binaries (DBs) on the planes of mass-luminosity, mass radius and mass-effective temperature have been studied. We improved the classical mass-luminosity relation based on the database of DBs by Eker et al. (2004a). With accurate observational data available to us, a method for improving effective temperatures for eclipsing binaries with accurate masses and radii were suggested.

  12. Effective Temperatures of Selected Main-Sequence Stars with the Most Accurate Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soydugan, F.; Eker, Z.; Soydugan, E.; Bilir, S.; Gökçe, E. Y.; Steer, I.; Tüysüz, M.; Šenyüz, T.; Demircan, O.

    2015-07-01

    In this study we investigate the distributions of the properties of detached double-lined binaries (DBs) in the mass-luminosity, mass-radius, and mass-effective temperature diagrams. We have improved the classical mass-luminosity relation based on the database of DBs by Eker et al. (2014a). Based on the accurate observational data available to us we propose a method for improving the effective temperatures of eclipsing binaries with accurate mass and radius determinations.

  13. Major mental illness and violence history as predictors of institutional misconduct and recidivism: main and interaction effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Glenn D; Crawford, Gregory

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether major mental illness (MMI) and violence history (VH) interact in their effect on institutional misconduct and recidivism. MMI and VH were measured in two overlapping groups of male medium security federal prisoners and correlated with institutional misconduct and recidivism. Age and the main effect of MMI were significant predictors of general and aggressive infractions in 2,627 male prison inmates before the MMI × VH interaction term was entered into a Cox regression equation. Once the interaction term was entered into the equation, the MMI × VH interaction predicted relative hazard (risk) but neither main effect (MMI, VH) was significant. There was no interaction effect, however, when age, prior substance abuse, MMI, VH, and the MMI × VH interaction were used to predict general and aggressive recidivism in a group of 1,163 male inmates previously released from custody. Age and the VH main effect achieved significance in both recidivism analyses whereas the MMI main effect failed to achieve significance in either analysis. Whereas major mental illness was not a risk factor for future antisocial behavior in current and former prison inmates, when paired with a history of violence it predicted increased risk of general and aggressive institutional misconduct. Violence history, on the other hand, was a consistent predictor of recidivism. These results indicate that it may be advisable to review both mental health and violence history when screening inmates as a prelude to managing concomitant MMI and violence propensity.

  14. ASTEC V2 severe accident integral code main features, current V2.0 modelling status, perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatelard, P., E-mail: patrick.chatelard@irsn.fr [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), PSN-RES, B.250, Cadarache BP3 13115, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance, Cedex (France); Reinke, N.; Arndt, S. [Gesellschaft für Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Schwertnergasse 1, 50677 Köln (Germany); Belon, S.; Cantrel, L.; Carenini, L.; Chevalier-Jabet, K.; Cousin, F. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), PSN-RES, B.250, Cadarache BP3 13115, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance, Cedex (France); Eckel, J. [Gesellschaft für Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Schwertnergasse 1, 50677 Köln (Germany); Jacq, F.; Marchetto, C.; Mun, C.; Piar, L. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), PSN-RES, B.250, Cadarache BP3 13115, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance, Cedex (France)

    2014-06-01

    The severe accident integral code ASTEC, jointly developed since almost 20 years by IRSN and GRS, simulates the behaviour of a whole nuclear power plant under severe accident conditions, including severe accident management by engineering systems and procedures. Since 2004, the ASTEC code is progressively becoming the reference European severe accident integral code through in particular the intensification of research activities carried out in the frame of the SARNET European network of excellence. The first version of the new series ASTEC V2 was released in 2009 to about 30 organizations worldwide and in particular to SARNET partners. With respect to the previous V1 series, this new V2 series includes advanced core degradation models (issued from the ICARE2 IRSN mechanistic code) and necessary extensions to be applicable to Gen. III reactor designs, notably a description of the core catcher component to simulate severe accidents transients applied to the EPR reactor. Besides these two key-evolutions, most of the other physical modules have also been improved and ASTEC V2 is now coupled to the SUNSET statistical tool to make easier the uncertainty and sensitivity analyses. The ASTEC models are today at the state of the art (in particular fission product models with respect to source term evaluation), except for quenching of a severely damage core. Beyond the need to develop an adequate model for the reflooding of a degraded core, the main other mean-term objectives are to further progress on the on-going extension of the scope of application to BWR and CANDU reactors, to spent fuel pool accidents as well as to accidents in both the ITER Fusion facility and Gen. IV reactors (in priority on sodium-cooled fast reactors) while making ASTEC evolving towards a severe accident simulator constitutes the main long-term objective. This paper presents the status of the ASTEC V2 versions, focussing on the description of V2.0 models for water-cooled nuclear plants.

  15. Effect of functionalization of boron nitride flakes by main group metal clusters on their optoelectronic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Debdutta; Chattaraj, Pratim Kumar

    2017-10-01

    The possibility of functionalizing boron nitride flakes (BNFs) with some selected main group metal clusters, viz. OLi4, NLi5, CLi6, BLI7 and Al12Be, has been analyzed with the aid of density functional theory (DFT) based computations. Thermochemical as well as energetic considerations suggest that all the metal clusters interact with the BNF moiety in a favorable fashion. As a result of functionalization, the static (first) hyperpolarizability (β ) values of the metal cluster supported BNF moieties increase quite significantly as compared to that in the case of pristine BNF. Time dependent DFT analysis reveals that the metal clusters can lower the transition energies associated with the dominant electronic transitions quite significantly thereby enabling the metal cluster supported BNF moieties to exhibit significant non-linear optical activity. Moreover, the studied systems demonstrate broad band absorption capability spanning the UV–visible as well as infra-red domains. Energy decomposition analysis reveals that the electrostatic interactions principally stabilize the metal cluster supported BNF moieties.

  16. The Grain-population Relationship and the Effect of Main Food Producing Areas in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jing

    2012-01-01

    With the increase of global population, grain-popula- tion relationship has attracted great attention worldwide. In China, grain-population relationship has become an increasingly impor- tant economic concern. Of central importance to the food security debate in China is the geography of grain supply and demand. This paper uses a grain demand and supply index (DSR) to analyze the spatial-temporal relationship between population and grain in China from 1949 to 2007 at national and provincial scales. The results are examined in three periods. (1) From 1949 to 2007, with the increase of grain production, the relationship between popula- tion and grain of China improved considerably. (2) Over the past 35 years (1970-2005), on the whole the grain producing areas have had grain surplus and contributed to the nation by providing grain, but the ability to provide sufficient grain is not stable. (3) Over the past 15 years (1990-2005), decreases in planting area brought pres- sure on national grain food security. The paper concludes that the key to providing more food for the main food producing provinces is increasing yield on the basis of steady plant area.

  17. FEM Computations Concerning the Effect of Friction in Two LHC Main Dipole Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Bajko, M; Perini, D

    2000-01-01

    The mechanical behaviour of a dipole structure is considered when also friction is taken into account, studying its effect on different components and in different conditions. In particular the difference in behavior between a structure with aluminium collars and one with austenitic steel ones was studied.

  18. [Study on main pharmacodynamic effects for Schisandra lignans based upon network pharmacology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Hong-tao; Zhao, Xiao-ping; Li, Zheng; Wang, Lin-li; Wang, Yi

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we focused on the study of pharmacodynamic effects for 6 major bioactive lignans of Schisandra chinensis, namely deoxyschizandrin, schisandrin B, schisandrin C, schisandrin, schizandrol B and schisantherin A. A compound-gene-pathway network, which contained 124 related genes and 88 pathways, was constructed by collecting drug genes through mining relevant literatures and network pharmacology analysis. Based on the network analysis, 32 pathways and 80 related genes were associated with inflammation, which implied that anti-inflammatory might be the major pharmacodynamic effects of these compounds. All lignans except schizandrol B reduced LPS-induced NO production in RAW264.7 cells, which validated the anti-inflammatory hypothesis generated from network analysis. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of deoxyschizandrin, schisandrin C, schisandrin and schisantherin A on the secretion of inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, PGE2 and protein expressions of iNOS, COX-2. As a result, deoxyschizandrin showed the strongest anti-inflammatory activity with inhibitory effect on all 4 inflammatory cytokines secretions and protein expressions of iNOS, COX-2. This study provided evidences for systematic exploration on the pharmacolgical actions and mechanisms of schisandra.

  19. Comparing different models of aftershock rate decay: the role of catalog incompleteness in the first times after main shock

    CERN Document Server

    Lolli, B; Gasperini, Paolo; Lolli, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated the efficiency of various models in describing the time decay of aftershock rate of 47 simple sequences occurred in California (37) from 1933 to 2004 and in Italy (10) from 1976 to 2004. We compared the models by the corrected Akaike Information Criterion (AICc) and the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC), both based on the log-likelihood function but also including a penalty term that takes into account the number of independent observations and of free parameters of each model. We compared the performance of different models by varying the starting time Ts and the minimum magnitude threshold Mmin for each sequence. We found that Omori-type models including parameter c are preferable to those not including it, only for short Ts and low Mmin while the latters generally perform better than the formers for Ts longer than a few hours and Mmin larger than the main shock magnitude Mm minus 3 units. This clearly indicates that a value of parameter c different from zero does not represent a general pro...

  20. Towards a new generation of flow and transport models for the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Main results from the project Aespoe models 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Urban (ed.) (Computer-aided Fluid Engineering AB (CFE AB), SE-602 10 Norrkoeping (Sweden)); Vidstrand, Patrik (Bergab AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Neretnieks, Ivars (Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)); Wallin, Bill (Geokema, Lidingoe (Sweden))

    2008-05-15

    This report constitutes the outcome of a project called 'Aespoe models 2005'. The main objective of the project has been to provide a first step towards a new generation of numerical models of flow and transport, for the Aespoe HRL. In order to achieve this goal, work has been carried out along three parallel lines; discussion of basic concepts, compilation and analysis of data and model applications. A number of sub tasks are reported as appendices in the report. In fact, these appendices represent the main achievements of the project: an analysis of fracture properties, compilation of isotope and chemical data, dispersion and mixing in fractured rocks and model results. The conclusion of the project is that significant contributions to a new generation of Aespoe models have been obtained. It has further been demonstrated that working numerical simulations are up and running. Recommendations are provided for the continued work

  1. MAIN CONTENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The Key to Agricultural Science and Technology Innovation should be placed on the FiveMajor Changes Based on analysis and forecasting on grain consumption influencing factors, production influencing factors and import influencing factors, the supply and demand of main sorts of grain in China is forecas- ted respectively, including paddy, wheat, corn and soybean. In 2020, grain consumption quantity, grain production quantity and grain import quantity of China is 693 million tons, 644 million tons and 49 million tons respectively. For grain security in future, new stratagem on food security should be im- plemented, grain import circumstance and global grain security. Father mechanism should be im- proved, and early warning and regulation on grain production capacity should be paid attention to sys- temically.

  2. 2-D and 3-D Models of Convective Turbulence and Oscillations in Intermediate-Mass Main-Sequence Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Guzik, Joyce A; Nelson, N J; Lovekin, C; Kosak, K; Kitiashvili, I N; Mansour, N N; Kosovichev, A

    2016-01-01

    We present multidimensional modeling of convection and oscillations in main-sequence stars somewhat more massive than the Sun, using three separate approaches: 1) Using the 3-D planar StellarBox radiation hydrodynamics code to model the envelope convection zone and part of the radiative zone. Our goals are to examine the interaction of stellar pulsations with turbulent convection in the envelope, excitation of acoustic modes, and the role of convective overshooting; 2) Applying the spherical 3-D MHD ASH (Anelastic Spherical Harmonics) code to simulate the core convection and radiative zone. Our goal is to determine whether core convection can excite low-frequency gravity modes, and thereby explain the presence of low frequencies for some hybrid gamma Doradus/delta Scuti variables for which the envelope convection zone is too shallow for the convective blocking mechanism to drive gravity modes; 3) Applying the ROTORC 2-D stellar evolution and dynamics code to calculate evolution with a variety of initial rotat...

  3. Dissolved methane in rising main sewer systems: field measurements and simple model development for estimating greenhouse gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Jeff; Yuan, Zhiguo; Lant, Paul

    2009-01-01

    At present, the potential generation of methane in wastewater collection systems is ignored under international greenhouse gas (GHG) accounting protocols, despite recent reports of substantial dissolved methane formation in sewers. This suggests that the current national GHG inventories for wastewater handling systems are likely to be underestimated for some situations. This study presents a new catalogue of field data on methane formation in rising main sewerage systems and proposes an empirically-fitted, theoretical model to predict dissolved methane concentrations, based upon the independent variables of pipeline geometry (i.e. surface area to volume ratio, A/V) and hydraulic retention time (HRT). Systems with longer HRT and/or larger A/V ratios are shown to have higher dissolved methane concentrations. This simple predictive model provides a means for water authorities to estimate the methane emissions from other pressurised sewerage systems of similar characteristics.

  4. The effects of storms and storm-generated currents on sand beaches in Southern Maine, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, H.W.; Kelley, J.T.; Belknap, D.F.; Dickson, S.M.

    2004-01-01

    Storms are one of the most important controls on the cycle of erosion and accretion on beaches. Current meters placed in shoreface locations of Saco Bay and Wells Embayment, ME, recorded bottom currents during the winter months of 2000 and 2001, while teams of volunteers profiled the topography of nearby beaches. Coupling offshore meteorological and beach profile data made it possible to determine the response of nine beaches in southern Maine to various oceanographic and meteorological conditions. The beaches selected for profiling ranged from pristine to completely developed and permitted further examination of the role of seawalls on the response of beaches to storms. Current meters documented three unique types of storms: frontal passages, southwest storms, and northeast storms. In general, the current meter results indicate that frontal passages and southwest storms were responsible for bringing sediment towards the shore, while northeast storms resulted in a net movement of sediment away from the beach. During the 1999-2000 winter, there were a greater percentage of frontal passages and southwest storms, while during the 2000-2001 winter, there were more northeast storms. The sediment that was transported landward during the 1999-2000 winter was reworked into the berm along moderately and highly developed beaches during the next summer. A northeast storm on March 5-6, 2001, resulted in currents in excess of 1 m s-1 and wave heights that reached six meters. The storm persisted over 10 high tides and caused coastal flooding and property damage. Topographic profiles made before and after the storm demonstrate that developed beaches experienced a loss of sediment volume during the storm, while sediment was redistributed along the profile on moderately developed and undeveloped beaches. Two months after the storm, the profiles along the developed beaches had not reached their pre-storm elevation. In comparison, the moderately developed and undeveloped beaches

  5. MAIN CONTENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Research on the Strategies for Agriculture and Rural Infrastructure Construction during "Twelve Five"………………………………………………………… MA Xiaohe and LIU Zhenzhong (4) Analyzing the data through the establishment of the simultaneous equations model, it found that

  6. Leading change: a three-dimensional model of nurse leaders' main tasks and roles during a change process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmela, Susanne; Eriksson, Katie; Fagerström, Lisbeth

    2012-02-01

    This paper is a report of a qualitative study which explored how nurse leaders described and understood their main tasks and roles during a change process. During a database search for literature, no actual research that highlighted the main tasks and roles of nurse leaders during a change process was found. Earlier research has indicated the need for different leadership styles and the importance of strategies and values. In-depth interviews with 17 nurse leaders took place in 2004. A phenomenological-hermeneutical approach was used for data analysis. The findings resulted in a model of leading change in health care that focuses on good patient care and consists of three dimensions: leading relationships, leading processes and leading a culture. In addition to leading relationships and processes, nurse leaders, as role models, greatly impact caring culture and its inherent ethical behaviour, especially about the responsibility for achieving good patient care. Nurse leaders are also instrumental in leading ward culture. Nurse leaders need guidance and knowledge of what is expected of them during a structural change process. They play different roles by directing, guiding, motivating, supporting and communicating without losing their cultural ethos of caring and use various leadership styles to bring about actual change, which, in turn, requires learning so that the thought patterns, values and attitudes of personnel can be changed. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Religious coping among caregivers of terminally ill cancer patients: main effects and psychosocial mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Michelle J; Singer, Jerome L; Prigerson, Holly G

    2006-09-01

    This study investigated the association between religious coping, mental health and the caring experience, as well as potential explanatory mechanisms, among 162 informal caregivers of terminally ill cancer patients. Regression analyses indicated that, controlling for socio-demographic variables, more use of positive religious coping strategies was associated with more burden, yet, also more satisfaction. In contrast, more use of negative religious coping strategies was related to more burden, poorer quality of life and less satisfaction, and correlated with an increased likelihood of Major Depressive Disorder and anxiety disorders. In a number of models, negative religious coping was related to outcomes through its relationship with social support, optimism and self-efficacy. Implications for research and healthcare are discussed.

  8. STELLA software as a tool for modelling phosphorus removal in a constructed wetland employing dewatered alum sludge as main substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, J L G; Wang, Z Y; Zhao, Y Q; Babatunde, A O; Zhao, X H; Jørgensen, S E

    2011-01-01

    A dynamic simulation model was developed for the removal of soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) from the vertical flow constructed wetlands (VFCW) using a dynamic software program called STELLA (structural thinking, experiential learning laboratory with animation) 9.1.3 to aid in simulating the environmental nature and succession of relationship between interdependent components and processes in the VFCW system. In particular, the VFCW employed dewatered alum sludge as its main substrate to enhance phosphorus (P) immobilization. Although computer modelling of P in treatment wetland has been well studied especially in recent years, there is still a need to develop simple and realistic models that can be used for investigating the dynamics of SRP in VFCWs. The state variables included in the model are dissolved phosphorus (DISP), plant phosphorus (PLAP), detritus phosphorus (DETP), plant biomass (PLBI) and adsorbed phosphorus (ADSP). The major P transformation processes considered in this study were adsorption, plant and microbial uptake and decomposition. The forcing functions which were considered in the model are temperature, radiation, volume of wastewater, P concentration, contact time, flow rate and the adsorbent (i.e., alum sludge). The model results revealed that up to 72% of the SRP can be removed through adsorption process whereas the uptake by plants is about 20% and the remaining processes such as microbial P utilization and decomposition, accounted for 7% SRP removal based on the mass balance calculations. The results obtained indicate that the model can be used to simulate outflow SRP concentration, and it can also be used to estimate the amount of P removed by individual processes in the VFCW using alum-sludge as a substrate.

  9. [The workplace-based learning: a main paradigm of an effective continuing medical education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelli, Maria Barbara

    2010-01-01

    On the strength of the literature analysis and the Emilia-Romagna Region experience, we suggest a reflection on the workplace-based learning that goes beyond the analysis of the effectiveness of specific didactic methodologies and aspects related to Continuing Medical Education. Health education and training issue is viewed from a wider perspective, that integrates the three learning dimensions (formal, non formal and informal). In such a perspective the workplace-based learning becomes an essential paradigm to reshape the explicit knowledge conveyed in formal context and to emphasize informal contexts where innovation is generated.

  10. Effects of Transgenic Cry 1 Ac plus CpTI Cotton on the Bioecology of Main Parasitoids in Laboratory Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Jin-jie; VANDER Weft Wopke; MA Yah; LUO Jun-yu

    2008-01-01

    @@ Effects of transgenic CrylAc plus CpTI cotton (double genes cotton) on development of main parasitoids were studied in the laboratory.Compared with the traditional cotton,the differences of the moulting rate and adult weight of cotton aphid-Aphydius from double gene cotton field were not obvious.

  11. Dopaminergic, Serotonergic, and Oxytonergic Candidate Genes Associated with Infant Attachment Security and Disorganization? In Search of Main and Interaction Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luijk, Maartje P. C. M.; Roisman, Glenn I.; Haltigan, John D.; Tiemeier, Henning; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Belsky, Jay; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tharner, Anne; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.

    2011-01-01

    Background and methods: In two birth cohort studies with genetic, sensitive parenting, and attachment data of more than 1,000 infants in total, we tested main and interaction effects of candidate genes involved in the dopamine, serotonin, and oxytocin systems ("DRD4", "DRD2", "COMT", "5-HTT", "OXTR") on attachment security and disorganization.…

  12. Studing the Influence of Six Main Industrial Losses on Overall Equipment Effectiveness in Cold Rolling Unit of Mobarakeh Steel Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    seyed Akbar Nilipour Tabatabaei

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE is a key indicator and a basis for evaluating the effectiveness of equipments as well as assessing the effectiveness of the Total Productive Maintenance (TPM system. This indicator together with overall equipment performance can be used in production lines such as steel production. The aim of this article is to study the influence of six main industrial losses on the OEE indicator . For this purpose, the OEE has been calculated in the cold rolling production lines of Mobarakeh Steel Complex the gap between production lines and the global industrial standards has been studied the causes of production system inefficiency has been investigated and the effectiveness of TPM system, equipments' bottlenecks and the influence of the main industry losses on OEE have been studied. The findings imply that the influence of the variation of availability and performance rates on OEE is high, while the influence of the variation of quality rate on OEE is not considerable.

  13. Gene Mapping of Brachytic Stem and Its Effect on Main Agronomic Traits in Soybean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Brachytic stem is a major trait in plant type of soybean and its yield potential may be higher under high population when compared with normal stem. In the present investigation, 152 recombinant inbred line (RIL) families derived from the cross of Bogao (normal stem) and Nannong 94-156 (brachytic stem) were used to map genes and QTLs of three plant type traits and to identify the effects of brachytic stem on agronomic traits such as yield. The primary results indicated that brachytic stem (sb) and determinate growth habit (dtl) were mapped on linkage groups B2 and L, three major QTLs related to plant height were detected and mapped on linkage group L near dtl, another minor QTL was mapped near sb on linkage group B2-1. Lines with brachytic stem had shorter plant height, lower biomass, yield, harvest index and pods per plant, and essentially no differences in days to maturity and 100-seed weight when compared with normal stem lines. It was obvious that the effect of brachytic stem on yield was due to the decreased height, biomass and harvest index.

  14. Construction of Recombinant Baculoviruses Expressing Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Main Protective Antigen and Their Immune Effects on Chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Jingping Ge; Qi An; Shanshan Song; Dongni Gao; Wenxiang Ping

    2015-01-01

    In order to overcome the limitations of conventional vaccines for infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), we constructed recombinant dual expression system baculoviruses with VP2 and VP2/4/3, the main protective antigens of IBDV. We compared the immune effects of the baculoviruses in avian cells and detected their control effects on chickens with infectious bursal disease. We used Western blot analysis to measure VP2 protein and VP2/4/3 polyprotein expression in avian cells infected using the...

  15. A Review on the Models of Organizational Effectiveness: A Look at Cameron's Model in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Giti; Kadir, Suhaida bte Abd

    2012-01-01

    Organizational effectiveness is the main concern of all higher education institutes. Over the years there have been many different models of effectiveness along with the criteria for measuring organizational effectiveness. In this paper, four main models of organizational effectiveness namely the goal approach, the system resource approach, the…

  16. The effect of negative feedback on tension and subsequent performance: the main and interactive effects of goal content and conscientiousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianci, Anna M; Klein, Howard J; Seijts, Gerard H

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to examine the interplay of goal content, conscientiousness, and tension on performance following negative feedback. Undergraduate students were assigned either a learning or performance goal and then were provided with false feedback indicating very poor performance on the task they performed. After assessing tension, participants performed the task again with the same learning or performance goal. A mediated moderation model was tested, and results were supportive of our hypotheses. Specifically, individuals assigned a learning goal experienced less tension and performed better following negative feedback than individuals assigned a performance goal. Individuals high in conscientiousness experienced greater tension than individuals low in conscientiousness. Conscientiousness and goal content interacted in relating to both tension and performance, with tension as a mediator, such that high conscientiousness amplified the detrimental effect of a performance goal on tension following negative feedback leading to lower performance. High conscientiousness facilitated performance for participants with a learning goal.

  17. MAIN CONTENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Reflections on the Development of Modern Agriculture and Agricultural Modernization Chinese Soybean Industry Development under Opening Conditions ZHONG Mian ( 4 ) Ni Hongxing, WANG Zhanlu and LIU Wubing (7) Since joining to the WTO, China's agricultural resource conditions and the scale of production, and opening up continues to expand. In constraints of lack of effective regulation and supervision means,

  18. Main and moderated effects of moral cognition and status on bullying and defending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravita, Simona C S; Gini, Gianluca; Pozzoli, Tiziana

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzed the relations of two dimensions of moral cognition (i.e., acceptance of moral transgression and moral disengagement) and two forms of status in the peer group (i.e., social preference and perceived popularity) with bullying and defending among 235 primary-school children and 305 middle-school early adolescents. Social status was tested as a moderator of the associations between moral cognition and bullying and defending. Participants completed self-reports assessing the two dimensions of moral cognition and peer nominations for status, bullying, and defending. Both acceptance of moral transgression and moral disengagement were associated to bullying among early adolescents only, whereas in childhood moral disengagement was linked to defending among girls. Social status moderated the associations between morality dimensions and bullying and defending. The moderating effects of status were discussed considering status as a magnifying lens for the relations between individual characteristics and social behavior. The results were also discussed with reference to age and gender differences in the associations.

  19. MAIN ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Reflection on Some Issues Regarding the System of Socialism with Chinese Characteristics Zhang Xingmao The establishment of the system of socialism with Chinese characteristics, as the symbol of China's entry into the socialist society with Chinese characteristics, is the significant development of Marist theory of social formation. The Chinese model is framed and defined by the socialist system with Chinese characteristics, therefore the study of different levels and aspects of the Chinese model should be related to the relevant Chinese system to guarantee a scientific interpretation. Under the fundamental system of socialism, the historical and logical starting point of the formation of socialism with Chinese characteristics lies in eliminating the private ownership first and then allowing the existence and rapid development of the non-public sectors of the economy. With the gradual establishment and on the basis of the basic economic system in the preliminary stage of Socialism, and with the adaptive adjustments in the economic, political, cultural, and social systems, the socialist system with Chinese characteristics is gradually formed.

  20. A New Approach to Segment Both Main and Peripheral Retinal Vessels Based on Gray-Voting and Gaussian Mixture Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Peishan; Luo, Hanyuan; Sheng, Hanwei; Zhao, Yali; Li, Ling; Wu, Jing; Zhao, Yuqian; Suzuki, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Vessel segmentation in retinal fundus images is a preliminary step to clinical diagnosis for some systemic diseases and some eye diseases. The performances of existing methods for segmenting small vessels which are usually of more importance than the main vessels in a clinical diagnosis are not satisfactory in clinical use. In this paper, we present a method for both main and peripheral vessel segmentation. A local gray-level change enhancement algorithm called gray-voting is used to enhance the small vessels, while a two-dimensional Gabor wavelet is used to extract the main vessels. We fuse the gray-voting results with the 2D-Gabor filter results as pre-processing outcome. A Gaussian mixture model is then used to extract vessel clusters from the pre-processing outcome, while small vessels fragments are obtained using another gray-voting process, which complements the vessel cluster extraction already performed. At the last step, we eliminate the fragments that do not belong to the vessels based on the shape of the fragments. We evaluated the approach with two publicly available DRIVE (Staal et al., 2004) and STARE (Hoover et at., 2000) datasets with manually segmented results. For the STARE dataset, when using the second manually segmented results which include much more small vessels than the first manually segmented results as the "gold standard," this approach achieved an average sensitivity, accuracy and specificity of 65.0%, 92.1% and 97.0%, respectively. The sensitivities of this approach were much higher than those of the other existing methods, with comparable specificities; these results thus demonstrated that this approach was sensitive to detection of small vessels.

  1. A New Approach to Segment Both Main and Peripheral Retinal Vessels Based on Gray-Voting and Gaussian Mixture Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peishan Dai

    Full Text Available Vessel segmentation in retinal fundus images is a preliminary step to clinical diagnosis for some systemic diseases and some eye diseases. The performances of existing methods for segmenting small vessels which are usually of more importance than the main vessels in a clinical diagnosis are not satisfactory in clinical use. In this paper, we present a method for both main and peripheral vessel segmentation. A local gray-level change enhancement algorithm called gray-voting is used to enhance the small vessels, while a two-dimensional Gabor wavelet is used to extract the main vessels. We fuse the gray-voting results with the 2D-Gabor filter results as pre-processing outcome. A Gaussian mixture model is then used to extract vessel clusters from the pre-processing outcome, while small vessels fragments are obtained using another gray-voting process, which complements the vessel cluster extraction already performed. At the last step, we eliminate the fragments that do not belong to the vessels based on the shape of the fragments. We evaluated the approach with two publicly available DRIVE (Staal et al., 2004 and STARE (Hoover et at., 2000 datasets with manually segmented results. For the STARE dataset, when using the second manually segmented results which include much more small vessels than the first manually segmented results as the "gold standard," this approach achieved an average sensitivity, accuracy and specificity of 65.0%, 92.1% and 97.0%, respectively. The sensitivities of this approach were much higher than those of the other existing methods, with comparable specificities; these results thus demonstrated that this approach was sensitive to detection of small vessels.

  2. The ability of general circulation models to simulate tropical cyclones and their precursors over the North Atlantic main development region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daloz, Anne Sophie; Chauvin, Fabrice [Groupe de Modelisation Grande Echelle et Climat, CNRM-GAME, Meteo-France, Toulouse Cedex 1 (France); Walsh, Kevin [University of Melbourne, School of Earth Sciences, Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Lavender, Sally; Abbs, Deborah [CSIRO Atmospheric and Marine Research, Aspendale, VIC (Australia); Roux, Frank [Universite de Toulouse and Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Laboratoire d' Aerologie, Toulouse (France)

    2012-10-15

    The ability of General Circulation Models (GCMs) to generate Tropical Cyclones (TCs) over the North Atlantic Main Development Region (MDR; 10-20 N, 20-80 W; Goldenberg and Shapiro in J Clim 9:1169-1187, 1996) is examined through a subset of ocean-atmosphere coupled simulations from the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 (CMIP3) multimodel data set and a high-resolution (0.5 ) Sea Surface Temperature (SST)-forced simulation from the Australian Conformal-Cubic Atmospheric Model GCM. The results are compared with National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP-2) and European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasts Re-Analysis (ERA-40) reanalyses over a common period from 1980 to 1998. Important biases in the representation of the TC activity are encountered over the MDR. This study emphasizes the strong link in the GCMs between African Easterly Waves (AEWs) and TC activity in this region. However, the generation of AEWs is not a sufficient condition alone for the models to produce TCs. Precipitation over the Sahel, especially rainfall over the Fouta Djallon highlands (cf. Fig. 1), is playing a role in the generation of TCs over the MDR. The influence of large-scale fields such as SST, vertical wind shear and tropospheric humidity on TC genesis is also examined. The ability of TC genesis indices, such as the Genesis Potential Index and the Convective Yearly Genesis Potential, to represent TC activity over the MDR in simulations at low to high spatial resolutions is analysed. These indices are found to be a reasonable method for comparing cyclogenesis in different models, even though other factors such as AEW activity should also be considered. (orig.)

  3. Computer Simulation Modeling for Recreation Management: A Study on Carriage Road Use in Acadia National Park, Maine, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    WANG; MANNING

    1999-02-01

    / The number of visits to outdoor recreation areas has increased dramatically in the last three decades, leading managers and researchers to wonder if there is a limit to the amount of use a resource such as a park can accommodate. One of the difficulties in addressing this carrying capacity-related question has been the complex nature of visitor travel patterns on often extensive networks of roads and trails. Systematic direct observation is often impractical and anecdotal information is usually inadequate. This study explores the utility of computer simulation as a tool for describing visitor travel by building a dynamic model of visitor travel on the carriage roads of Acadia National Park, Maine, USA. The simulation model uses empirical inputs such as travel routes and travel speeds to generate simulated recreation days on the carriage roads. Data on persons-per-viewscape (PPV) conditions were then gathered from multiple model runs and incorporated into the National Park Service's visitor experience and resource protection (VERP) planning process. Results show that PPV conditions under present-day use levels do not violate proposed standards of quality. Results also show likely PPV conditions under scenarios of increasing use and in different areas within the carriage road system. Goodness-of-fit validity tests indicate the model is an accurate representation of the actual system. The findings of this study suggest that computer simulation is useful for estimating current carrying capacity conditions, predicting future conditions, and guiding related research. KEY WORDS: Computer simulation modeling; Carrying capacity; Recreation management; Acadia National Park

  4. Studies and analyses of the space shuttle main engine. Failure information propagation model data base and software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischer, A. E.

    1987-01-01

    The failure information propagation model (FIPM) data base was developed to store and manipulate the large amount of information anticipated for the various Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) FIPMs. The organization and structure of the FIPM data base is described, including a summary of the data fields and key attributes associated with each FIPM data file. The menu-driven software developed to facilitate and control the entry, modification, and listing of data base records is also discussed. The transfer of the FIPM data base and software to the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center is described. Complete listings of all of the data base definition commands and software procedures are included in the appendixes.

  5. MAIN ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The Scientific Classic and the Banner of Truth - Reading Manifesto of the Communist Party Hou Huiqin Manifesto of the Communist Party is the foundational piedce of the whole communist world view and theoretical system. The study of the Manifesto today should take communism as the ultimate goal, the basic idea of the Manifesto as the departure point, and grasp the fundamental tenets of Marxism. Reading the Manifesto can help strengthen the determination in the pursuit of the communist ideal because it supports the whole thought system of communism with three scientific achievements, namely, the scientific critique of capitalism, the scientific analysis of modem proletariat, and the scientific definition of the communist party. At the same time, we should enhance the understanding and development of some basic conclusions in the Manifesto under the new conditions, such as Marx's class theory, "the two necessities" and "the two absolute non-possibilities", etc., so as to increase the vitality and effectiveness of Marxism.

  6. Distribution of the Habitat Suitability of the Main Malaria Vector in French Guiana Using Maximum Entropy Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moua, Yi; Roux, Emmanuel; Girod, Romain; Dusfour, Isabelle; de Thoisy, Benoit; Seyler, Frédérique; Briolant, Sébastien

    2016-12-22

    Malaria is an important health issue in French Guiana. Its principal mosquito vector in this region is Anopheles darlingi Root. Knowledge of the spatial distribution of this species is still very incomplete due to the extent of French Guiana and the difficulty to access most of the territory. Species distribution modeling based on the maximal entropy procedure was used to predict the spatial distribution of An. darlingi using 39 presence sites. The resulting model provided significantly high prediction performances (mean 10-fold cross-validated partial area under the curve and continuous Boyce index equal to, respectively, 1.11-with a level of omission error of 20%-and 0.42). The model also provided a habitat suitability map and environmental response curves in accordance with the known entomological situation. Several environmental characteristics that had a positive correlation with the presence of An. darlingi were highlighted: nonpermanent anthropogenic changes of the natural environment, the presence of roads and tracks, and opening of the forest. Some geomorphological landforms and high altitude landscapes appear to be unsuitable for An. darlingi The species distribution modeling was able to reliably predict the distribution of suitable habitats for An. darlingi in French Guiana. Results allowed completion of the knowledge of the spatial distribution of the principal malaria vector in this Amazonian region, and identification of the main factors that favor its presence. They should contribute to the definition of a necessary targeted vector control strategy in a malaria pre-elimination stage, and allow extrapolation of the acquired knowledge to other Amazonian or malaria-endemic contexts.

  7. Main effects and interactions of cerebral hemispheres, gender, and age in the calculation of volumes and asymmetries of selected structures of episodic memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Carmona, Rocio; Garcia-Lazaro, Haydee Guadalupe; Dominguez-Corrales, Brenda; Aguilar-Castañeda, Erika; Roldan-Valadez, Ernesto

    2016-01-01

    Summary The aim of this study was to clarify the influence of anatomical (cerebral hemisphere) and demographic (age and gender) variables on the gray matter (GM) volumes and volumetric asymmetry indices (VAIs) of selected structures involved in episodic memory. A cross-sectional study was performed in 47 healthy volunteers. Neuropsychological evaluation revealed similar IQs across the sample. Using SPM-based software, brain segmentation, labeling and volume measurements of the hippocampus, amygdala, middle temporal gyrus and parahippocampal gyrus were performed in each cerebral hemisphere. A two-way between-groups multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was applied to GM volumes and VAIs. The main effects of gender and cerebral hemisphere on GM volumes were significant (p < .001), while there was no significant interaction effect between gender and cerebral hemisphere. VAI measurements showed a non-significant effect of gender, but a significant influence of age (p = .015). The linear model of interactions and main effects explained 33% of the variance influencing the GM volume quantification. While cerebral hemisphere and gender were found to affect the volumes of brain structures involved in episodic memory, the calculation of VAIs was affected only by age. A comprehensive understanding of the main effects and interaction effects of cerebral hemisphere, gender and age on the volumes and asymmetries of structures related to episodic memory might help neurologists, psychiatrists, geriatricians and other neuroscientists in the study of degenerative brain diseases. PMID:28072386

  8. Modeling and Analysis of Queuing Systems in Banks A case study of Ghana Commercial Bank Ltd. Kumasi Main Branch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallace Agyei

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Queues are common sight of many banks in Ghana. The obvious implication of customers waiting in long and winding queues could result to prolonged discomfort and economic cost to them however increasing the service rate will require additional number of tellers which implies extra cost to management. This study therefore attempts to find the trade-off between minimizing the total economic cost waiting cost and service cost and the provision of a satisfactory and reasonably shortest possible time of service to customers in order to assist management of the bank in deciding the optimal number of tellers needed. Data for this study was collected at the Ghana Commercial Bank Ltd Kumasi Main Branch for one month through observations interviews and by administering of questionnaire and was formulated as multi-server single line queuing model. The data was analyzed using TORA optimization Software as well as using descriptive method of analysis. The performance measures of different queuing systems were evaluated and analyzed. The results of the analysis showed using a five teller system was better than a four or a six-teller system in terms of average waiting time and thetotal economic cost hence the study recommends that the management should adopt a five teller model to reduce total economic costs and increase customer satisfaction.

  9. Ecotoxicological effects extrapolation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suter, G.W. II

    1996-09-01

    One of the central problems of ecological risk assessment is modeling the relationship between test endpoints (numerical summaries of the results of toxicity tests) and assessment endpoints (formal expressions of the properties of the environment that are to be protected). For example, one may wish to estimate the reduction in species richness of fishes in a stream reach exposed to an effluent and have only a fathead minnow 96 hr LC50 as an effects metric. The problem is to extrapolate from what is known (the fathead minnow LC50) to what matters to the decision maker, the loss of fish species. Models used for this purpose may be termed Effects Extrapolation Models (EEMs) or Activity-Activity Relationships (AARs), by analogy to Structure-Activity Relationships (SARs). These models have been previously reviewed in Ch. 7 and 9 of and by an OECD workshop. This paper updates those reviews and attempts to further clarify the issues involved in the development and use of EEMs. Although there is some overlap, this paper does not repeat those reviews and the reader is referred to the previous reviews for a more complete historical perspective, and for treatment of additional extrapolation issues.

  10. Ecological niche model of Phlebotomus perniciosus, the main vector of canine leishmaniasis in north-eastern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Signorini

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available With respect to the epidemiology of leishmaniasis, it is crucial to take into account the ecoclimatic and environ- mental characteristics that influence the distribution patterns of the vector sand fly species. It is also important to consider the possible impact of on-going climate changes on the emergence of this disease. In order to map the potential distribu- tion of Phlebotomus perniciosus, the main vector species of canine leishmaniasis in north-eastern Italy, geographical information systems tools, ecological niche models (ENM and remotely sensed environmental data were applied for a retrospective analysis of an entomological survey conducted in north-eastern Italy over 12 years. Sand fly trapping was conducted from 2001 to 2012 in 175 sites in the provinces of Veneto, Friuli-Venezia Giulia and Trentino-Alto Adige. We developed a predictive model of potential distribution of P. perniciosus using the maximum entropy algorithm software, based on seasonal normalized difference vegetation index, day and night land surface temperature, the Corine land cover 2006, a digital elevation model (GTOPO30 and climate layers obtained from the WorldClim database. The MaxEnt pre- diction found the more suitable habitat for P. perniciosus to be hilly areas (100-300 m above the mean sea level charac- terised by temperate climate during the winter and summer seasons, high winter vegetation cover and moderate rainfall during the activity season of vector sand fly. ENM provided a greater understanding of the geographical distribution and ecological requirements of P. perniciosus in the study area, which can be applied for the development of future surveil- lance strategies.

  11. Ecological niche model of Phlebotomus perniciosus, the main vector of canine leishmaniasis in north-eastern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorini, Manuela; Cassini, Rudi; Drigo, Michele; Frangipane di Regalbono, Antonio; Pietrobelli, Mario; Montarsi, Fabrizio; Stensgaard, Anna-Sofie

    2014-11-01

    With respect to the epidemiology of leishmaniasis, it is crucial to take into account the ecoclimatic and environmental characteristics that influence the distribution patterns of the vector sand fly species. It is also important to consider the possible impact of on-going climate changes on the emergence of this disease. In order to map the potential distribution of Phlebotomus perniciosus, the main vector species of canine leishmaniasis in north-eastern Italy, geographical information systems tools, ecological niche models (ENM) and remotely sensed environmental data were applied for a retrospective analysis of an entomological survey conducted in north-eastern Italy over 12 years. Sand fly trapping was conducted from 2001 to 2012 in 175 sites in the provinces of Veneto, Friuli-Venezia Giulia and Trentino-Alto Adige. We developed a predictive model of potential distribution of P. perniciosus using the maximum entropy algorithm software, based on seasonal normalized difference vegetation index, day and night land surface temperature, the Corine land cover 2006, a digital elevation model (GTOPO30) and climate layers obtained from the WorldClim database. The MaxEnt prediction found the more suitable habitat for P. perniciosus to be hilly areas (100-300 m above the mean sea level) characterised by temperate climate during the winter and summer seasons, high winter vegetation cover and moderate rainfall during the activity season of vector sand fly. ENM provided a greater understanding of the geographical distribution and ecological requirements of P. perniciosus in the study area, which can be applied for the development of future surveillance strategies.

  12. Modeling and simulation of the main metabolism in Escherichia coli and its several single-gene knockout mutants with experimental verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McFadden Johnjoe

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is quite important to simulate the metabolic changes of a cell in response to the change in culture environment and/or specific gene knockouts particularly for the purpose of application in industry. If this could be done, the cell design can be made without conducting exhaustive experiments, and one can screen out the promising candidates, proceeded by experimental verification of a select few of particular interest. Although several models have so far been proposed, most of them focus on the specific metabolic pathways. It is preferred to model the whole of the main metabolic pathways in Escherichia coli, allowing for the estimation of energy generation and cell synthesis, based on intracellular fluxes and that may be used to characterize phenotypic growth. Results In the present study, we considered the simulation of the main metabolic pathways such as glycolysis, TCA cycle, pentose phosphate (PP pathway, and the anapleorotic pathways using enzymatic reaction models of E. coli. Once intracellular fluxes were computed by this model, the specific ATP production rate, the specific CO2 production rate, and the specific NADPH production rate could be estimated. The specific ATP production rate thus computed was used for the estimation of the specific growth rate. The CO2 production rate could be used to estimate cell yield, and the specific NADPH production rate could be used to determine the flux of the oxidative PP pathway. The batch and continuous cultivations were simulated where the changing patterns of extracellular and intra-cellular metabolite concentrations were compared with experimental data. Moreover, the effects of the knockout of such pathways as Ppc, Pck and Pyk on the metabolism were simulated. It was shown to be difficult for the cell to grow in Ppc mutant due to low concentration of OAA, while Pck mutant does not necessarily show this phenomenon. The slower growth rate of the Ppc mutant was properly

  13. Main effects and interactions of cerebral hemispheres, gender, and age in the calculation of volumes and asymmetries of selected structures of episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Carmona, Rocio; Garcia-Lazaro, Haydee Guadalupe; Dominguez-Corrales, Brenda; Aguilar-Castañeda, Erika; Roldan-Valadez, Ernesto

    The aim of this study was to clarify the influence of anatomical (cerebral hemisphere) and demographic (age and gender) variables on the gray matter (GM) volumes and volumetric asymmetry indices (VAIs) of selected structures involved in episodic memory. A cross-sectional study was performed in 47 healthy volunteers. Neuropsychological evaluation revealed similar IQs across the sample. Using SPM-based software, brain segmentation, labeling and volume measurements of the hippocampus, amygdala, middle temporal gyrus and parahippocampal gyrus were performed in each cerebral hemisphere. A two-way between-groups multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was applied to GM volumes and VAIs. The main effects of gender and cerebral hemisphere on GM volumes were significant (p gender and cerebral hemisphere. VAI measurements showed a nonsignificant effect of gender, but a significant influence of age (p = .015). The linear model of interactions and main effects explained 33% of the variance influencing the GM volume quantification. While cerebral hemisphere and gender were found to affect the volumes of brain structures involved in episodic memory, the calculation of VAIs was affected only by age. A comprehensive understanding of the main effects and interaction effects of cerebral hemisphere, gender and age on the volumes and asymmetries of structures related to episodic memory might help neurologists, psychiatrists, geriatricians and other neuroscientists in the study of degenerative brain diseases.

  14. Tramadol : Effects on sexual behavior in male rats are mainly caused by its 5-HT reuptake blocking effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivier, Jocelien D A; Esquivel Franco, Diana C; Oosting, Ronald; Waldinger, Marcel; Sarnyai, Zoltan; Olivier, Berend

    2016-01-01

    Tramadol is a well-known and effective analgesic. Recently it was shown that tramadol is also effective in human premature ejaculation. The inhibitory effect of tramadol on the ejaculation latency is probably due to its mechanism of action as a μ-opioid receptor agonist and noradrenaline/serotonin

  15. Tramadol : Effects on sexual behavior in male rats are mainly caused by its 5-HT reuptake blocking effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivier, Jocelien D A; Esquivel Franco, Diana C; Oosting, Ronald; Waldinger, Marcel; Sarnyai, Zoltan; Olivier, Berend

    2016-01-01

    Tramadol is a well-known and effective analgesic. Recently it was shown that tramadol is also effective in human premature ejaculation. The inhibitory effect of tramadol on the ejaculation latency is probably due to its mechanism of action as a μ-opioid receptor agonist and noradrenaline/serotonin (

  16. The effects of Maine's change to primary seat belt law on seat belt use and public perception and awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Neil K; Tison, Julie; Casanova, Tara

    2010-04-01

    Maine upgraded its seat belt law to primary enforcement on September 20, 2007. Belt observations during the day and night were conducted along with awareness surveys in state licensing offices. Both daytime and nighttime observed belt use increased in the months following implementation of the law (daytime 77-84%; night 69-81%). Although daytime belt use was generally higher, nighttime belt use showed a greater increase than daytime belt use. Awareness surveys indicated that Maine motorists were clearly aware of the law change and its consequences. Survey respondents also indicated having heard both messages about enforcement and messages encouraging belt use. Primary seat belt laws may have a stronger effect on belt use at night--when risk is higher--than during the day.

  17. Understanding climate impacts on recruitment and spatial dynamics of Atlantic cod in the Gulf of Maine: Integration of observations and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Jeffrey A.; Kovach, Adrienne I.; Churchill, James H.; Kerr, Lisa A.; Morrison, John R.; Beardsley, Robert C.; Berlinsky, David L.; Chen, Changsheng; Cadrin, Steven X.; Davis, Cabell S.; Ford, Kathryn H.; Grabowski, Jonathan H.; Howell, W. Huntting; Ji, Rubao; Jones, Rebecca J.; Pershing, Andrew J.; Record, Nicholas R.; Thomas, Andrew C.; Sherwood, Graham D.; Tallack, Shelly M. L.; Townsend, David W.

    2010-10-01

    We put forward a combined observing and modeling strategy for evaluating effects of environmental forcing on the dynamics of spatially structured cod populations spawning in the western Gulf of Maine. Recent work indicates at least two genetically differentiated complexes in this region: a late spring spawning, coastal population centered in Ipswich Bay, and a population that spawns in winter inshore and on nearshore banks in the Gulf of Maine and off southern New England. The two populations likely differ in trophic interactions and in physiological and behavioral responses to different winter and spring environments. Coupled physical-biological modeling has advanced to the point where within-decade forecasting of environmental conditions for recruitment to each of the two populations is feasible. However, the modeling needs to be supported by hydrographic, primary production and zooplankton data collected by buoys, and by data from remote sensing and fixed station sampling. Forecasts of environmentally driven dispersal and growth of planktonic early life stages, combined with an understanding of possible population-specific predator fields, usage of coastal habitat by juveniles and adult resident and migratory patterns, can be used to develop scenarios for spatially explicit population responses to multiple forcings, including climate change, anthropogenic impacts on nearshore juvenile habitat, connectivity among populations and management interventions such as regional fisheries closures.

  18. Assessment of odorous VOCs released from a main MSW landfill site in Istanbul-Turkey via a modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saral, Arslan; Demir, Selami; Yildiz, Senol

    2009-08-30

    An air pollution modeling study was conducted to investigate the odorous effects of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions from a sanitary landfill area on ambient air quality. The atmospheric dispersion of hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) and 22 VOCs was modeled. Industrial Source Complex v3 Short Term (ISCST3) model was used to estimate hourly concentrations of odorous VOCs over the nearest residential area. Odor thresholds of VOCs of interest were also found in the literature. Results showed that short-term averages of three odorous VOCs, namely ethyl mercaptan, methyl mercaptan and hydrogen sulfide, exceeded their odor thresholds, which are reported to be 0.022, 0.138 and 11.1 microg/m(3), respectively, at several points within the domain. Their highest concentrations within Gokturk County were estimated to be 0.09387 microg/m(3) for ethyl mercaptan, 0.07934 microg/m(3) for methyl mercaptan and 6.315 microg/m(3) for hydrogen sulfide. Short-term model results revealed the occasional odor problems being reported for Gokturk County. Hourly concentrations were used to obtain frequencies of odor episodes in Gokturk County via a probability analysis. The results showed that ethyl mercaptan concentrations did not exceed its odor threshold during more than 8.84% of the time. Similarly, the maximum odor episode frequencies for methyl mercaptan and hydrogen sulfide were 0.98% and 0.34% of the time, respectively.

  19. Fracturing characteristics of main roof strata when mining uphill and downhill and its effect on stability of immediate roof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Q.; Liu, J.; Zhang, Y. (Shanxi Mining Institute (China))

    1994-04-01

    The main roof strata in uphill and downhill mining of an inclined longwall may be regarded as an elastic plate. When the ratio of longwall and short span is greater than 2, the load is mainly carried by the short span. Based on this, the authors take a unit width of an inclined rock beam in the direction of face advance and a mechanical model for studying initial and periodic weighting of the main roof was established. It shows that the interval of periodic weighting and abutment pressure in uphill mining are less than that of downhill mining and the distribution of abutment pressure in both cases is quite different. Manifestation of ground pressure in uphill mining is more evident than downhill mining. It is proved that when uphill mining is introduced, the immediate roof is less stable and roof failures are frequent due to stress component in the direction of rock strata and to spalling of coal rib. When the direction of stress component is the same as face advance, the immediate roof is more stable and vice versa if the contrary. From the roof control point of view, where conditions are favourable, priority should be given to downhill mining. 4 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Double-ramp on the Main Himalayan Thrust revealed by broadband waveform modeling of the 2015 Gorkha earthquake sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Wei, Shengji; Wu, Wenbo

    2017-09-01

    The 2015Mw 7.8 Gorkha earthquake sequence that unzipped the lower edge of the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT) in central Nepal provides an exceptional opportunity to understand the fault geometry in this region. However, the limited number of focal mechanisms and the poor horizontal locations and depths of earthquakes in the global catalog impede us from clearly imaging the ruptured MHT. In this study, we generalized the Amplitude Amplification Factor (AAF) method to teleseismic distance that allows us to model the teleseismic P-waves up to 1.5 Hz. We used well-constrained medium-sized earthquakes to establish AAF corrections for teleseismic stations that were later used to invert the high-frequency waveforms of other nearby events. This new approach enables us to invert the focal mechanisms of some early aftershocks, which is challenging by using other long-period methods. With this method, we obtained 12 focal mechanisms more than that in the GCMT catalog. We also modeled the high-frequency teleseismic P-waves and the surface reflection phases (pP and sP) to precisely constrain the depths of the earthquakes. Our results indicate that the uncertainty of the depth estimation is as small as 1-2 km. Finally, we refined the horizontal locations of these aftershocks using carefully hand-picked arrivals. The refined aftershock mechanisms and locations delineate a clear double-ramp geometry of the MHT, with an almost flat décollement sandwiched in between. The flat (dip ∼7 degrees) portion of the MHT is consistent with the coseismic rupture of the mainshock, which has a well-constrained slip distribution. The fault morphology suggests that the ramps, both along the up-dip and down-dip directions, play a significant role in stopping the rupture of the 2015 Gorkha earthquake. Our method can be applied to general subduction zone earthquakes and fault geometry studies.

  1. Maine's Employability Skills Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, John M.; Wolffe, Karen E.; Wolfe, Judy; Brooker, Carrie

    2013-01-01

    This Practice Report describes the development and implementation of the "Maine Employability Skills Program," a model employment program developed by the Maine Division for the Blind and Visually Impaired (DBVI). The program was designed to support the efforts of the chronically unemployed or underemployed. These consumers were either…

  2. Thymus vulgaris L. essential oil and its main component thymol: Anthelmintic effects against Haemonchus contortus from sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Luis E; Benincasa, Bruno I; Fachin, Ana L; França, Suzelei C; Contini, Silvia S H T; Chagas, Ana C S; Beleboni, Rene O

    2016-09-15

    Haemonchus contortus is an important gastrointestinal parasite on sheep farms in tropical regions. The resistance of the parasite against most anthelmintic drugs represents a great economic problem to sheep farming and is a major challenge that needs to be overcome. The searches for new anthelmintic agents that act on different stages of the parasite's life cycle are necessary for the development of new therapeutic options. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo anthelmintic activity of Thymus vulgaris essential oil against H. contortus and of its main component, the monoterpene thymol. Despite the relative ineffectiveness of the oil in the in vivo test, which may be corrected in the future after technical improvements to increase the oil's bioavailability, the in vitro results validated the popular use of T. vulgaris oil as an anthelmintic agent, at least against H. contortus. In fact, both the essential oil and thymol, which accounts for 50.22% of the oil composition, were effective against the three main stages of H. contortus. The oil and thymol were able to inhibit egg hatching by 96.4-100%, larval development by 90.8-100%, and larval motility by 97-100%. Similar to the positive control (levamisole 20mg/mL), the oil and thymol completely inhibited the motility of H. contortus adults within the first 8h of the experiment. Since thymol reproduces the anthelmintic effects of the oil and because it is the main component of the oil, it is reasonable to assume that thymol is the most important compound responsible for the anthelmintic effect of T. vulgaris. These results are of ethnopharmacological importance and may contribute to the development of new drugs and even herbal medicines, increasing treatment options for the farm breeding. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The Effect of Screening Factors and Thermonuclear Reaction Rates in the Pre-main Sequence Evolution of Low Mass Stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    İ. Küçük; Ş. Çalışkan

    2010-09-01

    In understanding the nucleosynthesis of the elements in stars, one of the most important quantities is the reaction rate and it must be evaluated in terms of the stellar temperature , and its determination involves the knowledge of the excitation function () of the specific nuclear reaction leading to the final nucleus. In this paper, the effect of thermonuclear reaction rates to the pre-main sequence evolution of low mass stars having masses 0.7, 0.8, 0.9 and 1 M⊙ are studied by using our modified Stellar Evolutionary Program.

  4. Global modelling of the ClNO2 production impact on tropospheric nitrogen oxides and main oxidants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas Rodríguez, Carlos Alberto; Brown, Steven S.; Lamarque, Jean-Francoise; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Kinnison, Douglas E.; Lopez-Hilfiker, Felipe; Thornton, Joel A.; Jaegle, Lyatt; Fibiger, Dorothy; McDuffie, Erin E.; Sullivan, Amy P.; Weber, Rodney J.; Dibb, Jack

    2016-04-01

    Heterogeneous uptake of dinitrogen pentoxide, N2O5, to aerosol is one of the most important reactions controlling the global budget of nitrogen oxides, with subsequent impacts on oxidants such as ozone and hydroxyl radical. Most chemistry global models assume that this uptake proceeds through hydrolysis to produce nitric acid, effectively a terminal sink for nitrogen oxides. However, recent field studies have shown that the yield of nitryl chloride, ClNO2, from N2O5 uptake is significant in many locations. Because ClNO2 photolyzes subsequent to its nighttime production to recycle NO2 and produce atomic chlorine, a potent oxidant, the impact of heterogeneous N2O5 uptake and the role of ClNO2 on the scale distribution of oxidants need to be re-assessed. Here we present global simulations using the chemistry-climate model CAM-Chem, including a state of the art halogen chemistry scheme and different assumptions for the magnitude and spatial distribution of ClNO2 yields from N2O5. The model shows a significant effect of ClNO2 production on tropospheric ozone, hydroxyl radical and peroxyacyl nitrates (PAN) during northern hemisphere late winter and early spring. Simulations are compared to observations from recent field campaigns, including ClNO2 and N2O5 from the Wintertime INvestigation of Transport, Emissions and Reactivity (WINTER) study on the NSF / NCAR C-130 aircraft on the U.S. East Coast in February and March of 2015.

  5. Modeling along-axis variations in fault architecture in the Main Ethiopian Rift: implications for Nubia-Somalia kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbello, Asfaw; Corti, Giacomo; Sani, Federico; Kidane, Tesfaye

    2016-04-01

    The Main Ethiopian Rift (MER), at the northern termination of the East African Rift, is an ideal locale where to get insights into the long-term motion between Nubia and Somalia. The rift is indeed one of the few places along the plate boundary where the deformation is narrow: its evolution is thus strictly related to the kinematics of the two major plates, whereas south of the Turkana depression a two-plate model for the EARS is too simplistic as extension occurs both along the Western and Eastern branches and different microplates are present between the two major plates. Despite its importance, the kinematics responsible for development and evolution of the MER is still a matter of debate: indeed, whereas the Quaternary-present kinematics of rifting is rather well constrained, the plate kinematics driving the initial, Mio-Pliocene stages of extension is still not clear, and different hypothesis have been put forward, including: polyphase rifting, with a change in direction of extension from NW-SE extension to E-W extension; constant Miocene-recent NW-SE extension; constant Miocene-recent NE-SW extension; constant, post-11 Ma extension consistent with the GPS-derived kinematics (i.e., roughly E-W to ESE-WNW). To shed additional light on this controversy and to test these different hypothesis, in this contribution we use new crustal-scale analogue models to analyze the along-strike variations in fault architecture in the MER and their relations with the rift trend, plate motion and the resulting Miocene-recent kinematics of rifting. The extension direction is indeed one of the most important parameters controlling the architecture of continental rifts and the relative abundance and orientation of different fault sets that develop during oblique rifting is typically a function of the angle between the extension direction and the orthogonal to the rift trend (i.e., the obliquity angle). Since the trend of the MER varies along strike, and consequently it is

  6. SOME THEORETICAL MODELS EXPLAINING ADVERTISING EFFECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilica Magdalena SOMEŞFĂLEAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Persuade clients is still the main focus of the companies, using a set of methods and techniques designed to influence their behavior, in order to obtain better results (profits over a longer period of time. Since the late nineteenth - early twentieth century, the american E.St.Elmo Lewis, considered a pioneer in advertising and sales, developed the first theory, AIDA model, later used by marketers and advertisers to develop a marketing communications strategy. Later studies have developed other models that are the main subject of this research, which explains how and why persuasive communication works, to understand why some approaches are effective and others are not.

  7. Laser powder-bed fusion additive manufacturing: Effects of main physical processes on dynamical melt flow and pore formation from mesoscopic powder simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Khairallah, Saad A; Rubenchik, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    There is a need in laser powder-bed fusion of metals to produce high quality parts without pores by better understanding the complex interplay of process parameters. This study considers the main physical phenomena involved in laser powder interactions using a high fidelity three-dimensional mesoscopic simulation model of 316L stainless steel powder. The model emphasizes the importance of the recoil pressure and the Marangoni effect in generating strong dynamical melt flow and the role of radiative and evaporative cooling at capping the maximum surface temperature. The melt track is divided into an indentation, transition and tail end regions, each being the stage of specific physical effects. Pore formation mechanisms are observed at the edge of a scan track, at the melt pool bottom center during collapse of the indentation, and at the end of the melt track during laser power ramp down. Remedies to these undesirable pores are discussed.

  8. Model Verification and Validation Concepts for a Probabilistic Fracture Assessment Model to Predict Cracking of Knife Edge Seals in the Space Shuttle Main Engine High Pressure Oxidizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Shantaram S.; Riha, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Physics-based models are routinely used to predict the performance of engineered systems to make decisions such as when to retire system components, how to extend the life of an aging system, or if a new design will be safe or available. Model verification and validation (V&V) is a process to establish credibility in model predictions. Ideally, carefully controlled validation experiments will be designed and performed to validate models or submodels. In reality, time and cost constraints limit experiments and even model development. This paper describes elements of model V&V during the development and application of a probabilistic fracture assessment model to predict cracking in space shuttle main engine high-pressure oxidizer turbopump knife-edge seals. The objective of this effort was to assess the probability of initiating and growing a crack to a specified failure length in specific flight units for different usage and inspection scenarios. The probabilistic fracture assessment model developed in this investigation combined a series of submodels describing the usage, temperature history, flutter tendencies, tooth stresses and numbers of cycles, fatigue cracking, nondestructive inspection, and finally the probability of failure. The analysis accounted for unit-to-unit variations in temperature, flutter limit state, flutter stress magnitude, and fatigue life properties. The investigation focused on the calculation of relative risk rather than absolute risk between the usage scenarios. Verification predictions were first performed for three units with known usage and cracking histories to establish credibility in the model predictions. Then, numerous predictions were performed for an assortment of operating units that had flown recently or that were projected for future flights. Calculations were performed using two NASA-developed software tools: NESSUS(Registered Trademark) for the probabilistic analysis, and NASGRO(Registered Trademark) for the fracture

  9. Joint effect of education and main lifetime occupation on late life health: a cross-sectional study of older adults in Xiamen, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Manqiong; Chen, Wei; Chu, Cheng-I; Fang, Ya

    2015-01-01

    The effects of education and occupation on health have been well documented individually, but little is known about their joint effect, especially their cumulative joint effect on late life health. We enrolled 14,292 participants aged 60+ years by multistage sampling across 173 communities in Xiamen, China, in 2013. Heath status was assessed by the ability to perform six basic activities of daily life. Education was classified in four categories: 'Illiterate', 'Primary', 'Junior high school' and 'Senior high school and beyond'. Main lifetime occupation was also four categorized: 'Employed', 'Farmer', 'Jobless' and 'Others'. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated by random-intercept multilevel models regressing health status on education and main lifetime occupation with or without their interactions, adjusting by some covariates. Totally, 13,880 participants had complete data, of whom 12.5% suffered from disability, and 'Illiterate' and 'Farmer' took up the greatest proportion (33.01% and 42.72%, respectively). Participants who were higher educated had better health status (ORs = 0.62, 0.46, and 0.44 for the 'Primary', 'Junior high school', and 'Senior high school and beyond', respectively, in comparison with 'Illiterate'). Those who were long term jobless in early life had poorest heath (ORs = 1.88, 95% CI 1.47 to 2.40). Unexpectedly, for the farmers, the risk of poor health gradually increased in relation to higher education level (ORs = 1.26, 1.28, 1.40 and 2.24, respectively). For the 'Employed', similar ORs were obtained for the 'Junior high school' and 'Senior high school and beyond' educated (both ORs = 1.01). For the 'Farmer' and 'Jobless', participants who were 'Illiterate' and 'Primary' educated also showed similar ORs. Both education and main lifetime occupation were associated with late life health. Higher education was observed to be associated with better health, but such educational advantage was mediated by main lifetime occupation.

  10. Joint effect of education and main lifetime occupation on late life health: a cross-sectional study of older adults in Xiamen, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manqiong Yuan

    Full Text Available The effects of education and occupation on health have been well documented individually, but little is known about their joint effect, especially their cumulative joint effect on late life health.We enrolled 14,292 participants aged 60+ years by multistage sampling across 173 communities in Xiamen, China, in 2013. Heath status was assessed by the ability to perform six basic activities of daily life. Education was classified in four categories: 'Illiterate', 'Primary', 'Junior high school' and 'Senior high school and beyond'. Main lifetime occupation was also four categorized: 'Employed', 'Farmer', 'Jobless' and 'Others'. Odds ratios (ORs were estimated by random-intercept multilevel models regressing health status on education and main lifetime occupation with or without their interactions, adjusting by some covariates.Totally, 13,880 participants had complete data, of whom 12.5% suffered from disability, and 'Illiterate' and 'Farmer' took up the greatest proportion (33.01% and 42.72%, respectively. Participants who were higher educated had better health status (ORs = 0.62, 0.46, and 0.44 for the 'Primary', 'Junior high school', and 'Senior high school and beyond', respectively, in comparison with 'Illiterate'. Those who were long term jobless in early life had poorest heath (ORs = 1.88, 95% CI 1.47 to 2.40. Unexpectedly, for the farmers, the risk of poor health gradually increased in relation to higher education level (ORs = 1.26, 1.28, 1.40 and 2.24, respectively. For the 'Employed', similar ORs were obtained for the 'Junior high school' and 'Senior high school and beyond' educated (both ORs = 1.01. For the 'Farmer' and 'Jobless', participants who were 'Illiterate' and 'Primary' educated also showed similar ORs.Both education and main lifetime occupation were associated with late life health. Higher education was observed to be associated with better health, but such educational advantage was mediated by main lifetime occupation.

  11. Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (BLUP) for regional yield trials: a comparison to additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piepho, H P

    1994-11-01

    Multilocation trials are often used to analyse the adaptability of genotypes in different environments and to find for each environment the genotype that is best adapted; i.e. that is highest yielding in that environment. For this purpose, it is of interest to obtain a reliable estimate of the mean yield of a cultivar in a given environment. This article compares two different statistical estimation procedures for this task: the Additive Main Effects and Multiplicative Interaction (AMMI) analysis and Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (BLUP). A modification of a cross validation procedure commonly used with AMMI is suggested for trials that are laid out as a randomized complete block design. The use of these procedure is exemplified using five faba bean datasets from German registration trails. BLUP was found to outperform AMMI in four of five faba bean datasets.

  12. Effects of light quality on main health-promoting compounds and antioxidant capacity of Chinese kale sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Hongmei; Liu, Tianyu; Deng, Mingdan; Miao, Huiying; Cai, Congxi; Shen, Wangshu; Wang, Qiaomei

    2016-04-01

    The effects of different light qualities, including white, red and blue lights, on main health-promoting compounds and antioxidant capacity of Chinese kale sprouts were investigated using light-emitting diodes (LEDs) as a light source. Our results showed that blue light treatment significantly decreased the content of gluconapin, the primary compound for bitter flavor in shoots, while increased the glucoraphanin content in roots. Moreover, the maximum content of vitamin C was detected in the white-light grown sprouts and the highest levels of total phenolic and anthocyanins, as well as the strongest antioxidant capacity were observed in blue-light grown sprouts. Taken together, the application of a colorful light source is a good practice for improvement of the consumers' acceptance and the nutritional phtyochemicals of Chinese kale sprouts.

  13. Development of thermal hydraulic models for main circulation circuit of RBMK-1500 reactor using Apros and Cathare 2 codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zemulis, G.; Jasiulevicius, A. [Kaunas University of Technology, Dept. of Thermal and Nuclear Energy, Kaunas, (Lithuania)

    2001-07-01

    Reactor safety is the most important issue in nuclear engineering. It concerns the capability of the nuclear object to withhold the main safety and reliability criterion within specified range during both normal operation and transient conditions. Three types of assessment are to be performed in order to establish the nuclear power plant safety level: neutronic calculations; thermal hydraulic calculations; mechanical design calculations. Calculations of the thermal hydraulic parameters of the RBMK-1500 reactor main circulation circuit (MCC) are presented in this paper. The aim of this work was to test the capability of the APROS code to simulate the behavior of the RBMK-1500 type reactor main circulation circuit during normal operation and transients. (author)

  14. Construction of Recombinant Baculoviruses Expressing Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Main Protective Antigen and Their Immune Effects on Chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingping Ge

    Full Text Available In order to overcome the limitations of conventional vaccines for infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV, we constructed recombinant dual expression system baculoviruses with VP2 and VP2/4/3, the main protective antigens of IBDV. We compared the immune effects of the baculoviruses in avian cells and detected their control effects on chickens with infectious bursal disease. We used Western blot analysis to measure VP2 protein and VP2/4/3 polyprotein expression in avian cells infected using the Bac-to-Bac baculovirus expression system. The recombinant baculoviruses were used to vaccinate specific pathogen-free chickens, which produced specific protective antibodies and strong cellular immune responses. The results of the virus challenge experiment revealed that the protective efficiency of VP2 and VP2/4/3 virus vaccines were 95.8% and 100%, respectively, both of which were higher than the vaccine group (87.5%, and significantly higher than the control group (50%. The results demonstrated that the immune effect of BV-S-ITRs-VP2/4/3 was superior to that of BV-S-ITRs-VP2. Compared with traditional attenuated vaccine and genetically engineered live vector vaccine, the dual expression viral vector vaccine has good bio-safety. The results of this study provide a foundation for the further development of poultry vaccines, in addition to providing a useful reference for developing non-replicating live vaccines against other viral diseases.

  15. An international review of the main cost-effectiveness drivers of virtual colonography versus conventional colonoscopy for colorectal cancer screening: Is the tide changing due to adherence?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kriza, Christine, E-mail: Christine.kriza@uk-erlangen.de [Interdisciplinary Centre for Health Technology Assessment and Public Health, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, National BMBF-Cluster of Excellence, “Medical Technologies - Medical Valley EMN”, Schwabachanlage 6, 91054 Erlangen (Germany); Emmert, Martin, E-mail: Martin.Emmert@fau.de [School of Business and Economics, Institute of Management, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Lange Gasse 20, 90403 Nuremberg (Germany); Wahlster, Philip, E-mail: Philip.wahlster@uk-erlangen.de [Interdisciplinary Centre for Health Technology Assessment and Public Health, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, National BMBF-Cluster of Excellence, “Medical Technologies - Medical Valley EMN”, Schwabachanlage 6, 91054 Erlangen (Germany); Niederländer, Charlotte, E-mail: Charlotte.niederlaender@uk-erlangen.de [Interdisciplinary Centre for Health Technology Assessment and Public Health, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, National BMBF-Cluster of Excellence, “Medical Technologies - Medical Valley EMN”, Schwabachanlage 6, 91054 Erlangen (Germany); Kolominsky-Rabas, Peter, E-mail: Peter.kolominsky@uk-erlangen.de [Interdisciplinary Centre for Health Technology Assessment and Public Health, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, National BMBF-Cluster of Excellence, “Medical Technologies - Medical Valley EMN”, Schwabachanlage 6, 91054 Erlangen (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    Objectives: The majority of recent cost-effectiveness reviews concluded that computerised tomographic colonography (CTC) is not a cost-effective colorectal cancer (CRC) screening strategy yet. The objective of this review is to examine cost-effectiveness of CTC versus optical colonoscopy (COL) for CRC screening and identify the main drivers influencing cost-effectiveness due to the emergence of new research. Methods: A systematic review was conducted for cost-effectiveness studies comparing CTC and COL as a screening tool and providing outcomes in life-years saved, published between January 2006 and November 2012. Results: Nine studies were included in the review. There was considerable heterogeneity in modelling complexity and methodology. Different model assumptions and inputs had large effects on resulting cost-effectiveness of CTC and COL. CTC was found to be dominant or cost-effective in three studies, assuming the most favourable scenario. COL was found to be not cost effective in one study. Conclusions: CTC has the potential to be a cost-effective CRC screening strategy when compared to COL. The most important assumptions that influenced the cost-effectiveness of CTC and COL were related to CTC threshold-based reporting of polyps, CTC cost, CTC sensitivity for large polyps, natural history of adenoma transition to cancer, AAA parameters and importantly, adherence. There is a strong need for a differential consideration of patient adherence and compliance to CTC and COL. Recent research shows that laxative-free CTC screening has the potential to become a good alternative screening method for CRC as it can improve patient uptake of screening.

  16. A Frequency Model of Vibrational Processes in Gas-Turbine Drives of Compressor Stations of Main Gas Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekardovskiy, M. N.; Chekardovskiy, S. M.; Razboynikov, A. A.; Ponomareva, T. G.

    2016-10-01

    At compressor stations, systematic measurements of noise and vibration of power equipment - gas compressor units - are carried out. The article presents basic equations for calculating natural and forced frequencies at which the main defects appear. According to the studied dependences, results of calculations are obtained on the following types of drives for gas-compressor units GTK-10-4, Avon-1534, DG-90.

  17. Hybrid hard- and soft-modeling of spectrophotometric data for monitoring of ciprofloxacin and its main photodegradation products at different pH values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razuc, Mariela; Garrido, Mariano; Caro, Yamile S.; Teglia, Carla M.; Goicoechea, Héctor C.; Fernández Band, Beatriz S.

    2013-04-01

    A simple and fast on line spectrophotometric method combined with a hybrid hard-soft modeling multivariate curve resolution (HS-MCR) was proposed for the monitoring of photodegradation reaction of ciprofloxacin under UV radiation. The studied conditions attempt to emulate the effect of sunlight on these antibiotics that could be eventually present in the environment. The continuous flow system made it possible to study the ciprofloxacin degradation at different pH values almost at real time, avoiding errors that could arise from typical batch monitoring of the reaction. On the base of a concentration profiles obtained by previous pure soft-modeling approach, reaction pathways have been proposed for the parent compound and its photoproducts at different pH values. These kinetic models were used as a constraint in the HS-MCR analysis. The kinetic profiles and the corresponding pure response profile (UV-Vis spectra) of ciprofloxacin and its main degradation products were recovered after the application of HS-MCR analysis to the spectra recorded throughout the reaction. The observed behavior showed a good agreement with the photodegradation studies reported in the bibliography. Accordingly, the photodegradation reaction was studied by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with UV-Vis diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). The spectra recorded during the chromatographic analysis present a good correlation with the ones recovered by UV-Vis/HS-MCR method.

  18. New murine Niemann-Pick type C models bearing a pseudoexon-generating mutation recapitulate the main neurobehavioural and molecular features of the disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Grau, Marta; Albaigès, Júlia; Casas, Josefina; Auladell, Carme; Dierssen, Mara; Vilageliu, Lluïsa; Grinberg, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is a rare neurovisceral disease caused mainly by mutations in the NPC1 gene. This autosomal recessive lysosomal disorder is characterised by the defective lysosomal secretion of cholesterol and sphingolipids. No effective therapy exists for the disease. We previously described a deep intronic point mutation (c.1554-1009 G > A) in NPC1 that generated a pseudoexon, which could be corrected at the cellular level using antisense oligonucleotides. Here, we describe the generation of two mouse models bearing this mutation, one in homozygosity and the other in compound heterozygosity with the c.1920delG mutation. Both the homozygotes for the c.1554-1009 G > A mutation and the compound heterozygotes recapitulated the hallmarks of NPC. Lipid analysis revealed accumulation of cholesterol in the liver and sphingolipids in the brain, with both types of transgenic mice displaying tremor and ataxia at 7–8 weeks of age. Behavioural tests showed motor impairment, hyperactivity, reduced anxiety-like behaviour and impaired learning and memory performances, features consistent with those reported previously in NPC animal models and human patients. These mutant mice, the first NPC models bearing a pseudoexon-generating mutation, could be suitable for assessing the efficacy of specific splicing-targeted therapeutic strategies against NPC. PMID:28167839

  19. Fractions of Rechtschaffner matrices as supersaturated designs in screening experiments aimed at evaluating main and two-factor interaction effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cela, R; Phan-Tan-Luu, R; Claeys-Bruno, M; Sergent, M

    2012-04-06

    Optimal fractions of resolution V design matrices proposed by Rechtschaffner in 1967 are developed and applied as supersaturated designs in screening experiments. Rechtschaffner matrices allow evaluation of all main factors and two-factor interactions, which in many real-world studies are of practical significance. However, the number of experimental runs increases rapidly with the number of factors in the matrices, which are therefore impractical for more than 5-6 factors. On the contrary, saturated fractions based on Hadamard matrices, which are commonly applied in screening studies, cannot evaluate the interaction effects. Here, a procedure for selecting the optimum fractions of Rechtschaffner matrices is presented and provides supersaturated matrices that are well adapted to a variety of problems, thus allowing the development of screening studies with a relatively small number of experiments. The procedures developed to derive the size-reduced matrices and to evaluate the active factors are discussed and compared in terms of efficiency and reliability, by means of simulation studies and application to a real problem. These fractions are the first supersaturated design matrices capable of estimating interaction effects. Additionally, one important advantage of these supersaturated matrices is that they enable development of follow-up procedures in cases of inconclusive results, by enlarging the matrix and eventually resolving the full Rechtschaffner matrix of departure when it is necessary to evaluate the active factors and their interactions.

  20. Perceptions of healthcare professionals regarding the main challenges and barriers to effective hospital infection control in Mongolia: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ider Bat-Erdene

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is not fully understood why healthcare decision-makers of developing countries often give low priority to infection control and why they are unable to implement international guidelines. This study aimed to identify the main perceived challenges and barriers that hinder the effective implementation of infection control programmes in Mongolia. Methods In 2008, qualitative research involving 4 group and 55 individual interviews was conducted in the capital city of Mongolia and two provincial centres. Results A total of 87 health professionals participated in the study, including policy and hospital-level managers, doctors, nurses and infection control practitioners. Thematic analysis revealed a large number of perceived challenges and barriers to the formulation and implementation of infection control policy. These challenges and barriers were complex in nature and related to poor funding, suboptimal knowledge and attitudes, and inadequate management. The study results suggest that the availability of infection control policy and guidelines, and the provision of specific recommendations for low-resource settings, do not assure effective implementation of infection control programmes. Conclusions The current infection control system in Mongolia is likely to remain ineffective unless the underlying barriers and challenges are adequately addressed. Multifaceted interventions with logistical, educational and management components that are specific to local circumstances need to be designed and implemented in Mongolia. The importance of international peer support is highlighted.

  1. The main cubioid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blokh, Alexander; Oversteegen, Lex; Ptacek, Ross; Timorin, Vladlen

    2014-08-01

    The connectedness locus in the parameter space of quadratic polynomials is called the Mandelbrot set. A good combinatorial model of this set is due to Thurston. By definition, the principal hyperbolic domain of the Mandelbrot set consists of parameter values, for which the corresponding quadratic polynomials have an attracting fixed point. The closure of the principal hyperbolic domain of the Mandelbrot set is called the main cardioid. Its topology is completely described by Thurston's model. Less is known about the connectedness locus in the parameter space of cubic polynomials. In this paper, we discuss cubic analogues of the main cardioid and establish relationships between them.

  2. The Main Influencing Factors of Customer Trust in China’s Import Cross-Border E- commerce Business Model

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Lu; Liu, Jiaqi; Lu, Yanzhu

    2016-01-01

    China’s import cross-border e-commerce (CICBEC) business model differs from other online shopping business models in both the participators and transaction processes. Government as an important participator has greatly promoted the healthy and rapid development of this business model. As a vital topic in all kinds of businesses, customer trust is also a core research topic in online shopping. Many scholars have studied customer trust in traditional online shopping while few of them focused on...

  3. A Mechanistic Model of Botrytis cinerea on Grapevines That Includes Weather, Vine Growth Stage, and the Main Infection Pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa González-Domínguez

    Full Text Available A mechanistic model for Botrytis cinerea on grapevine was developed. The model, which accounts for conidia production on various inoculum sources and for multiple infection pathways, considers two infection periods. During the first period ("inflorescences clearly visible" to "berries groat-sized", the model calculates: i infection severity on inflorescences and young clusters caused by conidia (SEV1. During the second period ("majority of berries touching" to "berries ripe for harvest", the model calculates: ii infection severity of ripening berries by conidia (SEV2; and iii severity of berry-to-berry infection caused by mycelium (SEV3. The model was validated in 21 epidemics (vineyard × year combinations between 2009 and 2014 in Italy and France. A discriminant function analysis (DFA was used to: i evaluate the ability of the model to predict mild, intermediate, and severe epidemics; and ii assess how SEV1, SEV2, and SEV3 contribute to epidemics. The model correctly classified the severity of 17 of 21 epidemics. Results from DFA were also used to calculate the daily probabilities that an ongoing epidemic would be mild, intermediate, or severe. SEV1 was the most influential variable in discriminating between mild and intermediate epidemics, whereas SEV2 and SEV3 were relevant for discriminating between intermediate and severe epidemics. The model represents an improvement of previous B. cinerea models in viticulture and could be useful for making decisions about Botrytis bunch rot control.

  4. Neuroprotective Properties of the Standardized Extract from Camellia sinensis (Green Tea) and Its Main Bioactive Components, Epicatechin and Epigallocatechin Gallate, in the 6-OHDA Model of Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitu Pinto, Natália; da Silva Alexandre, Bruno; Neves, Kelly Rose Tavares; Silva, Aline Holanda; Leal, Luzia Kalyne A. M.; Viana, Glauce S. B.

    2015-01-01

    Camellia sinensis (green tea) is largely consumed, mainly in Asia. It possesses several biological effects such as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The objectives were to investigate the neuroprotective actions of the standardized extract (CS), epicatechin (EC) and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), on a model of Parkinson's disease. Male Wistar rats were divided into SO (sham-operated controls), untreated 6-OHDA-lesioned and 6-OHDA-lesioned treated for 2 weeks with CS (25, 50, or 100 mg/kg), EC (10 mg/kg), or EGCG (10 mg/kg) groups. One hour after the last administration, animals were submitted to behavioral tests and euthanized and their striata and hippocampi were dissected for neurochemical (DA, DOPAC, and HVA) and antioxidant activity determinations, as well as immunohistochemistry evaluations (TH, COX-2, and iNOS). The results showed that CS and catechins reverted behavioral changes, indicating neuroprotection manifested as decreased rotational behavior, increased locomotor activity, antidepressive effects, and improvement of cognitive dysfunction, as compared to the untreated 6-OHDA-lesioned group. Besides, CS, EP, and EGCG reversed the striatal oxidative stress and immunohistochemistry alterations. These results show that the neuroprotective effects of CS and its catechins are probably and in great part due to its powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, pointing out their potential for the prevention and treatment of PD. PMID:26167188

  5. Piperine, the main alkaloid of Thai black pepper, protects against neurodegeneration and cognitive impairment in animal model of cognitive deficit like condition of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonpathompikunlert, Pennapa; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Muchimapura, Supaporn

    2010-03-01

    Recently, numerous medicinal plants possessing profound central nervous system effects and antioxidant activity have received much attention as food supplement to improve cognitive function against cognitive deficit condition including in Alzheimer's disease condition. Based on this information, the effect of piperine, a main active alkaloid in fruit of Piper nigrum, on memory performance and neurodegeneration in animal model of Alzheimer's disease have been investigated. Adult male Wistar rats (180-220 g) were orally given piperine at various doses ranging from 5, 10 and 20mg/kg BW at a period of 2 weeks before and 1 week after the intracerebroventricular administration of ethylcholine aziridinium ion (AF64A) bilaterally. The results showed that piperine at all dosage range used in this study significantly improved memory impairment and neurodegeneration in hippocampus. The possible underlying mechanisms might be partly associated with the decrease lipid peroxidation and acetylcholinesterase enzyme. Moreover, piperine also demonstrated the neurotrophic effect in hippocampus. However, further researches about the precise underlying mechanism are still required.

  6. Development and evaluation of a meteorological model system for assessing the effect of environmental measures on climate and air quality. Vol. 1: Main part and appendices 1 through 5. Final report; Entwicklung und Evaluierung eines meteorologischen Modellsystems zur Folgenabschaetzung von Umwelteingriffen auf Klima und Luftqualitaet. Bd. 1: Hauptteil und Anhaenge 1 bis 5. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigalke, K. [METCON Umweltmeteorologische Beratung, Pinneberg (Germany); Schluenzen, K.H. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Meteorologisches Inst.

    2001-09-01

    The project focused on the development of a low-cost planning tool for authorities and consulting engineers which meets the envisaged national quality standards (VDI standards). The program system METRAS{sup +} consists of four components for preparation, implementation and quality assurance of mesoscale model calculations, all under Windows. The program system will not be commercialized; instead, it will be made available to interested users at a small fee by the Meteorological Institute of Hamburg University. [German] Ziel war die Bereitstellung eines kostenguenstigen Planungsinstrumentes fuer Behoerden und Beratungsunternehmen, das geplante nationale Qualitaetsnormen (VDI-Richtlinie) erfuellt. Vergleichbare Modelle existieren bislang nur im wissenschaftlichen Bereich, sind kaum qualitaetsgesichert und werden u.a. aus wirtschaftlichen Erwaegungen nur in Ausnahmefaellen eingesetzt. Das Programmsystem METRAS{sup +} setzt sich aus vier Programmkomponenten zusammen, die der Vorbereitung, Durchfuehrung und Qualitaetssicherung mesoskaliger Modellrechnungen dienen. Alle Programmkomponenten laufen unter einer gemeinsamen, anwenderfreundlichen Windowsoberflaeche. Um die breite Anwendung qualifizierter Untersuchungsmethoden im Umweltconsulting zu foerdern, ist geplant, METRAS{sup +} nicht kommerziell zu vertreiben und das Programmsystem interessierten Anwendern gegen einen geringen Kostenbeitrag zur Verfuegung zu stellen. Vertrieb und Oeffentlichkeitsarbeit sollen vom Meteorologischen Institut der Universitaet Hamburg geleistet werden. (orig.)

  7. Development and evaluation of a meteorological model system for assessing the effect of environmental measures on climate and air quality. Vol. 1: Main part and appendices 1 through 5. Final report; Entwicklung und Evaluierung eines meteorologischen Modellsystems zur Folgenabschaetzung von Umwelteingriffen auf Klima und Luftqualitaet. Bd. 1: Hauptteil und Anhaenge 1 bis 5. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigalke, K. [METCON Umweltmeteorologische Beratung, Pinneberg (Germany); Schluenzen, K.H. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Meteorologisches Inst.

    2001-09-01

    The project focused on the development of a low-cost planning tool for authorities and consulting engineers which meets the envisaged national quality standards (VDI standards). The program system METRAS{sup +} consists of four components for preparation, implementation and quality assurance of mesoscale model calculations, all under Windows. The program system will not be commercialized; instead, it will be made available to interested users at a small fee by the Meteorological Institute of Hamburg University. [German] Ziel war die Bereitstellung eines kostenguenstigen Planungsinstrumentes fuer Behoerden und Beratungsunternehmen, das geplante nationale Qualitaetsnormen (VDI-Richtlinie) erfuellt. Vergleichbare Modelle existieren bislang nur im wissenschaftlichen Bereich, sind kaum qualitaetsgesichert und werden u.a. aus wirtschaftlichen Erwaegungen nur in Ausnahmefaellen eingesetzt. Das Programmsystem METRAS{sup +} setzt sich aus vier Programmkomponenten zusammen, die der Vorbereitung, Durchfuehrung und Qualitaetssicherung mesoskaliger Modellrechnungen dienen. Alle Programmkomponenten laufen unter einer gemeinsamen, anwenderfreundlichen Windowsoberflaeche. Um die breite Anwendung qualifizierter Untersuchungsmethoden im Umweltconsulting zu foerdern, ist geplant, METRAS{sup +} nicht kommerziell zu vertreiben und das Programmsystem interessierten Anwendern gegen einen geringen Kostenbeitrag zur Verfuegung zu stellen. Vertrieb und Oeffentlichkeitsarbeit sollen vom Meteorologischen Institut der Universitaet Hamburg geleistet werden. (orig.)

  8. Studies and analyses of the space shuttle main engine: High-pressure oxidizer turbopump failure information propagation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, R. C.; Rudy, S. W.; Tischer, A. E.

    1987-01-01

    The high-pressure oxidizer turbopump (HPOTP) failure information propagation model (FIPM) is presented. The text includes a brief discussion of the FIPM methodology and the various elements which comprise a model. Specific details of the HPOTP FIPM are described. Listings of all the HPOTP data records are included as appendices.

  9. Urban Flooding Analysis Using Radar Rainfall Data and 2-D Hydrodynamic Model: A Pilot Study of Back Cover Area, Portland, Maine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Eugene [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Pierce, Julia [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mahat, Vinod [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Jared, Alissa [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Collis, Scott [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Verner, Duane [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wall, Thomas [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-11-01

    This project is a part of the Regional Resiliency Assessment Program, led by the Department of Homeland Security, to address flooding hazards of regional significance for Portland, Maine. The pilot study was performed by Argonne National Laboratory to identify differences in spatial rainfall distributions between the radar-derived and rain-gauge rainfall datasets and to evaluate their impacts on urban flooding. The flooding impact analysis utilized a high-resolution 2-dimensional (2-D) hydrodynamic model (15 ft by 15 ft) incorporating the buildings, streets, stream channels, hydraulic structures, an existing city storm drain system, and assuming a storm surge along the coast coincident with a heavy rainfall event. Two historical storm events from April 16, 2007, and September 29, 2015, were selected for evaluation. The radar-derived rainfall data at a 200-m resolution provide spatially-varied rainfall patterns with a wide range of intensities for each event. The resultant maximum flood depth using data from a single rain gauge within the study area could be off (either under- or over-estimated) by more than 10% in the 2007 storm and more than 60% in the 2015 storm compared to the radar-derived rainfall data. The model results also suggest that the inundation area with a flow depth at or greater than 0.5 ft could reach 11% (2007 storm) and 17% (2015 storm) of the total study area, respectively. The lowland areas within the neighborhoods of North Deering, East Deering, East and West Baysides and northeastern Parkside, appear to be more vulnerable to the flood hazard in both storm events. The high-resolution 2-D hydrodynamic model with high-resolution radar-derived rainfall data provides an excellent tool for detailed urban flood analysis and vulnerability assessment. The model developed in this study could be potentially used to evaluate any proposed mitigation measures and optimize their effects in the future for Portland, ME.

  10. Modeling and Simulating Environmental Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Guest, Peter S.; Murphree, Tom; Frederickson, Paul A.; Guest, Arlene A.

    2012-01-01

    MOVES Research & Education Systems Seminar: Presentation; Session 4: Collaborative NWDC/NPS M&S Research; Moderator: Curtis Blais; Modeling and Simulating Environmental Effects; speakers: Peter Guest, Paul Frederickson & Tom Murphree Environmental Effects Group

  11. In Vitro Inhibitory Effect of Berberis vulgaris (Berberidaceae and Its Main Component, Berberine against Different Leishmania Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Mahmoudvand

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis has been identified as a major public health problem in tropical and sub-tropical countries. The present study was aimed to investigate antileishmanial effects of various extracts of Berberis vulgaris also its active compoenent, berberine against Leishmania tropica and L. infantum species on in vitro experiments.In this study in vitro antileishmanial activity of various extracts of B. vulgaris also its active compoenent, berberine against promastigote and amastigote stages of L. tropica and L. infantum was evaluated, using MTT assay and in a macrophage model, respectively. Furthermore, infectivity rate and cytotoxicity effects of B. vulgaris and berberine in murine macrophage cells were investigated.The findings of optical density (OD and IC50 indicated that B. vulgaris particulary berberine significantly (P<0.05 inhibited the growth rate of promastigote stage of L.tropica and L.infantum in comparison to meglumine antimoniate (MA. In addition, B. vulgaris and berberine significantly (P<0.05 decreased the mean number of amastigotes in each macrophage as compared with positive control. In the evaluation of cytotoxicity effects, it could be observed that berberine as compared with B. vulgaris exhibited more cytotoxicity against murine macrophages. Results also showed that when parasites were pre-incubated with B. vulgaris their ability to infect murine macrophages was significantly decreased.B.vulgaris particularly berberine exhibited potent in vitro leishmanicidal effects against L. tropica and L.infantum. Further works are required to evaluate the antileishmanial effects of B.vulgaris on Leishmania species using clinical settings.

  12. Effects of immunizing school children with 2009 influenza A (H1N1) monovalent vaccine on absenteeism among students and teachers in Maine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graitcer, Samuel B; Dube, Nancy L; Basurto-Davila, Ricardo; Smith, Peter F; Ferdinands, Jill; Thompson, Mark; Uzicanin, Amra; Gargiullo, Paul; Chaves, Sandra S; Robinson, Sara; Sears, Stephen; Tipton, Meredith; Monto, Arnold S; Mills, Dora; Shay, David K

    2012-07-06

    The overall and indirect effects of immunizing school children with influenza A (H1N1) 2009 pandemic virus vaccine prior to and during the peak of virus circulation were evaluated on student and teacher school absenteeism. We used records collected from late 2009 through early 2010 from schools in four Maine counties. Mixed logistic regression models were used to estimate the daily association between school-level immunization coverage and absenteeism by level of influenza activity, after adjusting for the proportion of students receiving reduced-cost lunches, student minority status, absences adjacent to weekends and Thanksgiving, rural school location, and the circulation of other respiratory viruses. Increasing student immunization coverage was associated with reduced absenteeism during periods of high influenza activity. For example, as immunization coverage during the peak week of pandemic virus circulation increased from 38% to 69% (the 10th and 90th percentiles of observed coverage, respectively), relative reductions in daily absenteeism among all students, unimmunized students, and teachers were 8.2% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.5, 9.9), 5.7% (95% CI: 4.2, 7.3), and 8.7% (95% CI: 1.3, 16), respectively. Increased vaccination coverage among school-aged Maine children had modest overall and indirect effects on student and teacher absenteeism, despite vaccination occurring just prior and during peak pandemic virus circulation. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Spatial assessment of soil nitrogen availability and varying effects of related main soil factors on soil available nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Mingkai; Li, Weidong; Zhang, Chuanrong; Huang, Biao; Zhao, Yongcun

    2016-11-09

    To effectively understand the availability of soil nitrogen and assist in soil nitrogen control at the regional scale, it is essential to understand the accurate spatial distribution patterns of the three soil nitrogen parameters [i.e., total nitrogen (TN), available nitrogen (AN) and nitrogen availability ratio (NAR)] and explore the spatially varying influences of major impact factors on soil AN. Land use affects the spatial distributions of soil TN, AN and NAR (i.e., AN/TN). To explore the effects of different land use types and improve mapping accuracy, residual kriging with land use information and ordinary kriging (without land use information) were compared based on the sample data of soil TN and AN in Hanchuan county, China. A local regression technique, geographically weighted regression (GWR), was adopted to explore the varying relationships between soil AN and its major impact factors in soil (i.e., soil TN and soil pH), due to the advantages of GWR over the traditional ordinary least squares regression (OLS) model. The results showed that (1) land use types as auxiliary information obviously improved the prediction accuracies of the three soil nitrogen parameters; (2) GWR performed much better than OLS in terms of fitting accuracy; and (3) GWR effectively revealed the spatially varying influences of the impact factors on soil AN, which were ignored by OLS. Based on the results, suggestions for soil nitrogen control measures in different subareas were proposed.

  14. The Effects of Xiangqing Anodyne Spray on Treating Acute Soft-Tissue Injury Mainly Depend on Suppressing Activations of AKT and p38 Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shudong Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. In the present study we try to elucidate the mechanism of Xiangqing anodyne spray (XQAS effects on acute soft-tissue injury (STI. Methods. Acute STI model was established by hammer blow in the rat hind leg muscle. Within 8 hours, instantly after modeling and per 2-hour interval repeated topical applications with or without XQAS, CP or IH ethanol extracts spray (CPS and IHS were performed, respectively; muscle swelling rate and inflammation-related biochemical parameters, muscle histological observation, and mRNA and protein expression were then examined. Results. XQAS dose-dependently suppressed STI-caused muscle swelling, proinflammatory mediator productions, and oxidative stress as well as severe pathological changes in the injured muscle tissue. Moreover, CPS mainly by blocking p38 activation while IHS majorly by blocking AKT activation led to cytoplastic IκBα degradation with NF-κB p65 translocated into the nucleus. There are synergistic effects between CP and IH components in the XQAS on preventing from acute STI with suppressing IκBα degradation, NF-κB p65 translocation, and subsequent inflammation and oxidative stress-related abnormality. Conclusion. Marked effects of XQAS on treating acute STI are ascribed to strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidative actions with a reasonable combination of CP active components, blocking p38-NF-κB pathway activated, and IH active components, blocking AKT-NF-κB pathway activated.

  15. The Effects of Xiangqing Anodyne Spray on Treating Acute Soft-Tissue Injury Mainly Depend on Suppressing Activations of AKT and p38 Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shudong; Li, Tao; Qu, Wei; Li, Xin; Ma, Shaoxin; Wang, Zheng; Liu, Wenya; Hou, Shanshan; Fu, Jihua

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. In the present study we try to elucidate the mechanism of Xiangqing anodyne spray (XQAS) effects on acute soft-tissue injury (STI). Methods. Acute STI model was established by hammer blow in the rat hind leg muscle. Within 8 hours, instantly after modeling and per 2-hour interval repeated topical applications with or without XQAS, CP or IH ethanol extracts spray (CPS and IHS) were performed, respectively; muscle swelling rate and inflammation-related biochemical parameters, muscle histological observation, and mRNA and protein expression were then examined. Results. XQAS dose-dependently suppressed STI-caused muscle swelling, proinflammatory mediator productions, and oxidative stress as well as severe pathological changes in the injured muscle tissue. Moreover, CPS mainly by blocking p38 activation while IHS majorly by blocking AKT activation led to cytoplastic IκBα degradation with NF-κB p65 translocated into the nucleus. There are synergistic effects between CP and IH components in the XQAS on preventing from acute STI with suppressing IκBα degradation, NF-κB p65 translocation, and subsequent inflammation and oxidative stress-related abnormality. Conclusion. Marked effects of XQAS on treating acute STI are ascribed to strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidative actions with a reasonable combination of CP active components, blocking p38-NF-κB pathway activated, and IH active components, blocking AKT-NF-κB pathway activated. PMID:27190541

  16. Combining hydrologic and groundwater modelling to characterize a regional aquifer system within a rift setting (Gidabo River Basin, Main Ethiopian Rift)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birk, Steffen; Mechal, Abraham; Wagner, Thomas; Dietzel, Martin; Leis, Albrecht; Winkler, Gerfried; Mogessie, Aberra

    2016-04-01

    heads measured in 72 wells. To account for the incomplete knowledge of the aquifer system several model set-ups differing in the number of transmissivity zones as well as in the implementation of fault zones, rivers, and model boundaries were evaluated using information criteria. The general pattern of the hydraulic-head distribution resulting from the plausible model set-ups agrees reasonably well with that obtained from the observations. Likewise the simulated baseflow is similar (though slightly higher) to that obtained by baseflow separation from measured discharge. The estimated transmissivity increases from the highland (in the order of 10-100 m²/day) toward the rift floor (in the order of 100-1000 m²/day). Although the rift-floor aquifers are mainly (65%) supplied by recharge from precipitation, groundwater flow from the highland (mountain block recharge) is found to provide a significant contribution (35%). At present, less than 1% of the groundwater flow is abstracted by pumping wells, suggesting a high potential for groundwater development both in the highland and the rift floor. With regard to the rift floor, potential effects of climate change on groundwater resources deserve further investigation, as the hydrological model suggests a high sensitivity of groundwater recharge to changes of precipitation and air temperature particularly within this part of the watershed.

  17. Effects assessment of 10 functioning years on the main components of the molten salt PCS experimental facility of ENEA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaggioli, Walter; Di Ascenzi, Primo; Rinaldi, Luca; Tarquini, Pietro; Fabrizi, Fabrizio

    2016-05-01

    In the frame of the Solar Thermodynamic Laboratory, ENEA has improved CSP Parabolic Trough technologies by adopting new advanced solutions for linear tube receivers and by implementing a binary mixture of molten salt (60% NaNO3 and 40% KNO3) [1] as both heat transfer fluid and heat storage medium in solar field and in storage tanks, thus allowing the solar plants to operate at high temperatures up to 550°C. Further improvements have regarded parabolic mirror collectors, piping and process instrumentation. All the innovative components developed by ENEA, together with other standard parts of the plant, have been tested and qualified under actual solar operating conditions on the PCS experimental facility at the ENEA Casaccia Research Center in Rome (Italy). The PCS (Prova Collettori Solari, i.e. Test of Solar Collectors) facility is the main testing loop built by ENEA and it is unique in the world for what concerns the high operating temperature and the fluid used (mixture of molten salt). It consists in one line of parabolic trough collectors (test section of 100 m long life-size solar collectors) using, as heat transfer fluid, the aforesaid binary mixture of molten salt up to 10 bar, at high temperature in the range 270° and 550°C and a flow rate up to 6.5 kg/s. It has been working since early 2004 [2] till now; it consists in a unique closed loop, and it is totally instrumented. In this paper the effects of over ten years qualification tests on the pressurized tank will be presented, together with the characterization of the thermal losses of the piping of the molten salt circuit, and some observations performed on the PCS facility during its first ten years of operation.

  18. Studying the Effects of Non-Tariff Barriers on the Export of the Main Agricultural Products of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Ardakani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: As trade agreements decrease tariffs throughout the world, other barriers to trade emerge. These Non-Tariff Barriers (NTBs can be just as troublesome as tariffs for exporting countries. NTBs include any of a number of hindrances that restrict the ability of companies to export. NTBs may now have a greater impact on trade than tariffs. Approach: In contrast with previous research, we used a gravity model to estimate the trade effect of non-tariff barriers imposed by importer countries on pistachios, raisins and shrimp exported by Iran. Results: NTBs had a negative impact on pistachio and shrimp exports and their effect was greater than that of tariffs; raisin exports were unaffected by NTBs. Conclusion/Recommendations: The export and the world demand for agricultural products increasing focusing on quality, packaging, labeling and standards of products. Policy makers in countries that export agricultural products, such as Iran, must consider these characteristics when designing their programs. Therefore, if Iran builds up-to-date production systems, it will increase its exports of agricultural products.

  19. LOCATION MODELS FOR MAIN INDUSTRIES AT MACRO-GEOGRAPHICAL LEVEL USING OPEN GEOSPATIAL DATA AND SOFTWARE: CASE OF ROMANIAN COUNTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornel GHITA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reveals the mathematical models to explain the location of industries within macro-geographical areas (Romania’s counties, by means of GIS (Geographical Information System metrics. While the explained variable (output was a composite indicator equally weighting employment and turnover quotients computed from statistical data, the explaining variables (inputs were a set of GIS metrics, computed on geospatial open data, using open GIS software. The preferred method for modelling was the multiple linear regression; different nonlinear functions were tested to provide the best fit. The GIS metrics are an alternative to statistical data, having the advantage of being procured and updated easier by the automatic import of the GIS database. For all industries, the study delivered relevant models. This study is part of a spatial decision support system (SDSS for the location of enterprises, including both a macro-geographical layer and a micro-geographical layer of factors. This paper’s results can be used independently (the micro-geographical layer was addressed by a previous study. The macro-geographical and the micro-geographical layer could share the 100% weight according to the desired level of location. For example, a governmental organization could grant all weight to the macro layer, while an enterprise could weight more the micro layer.

  20. Dust disks around old Pre Main-Sequence stars HST\\/NICMOS2 scattered light images and modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Augereau, J C; Mouillet, D; Ménard, F

    2000-01-01

    We present recent near-infrared detections of circumstellar disks around the two old PMS Herbig stars HD 141569 and HD 100546 obtained with the HST/NICMOS2 camera. They reveal extended structures larger than 350-400 AU in radius. While the HD 100546 disk appears as a continuous disk down to 40 AU, the HD 141569 environment seems more complex, splitted at least into two dust populations. As a convincing example, the full modeling of the disk surrounding HR 4796, another old PMS star, is detailed and confronted with more recent observations.

  1. Modelling the dispersal of the two main hosts of the raccoon rabies variant in heterogeneous environments with landscape genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioux Paquette, Sébastien; Talbot, Benoit; Garant, Dany; Mainguy, Julien; Pelletier, Fanie

    2014-01-01

    Predicting the geographic spread of wildlife epidemics requires knowledge about the movement patterns of disease hosts or vectors. The field of landscape genetics provides valuable approaches to study dispersal indirectly, which in turn may be used to understand patterns of disease spread. Here, we applied landscape genetic analyses and spatially explicit models to identify the potential path of raccoon rabies spread in a mesocarnivore community. We used relatedness estimates derived from microsatellite genotypes of raccoons and striped skunks to investigate their dispersal patterns in a heterogeneous landscape composed predominantly of agricultural, forested and residential areas. Samples were collected in an area covering 22 000 km2 in southern Québec, where the raccoon rabies variant (RRV) was first detected in 2006. Multiple regressions on distance matrices revealed that genetic distance among male raccoons was strictly a function of geographic distance, while dispersal in female raccoons was significantly reduced by the presence of agricultural fields. In skunks, our results suggested that dispersal is increased in edge habitats between fields and forest fragments in both males and females. Resistance modelling allowed us to identify likely dispersal corridors used by these two rabies hosts, which may prove especially helpful for surveillance and control (e.g. oral vaccination) activities. PMID:25469156

  2. Trypanocidal and antileukaemic effects of the essential oils of Hagenia abyssinica, Leonotis ocymifolia, Moringa stenopetala, and their main individual constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nibret, E; Wink, M

    2010-10-01

    Essential oils from three Ethiopian medicinal plants; Hagenia abyssinica (Rosaceae), Leonotis ocymifolia (Lamiaceae), and Moringa stenopetala (Moringaceae) were investigated for their chemical composition, trypanocidal, and cytotoxic activities. Twenty components were identified from the essential oil of H. abyssinica female flowers, ledol (58.57%) being the principal volatile oil component. Sixty-eight components were identified from the essential oil of L. ocymifolia aerial part, caryophyllene oxide (12.06%) being the major component. The essential oil of M. stenopetala seeds was dominated by isothiocyanates; benzyl isothiocyanate (54.30%) and isobutyl isothiocyanate (16.37%) were the major components. The trypanocidal (Trypanosoma b. brucei) and antileukaemic (HL-60) effects of the three essential oils were studied. The oil of M. stenopetala seeds and its main compound, benzyl isothiocyanate showed the most potent trypanocidal activities with IC(50) values of 5.03 μg/ml and 1.20 μg/ml, respectively. The oils of H. abyssinica and L. ocymifolia exhibited trypanocidal activities with IC(50) values of 42.30 μg/ml and 15.41 μg/ml, respectively. Individual components (28 compounds) of the essential oils bearing different functional groups were also studied for their structure-activity relationships using trypanosomes and human leukaemia cells. Cinnamaldehyde (IC(50)=2.93 μg/ml) (a representative for aldehydes), nerolidol (IC(50)=15.78 μg/ml) (an alcohol), cedrene (IC(50)=4.07 μg/ml) (a hydrocarbon), benzyl isothiocyanate (IC(50)=1.20 μg/ml) (a representative for mustard oils), 1,8-cineole (IC(50)=83.15 μg/ml) (an ether), safrole (IC(50)=18.40 μg/ml) (aromatics with allyl and/or methoxy side chains), carvone (IC(50)=12.94μg/ml) (a ketone), styrene oxide (IC(50)=3.76 μg/ml) (an epoxide) and carvacrol (IC(50)=11.25 μg/ml) (a phenol) showed the most potent trypanocidal activities from their respective groups. Of all essential oil components tested, carvone

  3. Evolutionary biology studies on the Iris pumila clonal plant: Advantages of a good model system, main findings and directions for further research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarasjev A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary studies on the dwarf bearded iris, Iris pumila L., a perennial clonal monocot with hermaphroditic enthomophylous flowers, have been conducted during the last three decades on plants and populations from the Deliblato Sands in Serbia. In this review we discuss the main advantages of this model system that have enabled various studies of several important genetic, ecological, and evolutionary issues at different levels of biological organization (molecular, physiological, anatomical, morphological and population. Based on published research and its resonance in international scientific literature, we present the main findings obtained from these studies, and discuss possible directions for further research.

  4. THE FORECAST OF FORMING THE GLOBAL SYSTEM INSTITUTIONS ON THE BASIS OF SIMULATION MODELING: THE MAIN PRINCIPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry CHISTILIN

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of states changes of the world economy during the last 200 years shows that there is a certain 70-year regularity in its development, which is expressed in increased structural complexity of the global economic system every 70 years. The development happens after certain periods of bifurcation (up to 50 years accompanied by the lower rates of economic development, and periods of adaptation (up to 20 years with the higher rates. The theoretical justification of this process shows that the increased structural complexity of the global economic system is the external manifestations of the self-organization process in a large complex system we call the ôworld economyö. This process of development is based on two fundamental laws of nature: the principle of minimum dissipation of resources, and the law of conservation of economic potential; and is realized via two types of development mechanisms û bifurcation and adaptation.Formation of the world system model should rest on applying the natural laws of development, and lead towards the creation of a complex, two-level (regional and global structure with the institution of geopolitical pluralism, based on implementing the ôprinciple of minimum dissipationö. This will contribute to the development of the global systems on the conflict-free base.

  5. Justification of the choice of units for mains-noah soil cultivation of sweet sorghum and their effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashapov, N. F.; Nafikov, M. M.; Gazetdinov, M. X.; Nafikova, M. M.; Nigmatzyanov, A. R.

    2016-06-01

    The article is devoted to problems of improving the efficiency of tillage crops. Presents an approach that focuses on the application of resource-saving technologies. To investigate the relationship between the financial welfare of the management and selection of units for primary processing of the soil. Conducted economic evaluation and identified the energy efficiency of main processing of the soil under sweet sorghum.

  6. Accuracy estimates for some global analytical models of the Earth's main magnetic field on the basis of data on gradient magnetic surveys at stratospheric balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsvetkov, Yu. P.; Brekhov, O. M.; Bondar, T. N.; Filippov, S. V.; Petrov, V. G.; Tsvetkova, N. M.; Frunze, A. Kh.

    2014-03-01

    Two global analytical models of the main magnetic field of the Earth (MFE) have been used to determine their potential in deriving an anomalous MFE from balloon magnetic surveys conducted at altitudes of ˜30 km. The daily mean spherical harmonic model (DMSHM) constructed from satellite data on the day of balloon magnetic surveys was analyzed. This model for the day of magnetic surveys was shown to be almost free of errors associated with secular variations and can be recommended for deriving an anomalous MFE. The error of the enhanced magnetic model (EMM) was estimated depending on the number of harmonics used in the model. The model limited by the first 13 harmonics was shown to be able to lead to errors in the main MFE of around 15 nT. The EMM developed to n = m = 720 and constructed on the basis of satellite and ground-based magnetic data fails to adequately simulate the anomalous MFE at altitudes of 30 km. To construct a representative model developed to m = n = 720, ground-based magnetic data should be replaced by data of balloon magnetic surveys for altitudes of ˜30 km. The results of investigations were confirmed by a balloon experiment conducted by Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere, and Radio Wave Propagation of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the Moscow Aviation Institute.

  7. Main Directions and Recent Test Modeling Results of Lithium Capillary-Pore Systems as Plasma Facing Components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V.A. Evtikhin; V. M. Korzhavin; I.E. Lyublinski; A.V. Vertkov; E.A. Azizov; S.V. Mirnov; V. B. Lazarev; S. M. Sotnikov; V. M. Safronov; A. S. Prokhorov

    2004-01-01

    At present the most promising principal solution of the divertor problem appears to be the use of liquid metals and primarily of lithium Capillary-Pore Systems (CPS) as of plasma facing materials. A solid CPS filled with liquid lithium will have a high resistance to surface and volume damage because of neutron radiation effects, melting, splashing and thermal stressinduced cracking in steady state and during plasma transitions to provide the normal operation of divertor target plates and first-wall protecting elements. These materials will not be the sources of impurities inducing an increase of Zeff and they will not be collected as dust in the divertor area and in ducts.Experiments with lithium CPS under simulating conditions of plasma disruption on a hydrogenplasma accelerator MK-200 [~ (10 - 15) MJ/m2, ~ 50 μs] have been performed. The formation of a shielding layer of lithium plasma and the high stability of these systems have been shown.The new lithium limiter tests on an up-graded T-11M tokamak (plasma current up to 100 kA,pulse length ~0.3 s) have been performed. Sorption and desorption of plasma-forming gas, lithium emission into discharge, lithium erosion, deposited power of the limiter are investigated in these experiments. The first results of experiments are presented.

  8. Impact of 900 MHz electromagnetic field exposure on main male reproductive hormone levels: a Rattus norvegicus model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepehrimanesh, Masood; Saeb, Mehdi; Nazifi, Saeed; Kazemipour, Nasrin; Jelodar, Gholamali; Saeb, Saeedeh

    2014-09-01

    This work analyzes the effects of radiofrequency-electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure on the reproductive system of male rats, assessed by measuring circulating levels of FSH, LH, inhibin B, activin B, prolactin, and testosterone. Twenty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (180 ± 10 g) were exposed to 900 MHz RF-EMF in four equal separated groups. The duration of exposure was 1, 2, and 4 h/day over a period of 30 days and sham-exposed animals were kept under the same environmental conditions as the exposed group except with no RF-EMF exposure. Before the exposure, at 15 and 30 days of exposure, determination of the abovementioned hormone levels was performed using ELISA. At the end of the experiment, FSH and LH values of the long time exposure (LTE) group were significantly higher than the sham-exposed group (p exposure (p exposure (p exposure and it may possibly affect reproductive functions. However, testosterone and inhibin B concentrations as a fertility marker and spermatogenesis were decreased significantly.

  9. Impact of 900 MHz electromagnetic field exposure on main male reproductive hormone levels: a Rattus norvegicus model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepehrimanesh, Masood; Saeb, Mehdi; Nazifi, Saeed; Kazemipour, Nasrin; Jelodar, Gholamali; Saeb, Saeedeh

    2014-09-01

    This work analyzes the effects of radiofrequency-electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure on the reproductive system of male rats, assessed by measuring circulating levels of FSH, LH, inhibin B, activin B, prolactin, and testosterone. Twenty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (180 ± 10 g) were exposed to 900 MHz RF-EMF in four equal separated groups. The duration of exposure was 1, 2, and 4 h/day over a period of 30 days and sham-exposed animals were kept under the same environmental conditions as the exposed group except with no RF-EMF exposure. Before the exposure, at 15 and 30 days of exposure, determination of the abovementioned hormone levels was performed using ELISA. At the end of the experiment, FSH and LH values of the long time exposure (LTE) group were significantly higher than the sham-exposed group ( p exposure ( p exposure ( p exposure and it may possibly affect reproductive functions. However, testosterone and inhibin B concentrations as a fertility marker and spermatogenesis were decreased significantly.

  10. RESEARCH OF THE HIGH HARMONICS INDIVIDUAL BLADE CONTROL EFFECT ON VIBRATIONS CAUSED BY THE HELICOPTER MAIN ROTOR THRUST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents numerical results analysis of main rotor vibration due to helicopter main rotor thrust pulsation.The calculation method, the object of research and numerical research results with the aim to reduce the amplitude of the vibrations transmitted to the hub from the helicopters main rotor by the individual blade control in azimuth by the installation angle of blades cyclic changes are set out in the article. The individual blades control law for a five-blade main rotor based on the blade frequencies is made. It allows reducing the vibration from thrust. Research takes into account the main rotor including and excluding the blade flapping motion. The minimal vibrations regime is identified.Numerical study of variable loads caused by unsteady flow around the main rotor blades at high relative speeds of flight, which transmitted to the rotor hub, is made. The scheme of a thin lifting surface and the rotor vortex theory are used for simulation of the aerodynamic loads on blades. Non - uniform loads caused by the thrust, decomposed on the blade harmonic and its overtones. The largest values of deviation from the mean amplitude thrust are received. The analysis of variable loads with a traditional control system is made. Algorithms of higher harmonics individual blade control capable of reducing the thrust pulsation under the average value of thrust are developed.Numerical research shows that individual blade control of high harmonics reduces variable loads. The necessary change in the blade installation is about ± 0,2 degree that corresponds to the maximum displacement of the additional con- trol stick is about 1 mm.To receive the overall picture is necessary to consider all six components of forces and moments. Control law with own constants will obtained for each of them. It is supposed, that each of six individual blade control laws have an impact on other components. Thus, the problem reduces to the optimization issue. The

  11. Bio-effectiveness of the main flavonoids of Achillea millefolium in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative disorders- a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ayoobi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Achillea millefolium L. (Yarrow is a common herb which is widely being used, worldwide. Achillea is being used for treatment of many disorders since centuries. It is considered safe for supplemental use and flavonoids such as kaempferol, luteolin and apigenin are of main constituents present in Achillea. Most of both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of this herb have been attributed to its flavonoid content. Oxidative and inflammatory processes play important roles in pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Present review was aimed to review the latest literature evidences regarding application of Achillea and/or its three main flavonoid constituents on epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease and stroke.

  12. Single/Few Bunch Space Charge Effects at 8 GeV in the Fermilab Main Injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, D.J.; Capista, D.; Kourbanis, I.; Seiya, K.; Yang, M.-J.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-01

    For Project X, it is planned to inject a beam of 3 10{sup 11} particles per bunch into the Main Injector. Therefore, at 8 GeV, there will be increased space charge tune shifts and an increased incoherent tune spread. In preparation for these higher intensity bunches exploratory studies have commenced looking at the transmission of different intensity bunches at different tunes. An experiment is described with results for bunch intensities between 20 and 300 10{sup 9} particles. To achieve the highest intensity bunches coalescing at 8 GeV is required, resulting in a longer bunch length. Comparisons show that similar transmission curves are obtained when the intensity and bunch length have increased by similar factors. This indicates the incoherent tune shifts are similar, as expected from theory. The results of these experiments will be used in conjugation with simulations to further study high intensity bunches in the Main Injector.

  13. Studies of the quality and cost-effectiveness of a novel conceptof open-die forged powerplant main shaft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Skubisz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An innovatory concept of open-die forging of windmill main shaft is described. Comparative study of the new technology based on the concept of cogging hollow shaft on mandrel featuring material savings and higher quality of a finished part versus traditional production chain of this component is presented, indicating benefits and technological setbacks of industrial implementation. Results of industrial sampling aided with numerical simulation form guidelines for technological realization.

  14. The effect of alternative fuel combustion in the cement kiln main burner on production capacity and improvement with oxygen enrichment.

    OpenAIRE

    Ariyaratne, W.K.Hiromi; Melaaen, Morten Christian; Tokheim, Lars-André

    2013-01-01

    A mathematical model based on a mass and energy balance for the combustion in a cement rotary kiln was developed. The model was used to investigate the impact of replacing about 45 % of the primary coal energy by different alternative fuels. Refuse derived fuel, waste wood, solid hazardous waste and liquid hazardous waste were used in the modeling. The results showed that in order to keep the kiln temperature unchanged, and thereby maintain the required clinker quality, the production capa...

  15. Forecasting Skills of a Multi-Model Approach with Variational Data Assimilation of Remote Sensing Data in the Upper Main Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado Montero, Rodolfo; Schwanenberg, Dirk; Krahe, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Ensemble forecasting has been increasingly applied in flow forecasting systems to provide users a better understanding of forecast uncertainty and consequently to take better-informed decisions. In order to produce ensemble forecasts, probabilistic numerical weather predictions (NWP) are commonly forced into a deterministic hydrological model to generate streamflow ensembles. The approach aims at the representation of meteorological uncertainty and neglects uncertainty of the hydrological sub-system. A complementary approach is the use of a probabilistic model pool in combination with a data assimilation technique to represent the uncertainty of historical data and the hydrological model. We present the assessment of the forecasting skills of a multi-model approach in combination with a simultaneous data assimilation of multiple observations using a 4Dvar method. The model pool is based on the variation of the spatial discretization of a conceptual HBV rainfall-runoff model and different parameter sets with an equivalent calibration. The approach enables the assimilation of streamflow data and remote sensing products for snow coverage, snow water equivalent and soil moisture to provide a set of initial conditions for the forecast. In comparison to the standard implementation of an Ensemble Kalman Filter, structural and parametric uncertainty is represented in the model pool and therefore does not propagate out of the system over time. The framework is applied to the Upper Main basin in Germany. It is a data-dense environment with well-calibrated rainfall-runoff models. We present the model performance and address the ability of the model pool to represent model uncertainty over a historical period. The lead time performance of the model is assessed for perfect forecasts, i.e. by forcing the model with observed data, remote sensing products from the H-SAF project and several deterministic and probabilistic NWP. The assessment of lead-time performance demonstrates

  16. 福鼎槟榔芋主要轮作模式及其栽培技术%Main rotation models and cultivation techniques of Colocasia esculenta schott cv.fuding-yu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯密清

    2012-01-01

    Rotation cropping is the most effective technique measure in keeping the yield and quality of Colocasia esculenta schott cv.fuding-yu,this paper summarized the main advantages of rotation cropping,introduced the main rotation models and key cultivation techniques of Colocasia esculenta schott cv.fuding-yu.%轮作是保持福鼎槟榔芋产量和品质的最有效技术措施,本文综述了槟榔轮作的主要优点,介绍了福鼎槟榔芋主要轮作模式以及关键栽培技术。

  17. Lodging Update: Portland, Maine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel J. Roginsky

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Each quarter, Pinnacle Advisory Group prepares an analysis of the New England lodging industry, which provides a regional summary and then focuses in depth on a particular market. These reviews look at recent and proposed supply changes, factors affecting demand and growth rates, and the effects of interactions between such supply and demand trends. In this issue, the authors summarize regional performance for 2012, offer projections for 2013, and spotlight the lodging market in Portland, Maine.

  18. Kriging with mixed effects models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Pollice

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the effectiveness of the use of mixed effects models for estimation and prediction purposes in spatial statistics for continuous data is reviewed in the classical and Bayesian frameworks. A case study on agricultural data is also provided.

  19. Size Effect in Continuum Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Wei-Yang [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Mechanics of Materials; Foulk, James W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Mechanics of Materials; Huestis, Edwin M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Mechanics of Materials; Connelly, Kevin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Mechanics of Materials; Song, Bo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Mechanics of Materials; Yang, Nancy Y. C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Engineered Materials

    2008-09-01

    The mechanical properties of some materials (Cu, Ni, Ag, etc.) have been shown to develop strong dependence on the geometric dimensions, resulting in a size effect. Several theories have been proposed to model size effects, but have been based on very few experiments conducted at appropriate scales. Some experimental results implied that size effects are caused by increasing strain gradients and have been used to confirm many strain gradient theories. On the other hand, some recent experiments show that a size effect exists in the absence of strain gradients. This report describes a brief analytical and experimental study trying to clarify the material and experimental issues surrounding the most influential size-effect experiments by Fleck et al (1994). This effort is to understand size effects intended to further develop predictive models.

  20. Parameterization of the InVEST Crop Pollination Model to spatially predict abundance of wild blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton) native bee pollinators in Maine, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groff, Shannon C.; Loftin, Cynthia S.; Drummond, Frank; Bushmann, Sara; McGill, Brian J.

    2016-01-01

    Non-native honeybees historically have been managed for crop pollination, however, recent population declines draw attention to pollination services provided by native bees. We applied the InVEST Crop Pollination model, developed to predict native bee abundance from habitat resources, in Maine's wild blueberry crop landscape. We evaluated model performance with parameters informed by four approaches: 1) expert opinion; 2) sensitivity analysis; 3) sensitivity analysis informed model optimization; and, 4) simulated annealing (uninformed) model optimization. Uninformed optimization improved model performance by 29% compared to expert opinion-informed model, while sensitivity-analysis informed optimization improved model performance by 54%. This suggests that expert opinion may not result in the best parameter values for the InVEST model. The proportion of deciduous/mixed forest within 2000 m of a blueberry field also reliably predicted native bee abundance in blueberry fields, however, the InVEST model provides an efficient tool to estimate bee abundance beyond the field perimeter.

  1. Automation based on knowledge modeling theory and its applications in engine diagnostic systems using Space Shuttle Main Engine vibrational data. M.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jonnathan H.

    1995-01-01

    Humans can perform many complicated tasks without explicit rules. This inherent and advantageous capability becomes a hurdle when a task is to be automated. Modern computers and numerical calculations require explicit rules and discrete numerical values. In order to bridge the gap between human knowledge and automating tools, a knowledge model is proposed. Knowledge modeling techniques are discussed and utilized to automate a labor and time intensive task of detecting anomalous bearing wear patterns in the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) High Pressure Oxygen Turbopump (HPOTP).

  2. Field survey of earthquake effects from the magnitude 4.0 southern Maine earthquake of October 16, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amy L. Radakovich,; Alex J. Fergusen,; Boatwright, John

    2016-06-02

    The magnitude 4.0 earthquake that occurred on October 16, 2012, near Hollis Center and Waterboro in southwestern Maine surprised and startled local residents but caused only minor damage. A two-person U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) team was sent to Maine to conduct an intensity survey and document the damage. The only damage we observed was the failure of a chimney and plaster cracks in two buildings in East and North Waterboro, 6 kilometers (km) west of the epicenter. We photographed the damage and interviewed residents to determine the intensity distribution in the epicentral area. The damage and shaking reports are consistent with a maximum Modified Mercalli Intensity (MMI) of 5–6 for an area 1–8 km west of the epicenter, slightly higher than the maximum Community Decimal Intensity (CDI) of 5 determined by the USGS “Did You Feel It?” Web site. The area of strong shaking in East Waterboro corresponds to updip rupture on a fault plane that dips steeply east. 

  3. Integrating urban recharge uncertainty into standard groundwater modeling practice: A case study on water main break predictions for the Barton Springs segment of the Edwards Aquifer, Austin, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinner, K.; Teasley, R. L.

    2016-12-01

    Groundwater models serve as integral tools for understanding flow processes and informing stakeholders and policy makers in management decisions. Historically, these models tended towards a deterministic nature, relying on historical data to predict and inform future decisions based on model outputs. This research works towards developing a stochastic method of modeling recharge inputs from pipe main break predictions in an existing groundwater model, which subsequently generates desired outputs incorporating future uncertainty rather than deterministic data. The case study for this research is the Barton Springs segment of the Edwards Aquifer near Austin, Texas. Researchers and water resource professionals have modeled the Edwards Aquifer for decades due to its high water quality, fragile ecosystem, and stakeholder interest. The original case study and model that this research is built upon was developed as a co-design problem with regional stakeholders and the model outcomes are generated specifically for communication with policy makers and managers. Recently, research in the Barton Springs segment demonstrated a significant contribution of urban, or anthropogenic, recharge to the aquifer, particularly during dry period, using deterministic data sets. Due to social and ecological importance of urban water loss to recharge, this study develops an evaluation method to help predicted pipe breaks and their related recharge contribution within the Barton Springs segment of the Edwards Aquifer. To benefit groundwater management decision processes, the performance measures captured in the model results, such as springflow, head levels, storage, and others, were determined by previous work in elicitation of problem framing to determine stakeholder interests and concerns. The results of the previous deterministic model and the stochastic model are compared to determine gains to stakeholder knowledge through the additional modeling

  4. Modeling the Oceanic Exchanges Across the Main Arctic Gateways with Emphasis on Atlantic Water and Its Impact on Sea Ice and Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslowski, Wieslaw; Osinski, Robert; Clement Kinney, Jaclyn; Roberts, Andrew; DiMaggio, Dominic; Craig, Anthony

    2016-04-01

    Estimation of the oceanic budgets of total mass and property exchanges across the main Arctic gateways is challenging from both observational and modeling points of view. While data are insufficient to close such budgets, ocean models commonly struggle with representing transports through the narrow and shallow gates (i.e. Bering Strait and the Canadian Arctic Archipelago) as well as exchanges across Fram Strait or the Barents Sea. Uncertainties in observational constraints at those gates are part of the modeling problems. Yet, realistic model representation of oceanic fluxes, including those associated with Atlantic water, is critical to understanding, simulation and prediction of their impact on the sea ice cover and related feedbacks to the atmosphere and climate. We analyze results from several multi-decadal simulations of the Regional Arctic System Model (RASM) focusing on oceanic fluxes across the Arctic gateways. RASM is a limited-area, process-resolving, coupled atmosphere - ice - ocean - land model that includes the ocean and sea ice models, which are regionally configured versions of those used in the Community Earth System Model (CESM): the Los Alamos Community Ice Model (CICE) and Parallel Ocean Program (POP). The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) is used for an atmospheric model, with land surface processes and hydrology represented by the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model. RASM's pan-Arctic domain covers the entire Northern Hemisphere marine cryosphere, terrestrial drainage and, major inflow/outflow channels to/from the Arctic Ocean, with large portions of the subpolar oceans to allow optimal simulation of the oceanic pathways into and from the central Arctic. The ocean model uses 45 vertical z-coordinate levels and 1/12° or 1/48° rotated sphere meshes with an equator extending across the North Pole, resulting in ~9.3km or 2.4km resolution in the Arctic Ocean, and minimal area distortion near the boundaries. The main objective of this

  5. Evaluation of using R-SCHA to simultaneously model main field and secular variation multilevel geomagnetic data for the North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talarn, Àngela; Pavón-Carrasco, F. Javier; Torta, J. Miquel; Catalán, Manuel

    2017-02-01

    One efficient approach to modelling the Earth's core magnetic field involves the inclusion of crossover marine data which cover areas lacking in observatory and repeat station data for epochs when precise three-component satellite magnetic field measurements were not common. In this study, we show how the Revised Spherical Cap Harmonic Analysis (R-SCHA) can appropriately provide a continuous-time field model for the North Atlantic region by using multilevel sets of geomagnetic data such as marine, repeat station, observatory, and satellite data. Taking advantage of the properties of the R-SCHA basis functions we can model the radial and horizontal variations of the main field and its secular variation with the most suitable spatial and temporal wavelengths. To assess the best compromise between the data fit and the model roughness, temporal and spatial regularization matrices were implemented in the modelling approach. Two additional strategies were also used to obtain a satisfactory regional model: the opportunity to fit the anomaly bias at each observatory location, and constraining the regional model to the CHAOS-6 model at the end of its period of validity, i.e. 1999-2000, allowing a smooth transition with the predictions of this recent model. In terms of the root mean square error, the degree of success was limited partly because of the high uncertainties associated with some of the datasets (especially the marine ones), but we have produced a model that performs comparably to the global models for the period 1960-2000, thus showing the benefits of using this regional technique.

  6. Modeling of the magnetic Barkhausen effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clatterbuck, D. M.; Garcia, V. J.; Johnson, M. J.; Jiles, D. C.

    2000-05-01

    The magnetic Barkhausen effect has been found particularly useful for the nondestructive evaluation of ferromagnetic alloys. It has been shown to be sensitive to both the microstructure and the stress state of a material. In order to improve interpretation of the Barkhausen signals, models are needed which are able to directly relate the Barkhausen signals to material properties such as grain size. In this paper, the advantages and disadvantages of two existing magnetic Barkhausen models are studied with a view to their suitability for use in the field of nondestructive evaluation. The model of Alessandro, Beatrice, Bertotti, and Montorsi describes the pinning field which interacts with a domain wall in terms of a Wiener-Levy stochastic process. The domain wall velocity is then assumed to depend linearly on the difference between the local magnetic field and this pinning field. The assumptions of this model limit its use to experiments where the permeability and rate-of-change of applied field are constant. The model of Jiles, Sipahi, and Williams assumes that the Barkhausen activity in a given time interval is proportional to the rate-of-change of the magnetization which can be calculated from the hysteresis model of Jiles and Atherton. The model uses Poisson statistics to describe the stochastic nature of the Barkhausen events. A new model which incorporates ideas from both of these older models is introduced. The new model allows for changes in permeability with applied field and can accurately reproduce the frequency response of experimental Barkhausen signals. In order to validate the model, experiments were performed by measuring the magnetic flux produced when a sample was magnetized in a solenoid. The high-frequency components of the flux signal represent Barkhausen events and were separated from the main signal using a high-pass filter. This approach allowed quantitative comparisons to be made between the experiments and the model.—This work was

  7. Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling: Final year report. Volume 1 (Main text and Appendix I, sections 1--4)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

    1998-08-01

    This project was initiated in October 1990, with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The key tasks to be accomplished were as follows: (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes. (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the predicted results. (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler. (4) Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquid submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the US kraft pulp industry. Volume 1 contains the main body of the report and the first 4 sections of Appendix 1: Modeling of black liquor recovery boilers -- summary report; Flow and heat transfer modeling in the upper furnace of a kraft recovery boiler; Numerical simulation of black liquor combustion; and Investigation of turbulence models and prediction of swirling flows for kraft recovery furnaces.

  8. ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI AS MAIN CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ULTRAVIOLET IONIZING EMISSIVITY AT HIGH REDSHIFTS: PREDICTIONS FROM A {Lambda}-CDM MODEL WITH LINKED AGN/GALAXY EVOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giallongo, E.; Menci, N.; Fiore, F.; Castellano, M.; Fontana, A.; Grazian, A.; Pentericci, L. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via di Frascati 33, I-00040 Monteporzio (Italy)

    2012-08-20

    We have evaluated the contribution of the active galactic nuclei (AGN) population to the ionization history of the universe based on a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation and evolution in the cold dark matter cosmological scenario. The model connects the growth of black holes and of the ensuing AGN activity to galaxy interactions. In the model we have included a self-consistent physical description of the escape of ionizing UV photons; this is based on the blast-wave model for the AGN feedback we developed in a previous paper to explain the distribution of hydrogen column densities in AGNs of various redshifts and luminosities, due to absorption by the host galaxy gas. The model predicts UV luminosity functions for AGNs that are in good agreement with those derived from the observations especially at low and intermediate redshifts (z {approx} 3). At higher redshifts (z > 5), the model tends to overestimate the data at faint luminosities. Critical biases in both the data and in the model are discussed to explain such apparent discrepancies. The predicted hydrogen photoionization rate as a function of redshift is found to be consistent with that derived from the observations. All of the above suggests that we should reconsider the role of the AGNs as the main driver of the ionization history of the universe.

  9. Modeling the Effect of Oil Price on Global Fertilizer Prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P-Y. Chen (Ping-Yu); C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); C-C. Chen (Chi-Chung); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe main purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effect of crude oil price on global fertilizer prices in both the mean and volatility. The endogenous structural breakpoint unit root test, the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) model, and alternative volatility models, including the

  10. Effect of Final Kissing Balloon Dilatation after One-stent Technique at Left-main Bifurcation: A Single Center Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhan; Xu, Bo; Yang, Yue-Jin; Qiao, Shu-Bin; Wu, Yong-Jian; Chen, Tao; Xu, Liang; Yuan, Jin-Qing; Chen, Jue; Qin, Xue-Wen; Yao, Min; Liu, Hai-Bo; You, Shi-Jie; Zhao, Ye-Lin; Yan, Hong-Bing; Chen, Ji-Lin; Gao, Run-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Whether final kissing balloon (FKB) dilatation after one-stent implantation at left-main (LM) bifurcation site remains unclear. Therefore, this large sample and long-term follow-up study comparatively assessed the impact of FKB in patients with unprotected LM disease treated with one-stent strategy. Methods: Total 1528 consecutive patients underwent LM percutaneous coronary intervention in one center from January 2004 to December 2010 were enrolled; among them, 790 patients treated with one drug-eluting stent crossover LM to left anterior descending (LAD) with FKB (n = 230) or no FKB (n = 560) were comparatively analyzed. Primary outcome was the rate of major adverse cardiovascular events, defined as a composite of death, myocardial infarction (MI) and target vessel revascularization (TVR). Results: Overall, The prevalence of true bifurcation lesions, which included Medina classification (1,1,1), (1,0,1), or (0,1,1), was similar between-groups (non-FKB: 37.0% vs. FKB: 39.6%, P = 0.49). At mean 4 years follow-up, rates of major adverse cardiovascular events (non-FKB: 10.0% vs. FKB: 7.8%, P = 0.33), death, MI and TVR were not significantly different between-groups. In multivariate propensity-matched regression analysis, FKB was not an independent predictor of adverse outcomes. Conclusions: For patients treated with one-stent crossover LM to LAD, clinical outcomes appear similar between FKB and non-FKB strategy. PMID:25758264

  11. Effect of Final Kissing Balloon Dilatation after One-stent Technique at Left-main Bifurcation: A Single Center Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Whether final kissing balloon (FKB dilatation after one-stent implantation at left-main (LM bifurcation site remains unclear. Therefore, this large sample and long-term follow-up study comparatively assessed the impact of FKB in patients with unprotected LM disease treated with one-stent strategy. Methods: Total 1528 consecutive patients underwent LM percutaneous coronary intervention in one center from January 2004 to December 2010 were enrolled; among them, 790 patients treated with one drug-eluting stent crossover LM to left anterior descending (LAD with FKB (n = 230 or no FKB (n = 560 were comparatively analyzed. Primary outcome was the rate of major adverse cardiovascular events, defined as a composite of death, myocardial infarction (MI and target vessel revascularization (TVR. Results: Overall, The prevalence of true bifurcation lesions, which included Medina classification (1,1,1, (1,0,1, or (0,1,1, was similar between-groups (non-FKB: 37.0% vs. FKB: 39.6%, P = 0.49. At mean 4 years follow-up, rates of major adverse cardiovascular events (non-FKB: 10.0% vs. FKB: 7.8%, P = 0.33, death, MI and TVR were not significantly different between-groups. In multivariate propensity-matched regression analysis, FKB was not an independent predictor of adverse outcomes. Conclusions: For patients treated with one-stent crossover LM to LAD, clinical outcomes appear similar between FKB and non-FKB strategy.

  12. Main conditions and effectiveness of gas fuel use for powering of dual fuel IC self-ignition engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan POSTRZEDNIK

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Internal combustion engines are fuelled mostly with liquid fuels (gasoline, diesel. Nowadays the gaseous fuels are applied as driving fuel of combustion engines. In case of spark ignition engines the liquid fuel (petrol can be totally replaced by the gas fuels. This possibility in case of compression engines is essentially restricted through the higher self-ignition temperatures of the combustible gases in comparison to classical diesel oil. Solution if this problem can be achieved by using of the dual fuel system, where for ignition of the prepared fuel gas - air mixture a specified amount of the liquid fuel (diesel oil should be additionally injected into the combustion chamber. For assurance that the combustion process proceeds without mistakes and completely, some basic conditions should be satisfied. In the frame of this work, three main aspects of this problem are taken into account: a. filling efficiency of the engine, b. stoichiometry of the combustion, c. performance of mechanical parameters (torque, power. A complex analysis of these conditions has been done and some achieved important results are presented in the paper.

  13. Conflict-Specific Aging Effects Mainly Manifest in Early Information Processing Stages-An ERP Study with Different Conflict Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsch, Margarethe; Frühholz, Sascha; Herrmann, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    Aging is usually accompanied by alterations of cognitive control functions such as conflict processing. Recent research suggests that aging effects on cognitive control seem to vary with degree and source of conflict, and conflict specific aging effects on performance measures as well as neural activation patterns have been shown. However, there is sparse information whether and how aging affects different stages of conflict processing as indicated by event related potentials (ERPs) such as the P2, N2 and P3 components. In the present study, 19 young and 23 elderly adults performed a combined Flanker conflict and stimulus-response-conflict (SRC) task. Analysis of the reaction times (RTs) revealed an increased SRC related conflict effect in elderly. ERP analysis furthermore demonstrated an age-related increase of the P2 amplitude in response to the SRC task. In addition, elderly adults exhibited an increased P3 amplitude modulation induced by incongruent SRC and Flanker conflict trials.

  14. Phenotyping studies to assess the effects of phytopharmaceuticals on in vivo activity of main human cytochrome p450 enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadoyan, Gregor; Fuhr, Uwe

    2012-09-01

    The extensive use of herbal drugs and their multiple components and modes of action suggests that they may also cause drug interactions by changing the activity of human cytochrome P450 enzymes. The purpose of the present review is to present the available data for the top 14 herbal drug sales in the U. S. Studies describing the effects of herbal drugs on phenotyping substrates for individual CYPs were identified by a comprehensive MEDLINE search. Drugs included Allium sativum (Liliaceae), Echinacea purpurea (Asteraceae), Serenoa repens (Arecaceae), Ginkgo biloba (Ginkgoaceae), Vaccinium macrocarpon (Ericaceae), Glycine max (Fabaceae), Panax ginseng (Araliaceae), Actea racemosa (Ranunculaceae), Hypericum perforatum (Hypericaceae), Silybum marianum (Asteraceae), Camellia sinensis (Theaceae), Valeriana officinalis (Valerianaceae), Piper methysticum (Piperaceae), and Hydrastis canadensis (Ranunculaceae) preparations. We identified 70 clinical studies in 69 publications. The majority of the herbal drugs appeared to have no clear effects on most of the CYPs examined. If there was an effect, there was mild inhibition in almost all cases, as seen with garlic or kava effects on CYP2E1 and with soybean components on CYP1A2. The most pronounced effects were induction of CYP3A and other CYPs by St. John's wort and the inhibitory effect of goldenseal on CYP3A and CYP2D6, both being borderline between mild and moderate in magnitude. With the exceptions of St.John's wort and goldenseal, the information currently available suggests that concomitant intake of the herbal drugs addressed here is not a major risk for drugs that are metabolized by CYPs.

  15. Estimation of placental and lactational transfer and tissue distribution of atrazine and its main metabolites in rodent dams, fetuses, and neonates with physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Zhoumeng [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States); Interdisciplinary Toxicology Program, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States); Fisher, Jeffrey W. [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Wang, Ran [Center for Environmental Health Sciences, Department of Basic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762 (United States); Institute of Food Safety, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanjing 210014 (China); Ross, Matthew K. [Center for Environmental Health Sciences, Department of Basic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762 (United States); Filipov, Nikolay M., E-mail: filipov@uga.edu [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States); Interdisciplinary Toxicology Program, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Atrazine (ATR) is a widely used chlorotriazine herbicide, a ubiquitous environmental contaminant, and a potential developmental toxicant. To quantitatively evaluate placental/lactational transfer and fetal/neonatal tissue dosimetry of ATR and its major metabolites, physiologically based pharmacokinetic models were developed for rat dams, fetuses and neonates. These models were calibrated using pharmacokinetic data from rat dams repeatedly exposed (oral gavage; 5 mg/kg) to ATR followed by model evaluation against other available rat data. Model simulations corresponded well to the majority of available experimental data and suggest that: (1) the fetus is exposed to both ATR and its major metabolite didealkylatrazine (DACT) at levels similar to maternal plasma levels, (2) the neonate is exposed mostly to DACT at levels two-thirds lower than maternal plasma or fetal levels, while lactational exposure to ATR is minimal, and (3) gestational carryover of DACT greatly affects its neonatal dosimetry up until mid-lactation. To test the model's cross-species extrapolation capability, a pharmacokinetic study was conducted with pregnant C57BL/6 mice exposed (oral gavage; 5 mg/kg) to ATR from gestational day 12 to 18. By using mouse-specific parameters, the model predictions fitted well with the measured data, including placental ATR/DACT levels. However, fetal concentrations of DACT were overestimated by the model (10-fold). This overestimation suggests that only around 10% of the DACT that reaches the fetus is tissue-bound. These rodent models could be used in fetal/neonatal tissue dosimetry predictions to help design/interpret early life toxicity/pharmacokinetic studies with ATR and as a foundation for scaling to humans. - Highlights: • We developed PBPK models for atrazine in rat dams, fetuses, and neonates. • We conducted pharmacokinetic (PK) study with atrazine in pregnant mice. • Model predictions were in good agreement with experimental rat and mouse PK data

  16. Secondary radiation damage as the main cause for unexpected volume effects : A histopathologic study of the parotid gland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konings, AWT; Faber, H; Cotteleer, F; Vissink, A; Coppes, RP

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To elucidate with a histopathological study the mechanism of region-dependent volume effects in the partly irradiated parotid gland of the rat. Methods and Materials: Wistar rats were locally X-irradiated with collimators with conformal radiation portals for 100% volume and 50% cranial/caud

  17. Antimicrobial effect of the Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (higher Basidiomycetes) and its main compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazirian, Mahdi; Faramarzi, Mohammad Ali; Ebrahimi, Seyed Esmaeil Sadat; Esfahani, Hamid Reza Monsef; Samadi, Nasrin; Hosseini, Seyed Aboulfazl; Asghari, Ali; Manayi, Azadeh; Mousazadeh, Ali; Asef, Mohammad Reza; Habibi, Emran; Amanzadeh, Yaghoub

    2014-01-01

    Mushrooms are considered one of the richest sources of natural antibiotics, and various species of them inhibit the growth of a wide diversity of microorganisms. Ganoderma lucidum, a well-known medicinal mushroom. has many pharmacological and biological activities including an antimicrobial effect, although few studies have investigated the antibacterial and antifungal effects of its purified compounds. The chemical structure of the purified compounds from the hexane fraction was elucidated as ergosta-7,22-dien-3β-yl acetate, ergosta-5,7,22-trien-3β-yl acetate (isopyrocalciferol acetate), ergosta-7,22-dien-3-one, ergosta-7,22-dien-3β-ol, and ergosta-5,7,22-trien-3β-ol (ergostrol). In addition, the structure of ganodermadiol was demonstrated after purification from the chloroform fraction. The fractions inhibited Gram-positive bacteria and yeast, with minimum inhibitory concentration values of 6.25 mg/mL, but were ineffective against Gram-negative bacteria in the tested concentrations. The results were comparable for isolated compounds, whereas the mixture of ergosta-7,22-dien-3β-yl acetate and isopyrocalciferol acetate was weakly effective against Escherichia coli (minimum inhibitory concentration, 10 mg/mL). It could be assumed that the antimicrobial effect of crude fractions is the consequence of mixing triterpenoid and steroid compounds.

  18. ٍEffect of Market Structure on Intra Industry Trade in Iran and its Main Trading Partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    aminolah ْghaedan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available From the late 1970s there were attempts to remove the restrictive assumptions of conventional theories, especially assuming perfect competition market, according to a new hypothesis. New model, the previous forecast in the area of international trade was substantially changed. Specifically because of comparative advantage in international trade went beyond mere given the market structure, imperfect competition, and compatibility with new models, the market was also important. Although considerable theoretical debate about the role of market structure in international trade taken, empirical studies in this field, particularly for developing countries has been limited. Study as an effort in this regard, importance and impact of market structure in IIT and IIT is final. For this purpose, the value added of industry market structure considered for and the calculation of IIT in the six digit level of aggregation is the business hierarchy. The model based on panel data for the period 1997-2006 and the importance of market structure in the inter-industry trade MIIT has been reviewed and finalized. The results of the present study are consistent with the patterns of competition within the industry trade monopoly. To be more precise, despite the low degree of market concentration that changing the market structure is monopolistic competition, significant impact on the business structure of industry and commerce within the industry, it is Iran's major trading partners. Given that economic growth and development in the context of new patterns of international trade Reduce the share of total trade between industries are trade, the results can be economic policy, especially in the industrial sector business development strategy is important.

  19. Monte Carlo simulations of post-common-envelope white dwarf + main sequence binaries: The effects of including recombination energy

    CERN Document Server

    Zorotovic, M; García-Berro, E; Camacho, J; Torres, S; Rebassa-Mansergas, A; Gänsicke, B T

    2014-01-01

    Detached WD+MS PCEBs are perhaps the most suitable objects for testing predictions of close-compact binary-star evolution theories, in particular, CE evolution. The population of WD+MS PCEBs has been simulated by several authors in the past and compared with observations. However, most of those predictions did not take the possible contributions to the envelope ejection from additional sources of energy (mostly recombination energy) into account. Here we update existing binary population models of WD+MS PCEBs by assuming that a fraction of the recombination energy available within the envelope contributes to ejecting the envelope. We performed Monte Carlo simulations of 10^7 MS+MS binaries for 9 different models using standard assumptions for the initial primary mass function, binary separations, and initial-mass-ratio distribution and evolved these systems using the publicly available BSE code. Including a fraction of recombination energy leads to a clear prediction of a large number of long orbital period (...

  20. [Toxic effects of essential oil of Cannabis sativa L. and main constituents on planarian (Dugesia tigrina) (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, G; Lenicque, P M; Paris, M R

    1978-11-01

    Regenerating pieces of planarian worms are able to absorbe insoluble substances deposited on the base of the vessels in which they are cultivated. This biological test was used to study the toxic effects of the essential oil of Cannabis sativa L. The hydrocarbons such as pinene (alpha and beta), caryophyllene and so on were not toxic. On the contrary caryophyllene oxide was highly toxic. It was not possible to detect any protection by 5-hydroxytryptamine as it was the case against delta 1-tétrahydro-cannabinol and cannabidiol.

  1. The measurement and model construction of complex permittivity of corn leaves at the main frequency points of L/S/C/X-band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, J. Y.; Li, Z.; Tang, Z. H.; Chen, Q.; Bi, H. Y.; Zhao, L. B.

    2014-03-01

    The complex permittivity of target has a crucial influence on its microwave radiation characteristics. In the quantitative research of microwave remote sensing, the study of the dielectric properties of vegetation to establish the relationship between its specific physical parameters and complex permittivity is the basic work in this field. In this study, corn leaves samples of different types and heights were collected at the city of Zhangye which is the key study area of the Heihe watershed allied telemetry experimental research and also the largest breeding base of hybrid corn seeds in China. Then the vector network analyzer E8362B was used to measure the complex permittivity of these samples from 0.2 to 20 GHz by coaxial probe technique. Based on these measurements, an empirical model of corn leaves which describes the relationship between the gravimetric moisture and both the real part and imaginary part of complex permittivity at the main frequency points of L/S/C/X-band was established. Finally, the empirical model and the classical Debye-Cole model were compared and validated by the measured data collected from the Huailai county in Hebei province. The results show that the empirical model has higher accuracy and is more practical than the traditional Debye-Cole model.

  2. Space Shuttle Main Engine Low Pressure Oxidizer Turbo-Pump Inducer Dynamic Environment Characterization through Water Model and Hot-Fire Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano, Patrick; Patton, Marc; Schwartz, Alan; Stanton, David

    2006-01-01

    The Low Pressure Oxidizer Turbopump (LPOTP) inducer on the Block II configuration Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) experienced blade leading edge ripples during hot firing. This undesirable condition led to a minor redesign of the inducer blades. This resulted in the need to evaluate the performance and the dynamic environment of the redesign, relative to the current configuration, as part of the design acceptance process. Sub-scale water model tests of the two inducer configurations were performed, with emphasis on the dynamic environment due to cavitation induced vibrations. Water model tests were performed over a wide range of inlet flow coefficient and pressure conditions, representative of the scaled operating envelope of the Block II SSME, both in flight and in ground hot-fire tests, including all power levels. The water test hardware, facility set-up, type and placement of instrumentation, the scope of the test program, specific test objectives, data evaluation process and water test results that characterize and compare the two SSME LPOTP inducers are discussed. In addition, dynamic characteristics of the two water models were compared to hot fire data from specially instrumented ground tests. In general, good agreement between the water model and hot fire data was found, which confirms the value of water model testing for dynamic characterization of rocket engine turbomachinery.

  3. Environmental Niche Modelling of Phlebotomine Sand Flies and Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Identifies Lutzomyia intermedia as the Main Vector Species in Southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneguzzi, Viviane Coutinho; dos Santos, Claudiney Biral; Leite, Gustavo Rocha; Fux, Blima; Falqueto, Aloísio

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is caused by a protozoan of the genus Leishmania and is transmitted by sand flies. The state of Espírito Santo (ES), an endemic area in southeast Brazil, has shown a considerably high prevalence in recent decades. Environmental niche modelling (ENM) is a useful tool for predicting potential disease risk. In this study, ENM was applied to sand fly species and CL cases in ES to identify the principal vector and risk areas of the disease. Sand flies were collected in 466 rural localities between 1997 and 2013 using active and passive capture. Insects were identified to the species level, and the localities were georeferenced. Twenty-one bioclimatic variables were selected from WorldClim. Maxent was used to construct models projecting the potential distribution for five Lutzomyia species and CL cases. ENMTools was used to overlap the species and the CL case models. The Kruskal–Wallis test was performed, adopting a 5% significance level. Approximately 250,000 specimens were captured, belonging to 43 species. The area under the curve (AUC) was considered acceptable for all models. The slope was considered relevant to the construction of the models for all the species identified. The overlay test identified Lutzomyia intermedia as the main vector of CL in southeast Brazil. ENM tools enable an analysis of the association among environmental variables, vector distributions and CL cases, which can be used to support epidemiologic and entomological vigilance actions to control the expansion of CL in vulnerable areas. PMID:27783641

  4. Comparison of source apportionment of PM2.5 using receptor models in the main hub port city of East Asia: Busan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Ju-Hee; Shon, Zang-Ho; Kang, Minsung; Song, Sang-Keun; Kim, Yoo-Keun; Park, Jinsoo; Kim, Hyunjae

    2017-01-01

    The contributions of various PM2.5 emission sources to ambient PM2.5 levels during 2013 in the main hub port city (Busan, South Korea) of East Asia was quantified using several receptor modeling techniques. Three receptor models of principal component analysis/absolute principal component score (PCA/APCS), positive matrix factorization (PMF), and chemical mass balance (CMB) were used to apportion the source of PM2.5 obtained from the target city. The results of the receptor models indicated that the secondary formation of PM2.5 was the dominant (45-60%) contributor to PM2.5 levels in the port city of Busan. The PMF and PCA/APCS suggested that ship emission was a non-negligible contributor of PM2.5 (up to about 10%) in the study area, whereas it was a negligible contributor based on CMB. The magnitude of source contribution estimates to PM2.5 levels differed significantly among these three models due to their limitations (e.g., PM2.5 emission source profiles and restrictions of the models). Potential source contribution function and concentration-weighted trajectory analyses indicated that long-range transport from sources in the eastern China and Yellow Sea contributed significantly to the level of PM2.5 in Busan.

  5. Main and interaction effects of acetic acid, furfural, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid on growth and ethanol productivity of yeasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmqvist, E.; Grage, H.; Meinander, N.Q.; Hahn-Haegerdal, B. [Univ. of Lund (Sweden)

    1999-04-05

    The influence of the factors acetic acid, furfural, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid on the ethanol yield (Y{sub EtOH}) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, bakers` yeast, S. cerevisiae ATCC 96581, and Candida shehatae NJ 23 was investigated using a 2{sup 3}-full factorial design with 3 centerpoints. The results indicated that acetic acid inhibited the fermentation by C. shehatae NJ 23 markedly more than by bakers` yeast, whereas no significant difference in tolerance towards the compounds was detected between the S. cerevisiae strains. Furfural and the lignin derived compound p-hydroxybenzoic acid did not affect any of the yeasts at the cell mass concentration used. The results indicated that the linear model was not adequate to describe the experimental data. Based on the results from the 2{sup 3}-full factorial experiment, an extended experiment was designed based on a central composite design to investigate the influence of the factors on the specific growth rate ({mu}), biomass yield (Y{sub x}), volumetric ethanol productivity (Q{sub EtOH}), and Y{sub EtOH}. Bakers` yeast was chosen in the extended experiment due to its better tolerance towards acetic acid, which makes it a more interesting organism for use in industrial fermentations of lignocellulosic hydrolysates.

  6. DNA damaging effects of carbofuran and its main metabolites on mice by micronucleus test and single cell gel electrophoresis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Pei; LIU Baofeng; LU Yitong

    2005-01-01

    The DNA damaging effects of the carbamate pesticide carbofuran and its four metabolites (carbofuranphenol, 3-ketocarbofuran, 3-hydrocarbofuran and nitrosocarbofuran) on mice were evaluated by single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay and micronucleus test. KM mice were exposed to test compounds with different doses of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4mg/kg through intraperitoneal injection two times with an internal of 24 h, and then killed by cervical dislocation 6 h after the second injection. In SCGE assay, isolated mice peripheral blood lymphocytes were employed to determine DNA damaging degree after a 1 h treatment by test compounds and a following electrophoresis. Carbofuran and carbofuranphenol showed negative results in both test and had no obvious toxicity. 3-hydrocarbofuran and nitrosocarbofuran were positive.3-ketocarbofuran could not induce micronucleus formation but caused significant DNA migration in SCGE test. These tests revealed that 3-ketocarbofuran, 3-hydrocarbofuran and nitrosocarbofuran are potential mutagesis and further research is needed.

  7. Mixed Effects Models for Complex Data

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Lang

    2009-01-01

    Presenting effective approaches to address missing data, measurement errors, censoring, and outliers in longitudinal data, this book covers linear, nonlinear, generalized linear, nonparametric, and semiparametric mixed effects models. It links each mixed effects model with the corresponding class of regression model for cross-sectional data and discusses computational strategies for likelihood estimations of mixed effects models. The author briefly describes generalized estimating equations methods and Bayesian mixed effects models and explains how to implement standard models using R and S-Pl

  8. Habitability of Super-Earth Planets around Main-Sequence Stars including Red Giant Branch Evolution: Models based on the Integrated System Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Cuntz, M; Schroeder, K -P; Bounama, C; Franck, S

    2011-01-01

    In a previous study published in Astrobiology, we focused on the evolution of habitability of a 10 M_E super-Earth planet orbiting a star akin to the Sun. This study was based on a concept of planetary habitability in accordance to the integrated system approach that describes the photosynthetic biomass production taking into account a variety of climatological, biogeochemical, and geodynamical processes. In the present study, we pursue a significant augmentation of our previous work by considering stars with zero-age main sequence masses between 0.5 and 2.0 M_sun with special emphasis on models of 0.8, 0.9, 1.2 and 1.5 M_sun. Our models of habitability consider again geodynamical processes during the main-sequence stage of these stars as well as during their red giant branch evolution. Pertaining to the different types of stars, we identify so-called photosynthesis-sustaining habitable zones (pHZ) determined by the limits of biological productivity on the planetary surface. We obtain various sets of solution...

  9. GIS-based revised main function division model in the rural-urban continuum: as a case study in Tianjin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Qing; He, Huanle; Li, Xue

    2011-02-01

    The usage of mutual pattern-function matrix based on Geographical Information System (GIS) provides an approach to revise the traditional main function division that lacks the transition between development and protection, especially for the rural-urban fringe areas where the communications of the matter, energy and information between different ecosystems are frequent and complex. In the paper, this GIS-based revised main function division model consists of landscape connectivity evaluation by Cost distance model, agro-suitability analysis by Grid module and mutual coupling matrix mapping by Raster calculator. All these parametric evaluations will help in squeezing/ decreasing the gap between development patterns and ecology functions in the rural-urban fringes. These concepts were implemented in the Xiqing district of Tianjin in China. The results revealed that the ecological protection zone, ecological restoration zone, limited development zone, key development zone and the optimized development zone are gradually shifted from west to east, which supported the actually spatial development rule of Tianjin city which provides a guideline for urban green space planning of Xiqing District.

  10. Comparison of Farm Structures, Success Factors, Obstacles, Clients’ Expectations and Policy Wishes of Urban Farming’s Main Business Models in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Pölling

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Low-cost specialization, differentiation, and diversification are common business models of urban farms in developed countries. Similarities and differences between them as well as detailed insights into specific farm characteristics are widely absent in scientific discourses. This paper compares farm structures, success factors, obstacles, clients’ expectations, and policy wishes between specialized, differentiated, and diversified farms as well as diversifiers into agriculture. A standardized questionnaire was used for 21 personal in-depth farm interviews located in metropolitan areas of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Being located in a metropolitan area is the most often named Unique Selling Proposition (USP. This is also mentioned as most important success factor followed by sociability and personal contact to clients, which both underpin the importance of direct producer-consumer linkages in urban settings. Additionally, it is assumed that a single food criterion is not sufficient to be successful, but several have to be merged to meet clients’ expectations. In terms of marketing, differentiated and diversified farmers prefer a multi-channel approach, while specialized farmers and diversifiers into agriculture focus mainly on one specific channel. While both specialized farmers and diversifiers into agriculture cultivate smaller areas of farmland, the latter one offers the greatest number of jobs including those outside agricultural production. The findings obtained are expected to support farms and agricultural advisory services in individual decision making of future business development strategies and increase knowledge of urban farming’s main business models.

  11. [The efficacy of the bothropic-crotalic antivenom in the neutralization of the main Bothrops jararacussu venom effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos-Santos, M C; Gonçalves, L R; Fortes-Dias, C L; Cury, Y; Gutiérrez, J M; Furtado, M de F

    1992-01-01

    Myonecrosis is one of the effects of Bothrops jararacussu venom, from which a myotoxin was isolated showing structural homology to phospholipase A2 (PLA2), but without enzymatic activity. Such myotoxic activity is also present in the Crotalus durissus terrifucus venom, and is attributed to crotoxin and to PLA2 (crotoxin B), the basic component of the crotoxin complex. The Bothrops jararacussu venom showed three proteins with immunologic identity to PLA2 from crotoxin. The bothropic (AB) and the bothropic/crotalic (AB/C) anti-venoms, two commercial polyvalent anti-venoms produced at Instituto Butantan, were compared in order to assess their capacity for neutralization of the lethal, hemorrhagic, coagulant and myotoxic activities of Bothrops jararacussu venom. Both anti-venoms showed the same level of hemorrhagic activity neutralization. However, AB/C was about three times more efficient than AB in neutralizing the myotoxic activity, and two times more potent for neutralization of lethality and coagulant activity of Bothrops jararacussu venom. These data suggest that the use of AB/C could be of value in the treatment of patients bitten by snakes of this species.

  12. Bioactive comparison of main components from unripe fruits of Rubus chingii Hu and identification of the effective component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tian-Tian; Yang, Li; Jiang, Jian-Guo

    2015-07-01

    Dried and unripe fruit of Rubus chingii Hu, known as "Fu-pen-zi" in Chinese, has been used as a food and tonic in China for a long time. In order to analyze its effective ingredients, polysaccharides, flavonoids, saponins and alkaloids were extracted from the unripe fruits and their contents were determined. The in vitro antioxidant, anticomplementary and anticancer activities against human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells of the four major constituents were investigated. Results showed that total flavonoids exhibited an obvious antioxidant activity, which was very close to ascorbic acid. The anticomplementary and anticancer activities of flavonoids were also the best among the four chemical compositions. Therefore, extraction process optimization of flavonoids was conducted using response surface methodology. The optimal conditions were as follows: extraction temperature 72.8 °C, ethanol concentration 30.67%, extraction time 2.66 h, and a liquid/solid ratio of 19.54 : 1. In addition, total flavonoids were subsequently separated by column chromatography and the major flavonoid was identified as tiliroside. Further experimental data revealed that tiliroside treatment could suppress the proliferation and induced the apoptosis of A549 cells.

  13. Effects of stored feed cropping systems and farm size on the profitability of Maine organic dairy farm simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshide, A K; Halloran, J M; Kersbergen, R J; Griffin, T S; DeFauw, S L; LaGasse, B J; Jain, S

    2011-11-01

    United States organic dairy production has increased to meet the growing demand for organic milk. Despite higher prices received for milk, organic dairy farmers have come under increasing financial stress due to increases in concentrated feed prices over the past few years, which can make up one-third of variable costs. Market demand for milk has also leveled in the last year, resulting in some downward pressure on prices paid to dairy farmers. Organic dairy farmers in the Northeast United States have experimented with growing different forage and grain crops to maximize on-farm production of protein and energy to improve profitability. Three representative organic feed systems were simulated using the integrated farm system model for farms with 30, 120, and 220 milk cows. Increasing intensity of equipment use was represented by organic dairy farms growing only perennial sod (low) to those with corn-based forage systems, which purchase supplemental grain (medium) or which produce and feed soybeans (high). The relative profitability of these 3 organic feed systems was strongly dependent on dairy farm size. From results, we suggest smaller organic dairy farms can be more profitable with perennial sod-based rather than corn-based forage systems due to lower fixed costs from using only equipment associated with perennial forage harvest and storage. The largest farm size was more profitable using a corn-based system due to greater economies of scale for growing soybeans, corn grain, winter cereals, and corn silages. At an intermediate farm size of 120 cows, corn-based forage systems were more profitable if perennial sod was not harvested at optimum quality, corn was grown on better soils, or if milk yield was 10% higher. Delayed harvest decreased the protein and energy content of perennial sod crops, requiring more purchased grain to balance the ration and resulting in lower profits. Corn-based systems were less affected by lower perennial forage quality, as corn silage

  14. Effects of boiling on chlorogenic acid and the liver protective effects of its main products against CCl₄-induced toxicity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Shidong; Cheung, Matt Wan Man; Zhou, Yanling; Ho, Wing Shing

    2014-02-01

    Chlorogenic acid (3-O-caffeoylquinic acid, CA) is the active component in several botanical beverage, vegetables, fruits, and herbal drugs. The effect of water boiling on the bioactivity of CA was studied. CA could be isomerized to 4-O-caffeoylquinic acid (4-O-CA) and 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (5-O-CA) in decoctive extraction, and each of the isomers occupied about one-third of the total caffeoylquinic acids. A novel method, using water elution of microsphere resin, was used to purify CA and its 2 isomers. The yield of CA, 4-O-CA, and 5-O-CA was 82%, 5.6%, and 50%, with the purity of 98%, 97%, and 99%, respectively. The DPPH radical scavenging assay showed that 4-O-CA, 5-O-CA, and CA exhibited similar activity. However, there was no significant difference between 4-O-CA and 5-O-CA when used against CCl₄-induced toxicity in hepG2 cells. Our studies show that isomerization is the main transformation of CA in boiling, and the decoction could not decrease the anti-oxidant activity of CA.

  15. Analysis of thermoelastohydrodynamic performance of journal misaligned engine main bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Fengrong; Shao, Kang; Liu, Changwen; Wang, Xia; Zhang, Jian

    2015-05-01

    To understand the engine main bearings' working condition is important in order to improve the performance of engine. However, thermal effects and thermal effect deformations of engine main bearings are rarely considered simultaneously in most studies. A typical finite element model is selected and the effect of thermoelastohydrodynamic(TEHD) reaction on engine main bearings is investigated. The calculated method of main bearing's thermal hydrodynamic reaction and journal misalignment effect is finite difference method, and its deformation reaction is calculated by using finite element method. The oil film pressure is solved numerically with Reynolds boundary conditions when various bearing characteristics are calculated. The whole model considers a temperature-pressure-viscosity relationship for the lubricant, surface roughness effect, and also an angular misalignment between the journal and the bearing. Numerical simulations of operation of a typical I6 diesel engine main bearing is conducted and importance of several contributing factors in mixed lubrication is discussed. The performance characteristics of journal misaligned main bearings under elastohydrodynamic(EHD) and TEHD loads of an I6 diesel engine are received, and then the journal center orbit movement, minimum oil film thickness and maximum oil film pressure of main bearings are estimated over a wide range of engine operation. The model is verified through the comparison with other present models. The TEHD performance of engine main bearings with various effects under the influences of journal misalignment is revealed, this is helpful to understand EHD and TEHD effect of misaligned engine main bearings.

  16. Toy models for wrapping effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penedones, João; Vieira, Pedro

    2008-08-01

    The anomalous dimensions of local single trace gauge invariant operators in Script N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory can be computed by diagonalizing a long range integrable Hamiltonian by means of a perturbative asymptotic Bethe ansatz. This formalism breaks down when the number of fields of the composite operator is smaller than the range of the Hamiltonian which coincides with the order in perturbation theory at study. We analyze two spin chain toy models which might shed some light on the physics behind these wrapping effects. One of them, the Hubbard model, is known to be closely related to Script N = 4 SYM. In this example, we find that the knowledge of the effective spin chain description is insufficient to reconstruct the finite size effects of the underlying electron theory. We compute the wrapping corrections for generic states and relate them to a Luscher like approach. The second toy models are long range integrable Hamiltonians built from the standard algebraic Bethe ansatz formalism. This construction is valid for any symmetry group. In particular, for non-compact groups it exhibits an interesting relation between wrapping interactions and transcendentality.

  17. Changes in coronary bifurcations after stent placement in the main vessel and balloon opening of stent cells:theory and practical verification on a bench-test model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dobrin Vassilev; Robert Gil

    2008-01-01

    Objective To describe changes that occur in stent morphology and structure after its implantation in coronary bifurcation.Side branch (SB) compromise after stenting of main vessel in coronary bifurcation is a major intraprocedural problem and for the long term,as a place of restenosis.Methods We created an elastic wall model (parent vessel diameter 3.5mm,daughter branches 3.5mm and 2.75mm)with 30,45 and 60 degree distal angulation between branches.After stent implantation,struts to the side branch were opened with 2.0mm and consequently 3.0mm diameter balloons.Subsequent balloon redilatations and kissing balloon inflations (KBI) were performed.All stages of the procedure were photographed with magnification up to 100 times.Results We found that the leading mechanism for side branch compromise was carina displacement,and discovered theoretical description for expected ostial stenosis severity.Based on our model we found that displacement of bifurcation flow divider cause SB stenosis with almost perfect coincidence with our theoretical predictions.Opening of stent cells through the proximal and distal stent struts always increased interslrut distance,but never achieved good apposition to the wall.Balloon diameter increase didn't give proportional enlargement in stent cell diameters.KBI leads to some small better stent positioning,correcting main vessel strut dislodgment from wall,but never gave full strut-wall contact.Distance between struts and wall was minimal only when the stent cell perfectly faced ostium of SB.This was also our observation that the shape of ostium of SB becomed eUiptically-bean shaped after stent implantation and generally kept that shape during consequent stages of experiment.Measured diameter and area stenosis were perfectly fitted and theoretically predicted from our concept Conclusion We have described stent-wall deformations in stent-balloon technique for treatment of coronary bifurcation demonstrating carina displacement as possibly main

  18. The effect of non-fluoride factors on risk of dental fluorosis: evidence from rural populations of the Main Ethiopian Rift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchenko, Julia; Rango, Tewodros; Akushevich, Igor; Atlaw, Behailu; McCornick, Peter G; Merola, R Brittany; Paul, Christopher; Weinthal, Erika; Harrison, Courtney; Vengosh, Avner; Jeuland, Marc

    2014-08-01

    Elevated level of fluoride (F(-)) in drinking water is a well-recognized risk factor of dental fluorosis (DF). While considering optimization of region-specific standards for F(-), it is reasonable, however, to consider how local diet, water sourcing practices, and non-F(-) elements in water may be related to health outcomes. In this study, we hypothesized that non-F(-) elements in groundwater and lifestyle and demographic characteristics may be independent predictors or modifiers of the effects of F(-) on teeth. Dental examinations were conducted among 1094 inhabitants from 399 randomly-selected households of 20 rural communities of the Ziway-Shala lake basin of the Main Ethiopian Rift. DF severity was evaluated using the Thylstrup-Fejerskov Index (TFI). Household surveys were performed and water samples were collected from community water sources. To consider interrelations between the teeth within individual (in terms of DF severity) and between F(-) and non-F(-) elements in groundwater, the statistical methods of regression analysis, mixed models, and principal component analysis were used. About 90% of study participants consumed water from wells with F(-) levels above the WHO recommended standard of 1.5mg/l. More than 62% of the study population had DF. F(-) levels were a major factor associated with DF. Age, sex, and milk consumption (both cow's and breastfed) were also statistically significantly (p<0.05) associated with DF severity; these associations appear both independently and as modifiers of those identified between F(-) concentration and DF severity. Among 35 examined elements in groundwater, Ca, Al, Cu, and Rb were found to be significantly correlated with dental health outcomes among the residents exposed to water with excessive F(-) concentrations. Quantitative estimates obtained in our study can be used to explore new water treatment strategies, water safety and quality regulations, and lifestyle recommendations which may be more appropriate for

  19. Better models are more effectively connected models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, João Pedro; Bielders, Charles; Darboux, Frederic; Fiener, Peter; Finger, David; Turnbull-Lloyd, Laura; Wainwright, John

    2016-04-01

    The concept of hydrologic and geomorphologic connectivity describes the processes and pathways which link sources (e.g. rainfall, snow and ice melt, springs, eroded areas and barren lands) to accumulation areas (e.g. foot slopes, streams, aquifers, reservoirs), and the spatial variations thereof. There are many examples of hydrological and sediment connectivity on a watershed scale; in consequence, a process-based understanding of connectivity is crucial to help managers understand their systems and adopt adequate measures for flood prevention, pollution mitigation and soil protection, among others. Modelling is often used as a tool to understand and predict fluxes within a catchment by complementing observations with model results. Catchment models should therefore be able to reproduce the linkages, and thus the connectivity of water and sediment fluxes within the systems under simulation. In modelling, a high level of spatial and temporal detail is desirable to ensure taking into account a maximum number of components, which then enables connectivity to emerge from the simulated structures and functions. However, computational constraints and, in many cases, lack of data prevent the representation of all relevant processes and spatial/temporal variability in most models. In most cases, therefore, the level of detail selected for modelling is too coarse to represent the system in a way in which connectivity can emerge; a problem which can be circumvented by representing fine-scale structures and processes within coarser scale models using a variety of approaches. This poster focuses on the results of ongoing discussions on modelling connectivity held during several workshops within COST Action Connecteur. It assesses the current state of the art of incorporating the concept of connectivity in hydrological and sediment models, as well as the attitudes of modellers towards this issue. The discussion will focus on the different approaches through which connectivity

  20. MESA meets MURaM: Surface effects in main-sequence solar-like oscillators computed using three-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, W H; Cameron, R H; Gizon, L

    2016-01-01

    ... [C]urrent stellar models predict oscillation frequencies that are systematically affected by simplified modelling of the near-surface layers. We use three-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics simulations to better model the near-surface equilibrium structure of dwarfs with spectral types F3, G2, K0 and K5, and examine the differences between oscillation mode frequencies. ... We precisely match stellar models to the simulations' gravities and effective temperatures at the surface, and to the temporally- and horizontally-averaged densities and pressures at their deepest points. We then replace the near-surface structure with that of the averaged simulation and compute the change in the oscillation mode frequencies. We also fit the differences using several parametric models currently available in the literature. The surface effect in the stars of solar-type and later is qualitatively similar and changes steadily with decreasing effective temperature. In particular, the point of greatest frequency difference ...

  1. Effects of the Combination of the Main Active Components of Astragalus and Panax notoginseng on Inflammation and Apoptosis of Nerve Cell after Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao-Ping; Ding, Huang; Lu, Jin-Dong; Tang, Ying-Hong; Deng, Bing-Xiang; Deng, Chang-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Astragalus and Panax notoginseng are commonly used to treat cardio-cerebrovascular diseases in China and are often combined together to promote curative effect. We speculate that the enhancement of the combination on anticerebral ischemia injury may come from the main active components. The purpose of this work was to probe the effects and mechanisms of Astragaloside IV (the active component of Astragalus) combined with Ginsenoside Rg1, Ginsenoside Rb1, and Notoginsenoside R1 (the active components of P. notoginseng) to antagonize ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury via inflammation and apoptosis. C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into sham, model, Astragaloside IV, Ginsenoside Rg1, Ginsenoside Rb1, Notoginsenoside R1, four active components combination, and Edaravone groups. After administration for 3 days, bilateral common carotid arteries (CCA) were occluded with artery clip for 20[Formula: see text]min followed by reperfusion for 24[Formula: see text]h. Our results showed that the survival rate of nerve cell in hippocampal CA1 decreased while the apoptotic rate increased, and the level of caspase-3 protein in brain tissues was elevated, the expressions of TNF-a, IL-1, and ICAM-1 mRNA as well as phosphorylated nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) inhibitor protein α (p-IκBa) in brain tissues were up-regulated, and the nuclear translocation rate of NF-κB was raised. Additionally, the protein expressions of phosphorylated tyrosine kinase 1 (p-JAK1), phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 (p-STAT1), glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78), caspase-12, and phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinases 1/2 (p-JNK1/2) in brain tissues were also significantly strengthened after I/R for 24 h. All drugs could increase neurocyte survival rate in hippocampal CA1, decrease the apoptotic rate, and inhibit caspase-3 protein expression, in contrast, the effects of four active components combination were better than those of active components alone. In addition

  2. Mechanical effects in cookoff modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, R.J.; Baer, M.R.; Hobbs, M.L.

    1994-07-01

    Complete cookoff modeling of energetic material in confined geometries must couple thermal, chemical and mechanical effects. In the past, modeling has focused on the prediction of the onset of combustion behavior based only on thermal-chemistry effects with little or no regard to the mechanical behavior of the energetic material. In this paper, an analysis tool is outlined which couples thermal, chemical, and mechanical behavior for one-dimensional Geometries comprised of multi-materials. A reactive heat flow code, XCHEM, and a quasistatic mechanics code, SANTOS, have been completely coupled using, a reactive, elastic-plastic constitutive model describing pressurization of the energetic material. This new Thermally Reactive Elastic-plastic explosive code, TREX, was developed to assess the coupling, of mechanics with thermal chemistry making multidimensional cookoff analysis possible. In this study, TREX is applied to confined and unconfined systems. The confined systems simulate One-Dimensional Time to explosion (ODTX) experiments in both spherical and cylindrical configurations. The spherical ODTX system is a 1.27 cm diameter sphere of TATB confined by aluminum exposed to a constant external temperature. The cylindrical ODTX system is an aluminum tube filled with HMX, NC, and inert exposed to a constant temperature bath. Finally. an unconfined system consisting of a hollow steel cylinder filled with a propellant composed of Al, RMX, and NC, representative of a rocket motor, is considered. This model system is subjected to transient internal and external radiative/convective boundary conditions representative of 5 minutes exposure to a fire. The confined systems show significant pressure prior to ignition, and the unconfined system shows extrusion of the propellent suggesting that the energetic material becomes more shock sensitive.

  3. 3-D thermal analysis using finite difference technique with finite element model for improved design of components of rocket engine turbomachines for Space Shuttle Main Engine SSME

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Kiho D.; Ip, Shek-Se P.

    1988-01-01

    Three-dimensional finite element models were generated and transferred into three-dimensional finite difference models to perform transient thermal analyses for the SSME high pressure fuel turbopump's first stage nozzles and rotor blades. STANCOOL was chosen to calculate the heat transfer characteristics (HTCs) around the airfoils, and endwall effects were included at the intersections of the airfoils and platforms for the steady-state boundary conditions. Free and forced convection due to rotation effects were also considered in hollow cores. Transient HTCs were calculated by taking ratios of the steady-state values based on the flow rates and fluid properties calculated at each time slice. Results are presented for both transient plots and three-dimensional color contour isotherm plots; they were also converted into universal files to be used for FEM stress analyses.

  4. 3-D thermal analysis using finite difference technique with finite element model for improved design of components of rocket engine turbomachines for Space Shuttle Main Engine SSME

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Kiho D.; Ip, Shek-Se P.

    1988-01-01

    Three-dimensional finite element models were generated and transferred into three-dimensional finite difference models to perform transient thermal analyses for the SSME high pressure fuel turbopump's first stage nozzles and rotor blades. STANCOOL was chosen to calculate the heat transfer characteristics (HTCs) around the airfoils, and endwall effects were included at the intersections of the airfoils and platforms for the steady-state boundary conditions. Free and forced convection due to rotation effects were also considered in hollow cores. Transient HTCs were calculated by taking ratios of the steady-state values based on the flow rates and fluid properties calculated at each time slice. Results are presented for both transient plots and three-dimensional color contour isotherm plots; they were also converted into universal files to be used for FEM stress analyses.

  5. Predicting the potential distribution of main malaria vectors Anopheles stephensi, An. culicifacies s.l. and An. fluviatilis s.l. in Iran based on maximum entropy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakdad, Kamran; Hanafi-Bojd, Ahmad Ali; Vatandoost, Hassan; Sedaghat, Mohammad Mehdi; Raeisi, Ahmad; Moghaddam, Abdolreza Salahi; Foroushani, Abbas Rahimi

    2017-05-01

    Malaria is considered as a major public health problem in southern areas of Iran. The goal of this study was to predict best ecological niches of three main malaria vectors of Iran: Anopheles stephensi, Anopheles culicifacies s.l. and Anopheles fluviatilis s.l. A databank was created which included all published data about Anopheles species of Iran from 1961 to 2015. The suitable environmental niches for the three above mentioned Anopheles species were predicted using maximum entropy model (MaxEnt). AUC (area under Roc curve) values were 0.943, 0.974 and 0.956 for An. stephensi, An. culicifacies s.l. and An. fluviatilis s.l respectively, which are considered as high potential power of model in the prediction of species niches. The biggest bioclimatic contributor for An. stephensi and An. fluviatilis s.l. was bio 15 (precipitation seasonality), 25.5% and 36.1% respectively, followed by bio 1 (annual mean temperature), 20.8% for An. stephensi and bio 4 (temperature seasonality) with 49.4% contribution for An. culicifacies s.l. This is the first step in the mapping of the country's malaria vectors. Hence, future weather situation can change the dispersal maps of Anopheles. Iran is under elimination phase of malaria, so that such spatio-temporal studies are essential and could provide guideline for decision makers for IVM strategies in problematic areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Experience of main-primary responsibility nursing model in obstetrics department%主责护士带班负责制在产科的实施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李江华; 孙婷婷

    2009-01-01

    For meeting with the quick development of hospitals and ensuring the clinical nursing quality and nursing safety, the nursing department carried out the nursing model that the main-primary nurses were responsible for the younger ones in obstetrics department on the basis of original work system as to the status of more younger nurses, taking the job by employment, and incomplete certification structure of clinical nursing professionals. Here we summarized the experiences of carrying out this mode]in obstetrics department, and made it adapt to the status of obstetrics department in order to make it turn into a new nursing model.%为适应医院快速发展的要求,保证临床护理质量和护理安全,护理部针对临床护理专业人员年轻化、聘用化,资质结构不完整的现状,在原有工作制度的基础上实施了主责护士带班负责制.我们将其在产科的实施体会进行总结,使其顺应产科现状,成为一种新型护理模式.

  7. Estimation of the Virtual Water Content of Main Crops on the Korean Peninsula Using Multiple Regional Climate Models and Evapotranspiration Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chul-Hee Lim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable agriculture in the era of climate change needs to find solutions for the retention and proper utilization of water. This study proposes an ensemble approach for identifying the virtual water content (VWC of main crops on the Korean Peninsula in past and future climates. Ensemble results with low uncertainty were obtained using three regional climate models, five potential evapotranspiration methods, and the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC crop model. The productivity results of major crops (rice and maize under climate change are likely to increase more than in the past based on the ensemble results. The ensemble VWC is calculated using three types of crop yields and fifteen consumptive amounts of water use in the past and the future. While the ensemble VWC of rice and maize was 1.18 m3 kg−1 and 0.58 m3 kg−1, respectively, in the past, the future amounts were estimated at 0.76 m3 kg−1 and 0.48 m3 kg−1, respectively. The yields of both crops showed a decline in future projections, indicating that this change could have a positive impact on future water demand. The positive changes in crop productivity and water consumption due to climate change suggest that adaptation to climate change can be an opportunity for enhancing sustainability as well as for minimizing agricultural damage.

  8. Sexual experience does not compensate for the disruptive effects of zinc sulfate--lesioning of the main olfactory epithelium on sexual behavior in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Matthieu; Douhard, Quentin; Baum, Michael J; Bakker, Julie

    2006-10-01

    Recent studies point to an important role for the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) in regulating sexual behavior in male mice. We asked whether sexual experience could compensate for the disruptive effects of lesioning the MOE on sexual behavior in male mice. Male mice, which were either sexually naive or experienced, received an intranasal irrigation of either a zinc sulfate solution to destroy the MOE or saline. Sexual behavior in mating tests with an estrous female was completely abolished in zinc sulfate-treated male mice regardless of whether subjects were sexually experienced or not before the treatment. Furthermore, zinc sulfate treatment clearly disrupted olfactory investigation of both volatile and nonvolatile odors. Destruction of the MOE by zinc sulfate treatment was confirmed by a significant reduction in the expression of Fos protein in the main olfactory bulb following exposure to estrous female urine. By contrast, vomeronasal function did not seem to be affected by zinc sulfate treatment: nasal application of estrous female urine induced similar levels of Fos protein in the mitral and granule cells of the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) of zinc sulfate- and saline-treated males. Likewise, the expression of soybean agglutinin, which stains the axons of vomeronasal organ neurons projecting to the glomerular layer of the AOB, was similar in zinc sulfate- and saline-treated male mice. These results show that the main olfactory system is essential for the expression of sexual behavior in male mice and that sexual experience does not overcome the disruptive effects of MOE lesioning on this behavior.

  9. [Studies on effects of Achyranthes bidentata on tongsaimai pellets main active ingredients chlorogenic acid, isoliquiritin, harpagoside and glycyrrhizin in vivo pharmacokinetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jian; Di, Liu-Qing; Shan, Jin-Jun; Zhao, Xiao-Li; Kang, An; Bi, Xiao-Lin; Li, Jun-Song

    2014-04-01

    To study on the effects of Achyranthes bidentata on Tongsaimai pellets main active ingredients chlorogenic acid, isoliquiritin, harpagoside and glycyrrhizin in rats in vivo pharmacokinetic behaviors, a method for the simultaneous determination of chlorogenic acid, isoliquiritin, harpagoside and liquiritigenin in rat plasma was established by UPLC-MS/MS. The analysis was performed on a waters Acquity BEH C18 column (2.1 mm x 100 mm, 1.7 microm) with the mixture of acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid/water as mobile phase, and the gradient elution at a flow rate of 0.3 mL x min(-1). The analytes were detected by tandem mass spectrometry with the electrospray ionization (ESI) source and in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. It turned out that the analytes of Tongsaimai pellets groups C(max) and AUC(Q-infinity) values were higher than that with A. bidentata group, and the C(max) values of chlorogenic acid had significantly difference (P < 0.05), the AUC(0-infinity) values of chlorogenic acid and glycyrrhizin had significantly difference (P < 0.05); The T(max) and CL values of two groups had no significantly difference. Results showed that the established method was specific, rapid, accurate and sensitive for the studies of Tongsaimai pellets four main active ingredients in rat in vivo pharmacokinetic, and A. bidentata have varying degrees of effects on Tongsaimai pellets four main active ingredients in rat in vivo pharmacokinetic behaviors.

  10. Modeling the Constructs Contributing to the Effectiveness of Marketing Lecturers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Arthur D. P.; Morrison, Mark D.; Jarratt, Denise; Heffernan, Troy

    2009-01-01

    Student evaluation of teaching has been examined in higher education research for over 70 years but there are gaps in our knowledge about the contribution, and relationships between, the relevant constructs. Recent literature encourages researchers to test multivariate models of Teaching Effectiveness. Seven main constructs known to influence…

  11. Fault architecture in the Main Ethiopian Rift and comparison with experimental models: Implications for rift evolution and Nubia-Somalia kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, Andrea; Bonini, Marco; Corti, Giacomo; Sani, Federico; Mazzarini, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    The Main Ethiopian Rift (MER) offers a complete record of the time-space evolution of a continental rift. We have characterized the brittle deformation in different rift sectors through the statistical analysis of a new database of faults obtained from the integration between satellite images and digital elevation models, and implemented with field controls. This analysis has been compared with the results of lithospheric-scale analogue models reproducing the kinematical conditions of orthogonal and oblique rifting. Integration of these approaches suggests substantial differences in fault architecture in the different rift sectors that in turn reflect an along-axis variation of the rift development and southward decrease in rift evolution. The northernmost MER sector is in a mature stage of incipient continental rupture, with deformation localised within the rift floor along discrete tectono-magmatic segments and almost inactive boundary faults. The central MER sector records a transitional stage in which migration of deformation from boundary faults to faults internal to the rift valley is in an incipient phase. The southernmost MER sector is instead in an early continental stage, with the largest part of deformation being accommodated by boundary faults and almost absent internal faults. The MER thus records along its axis the typical evolution of continental rifting, from fault-dominated rift morphology in the early stages of extension toward magma-dominated extension during break-up. The extrapolation of modelling results suggests that a variable rift obliquity contributes to the observed along-axis variations in rift architecture and evolutionary stage, being oblique rifting conditions controlling the MER evolution since its birth in the Late Miocene in relation to a constant post ca. 11 Ma ~ N100°E Nubia-Somalia motion.

  12. Propuesta de un modelo de gestión de mantenimiento y sus principales herramientas de apoyo Proposal of a maintenance management model and its main support tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Viveros

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta un modelo para la gestión integral del mantenimiento, teniendo en consideración la característica de mejora continua en el tiempo. A modo de introducción y contextualización, se explica la importancia que tiene la alineación de objetivos a todo nivel organizacional para lograr la integración y correcta gestión de la unidad de mantenimiento. El modelo a presentar se compone de siete principales etapas, las cuales deben desarrollarse progresivamente según el escenario actual de la organización, haciendo énfasis en la gestión y optimización sostenida en el tiempo de procesos asociados a la planificación, programación y ejecución del mantenimiento. Adicionalmente, el modelo presentado complementa herramientas de apoyo para el desarrollo e implementación de las etapas, y características operacionales reales, las cuales podrían afectar el desempeño de la unidad de mantenimiento. Finalmente, se presentan algunas consideraciones generales y respectivas conclusiones.This paper presents a model for the integrated management of maintenance, taking into account features of continuous improvement over time. As an introduction and contextualization, it explains the importance of aligning organizational goals at all levels in order to achieve proper integration and management of the maintenance unit. The present model consists of seven main stages, which must be progressively implemented depending on the current scenario of the organization, focusing on management and sustained over time optimization of processes related to planning, programming and maintenance execution. Additionally, the model presented is supported by tools to develop and implement the stages, and provides a real operational context of the industrial maintenance management; which may affect performance. Finally, we present some general considerations and conclusions.

  13. Rotor dynamic analysis of main coolant pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chong Won; Seo, Jeong Hwan; Kim, Choong Hwan; Shin, Jae Chul; Wang, Lei Tian [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-03-01

    A rotor dynamic analysis program DARBS/MCP, for the main coolant pump of the integral reactor, has been developed. The dynamic analysis model of the main coolant pump includes a vertical shaft, three grooved radial journal bearings and gaps that represent the structure-fluid interaction effects between the rotor and the lubricant fluid. The electromagnetic force from the motor and the hydro-dynamic force induced by impeller are the major sources of vibration that may affect the rotor system stability. DARBS/MCP is a software that is developed to effectively analyze the dynamics of MCP rotor systems effectively by applying powerful numerical algorithms such as FEM with modal truncation and {lambda}-matrix method for harmonic analysis. Main design control parameters, that have much influence to the dynamic stability, have been found by Taguchi's sensitivity analysis method. Design suggestions to improve the stability of MCP rotor system have been documented. The dynamic bearing parameters of the journal bearings used for main coolant pump have been determined by directly solving the Reynolds equation using FDM method. Fluid-structure interaction effect that occurs at the small gaps between the rotor and the stator were modeled as equivalent seals, the electromagnetic force effect was regarded as a linear negative radial spring and the impeller was modeled as a rigid disk with hydrodynamic and static radial force. Although there exist critical speeds in the range of operational speeds for type I and II rotor systems, the amplitude of vibration appears to be less than the vibration limit set by the API standards. Further more, it has been verified that the main design parameters such as the clearance and length of journal bearings, and the static radial force of impeller should be properly adjusted, in order to the improve dynamic stability of the rotor system. (author). 39 refs., 81 figs., 17 tabs.

  14. The Effects of Music Listening with Play on Preference, Recognition of the Main Melody and Musical Creativity in Elementary School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunyoung Hwang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a classical music listening program, namely music listening with plays, for elementary grade one students on music preference, recognition of the main melody, and musical creativity. The classical music listening program organized for this study employed various musical experiences such as singing, playing, composing and moving. The participants of this study were 61 elementary grade one students from Kyong-gi Province, Korea, who attended the classical music listening program after school. The students were divided into the two groups, experimental and control, which consisted of 31 and 30 students respectively. The experimental group participated in a music listening program with plays for 12 sessions, while the control group participated in a passive music listening program for 12 sessions. The results revealed a significant difference between the two groups in terms of preference and recognition of the main melody. Further, there was a significant difference in their musical creativity.

  15. Statistical Analysis of Main and Interaction Effects on Cu(II) and Cr(VI) Decontamination by Nitrogen-Doped Magnetic Graphene Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xinjiang; Wang, Hui; Liu, Yunguo

    2016-10-01

    A nitrogen-doped magnetic graphene oxide (NMGO) was synthesized and applied as an adsorbent to remove Cu(II) and Cr(VI) ions from aqueous solutions. The individual and combined effects of various factors (A: pH, B: temperature, C: initial concentration of metal ions, D: CaCl2, and E: humic acid [HA]) on the adsorption were analyzed by a 25-1 fractional factorial design (FFD). The results from this study indicated that the NMGO had higher adsorption capacities for Cu(II) ions than for Cr(VI) ions under most conditions, and the five selected variables affected the two adsorption processes to different extents. A, AC, and C were the very important factors and interactions for Cu(II) adsorption. For Cr(VI) adsorption, A, B, C, AB, and BC were found to be very important influencing variables. The solution pH (A) was the most important influencing factor for removal of both the ions. The main effects of A-E on the removal of Cu(II) were positive. For Cr(VI) adsorption, the main effects of A and D were negative, while B, C, and E were observed to have positive effects. The maximum adsorption capacities for Cu(II) and Cr(VI) ions over NMGO were 146.365 and 72.978 mg/g, respectively, under optimal process conditions.

  16. Statistical Analysis of Main and Interaction Effects on Cu(II) and Cr(VI) Decontamination by Nitrogen–Doped Magnetic Graphene Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xinjiang; Wang, Hui; Liu, Yunguo

    2016-01-01

    A nitrogen–doped magnetic graphene oxide (NMGO) was synthesized and applied as an adsorbent to remove Cu(II) and Cr(VI) ions from aqueous solutions. The individual and combined effects of various factors (A: pH, B: temperature, C: initial concentration of metal ions, D: CaCl2, and E: humic acid [HA]) on the adsorption were analyzed by a 25−1 fractional factorial design (FFD). The results from this study indicated that the NMGO had higher adsorption capacities for Cu(II) ions than for Cr(VI) ions under most conditions, and the five selected variables affected the two adsorption processes to different extents. A, AC, and C were the very important factors and interactions for Cu(II) adsorption. For Cr(VI) adsorption, A, B, C, AB, and BC were found to be very important influencing variables. The solution pH (A) was the most important influencing factor for removal of both the ions. The main effects of A–E on the removal of Cu(II) were positive. For Cr(VI) adsorption, the main effects of A and D were negative, while B, C, and E were observed to have positive effects. The maximum adsorption capacities for Cu(II) and Cr(VI) ions over NMGO were 146.365 and 72.978 mg/g, respectively, under optimal process conditions. PMID:27694891

  17. A New Model for the Genesis of Natural Gases——Multi-source Overlap, Multi-stage Continuity, TypeControlled by Main Source and Nomenclature by Main Stage (Ⅱ)——Multi-stage Continuity and Nomenclature by Main Stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐永昌; 沈平

    1994-01-01

    The generation of natural gases involves several stages and the various stages are of continuous transition. This is another feature of natural gas generation. The term "multi-stage" is relative mainly to oil-generating threshold value and liquid window. The evolution of organic matter is affected by different epigene agencies and natural gases differing in geochemical properties such as biogenic gas (bacterial gas), thermocatalytic gas and pyrolytic gas could be produced at different stages of the evolution of organic matter. The proposal of bio-thermocatalytic transitional-zone gas presents a pattern of mutual linking and continuous transition of natural gases originated at different stages.In the genetic classification of natural gases, the nomenclature of a certain gas is based mainly on the epigene agency which is responsible for its formation, for example, biogenic gas, pyrolytic gas. That is the "nomenclature by the main stage" described in this study. On account of the continuity of gas generati

  18. Modeling Temporal Behavior of Awards Effect on Viewership of Movies

    KAUST Repository

    Altaf, Basmah

    2017-04-22

    The “rich get richer” effect is well-known in recommendation system. Popular items are recommended more, then purchased more, resulting in becoming even more popular over time. For example, we observe in Netflix data that awarded movies are more popular than non-awarded movies. Unlike other work focusing on making fair/neutralized recommendation, in this paper, we target on modeling the effect of awards on the viewership of movies. The main challenge of building such a model is that the effect on popularity changes over time with different intensity from movie to movie. Our proposed approach explicitly models the award effects for each movie and enables the recommendation system to provide a better ranked list of recommended movies. The results of an extensive empirical validation on Netflix and MovieLens data demonstrate the effectiveness of our model.

  19. The thin-skinned fold-and-thrust belt of Irecê Basin, São Francisco Craton: main structural setting and physical analog modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Luis Siqueira Reis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Located in the central portion of Bahia state, Irecê Basin displays the best exposures of neoproterozoic sedimentary cover at Northern São Francisco Craton. Despite of the large amount of geological studies performed there, some questions remain unsolved, especially concerning the tectonic evolution of the thin-skinned fold-and-thrust belt that involves the rocks of the basin. In order to contribute to the understanding of such evolution, the present study reviews the main structural elements of the basin and surroundings, and present new data acquired through sandbox physical analog modeling. The Thin-skinned Fold-and-thrust Belt of Irecê Basin is a great curved feature, confined in the homonymous syncline, whose genesis is related to the development of orogenic belts north of São Francisco Craton. Its evolution was conditioned by a N-S tectonic vector, responsible by the nucleation of E-W folds and thrusts. At basin boundaries, the deformation is accommodated by strike-slip faults, which locally rotated early structures. Towards south, the belt gradually loses its expression, only remaining structures related to the Chapada Diamantina thrust-and-fold system. The sandbox analog model successfully simulated the development of the Thin-skinned Fold-and-thrust Belt of Irecê Basin, and indicates that its map-view curve results from the interaction with the syncline borders, as well as substrate geometry of the foreland belt. The propagation was made through a low-friction detachment, probably conditioned by the rheological contrast between the Una Group carbonates and the underlying Espinhaço Supergroup siliciclastic rocks.

  20. Alpha-Pinene as the Main Component of Ducrosia anethifolia (Boiss Essential Oil is Responsible for its Effect on Locomotor Activity in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamyad

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Ducrosia anethifolia (DA is a medicinal plant traditionally used to treat a wide spectrum of illnesses. DA contains a series of antioxidant compounds, including alpha-pinene, which give it a sedative and relaxing effect. In spite of these effects of DA, the effects of DA essential oil on anxiety and locomotor activity in open field tests have not yet been studied. In the present study, the effects of DA essential oil and its main component of alpha-pinene on locomotor activity and anxiety were studied using open field tests. Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of DA essential oil and its main component, alpha-pinene, on locomotor activity and anxiety behaviors using open field and antioxidant capacity tests in Wistar rats. Methods Sixty-three adult male Wistar rats (weighing 200 - 250 g were divided into 9 groups: control, positive control (diazepam, essential oil treated groups (25, 50, 100, 200, and 500 mg/kg administered intraperitoneally, (i.p. and alpha-pinene groups (0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg, i.p.. For precisely 30 minutes after each injection in all groups, open field tests were used to assess behaviors such as rearing, line crossing, walling, grooming, and stretched attend posturing. In addition, oxidant and antioxidant parameters (malondialdehyde [MDA] and catalase [CAT] were assessed in the rats’ temporal lobes. Results DA (200 and 500 mg/kg doses and alpha-pinene (0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg doses significantly reduced locomotor activity, whereas doses of 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg of DA failed to show such an effect. Treatment with DA and alpha-pinene resulted in a significant decrease in MDA levels and a significant increase in CAT activity in comparison to controls. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that the main component of DA (alpha-pinene is responsible for DA’s ability to reduce locomotor activity and anxiety, which is indicative of CNS depressant activity. Moreover, it is possible that

  1. Self-aggregation behavior of synthetic zinc 3-hydroxymethyl-13/15-carbonyl-chlorins as models of main light-harvesting components in photosynthetic green bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamiaki, Hitoshi; Yoshimura, Hideaki; Shimamura, Yasuhide; Kunieda, Michio

    2008-01-01

    Zinc complexes of 3-hydroxymethyl-13/15-carbonyl-chlorins having a six-membered lactone as the E-ring were prepared by modifying purpurin-18 as models of bacteriochlorophyll-d, one of the chlorophyllous pigments in the main light-harvesting antenna systems (chlorosomes) of green photosynthetic bacteria. The synthetic 13-carbonylated compound self-aggregated in 1%(v/v) tetrahydrofuran and hexane to give large oligomers possessing red-shifted and broadened electronic absorption bands and intense circular dichroism bands at the shifted Q ( y ) region, indicating that the supramolecular structure of the resulting self-aggregate was similar to those of natural and artificial chlorosomal aggregates. The red-shift value observed here was smaller than the reported values in chlorosomal pigments having a five-membered keto-ring, which was ascribable to a weaker intermolecular hydrogen-bonding of 13-C=O with 3(1)-OH in a supramolecule of the former self-aggregate and suppression of the pi-pi interaction among the composite chlorins. On the other hand, the isomeric 15-carbonylated molecule was monomeric even in the nonpolar organic solvent, confirming the reported proposal that the linear orientation of three interactive moieties, OH, C=O and Zn, in a molecule is requisite for its chlorosomal self-aggregation.

  2. Effect of SPL (Spent Pot Liner) and its main components on root growth, mitotic activity and phosphorylation of Histone H3 in Lactuca sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Aline Silva; Fontes Cunha, Isabela Martinez; Andrade-Vieira, Larissa Fonseca; Techio, Vânia Helena

    2016-02-01

    Spent Pot Liner (SPL) is a solid waste from the aluminum industry frequently disposed of in industrial landfills; it can be leached and contaminate the soil, sources of drinking water and plantations, and thus may pose a risk to human health and to ecosystems. Its composition is high variable, including cyanide, fluoride and aluminum salts, which are highly toxic and environmental pollutants. This study evaluated the effect of SPL and its main components on root growth and the mitosis of Lactuca sativa, by investigating the mechanisms of cellular and chromosomal alterations with the aid of immunolocalization. To this end, newly emerged roots of L. sativa were exposed to SPL and its main components (solutions of cyanide, fluoride and aluminum) and to calcium chloride (control) for 48h. After this, root length was measured and cell cycle was examined by means of conventional cytogenetics and immunolocalization. Root growth was inhibited in the treatments with SPL and aluminum; chromosomal and nuclear alterations were observed in all treatments. The immunolocalization evidenced normal dividing cells with regular temporal and spatial distribution of histone H3 phosphorylation at serine 10 (H3S10ph). However, SPL and its main components inhibited the phosphorylation of histone H3 at serine 10, inactivated pericentromeric regions and affected the cohesion of sister chromatids, thus affecting the arrangement of chromosomes in the metaphase plate and separation of chromatids in anaphase. In addition, these substances induced breaks in pericentromeric regions, characterized as fragile sites.

  3. Effects of Increasing Doses of UV-B on Main Phenolic Acids Content, Antioxidant Activity and Estimated Biomass in Lavandin (Lavandula x intermedia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usano-Alemany, Jaime; Panjai, Lachinee

    2015-07-01

    Lavandin is a well-known aromatic plant cultivated mainly for its valuable essential oil. Nonetheless, little attention has been paid so far to the quantification of other natural products such as polyphenols. Accordingly, we examined the effect of increasing doses of UV-B radiation on the main phenolic content, antioxidant activity and estimated biomass of one year old lavandin pots compared with pots grown outdoors. Significantly higher total phenolic content and concentration of main polyphenols have been found in outdoor plants. Rosmarinic acid has been described as the major phenolic compound in methanolic extracts (max. 25.9 ± 9.7 mg/g(-1) DW). Furthermore, we found that increasing doses of UV-B promote the plant growth of this species as well as the accumulation of phenolic compounds although with less antioxidant capacity in scavenging DPPH radicals. On the other hand, our results showed a remarkable variability among individual plants regarding the content of major phenolic acids. The application of UV-B doses during plant growth could be a method to promote biomass in this species along with the promotion of higher content of valuable secondary metabolites.

  4. Random Effect and Latent Variable Model Selection

    CERN Document Server

    Dunson, David B

    2008-01-01

    Presents various methods for accommodating model uncertainty in random effects and latent variable models. This book focuses on frequentist likelihood ratio and score tests for zero variance components. It also focuses on Bayesian methods for random effects selection in linear mixed effects and generalized linear mixed models

  5. How Effective is Social Media as the Main Marketing Tool for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises? : Case: WeLoveSpain

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Sadani, Abdulwahab

    2015-01-01

    The thesis will study the effectiveness of social media marketing as the main marketing tool for an SME. Social media has shown significant growth in popularity lately, both in the public and personal use as well as in the business world. Companies are acknowledging the potential of social media and realizing slowly that it seems that it will not be a passing trend. For an SME this could potentially mean good news. The general idea is that social media marketing could potentially be fairly in...

  6. Turbine main engines

    CERN Document Server

    Main, John B; Herbert, C W; Bennett, A J S

    1965-01-01

    Turbine Main Engines deals with the principle of operation of turbine main engines. Topics covered include practical considerations that affect turbine design and efficiency; steam turbine rotors, blades, nozzles, and diaphragms; lubricating oil systems; and gas turbines for use with nuclear reactors. Gas turbines for naval boost propulsion, merchant ship propulsion, and naval main propulsion are also considered. This book is divided into three parts and begins with an overview of the basic mode of operation of the steam turbine engine and how it converts the pressure energy of the ingoing ste

  7. Is cost-effectiveness analysis preferred to severity of disease as the main guiding principle in priority setting in resource poor settings? The case of Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norheim Ole

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Several studies carried out to establish the relative preference of cost-effectiveness of interventions and severity of disease as criteria for priority setting in health have shown a strong preference for severity of disease. These preferences may differ in contexts of resource scarcity, as in developing countries, yet information is limited on such preferences in this context. Objective This study was carried out to identify the key players in priority setting in health and explore their relative preference regarding cost-effectiveness of interventions and severity of disease as criteria for setting priorities in Uganda. Design 610 self-administered questionnaires were sent to respondents at national, district, health sub-district and facility levels. Respondents included mainly health workers. We used three different simulations, assuming same patient characteristics and same treatment outcome but with varying either severity of disease or cost-effectiveness of treatment, to explore respondents' preferences regarding cost-effectiveness and severity. Results Actual main actors were identified to be health workers, development partners or donors and politicians. This was different from what respondents perceived as ideal. Above 90% of the respondents recognised the importance of both severity of disease and cost-effectiveness of intervention. In the three scenarios where they were made to choose between the two, a majority of the survey respondents assigned highest weight to treating the most severely ill patient with a less cost-effective intervention compared to the one with a more cost-effective intervention for a less severely ill patient. However, international development partners in in-depth interviews preferred the consideration of cost-effectiveness of intervention. Conclusions In a survey among health workers and other actors in priority setting in Uganda, we found that donors are considered to have more say than

  8. Maine Field Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — In 2000 NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Service established the Maine Field Station in Orono, ME to have more direct involvement in the conservation of the living...

  9. 2004 Maine Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This metadata document describes the collection and processing of Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) data over an area along the coast of Maine. Data was collected...

  10. DR21 Main: A Collapsing Cloud

    OpenAIRE

    Kirby, Larry

    2008-01-01

    The molecular cloud, DR21 Main, is an example of a large-scale gravitational collapse about an axis near the plane of the sky where the collapse is free of major disturbances due to rotation or other effects. Using flux maps, polarimetric maps, and measurements of the field inclination by comparing the line widths of ion and neutral species, we estimate the temperature, mass, magnetic field, and the turbulent kinetic, mean magnetic, and gravitational potential energies, and present a 3D model...

  11. Antioxidant effect of hyaluronan on polymorphonuclear leukocyte-derived reactive oxygen species is dependent on its molecular weight and concentration and mainly involves the extracellular space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Krasiński

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hyaluronan (HA, a component of the extracellular matrix, may regulate immune cell functions through its interactions with cellular receptors. Besides its effect on cytokine and chemokine production, its antioxidant properties have been described. However, the mechanisms of this are not fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between HA concentration and molecular weight and its antioxidant properties towards human neutrophils. Also assessed was whether the antioxidant effect of HA is connected with a reduction in intracellular oxygen potential, which could indicate its direct effect on neutrophil respiratory burst.Materials/Methods: The relationship between HA’s antioxidant properties and its concentration and molecular weight was assessed by the luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence method (CL. To evaluate the effect of HA on intracellular oxygen potential selectively, the dihydrorhodamine 123 (DHR123 flow cytometric method was used.Results: Reduction of both HA molecular weight and its concentration decreased its antioxidant properties in the CL method. A selective effect of HA on intracellular oxygen potential measured by the DHR123 method was not shown.Conclusions: The antioxidant properties of HA are related to both its molecular weight and its concentration. The lack of an antioxidant effect of HA in the DHR123 test compared with a significant reduction in CL values at the same HA concentration suggests that HA acts mainly as a chemical ROI scavenger in the extracellular space.

  12. Autoconceito dos professores: principais factores usando modelos de Análise de Dados Multivariada Teachers' self-concept: finding main factors and clusters by EDA models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Franco

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O autoconceito tem sido considerado uma dimensão muito importante da personalidade do professor, da sua prática e do seu desenvolvimento pessoal (MARKUS; WURF, 1987; SIMÕES, 2001. A investigação que apresentamos foi efectuada com 281 professores de Ciências da Natureza, do terceiro ciclo do Ensino Básico, em Portugal, usando o ICAC- Inventário Clínico do Auto Conceito (VAZ-SERRA, 1986. Na análise dos dados obtidos foram usados diferentes métodos de Análise Multivariada, apresentando-se os resultados da análise factorial de correspondências e nos modelos de classificação hierárquica baseados no coeficiente de afinidade. Os resultados obtidos: 1 confirmam a importância de dois grandes factores presentes no Autoconceito: aceitação social e auto-eficácia; 2 caracterizam estes principais factores no que se refere ao Autoconceito clínico dos professores; 3 mostram como esses factores são determinantes na forma como cada professor constroi o seu autoconceito.The self-concept has been considered as a very important dimension on teacher's personality, practice and development (MARKUS; WURF, 1987;SIMÕES, 2001. The present research concerns a sample of 281 teachers of Natural Science of the Third Cycle of Basic Education from Portugal that responded to the I.C.A.C. - Self-Concept Clinical Inventory (VAZ-SERRA, 1986. In the analysis of the questionnaires different multivariate data analysis methods have been used. This paper describes some results issued from correspondence analysis and hierarchical clustering models based on the affinity coefficient. The results obtained: 1 confirm the importance of two general main factors / types which are present in self-concept: social acceptance and self-efficiency; 2 characterise these main factors when teachers'clinical self-concept is concerned and 3 show how determinant these factors are for the building of self-concept that allow us to differentiate teachers.

  13. Effects of the Natural β-Carboline Alkaloid Harmine, a Main Constituent of Ayahuasca, in Memory and in the Hippocampus: A Systematic Literature Review of Preclinical Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Rafael G; Hallak, Jaime E C

    2017-01-01

    Harmine is a natural β-carboline alkaloid found in several botanical species, such as the Banisteriopsis caapi vine used in the preparation of the hallucinogenic beverage ayahuasca and the seeds of Syrian rue (Peganum harmala). Preclinical studies suggest that harmine may have neuroprotective and cognitive-enhancing effects, and retrospective/observational investigations of the mental health of long-term ayahuasca users suggest that prolonged use of this harmine-rich hallucinogen is associated with better neuropsychological functioning. Thus, in order to better investigate these possibilities, we performed a systematic literature review of preclinical studies analyzing the effects of harmine on hippocampal neurons and in memory-related behavioral tasks in animal models. We found two studies involving hippocampal cell cultures and nine studies using animal models. Harmine administration was associated with neuroprotective effects such as reduced excitotoxicity, inflammation, and oxidative stress, and increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels. Harmine also improved memory/learning in several animal models. These effects seem be mediated by monoamine oxidase or acetylcholinesterase inhibition, upregulation of glutamate transporters, decreases in reactive oxygen species, increases in neurotrophic factors, and anti-inflammatory effects. The neuroprotective and cognitive-enhancing effects of harmine should be further investigated in both preclinical and human studies.

  14. THE EFFECTS OF THE ACTIVE LEARNING MODEL ON STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müge TAÇMAN

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research was to determine the effects of the active learning model onstudents. The subjects were 40 teacher candidates from computer and teaching technology department who were enrolled inthe course of “New Instructional Methods” at Near East University in TRNC. A queationnaires were used to collect the data.The data was analyzed by using frequencies and percentile techniques. The finding revealed that there was a positive effect ofavtive learning atmosphere on students.

  15. Clinical Effectiveness of an Anesthesiologist-Administered Intravenous Sedation Outside of the Main Operating Room for Pediatric Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somchai Amornyotin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To review our sedation practice and to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of an anesthesiologist-administered intravenous sedation outside of the main operating room for pediatric upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGIE in Thailand. Subjects and Methods. We undertook a retrospective review of the sedation service records of pediatric patients who underwent UGIE. All endoscopies were performed by a pediatric gastroenterologist. All sedation was administered by staff anesthesiologist or anesthetic personnel. Results. A total of 168 patients (94 boys and 74 girls, with age from 4 months to 12 years, underwent 176 UGIE procedures. Of these, 142 UGIE procedures were performed with intravenous sedation (IVS. The mean sedation time was 23.2±10.0 minutes. Propofol was the most common sedative drugs used. Mean dose of propofol, midazolam and fentanyl was 10.0±7.5 mg/kg/hr, 0.2±0.2 mg/kg/hr, and 2.5±1.2 mcg/kg/hr, respectively. Complications relatively occurred frequently. All sedations were successful. However, two patients became more deeply than intended and required unplanned endotracheal intubation. Conclusion. The study shows the clinical effectiveness of an anesthesiologist-administered IVS outside of the main operating room for pediatric UGIE in Thailand. All complications are relatively high. We recommend the use of more sensitive equipments such as end tidal CO2 and carefully select more appropriate patients.

  16. Finemet nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloy: Investigation of glass forming ability, crystallization mechanism, production techniques, magnetic softness and the effect of replacing the main constituents by other elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gheiratmand, T.; Hosseini, H.R. Madaah, E-mail: madaah@sharif.ir

    2016-06-15

    Finemet soft magnetic alloy has been in the focus of interest in the last years due to its high saturation magnetization, high permeability and low core loss. The great quantity of papers has been devoted to the study of its structural and magnetic properties, confirms this claim. This paper reviews the different researches performed on Finemet up to now. The criteria that should be satisfied in order to have the high glass forming ability in an alloy and also the techniques applied for production of Finemet ribbons, powders and bulk samples have been explained. In addition, the mechanism of devitrification, nanocrystallization and magnetic softness in this applicable magnetic alloy has been discussed in detail. Finally, the effect of different elements substituted with the main constituents in Finemet has been summarized through the studies on the characterization and magnetic properties of different Finemet-type alloys. - Highlights: • The criteria for getting high glass forming ability in an alloy have been reviewed. • Techniques applied to make Finemet ribbons and bulk samples have been explained. • Mechanism of devitrification and nanocrystallization has been discussed in detail. • The mechanism of magnetic softness in this magnetic alloy has been demonstrated. • The effect of main elements substitution in Finemet has been summarized.

  17. [Effects of enclosure on the caloric values of main plant species, litters, and communities in Leymus chinensis steppe in Xilin River Basin, Inner Mongolia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Kai; Zhu, Tie-Xia; Wang, Qi-Bing; Han, Guo-Dong

    2012-04-01

    In August 2010, a sampling work was conducted in the plots of the Leymus chinensis steppe, which were fenced in 1979, 1999, and 2004, respectively, in Inner Mongolia Grassland Ecosystem Research Station (IMGERS), aimed to approach the effects of different time periods of enclosure on the caloric values of main plant species, litters, and commnities, and on the total energy storage per unit area. Enclosure had significant effects on the caloric values of the main plant species, litters, and communities, and on the total energy storage per unit area. The total energy storage per unit area in the plots fenced in 1979 and 1999 was significantly higher than that in the plot fenced in 2004, while the caloric values of the litters and communities were in adverse. No significant differences were observed between the plots fenced in 1979 and 1999, respectively. The caloric value of the same plant species varied significantly with the time period of enclosure, and that of different plant species presently definite differences. The caloric value of communities depended on the plant species in the communities, while the total energy storage per unit area depended on the biomass production of the steppe. Both the caloric value of communities and the total energy storage per unit area presented the same variation trend of fluctuation in a short term, but maintained at a stable level over a long period of enclosure, and ecologically reached enrgy balance finally.

  18. Research progress of Tribulus terrestris composition and main pharmaco-logic effects%蒺藜成分及主要药理作用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    候爽; 陈长军; 杨博; 于飞飞; 崔晓莉; 孟雨; 田洪艳; 李质馨

    2014-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) Tribulus terrestris contains a variety of important biological active substances, such as saponins, flavonoids and other compounds, which has many pharmacological effects. Modern medi-cal research indicates that Tribulus terrestris can remarkably delay senescence, reduce blood glucose and blood lipid, strengthen sexual function and enhance the sex hormones in the human body, etc. And it has good curative effects for cancer, high blood pressure, bacteria and fungal infections, diabetes and etc. This article mainly discusses the research progress on Tribulus terrestris composition and its main pharmacological activities in recent years.%中药蒺藜中含有多种重要的生物活性物质如皂苷类、黄酮类等的化合物,具有众多的药理作用。现代医学研究证明,蒺藜具有显著的抗衰老、降血糖、降血脂、性强壮及提高人体中性激素含量等的作用,对肿瘤、高血压、细菌真菌感染、糖尿病等均有较好疗效。本文主要对近年来中药蒺藜成分及主要药理作用研究进展进行综述。

  19. High-Precision Radio and Infrared Astrometry of LSPM J1314+1320AB - II: Testing Pre--Main-Sequence Models at the Lithium Depletion Boundary with Dynamical Masses

    CERN Document Server

    Dupuy, Trent J; Rizzuto, Aaron; Mann, Andrew W; Aller, Kimberly; Liu, Michael C; Kraus, Adam L; Berger, Edo

    2016-01-01

    We present novel tests of pre$-$main-sequence models based on individual dynamical masses for the M7 binary LSPM J1314+1320AB. Joint analysis of our Keck adaptive optics astrometric monitoring along with Very Long Baseline Array radio data from a companion paper yield component masses of $0.0885\\pm0.0006$ $M_{\\odot}$ and $0.0875\\pm0.0010$ $M_{\\odot}$ and a parallactic distance of $17.249\\pm0.013$ pc. We also derive component luminosities that are consistent with the system being coeval at an age of $80.8\\pm2.5$ Myr, according to BHAC15 evolutionary models. The presence of lithium is consistent with model predictions, marking the first time the theoretical lithium depletion boundary has been tested with ultracool dwarfs of known mass. However, we find that the average evolutionary model-derived effective temperature ($2950\\pm5$ K) is 180 K hotter than we derive from a spectral type$-$$T_{\\rm eff}$ relation based on BT-Settl models ($2770\\pm100$ K). We suggest that the dominant source of this discrepancy is mod...

  20. Distress after a psychosocial cancer rehabilitation course. Main effects and effect modification in a randomised trial at 12 months of follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross, Lone; Rottmann, Nina; Andersen, Klaus K.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 2002, the Danish Cancer Society opened a rehabilitation centre in which cancer patients were offered a free, six-day, multidimensional residential course. Our previous studies of the effects of this course at one and six months of follow-up showed no positive effect on distress. We...... investigated long-term effects at 12 months of follow-up and whether subgroups with fewer psychosocial resources received more benefit from the intervention than patients with better resources. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In two Danish counties, 507 patients with breast, prostate, colon or rectum cancer diagnosed...... programmes may not be effective in the treatment of distress. During the past few decades, studies of psychotherapy or psycho-education in cancer patients have shown small to moderate effects. More focused rehabilitation programmes may be more effective....

  1. Distress after a psychosocial cancer rehabilitation course. Main effects and effect modification in a randomised trial at 12 months of follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross, Lone; Rottmann, Nina; Andersen, Klaus K.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 2002, the Danish Cancer Society opened a rehabilitation centre in which cancer patients were offered a free, six-day, multidimensional residential course. Our previous studies of the effects of this course at one and six months of follow-up showed no positive effect on distress. We...... programmes may not be effective in the treatment of distress. During the past few decades, studies of psychotherapy or psycho-education in cancer patients have shown small to moderate effects. More focused rehabilitation programmes may be more effective.......BACKGROUND: In 2002, the Danish Cancer Society opened a rehabilitation centre in which cancer patients were offered a free, six-day, multidimensional residential course. Our previous studies of the effects of this course at one and six months of follow-up showed no positive effect on distress. We...... investigated long-term effects at 12 months of follow-up and whether subgroups with fewer psychosocial resources received more benefit from the intervention than patients with better resources. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In two Danish counties, 507 patients with breast, prostate, colon or rectum cancer diagnosed...

  2. [Ecological effects of wheat-oilseed rape intercropping combined with methyl salicylate release on Sitobion avenae and its main natural enemies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jie; Liu, Ying-Jie; Li, Pei-Ling; Lin, Fang-Jing; Chen, Ju-Lian; Liu, Yong

    2012-10-01

    In order to explore the effects of wheat-oilseed rape intercropping in combining with methyl salicylate (MeSA) release on Sitobion avenae and its main natural enemies, a field experiment was conducted at the Tai'an Experimental Station of Shandong Agricultural University in East China from October 2008 to June 2010 to study the temporal dynamics of S. avenae and its main natural enemies as well as the ecological control effect on the aphid. In the plots of intercropping combined with MeSA release, the S. avenae apterae population reached a peak about 12 d in advance of the control, but the peak value was significantly lower than that of the control. The average annual number of S. avenae apterae per 100 wheat tillers decreased in the order of wheat monoculture > wheat-oilseed rape intercropping > MeSA release > wheat-oilseed rape intercropping combined with MeSA release. Moreover, the total number of ladybeetles was the highest in the plots of intercropping combined with MeSA release. The population densities of aphid parasitoids reached a peak about 10 d in advance of the control, which could play a significant role in controlling S. avenae at the filling stage of wheat. Taking the biological control index (BCI) as a quantitative indicator, and with the ladybeetles and parasitoids as the dominant control factors in fields, it was observed that wheat-oilseed rape intercropping combined with MeSA release could suppress the population increase of S. avenae apterae effectively from the heading to filling stages of wheat.

  3. Evaluation of the Use of Different Solvents to Extract the Four Main Components of Yinqiaosan and Their In Vitro Inhibitory Effects on Influenza-A Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefeng Wang

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with an ultraviolet detector was used to quantitatively determine the amount of caffeoylquinic acid, arctium lappa glycoside, aurantiamarin and forsythin present in five solvent extracts (water, 30% ethanol, 50% ethanol, 70% ethanol and 95% ethanol of Yinqiaosan (YQS. The calibration curves of the four components were linear (r2 > 0.998 over the concentration range of 0.9–151.5 μg/mL. This method showed good repeatability with relative standard deviations of less than 2.9% and mean recoveries of 91.3–100.5%. We established the relative amounts of each of the four main ingredients in YQS for all five solvent extracts. The direct inhibitory effects of the five YQS extracts on influenza-A virus in vitro and the therapeutic effects on infected embryonated hen eggs were evaluated. YQS extracted in 50% ethanol and used at concentrations of 500mg/mL and 250mg/mL exerted the greatest therapeutic effect in infected embryonated hen eggs and was significantly superior to ribavirin (p < 0.05. Therefore, the 50% ethanol extract of YQS seems to be the most effective for the inhibition of influenza-A virus. Based on these results, further studies are warranted to evaluate the use of YQS extracts as a possible therapy for influenza.

  4. A Departmental Cost-Effectiveness Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleman, Thomas, Jr.

    In establishing a departmental cost-effectiveness model, the traditional cost-effectiveness model was discussed and equipped with a distant and deflation equation for both benefits and costs. Next, the economics of costing was examined and program costing procedures developed. Then, the model construct was described as it was structured around the…

  5. Testing of four Leishmania vaccine candidates in a mouse model of infection with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, the main causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the New World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salay, G; Dorta, M L; Santos, N M; Mortara, R A; Brodskyn, C; Oliveira, C I; Barbiéri, C L; Rodrigues, M M

    2007-09-01

    We evaluated whether four recombinant antigens previously used for vaccination against experimental infection with Leishmania (Leishmania) major could also induce protective immunity against a challenge with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, the species responsible for 90% of the 28,712 annual cases of cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis recorded in Brazil during the year of 2004. Initially, we isolated the homolog genes encoding four L. (V.) braziliensis antigens: (i) homologue of receptor for activated C kinase, (ii) thiol-specific antioxidant, (iii) Leishmania elongation and initiation factor, and (iv) L. (L.) major stress-inducible protein 1. At the deduced amino acid level, all four open reading frames had a high degree of identity with the previously described genes of L. (L.) major being expressed on promastigotes and amastigotes of L. (V.) braziliensis. These genes were inserted into the vector pcDNA3 or expressed as bacterial recombinant proteins. After immunization with recombinant plasmids or proteins, BALB/c mice generated specific antibody or cell-mediated immune responses (gamma interferon production). After an intradermal challenge with L. (V.) braziliensis infective promastigotes, no significant reduction on the lesions was detected. We conclude that the protective immunity afforded by these four vaccine candidates against experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. (L.) major could not be reproduced against a challenge with L. (V.) braziliensis. Although negative, we consider our results important since they suggest that studies aimed at the development of an effective vaccine against L. (V.) braziliensis, the main causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the New World, should be redirected toward distinct antigens or different vaccination strategies.

  6. Testing of Four Leishmania Vaccine Candidates in a Mouse Model of Infection with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, the Main Causative Agent of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in the New World▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salay, G.; Dorta, M. L.; Santos, N. M.; Mortara, R. A.; Brodskyn, C.; Oliveira, C. I.; Barbiéri, C. L.; Rodrigues, M. M.

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated whether four recombinant antigens previously used for vaccination against experimental infection with Leishmania (Leishmania) major could also induce protective immunity against a challenge with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, the species responsible for 90% of the 28,712 annual cases of cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis recorded in Brazil during the year of 2004. Initially, we isolated the homolog genes encoding four L. (V.) braziliensis antigens: (i) homologue of receptor for activated C kinase, (ii) thiol-specific antioxidant, (iii) Leishmania elongation and initiation factor, and (iv) L. (L.) major stress-inducible protein 1. At the deduced amino acid level, all four open reading frames had a high degree of identity with the previously described genes of L. (L.) major being expressed on promastigotes and amastigotes of L. (V.) braziliensis. These genes were inserted into the vector pcDNA3 or expressed as bacterial recombinant proteins. After immunization with recombinant plasmids or proteins, BALB/c mice generated specific antibody or cell-mediated immune responses (gamma interferon production). After an intradermal challenge with L. (V.) braziliensis infective promastigotes, no significant reduction on the lesions was detected. We conclude that the protective immunity afforded by these four vaccine candidates against experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. (L.) major could not be reproduced against a challenge with L. (V.) braziliensis. Although negative, we consider our results important since they suggest that studies aimed at the development of an effective vaccine against L. (V.) braziliensis, the main causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the New World, should be redirected toward distinct antigens or different vaccination strategies. PMID:17626159

  7. The Main Determinants of Improvement of Model of Educational Training of Specialists in the Field of PR Based on Competency Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrii Kyrychok

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern approaches to the study of issue of PR-experts training require rethinking in order to identify new prospects of improvement and development in training of specialists in public relations. An important aspect is that Ukraine has recently moved to training format, based on acquiring of knowledge necessary for professional life by students. This applies, in particular, to specialists in public relations. The key aspect is to determine the set of skills of PR-specialist meant to be acquired by him during study. Another important point is the transition to the European three-level educational model, aimed at democratization and improvement of the process of acquiring of necessary skills by specialists. The essential transformation should be done in the field of PR-education in order to allow experts, at every level of education (Bachelor-Master-PhD, to receive only a clearly defined and systematic set of skills. The author carried out the content analysis of educational training programs in the field of PR for the purpose of discipline component, the principles of programming and knowledge, acquired at each educational level. Investigated data was systematized, analysed and recommendations on principles of development of effective three-level model of training for experts in public relations at the university were given.

  8. Three-dimensional effects for radio frequency antenna modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, M.D.; Batchelor, D.B.; Stallings, D.C.

    1993-12-31

    Electromagnetic field calculations for radio frequency (rf) antennas in two dimensions (2-D) neglect finite antenna length effects as well as the feeders leading to the main current strap. The 2-D calculations predict that the return currents in the sidewalls of the antenna structure depend strongly on the plasma parameters, but this prediction is suspect because of experimental evidence. To study the validity of the 2-D approximation, the Multiple Antenna Implementation System (MAntIS) has been used to perform three-dimensional (3-D) modeling of the power spectrum, plasma loading, and inductance for a relevant loop antenna design. Effects on antenna performance caused by feeders to the main current strap and conducting sidewalls are considered. The modeling shows that the feeders affect the launched power spectrum in an indirect way by forcing the driven rf current to return in the antenna structure rather than the plasma, as in the 2-D model. It has also been found that poloidal dependencies in the plasma impedance matrix can reduce the loading predicted from that predicted in the 2-D model. For some plasma parameters, the combined 3-D effects can lead to a reduction in the predicted loading by as much as a factor of 2 from that given by the 2-D model, even with end-effect corrections for the 2-D model.

  9. Three-dimensional effects for radio frequency antenna modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, M. D.; Batchelor, D. B.; Stallings, D. C.

    1994-10-01

    Electromagnetic field calculations for radio frequency (rf) antennas in two dimensions (2-D) neglect finite antenna length effects as well as the feeders leading to the main current strap. The 2-D calculations predict that the return currents in the sidewalls of the antenna structure depend strongly on the plasma parameters, but this prediction is suspect because of experimental evidence. To study the validity of the 2-D approximation, the Multiple Antenna Implementation System (MAntIS) has been used to perform three-dimensional (3-D) modeling of the power spectrum, plasma loading, and inductance for a relevant loop antenna design. Effects on antenna performance caused by feeders to the main current strap and conducting sidewalls are considered. The modeling shows that the feeders affect the launched power spectrum in an indirect way by forcing the driven rf current to return in the antenna structure rather than the plasma, as in the 2-D model. It has also been found that poloidal dependencies in the plasma impedance matrix can reduce the loading predicted from that predicted in the 2-D model. For some plasma parameters, the combined 3-D effects can lead to a reduction in the predicted loading by as much as a factor of 2 from that given by the 2-D model, even with end-effect corrections for the 2-D model.

  10. Three-dimensional effects for radio frequency antenna modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, M.D.; Batchelor, D.B.; Stallings, D.C. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37821-8071 (United States))

    1994-10-15

    Electromagnetic field calculations for radio frequency (rf) antennas in two dimensions (2-D) neglect finite antenna length effects as well as the feeders leading to the main current strap. The 2-D calculations predict that the return currents in the sidewalls of the antenna structure depend strongly on the plasma parameters, but this prediction is suspect because of experimental evidence. To study the validity of the 2-D approximation, the Multiple Antenna Implementation System (MAntIS) has been used to perform three-dimensional (3-D) modeling of the power spectrum, plasma loading, and inductance for a relevant loop antenna design. Effects on antenna performance caused by feeders to the main current strap and conducting sidewalls are considered. The modeling shows that the feeders affect the launched power spectrum in an indirect way by forcing the driven rf current to return in the antenna structure rather than the plasma, as in the 2-D model. It has also been found that poloidal dependencies in the plasma impedance matrix can reduce the loading predicted from that predicted in the 2-D model. For some plasma parameters, the combined 3-D effects can lead to a reduction in the predicted loading by as much as a factor of 2 from that given by the 2-D model, even with end-effect corrections for the 2-D model.

  11. Ladybugs of Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Color images are presented for the 57 species of Coccinellidae, commonly known as ladybugs, that are documented from Maine. Images are displayed in taxonomic order. Information on each species includes its genus-species name, length, and an actual-size silhouette beside a grid matched to the scale...

  12. Abstracts of Main Essays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    On Engels'Dialectics of "Theoretical Thinking" Sun Zheng-yu The main significant contribution to Marxist dialectics of Engels is to formulate dialectics on the level of theoretical thinking. This contribution is expressed in three aspects: 1 ) generalizing thoroughly the historical evolution of the way of thinking embodied in science history, philosophy history and human history;

  13. Possible effects of the Worldwide production of ethanol in two of the main countries that imports corn. South Korea and Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saúl Martínez González

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available South Korea is the second largest importer of corn and Mexico is the third. Although the corn has its origin in this country, since 1994 Mexico has become one of the major importers in the world. This essay examines the possible economic implications for Mexico and Korea for the increased production of ethanol from corn. The analysis parts of the close relationship of three interconnected problems, which are at the root of the current energy crisis: global warming, oil crisis and biofuel production. This is causing a global food crisis. The production of ethanol from corn is emerging as an alternative that may address global warming and attacking the alleged shortage of oil, which has resulted in rising prices. The point in discussion is what are the possible effects of policies to induce the production of biofuels (ethanol on the main importers of corn. That’s why the current status of the ethanol industry is analyzed, whose main protagonists on the world stage are the United States and Brazil. Then we made a brief analysis of the market of corn. Finally, based on the foregoing, we reflect on the possible implications it might have on the development of food production of etanol.

  14. Effectiveness of Biopesticide Derived fromCassia spectabilis and Nicotiana tabacum Leaves Against the Main Insect Pests of Coffee and Its Effect On Other Arthropods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soekadar Wiryadiputra

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available An experiment on the effectiveness of biopesticide made of ramayana (Cassia spectabilis and tobacco leaves (Nicotiana tabacum it called as Casnic, on Hypothenemus hampeiand Planococcus citriand its effect on the arthropods population fauna in coffee plantation had been conducted in Pest Laboratory of Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Researh Institute and Bangelan Plantation in Malang. The treatment consisted of three level concentrations of botanical pesticide(15 ml, 30 ml, and 60 ml/lof water, Beauveria bassiana(at a dose 100 g spore per ha, metidation spraying (2 ml formulation per litre of water and two control treatments (with and without soap. The field experiment was arranged in randomized complete block design (RCBD with four replications. The results showed that botanical pesticide at the concentration of 30.0 ml stock solution per litre of water and applied four times with monthly interval was effective in controlling coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei and coffee mealy bug (Planococcus citri. The effectiveness was not significantly different compared to metidation and Beauveria bassianaat the dose of 0.8 l and 100 g formulation per ha per application. Application of the botanical pesticide did not show negative effect on the usefull predatory insects and other arthropods population in coffee ecosystem. Key words : Botanical pesticide, Cassia spectabilis, Nicotiana tabacum, Coffee, Hypothenemus hampei, Planococcus citri, Arthropods.

  15. Main Elements for Upscaling Recreation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne; Termansen, Mette

    2012-01-01

    This report provides information on the main elements used to scale up modelled local visitor flow data to regional level based on recreational de-mand models. These models are described in Report #1. This report also provides information on data sources such as spatial data (e.g. land cov......-er/land use information), demographic information. The report is accom-pagnied with a spatial database for the regional case of forest recreation in Northern Zealand, Denmark. The spatial database contains forest polygons; forest attribute; estimation of total annual number of visits per site; and es...

  16. Caspase-mediated anti-apoptotic effect of Ginsenoside Rg5, a main rare ginsenoside, on Acetaminophen-induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zi; Hu, Junnan; Yan, Menghan; Xing, Jingjing; Liu, Wencong; Li, Wei

    2017-09-30

    Frequent overdose of acetaminophen (APAP) is one of the most common and important incentives of acute hepatotoxicity. Prior to this work, our research group has confirmed that black ginseng (Panax ginseng, BG) showed powerful protective effects on APAP-induced ALI. However, it is not clear which kind of individual ginsenoside from BG to play such liver protection effect. The objective of current investigation was to evaluate whether ginsenoside Rg5 (G-Rg5) protected against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity and the involved action mechanisms. Mice were administrated with G-Rg5 at two dosages of 10 or 20 mg/kg for 7 consecutive days. After the last treatment, all the animals received a single intraperitoneally injection of APAP (250 mg/kg) showed severe liver toxicity after 24 h, and the liver protection effects of G-Rg5 was examined. The results clearly indicated that pre-treatment with G-Rg5 remarkably inhibited the production of serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) compared with the APAP group. Meanwhile, G-Rg5 decreased the hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) content, the protein expression levels of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) in the liver tissues. G-Rg5 decreased APAP-caused the hepatic overexpression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Furthermore, analysis of immunohistochemistry and western blotting also indicated that G-Rg5 pretreatment inhibited activation of apoptotic pathways mainly via increasing the expression of Bcl-2 protein, decreasing the expression of Bax protein, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), cytochrome c, caspase 3, caspase 8 and caspase 9. Liver histopathological observation provided further evidence that pretreatment with G-Rg5 could significantly inhibit hepatocyte necrosis, inflammatory cell infiltration and apoptosis caused by APAP. In conclusion, the present study clearly demonstrates that G-Rg5 exerts a liver protection effect against APAP

  17. The differential susceptibility to media effects model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkenburg, P.M.; Peter, J.

    2013-01-01

    In this theoretical article, we introduce the Differential Susceptibility to Media Effects Model (DSMM), a new, integrative model to improve our understanding of media effects. The DSMM organizes, integrates, and extends the insights developed in earlier microlevel media-effects theories. It

  18. The differential susceptibility to media effects model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkenburg, P.M.; Peter, J.

    2013-01-01

    In this theoretical article, we introduce the Differential Susceptibility to Media Effects Model (DSMM), a new, integrative model to improve our understanding of media effects. The DSMM organizes, integrates, and extends the insights developed in earlier microlevel media-effects theories. It disting

  19. The differential susceptibility to media effects model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkenburg, P.M.; Peter, J.

    2013-01-01

    In this theoretical article, we introduce the Differential Susceptibility to Media Effects Model (DSMM), a new, integrative model to improve our understanding of media effects. The DSMM organizes, integrates, and extends the insights developed in earlier microlevel media-effects theories. It disting

  20. 中药姜黄主要有效成分药理学研究进展%Pharmacological Research Progress of Main Effective Components of Turmeric

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付兴会; 林连美

    2015-01-01

    中药姜黄因其主要有效成份具有降血脂、抗肿瘤、抗炎等作用,近年来备受关注,有关其药理学研究层出不穷,笔者搜索了万方、知网等数据库的大量相关文献,现将其综述如下,供广大医学者参考学习。%s:Chinese turmeric because of its main effective components has the function of reducing blood fat, anti tumor, anti inflamma-tion, has attracted much attention in recent years, about the pharmacological study on different layer, the author search Wan Fang, HowNet database such as a large number of documents, the review is as follows, for the majority of medical reference learning.

  1. Elicitation effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast extract on main health-promoting compounds and antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of butter lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Złotek, Urszula; Świeca, Michał

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a study on changes in the main phytochemical levels and antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of lettuce caused by different doses and times of application of yeast extracts. Elicitation with yeast extract caused an increase in the total phenolic compounds and chlorophyll content, which varied according to the dose and time of spraying, but it did not have a positive impact on vitamin C, flavonoid and carotenoid content in lettuce. The best effect was achieved by double spraying with 1% yeast extract and by single spraying with 0.1% yeast extract. The increase in phytochemical content was positively correlated with the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of the studied lettuce leaves. Chicoric acid seems to be the major contributor to these antioxidant activities. Yeast extract may be used as a natural, environmentally friendly and safe elicitor for improving the health-promoting qualities of lettuce. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Effect of Egyptian cooking methods of faba beans on its nutritive value, dietary protein utilization and iron deficiency anemia. 1. The role of main technological pretreatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakr, A A

    1996-01-01

    In order to study the effects of main technological pretreatments practised for preparing Egyptian faba bean products, i.e. decortication as well as soaking and germination followed by dehulling on the nutritional value, series of experiments were carried out. Such pretreatments had a significant effect on the changes in the chemical composition of faba beans. The proportion of the removed hulls reached generally about 14%. Data revealed also pronounced improvements on the nutritive value as a result of all studied pretreatments, especially germination being the most effective. Chemical scoring of all determined essential amino acids was > 60, except methionine and cystine showed the lowest score (< 20). Germinated seeds had the highest chemical score for the restricting amino acids beside the lowest GDR value [Grams consumed of product to cover the daily requirements for adult man in protein (63 g) and in energy (2900 kcal)]. All pretreatments caused a significant decrease in the antinutritional factors, especially soaking followed by dehulling, whereas decortication led to a significant increase in phytic acid content.

  3. Helium-Abundance and Other Composition Effects on the Properties of Stellar Surface Convection in Solar-like Main-sequence Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Tanner, Joel D; Demarque, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the effect of helium abundance and $\\alpha$-element enhancement on the properties of convection in envelopes of solar-like main-sequence stars stars using a grid of 3D radiation hydrodynamic simulations. Helium abundance increases the mean molecular weight of the gas, and alters opacity by displacing hydrogen. Since the scale of the effect of helium may depend on the metallicity, the grid consists of simulations with three helium abundances ($Y=0.1, 0.2, 0.3$), each with two metallicities ($Z=0.001, 0.020)$. We find that changing the helium mass fraction generally affects structure and convective dynamics in a way opposite to that of metallicity. Furthermore, the effect is considerably smaller than that of metallicity. The signature of helium differs from that of metallicity in the manner in which the photospheric velocity distribution is affected. \\rev{We also find that helium abundance and surface gravity behave largely in similar ways, but differ in the way they affect the mean molecular wei...

  4. Distributed PV Adoption in Maine Through 2021

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagnon, Pieter; Sigrin, Ben

    2015-11-06

    NREL has used its dSolar (distributed solar) model to generate low-medium-high estimates of distributed PV adoption in Maine through 2021. This presentation gives a high-level overview of the model and modeling results.

  5. 基于ABAQUS的主桩套板结构土拱效应分析%Soil arching effect for main pile with inlaid sheet structure based on ABAQUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘子涵; 杜辰; 廖迎娣; 王琴芬; 陈达

    2015-01-01

    The main pile with inlaid sheet structure is a type of sheet-pile wall with complicated force conditions. When the deformation of inlaid sheet increases, it will produce soil arching effect on the structure”s back side. Based on the introduction of soil arching theory, we build a plane strain model by ABAQUS software to study the impact of structure size and soil properties on soil arching effect. The results indicate that the structure size has a greater contribution to the effect. To a certain extent, the effect of soil properties is relatively small. In the design of main pile with inlaid sheet structure, in order to give full play to the soil arching effect and save project cost, main pile interval could be increased appropriately, and inlaid sheet thickness should be reduced within a certain scope.%作为一种板桩墙结构形式,主桩套板结构的受力情况比较复杂,当套板相对变形较大时将产生土拱效应。在介绍土拱形成原理的基础上,利用ABAQUS软件建立主桩套板结构的平面应变模型,重点研究结构尺寸和土体性质对土拱效应的影响,结果表明前者影响较大,后者的影响相对较小。在对主桩套板结构进行设计时,为充分发挥土拱效应降低工程造价,可在一定范围内适当增加主桩净距、减小套板厚度。

  6. Renovating the Main Building

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    CERN's "Main Building" is exactly that. The Organization's central hub, with hundreds of staff and visitors passing through its doors every day, will soon be getting a well-earned facelift. Refurbishment work will proceed in phases, starting with the Salle des Pas Perdus, the concourse between the Council Chamber and the Main Auditorium. By the end of August, informal seating areas will be installed, electronic display panels will provide practical information and improved sound insulation will enhance conditions in the auditoria and surrounding meeting rooms.   In light green the area that will undergo the facelift. Work will start in July. The ground floor is home to the entrance to Restaurant No. 1, the bank, the post office, the travel agent, the Users Office, the Staff Association, the notice boards etc. Step up to the first floor to access CERN's largest lecture theatre, the Council Chamber and its "Pas Perdus" lobby. Everyone who works at or visits CERN i...

  7. High-precision Radio and Infrared Astrometry of LSPM J1314+1320AB. II. Testing Pre-main-sequence Models at the Lithium Depletion Boundary with Dynamical Masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuy, Trent J.; Forbrich, Jan; Rizzuto, Aaron; Mann, Andrew W.; Aller, Kimberly; Liu, Michael C.; Kraus, Adam L.; Berger, Edo

    2016-08-01

    We present novel tests of pre-main-sequence models based on individual dynamical masses for the M7 binary LSPM J1314+1320AB. Joint analysis of Keck adaptive optics astrometric monitoring along with Very Long Baseline Array radio data from a companion paper yield component masses of 92.8 ± 0.6 M Jup (0.0885 ± 0.0006 M ⊙) and 91.7 ± 1.0 M Jup (0.0875 ± 0.0010 M ⊙) and a parallactic distance of 17.249 ± 0.013 pc. We find component luminosities consistent with the system being coeval at 80.8 ± 2.5 Myr, according to BHAC15 evolutionary models. The presence of lithium is consistent with model predictions, marking the first test of the theoretical lithium depletion boundary using ultracool dwarfs of known mass. However, we find that the evolutionary model-derived average effective temperature (2950 ± 5 K) is 180 K hotter than that given by a spectral type-{T}{eff} relation based on BT-Settl models (2770 ± 100 K). We suggest that the dominant source of this discrepancy is model radii being too small by ≈13%. In a test mimicking the typical application of models by observers, we derive masses on the H-R diagram using luminosity and BT-Settl temperature. The estimated masses are lower by {46}-19+16 % (2.0σ) than we measure dynamically and would imply that this is a system of ≈50 M Jup brown dwarfs, highlighting the large systematic errors possible in H-R diagram properties. This is the first time masses have been measured for ultracool (≥M6) dwarfs displaying spectral signatures of low gravity. Based on features in the infrared, LSPM J1314+1320AB appears to have higher gravity than typical Pleiades and AB Dor members, opposite the expectation given its younger age. The components of LSPM J1314+1320AB are now the nearest, lowest mass pre-main-sequence stars with direct mass measurements. Data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the

  8. Maine coast winds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avery, Richard

    2000-01-28

    The Maine Coast Winds Project was proposed for four possible turbine locations. Significant progress has been made at the prime location, with a lease-power purchase contract for ten years for the installation of turbine equipment having been obtained. Most of the site planning and permitting have been completed. It is expect that the turbine will be installed in early May. The other three locations are less suitable for the project, and new locations are being considered.

  9. An Effective ARMA Modeling Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    directed towards spectral analysis, power spectral density function the preponderance of effort has been directed to- wards two special cases of the...domain spectral density function than from pole model, and, the general ARMA model is seen to its equivalent time domain autocorrelation sequence. be...n-k) (11) prediction. Assuming this prediction behavior, it k-I then follows from relationship (11) that the spectral density function of the time

  10. A systematic study of effects of stellar rotation, age spread and binaries on color-magnitude diagrams with extended main-sequence turn-offs

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zhongmu; Zhang, Liyun; Zhang, Xi; Chen, Li

    2016-01-01

    Stellar rotation, age spread and binary stars are thought to be three most possible causes of the peculiar color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) of some star clusters, which exhibit extended main-sequence turn-offs (eMSTOs). It is far from getting a clear answer. This paper studies the effects of three above causes on the CMDs of star clusters systematically. A rapid stellar evolutionary code and a recently published database of rotational effects of single stars have been used, via an advanced stellar population synthesis technique. As a result, we find a consistent result for rotation to recent works, which suggests that rotation is able to explain, at least partially, the eMSTOs of clusters, if clusters are not too old ($<$ 2.0\\,Gyr). In addition, an age spread of 200 to 500\\,Myr reproduces extended turn-offs for all clusters younger than 2.5\\,Gyr, in particular, for those younger than 2.2\\,Gyr. Age spread also results in extended red clumps (eRCs) for clusters younger than 0.5\\,Gyr. The younger the clusters,...

  11. Effects of flotation deinking on the removal of main colors of oil-based inks from uncoated and coated office papers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Imamoglu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of trials to evaluate the color-stripping behaviour of offset printing colors and the effect of coating on deinking performance. Oil-based four-color inks were separately printed as base printing on coated and uncoated white poster paper, and then extensive pulping and deinking processes were carried out. Standard offset printings were conducted on paper samples using cyan, magenta, yellow, and black colors (CMYK, and the effects of deinking efficiency on the removal of each color were analysed. The pulps were made at Micro-Maelstrom Laboratory Pulper at specified conditions with and without bleaching agents. Formamidin sulfinic acid and hydrogen peroxide formulation were used as reductive and oxidative bleaching agents, respectively. Flotation deinking and thickening of pulp were practiced using Degussa flotation and thickening cell. The changes in the optical properties, such as brightness, whiteness, and color value (CIE L⃰, a⃰ b⃰ of deinked pulp were determined. It was found that optical properties of color-stripped pulps from coated papers were better than that of uncoated office papers. However, yield was quite low in coated papers since fillers were lost during flotation process. Cyan color was found to be the most difficult one in four main color printing inks stripping out in deinking process.

  12. 香蕉对酒曲中主要微生物作用的研究%Effect of banana on the main microorganisms in liquor Qu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄晨; 方中刚; 王世强

    2011-01-01

    试验分别用含不同浓度香蕉汁培养基,培养酒曲中的主要微生物酵母菌和根霉,结果表明,酵母菌的数量及出芽数随香蕉汁浓度的增加而增加,香蕉汁对根霉菌丝的生长和淀粉酶活力的提高有一定的促进作用.以香蕉为主料,添加酒饭,以酒曲为发酵剂酿制香蕉米酒.结果表明,含75%香蕉原料组出酒率为73.26%,酒精度为13.5°,比含50%香蕉原料组和纯米酒组出酒率分别只降低1%和7%,酒精度只降低1.5°.%The media containing banana juice at different concentrations were used for the cultivation of main microorganisms(yeasts and Rhizopus) in liquor Qu. The results showed that the biomass and budding rate of yeasts increased with the increase of banana juice concentration, and banana juice also had a certain stimulation effects on the mycelium growth and amylase activity of Rhizopus. Using banana as main material and liquor Qu as starter, a banana-rice wine was made with steamed rice. The results indicated that when 75% banana was used, the liquor distillation yield reached 73.26% and the alcohol content was 13.5°. The liquor distillation yield was only 1% and 7% lower than that of the rice wine made on 50% banana and the pure rice wine without banana respectively, while the alcohol content was slightly decreased by 1.5°.

  13. Using model analyses and surface-atmosphere exchange measurements from the Howland AmeriFlux Site in Maine, USA, to improve understanding of forest ecosystem C cycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollinger, David Y.; Davidson, Eric A.; Richardson, Andrew D.; Dail, D. B.; Scott, N.

    2013-03-25

    Summary of research carried out under Interagency Agreement DE-AI02-07ER64355 with the USDA Forest Service at the Howland Forest AmeriFlux site in central Maine. Includes a list of publications resulting in part or whole from this support.

  14. Modeling the effects of labeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Fjord, Thomas Ahle; Poulsen, Carsten Stig

    A new approach to evaluate the consequences of labeling is presented and applied to test the potential effect of a label on fresh fish. Labeling effects on quality perceptions and overall quality are studied. The empirical study is based on an experimental design and nearly 500 respondents...

  15. Fire Health Main

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This model combines stand density index (SDI), basal area loss, drought stress, and insect and disease surveys using an equal weight overlay. SDI determines the...

  16. Estimation of effective hydrologic properties of soils from observations of vegetation density. M.S. Thesis; [water balance of watersheds in Clinton, Maine and Santa Paula, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellers, T. E.

    1980-01-01

    An existing one-dimensional model of the annual water balance is reviewed. Slight improvements are made in the method of calculating the bare soil component of evaporation, and in the way surface retention is handled. A natural selection hypothesis, which specifies the equilibrium vegetation density for a given, water limited, climate-soil system, is verified through comparisons with observed data and is employed in the annual water balance of watersheds in Clinton, Ma., and Santa Paula, Ca., to estimate effective areal average soil properties. Comparison of CDF's of annual basin yield derived using these soil properties with observed CDF's provides excellent verification of the soil-selection procedure. This method of parameterization of the land surface should be useful with present global circulation models, enabling them to account for both the non-linearity in the relationship between soil moisture flux and soil moisture concentration, and the variability of soil properties from place to place over the Earth's surface.

  17. ReliefSeq: a gene-wise adaptive-K nearest-neighbor feature selection tool for finding gene-gene interactions and main effects in mRNA-Seq gene expression data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett A McKinney

    Full Text Available Relief-F is a nonparametric, nearest-neighbor machine learning method that has been successfully used to identify relevant variables that may interact in complex multivariate models to explain phenotypic variation. While several tools have been developed for assessing differential expression in sequence-based transcriptomics, the detection of statistical interactions between transcripts has received less attention in the area of RNA-seq analysis. We describe a new extension and assessment of Relief-F for feature selection in RNA-seq data. The ReliefSeq implementation adapts the number of nearest neighbors (k for each gene to optimize the Relief-F test statistics (importance scores for finding both main effects and interactions. We compare this gene-wise adaptive-k (gwak Relief-F method with standard RNA-seq feature selection tools, such as DESeq and edgeR, and with the popular machine learning method Random Forests. We demonstrate performance on a panel of simulated data that have a range of distributional properties reflected in real mRNA-seq data including multiple transcripts with varying sizes of main effects and interaction effects. For simulated main effects, gwak-Relief-F feature selection performs comparably to standard tools DESeq and edgeR for ranking relevant transcripts. For gene-gene interactions, gwak-Relief-F outperforms all comparison methods at ranking relevant genes in all but the highest fold change/highest signal situations where it performs similarly. The gwak-Relief-F algorithm outperforms Random Forests for detecting relevant genes in all simulation experiments. In addition, Relief-F is comparable to the other methods based on computational time. We also apply ReliefSeq to an RNA-Seq study of smallpox vaccine to identify gene expression changes between vaccinia virus-stimulated and unstimulated samples. ReliefSeq is an attractive tool for inclusion in the suite of tools used for analysis of mRNA-Seq data; it has power to

  18. ReliefSeq: a gene-wise adaptive-K nearest-neighbor feature selection tool for finding gene-gene interactions and main effects in mRNA-Seq gene expression data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Brett A; White, Bill C; Grill, Diane E; Li, Peter W; Kennedy, Richard B; Poland, Gregory A; Oberg, Ann L

    2013-01-01

    Relief-F is a nonparametric, nearest-neighbor machine learning method that has been successfully used to identify relevant variables that may interact in complex multivariate models to explain phenotypic variation. While several tools have been developed for assessing differential expression in sequence-based transcriptomics, the detection of statistical interactions between transcripts has received less attention in the area of RNA-seq analysis. We describe a new extension and assessment of Relief-F for feature selection in RNA-seq data. The ReliefSeq implementation adapts the number of nearest neighbors (k) for each gene to optimize the Relief-F test statistics (importance scores) for finding both main effects and interactions. We compare this gene-wise adaptive-k (gwak) Relief-F method with standard RNA-seq feature selection tools, such as DESeq and edgeR, and with the popular machine learning method Random Forests. We demonstrate performance on a panel of simulated data that have a range of distributional properties reflected in real mRNA-seq data including multiple transcripts with varying sizes of main effects and interaction effects. For simulated main effects, gwak-Relief-F feature selection performs comparably to standard tools DESeq and edgeR for ranking relevant transcripts. For gene-gene interactions, gwak-Relief-F outperforms all comparison methods at ranking relevant genes in all but the highest fold change/highest signal situations where it performs similarly. The gwak-Relief-F algorithm outperforms Random Forests for detecting relevant genes in all simulation experiments. In addition, Relief-F is comparable to the other methods based on computational time. We also apply ReliefSeq to an RNA-Seq study of smallpox vaccine to identify gene expression changes between vaccinia virus-stimulated and unstimulated samples. ReliefSeq is an attractive tool for inclusion in the suite of tools used for analysis of mRNA-Seq data; it has power to detect both main

  19. Pharmacological activation of CB2 receptors counteracts the deleterious effect of ethanol on cell proliferation in the main neurogenic zones of the adult rat brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Patricia; Blanco, Eduardo; Bindila, Laura; Alen, Francisco; Vargas, Antonio; Rubio, Leticia; Pavón, Francisco J.; Serrano, Antonia; Lutz, Beat; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Suárez, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Chronic alcohol exposure reduces endocannabinoid activity and disrupts adult neurogenesis in rodents, which results in structural and functional alterations. Cannabinoid receptor agonists promote adult neural progenitor cell (NPC) proliferation. We evaluated the protective effects of the selective CB1 receptor agonist ACEA, the selective CB2 receptor agonist JWH133 and the fatty-acid amide-hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor URB597, which enhances endocannabinoid receptor activity, on NPC proliferation in rats with forced consumption of ethanol (10%) or sucrose liquid diets for 2 weeks. We performed immunohistochemical and stereological analyses of cells expressing the mitotic phosphorylation of histone-3 (phospho-H3+) and the replicating cell DNA marker 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU+) in the main neurogenic zones of adult brain: subgranular zone of dentate gyrus (SGZ), subventricular zone of lateral ventricles (SVZ) and hypothalamus. Animals were allowed ad libitum ethanol intake (7.3 ± 1.1 g/kg/day) after a controlled isocaloric pair-feeding period of sucrose and alcoholic diets. Alcohol intake reduced the number of BrdU+ cells in SGZ, SVZ, and hypothalamus. The treatments (URB597, ACEA, JWH133) exerted a differential increase in alcohol consumption over time, but JWH133 specifically counteracted the deleterious effect of ethanol on NPC proliferation in the SVZ and SGZ, and ACEA reversed this effect in the SGZ only. JWH133 also induced an increased number of BrdU+ cells expressing neuron-specific β3-tubulin in the SVZ and SGZ. These results indicated that the specific activation of CB2 receptors rescued alcohol-induced impaired NPC proliferation, which is a potential clinical interest for the risk of neural damage in alcohol dependence. PMID:26483633

  20. Pharmacological activation of CB2 receptors counteracts the deleterious effect of ethanol on cell proliferation in the main neurogenic zones of the adult rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia eRivera

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic alcohol exposure reduces endocannabinoid activity and disrupts adult neurogenesis in rodents, which results in structural and functional alterations. Cannabinoid receptor agonists promote adult neural progenitor cell (NPC proliferation. We evaluated the protective effects of the selective CB1 receptor agonist ACEA, the selective CB2 receptor agonist JWH133 and the fatty-acid amide-hydrolase (FAAH inhibitor URB597, which enhances endocannabinoid receptor activity, on NPC proliferation in rats with forced consumption of ethanol (10% or sucrose liquid diets for two weeks. We performed immunohistochemical and stereological analyses of cells expressing the mitotic phosphorylation of histone-3 (phospho-H3+ and the replicating cell DNA marker 5-bromo-2’-deoxyuridine (BrdU+ in the main neurogenic zones of adult brain: subgranular zone of dentate gyrus (SGZ, subventricular zone of lateral ventricles (SVZ and hypothalamus. Animals were allowed ad libitum ethanol intake (7.3±1.1 g/kg/day after a controlled isocaloric pair-feeding period of sucrose and alcoholic diets. Alcohol intake reduced the number of BrdU+ cells in SGZ, SVZ and hypothalamus. The treatments (URB597, ACEA, JWH133 exerted a differential increase in alcohol consumption over time, but JWH133 specifically counteracted the deleterious effect of ethanol on NPC proliferation in the SVZ and SGZ, and ACEA reversed this effect in the SGZ only. JWH133 also induced an increased number of BrdU+ cells expressing neuron-specific β3-tubulin in the SVZ and SGZ. These results indicated that the specific activation of CB2 receptors rescued alcohol-induced impaired NPC proliferation, which is a potential clinical interest for the risk of neural damage in alcohol dependence.

  1. Effects of clary sage oil and its main components, linalool and linalyl acetate, on the plasma membrane of Candida albicans: an in vivo EPR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaskó, Ágnes; Gazdag, Zoltán; Gróf, Pál; Máté, Gábor; Sárosi, Szilvia; Krisch, Judit; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Makszin, Lilla; Pesti, Miklós

    2017-02-01

    The effects of clary sage (Salvia sclarea L.) oil (CS-oil), and its two main components, linalool (Lol) and linalyl acetate (LA), on cells of the eukaryotic human pathogen yeast Candida albicans were studied. Dynamic and thermodynamic properties of the plasma membrane were investigated by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, with 5-doxylstearic acid (5-SASL) and 16-SASL as spin labels. The monitoring of the head group regions with 5-SASL revealed break-point frequency decrease in a temperature dependent manner of the plasma membrane between 9.55 and 13.15 °C in untreated, in CS-oil-, Lol- and LA-treated membranes. The results suggest a significant increase in fluidity of the treated plasma membranes close to the head groups. Comparison of the results observed with the two spin labels demonstrated that CS-oil and LA induced an increased level of fluidization at both depths of the plasma membrane. Whereas Lol treatment induced a less (1 %) ordered bilayer organization in the superficial regions and an increased (10 %) order of the membrane leaflet in deeper layers. Acute toxicity tests and EPR results indicated that both the apoptotic and the effects exerted on the plasma membrane fluidity depended on the composition and chemical structure of the examined materials. In comparison with the control, treatment with CS-oil, Lol or LA induced 13.0, 12.3 and 26.4 % loss respectively, of the metabolites absorbing at 260 nm, as a biological consequence of the plasma membrane fluidizing effects. Our results confirmed that clary sage oil causes plasma membrane perturbations which leads to cell apoptosis process.

  2. Optimal Portfolios in Wishart Models and Effects of Discrete Rebalancing on Portfolio Distribution and Strategy Selection

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zejing

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is mainly devoted to the research of two problems - the continuous-time portfolio optimization in different Wishart models and the effects of discrete rebalancing on portfolio wealth distribution and optimal portfolio strategy.

  3. Modeling of Pressure Effects in HVDC Cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szabo, Peter; Hassager, Ole; Strøbech, Esben

    1999-01-01

    A model is developed for the prediction of pressure effects in HVDC mass impregnatedcables as a result of temperature changes.To test the model assumptions, experiments were performed in cable like geometries.It is concluded that the model may predict the formation of gas cavities....

  4. A Model for Measuring Puffery Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanden Bergh, Bruce G.; Reid, Leonard N.

    The purpose of this paper is to describe and discuss a conceptual model for experimentally investigating the effects of advertising puffery. The various sections contain a discussion of puffery as a legal concept, a description and discussion of the proposed model, research support for the model, and implications for future research on puffery.…

  5. Temporal evolution of ultrafine particles and of alveolar deposited surface area from main indoor combustion and non-combustion sources in a model room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manigrasso, Maurizio; Vitali, Matteo; Protano, Carmela; Avino, Pasquale

    2017-11-15

    Aerosol number size distributions, PM mass concentrations, alveolar deposited surface areas (ADSAs) and VOC concentrations were measured in a model room when aerosol was emitted by sources frequently encountered in indoor environments. Both combustion and non-combustion sources were considered. The most intense aerosol emission occurred when combustion sources were active (as high as 4.1×10(7)particlescm(-3) for two meat grilling sessions; the first with exhaust ventilation, the second without). An intense spike generation of nucleation particles occurred when appliances equipped with brush electric motors were operating (as high as 10(6)particlescm(-3) on switching on an electric drill). Average UFP increments over the background value were highest for electric appliances (5-12%) and lowest for combustion sources (as low as -24% for tobacco cigarette smoke). In contrast, average increments in ADSA were highest for combustion sources (as high as 3.2×10(3)μm(2)cm(-3) for meat grilling without exhaust ventilation) and lowest for electric appliances (20-90μm(2)cm(-3)). The health relevance of such particles is associated to their ability to penetrate cellular structures and elicit inflammatory effects mediated through oxidative stress in a way dependent on their surface area. The highest VOC concentrations were measured (PID probe) for cigarette smoke (8ppm) and spray air freshener (10ppm). The highest PM mass concentration (PM1) was measured for citronella candle burning (as high as 7.6mgm(-3)). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The Hawking effect in dielectric media and the Hopfield model

    CERN Document Server

    Belgiorno, F; Piazza, F Dalla

    2014-01-01

    We consider the so-called Hopfield model for the electromagnetic field in a dielectric dispersive medium in a framework in which one allows a space-time dependence of microscopic parameters, aimed to a phenomenological description of a space-time varying dielectric perturbation induced by means of the Kerr effect. We discuss the analogue Hawking effect, by first analyzing the geometrical optics for the Hopfield model, and then by introducing a simplified model which has the bonus to avoid many difficulties which are involved in the full Hopfield model, still keeping the same dispersion relation. Amplitude calculations are indicated, and generalized Manley-Rowe identities are derived in a quantum scattering theory framework. Our main result is an analytical calculation of the spontaneous thermal emission in the single-branch case, which is provided non perturbatively for the first time in the framework of dielectric black holes. An universal mechanism for thermality between optical black holes and acoustic bla...

  7. Analytical modelling of temperature effects on synapses

    CERN Document Server

    Kufel, Dominik S

    2016-01-01

    It was previously reported, that temperature may significantly influence neural dynamics on different levels of brain modelling. Due to this fact, while creating the model in computational neuroscience we would like to make it scalable for wide-range of various brain temperatures. However currently, because of a lack of experimental data and an absence of analytical model describing temperature influence on synapses, it is not possible to include temperature effects on multi-neuron modelling level. In this paper, we propose first step to deal with this problem: new analytical model of AMPA-type synaptic conductance, which is able to include temperature effects in low-frequency stimulations. It was constructed on basis of Markov model description of AMPA receptor kinetics and few simplifications motivated both experimentally and from Monte Carlo simulation of synaptic transmission. The model may be used for efficient and accurate implementation of temperature effects on AMPA receptor conductance in large scale...

  8. Performance and Vibratory Loads Data From a Wind-Tunnel Test of a Model Helicopter Main-Rotor Blade With a Paddle-Type Tip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeager, William T., Jr.; Noonan, Kevin W.; Singleton, Jeffrey D.; Wilbur, Matthew L.; Mirick, Paul H.

    1997-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel to obtain data to permit evaluation of paddle-type tip technology for possible use in future U.S. advanced rotor designs. Data was obtained for both a baseline main-rotor blade and a main-rotor blade with a paddle-type tip. The baseline and paddle-type tip blades were compared with regard to rotor performance, oscillatory pitch-link loads, and 4-per-rev vertical fixed-system loads. Data was obtained in hover and forward flight over a nominal range of advance ratios from 0.15 to 0.425. Results indicate that the paddle-type tip offers no performance improvements in either hover or forward flight. Pitch-link oscillatory loads for the paddle-type tip are higher than for the baseline blade, whereas 4-per-rev vertical fixed-system loads are generally lower.

  9. Main Oxidizer Valve Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addona, Brad; Eddleman, David

    2015-01-01

    A developmental Main Oxidizer Valve (MOV) was designed by NASA-MSFC using additive manufacturing processes. The MOV is a pneumatically actuated poppet valve to control the flow of liquid oxygen to an engine's injector. A compression spring is used to return the valve to the closed state when pneumatic pressure is removed from the valve. The valve internal parts are cylindrical in shape, which lends itself to traditional lathe and milling operations. However, the valve body represents a complicated shape and contains the majority of the mass of the valve. Additive manufacturing techniques were used to produce a part that optimized mass and allowed for design features not practical with traditional machining processes.

  10. Abstracts of Main Essays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Zi-yi

    2011-01-01

    On Deepening the Research on the Law of the Social Horizontal Development Feng Zi-yi The further development of globalization makes it urgent to deepen the research on the law of social hori- zontal development. Historical development of human society has experienced periods of isolation, multi-cen- ter, and globalization, while the truly horizontal development began from modernity. This kind of development is driven mainly by the logic of capital. The transforming process of capital, from dominating the whole process of economic development toward all aspects of social life, and from dominating nations toward the whole world, is also the logical process of capital pursuing itself and the process of social horizontal and wholly development as well. Horizontal and vertical developments of the society are interacting always. Researching on the law of social horizontal development is important for us to adapt to the historical trend consciously, to grasp the logic of capital rationally and to choose the right road of development.

  11. Stochastic effects in a seasonally forced epidemic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozhnova, G.; Nunes, A.

    2010-10-01

    The interplay of seasonality, the system’s nonlinearities and intrinsic stochasticity, is studied for a seasonally forced susceptible-exposed-infective-recovered stochastic model. The model is explored in the parameter region that corresponds to childhood infectious diseases such as measles. The power spectrum of the stochastic fluctuations around the attractors of the deterministic system that describes the model in the thermodynamic limit is computed analytically and validated by stochastic simulations for large system sizes. Size effects are studied through additional simulations. Other effects such as switching between coexisting attractors induced by stochasticity often mentioned in the literature as playing an important role in the dynamics of childhood infectious diseases are also investigated. The main conclusion is that stochastic amplification, rather than these effects, is the key ingredient to understand the observed incidence patterns.

  12. Stochastic effects in a seasonally forced epidemic model

    CERN Document Server

    Rozhnova, Ganna

    2010-01-01

    The interplay of seasonality, the system's nonlinearities and intrinsic stochasticity is studied for a seasonally forced susceptible-exposed-infective-recovered stochastic model. The model is explored in the parameter region that corresponds to childhood infectious diseases such as measles. The power spectrum of the stochastic fluctuations around the attractors of the deterministic system that describes the model in the thermodynamic limit is computed analytically and validated by stochastic simulations for large system sizes. Size effects are studied through additional simulations. Other effects such as switching between coexisting attractors induced by stochasticity often mentioned in the literature as playing an important role in the dynamics of childhood infectious diseases are also investigated. The main conclusion is that stochastic amplification, rather than these effects, is the key ingredient to understand the observed incidence patterns.

  13. Neuroprotective Properties of the Standardized Extract from Camellia sinensis (Green Tea and Its Main Bioactive Components, Epicatechin and Epigallocatechin Gallate, in the 6-OHDA Model of Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Bitu Pinto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Camellia sinensis (green tea is largely consumed, mainly in Asia. It possesses several biological effects such as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The objectives were to investigate the neuroprotective actions of the standardized extract (CS, epicatechin (EC and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG, on a model of Parkinson’s disease. Male Wistar rats were divided into SO (sham-operated controls, untreated 6-OHDA-lesioned and 6-OHDA-lesioned treated for 2 weeks with CS (25, 50, or 100 mg/kg, EC (10 mg/kg, or EGCG (10 mg/kg groups. One hour after the last administration, animals were submitted to behavioral tests and euthanized and their striata and hippocampi were dissected for neurochemical (DA, DOPAC, and HVA and antioxidant activity determinations, as well as immunohistochemistry evaluations (TH, COX-2, and iNOS. The results showed that CS and catechins reverted behavioral changes, indicating neuroprotection manifested as decreased rotational behavior, increased locomotor activity, antidepressive effects, and improvement of cognitive dysfunction, as compared to the untreated 6-OHDA-lesioned group. Besides, CS, EP, and EGCG reversed the striatal oxidative stress and immunohistochemistry alterations. These results show that the neuroprotective effects of CS and its catechins are probably and in great part due to its powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, pointing out their potential for the prevention and treatment of PD.

  14. Hypolipidaemic effects and mechanisms of the main component of Opuntia dillenii Haw. polysaccharides in high-fat emulsion-induced hyperlipidaemic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Long-Yan; Huang, Wei; Yuan, Qing-Xia; Cheng, Jie; Huang, Zhen-Chi; Ouyang, Le-Jun; Zeng, Fu-Hua

    2012-09-15

    The antihyperlipidaemic effects of ODP-Ia, one of the main components of Opuntia dillenii Haw. polysaccharides, were studied. Gavage administration of ODP-Ia was observed to significantly decrease serum lipid levels and to increase serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level in hyperlipidaemic rats. Similar suppressive patterns were also seen in hepatic total cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Moreover, the ODP-Ia administration significantly increased serum lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase activity, increased the production of serum NO, inhibited hepatic HMG-CoA reductase activity, augmented serum and hepatic superoxide dismutase activities and decreased the serum and hepatic malondialdehyde contents in hyperlipidaemic rats. In addition, a histopathological examination revealed that ODP-Ia administration significantly suppressed inflammatory cell infiltration and the expression of VCAM-1. Together, these results indicate that ODP-Ia is a potential natural product for the treatment of hyperlipidaemia-related diseases by improving antioxidant levels, modulating the activities of enzymes involved in cholesterol metabolism, promoting the production of NO and suppressing the expression of VCAM-1, thereby suppressing lipid accumulation and inflammatory cell infiltration.

  15. Investigation of the effect of tribulus terrestris extract on the main biochemical and haematological indices of the blood in guinea fowls (Numida meleagris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christo CHRISTEV

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present research was to investigate the effect of Bulgarian additive Vemoherb-T (dry extract of the annual plant Tribulus terrestris – L, produced by Vemo 99 Ltd Company, Sofia on main biochemical characteristics and hematological parameters of the blood in guinea fowl (Numida meleagris. An experiment was carried out with 30 Pearl-gray Guinea fowl (32 weeks old, distributed in two groups – a control and an experimental, 12 female and 3 male each. All birds were fed the same mixture for breeder guinea fowl. Vemoherb-T was supplemented to the compound feed of the experimental group in a daily dose of 10 mg/kg body weight for a period of 12 weeks. The tested product decreased significantly the levels of total triglycerides (P < 0.05, total cholesterol (P <0.01 and glucose (P < 0.01; P < 0.001 in male and female birds respectively in the blood serum. It was established significantly higher total protein- ((P < 0.001 and calcium (P<0.01 values in the blood serum of the treated birds. The addition of Vemoherb-T increased significantly hemoglobin level, the number of erythrocytes and leukocytes and decreased the number of eosinophils in guinea fowl from the both sexes.

  16. [Effects of high temperature and humidity stress at the physiological maturity stage on seed vigor, main nutrients and coat structure of spring soybean].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Ying-Jie; Wang, Shuang; Tao, Yuan; Song, Li-Run; Huang, Li-Yan; Zhou, Yu-Li; Ma, Hao

    2014-05-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of high temperature and humidity stress [(40 +/- 2) degrees C/(30 +/- 2) degrees C, RH (95 +/- 5)%/(70 +/- 5)%, 10 h/14 h (day/night)] at the physiological maturity stage of two spring soybean cultivars (Xiangdou No. 3 and Ningzhen No. 1) on seed vigor indices, main nutritional components and coat anatomical structure. High temperature and humidity stress were found to cause the decrease of seed viability, germination potential, and germination percentage as well as the dehydrogenase and acid phosphatase activities, but increased the seed cell membrane permeability as well as H+, soluble sugar and leucine levels in the seed soaking liquid of each cultivar. Moreover, the stress led to irregular changes of seed oil and protein contents and alteration of anatomical structure of episperm and hilum in the two cultivars. A shortterm stress (less than 5 h) had no significant impact on seed vigor, but a long-term one (more than 48 h) caused rapid decrease of seed vigor indices. Xiangdou No. 3 showed less decreases in seed germination potential and enzyme activities, and less increase in extravasation content in the seed soaking liquid, had compact seed coat and intact hilum, suggesting it was more resistant to high temperature and humidity stress.

  17. Inhibitory effects of Zataria multiflora essential oil and its main components on nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide production in glucose-stimulated human monocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavoosi, Gholamreza; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A

    2012-09-01

    The inhibitory effects of Zataria multiflora essential oil on nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) production were examined in human monocytes cultured in the presence of 20mM glucose. Z. multiflora essential oil was extracted by water-distillation and then analyzed by GC-MS. Carvacrol (29.2%), thymol (25.4%), p-cymene (11.2%), linalool (9.6%) and γ-terpinene (8%) were the main components detected in the essential oil. Cells cultured in the presence of 20mM glucose showed an increase in NO and H(2)O(2) production as well as NO synthase (NOS) and NADH oxidase (NOX) activities compared to cells cultured in the presence of 5mM glucose. Pretreatment with Z. multiflora essential oil, carvacrol and thymol reduced NO and H(2)O(2) production as well as NOS and NOX activities in those cells cultured in the presence of 20mM glucose. However, p-cymene, linalool and γ-terpinene did not show any such activities. Accordingly, it was concluded that Z. multiflora can reduce oxidative stress and can be used in the therapy of oxidative damage accompanying hyperglycemia and some inflammatory conditions.

  18. Modelling of Size Effect with Regularised Continua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Askes

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonlocal damage continuum and a viscoplastic damage continuum are used to model size effects. Three-point bending specimens are analysed, whereby a distinction is made between unnotched specimens, specimens with a constant notch and specimens with a proportionally scaled notch. Numerical finite element simulations have been performed for specimen sizes in a range of 1:64. Size effects are established in terms of nominal strength and compared to existing size effect models from the literature. 

  19. Impact of initial models and variable accretion rates on the pre-main-sequence evolution of massive and intermediate-mass stars and the early evolution of H II regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haemmerlé, Lionel; Peters, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Massive star formation requires the accretion of gas at high rate while the star is already bright. Its actual luminosity depends sensitively on the stellar structure. We compute pre-main-sequence tracks for massive and intermediate-mass stars with variable accretion rates and study the evolution of stellar radius, effective temperature and ionizing luminosity, starting at 2 M⊙ with convective or radiative structures. The radiative case shows a much stronger swelling of the protostar for high accretion rates than the convective case. For radiative structures, the star is very sensitive to the accretion rate and reacts quickly to accretion bursts, leading to considerable changes in photospheric properties on time-scales as short as 100-1000 yr. The evolution for convective structures is much less influenced by the instantaneous accretion rate, and produces a monotonically increasing ionizing flux that can be many orders of magnitude smaller than in the radiative case. For massive stars, it results in a delay of the H II region expansion by up to 10 000 yr. In the radiative case, the H II region can potentially be engulfed by the star during the swelling, which never happens in the convective case. We conclude that the early stellar structure has a large impact on the radiative feedback during the pre-main-sequence evolution of massive protostars and introduces an important uncertainty that should be taken into account. Because of their lower effective temperatures, our convective models may hint at a solution to an observed discrepancy between the luminosity distribution functions of massive young stellar objects and compact H II regions.

  20. SOME THEORETICAL MODELS EXPLAINING ADVERTISING EFFECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Vasilica Magdalena SOMEŞFĂLEAN

    2014-01-01

    Persuade clients is still the main focus of the companies, using a set of methods and techniques designed to influence their behavior, in order to obtain better results (profits) over a longer period of time. Since the late nineteenth - early twentieth century, the american E.St.Elmo Lewis, considered a pioneer in advertising and sales, developed the first theory, AIDA model, later used by marketers and advertisers to develop a marketing communications strategy. Later studies have developed o...

  1. AGNs as main contributors to the UV ionizing emissivity at high redshifts: predictions from a Lambda-CDM model with linked AGN/galaxy evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Giallongo, E; Fiore, F; Castellano, M; Fontana, A; Grazian, A; Pentericci, L

    2012-01-01

    We have evaluated the contribution of the AGN population to the ionization history of the Universe based on a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation and evolution in the CDM cosmological scenario. The model connects the growth of black holes and of the ensuing AGN activity to galaxy interactions. In the model we have included a self consistent physical description of the escape of ionizing UV photons; this is based on the blast-wave model for the AGN feedback we developed in a previous paper to explain the distribution of hydrogen column densities in AGNs of various redshifts and luminosities, due to absorption by the host galaxy gas. The model predicts UV luminosity functions for AGNs which are in good agreement with those derived from the observations especially at low and intermediate redshifts (z=3). At higher redshifts (z>5) the model tends to overestimate the data at faint luminosities. Critical biases both in the data and in the model are discussed to explain such apparent discrepancies. The predicted...

  2. Investigation of the Effect of Rice Wine on the Metabolites of the Main Components of Herbal Medicine in Rat Urine by Ultrahigh-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole/Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry: A Case Study on Cornus officinalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Cao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF/MS was developed for rapid and sensitive analysis of the effect of rice wine on the metabolites of the main components of herbal medicine in rat urine. Using Cornus officinalis as a model of herbal medicine, the metabolite profiles of crude and processed (steaming the crude drug presteeped in rice wine Cornus officinalis extracts in rat urine were investigated. The metabolites of Cornus officinalis were identified by using dynamic adjustment of the fragmentor voltage to produce structure-relevant fragment ions. In this work, we identified the parent compounds and metabolites of crude and processed Cornus officinalis in rats. In total, three parent compounds and seventeen new metabolites of Cornus officinalis were found in rats. The contents of the parent compounds and metabolites in vivo varied significantly after intragastric (i.g. administration of aqueous extracts of crude and processed Cornus officinalis. Data from this study suggests that UPLC-QTOF/MS could be used as a potential tool for uncovering the effects of excipients found in the metabolites of the main components of herbal medicine, in vivo, to predict and discover the processing mechanisms of herbal medicine.

  3. Dodecanedioic acid infusion induces a sparing effect on whole-body glucose uptake, mainly in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingrone, G; De Gaetano, A; Greco, A V; Capristo, E; Benedetti, G; Castagneto, M; Gasbarrini, G

    1997-11-01

    Even-numbered dicarboxylic acids (DA) have been proposed as an alternative fuel substrate in parenteral nutrition. In particular, dodecanedioic acid (C12) shows a rapid plasma clearance from tissues, a very low urinary excretion compared with other DA and a high oxidation rate. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of C12 infusion on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) compared with healthy volunteers. A primed-constant infusion of C12 (0.39 mmol/min) was administered over 240 min, and at 120 min a 2 h euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp was performed. Blood specimens were sampled every 30 min and fractioned urines were collected over 24 h. The levels of C12 were measured by HPLC. Indirect calorimetry was performed continuously during the entire session. Body composition was assessed in all subjects studied to obtain fat-free mass (FFM) values. Whole-body glucose uptake decreased significantly during C12 infusion in both groups, although this effect was much more evident (P < 0.01) in NIDDM patients (52.4 (SD 15.8) % decrease compared with saline) than in controls (25.9 (SD 12.1) % decrease). The M value (mumol/kgFFM per min) was reduced by C12 to lower levels in NIDDM patients than in normal controls (12.6 (SD 3.9) v. 25.9 (SD 4.5), P < 0.01). Urinary excretion of C12 over 24 h was significantly lower in NIDDM patients than in controls (4.26 (SD 0.30) mmol v. 5.43 (SD 0.48), P < 0.01), corresponding to less than 3% of the administered dose. The infusion of C12 decreased non-protein RQ significantly in both groups of patients. In conclusion, this study shows, for the first time, that C12 significantly reduces glucose uptake in both normal controls and NIDDM patients, although this sparing effect on glucose uptake is much more pronounced in diabetic patients. These data suggest that C12 decreases glucose uptake and oxidation, mainly through a mechanism of substrate competition. Thus

  4. Thermohaline instability and rotation-induced mixing. III - Grid of stellar models and asymptotic asteroseismic quantities from the pre-main sequence up to the AGB for low- and intermediate-mass stars at various metallicities

    CERN Document Server

    Lagarde, N; Charbonnel, C; Eggenberger, P; Ekström, S; Palacios, A

    2012-01-01

    The availability of asteroseismic constraints for a large sample of stars from the missions CoRoT and Kepler paves the way for various statistical studies of the seismic properties of stellar populations. In this paper, we evaluate the impact of rotation-induced mixing and thermohaline instability on the global asteroseismic parameters at different stages of the stellar evolution from the Zero Age Main Sequence to the Thermally Pulsating Asymptotic Giant Branch to distinguish stellar populations. We present a grid of stellar evolutionary models for four metallicities (Z = 0.0001, 0.002, 0.004, and 0.014) in the mass range between 0.85 to 6.0 Msun. The models are computed either with standard prescriptions or including both thermohaline convection and rotation-induced mixing. For the whole grid we provide the usual stellar parameters (luminosity, effective temperature, lifetimes, ...), together with the global seismic parameters, i.e. the large frequency separation and asymptotic relations, the frequency corre...

  5. 基于主因子模型的船用燃气轮机监测参数优化%Measure Parameter Selection for Marine Gas Turbine Based on Main Factors Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁环; 刘永葆

    2014-01-01

    Considering the problem of multicollinearity in gas path fault model of Gas turbine , the method of principal component anal-ysis ( PCA) is used to study the characteristic of fault coefficient matrix of main factors model and research the impact of multicollinear -ity on diagnostic accuracy , combined with sensitivity analysis , optimize the selection of measurement parameters .Results show that the number of selected measurement parameters sequence is less than the number of failure factors , but these parameters supply a better fault diagnosis , which can effectively identify similar faults .%针对燃气轮机气路故障模型存在多重共线性,使用主成分方法分析了主因子模型中故障系数矩阵的特性,并研究了多重共线性对诊断准确性的影响,结合敏感性分析,优化选择了测量参数。结果表明:虽然选择的测量参数数目少于故障因子数目,但故障诊断效果较好,能有效辨别相似故障。

  6. Three-dimensional effects for radio frequency antenna modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, M.D.; Batchelor, D.B.; Stallings, D.C.

    1993-09-01

    Electromagnetic field calculations for radio frequency (rf) antennas in two dimensions (2-D) neglect finite antenna length effects as well as the feeders leading to the main current strap. Comparisons with experiments indicate that these 2-D calculations can overestimate the loading of the antenna and fail to give the correct reactive behavior. To study the validity of the 2-D approximation, the Multiple Antenna Implementation System (MAntIS) has been used to perform 3-D modeling of the power spectrum, plasma loading, and inductance for a relevant loop antenna design. Effects on antenna performance caused by feeders to the main current strap, conducting sidewalls, and finite phase velocity are considered. The plasma impedance matrix for the loading calculation is generated by use of the ORION-1D code. The 3-D model is benchmarked with the 2-D model in the 2-D limit. For finite-length antennas, inductance calculations are found to be in much more reasonable agreement with experiments for 3-D modeling than for the 2-D estimates. The modeling shows that the feeders affect the launched power spectrum in an indirect way by forcing the driven rf current to return in the antenna sidewalls rather than in the plasma as in the 2-D model. Thus, the feeders have much more influence than the plasma on the currents that return in the sidewall. It has also been found that poloidal dependencies in the plasma impedance matrix can reduce the loading from that predicted in the 2-D model. For some plasma parameters, the combined 3-D effects can lead to a reduction in the predicted loading by as much as a factor of 2 from that given by the 2-D model.

  7. Effects of model schematisation, geometry and parameter values on urban flood modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojinovic, Z; Seyoum, S D; Mwalwaka, J M; Price, R K

    2011-01-01

    One-dimensional (1D) hydrodynamic models have been used as a standard industry practice for urban flood modelling work for many years. More recently, however, model formulations have included a 1D representation of the main channels and a 2D representation of the floodplains. Since the physical process of describing exchanges of flows with the floodplains can be represented in different ways, the predictive capability of different modelling approaches can also vary. The present paper explores effects of some of the issues that concern urban flood modelling work. Impacts from applying different model schematisation, geometry and parameter values were investigated. The study has mainly focussed on exploring how different Digital Terrain Model (DTM) resolution, presence of different features on DTM such as roads and building structures and different friction coefficients affect the simulation results. Practical implications of these issues are analysed and illustrated in a case study from St Maarten, N.A. The results from this study aim to provide users of numerical models with information that can be used in the analyses of flooding processes in urban areas.

  8. Modelling the Effects of Oil Prices on Global Fertilizer Prices and Volatility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, P.Y. Chen, P.Y. (Chen, P.Y.); C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe main purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effect of crude oil price on global fertilizer prices in both the mean and volatility. The endogenous structural breakpoint unit root test, ARDL model, and alternative volatility models, including GARCH, EGARCH, and GJR models, are used t

  9. Effects of dried cassava pulp as a main source of energy in concentrate on growth performance, carcass composition, economic return and some beef eating qualities of feedlot cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Yimmongkol

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding dried cassava pulp (DCP as a main source of energy at a higher level in concentrate on growth performance, carcass composition, economic return and some beef eating qualities of feedlot cattle. Fifteen Brahman-native crossbred young bulls at an average age of 2 years and initial weight of 277±10.36 kg were randomly allocated to 3 groups in a completely randomized trial. The animals received either control concentrate(CTRL, concentrate in which cassava meal was replaced by DCP at 50 (DCP50 or 100% (DCP100 by weight. Experimental diets were fed to the animals ad libitum and supplemented with 3 kg of para grass (Brachiaria mutica. The feeding period was 150 days. The results indicated that feedlot cattle on CTRL showed the best feedlot performance and carcass quality as compared to the other groups. However, the difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05. The DCP50 had highereconomic return compared to the CTRL and DCP100, while DCP100 can be potentially incorporated into the ration when the cassava price is too high to be used. Carcass composition (slaughtering weight, carcass weight, carcass percentage, lean weight and lean percentage of the experimental feedlot cattle were not significantly different (P>0.05 among the cattle fed with CTRL, DCP50 and DCP100, respectively. Some beef eating qualities (shear force, tenderness, juiciness, meat flavor and overall satisfaction were not significantly different (P>0.05 among the cattle fed with CTRL, DCP50 and DCP100 total, respectively.

  10. Abstracts of Main Contents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    (10)Several Ponderations over Carbon Emission Reduction of Shanghai Ground Public Transport Pei Zhikang With practice of carbon emission reduction of Shanghai ground public transport, the paper expounds the importance of sustainable development of urban transport, especially, ground public transport and points out that the implementation of carbon emission reduction of ground public transport needs joint effects of the state, relevant government authorities, relevant enterprises and communities to set up resource-saving, environment-friendly society.

  11. Suppression of inflammatory reactions by terpinen-4-ol, a main constituent of tea tree oil, in a murine model of oral candidiasis and its suppressive activity to cytokine production of macrophages in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninomiya, Kentaro; Hayama, Kazumi; Ishijima, Sanae A; Maruyama, Naho; Irie, Hiroshi; Kurihara, Junichi; Abe, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    The onset of oral candidiasis is accompanied by inflammatory symptoms such as pain in the tongue, edema or tissue damage and lowers the quality of life (QOL) of the patient. In a murine oral candidiasis model, the effects were studied of terpinen-4-ol (T-4-ol), one of the main constituents of tea tree oil, Melaleuca alternifolia, on inflammatory reactions. When immunosuppressed mice were orally infected with Candida albicans, their tongues showed inflammatory symptoms within 24 h after the infection, which was monitored by an increase of myeloperoxidase activity and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 in their tongue homogenates. Oral treatment with 50 µL of 40 mg/mL terpinen-4-ol 3h after the Candida infection clearly suppressed the increase of these inflammatory parameters. In vitro analysis of the effects of terpinen-4-ol on cytokine secretion of macrophages indicated that 800 µg/mL of this substance significantly inhibited the cytokine production of the macrophages cultured in the presence of heat-killed C. albicans cells. Based on these findings, the role of the anti-inflammatory action of T-4-ol in its therapeutic activity against oral candidiasis was discussed.

  12. Modeling the effect of land use change on hydrology of a forested watershed in coastal South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhaohua Dai; Devendra M. Amatya; Ge Sun; Changsheng Li; Carl C. Trettin; Harbin Li

    2009-01-01

    Since hydrology is one of main factors controlling wetland functions, hydrologic models are useful for evaluating the effects of land use change on we land ecosystems. We evaluated two process-based hydrologic models with...

  13. Modelling the response of yields and tissue C : N to changes in atmospheric CO2 and N management in the main wheat regions of western Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olin, S.; Schurgers, Guy; Lindeskog, M.

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) is a key element in terrestrial ecosystems as it influences both plant growth and plant interactions with the atmosphere. Accounting for carbon–nitrogen interactions has been found to alter future projections of the terrestrial carbon (C) cycle substantially. Dynamic vegetation models...... (DVMs) aim to accurately represent both natural vegetation and managed land, not only from a carbon cycle perspective but increasingly so also for a wider range of processes including crop yields. We present here the extended version of the DVM LPJ-GUESS that accounts for N limitation in crops...... for processes in managed ecosystems in large-scale models. Our results highlight the importance of accounting for C–N interactions when modelling agricultural ecosystems, and it is an important step towards accounting for the combined impacts of changes in climate, [CO2] and land use on terrestrial...

  14. 主要原料对红枣饮料品质的影响%Effects of the Main Ingredient on Quality of Jujube Beverage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁周民; 李其晔; 赵楠; 化志秀; 李新岗

    2012-01-01

    以红枣饮料为对象,在前期试验的基础上采用正交设计试验方案,研究了红枣原汁、白砂糖和混合有机酸3种主要原料含量对饮料透光率、可溶性固形物、总酸、固酸比等品质指标以及感官质量的影响.结果表明:红枣原汁、白砂糖和混合有机酸含量分别对饮料透光率、总酸(p<0.05)有显著影响,对可溶性固形物有极显著影响(p<0.01).在试验条件下,3种主要原料优化配比为原汁20%、白砂糖8%、混合有机酸0.2%,饮料固酸比值在26.1∶ 1~36.4∶1范围时具有较好的口感.以此配比生产的红枣饮料具有较好的感官品质.%Based on pre-experiments, the orthogonal experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of the quantities of the main ingredients of jujube beverage, including jujube juice, sugar and mixed organic acids on the quality indices (such as transmittance, soluble solid, total acidity, solid-acid ratio) and sensory quality of the beverage. The results showed that the content of jujube juice, sugar and organic acids had significant effects on the transmittance (p<0. 05) , soluble solid (p<0. 01) and total acid (p<0. 05) of jujube beverage. The optimized recipe was obtained as jujube juice: 20%, sugar: 8%, mixed organic acids 0. 2% , and solid-acid ratio range: 26.1 : 1 to 36. 4: 1, by which the beverage presented satisfactory sensory quality.

  15. Nitrogen chronology of massive main sequence stars

    CERN Document Server

    Köhler, K; Brott, I; Langer, N; de Koter, A

    2012-01-01

    Rotational mixing in massive main sequence stars is predicted to monotonically increase their surface nitrogen abundance with time. We use this effect to design a method for constraining the age and the inclination angle of massive main sequence stars, given their observed luminosity, effective temperature, projected rotational velocity and surface nitrogen abundance. This method relies on stellar evolution models for different metallicities, masses and rotation rates. We use the population synthesis code STARMAKER to show the range of applicability of our method. We apply this method to 79 early B-type main sequence stars near the LMC clusters NGC 2004 and N 11 and the SMC clusters NGC 330 and NGC 346. From all stars within the sample, 17 were found to be suitable for an age analysis. For ten of them, which are rapidly rotating stars without a strong nitrogen enhancement, it has been previously concluded that they did not evolve as rotationally mixed single stars. This is confirmed by our analysis, which fla...

  16. Study on Effect of Reservoir Operation on Water Pollution of Emergency Heavy Metal in Dongjiang Main River%东江干流突发性重金属污染的水库调度效应研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄国如; 李春

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the effect of reservoir operation on water pollution of emergency heavy metal,the hydrodynamic and water quality model based MIKE software is developed,and the pollution is simulated with the model in Dongjiang main river.Temporal and spatial variation process of heavy metal pollution is analyzed by using seven working conditions with different discharge and duration of water diversion.The results show that the water quantity operation of Dongjiang hydro-junction at Huizhou City can effectively improve the water quality of Dongjiang main river,and discharge and duration of water diversion have different impact on the water quality improvement of intake of water works.%为研究水库调度对突发性重金属污染的影响,构建基于MIKE的水动力水质模型对东江干流突发重金属污染进行模拟,分析了不同调水流量和调水持续时间等7种工况下重金属污染的时空变化过程.结果表明,利用惠州东江水利枢纽进行水量调度可有效地改善东江干流水质,且调水流量及调水持续时间对干流沿线各水厂取水口水质改善有不同程度的影响.

  17. Comparison of Farm Structures, Success Factors, Obstacles, Clients’ Expectations and Policy Wishes of Urban Farming’s Main Business Models in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Bernd Pölling

    2016-01-01

    Low-cost specialization, differentiation, and diversification are common business models of urban farms in developed countries. Similarities and differences between them as well as detailed insights into specific farm characteristics are widely absent in scientific discourses. This paper compares farm structures, success factors, obstacles, clients’ expectations, and policy wishes between specialized, differentiated, and diversified farms as well as diversifiers into agriculture. A standardiz...

  18. Modeling the ocean effect of geomagnetic storms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Kuvshinov, A.

    2004-01-01

    At coastal sites, geomagnetic variations for periods shorter than a few days are strongly distorted by the conductivity of the nearby sea-water. This phenomena, known as the ocean (or coast) effect, is strongest in the magnetic vertical component. We demonstrate the ability to predict the ocean...... if the oceans are considered. Our analysis also indicates a significant local time asymmetry (i.e., contributions from spherical harmonics other than P-I(0)), especially during the main phase of the storm....

  19. Little Higgs model effects in →

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Rai Choudhury; Ashok Goyal; A S Cornell; Naveen Gaur

    2007-11-01

    Though the predictions of the standard model (SM) are in excellent agreement with experiments, there are still several theoretical problems associated with the Higgs sector of the SM, where it is widely believed that some new physics will take over at the TeV scale. One beyond the SM theory which resolves these problems is the Little Higgs (LH) model. In this work we have investigated the effects of the LH model on → scattering [1].

  20. Instructional Models Effective in Distance Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Diane H.; Swan, Michael K.

    The purpose of this study was to identify which instructional models based on the framework of Joyce, Weil, and Showers, could be used effectively in distance education over the Interactive Video Network (IVN) system in North Dakota. Instructional models have been organized into families such as Information Processing, Social, Personal, and…

  1. Modelling of Deterioration Effects on Concrete Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Teplý

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to predict the service life of concrete structures models for deterioration effects are needed. This paper has the form of a survey, listing and describing such analytical models, namely carbonation of concrete, ingress of chlorides, corrosion of reinforcing steel and prestressing tendons. The probabilistic approach is applied.

  2. Coupling age-structured stock assessment and fish bioenergetics models: a system of time-varying models for quantifying piscivory patterns during the rapid trophic shift in the main basin of Lake Huron

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ji X.; Bence, James R.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Pothoven, Steven A.; Dobiesz, Norine E.; Fielder, David G.; Johnson, James E.; Ebener, Mark P.; Cottrill, Adam R.; Mohr, Lloyd C.; Koproski, Scott R.

    2015-01-01

    We quantified piscivory patterns in the main basin of Lake Huron during 1984–2010 and found that the biomass transfer from prey fish to piscivores remained consistently high despite the rapid major trophic shift in the food webs. We coupled age-structured stock assessment models and fish bioenergetics models for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), walleye (Sander vitreus), and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis). The model system also included time-varying parameters or variables of growth, length–mass relations, maturity schedules, energy density, and diets. These time-varying models reflected the dynamic connections that a fish cohort responded to year-to-year ecosystem changes at different ages and body sizes. We found that the ratio of annual predation by lake trout, Chinook salmon, and walleye combined with the biomass indices of age-1 and older alewives (Alosa pseudoharengus) and rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) increased more than tenfold during 1987–2010, and such increases in predation pressure were structured by relatively stable biomass of the three piscivores and stepwise declines in the biomass of alewives and rainbow smelt. The piscivore stability was supported by the use of alternative energy pathways and changes in relative composition of the three piscivores. In addition, lake whitefish became a new piscivore by feeding on round goby (Neogobius melanostomus). Their total fish consumption rivaled that of the other piscivores combined, although fish were still a modest proportion of their diet. Overall, the use of alternative energy pathways by piscivores allowed the increases in predation pressure on dominant diet species.

  3. THE VIRTUAL UNIVERSITY MODEL AS THE MAIN PLATFORM FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF PROFESSIONAL RETRAINING PROGRAM FOR TEACHERS BY THE EXMPLE OF SYRIAN VIRTUAL UNIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. O. Prosyukova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The interest in virtual education has recently increased in educational environment. Researchers in their scientific activity are focused on the benefits of the “virtual university” or “virtual college” models. But the range of a “virtuality” concept is too wide: some researchers recognize all information technologies in education as virtual means, while the others are looking for the ways to replace education in its general meaning with virtual educational space. The problem of virtual education is also relevant because the application area is boundless: school education, secondary professional education, higher education, training and retraining programs. Thus virtual education is able to become not only the innovative educational model, but also a possible solution to the problem of continuing education. One of the most successful examples in this field is the example of Syrian Virtual University, which has become the pioneer in virtual education in the Middle East region.

  4. Time-resolved EPR investigation of potential model systems for acrylate polymer main chain radicals based on esters of Kemp's tri-acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedeva, Natalia V; Gorelik, Elena V; Magnus-Aryitey, Damaris; Hill, Terence E; Forbes, Malcolm D E

    2009-05-14

    Methyl esters of Kemp's tri-acid and cyclohexanetricarboxylic acid are structurally similar to acrylate polymers, having the same functionalities and stereoregularities as poly(methylmethacrylate) and poly(methylacrylate), respectively. The photochemistry and free radicals from these model systems have been studied using time-resolved electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy with laser flash photolysis at 248 nm. Chemically induced electron spin polarization from the triplet mechanism (net emission) is observed. Well-resolved spectra are obtained at all temperatures for the model system radicals, which are determined to be in the slow motion condition, that is, there is no interconversion of chair conformations. The temperature dependence of the spectra is minimal; some hyperfine lines shift as the temperature increases, but without much broadening. Density functional theory calculations are presented and discussed in support of the experimental data.

  5. THE VIRTUAL UNIVERSITY MODEL AS THE MAIN PLATFORM FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF PROFESSIONAL RETRAINING PROGRAM FOR TEACHERS BY THE EXMPLE OF SYRIAN VIRTUAL UNIVERSITY

    OpenAIRE

    K. O. Prosyukova

    2014-01-01

    The interest in virtual education has recently increased in educational environment. Researchers in their scientific activity are focused on the benefits of the “virtual university” or “virtual college” models. But the range of a “virtuality” concept is too wide: some researchers recognize all information technologies in education as virtual means, while the others are looking for the ways to replace education in its general meaning with virtual educational space. The problem of virtual educa...

  6. 我国核电技术创新及模式分析%Analysis on the Main Innovation Model of China's Nuclear Power Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄栋; 刘雪姣

    2014-01-01

    从中国的能源状况以及节能减排需求来看,中国必须发展核电产业。核电发展的重点是进行核电技术创新。我国核电技术创新模式主要分为自主创新模式和模仿创新模式。基于政府和企业的角度分析我国核电技术创新的影响因素以及不同核电技术创新模式的实现路径。%From the point of view of China's energy situation and the demand for energy conservation,China must develop its nuclear power industry. The key point of nuclear power development is carrying out nuclear power technology innovation.China's nuclear power technology innovation modes are divided into independent innovation model and imitated innovation model. This article analyzed the factors influencing China’ s nuclear technology innovation based on the perspective of the government and enterprises. It also analyzed different paths to achieve nuclear technology innovation model.

  7. Topoisomerase I (Top1): a major target of FL118 for its antitumor efficacy or mainly involved in its side effects of hematopoietic toxicity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengzhi; Ling, Xiang; Harris, Danni L; Liao, Jianqun; Wang, Yuping; Westover, David; Jiang, Guohui; Xu, Bo; Boland, Patrick M; Jin, Chunyang

    2017-01-01

    FL118 is a novel camptothecin (CPT) analogue that possesses exceptional antitumor efficacy in human tumor animal models. To date, two CPT analogues, irinotecan and topotecan, have been approved by the FDA for cancer treatment. FL118 exhibits superior antitumor activity over irinotecan and topotecan, and effectively overcomes the irinotecan- or topotecan-resistant human tumors in animal models. Accordingly, FL118 selectively inhibits the expression of multiple cancer-associated proteins (survivin, Mcl-1, XIAP, cIAP2, MdmX). However, FL118 has hematopoietic toxicity similar to irinotecan and topotecan, suggesting that FL118’s hematopoietic toxicity may share a mechanism similar to irinotecan and topotecan. It is known that CPTs including irinotecan, SN-38 (active metabolite of irinotecan) and topotecan are topoisomerase I (Top1) inhibitors. However, the evidence from our studies failed to reveal that FL118 is a better Top1 inhibitor than SN-38. It was documented that Top1 expression level is positively associated with CPTs’ sensitivity. Low Top1 expression links to CPTs’ resistance. In contrast to these findings, we found that human colorectal tumor sensitivity to FL118 is irrelevant to the expression level of Top1 protein. FL118 can show high antitumor efficacy in Top1-negative tumors, while Top1 highly positive tumors can exhibit FL118 resistance. This suggests that the presence of Top1 target is not critical for FL118 antitumor activity. In other words, targeting Top1 by FL118 may not play a major role for its antitumor efficacy. However, studies indicate that FL118 can bind to, and inhibit Top1 activity. This raises the possibility that inhibition of Top1 by FL118 may predominantly be involved in hematopoietic toxicity, but not in FL118 antitumor activity. In this article, we will summarize existing observations and provide our up-to-date research results to support our opinion on this important topic.

  8. Nanoparticles affect PCR primarily via surface interactions with PCR components: using amino-modified silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles as a main model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanomaterials have been widely reported to affect the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). However, many studies in which these effects were observed were not comprehensive, and many of the proposed mechanisms have been primarily speculative. In this work, we used amino-modified silica-coated magnetic n...

  9. Effects of acrous gramimeus and its main component alpha-asarone on the reactivity and convulsive threshold of immature rats to electric stimulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Libin Yang; Shulei Li; Yuhong Wang; Yanzhi Huang

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The traditional Chinese medicine acrous gramimeus is the dry rhizome of Acrous gramimeus Soland, a kind of Araceae familial perennial herb, which has a sedation action, anticonvulsant and antiepileptic effect. Its effective component has not been known yet, and α-asarone, the major component of the volatile oil extracted from acrous gramineus, has been supposed to play a necessary role in it.OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of acrous gramimeu and α-asarone on the reactivity and convulsive threshold to electric stimulation in immature rats, furthermore, attempt to definitize the anticonvulsant effect of α-asarone.DESIGN: A randomized controlled study.SETTINGS: Department of Pediatrics, First Hospital of Jilin University; Department of Histology and Embryology, School of Basic Medical Sciences of Jilin University; Department of Neurology, First Clinical Hospital affiliated to Harbin Medical University; Department of Internal Medicine, Children's Hospital of Changchun City.MATERIALS: Seventy 3-week immature Wistar rats (either males or females) of 34-40 g were used. Acrous gramimeu (1 g/bag, the content of α-asarone was 0.046 26%-0.070 16%) with the batch number of 0307113was provided by Tianjiang Medicine Company Limited, Jiangyin City. Α-asarone tablet (60 mg per tablet) with the batch number of 030219 was provided by Tianwei Pharmaceutical Factory, Shenyang City. Α-asarone injectable preparation (2 mL per piece) with the batch number of 030105 was provided by Shuanghe Medicine Limited Company, Beijing City.METHODS:The experiments were carried out in the Neurological Laboratory of the First Hospital of Jilin University between August and October in 2004. ① The 70 rats were randomly divided into intragastric subset and intraperitoneal subset. The intragastric subset included four groups of control, phenobarbital sodium,acrous gramimeu and α-asarone; the intraperitoneal subset included three groups of control, phenobarbital sodium and

  10. Modelling synergistic effects of appetite regulating hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Julie Berg; Ritz, Christian

    2016-01-01

    We briefly reviewed one definition of dose addition, which is applicable within the framework of generalized linear models. We established how this definition of dose addition corresponds to effect addition in case only two doses per compound are considered for evaluating synergistic effects. The....... The link between definitions was exemplified for an appetite study where two appetite hormones were studied....

  11. A Test of the Combined Effects Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimsey, William D.; And Others

    Two waves of telephone interviews with a sample of 141 voters were used in a study of political communication effects during the 1974 congressional election in the Illinois 24th Congressional District. Seven variables specified by the combined-effects model were derived from the interviews and factor analyzed. Two factors were found and…

  12. Using Reliability Block Diagrams and Fault Tree circuits, to develop a Condition Based Maintenance Model for a Vessel’s Main Propulsion System and Related Subsystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Anantharaman

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Merchant shipping has undergone a great transformation over the past three decades. The shipping market is highly competitive, which coupled with high crewing and fuel costs, leads to high operational costs. One of the paramount factor involved in vessel operation is the Maintenance cost and there is a dire need to keep this cost to a minimum. Fortunately the earlier policy of repair only maintenance in commercial shipping has been done away with, and was replaced by the policy of preventive maintenance. Planned Maintenance System was introduced by ship management companies in the early 90’s. Planned Maintenance offered benefits over the repair only policy, but has its own demerits. Many a time machinery equipment is opened up for routine maintenance after a specified time interval, irrespective of the need. This could lead to potential failures, which is explained by the fact that preventive maintenance resulted in meddling of a well set piece of machinery equipment, leading to its subsequent failure. This is where Condition based maintenance or CBM steps into prominence. CBM monitors the health of the machinery equipment, analyses the condition and helps you in decision making. The Main Propulsion system forms the heart of a vessel and we need to ensure its reliability, together with the reliability of its associated sub-systems. The entire system can be represented by reliability block diagrams, to show the interdependence of various components comprising the system. This helps in the decision making process of CBM whereby ship’s engineer may decide to stop the running machinery equipment, open and overhaul the same, else postpone the overhaul for a later safe date.

  13. A Markov model for planning and permitting offshore wind energy: A case study of radio-tracked terns in the Gulf of Maine, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranmer, Alexana; Smetzer, Jennifer R; Welch, Linda; Baker, Erin

    2017-05-15

    Quantifying and managing the potential adverse wildlife impacts of offshore wind energy is critical for developing offshore wind energy in a sustainable and timely manner, but poses a significant challenge, particularly for small marine birds that are difficult to monitor. We developed a discrete-time Markov model of seabird movement around a colony site parameterized by automated radio telemetry data from common terns (Sterna hirundo) and Arctic terns (S. paradisaea), and derived impact functions that estimate the probability of collision fatality as a function of the distance and bearing of wind turbines from a colony. Our purpose was to develop and demonstrate a new, flexible tool that can be used for specific management and wind-energy planning applications when adequate data are available, rather than inform wind-energy development at this site. We demonstrate how the tool can be used 1) in marine spatial planning exercises to quantitatively identify setback distances under development scenarios given a risk threshold, 2) to examine the ecological and technical trade-offs of development alternatives to facilitate negotiation between objectives, and 3) in the U.S. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process to estimate collision fatality under alternative scenarios. We discuss model limitations and data needs, and highlight opportunities for future model extension and development. We present a highly flexible tool for wind energy planning that can be easily extended to other central place foragers and data sources, and can be updated and improved as new monitoring data arises. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Main Points Introduction of BOT Franchise Models in Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant%城市污水处理厂BOT特许经营模式介绍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张兴华; 瞿建国; 宋卫锋

    2009-01-01

    结合BOT特许经营模式的相关经验,对BOT合同谈判、BOT项目特许权协议、收费与调价等方面进行简要的介绍,为BOT项目投资方提供一定的指引.%Combining with related engineering experiences about BOT franchise models, the paper briefly introduced on BOT contract negotiation, BOT concession agreement, charging and price adjustment, etc. It provided some guidance for the BOT project investor.

  15. Detector of Optical Vortices as the Main Element of the System of Data Transfer: Principles of Operation, Numerical Model, and Influence of Noise and Atmospheric Turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerii Aksenov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The method is proposed of optical vortex topological charge detection along with a design of a corresponding detector. The developed technique is based on measurements of light field intensity. Mathematical model simulating performance of the detector is described in the paper, and results of numerical experiments are presented which illustrate recognition of a vortex in a turbulent medium and in the presence of amplitude and phase noise in the registered radiation. Influence of shifts of the system optical axis on precision of registration is also considered in the paper.

  16. Marmoset cytochrome P450 2J2 mainly expressed in small intestines and livers effectively metabolizes human P450 2J2 probe substrates, astemizole and terfenadine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Shotaro; Uno, Yasuhiro; Inoue, Takashi; Okamoto, Eriko; Sasaki, Erika; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2016-11-01

    1. Common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), a New World Monkey, has potential to be a useful animal model in preclinical studies. However, drug metabolizing properties have not been fully understood due to insufficient information on cytochrome P450 (P450), major drug metabolizing enzymes. 2. Marmoset P450 2J2 cDNA was isolated from marmoset livers. The deduced amino acid sequence showed a high-sequence identity (91%) with cynomolgus monkey and human P450 2J2 enzymes. A phylogenetic tree revealed that marmoset P450 2J2 was evolutionarily closer to cynomolgus monkey and human P450 2J2 enzymes, than P450 2J forms in pigs, rabbits, rats or mice. 3. Marmoset P450 2J2 mRNA was abundantly expressed in the small intestine and liver, and to a lesser extent in the brain, lung and kidney. Immunoblot analysis also showed expression of marmoset P450 2J2 protein in the small intestine and liver. 4. Enzyme assays using marmoset P450 2J2 protein heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli indicated that marmoset P450 2J2 effectively catalyzed astemizole O-demethylation and terfenadine t-butyl hydroxylation, similar to human and cynomolgus monkey P450 2J2 enzymes. 5. These results suggest the functional characteristics of P450 2J2 enzymes are similar among marmosets, cynomolgus monkeys and humans.

  17. Simulink Model of Memcapacitor with the Analysis of Its Main Features%忆容器的Simulink模型及其主要特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何朋飞; 王丽丹; 段书凯; 李传东

    2011-01-01

    In contrast to the memristor, the memcapacitor has advantage which produces losses during the reading and writing processes. The mathematic model of a memcapacitor is introduced and its Simulink model is built. The typical characteristics of the memcapacitor is simulated. At the same time, influences of input excitation and different parameters on the memcapacitor are considered and analyzed in details, and obtains a lot of the new characteristics of memcapacitor and important data.%针对忆容器在数据读写与存储方面可能会更少丢失数据的优势,介绍了一种忆容器的数学模型,为便于对该忆容器的研究,根据其数学模型,搭建了忆容器的Simulink仿真模型,对该模型进行仿真研究,得到了关于忆容器的典型特性,验证了其有效性,同时,基于忆容器的数学模型,应用matlab研究了输入激励和忆容器的各项参数对忆容器的影响,获得了许多忆容器的新特性和重要的数据,为忆容器应用方面的研究奠定了基础.

  18. Optical Hall effect-model description: tutorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Mathias; Kühne, Philipp; Darakchieva, Vanya; Hofmann, Tino

    2016-08-01

    The optical Hall effect is a physical phenomenon that describes the occurrence of magnetic-field-induced dielectric displacement at optical wavelengths, transverse and longitudinal to the incident electric field, and analogous to the static electrical Hall effect. The electrical Hall effect and certain cases of the optical Hall effect observations can be explained by extensions of the classic Drude model for the transport of electrons in metals. The optical Hall effect is most useful for characterization of electrical properties in semiconductors. Among many advantages, while the optical Hall effect dispenses with the need of electrical contacts, electrical material properties such as effective mass and mobility parameters, including their anisotropy as well as carrier type and density, can be determined from the optical Hall effect. Measurement of the optical Hall effect can be performed within the concept of generalized ellipsometry at an oblique angle of incidence. In this paper, we review and discuss physical model equations, which can be used to calculate the optical Hall effect in single- and multiple-layered structures of semiconductor materials. We define the optical Hall effect dielectric function tensor, demonstrate diagonalization approaches, and show requirements for the optical Hall effect tensor from energy conservation. We discuss both continuum and quantum approaches, and we provide a brief description of the generalized ellipsometry concept, the Mueller matrix calculus, and a 4×4 matrix algebra to calculate data accessible by experiment. In a follow-up paper, we will discuss strategies and approaches for experimental data acquisition and analysis.

  19. Dutch hedgehogs Erinaceus europaeus are nowadays mainly found in urban areas, possibly due to the negative Effects of badgers Meles meles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poel, van de J.; Dekker, J.J.A.; Langevelde, van F.

    2015-01-01

    In several west European countries, the distribution of hedgehogs Erinaceus europaeus is declining. In the UK, predation by the European badger Meles meles is considered to be the main death cause of hedgehogs. In the Netherlands, badger density is rising, which suggests the same cause for the decli

  20. A periodic pricing model considering reference effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Hui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate the optimal pricing strategies with reference effects in revenue management settings. We firstly propose a static pricing model with the properties of stochastic demand, finite horizon and fixed capacity, and prove the existence and uniqueness of the solution. Secondly, we extend the fixed pricing model to a periodic pricing model and incorporate a memory-based reference price in the demand function to investigate how the reference effect impacts on traditional revenue management decisions. We present numerical examples in both low demand situations and high demand situations for different levels of reference effects and different updating frequencies. The results show that the dynamic pricing strategies are superior to a static one even when reference effects are taken into consideration. We also provide some manage-rial insights including pricing directions, pricing dispersion and the optimal updating frequency for both demand situations.