Sample records for model magma chambers

  1. A model to forecast magma chamber rupture (United States)

    Browning, John; Drymoni, Kyriaki; Gudmundsson, Agust


    An understanding of the amount of magma available to supply any given eruption is useful for determining the potential eruption magnitude and duration. Geodetic measurements and inversion techniques are often used to constrain volume changes within magma chambers, as well as constrain location and depth, but such models are incapable of calculating total magma storage. For example, during the 2012 unrest period at Santorini volcano, approximately 0.021 km3 of new magma entered a shallow chamber residing at around 4 km below the surface. This type of event is not unusual, and is in fact a necessary condition for the formation of a long-lived shallow chamber. The period of unrest ended without culminating in eruption, i.e the amount of magma which entered the chamber was insufficient to break the chamber and force magma further towards the surface. Using continuum-mechanics and fracture-mechanics principles, we present a model to calculate the amount of magma contained at shallow depth beneath active volcanoes. Here we discuss our model in the context of Santorini volcano, Greece. We demonstrate through structural analysis of dykes exposed within the Santorini caldera, previously published data on the volume of recent eruptions, and geodetic measurements of the 2011-2012 unrest period, that the measured 0.02% increase in volume of Santorini's shallow magma chamber was associated with magmatic excess pressure increase of around 1.1 MPa. This excess pressure was high enough to bring the chamber roof close to rupture and dyke injection. For volcanoes with known typical extrusion and intrusion (dyke) volumes, the new methodology presented here makes it possible to forecast the conditions for magma-chamber failure and dyke injection at any geodetically well-monitored volcano.

  2. Mush Column Magma Chambers (United States)

    Marsh, B. D.


    Magma chambers are a necessary concept in understanding the chemical and physical evolution of magma. The concept may well be similar to a transfer function in circuit or time series analysis. It does what needs to be done to transform source magma into eruptible magma. In gravity and geodetic interpretations the causative body is (usually of necessity) geometrically simple and of limited vertical extent; it is clearly difficult to `see' through the uppermost manifestation of the concentrated magma. The presence of plutons in the upper crust has reinforced the view that magma chambers are large pots of magma, but as in the physical representation of a transfer function, actual magma chambers are clearly distinct from virtual magma chambers. Two key features to understanding magmatic systems are that they are vertically integrated over large distances (e.g., 30-100 km), and that all local magmatic processes are controlled by solidification fronts. Heat transfer considerations show that any viable volcanic system must be supported by a vertically extensive plumbing system. Field and geophysical studies point to a common theme of an interconnected stack of sill-like structures extending to great depth. This is a magmatic Mush Column. The large-scale (10s of km) structure resembles the vertical structure inferred at large volcanic centers like Hawaii (e.g., Ryan et al.), and the fine scale (10s to 100s of m) structure is exemplified by ophiolites and deeply eroded sill complexes like the Ferrar dolerites of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. The local length scales of the sill reservoirs and interconnecting conduits produce a rich spectrum of crystallization environments with distinct solidification time scales. Extensive horizontal and vertical mushy walls provide conditions conducive to specific processes of differentiation from solidification front instability to sidewall porous flow and wall rock slumping. The size, strength, and time series of eruptive behavior

  3. Finite-element modeling of magma chamber-host rock interactions prior to caldera collapse (United States)

    Kabele, Petr; Žák, Jiří; Somr, Michael


    Gravity-driven failure of shallow magma chamber roofs and formation of collapse calderas are commonly accompanied by ejection of large volumes of pyroclastic material to the Earth's atmosphere and thus represent severe volcanic hazards. In this respect, numerical analysis has proven as a key tool in understanding the mechanical conditions of caldera collapse. The main objective of this paper is to find a suitable approach to finite-element simulation of roof fracturing and caldera collapse during inflation and subsequent deflation of shallow magma chambers. Such a model should capture the dominant mechanical phenomena, for example, interaction of the host rock with magma and progressive deformation of the chamber roof. To this end, a comparative study, which involves various representations of magma (inviscid fluid, nearly incompressible elastic, or plastic solid) and constitutive models of the host rock (fracture and plasticity), was carried out. In particular, the quasi-brittle fracture model of host rock reproduced well the formation of tension-induced radial and circumferential fractures during magma injection into the chamber (inflation stage), especially at shallow crustal levels. Conversely, the Mohr-Coulomb shear criterion has shown to be more appropriate for greater depths. Subsequent magma withdrawal from the chamber (deflation stage) results in further damage or even collapse of the chamber roof. While most of the previous studies of caldera collapse rely on the elastic stress analysis, the proposed approach advances modeling of the process by incorporating non-linear failure phenomena and nearly incompressible behaviour of magma. This leads to a perhaps more realistic representation of the fracture processes preceding roof collapse and caldera formation.

  4. Forecasting magma-chamber rupture at Santorini volcano, Greece


    John Browning; Kyriaki Drymoni; Agust Gudmundsson


    How much magma needs to be added to a shallow magma chamber to cause rupture, dyke injection, and a potential eruption? Models that yield reliable answers to this question are needed in order to facilitate eruption forecasting. Development of a long-lived shallow magma chamber requires periodic influx of magmas from a parental body at depth. This redistribution process does not necessarily cause an eruption but produces a net volume change that can be measured geodetically by inversion techni...

  5. Magma Chambers, Thermal Energy, and the Unsuccessful Search for a Magma Chamber Thermostat (United States)

    Glazner, A. F.


    Although the traditional concept that plutons are the frozen corpses of huge, highly liquid magma chambers ("big red blobs") is losing favor, the related notion that magma bodies can spend long periods of time (~106years) in a mushy, highly crystalline state is widely accepted. However, analysis of the thermal balance of magmatic systems indicates that it is difficult to maintain a significant portion in a simmering, mushy state, whether or not the system is eutectic-like. Magma bodies cool primarily by loss of heat to the Earth's surface. The balance between cooling via energy loss to the surface and heating via magma accretion can be denoted as M = ρLa/q, where ρ is magma density, L is latent heat of crystallization, a is the vertical rate of magma accretion, and q is surface heat flux. If M>1, then magma accretion outpaces cooling and a magma chamber forms. For reasonable values of ρ, L, and q, the rate of accretion amust be > ~15 mm/yr to form a persistent volume above the solidus. This rate is extremely high, an order of magnitude faster than estimated pluton-filling rates, and would produce a body 10 km thick in 700 ka, an order of magnitude faster than geochronology indicates. Regardless of the rate of magma supply, the proportion of crystals in the system must vary dramatically with depth at any given time owing to transfer of heat. Mechanical stirring (e.g., by convection) could serve to homogenize crystal content in a magma body, but this is unachievable in crystal-rich, locked-up magma. Without convection the lower part of the magma body becomes much hotter than the top—a process familiar to anyone who has scorched a pot of oatmeal. Thermal models that succeed in producing persistent, large bodies of magma rely on scenarios that are unrealistic (e.g., omitting heat loss to the planet's surface), self-fulfilling prophecies (e.g., setting unnaturally high temperatures as fixed boundary conditions), or physically unreasonable (e.g., magma is intruded

  6. Compaction and Crystallisation in Magma Chambers: Towards a Model of the Skaergaard Intrusion (United States)

    McKenzie, D. P.


    The equations governing the conservation of mass, momentum and energy are first simplified by using the extended Boussinesq approximation, and then solved numerically to study the time dependent behaviour of a compacting solidifying layer at the base of a magma chamber when variations in the horizontal plane can be neglected. The most important result is that the concept of a trapped liquid fraction, which has been widely used to model the bulk composition of layered intrusions, is a useful concept to describe the steady state behaviour of compacting layers. The result is at first sight surprising, because there is relative movement between the melt and crystals during compaction, and the system is therefore open. The reason why it is correct is because both the melt and the crystals are moving downwards in a frame fixed to the upper surface of the compacting layer. Since the mass of all elements must be conserved, what goes into the top of the layer as melt and solid must come out of its bottom as a solid when the behaviour is not time dependent. However, when time dependent behaviour occurs the concept of a trapped liquid fraction ceases to be useful. The governing equations are then used to model the concentration of phosphorous in the lower part of the Skaergaard intrusion, where it behaves incompatibly. The observed behaviour requires the viscosity of the solid part of the compacting layer to have a viscosity of about 10^18 Pa s.

  7. Magma Chamber Model of Batur Caldera, Bali, Indonesia: Compositional Variation of Two Facies, Large-Volume Dacitic Ignimbrites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igan S. Sutawidjaja


    Full Text Available DOI:10.17014/ijog.2.2.111-124Batur is one of the finest known calderas on Earth, and is the source of at least two major ignimbrite eruptions with a combined volume of some 84 km3 and 19 km3. These ignimbrites have a similar compositions, raising the question of whether they are geneticaly related. The Batur Ignimbrite-1 (BI-1 is crystal poor, containing rhyodacitic (68 - 70wt % SiO2, white to grey pumices and partly welded and unwelded. The overlying Batur Ignimbrite-2 (BI-2 is a homogeneous grey to black dacitic pumices (64 - 66 wt % SiO2, unwelded and densely welded (40 - 60% vesicularity, crystal and lithic rich. Phase equilibria indicate that the Batur magma equilibrated at temperatures of 1100 - 1300oC with melt water contents of 3 - 6 wt%. The post-eruptive Batur magma was cooler (<1100oC and it is melt more water rich (> 6 wt % H2O. A pressure of 20 kbar is infered from mineral barometry for the Batur magma chamber. Magmatic chamber model is one in which crystals and melt separate from a convecting Batur magma by density differences, resulting in a stratified magma chamber with a homogeneous central zone, a crystal-rich accumulation zone near the walls or base, and a buoyant, melt-rich zone near the top. This is consistent with the estimated magma temperatures and densities: the pre-eruptive BI-1 magma was hoter (1300oC and more volatile rich (6 wt % H2O with density 2.25 g/cm3 than the BI-2 magma (1200oC; 4 wt % H2O in density was higher (2.50 g/cm3. Batur melt characteristics and intensive parameters are consistent with a volatile oversaturation-driven eruption. However, the higher H2O content, high viscosity and low crystal content of the BI-1 magma imply an external eruption trigger.

  8. Progress Towards a Thermo-Mechanical Magma Chamber Forward Model for Eruption Cycles, Applied to the Columbia River Flood Basalts (United States)

    Karlstrom, L.; Ozimek, C.


    Magma chamber modeling has advanced to the stage where it is now possible to develop self-consistent, predictive models that consider mechanical, thermal, and compositional magma time evolution through multiple eruptive cycles. We have developed such a thermo-mechanical-chemical model for a laterally extensive sill-like chamber beneath free surface, to understand physical controls on eruptive products through time at long-lived magmatic centers. This model predicts the relative importance of recharge, eruption, assimilation and fractional crystallization (REAFC, Lee et al., 2013) on evolving chemical composition as a function of mechanical magma chamber stability regimes. We solve for the time evolution of chamber pressure, temperature, gas volume fraction, volume, elemental concentration in the melt and crustal temperature field that accounts for moving boundary conditions associated with chamber inflation (and the possibility of coupled chambers at different depths). The density, volume fractions of melt and crystals, crustal assimilation and the changing viscosity and crustal properties of the wall rock are also tracked, along with joint solubility of water and CO2. The eventual goal is to develop an efficient forward model to invert for eruptive records at long-lived eruptive centers, where multiple types of data for eruptions are available. As a first step, we apply this model to a new compilation of eruptive data from the Columbia River Flood Basalts (CRFB), which erupted 210,000 km3 from feeder dikes in Washington, Oregon and Idaho between 16.9-6Ma. Data include volumes, timing and geochemical composition of eruptive units, along with seismic surveys and clinopyroxene geobarometry that constrain depth of storage through time. We are in the process of performing a suite of simulations varying model input parameters such as mantle melt rate, emplacement depth, wall rock compositions and rheology, and volatile content to explain volume, eruption timescales, and

  9. Forecasting magma-chamber rupture at Santorini volcano, Greece (United States)

    Browning, John; Drymoni, Kyriaki; Gudmundsson, Agust


    How much magma needs to be added to a shallow magma chamber to cause rupture, dyke injection, and a potential eruption? Models that yield reliable answers to this question are needed in order to facilitate eruption forecasting. Development of a long-lived shallow magma chamber requires periodic influx of magmas from a parental body at depth. This redistribution process does not necessarily cause an eruption but produces a net volume change that can be measured geodetically by inversion techniques. Using continuum-mechanics and fracture-mechanics principles, we calculate the amount of magma contained at shallow depth beneath Santorini volcano, Greece. We demonstrate through structural analysis of dykes exposed within the Santorini caldera, previously published data on the volume of recent eruptions, and geodetic measurements of the 2011-2012 unrest period, that the measured 0.02% increase in volume of Santorini’s shallow magma chamber was associated with magmatic excess pressure increase of around 1.1 MPa. This excess pressure was high enough to bring the chamber roof close to rupture and dyke injection. For volcanoes with known typical extrusion and intrusion (dyke) volumes, the new methodology presented here makes it possible to forecast the conditions for magma-chamber failure and dyke injection at any geodetically well-monitored volcano.

  10. Convective Regimes in Crystallizing Basaltic Magma Chambers (United States)

    Gilbert, A. J.; Neufeld, J. A.; Holness, M. B.


    Cooling through the chamber walls drives crystallisation in crustal magma chambers, resulting in a cumulate pile on the floor and mushy regions at the walls and roof. The liquid in many magma chambers, either the bulk magma or the interstitial liquid in the mushy regions, may convect, driven either thermally, due to cooling, or compositionally, due to fractional crystallization. We have constructed a regime diagram of the possible convective modes in a system containing a basal mushy layer. These modes depend on the large-scale buoyancy forcing characterised by a global Rayleigh number and the proportion of the chamber height constituting the basal mushy region. We have tested this regime diagram using an analogue experimental system composed of a fluid layer overlying a pile of almost neutrally buoyant inert particles. Convection in this system is driven thermally, simulating magma convection above and within a porous cumulate pile. We observe a range of possible convective regimes, enabling us to produce a regime diagram. In addition to modes characterised by convection of the bulk and interstitial fluid, we also observe a series of regimes where the crystal pile is mobilised by fluid motions. These regimes feature saltation and scouring of the crystal pile by convection in the bulk fluid at moderate Rayleigh numbers, and large crystal-rich fountains at high Rayleigh numbers. For even larger Rayleigh numbers the entire crystal pile is mobilised in what we call the snowglobe regime. The observed mobilisation regimes may be applicable to basaltic magma chambers. Plagioclase in basal cumulates crystallised from a dense magma may be a result of crystal mobilisation from a plagioclase-rich roof mush. Compositional convection within such a mush could result in disaggregation, enabling the buoyant plagioclase to be entrained in relatively dense descending liquid plumes and brought to the floor. The phenocryst load in porphyritic lavas is often interpreted as a

  11. Efficiency of differentiation in the Skaergaard magma chamber (United States)

    Tegner, C.; Lesher, C. E.; Holness, M. B.; Jakobsen, J. K.; Salmonsen, L.; Humphreys, M.; Thy, P.


    Although it is largely agreed that crystallization occurs inwardly in crystal mushes along the margins of magma chambers, the efficiency and mechanisms of differentiation are not well constrained. The fractionation paradigm hinges on mass exchange between the crystal mush and the main magma reservoir resulting in coarse-grained, refractory (cumulate) rocks of primary crystals, and complementary enrichment of incompatible elements in the main reservoir of magma. Diffusion, convection, liquid immiscibility and compaction have been proposed as mechanisms driving this mass exchange. Here we examine the efficiency of differentiation in basaltic crystal mushes in different regions of the Skaergaard magma chamber. The contents of incompatible elements such as phosphorus and calculated residual porosities are high in the lowermost cumulate rocks of the floor (47-30%) and decrease upsection, persisting at low values in the uppermost two-thirds of the floor rock stratigraphy (~5% residual porosity). The residual porosity is intermediate at the walls (~15%) and highest and more variable at the roof (10-100%). This is best explained by compaction and expulsion of interstitial liquid from the accumulating crystal mush at the floor and the inefficiency of these processes elsewhere in the intrusion. In addition, the roof data imply upwards infiltration of interstitial liquid. Remarkably uniform residual porosity of ~15% for cumulates formed along the walls suggest that their preservation is related to the rheological properties of the mush, i.e. at ≤ 15% porosity the mush is rigid enough to adhere to the wall, while at higher porosity it is easily swept away. We conclude that the efficiency of compaction and differentiation can be extremely variable along the margins of magma chambers. This should be taken into account in models of magma chamber evolution.

  12. The influence of magma viscosity on convection within a magma chamber (United States)

    Schubert, M.; Driesner, T.; Ulmer, P.


    Magmatic-hydrothermal ore deposits are the most important sources of metals like Cu, Mo, W and Sn and a major resource for Au. It is well accepted that they are formed by the release of magmatic fluids from a batholith-sized magma body. Traditionally, it has been assumed that crystallization-induced volatile saturation (called "second boiling") is the main mechanism for fluid release, typically operating over thousands to tens of thousands of years (Candela, 1991). From an analysis of alteration halo geometries caused by magmatic fluids, Cathles and Shannon (2007) suggested much shorter timescales in the order of hundreds of years. Such rapid release of fluids cannot be explained by second boiling as the rate of solidification scales with the slow conduction of heat away from the system. However, rapid fluid release is possible if convection is assumed within the magma chamber. The magma would degas in the upper part of the magma chamber and volatile poor magma would sink down again. Such, the rates of degassing can be much higher than due to cooling only. We developed a convection model using Navier-Stokes equations provided by the computational fluid dynamics platform OpenFOAM that gives the possibility to use externally derived meshes with complex (natural) geometries. We implemented a temperature, pressure, composition and crystal fraction dependent viscosity (Ardia et al., 2008; Giordano et al., 2008; Moore et al., 1998) and a temperature, pressure, composition dependent density (Lange1994). We found that the new viscosity and density models strongly affect convection within the magma chamber. The dependence of viscosity on crystal fraction has a particularly strong effect as the steep viscosity increase at the critical crystal fraction leads to steep decrease of convection velocity. As the magma chamber is cooling from outside to inside a purely conductive layer is developing along the edges of the magma chamber. Convection continues in the inner part of the

  13. Isotopic evidence for multiple contributions to felsic magma chambers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waight, Tod Earle; Wiebe, R.A.; Krogstad, E.J.


    by contemporaneous mafic magmas; the transition between the two now preserved as a zone of chilled mafic sheets and pillows in granite. Mafic components have highly variably isotopic compositions as a result of contamination either at depth or following injection into the magma chamber. Intermediate dikes...... with identical isotopic compositions to more mafic dikes suggest that closed system fractionation may be occurring in deeper level chambers prior to injection to shallower levels. The granitic portion of the pluton has the highest Nd isotopic composition (eNd=+3.0) of plutons in the region whereas the mafic...... lithologies have Nd isotopic compositions (eNd=+3.5) that are the lowest in the region and similar to the granite and suggestive of prolonged interactions and homogenization of the two components. Sr and Nd isotopic data for felsic enclaves are inconsistent with previously suggested models of diffusional...

  14. Magma evolution inside the 1631 Vesuvius magma chamber and eruption triggering (United States)

    Stoppa, Francesco; Principe, Claudia; Schiazza, Mariangela; Liu, Yu; Giosa, Paola; Crocetti, Sergio


    Vesuvius is a high-risk volcano and the 1631 Plinian eruption is a reference event for the next episode of explosive unrest. A complete stratigraphic and petrographic description of 1631 pyroclastics is given in this study. During the 1631 eruption a phonolite was firstly erupted followed by a tephritic phonolite and finally a phonolitic tephrite, indicating a layered magma chamber. We suggest that phonolitic basanite is a good candidate to be the primitive parental-melt of the 1631 eruption. Composition of apatite from the 1631 pyroclastics is different from those of CO2-rich melts indicating negligible CO2 content during magma evolution. Cross checking calculations, using PETROGRAPH and PELE software, accounts for multistage evolution up to phonolite starting from a phonolitic basanite melt similar to the Vesuvius medieval lavas. The model implies crystal settling of clinopyroxene and olivine at 6 kbar and 1220°C, clinopyroxene plus leucite at a pressure ranging from 2.5 to 0.5 kbar and temperature ranging from 1140 to 940°C. Inside the phonolitic magma chamber K-feldspar and leucite would coexist at a temperature ranging from from 940 to 840°C and at a pressure ranging from 2.5 to0.5 kbar. Thus crystal fractionation is certainly a necessary and probably a sufficient condition to evolve the melt from phono tephritic to phonolitic in the 1631 magma chamber. We speculate that phonolitic tephrite magma refilling from deeper levels destabilised the chamber and triggered the eruption, as testified by the seismic precursor phenomena before 1631 unrest.

  15. Magma evolution inside the 1631 Vesuvius magma chamber and eruption triggering

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    Stoppa Francesco


    Full Text Available Vesuvius is a high-risk volcano and the 1631 Plinian eruption is a reference event for the next episode of explosive unrest. A complete stratigraphic and petrographic description of 1631 pyroclastics is given in this study. During the 1631 eruption a phonolite was firstly erupted followed by a tephritic phonolite and finally a phonolitic tephrite, indicating a layered magma chamber. We suggest that phonolitic basanite is a good candidate to be the primitive parental-melt of the 1631 eruption. Composition of apatite from the 1631 pyroclastics is different from those of CO2-rich melts indicating negligible CO2 content during magma evolution. Cross checking calculations, using PETROGRAPH and PELE software, accounts for multistage evolution up to phonolite starting from a phonolitic basanite melt similar to the Vesuvius medieval lavas. The model implies crystal settling of clinopyroxene and olivine at 6 kbar and 1220°C, clinopyroxene plus leucite at a pressure ranging from 2.5 to 0.5 kbar and temperature ranging from 1140 to 940°C. Inside the phonolitic magma chamber K-feldspar and leucite would coexist at a temperature ranging from from 940 to 840°C and at a pressure ranging from 2.5 to0.5 kbar. Thus crystal fractionation is certainly a necessary and probably a sufficient condition to evolve the melt from phono tephritic to phonolitic in the 1631 magma chamber. We speculate that phonolitic tephrite magma refilling from deeper levels destabilised the chamber and triggered the eruption, as testified by the seismic precursor phenomena before 1631 unrest.

  16. Time Evolution of Thermo-Mechanically and Chemically Coupled Magma Chambers (United States)

    Ozimek, C.; Karlstrom, L.; Erickson, B. A.


    Complexity in the volcanic eruption cycle reflects time variation both of magma inputs to the crustal plumbing system and of crustal melt storage zones (magma chambers). These data include timing and volumes of eruptions, as well as erupted compositions. Thus models must take into account the coupled nature of physical attributes. Here we combine a thermo-mechanical model for magma chamber growth and pressurization with a chemical model for evolving chamber compositions, in the limit of rapid mixing, to study controls on eruption cycles and compositions through time. We solve for the mechanical evolution of a 1D magma chamber containing melt, crystals and bubbles, in a thermally evolving and viscoelastic crust. This pressure and temperature evolution constrains the input values of a chemical box model (Lee et al., 2013) that accounts for recharge, eruption, assimilation and fractional crystallization (REAFC) within the chamber. We plan to study the influence of melt supply, input composition, and chamber depth eruptive fluxes and compositions. Ultimately we will explore multiple chambers coupled by elastic-walled dikes. We expect that this framework will facilitate self-consistent inversion of long-term eruptive histories in terms of magma transport physics. Lee, C.-T. A., Lee, T.-C., Wu, C.-T., 2013. Modeling the compositional evolution of recharging, evacuating, and fractionating (REFC) magma chambers: Implications for differentiationof arc magmas. Geochemica Cosmochimica Acta,

  17. The relative roles of boundary layer fractionation and homogeneous fractionation in cooling basaltic magma chambers (United States)

    Kuritani, Takeshi


    In a cooling magma chamber, magmatic differentiation can proceed both by fractionation of crystals from the main molten part of the magma body (homogeneous fractionation) and by mixing of the main magma with fractionated melt derived from low-temperature mush zones (boundary layer fractionation). In this study, the relative roles of boundary layer fractionation and homogeneous fractionation in basaltic magma bodies were examined using a thermodynamics-based mass balance model. Model calculations show that boundary layer fractionation cannot be a dominant fractionation mechanism when magma chambers are located at low pressures (magmatic evolution. On the other hand, boundary layer fractionation can occur effectively when magmas are hydrous (> ~ 2 wt.%), such as arc basalt, and the magma chambers are located at depth (> ~ 100 MPa). Because the melt derived from mush zones is enriched in alkalis and H 2O, crystallization from the main magma is suppressed by mixing with the mush melt as a consequence of depression of the liquidus temperature. Therefore, homogeneous fractionation is more effectively suppressed in magma chambers in which boundary layer fractionation is more active. If magmatic differentiation proceeds primarily by boundary layer fractionation, magmas can remain free of crystals for long periods during magmatic evolution.

  18. Utilising Geological Field Measurements and Historic Eruption Volumes to Estimate the Volume of Santorini's Magma Chamber (United States)

    Browning, J.; Drymoni, K.; Gudmundsson, A.


    An understanding of the amount of magma available to supply any given eruption is useful for determining the potential eruption magnitude and duration. Geodetic measurements and inversion techniques are often used to constrain volume changes within magma chambers, as well as constrain location and depth, but such models are incapable of calculating total magma storage. For example, during the 2012 unrest period at Santorini volcano, approximately 0.021 km3 of new magma entered a shallow chamber residing at around 4 km below the surface. This type of event is not unusual, and is in fact a necessary condition for the formation of a long-lived shallow chamber, of which Santorini must possess. The period of unrest ended without culminating in eruption, i.e the amount of magma which entered the chamber was insufficient to break the chamber and force magma further towards the surface. We combine previously published data on the volume of recent eruptions at Santorini together with geodetic measurements. Measurements of dykes within the caldera wall provide an estimate of the volume of magma transported during eruptions, assuming the dyke does not become arrested. When the combined volume of a dyke and eruption are known (Ve) they can be used to estimate using fracture mechanics principles and poro-elastic constraints the size of an underlying shallow magma chamber. We present field measurements of dykes within Santorini caldera and provide an analytical method to estimate the volume of magma contained underneath Santorini caldera. In addition we postulate the potential volume of magma required as input from deeper sources to switch the shallow magma chamber from an equilibrium setting to one where the pressure inside the chamber exceeds the surrounding host rocks tensile strength, a condition necessary to form a dyke and a possible eruption.

  19. Numerical Modeling of Surface Deformation due to Magma Chamber Inflation/Deflation in a Heterogeneous Viscoelastic Half-space (United States)

    Dichter, M.; Roy, M.


    Interpreting surface deformation patterns in terms of deeper processes in regions of active magmatism is challenging and inherently non-unique. This study focuses on interpreting the unusual sombrero-shaped pattern of surface deformation in the Altiplano Puna region of South America, which has previously been modeled as the effect of an upwelling diapir of material in the lower crust. Our goal is to investigate other possible interpretations of the surface deformation feature using a suite of viscoelastic models with varying material heterogeneity. We use the finite-element code PyLith to study surface deformation due to a buried time-varying (periodic) overpressure source, a magma body, at depth within a viscoelastic half-space. In our models, the magma-body is a penny-shaped crack, with a cylindrical region above the crack that is weak relative to the surrounding material. We initially consider a magma body within a homogeneous viscoelastic half-space to determine the effect of the free surface upon deformation above and beneath the source region. We observe a complex depth-dependent phase relationship between stress and strain for elements that fall between the ground surface and the roof of the magma body. Next, we consider a volume of weak material (faster relaxation time relative to background) that is distributed with varying geometry around the magma body. We investigate how surface deformation is governed by the spatial distribution of the weak material and its rheologic parameters. We are able to reproduce a "sombrero" pattern of surface velocities for a range of models with material heterogeneity. The wavelength of the sombrero pattern is primarily controlled by the extent of the heterogeneous region, modulated by flexural effects. Our results also suggest an "optimum overpressure forcing frequency" where the lifetime of the sombrero pattern (a transient phenomenon due to the periodic nature of the overpressure forcing) reaches a maximum. Through further

  20. Shallow Chamber & Conduit Behavior of Silicic Magma: A Thermo- and Fluid- Dynamic Parameterization Model of Physical Deformation as Constrained by Geodetic Observations: Case Study; Soufriere Hills Volcano, Montserrat (United States)

    Gunn de Rosas, C. L.


    The Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat (SHV) is an active, mainly andesitic and well-studied stratovolcano situated at the northern end of the Lesser Antilles Arc subduction zone in the Caribbean Sea. The goal of our research is to create a high resolution 3D subsurface model of the shallow and deeper aspects of the magma storage and plumbing system at SHV. Our model will integrate inversions using continuous and campaign geodetic observations at SHV from 1995 to the present as well as local seismic records taken at various unrest intervals to construct a best-fit geometry, pressure point source and inflation rate and magnitude. We will also incorporate a heterogeneous media in the crust and use the most contemporary understanding of deep crustal- or even mantle-depth 'hot-zone' genesis and chemical evolution of silicic and intermediate magmas to inform the character of the deep edifice influx. Our heat transfer model will be constructed with a modified 'thin shell' enveloping the magma chamber to simulate the insulating or conducting influence of heat-altered chamber boundary conditions. The final forward model should elucidate observational data preceding and proceeding unrest events, the behavioral suite of magma transport in the subsurface environment and the feedback mechanisms that may contribute to eruption triggering. Preliminary hypotheses suggest wet, low-viscosity residual melts derived from 'hot zones' will ascend rapidly to shallower stall-points and that their products (eventually erupted lavas as well as stalled plutonic masses) will experience and display two discrete periods of shallow evolution; a rapid depressurization crystallization event followed by a slower conduction-controlled heat transfer and cooling crystallization. These events have particular implications for shallow magma behaviors, notably inflation, compressibility and pressure values. Visualization of the model with its inversion constraints will be affected with Com

  1. Samail Ophiolite plutonic suite: Field relations, phase variation, cryptic variation and layering, and a model of a spreading ridge magma chamber (United States)

    Pallister, J. S.; Hopson, C. A.


    during its crystallization history. Zig-zag normal and reverse cryptic variation differentiation trends (both in major solid-solution components and in minor element concentration) indicate that the replenishment took place in pulses followed by periods of magma mixing and crystal fractionation. Recurrent olivine-rich intervals commonly (but not always) coincide with reverse cryptic variation trends. They are considered to be the products of fresh draughts of primitive magma, with olivine and chromite as the only liquidus phases prior to extensive mixing with the more fractionated resident magma within the chamber. The sequence of crystallization is explained using the simplified tholeiitic basalt tetrahedron of Presnall et al. (1979). The plutonic sequence is roofed by sheeted dikes that are overlain by submarine basalt, indicating that the magma crystallized beneath a spreading ocean ridge. Major and trace element geochemistry of the dike complex is similar in many respects to that of mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) and yield Mg/Mg + Fe+2 ratios that overlap with ratios predicted for parent liquids of the cumulus suite based on crystal/liquid equilibria. Field evidence, including continuity of layering over large areas, distinctive layer sets that are mapped for several km along strike, and lack of chamber edge contacts indicates that crystallization of Jabal Dimh plutonics took place in a single, large, long-lived magma chamber rather than in small transitory chambers. Similarity of mineral compositions and tentative correlation of cryptic variation trends between stratigraphic sections favors a large, single-chamber model. The chamber shape, controlled by floor growth upward greatly exceeding roof growth downward as the chamber halves diverged from the paleo-spreading axis, must have been funnel-shaped in cross section; i.e., the floor sloped inward to the center from a sandwich horizon that developed just beneath the roof at both sides. This conclusion is based on the

  2. Magma chamber processes in central volcanic systems of Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Þórarinsson, Sigurjón Böðvar; Tegner, Christian


    New field work and petrological investigations of the largest gabbro outcrop in Iceland, the Hvalnesfjall gabbro of the 6-7 Ma Austurhorn intrusive complex, have established a stratigraphic sequence exceeding 800 m composed of at least 8 macrorhythmic units. The bases of the macrorhythmic units......3 of clinopyroxene and magnetite indicative of magma replenishment. Some macrorhythmic units show mineral trends indicative of up-section fractional crystallisation over up to 100 m, whereas others show little variation. Two populations of plagioclase crystals (large, An-rich and small, less An...... olivine basalts from Iceland that had undergone about 20% crystallisation of olivine, plagioclase and clinopyroxene and that the macrorhythmic units formed from thin magma layers not exceeding 200-300 m. Such a "mushy" magma chamber is akin to volcanic plumbing systems in settings of high magma supply...

  3. Solidification fronts in large magma chambers: insights from the anomalies (United States)

    VanTongeren, J. A.


    The emplacement of hot viscous magma into the cold rigid crust causes a thermal disturbance within both the country rock and the magma. With time, heat loss from the molten interior to the walls causes solidification at the floor, roof and margins of the magma chamber. As is observed in both experiment and theory, in the absence of hydrothermal convection, the majority of heat is lost via conduction through the roof of the intrusion. In basaltic sills and layered mafic intrusions (LMIs), this solidification front is manifest in the deposition of mineral assemblages and compositions that become progressively more evolved from the floor of the intrusion upwards (the 'Layered Series'; LS) and from the roof downwards (the UBS) such that the most chemically evolved rocks are found in the interior of the magma body at a 'Sandwich Horizon'. The formation of a UBS, as typified by the Skaergaard Intrusion, is a natural outcome of the progression of the solidification front from the cold roof to the hot center of the magma chamber. There are, however, a few unique LMIs for which little or no UBS exists. Convection of the molten magma, reinjection and mixing of new magma, compaction of cumulates, and porous flow of interstitial liquid, among other processes, can affect the final location and composition of the most differentiated liquids; but ultimately, all are linked to the nature of heat loss from the magma chamber. In this study, I examine the thermal evolution of several classic LMIs as it is recorded in the extent of the preserved upper solidification front (or Upper Border Series; 'UBS'). For those intrusions that have experienced crystallization at the roof, such as the Skaergaard Intrusion, the development of a UBS reduces the temperature gradient at the roof and effectively slows the rate of heat loss from the main magma body. However, for those intrusions that do not have an UBS, such as the Bushveld Complex, the cooling rate is controlled only by the maximum rate

  4. The record of magma chamber processes in plagioclase phenocrysts at Thera Volcano, Aegean Volcanic Arc, Greece (United States)

    Stamatelopoulou-Seymour, Karen; Vlassopoulos, Dimitrios; Pearce, Thomas H.; Rice, Craig


    Lavas and pyroclastic rocks throughout the volcanic stratigraphy of the Tertiary-Quaternary volcanic complex of Thera in the Aegean island arc display inhomogenous plagioclase populations and phenocryst resorption textures, interpreted as indicative of magma mixing. Plagioclase zoning characteristics studied by Nomarski and laser interferometry techniques establish three main categories of plagioclase: (i) inherited plagioclase (nucleated in endmember prior to initial mixing event) (ii) in situ plagioclase (nucleated in mixed or hybrid magma) and (iii) xenocrystic plagioclase. Nomarski contrast images and linearized compositional zoning profiles reveal striking differences between calcic and sodic plagioclases, depending on the composition of the lava in which they are hosted. These differences reflect the contrasting effects of changes in physical-chemical parameters in basic vis-a-vis more acidic melts during magma mixing and/or influx of new magma into the subvolcanic magma chamber, as well as the influence of magma chamber dynamics on plagioclase equilibration. Variations in bulk major and trace element abundances of Thera volcanic products reflect the dominant overprint of crystal fractionation, but decoupling between major and trace element fractionation models and variations in incompatible trace element distributions are all indicative of magma mixing processes, consistent with compositional and textural zoning in plagioclases.

  5. Convective melting in a magma chamber: theory and numerical experiment. (United States)

    Simakin, A.


    We present results of the numerical modeling of convective melting in a magma chamber in 2D. Model was pointed on the silicic system approximated with Qz-Fsp binary undersaturated with water. Viscosity was calculated as a function of the melt composition, temperature and crystal content and comprises for the pure melt 104.5-105.5 Pas. Lower boundary was taken thermally insulated in majority of the runs. Size of FEM (bilinear elements) grid for velocity is 25x25 cm and for the integration of the density term 8x8 cm. Melting of the chamber roof proceeds with the heat supply due to the chaotic thermo-compositional convection and conductive heat loose into melted substrate. We compare our numerical data with existing semi-analytical models. Theoretical studies of the assimilation rates in the magma chambers usually use theoretical semi-analytical model by Huppert and Sparks (1988) (e.g., Snyder, 2000). We find that this model has strong points: 1) Independence of the melting rate on the sill thickness (Ra>>Rac) 2) Independence of the convective heat transfer on the roof temperature 3) Determination of the exponential thermal boundary layer ahead of the melting front and weak points: 1) Ignoring the possibility of the crystallization without melting regime for narrow sills and dykes. 2)Neglecting of two-phase character of convection. 3)Ignoring of the strong viscosity variation near the melting front. Independence of convective flux from the sill size (at Ra>>Rac) allows reducing of computational domain to the geologically small size (10-15 m). Concept of exponential thermal boundary layer is also rather important. Length scale (L0) of this layer is related to the melting rate and thermal diffusivity coefficient kT as L0=kT/um and at the melting rate 10 m/yr becomes about 2 m. Such small scale implies that convective melting is very effective (small conductive heat loss) and part of the numerical domain filled with roof rocks can be taken small. In the H&S model

  6. Mechanisms of differentiation in the Skaergaard magma chamber (United States)

    Tegner, C.; Lesher, C. E.; Holness, M. B.; Jakobsen, J. K.; Salmonsen, L. P.; Humphreys, M. C. S.; Thy, P.


    The Skaergaard intrusion is a superb natural laboratory for studying mechanisms of magma chamber differentiation. The magnificent exposures and new systematic sample sets of rocks that solidified inwards from the roof, walls and floor of the chamber provide means to test the relative roles of crystal settling, diffusion, convection, liquid immiscibility and compaction in different regions of the chamber and in opposite positions relative to gravity. Examination of the melt inclusions and interstitial pockets has demonstrated that a large portion of intrusion crystallized from an emulsified magma chamber composed of immiscible silica- and iron-rich melts. The similarity of ratios of elements with opposite partitioning between the immiscible melts (e.g. P and Rb) in wall, floor and roof rocks, however, indicate that large-scale separation did not occur. Yet, on a smaller scale of metres to hundred of metres and close to the interface between the roof and floor rocks (the Sandwich Horizon), irregular layers and pods of granophyre hosted by extremely iron-rich cumulates point to some separation of the two liquid phases. Similar proportions of the primocryst (cumulus) minerals in roof, wall and floor rocks indicate that crystal settling was not an important mechanism. Likewise, the lack of fractionation of elements with different behavior indicate that diffusion and fluid-driven metasomatism played relatively minor roles. Compositional convection and/or compaction within the solidifying crystal mush boundary layer are likely the most important mechanisms. A correlation of low trapped liquid fractions (calculated from strongly incompatible elements) in floor rocks with high fractionation density (the density difference between the crystal framework and the liquid) indicate that compaction is the dominating process in expelling evolved liquid from the crystal mush layer. This is supported by high and variable trapped liquid contents in the roof rocks, where gravity

  7. The origin of a zoned ignimbrite: Insights into the Campanian Ignimbrite magma chamber (Campi Flegrei, Italy) (United States)

    Forni, Francesca; Bachmann, Olivier; Mollo, Silvio; De Astis, Gianfilippo; Gelman, Sarah E.; Ellis, Ben S.


    the crystal-rich units, implying feldspar accumulation; 2) the positive Eu anomalies in the matrix glass of the crystal-rich units, testifying to the presence of liquid derived from partial melting of low temperature mineral phases within the crystal mush (mostly feldspars); 3) the Ba and Sr-rich rims in the feldspars and positive Eu anomalies in clinopyroxene rims, suggesting late rim growth from a locally enriched melt following cumulate mush remelting and 4) the occurrence of An-rich plagioclase, relict from a more mafic recharge, which acted as a heat source. Our model reconciles many observations made over the years on zoned deposits of such high-magnitude explosive eruptions, and provides a framework to understand magma chamber processes leading up to cataclysmic events.

  8. Petrology of the zoned calcalkaline magma chamber of Mount Mazama, Crater Lake, Oregon (United States)

    Druitt, T.H.; Bacon, C.R.


    rhyodacites of the Holocene Llao Rock center (7015??45 BP) contain Sr-poor plagioclase and are derivatives from low-Sr magma. Rhyodacites of the Pleistocene Sharp Peak domes, Holocene Cleetwood flow (???6850 BP), and climactic ejecta contain discrete Sr-rich and Sr-poor plagioclase phenocryst populations and are hybrids produced by mixing low-Sr rhyodacite (containing Sr-poor plag + opx + aug) with a more mafic high-Sr magma (with Sr-rich plag [ + hb?]). The data reinforce the conclusions of crystal-liquid mixing calculations (Bacon and Druitt 1988), and suggest some important refinements to the magma chamber model. ?? 1989 Springer-Verlag.

  9. Temperature field distribution from cooling of a magma chamber in La Primavera Caldera, Jalisco, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, S.P. [Laboratorio de Energia Solar, Temixco, UNAM (Mexico); Rodriguez-Gonzalez, U. [Facultad de Ciencias de la Tierra, Linares, UANL (Mexico)


    The temperature field distribution in La Primavera geothermal area, Jalisco, located in the western part of the Mexican Volcanic Belt (MVB), has been simulated from cooling of a shallow magma chamber (assumed as the primary heat source) during the entire volcanic history of the caldera. Similar to the other two geothermal fields of the MVB (Los Humeros and Los Azufres), it is considered that the evolution of the magma chamber is controlled by the processes of fractional crystallization as well as magma recharge. Besides these processes, heat contribution is also taken into account from decay of natural radioactive elements, U, Th, and K, present in all geological materials. In some models presented in this work, convection in the geothermal reservoir is simulated by assigning higher values of thermal conductivities (up to 20 times the rock conductivities) to respective geologic units. The heat transfer equation has been solved by a finite element implicit method. The results of temperature simulations from the magma chamber are compared with undisturbed formation temperatures in three drill wells. (author)

  10. An experimental tool to look in a magma chamber (United States)

    Gonde, C.; Massare, D.; Bureau, H.; Martel, C.; Pichavant, M.; Clocchiatti, R.


    Understanding the physical and geochemical processes occurring in the volcanoes roots is one of the fundamental tasks of research in the experimental petrology community. This requires experimental tools able to create confining conditions appropriate for magma chambers and conduits. However, the characterization of some natural magmatic processes requires more than a blink experimental approach, to be rigorously studied. In some cases, the in situ approach is the only one issue, because it permits the observation of processes (crystallization of mineral phases, bubble growth.) and their kinetic studies. Here we present a powerful tool, a transparent internally heated autoclave. With this apparatus, pressures (up to 0.3 GPa) and temperatures (up to 900°C) appropriate for subvolcanic magma reservoirs can be obtained. Because it is equipped with transparent sapphire windows, either images or movies can be recorded during an experiment. The pressure medium is Argon, and heating is achieved by a W winding placed into the pressure vessel. Pressure and temperature are calibrated using both well known melting points (eg. salts, metals) and phase transitions (AgI), either at room temperature or at medium and high temperatures. During an experiment, the experimental charge is held between two thick windows of diamond, placed in the furnace cylinder. The experimental volume is about 1 mm3. The observation and numeric record are made along the horizontal axis, through the windows. This apparatus is currently used for studies of nucleation and growth of gas bubbles in a silicate melt. The first results will be presented at the meeting.

  11. Geophysical Evidence for the Locations, Shapes and Sizes, and Internal Structures of Magma Chambers beneath Regions of Quaternary Volcanism (United States)

    Iyer, H. M.


    This paper is a review of seismic, gravity, magnetic and electromagnetic techniques to detect and delineate magma chambers of a few cubic kilometres to several thousand cubic kilometres volume. A dramatic decrease in density and seismic velocity, and an increase in seismic attenuation and electrical conductivity occurs at the onset of partial melting in rocks. The geophysical techniques are based on detecting these differences in physical properties between solid and partially molten rock. Although seismic refraction techniques, with sophisticated instrumentation and analytical procedures, are routinely used for detailed studies of crustal structure in volcanic regions, their application for magma detection has been quite limited. In one study, in Yellowstone National Park, U.S.A., fan-shooting and time-term techniques have been used to detect an upper-crustal magma chamber. Attenuation and velocity changes in seismic waves from explosions and earthquakes diffracted around magma chambers are observed near some volcanoes in Kamchatka. Strong attenuation of shear waves from regional earthquakes, interpreted as a diffraction effect, has been used to model magma chambers in Alaska, Kamchatka, Iceland, and New Zealand. One of the most powerful techniques in modern seismology, the seismic reflection technique with vibrators, was used to confirm the existence of a strong reflector in the crust near Socorro, New Mexico, in the Rio Grande Rift. This reflector, discovered earlier from data from local earthquakes, is interpreted as a sill-like magma body. In the Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, mapping seismicity patterns in the upper crust has enabled the modelling of the complex magma conduits in the crust and upper mantle. On the other hand, in the Usu volcano, Japan, the magma conduits are delineated by zones of seismic quiescence. Three-dimensional modelling of laterally varying structures using teleseismic residuals is proving to be a very promising technique for detecting and

  12. Location and Pressures Change Prediction of Bromo Volcano Magma Chamber Using Inversion Scheme (United States)

    Kumalasari, Ratih; Srigutomo, Wahyu


    Bromo volcano is one of active volcanoes in Indonesia. It has erupted at least 50 times since 1775 and has been monitored by Global Positioning System (GPS) since 1989. We applied the Levenberg-Marquardt inversion scheme to estimate the physical parameters contributing to the surface deformation. Physical parameters obtained by the inversion scheme such as magma chamber location and volume change are useful in monitoring and predicting the activity of Bromo volcano. From our calculation it is revealed that the depth of the magma chamber d = 6307.6 m, radius of magma chamber α = 1098.6 m and pressure change ΔP ≈ 1.0 MPa.

  13. Styles of zoning in central Andean ignimbrites - Insights into magma chamber processes (United States)

    De Silva, S. L.


    Data are presented showing that calc-alkaline high-K ignimbrites from the Altiplano-Puna Volcanic Complex of the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andes, showing a variety of compositional zonations. The characteristics of the juvenile material from the zoned and heterogenous ignimbrites suggest that crystallization of the observed phenocrysts occurred in prezoned magma chambers consisting of two or more layers. It is suggested that the width/height ratio of a magma chamber plays a critical role in the control of the style of zonation that may develop in a closed magma chamber.

  14. Windows Into an Open-System Magma Chamber: Cognate Xenoliths From the Kameni Islands, Santorini, Greece (United States)

    Martin, V. M.; Holness, M. B.; Pyle, D. M.


    The composition of the dacite forming the Kameni Islands has been remarkably uniform over the last 2200 years, attesting to significant replenishment and mixing in the shallow open-system chamber. Insights into chamber evolution can be gained from the abundant cognate xenoliths in the dacite. The xenoliths include both cumulates from the chamber floor and quenched fragments of replenishing magma. They fall into 7 groups distinguishable by differences in chemistry, texture and mechanical behaviour. Quench xenoliths with linear CSDs are thought to have formed on the injection of aphyric magma into the chamber. Since these xenoliths commonly have an andesitic composition, this suggests the expulsion of an aphyric melt from a crystal mush in a lower chamber by filter-pressing during compaction. Those with strongly bi-modal grain size distributions indicate injection of phenocryst-bearing replenishing magma. Quench xenoliths with evolved compositions are typically found as large isolated blocks randomly dispersed throughout the host lava. In contrast, the more mafic xenoliths are distributed in tight, elongate, clusters aligned in the direction of flow, and comprising up to 100 individuals. The contrasting spatial distributions of the xenoliths reflects the different rheological properties of the xenolith types, with implications for the ease of mixing and assimilation of batches of replenishing melt in the magma chamber. The rare cumulate xenoliths are small, and are characterised by coarse grain-size, low glass and vesicle content, and are predominantly found in lava from the last (1950) eruption. They are generally found enveloped by less dense and highly vesicular quench-type xenoliths, which probably provided the buoyancy forces necessary for entrainment. Mapping of the xenolith types shows that each flow forming the Kameni Islands has a distinct xenolith population, reflecting the changing state of the emptying magma chamber. Seismic activity has preceded most

  15. On the Interaction of a Vigorous Hydrothermal System with an Active Magma Chamber: The Puna Magma Chamber, Kilauea East Rift, Hawaii (United States)

    Gregory, R. T.; Marsh, B. D.; Teplow, W.; Fournelle, J.


    The extent of the interaction between hydrothermal systems and active magma chambers has long been of fundamental interest to the development of ore deposits, cooling of magma chambers, and dehydration of the subducting lithosphere. As volatiles build up in the residual magma in the trailing edge of magmatic solidification fronts, is it possible that volatiles are transferred from the active magma to the hydrothermal system and vice versa? Does the external fracture front associated with vigorous hydrothermal systems sometimes propagate into the solidification front, facilitating volatile exchange? Or is the magma always sealed at temperatures above some critical level related to rock strength and overpressure? The degree of hydrothermal interaction in igneous systems is generally gauged in post mortem studies of δ18O and δD, where it has been assumed that a fracture front develops about the magma collapsing inward with cooling. H.P. Taylor and D. Norton's (1979; J. Petrol.)seminal work inferred that rocks are sealed with approach to the solidus and there is little to no direct interaction with external volatiles in the active magma. In active lava lakes a fracture front develops in response to thermal contraction of the newly formed rock once the temperature drops to ~950°C (Peck and Kinoshita,1976;USGS PP935A); rainfall driven hydrothermal systems flash to steam near the 100 °C isotherm in the solidified lake and have little effect on the cooling history (Peck et al., 1977; AJS). Lava lakes are fully degassed magmas and until the recent discovery of the Puna Magma Chamber (Teplow et al., 2008; AGU) no active magma was known at sufficiently great pressure to contain original volatiles. During the course of routine drilling of an injection well at the Puna Geothermal Venture (PGV) well-field, Big Island, Hawaii, a 75-meter interval of diorite containing brown glass inclusions was penetrated at a depth of 2415 m, continued drilling to 2488 m encountered a melt

  16. Shallow magma chamber under the Wudalianchi Volcanic Field unveiled by seismic imaging with dense array (United States)

    Li, Zhiwei; Ni, Sidao; Zhang, Baolong; Bao, Feng; Zhang, Senqi; Deng, Yang; Yuen, David A.


    The Wudalianchi Volcano Field (WDF) is a typical intraplate volcano in northeast China with generation mechanism not yet well understood. As its last eruption was around 300 years ago, the present risk for volcano eruption is of particular public interest. We have carried out a high-resolution ambient noise tomography to investigate the location of magma chambers beneath the volcanic cones with a dense seismic array of 43 seismometers and ~ 6 km spatial interval. Significant low-velocity anomalies up to 10% are found at 7-13 km depth under the Weishan volcano, consistent with the pronounced high electrical-conductivity anomalies from previous magnetotelluric survey. We propose these extremely low velocity anomalies can be interpreted as partial melting in a shallow magma chamber with volume at least 200 km3 which may be responsible for most of the recent volcanic eruptions in WDF. Therefore, this magma chamber may pose a serious hazard for northeast China.

  17. Non-traditional stable isotope behaviors in immiscible silica-melts in a mafic magma chamber. (United States)

    Zhu, Dan; Bao, Huiming; Liu, Yun


    Non-traditional stable isotopes have increasingly been applied to studies of igneous processes including planetary differentiation. Equilibrium isotope fractionation of these elements in silicates is expected to be negligible at magmatic temperatures (δ(57)Fe difference often less than 0.2 per mil). However, an increasing number of data has revealed a puzzling observation, e.g., the δ(57)Fe for silicic magmas ranges from 0‰ up to 0.6‰, with the most positive δ(57)Fe almost exclusively found in A-type granitoids. Several interpretations have been proposed by different research groups, but these have so far failed to explain some aspects of the observations. Here we propose a dynamic, diffusion-induced isotope fractionation model that assumes Si-melts are growing and ascending immiscibly in a Fe-rich bulk magma chamber. Our model offers predictions on the behavior of non-traditional stable isotope such as Fe, Mg, Si, and Li that are consistent with observations from many A-type granitoids, especially those associated with layered intrusions. Diffusion-induced isotope fractionation may be more commonly preserved in magmatic rocks than was originally predicted.

  18. Conductive heat transfer from an isothermal magma chamber and its application to the measured heat flow distribution from mount hood, Oregon (United States)

    Nathenson, Menuel; Tilling, Robert I.; ,


    A steady-state solution for heat transfer from an isothermal, spherical magma chamber, with an imposed regional geothermal gradient far from the chamber, is developed. The extensive published heat-flow data set for Mount Hood, Oregon, is dominated by conductive heat transfer in the deeper parts of most drill holes and provides an ideal application of such a model. Magma-chamber volumes or depths needed to match the distribution of heat-flow data are larger or shallower than those inferred from geologic evidence.

  19. Halogen behaviours during andesitic magma degassing: from magma chamber to volcanic plume (United States)

    Balcone-Boissard, H.; Villemant, B.; Boudon, G.; Michel, A.


    Halogen (F, Cl, Br and I) behaviours during degassing of H2O-rich silicic magmas are investigated using volatile content analysis in glass (matrix glass and melt inclusions) of volcanic clasts (pumice and lava-dome fragments) in a series of plinian, vulcanian and lava dome-forming eruptions. Examples are taken from andesitic systems in subduction zones: Montagne Pelée and Soufrière Hills of Montserrat (Lesser Antilles) and Santa Maria-Santiaguito (Guatemala). Halogens behaviour during shallow degassing primarily depends on their incompatible character in melts and on H2O solubility. But variations in pre-eruptive conditions, degassing kinetics and syn-eruptive melt crystallisation, induce large variations in halogen extraction efficiency during H2O degassing, up to prevent halogen loss. In all studied systems, Cl, Br and I are not fractionated neither by differentiation nor by degassing processes: thus Cl/Br/I ratios remain well preserved in melts from reservoirs to eruption. These ratios measured in erupted clasts are characteristic of pre-eruptive magma compositions and may be used to trace deep magmatic processes. Moreover, during plinian eruptions, Cl, Br and I are extracted by H2O degassing but less efficiently than predicted by available experimental fluid-melt partition coefficients, by a factor as high as 5. F behaves as an incompatible element and, contrary to other halogens, is never significantly extracted by degassing. Degassing during lava dome-forming eruptions of andesitic magmas occurs mainly at equilibrium and is more efficient at extracting halogens and H2O than explosive degassing. The mobility of H2O and halogens depends on their speciation in both silicate melts and exsolved fluids which strongly varies with pressure. We suggest that the rapid pressure decrease during highly explosive eruptions prevents complete volatile speciation at equilibrium and consequently strongly limits halogen degassing.

  20. Differentiation Mechanism and Evolution of High-level Magma Chamber at Xiangshan,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The calc-alkaline volcanic magmas,which formed the Mesozoic uraniferous volcanic complex of Xiangshan,resulted from partial melting of the mixture of lower crust and enriched mantle with a high mixing proportion in a specific tectonic setting such as active continental margin or ocean-continent collision zone.The preliminary concentrations of Uand Th occur in low-degree par-tial melts.Only small part of these melts was rapidly extracted and erupted and most intruded into the high-level magma chamber(depth:12-13 km) of the compressed upper lithosphere ,in which occurred a strong differentiation which would resulted in strong preconcentrations of the high-hygromagmaphile elements U and Th associated with strong depletion of the 3-d transition ele-ments Ti,Sc,Co,Zr,etc.At the final stage of subduction of the West-Pacific-Kula plate towards the Asian continental plate,the regional tectonic environment was transformed from a compressive in-to a tensional setting.The strongly differentiated,U(and Th) enriched silicic alkalic magmas in high level magma chamber extensively erupted,extruded and intruded.The hydrothermal fluids released as a result of late volcano-degassing and dewatering during crystallization-solidification of magmas,re-sulted in the remobilization,leaching,migration and reconcentration of uranium ,which had been preconcentrated in volcanic rocks.Therefore,specific regional petrogeochemical criteria are expected for the uraniferous volcanic series.

  1. The effect of pressurized magma chamber growth on melt migration and pre-caldera vent locations through time at Mount Mazama, Crater Lake, Oregon (United States)

    Karlstrom, Leif; Wright, Heather M.; Bacon, Charles R.


    The pattern of eruptions at long-lived volcanic centers provides a window into the co-evolution of crustal magma transport, tectonic stresses, and unsteady magma generation at depth. Mount Mazama in the Oregon Cascades has seen variable activity over the last 400 ky, including the 50 km3 climactic eruption at ca. 7.7 ka that produced Crater Lake caldera. The physical mechanisms responsible for the assembly of silicic magma reservoirs that are the precursors to caldera-forming eruptions are poorly understood. Here we argue that the spatial and temporal distribution of geographically clustered volcanic vents near Mazama reflects the development of a centralized magma chamber that fed the climactic eruption. Time-averaged eruption rates at Mount Mazama imply an order of magnitude increase in deep magma influx prior to the caldera-forming event, suggesting that unsteady mantle melting triggered a chamber growth episode that culminated in caldera formation. We model magma chamber–dike interactions over ∼50 ky preceding the climactic eruption to fit the observed distribution of surface eruptive vents in space and time, as well as petrologically estimated deep influx rates. Best fitting models predict an expanding zone of dike capture caused by a growing, oblate spheroidal magma chamber with 10–30 MPa of overpressure. This growing zone of chamber influence causes closest approaching regional mafic vent locations as well as more compositionally evolved Mazama eruptions to migrate away from the climactic eruptive center, returning as observed to the center after the chamber drains during the caldera-forming eruption.

  2. From Magma Chamber to Tephra- what can volcanic titanite tell us about pre-eruptive processes? (United States)

    Iddon, Fiona; McLeod, Graham; Dempster, Tim; Walshaw, Richard; Everard, Lucie


    Large volume, apparently homogenous, crystal rich pyroclastic deposits, or so called 'monotonous intermediates' are often considered to represent erupted batholiths. Their formation and life-cycle can be preceded and eruptions triggered by highly complex magma chamber processes, with multiple periods of recharge, mixing and thermal oscillations [1]. This information is difficult to observe, even at the crystal scale due to fragmentation or re-equilibration with subsequent recharge events. Titanite is a geochemically robust mineral that acts as a reservoir for trace elements, in particular the HFSEs and REEs. This ability to act as a primary control on the trace element budget of a melt [2], coupled with its refractory nature, allows titanite to preserve compositional zoning, proven to act as a reliable record of magma chamber conditions even in long-lived plutons [3]. This study extends the use of titanite to volcanic rocks via a coupled micro-textural and geochemical study of titanites from the Fish Canyon Tuff, Colorado. Regarded as the largest ever recorded pyroclastic deposit, it is thought that the batholith-sized magma chamber cooled to a rigid crystalline mush prior to thermal rejuvenation via underplating mafic magma [1]. It is additionally suggested this may have acted as a trigger for the eruption [1]. Results have shown the titanites to possess trace element zoning reflecting changes in melt composition and chamber conditions. Dissolution horizons and inclusion suites additionally provide evidence for multiple changes in temperature and oxygen fugacity aiding the interpretation of pre-eruptive processes. The study is ongoing with investigation of titanite from the Cerro Galan Ignimbrite, Argentina. The deposit again is suggested to have undergone a complex magma chamber growth and recharge history, with further proposals of multiple magma storage locations at different crustal levels [4]. The crystal zoning may provide further evidence for this, however

  3. The impact of rapid recharge events on the evolution of magma chambers: Case studies of Santorini Volcano (Greece) and Volcan Quizapu (Chile) (United States)

    Degruyter, Wim; Huber, Christian; Bachmann, Olivier; Cooper, Kari; Kent, Adam


    Magma reservoirs in the crust are thought to be dominantly formed by episodic recharge events at rates that are much larger than the long-term average magma inflow rates. Hence, a better understanding of the evolution of a magma reservoir requires elucidating the mass change, pressurization, heating, deformation and the potential for an eruption associated with different recharge scenarios. Most importantly, the bifurcation in behavior between a recharge event that leads to eruption and one that will grow the chamber requires quantification for better volcanic hazard assessment. We use a numerical model to determine the change in pressure, temperature and volume of a magma chamber as it is exposed to a recharge event. The model is applied to the well-studied volcanic systems of Santorini Volcano (Greece) and Volcan Quizapu (Chile). We establish the rates and the duration of magma recharge events that will lead to an eruption. In doing so, we demonstrate the importance of the state of the magma chamber prior to the recharge event, i.e. its size and exsolved volatile content, on the subsequent evolution of the reservoir. In the case of Santorini, the model successfully reproduces the main features of the Minoan eruption and Nea Kameni activity, providing volume estimates for the active part of the current subvolcanic reservoir as well as information regarding the presence of exsolved volatiles. For Quizapu, we suggest that the change in eruptive style, from an effusive outpouring of lava in 1846-1847 to an explosive Plinian eruption in 1932, was controlled by a shift in the state of the magma chamber induced by the first eruption. These case studies show that thermo-mechanical models offer a new framework to integrate the historic eruption record with geodetic measurements and provide a context to understand the past, present and future of active volcanic centers.

  4. Transfer of volatiles and metals from mafic to felsic magmas in composite magma chambers: An experimental study (United States)

    Guo, Haihao; Audétat, Andreas


    In order to determine the behavior of metals and volatiles during intrusion of mafic magma into the base of silicic, upper crustal magma chambers, fluid-rock partition coefficients (Dfluid/rock) of Li, B, Na, S, Cl, K, Mn, Fe, Rb, Sr, Ba, Ce, Cu, Zn, Ag, Cd, Mo, As, Se, Sb, Te, W, Tl, Pb and Bi were determined experimentally at 2 kbar and 850 °C close to the solidus of mafic magma. In a first step, volatile-bearing mafic glasses were prepared by melting a natural basaltic trachyandesite in the presence of volatile-bearing fluids at 1200 °C/10 kbar in piston cylinder presses. The hydrous glasses were then equilibrated in subsequent experiments at 850 °C/2 kbar in cold-seal pressure vessels, which caused 80-90% of the melt to crystallize. After 0.5-2.0 days of equilibration, the exsolved fluid was trapped by means of in-situ fracturing in the form of synthetic fluid inclusions in quartz. Both the mafic rock residue and the fluid inclusions were subsequently analyzed by laser-ablation ICP-MS for major and trace elements. Reverse experiments were conducted by equilibrating metal-bearing aqueous solutions with rock powder and then trapping the fluid. In two additional experiments, information on relative element mobilities were obtained by reacting fluids that exsolved from crystallizing mafic magma with overlying silicic melts. The combined results suggest that under the studied conditions S, Cl, Cu, Se, Br, Cd and Te are most volatile (Dfluid/rock >10), followed by Li, B, Zn, As, Ag, Sb, Cs, W, Tl, Pb and Bi (Dfluid/rock = 1-10). Less volatile are Na, Mg, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Rb, Sr, Mo and Rb (Dfluid/rock 0.1-1), and the least fluid-mobile elements are Al, Si, Ti, Zr, Ba and Ce (Dfluid/rock <0.1). This trend is broadly consistent with relative element volatilities determined on natural high-temperature fumarole gases, although some differences exist. Based on the volatility data and measured mineral-melt and sulfide-melt partition coefficients, volatile fluxing in

  5. Fast Spreading Mid Ocean Ridge Magma Chamber Processes: New Constraints from Hess Deep (United States)

    MacLeod, C. J.; Lissenberg, J. C.; Howard, K. A.; Ildefonse, B.; Morris, A.; JC21 Scientific Party


    conjunction with the mineral trace element constraints presented elsewhere in this session by Lissenberg et al., we review the constraints they provide upon magma chamber models derived from the Oman ophiolite. Whether through sheeted sills or otherwise we conclude that in situ crystallisation mechanisms dominate, and that wholesale gabbro glacier crystal subsidence is unlikely to be an important mechanism.

  6. Upward migration of Vesuvius magma chamber over the past 20,000 years. (United States)

    Scaillet, B; Pichavant, M; Cioni, R


    Forecasting future eruptions of Vesuvius is an important challenge for volcanologists, as its reawakening could threaten the lives of 700,000 people living near the volcano. Critical to the evaluation of hazards associated with the next eruption is the estimation of the depth of the magma reservoir, one of the main parameters controlling magma properties and eruptive style. Petrological studies have indicated that during past activity, magma chambers were at depths between 3 and 16 km (refs 3-7). Geophysical surveys have imaged some levels of seismic attenuation, the shallowest of which lies at 8-9 km depth, and these have been tentatively interpreted as levels of preferential magma accumulation. By using experimental phase equilibria, carried out on material from four main explosive events at Vesuvius, we show here that the reservoirs that fed the eruptive activity migrated from 7-8 km to 3-4 km depth between the ad 79 (Pompeii) and ad 472 (Pollena) events. If data from the Pomici di Base event 18.5 kyr ago and the 1944 Vesuvius eruption are included, the total upward migration of the reservoir amounts to 9-11 km. The change of preferential magma ponding levels in the upper crust can be attributed to differences in the volatile content and buoyancy of ascending magmas, as well as to changes in local stress field following either caldera formation or volcano spreading. Reservoir migration, and the possible influence on feeding rates, should be integrated into the parameters used for defining expected eruptive scenarios at Vesuvius.

  7. The buoyancy of large siliceous magma chambers is sufficient to initiate supereruptions (United States)

    Malfait, W.; Sanchez-Valle, C.; Seifert, R.; Petitgirard, S.; Perrillat, J.; Ota, T.; Nakamura, E.; Lerch, P.; Mezouar, M.


    The geological record shows abundant evidence for rare, but extremely large caldera-forming eruptions of siliceous magmas that dwarf all historical volcanic episodes in erupted volume [1] and environmental impact [2, 3]. Because of the large size of the magma chambers that feed these eruptions, the overpressure generated by magma recharge is insufficient to fracture the cap rock and trigger an eruption [4]. For these thick magma chambers, the buoyancy of the magma potentially creates a sufficient overpressure capable of fracturing the cap rock, but the lack of data on the density of rhyolite melts precludes the appropriate estimation of the overpressure and the role of buoyancy in initiating supervolcano eruptions. The density of rhyolite melts has not been determined at super-liquidus temperatures or elevated pressures because traditional techniques, including Archimedean methods, sink/float experiments and acoustic measurements, are limited by the high melt viscosity. Here, we measured the density of rhyolitic/granitic melts with 0, 4.5 and 7.7 wt% of dissolved water at geologically relevant conditions: 0.9 to 3.6 GPa, 1270 to 1950 K. High pressure and temperature conditions were generated in a Paris-Edinburgh large volume press. Before and after each density measurement, the molten state of the sample was verified by X-ray diffraction. The density of the melt (ρPT) was determined from the X-ray attenuation coefficient of the sample, determined in situ (μPT) and at room conditions (μ0), and the density at room conditions (ρ0): ρPT=ρ0.(μPT/μ0). The acquired data were combined with available ambient pressure data on super-cooled liquids [5, 6] to derive a third order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state that accurately predicts the density of rhyolite melts as a function of pressure, temperature and water content, and the partial molar volume of dissolved water. Application of the melt equation of state to calculate the overpressure at the roof of supervolcano

  8. The Ignimbrite Campana Magma Chamber: Pre-eruptive P-t-x Conditions From Melt Inclusion Data (United States)

    Marianelli, P.; Proto, M.; Sbrana, A.

    The Ignimbrite Campana (36 ka) represents the most powerful eruption characterizing the volcanic history of the Campi Flegrei caldera. The eruption was fed by a stratified magma chamber (Civetta et al., 1997). This study, based on melt inclusion investigations in phenocrysts of pumice, is aimed to better constrain depth, thermal conditions and composition of magmas hosted in the magma chamber. Samples from the Breccia Museo products (proximal deposits of the Ignimbrite Campana) were selected, due to their sin-eruptive and sin-depositional quenching. On the basis of melt inclusions investigations important informations about crystallization conditions (P, T, X) and volatile contents have been obtained. Glass compositions fall in the trachyte field close to the trachyte-phonolite boundary, similarly to the others Ignimbrite Campana products. The temperature of homogenization ranges between 850 and 1135°C. These values of temperature, that can be assumed as crystallization temperatures, correlate to the host crystal compositions with the highest one corresponding to melt inclusions trapped in less Fe-rich pyroxene. FTIR analyses on double -polished melt inclusions were carried out in order to investigate H2O and CO2 contents. Preliminary results indicate values of H2O that range from about 2 up to 8.0wt%, whereas CO2 was not detected. Lowest values of H2O (modal value = 2- 3wt%) correspond to the melt inclusions from layers at the top of the Breccia Museo (pumice flow deposits). Minimum pressures of crystallization are estimated in the range 100-200 MPa, assuming saturation conditions for the trapped melts and calculating the solubility of H2O in trachytic magmas according to the model of Moore et al. (1998). References Civetta L., Orsi G., Pappalardo L., Fisher R.V., Heiken G., Ort M. (1997): Geochemical zoning, mingling, eruptive dynamics and depositional processes ­ the Campanian Ignimbrite, Campi Flegrei caldera, Italy. J. Volcanol. Geoth. Res., 75: 183

  9. Drilling through the largest magma chamber on Earth: Bushveld Igneous Complex Drilling Project (BICDP) (United States)

    Trumbull, R. B.; Ashwal, L. D.; Webb, S. J.; Veksler, I. V.


    A scientific drilling project in the Bushveld Igneous Complex in South Africa has been proposed to contribute to the following scientific topics of the International Continental Drilling Program (ICDP): large igneous provinces and mantle plumes, natural resources, volcanic systems and thermal regimes, and deep life. An interdisciplinary team of researchers from eight countries met in Johannesburg to exchange ideas about the scientific objectives and a drilling strategy to achieve them. The workshop identified drilling targets in each of the three main lobes of the Bushveld Complex, which will integrate existing drill cores with new boreholes to establish permanently curated and accessible reference profiles of the Bushveld Complex. Coordinated studies of this material will address fundamental questions related to the origin and evolution of parental Bushveld magma(s), the magma chamber processes that caused layering and ore formation, and the role of crust vs. mantle in the genesis of Bushveld granites and felsic volcanic units. Other objectives are to study geophysical and geodynamic aspects of the Bushveld intrusion, including crustal stresses and thermal gradient, and to determine the nature of deep groundwater systems and the biology of subsurface microbial communities.

  10. Grain to outcrop-scale frozen moments of dynamic magma mixing in the syenite magma chamber, Yelagiri Alkaline Complex, South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Renjith


    Full Text Available Magma mixing process is unusual in the petrogenesis of felsic rocks associated with alkaline complex worldwide. Here we present a rare example of magma mixing in syenite from the Yelagiri Alkaline Complex, South India. Yelagiri syenite is a reversely zoned massif with shoshonitic (Na2O + K2O=5–10 wt.%, Na2O/K2O = 0.5–2, TiO2 <0.7 wt.% and metaluminous character. Systematic modal variation of plagioclase (An11–16 Ab82–88, K-feldspar (Or27–95 Ab5–61, diopside (En34–40Fs11–18Wo46–49, biotite, and Ca-amphibole (edenite build up three syenite facies within it and imply the role of in-situ fractional crystallization (FC. Evidences such as (1 disequilibrium micro-textures in feldspars, (2 microgranular mafic enclaves (MME and (3 synplutonic dykes signify mixing of shoshonitic mafic magma (MgO = 4–5 wt.%, SiO2 = 54–59 wt.%, K2O/Na2O = 0.4–0.9 with syenite. Molecular-scale mixing of mafic magma resulted disequilibrium growth of feldspars in syenite. Physical entity of mafic magma preserved as MME due to high thermal-rheological contrast with syenite magma show various hybridization through chemical exchange, mechanical dilution enhanced by chaotic advection and phenocryst migration. In synplutonic dykes, disaggregation and mixing of mafic magma was confined within the conduit of injection. Major-oxides mass balance test quantified that approximately 0.6 portions of mafic magma had interacted with most evolved syenite magma and generated most hybridized MME and dyke samples. It is unique that all the rock types (syenite, MME and synplutonic dykes share similar shoshonitic and metaluminous character; mineral chemistry, REE content, coherent geochemical variation in Harker diagram suggest that mixing of magma between similar composition. Outcrop-scale features of crystal accumulation and flow fabrics also significant along with MME and synplutonic dykes in syenite suggesting that Yelagiri syenite magma chamber had evolved

  11. On the magma chamber characteristics as inferred from surface geology and geochemistry: examples from Mexican geothermal areas (United States)

    Verma, Surendra P.


    A procedure is described which enables us to obtain estimates of some physical and chemical characteristics of sub-surface magma chambers. This is applied to three geothermal areas of the Mexican Volcanic Belt (MVB) in central Mexico. The approximate volumes estimated for the underlying chemically and thermally zoned magma chambers are: 1500 km 3 for Los Humeros, 600 km 3 for La Primavera, and 400 km 3 for Los Azufres. These estimates will have to be modified as more geological-geochemical data become available.

  12. Evidences for disruption of a crystallizing front in a magma chamber during caldera collapse: an example from the Breccia Museo unit (Campanian Ignimbrite eruption, Italy) (United States)

    Fulignati, P.; Marianelli, P.; Proto, M.; Sbrana, A.


    This work is focused on juvenile components and some cognate xenoliths of the Breccia Museo (BM) unit. The BM is a coarse-grained proximal unit of the caldera-forming phase of the Ignimbrite Campana (IC) eruption, southern Italy. The BM products show some peculiar characteristics that distinguish them from the other IC deposits. In particular, different types of pumice fragments constitute the juvenile fraction and their crystal contents are remarkably higher than the other IC units. Slightly porphyritic and highly porphyritic trachytic to phonolitic pumices were distinguished in each sample and investigated separately for mineralogy, matrix glass composition, melt and fluid inclusion studies. Most feldspar crystals may have formed at the margins of the magma chamber and the crystal content of both types of pumice fragments can be ascribed to variable entrainment of these crystals (from the solidification front) by the melt. Variably porphyritic (<5 to 30 vol% phenocrysts) pumice and completely crystallized nodules may represent samples of progressively crystallized magma at the chamber walls. Crystallization temperatures of magmas and xenoliths were estimated using two independent methods: a two-feldspar geothermometer and the homogenization temperatures of melt and fluid inclusions in clinopyroxene and K-feldspar. The decrease in the estimated crystallization temperatures from the melt (980-850°C) to the nodules (840-820°C) is consistent with a model of decreasing temperature at a magma chamber solidification front. The study of xenoliths revealed that exsolution of a hypersaline aqueous fluid phase occurred at the peripheral parts of the magma chamber.

  13. Subsidence of ash-flow calderas: Relation to caldera size and magma-chamber geometry (United States)

    Lipman, P.W.


    Diverse subsidence geometries and collapse processes for ash-flow calderas are inferred to reflect varying sizes, roof geometries, and depths of the source magma chambers, in combination with prior volcanic and regional tectonic influences. Based largely on a review of features at eroded pre-Quaternary calderas, a continuum of geometries and subsidence styles is inferred to exist, in both island-arc and continental settings, between small funnel calderas and larger plate (piston) subsidences bounded by arcuate faults. Within most ring-fault calderas, the subsided block is variably disrupted, due to differential movement during ash-flow eruptions and postcollapse magmatism, but highly chaotic piecemeal subsidence appears to be uncommon for large-diameter calderas. Small-scale downsag structures and accompanying extensional fractures develop along margins of most calderas during early stages of subsidence, but downsag is dominant only at calderas that have not subsided deeply. Calderas that are loci for multicyclic ash-flow eruption and subsidence cycles have the most complex internal structures. Large calderas have flared inner topographic walls due to landsliding of unstable slopes, and the resulting slide debris can constitute large proportions of caldera fill. Because the slide debris is concentrated near caldera walls, models from geophysical data can suggest a funnel geometry, even for large plate-subsidence calderas bounded by ring faults. Simple geometric models indicate that many large calderas have subsided 3-5 km, greater than the depth of most naturally exposed sections of intracaldera deposits. Many ring-fault platesubsidence calderas and intrusive ring complexes have been recognized in the western U.S., Japan, and elsewhere, but no well-documented examples of exposed eroded calderas have large-scale funnel geometry or chaotically disrupted caldera floors. Reported ignimbrite "shields" in the central Andes, where large-volume ash-flows are inferred to

  14. Under the Volcano: Gravity Evidence for an Extinct Magma Chamber Beneath Syrtis Major, Mars (United States)

    Kiefer, W. S.


    Syrtis Major is a Hesperian age shield volcano on Mars, 1100 km in diameter and just 1 km high. Two calderas, Meroe Patera and Nili Patera, are set within a broader topographic summit depression. The regional gravity field is well modeled by flexural support of the surface topography. For a crustal density of 2800 kg m-3 and a mantle density of 3400 kg m-3, the best fit elastic lithosphere thickness is 10 to 15 km. Increasing the crustal density requires a decrease in the lithospheric thickness. There is a pronounced free-air gravity anomaly over the summit caldera complex. This gravity high has an amplitude of 100 mGal through spherical harmonic degree 40 and 124 mGal through spherical harmonic degree 50 and is thus robustly determined by the Doppler tracking data from Mars Global Surveyor. The anomaly has a high degree of axial symmetry, with a low amplitude extension to the south. The gravity high occurs over the caldera's topographic low and thus requires the presence of dense material in the subsurface. The spatial association between the caldera and the buried mass anomaly suggests that the subsurface structure is due to the accumulation of dense igneous cumulates in a now solidified magma chamber. Because of the symmetry of the observed anomaly, it is modeled as a buried vertical cylinder in order to minimize the number of free parameters that must be constrained. The width of the observed anomaly constrains the cylinder radius to a maximum of 150 km. Assuming that the intrusive body is olivine similar to the martian meteorite Chassigny (Fo68, density 3500 kg m-3), the intrusive body has a minimum thickness of 5 km. A pyroxene rich intrusive, similar to the martian meteorite Nakhla, would have a lower density and thus a greater minimum thickness. The total mass anomaly is between 1.8-2.7 ṡ 1017 kg. This constitutes only 5-10% of the total mass of the volcano and its subsurface root. Thus, generating the required amount of cumulate minerals is probably not

  15. The Atlantis Bank gabbro-suite was not a "normal" magma-chamber that produced basalts (United States)

    Kvassnes, A. J.; Dick, H. J. B.; Grove, T. L.


    The differentiation of the basalts sampled at Atlantis II Fracture Zone, South-West Indian Ridge, is not the result of simple fractionation of gabbroic mineral-assemblages like those recovered from the adjacent Atlantis Bank and ODP Hole 735B. Large mineral data sets for the gabbros (Dick, et al 2002) are now available for analysis and comparison to spatially associated basalts. We have used Melts and pMelts (Ghiorso and Sack, 1995) to estimate the fractional crystallization trend gabbros from a primitive mantle melt or of the AII F.Z. MORB. Thermodynamic models (Grove et al (1992), Putirka (1999)) were also used to model the glasses hypothetical mafic and felsic mineral equilibrium-compositions. Our results show that while the basalts suggest 30-50% crystallization, the gabbros indicate 35-90% crystallization of a primary melt. It is therefore unlikely that the gabbros sampled from Atlantis Bank are the fossil magma-chambers that expelled melts that formed the spatially associated basalts. The models also show that the most primitive gabbros have elevated clinopyroxene Mg#s (Mg/(Mg+Fe)) relative to the coexisting plagioclase An%. This was unexpected, as the clinopyroxene frequently occurs as oikocrysts surrounding the plagioclase and encloses rounded olivine chadacrysts, indicating that the clinopyroxene precipitated late. Elthon (1992) noted the same problem for Cayman Trough gabbros; suggesting that this was the result of intermediate pressure fractionation. In our models, pressure does have some effect up to 5kbar, but is not enough to explain the discrepancy. We propose a model where melts are modified in a porous network or mush. Plagioclase-olivine networks form by accumulation of buoyant glomerocrysts and then work as filters as new melts pass through. Dissolution of the minerals would make the new melt appear to be more primitive with regards to increased Mg#s, as the dissolution happens fast without complete internal re-equilibration with the gabbro

  16. Deducing the magma chamber processes of middle Eocene volcanics, Sivas and Tokat regions; NE Turkey: Insights from clinopyroxene chemistry (United States)

    Göçmengil, Gönenç; Karacık, Zekiye; Genç, Ş. Can; Prelevic, Dejan


    Middle Eocene Tokat and Sivas volcanic successions occur within the İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone. Different models are suggested for the development of the middle Eocene volcanism such as post-collisional, delamination and slab-breakoff models as well as the arc magmatism. In both areas, volcanic units cover all the basement units with a regional disconformity and comprise lavas spanning a compositional range from mainly basalt-basaltic andesite to a lesser amount trachyte. Here, we report mineral chemistry of different basaltic lavas through transect from northern continent (Tokat region, Pontides) to southern continent (Sivas region, Kırşehir block) to deduce the characteristics of the magma chamber processes which are active during the middle Eocene. Basaltic lavas include olivine bearing basalts (Ol-basalt: ± olivine + clinopyroxene + plagioclase); amphibole bearing basaltic andesite (Amp-basaltic andesite: amphibole + clinopyroxene + plagioclase ± biotite) and pyroxene bearing basaltic andesite (Px-basaltic andesite: clinopyroxene + plagioclase). Microlitic, glomeroporphyric and pilotaxitic texture are common. Clinopyroxene phenocrystals (macro ≥ 750 μm and micro ≤300 μm) are common in all three lava series which are investigated by transecting core to rim compositional profiles. They are generally augite and diopside; euhedral to subhedral in shape with oscillatory, normal and reverse zoning patterns. Also, all clinopyroxene phenocrystals are marked by moderately high Mg# (for Ol-basalt: 67-91; avg. 80; Amp-basaltic andesite: 76-83, avg: 80; Px -basaltic andesite 68-95, avg: 81). In Ol-basalt, clinopyroxene phenocrystals show normal zonation (high Mg# cores and low Mg# rims). In Amp-basaltic andesite, clinopyroxenes are generally homogenous in composition with minor variation of Mg# towards the rims. On the contrary, in Px-basaltic andesite, clinopyroxene macro phenocrystals show reverse zonation with the core with low Mg# and the rims with

  17. The Mammoth Peak sheeted complex, Tuolumne batholith, Sierra Nevada, California: a record of initial growth or late thermal contraction in a magma chamber? (United States)

    Žák, Jiří; Paterson, Scott R.; Janoušek, Vojtěch; Kabele, Petr


    The Mammoth Peak sheeted intrusive complex formed in the interior of a ~7-10 km deep magma chamber, specifically in the Half Dome granodiorite of the Tuolumne batholith, central Sierra Nevada, CA (USA). The sheets consist of fractionated melts with accumulated hornblende, biotite, magnetite, titanite, apatite, and zircon. The accumulation, especially of titanite, had a profound effect on minor and trace elements (Nb, Ta, Ti, REE, U, Th, P, Zr, Hf, etc.), increasing their contents up to five to six times. Our thermal-mechanical modeling using the finite element method shows that cooling-generated tensile stresses resulted in the inward propagation of two perpendicular sets of dilational cracks in the host granodiorite. We interpret the sheeted complex to have formed by a crack-seal mechanism in a high strength, crystal-rich mush, whereby outward younging pulses of fractionated magma were injected into these syn-magmatic cracks at the margin of an active magma chamber. Thermal-mechanical instabilities developed after the assembly of the sheeted complex, which was then overprinted by late ~NW-SE magmatic foliation. This case example provides a cautionary note regarding the interpretation that sheeted zones in large granitoid plutons imply a diking mechanism of growth because the sheeted/dike complexes in plutons (1) may display inverse growth directions from the growth of the overall intrusive sequence; (2) need not record initial chamber construction and instead may reflect late pulsing of magma within an already constructed magma chamber; (3) have an overprinting magmatic fabric indicating the continued presence of melt after construction of sheeted complexes and thus a prolonged thermal history as compared to dikes; and (4) because the scale of the observed sheeted complexes may be small (<1%) in comparison to large homogenous parts of plutons, in which there is no evidence for sheeting or diking. Thus, where extensive dike complexes in plutons are absent, such as

  18. High-Mg adakitic rocks and their complementary cumulates formed by crystal fractionation of hydrous mafic magmas in a continental crustal magma chamber (United States)

    Ma, Qiang; Xu, Yi-Gang; Zheng, Jian-Ping; Sun, Min; Griffin, William L.; Wei, Ying; Ma, Liang; Yu, Xiaolu


    Understanding how adakitic magmas form is important for understanding the formation of the continental crust. Generating such high-Sr/Y rocks by crystal fractionation of basalts/basaltic andesites in magma chambers has been proposed in a wide range of tectonic settings. However, the complementary cumulates predicted by this scenario have rarely been observed. The late Triassic (~ 227 Ma) Ningcheng complex from the North China Craton is composed of a websterite - (Ol -/Hbl-) pyroxenite - gabbro unit and a quartz-diorite unit. They are interpreted as the products (cumulates and derivative melts, respectively) of fractionation from hydrous mafic magmas at mid- to lower-crustal pressures (4.9 ~ 8.3 kbar). The quartz diorites are high-Mg intermediate rocks with moderate SiO2 (57.0 ~ 62.9 wt%), high Mg# (> 49) and adakitic trace element signatures, such as high Sr (≥ 636 ppm) and light rare earth elements (REEs), low Y (≤ 17 ppm) and heavy REEs (Yb ≤ 1.8 ppm), lack of obvious Eu anomalies, and high Sr/Y (≥ 31) and La/Yb (≥ 24)). These adakitic signatures reflect differentiation of hydrous mantle-derived magmas in the deep crust, leaving behind a plagioclase-free residual solid assemblage in the early stages, which is represented by the coeval websterite-pyroxenite complex. This study therefore not only demonstrates that hydrous crystal fractionation is an important mechanism to form adakitic rocks, but also presents an example of a preserved fractionating system, i.e. high-Sr/Y rocks and their complementary cumulates. A geochemical comparison is made between representative adakitic rocks formed by fractionation of hydrous magmas and Archean TTGs. It is suggested that crystal fractionation is an efficient process for making Phanerozoic high Sr/Y rocks but was not responsible for the formation of Archean granitoids.

  19. Modeling magma flow in volcanic conduit with non-equilibrium crystallization (United States)

    Yulia, Tsvetkova


    Modeling magma flow in volcanic conduit including with non -equilibrium crystallization There is a set of models of magma flow in volcanic conduits which predicts oscillations in magma discharge during extrusion of lava domes. These models neglect heating of surrounding rocks and use 1D approximation of the flow in the conduit. Here magma flow is investigated with an account of heat exchange between surrounding rocks and magma and different dependences viscosity on temperature and crystal concentration. Stick-slip conditions were applied at the wall. The flow is assumed to be quasi-static and quasi 1D. Only vertical component of velocity vector is present, thus, we do not consider horizontal momentum balance. At the top of the conduit the pressure is assumed to be fixed, chamber pressure changes according with magma influx and outflux. First set of simulation was made for the viscosity that depends on cross-section average crystal concentration and parabolic velocity profile. In earlier models that account for crystal growth kinetics the temperature was allowed to change only due to the release of latent heat of crystallization. Heat transfer leads to cooling of the outer parts of the conduit leading to high crystal contents and high magma viscosities. Changes in viscosity result in changes in discharge rate. For the non-isothermal case there is no motion during most part of the cycle and a portion of magma solidifies at the top of the conduit forming a plug. During repose period chamber pressure is growing due to influx of fresh magma, and magma discharge rate starts to increase. Influx of hot magma into the conduit leads to decrease in friction resulting in a jump in discharge rate that lead to depressurization of magma chamber. Discharge rate decreases and magma solidifies again. For isothermal model with the same parameters discharge rate monotonically tends to the value of Qin. Simulation reveal that crystal content changes significantly across the conduit

  20. Magma chamber cooling by episodic volatile expulsion as constrained by mineral vein distributions in the Butte, Montana Cu-Mo porphyry deposit (United States)

    Daly, K.; Karlstrom, L.; Reed, M. H.


    The role of hydrothermal systems in the thermal evolution of magma chambers is poorly constrained yet likely significant. We analyze trends in mineral composition, vein thickness and overall volumetric fluid flux of the Butte, Montana porphyry Cu-Mo deposit to constrain the role of episodic volatile discharge in the crystallization of the source magma chamber ( 300 km3of silicic magma). An aqueous fluid sourced from injection of porphyritic dikes formed the Butte porphyry Cu network of veins. At least three separate pulses of fluid through the system are defined by alteration envelopes of [1] gray sericite (GS); [2] early-dark micaceous (EDM), pale-green sericite (PGS), and dark-green sericite (DGS); and [3] quartz-molybdenite (Qmb) and barren-quartz. Previous research using geothermometers and geobarometers has found that vein mineral composition, inferred temperatures and inferred pressures vary systematically with depth. Later fluid pulses are characterized by lower temperatures, consistent with progressive cooling of the source. We have digitized previously unused structural data from Butte area drill cores, and applied thermomechanical modeling of fluid release from the source magma chamber through time. Vein number density and vein thickness increase with depth as a clear function of mineralogy and thus primary temperature and pressure. We identify structural trends in the three fluid pulses which seem to imply time evolution of average vein characteristics. Pulses of Qmb-barren quartz and EDM-PGS-DGS (1st and 2nd in time) exhibit increasing vein number density (157 & 95 veins/50m, respectively) and thickness (300mm & 120mm, respectively) as a function of depth. EDM-PGS-DGS has a shallower peak in vein density (800m) than Qmb-barren quartz (>1600m). These data provide the basis for idealized mechanical models of hydrofractures, to predict driving pressures and to compare with existing source temperatures and total fluid volumes in order to estimate the total

  1. The eruption of the Breccia Museo (Campi Flegrei, Italy): Fractional crystallization processes in a shallow, zoned magma chamber and implications for the eruptive dynamics (United States)

    Melluso, Leone; Morra, Vincenzo; Perrotta, Annamaria; Scarpati, Claudio; Adabbo, Mariarosaria


    The Breccia Museo Member (BMM) was formed by an explosive eruption that occurred in the SW sector of Campi Flegrei about 20 ka ago. The eruptive sequence consists of the Lower Pumice Flow Unit and the overlying Upper Pumice Flow Unit with its associated lithic Breccia Unit. Interlayered with the Breccia Unit is a welded deposit that mainly consists of spatter clasts (Spatter Unit). The products of this eruption range in composition from trachytic to trachyphonolitic with K 2O decreasing from 9.5 to 7 wt.%; Na 2O correspondingly increases from 2.6 to 7.2 wt.% with increasing differentiation (Nb from 23 to 122 ppm). The phenocrysts are mostly sanidine (Or 88-63) with subordinate plagioclase (An 33-27), clinopyroxene (Ca 47Mg 44Fe 9 to Ca 46Mg 35Fe 19), biotite, titanomagnetite, and apatite. The observed major- and trace-element variations are fully consistent with about 80% fractional crystallization of a sanidine-dominated assemblage starting from the least differentiated trachytes. The compositions of the erupted products are compatible with the progressive tapping of a shallow magma chamber that was thermally and chemically zoned. The incompatible trace elements indicate a slightly different magma composition with respect to trachytes of the Campi Flegrei mainland. The geochemical stratigraphy suggests that after an early eruptive phase during which the upper, most differentiated level of the magma chamber was tapped, the sudden collapse of the roof of the reservoir triggered drainage of the remaining magma, which ranged in composition from trachyte to trachyphonolite, and formed the Breccia Unit and the Upper Pumice Flow Unit. The strongly differentiated trachyphonolite composition of the spatter clasts also suggests that they likely originated from the uppermost part of the reservoir soon after the eruption of Lower Pumice Flow Unit and the collapse of the chamber roof. This is in agreement with the eruptive model proposed by Perrotta and Scarpati (1994).

  2. Modeling the Daly Gap: The Influence of Latent Heat Production in Controlling Magma Extraction and Eruption (United States)

    Nelson, B. K.; Ghiorso, M. S.; Bachmann, O.; Dufek, J.


    A century-old issue in volcanology is the origin of the gap in chemical compositions observed in magmatic series on ocean islands and arcs - the "Daly Gap". If the gap forms during differentiation from a mafic parent, models that predict the dynamics of magma extraction as a function of chemical composition must simulate a process that results in volumetrically biased, bimodal compositions of erupted magmas. The probability of magma extraction is controlled by magma dynamical processes, which have a complex response to magmatic heat evolution. Heat loss from the magmatic system is far from a simple, monotonic function of time. It is modified by the crystallization sequence, chamber margin heat flux, and is buffered by latent heat production. We use chemical and thermal calculations of MELTS (Ghiorso & Sack, 1995) as input to the physical model of QUANTUM (Dufek & Bachmann, 2010) to predict crystallinity windows of most probable magma extraction. We modeled two case studies: volcanism on Tenerife, Canary Islands, and the Campanian Ignimbrite (CI) of Campi Flegrei, Italy. Both preserve a basanitic to phonolitic lineage and have comparable total alkali concentrations; however, CI has high and Tenerife has low K2O/Na2O. Modeled thermal histories of differentiation for the two sequences contrast strongly. In Tenerife, the rate of latent heat production is almost always greater than sensible heat production, with spikes in the ratio of latent to sensible heats of up to 40 associated with the appearance of Fe-Ti oxides at near 50% crystallization. This punctuated heat production must cause magma temperature change to stall or slow in time. The extended time spent at ≈50% crystallinity, associated with dynamical processes that enhance melt extraction near 50% crystallinity, suggests the magma composition at this interval should be common. In Tenerife, the modeled composition coincides with that of the first peak in the bimodal frequency-composition distribution. In our

  3. Domes and Flows: Do Temporal Trends in Dacitic Magma Chemistry and Rheological Behavior at Santiaguito, Guatemala, Reflect Magma Chamber or Conduit Processes? (United States)

    Avard, G.; Whittington, A.; Rose, W.; Matias, O.; Cornejo, J.


    Santiaguito is a dacitic dome complex growing in the crater left by the 1902 plinian eruption of the stratovolcano Santa Maria, in Guatemala. The domes began growing in 1922 and are still active, with frequent small ash and steam eruptions, and semi-continous extrusion of crystal-rich dacitic lava both as spines on the domes (endogenous growth) and slow-moving block-lava "stealth" flows (exogenous growth). All four vents have produced both domes and flows, and at times multiple vents have been active. Between 1999 and 2004, one flow reached a length of 4 km. New flows emerged from the same vent in 2004 and 2005-2006 (ongoing). Flow morphology is controlled by rheology, which in turn depends on lava composition, crystal content, and volatile content. Samples of flows erupted from 1987 to the present share many features, including a phenocryst population dominated by complexly zoned plagioclase, a micro-crystalline plagioclase-rich rhyolitic groundmass, and a complete absence of hydrous phases. Small amphibole crystals with thick oxide rims are found only in samples more than 30 years old. Bulk-rock chemical analyses confirm a decrease in magma SiO2 content, from 63.5 - 66 wt.% before 1980, to 61 - 63 wt.% today. It has been suggested that this decreasing SiO2 content reflects the tapping of deeper and hotter magma; the lack of amphibole indicates that it must also be drier. From these preliminary results, we infer that magma chemistry is probably dictated by long time-scale changes in the magma chamber, while eruptive style is probably controlled by phenocryst content, matrix volatile content and microlite growth, which owe more to ascent dynamics and conduit processes than the parental magma. The lack of a direct correlation between bulk magma chemistry and extrusive style may also apply to other dacitic volcanoes such as Mount Saint Helens, suggesting that they also have the potential to produce kilometer-long flows if changes occur to the conduit system.

  4. A possible model for initiationof ULF oscillation in magma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Nikitina


    Full Text Available During the period just prior to an earthquake, an electomagnetic emission develops over seismic zones. In this paper, a model of excitation of magnetic fields over zones of volcanic activity is proposed. Movement of magma along volcanic channels precedes an earthquake, hydrodynamic processes in the moving magma can lead to formation of waves and vortices in the flow which, in turn, can cause development of magnetic fields in conducting magma. During this period, the movement of the magma intensifies leading to a corresponding intensification of the magnetic fields. In this paper, different possible sources of ULF pulsation in magma are examined,and the variable geomagnetic fields induced by this pulsation are estimated.

  5. Deciphering the thermal and mixing history of the Pleistocene rhyolite magma chamber at Augustine Volcano (United States)

    Nadeau, P. A.; Webster, J. D.; Mandeville, C. W.; Monteleone, B.; Shimizu, N.; Goldoff, B. A.


    Recent activity at Augustine Volcano, located in Cook Inlet, Alaska, has been dominated by intermediate composition lavas and relatively small explosions. Earlier in Augustine's history, however, a thick (~30 m) rhyolite fall was erupted ca. 25 ka, containing at least three distinct rhyolite lithologies. Numerous studies have documented evidence of magma mixing in the more recently-erupted material. Here we attempt to evaluate similar mixing events that may have affected the 25 ka rhyolitic magma prior to its eruption. Basaltic to basaltic-andesitic deposits are found interbedded with the rhyolite at Augustine, so at least two magmas were present in Augustine's plumbing system at the same or nearly the same time. Hints at interactions between two or more magmas are also evident on a smaller scale. Xenocrysts of olivine and clinopyroxene are present in the rhyolite, each with mafic melt inclusions. Additionally, two of the three rhyolitic lithologies studied contain high-aluminum amphiboles that are compositionally similar to amphiboles from mafic enclaves entrained during the 2006 eruption and thus may be xenocrystic. To further investigate possible heating by secondary melts and the history of mixing, we use the titanium-in-quartz geothermometer (TitaniQ) on chemical zonation in quartz phenocrysts. We find that most quartz has a distinct 3-zone pattern, though one lithology also contains some complex zoning patterns in phenocryst cores, perhaps suggesting a xenocrystic origin. Additionally, we examine relationships between trace elements in the silicate melt inclusions from a variety of phenocryst types to determine if there is evidence for input of additional magma of different compositions. Finally, we apply results of a preliminary investigation of the mineralogy of a high-phosphorus dacite that stratigraphically overlies the rhyolite to assess their similarity and the degree of mixing, if any, that may have led to the transition from rhyolitic to dacitic magma.

  6. Oxygen isotopes reveal crustal contamination and a large, still partially molten magma chamber in Chaîne des Puys (French Massif Central) (United States)

    France, Lydéric; Demacon, Mickael; Gurenko, Andrey A.; Briot, Danielle


    The two main magmatic properties associated with explosive eruptions are high viscosity of silica-rich magmas and/or high volatile contents. Magmatic processes responsible for the genesis of such magmas are differentiation through crystallization, and crustal contamination (or assimilation) as this process has the potential to enhance crystallization and add volatiles to the initial budget. In the Chaîne des Puy series (French Massif Central), silica- and H2O-rich magmas were only emitted during the most recent eruptions (ca. 6-15 ka). Here, we use in situ measurements of oxygen isotopes in zircons from two of the main trachytic eruptions from the Chaîne des Puys to track the crustal contamination component in a sequence that was previously presented as an archetypal fractional crystallization series. Zircons from Sarcoui volcano and Puy de Dôme display homogeneous oxygen isotope compositions with δ18O = 5.6 ± 0.25‰ and 5.6 ± 0.3‰, respectively, and have therefore crystallized from homogeneous melts with δ18Omelt = 7.1 ± 0.3‰. Compared to mantle derived melts resulting from pure fractional crystallization (δ18Odif.mant. = 6.4 ± 0.4‰), those δ18Omelt values are enriched in 18O and support a significant role of crustal contamination in the genesis of silica-rich melts in the Chaîne des Puys. Assimilation-fractional-crystallization models highlight that the degree of contamination was probably restricted to 5.5-9.5% with Rcrystallization/Rassimilation varying between 8 and 14. The very strong intra-site homogeneity of the isotopic data highlights that magmas were well homogenized before eruption, and consequently that crustal contamination was not the trigger of silica-rich eruptions in the Chaîne des Puys. The exceptionally strong inter-site homogeneity of the isotopic data brings to light that Sarcoui volcano and Puy de Dôme were fed by a single large magma chamber. Our results, together with recent thermo-kinetic models and an experimental

  7. Comagmatic granophyric granite in the Fish Canyon Tuff, Colorado: Implications for magma-chamber processes during a large ash-flow eruption (United States)

    Lipman, P.; Dungan, M.; Bachmann, Olivier


    The 27.8 Ma Fish Canyon Tuff, a vast ash-flow sheet (??5000 km3) of uniform phenocryst-rich dacite, is representative of "monotonous intermediate" eruptions from a magma chamber that lacked compositional gradients. Sparse small fragments of comagmatic granophyre in late-erupted tuff and postcaldera lava, having mineral compositions indistinguishable from phenocrysts in the tuff and precaldera lava-like rocks, record complex events in the Fish Canyon chamber just prior to eruption. Sanidine phenocrysts in the granophyre preserve zoning evidence of mingling with andesitic magma, then shattering by decompression and volatile loss accompanying early Fish Canyon eruptions before overgrowth by granophyre. The textural and chemical disequilibria indicate that the eruption resulted from batholith-scale remobilization of a shallow subvolcanic chamber, contrary to previous interpretations of magma storage and phenocryst growth in the lower crust.

  8. Stability of volcanic conduits: insights from magma ascent modelling and possible consequences on eruptive dynamics (United States)

    Aravena, Alvaro; de'Michieli Vitturi, Mattia; Cioni, Raffaello; Neri, Augusto


    Geological evidences of changes in volcanic conduit geometry (i.e. erosive processes) are common in the volcanic record, as revealed by the occurrence of lithic fragments in most pyroclastic deposits. However, the controlling factors of conduit enlargement mechanisms are still partially unclear, as well as the influence of conduit geometry in the eruptive dynamics. Despite physical models have been systematically used for studying volcanic conduits, their mechanical stability has been poorly addressed. In order to study the mechanical stability of volcanic conduits during explosive eruptions, we present a 1D steady-state model which considers the main processes experimented by ascending magmas, such as crystallization, drag forces, fragmentation, outgassing and degassing; and the application of the Mogi-Coulomb collapse criterion, using a set of constitutive equations for studying typical cases of rhyolitic and trachytic explosive volcanism. From our results emerge that conduit stability is mainly controlled by magma rheology and conduit dimensions. Indeed, in order to be stable, feeding conduits of rhyolitic eruptions need larger radii respect to their trachytic counterparts, which is manifested in the higher eruption rates usually observed in rhyolitic explosive eruptions, as confirmed by a small compilation of global data. Additionally, for both magma compositions, we estimated a minimum magma flux for developing stable conduits (˜3ṡ106 kg/s for trachytic magmas and ˜8ṡ107 kg/s for rhyolitic magmas), which is consistent with the unsteady character commonly observed in low-mass flux events (e.g. sub-Plinian eruptions), which would be produced by episodic collapse events of the volcanic conduit, opposite to the mainly stationary high-mass flux events (e.g. Plinian eruptions), characterized by stable conduits. For a given magma composition, a minimum radius for reaching stable conditions can be computed, as a function of inlet overpressure and water content

  9. Zircon crystallization and recycling in the magma chamber of the rhyolitic Kos Plateau Tuff (Aegean arc) (United States)

    Bachman, O.; Charlier, B.L.A.; Lowenstern, J. B.


    In contrast to most large-volume silicic magmas in continental arcs, which are thought to evolve as open systems with significant assimilation of preexisting crust, the Kos Plateau Tuff magma formed dominantly by crystal fractionation of mafic parents. Deposits from this ~60 km3 pyroclastic eruption (the largest known in the Aegean arc) lack xenocrystic zircons [secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) U-Pb ages on zircon cores never older than 500 ka] and display Sr-Nd whole-rock isotopic ratios within the range of European mantle in an area with exposed Paleozoic and Tertiary continental crust; this evidence implies a nearly closed-system chemical differentiation. Consequently, the age range provided by zircon SIMS U-Th-Pb dating is a reliable indicator of the duration of assembly and longevity of the silicic magma body above its solidus. The age distribution from 160 ka (age of eruption by sanidine 40Ar/39Ar dating; Smith et al., 1996) to ca. 500 ka combined with textural characteristics (high crystal content, corrosion of most anhydrous phenocrysts, but stability of hydrous phases) suggest (1) a protracted residence in the crust as a crystal mush and (2) rejuvenation (reduced crystallization and even partial resorption of minerals) prior to eruption probably induced by new influx of heat (and volatiles). This extended evolution chemically isolated from the surrounding crust is a likely consequence of the regional geodynamics because the thinned Aegean microplate acts as a refractory container for magmas in the dying Aegean subduction zone (continent-continent subduction).

  10. Zircon crytallization and recycling in the magma chamber of the rhyolitic Kos Plateau Tuff (Aegean arc) (United States)

    Bachman, O.; Charlier, B.L.A.; Lowenstern, J. B.


    In contrast to most large-volume silicic magmas in continental arcs, which are thought to evolve as open systems with significant assimilation of preexisting crust, the Kos Plateau Miff magma formed dominantly by crystal fractionation of mafic parents. Deposits from this ??? 60 km3 pyroclastic eruption (the largest known in the Aegean arc) lack xenocrystic zircons [secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) U-Pb ages on zircon cores never older than 500 ka] and display Sr-Nd whole-rock isotopic ratios within the range of European mantle in an area with exposed Paleozoic and Tertiary continental crust; this evidence implies a nearly closed-system chemical differentiation. Consequently, the age range provided by zircon SIMS U-Th-Pb dating is a reliable indicator of the duration of assembly and longevity of the silicic magma body above its solidus. The age distribution from 160 ka (age of eruption by sanidine 40Ar/39Ar dating; Smith et al., 1996) to ca. 500 ka combined with textural characteristics (high crystal content, corrosion of most anhydrous phenocrysts, but stability of hydrous phases) suggest (1) a protracted residence in the crust as a crystal mush and (2) rejuvenation (reduced crystallization and even partial resorption of minerals) prior to eruption probably induced by new influx of heat (and volatiles). This extended evolution chemically isolated from the surrounding crust is a likely consequence of the regional geodynamics because the thinned Aegean microplate acts as a refractory container for magmas in the dying Aegean subduction zone (continent-continent subduction). ?? 2007 Geological Society of America.

  11. Periodical mixing of MORB magmas near East Pacific Rise 13°N: Evidence from modeling and zoned plagioclase phenocrysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Thirty-six basalt samples from near East Pacific Rise 13°N are analyzed for major and trace elements. Different types of zoned plagioclase phenocrysts in basalts are also backscatter imaged, and major element profiles scanned and analyzed for microprobe. Basalts dredged from a restricted area have evolved to different extents (MgO=9.38wt%—6.76wt%). High MgO basalts are modeled for crystalliza-tion to MgO of about 7wt%, and resulted in the Ni contents (≈28 ppm) that are generally lower than that in observed basalts (>60 ppm). It suggests that low MgO basalts may have experienced more intensive magma mixing. High MgO (9.38wt%) basalt is modeled for self-"mixing-crystallization", and the high Ni contents in low MgO basalts can be generated in small scale and periodical self-mixing of new magma (high MgO). "Mixing-crystallization" processes that low MgO magmas experienced accord with recent 226Ra/230Th disequilibria studies for magma residence time, in which low MgO magmas have experi-enced more circles of "mixing-crystallization" in relatively longer residence time. Magma mixing is not homogeneous in magma chamber, however, low MgO magmas are closer to stable composition pro-duced by periodical "mixing-crystallization", which is also an important reason for magma diversity in East Pacific Rise. Zoned plagioclase phenocrysts can be divided into two types: with and without high An# cores, both of which have multiple reversed An# zones, suggesting periodical mixing of their host magmas. Cores of zoned plagioclase in low MgO (7.45wt%) basalt differ significantly with their mantle in An#, but are similar in An# with microlite cores (products of equilibrium crystallization) in high MgO (9.38wt%) basalt, which further shows that plagioclase phenocryst cores in low MgO basalts may have formed in their parental magmas before entering into the magma chamber.

  12. FEM-based linear inverse modeling using a 3D source array to image magma chambers with free geometry. Application to InSAR data from Rabaul Caldera (PNG). (United States)

    Ronchin, Erika; Masterlark, Timothy; Dawson, John; Saunders, Steve; Martí Molist, Joan


    In this study, we present a method to fully integrate a family of finite element models (FEMs) into the regularized linear inversion of InSAR data collected at Rabaul caldera (PNG) between February 2007 and December 2010. During this period the caldera experienced a long-term steady subsidence that characterized surface movement both inside the caldera and outside, on its western side. The inversion is based on an array of FEM sources in the sense that the Green's function matrix is a library of forward numerical displacement solutions generated by the sources of an array common to all FEMs. Each entry of the library is the LOS surface displacement generated by injecting a unity mass of fluid, of known density and bulk modulus, into a different source cavity of the array for each FEM. By using FEMs, we are taking advantage of their capability of including topography and heterogeneous distribution of elastic material properties. All FEMs of the family share the same mesh in which only one source is activated at the time by removing the corresponding elements and applying the unity fluid flux. The domain therefore only needs to be discretized once. This precludes remeshing for each activated source, thus reducing computational requirements, often a downside of FEM-based inversions. Without imposing an a-priori source, the method allows us to identify, from a least-squares standpoint, a complex distribution of fluid flux (or change in pressure) with a 3D free geometry within the source array, as dictated by the data. The results of applying the proposed inversion to Rabaul InSAR data show a shallow magmatic system under the caldera made of two interconnected lobes located at the two opposite sides of the caldera. These lobes could be consistent with feeding reservoirs of the ongoing Tavuvur volcano eruption of andesitic products, on the eastern side, and of the past Vulcan volcano eruptions of more evolved materials, on the western side. The interconnection and

  13. A mathematical model of aerosol holding chambers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zak, M; Madsen, J; Berg, E


    A mathematical model of aerosol delivery from holding chambers (spacers) was developed incorporating tidal volume (VT), chamber volume (Vch), apparatus dead space (VD), effect of valve insufficiency and other leaks, loss of aerosol by immediate impact on the chamber wall, and fallout of aerosol...... in the chamber with time. Four different spacers were connected via filters to a mechanical lung model, and aerosol delivery during "breathing" was determined from drug recovery from the filters. The formula correctly predicted the delivery of budesonide aerosol from the AeroChamber (Trudell Medical, London......, Ontario, Canada), NebuChamber (Astra, Södirtälje, Sweden) and Nebuhaler (Astra) adapted for babies. The dose of fluticasone proportionate delivered by the Babyhaler (Glaxco Wellcome, Oxbridge, Middlesex, UK) was 80% of that predicted, probably because of incomplete priming of this spacer. Of the above...

  14. Magma genesis and chamber processes at Los Humeros caldera, Mexico-Nd and Sr isotope data (United States)

    Verma, Surendra P.


    The Mexican volcanic belt (MVB), a roughly east-west structure, consists of many late Tertiary and Quaternary cindercones, domes, calderas and stratovolcanoes1,2. Los Humeros caldera (approximately 19°40' N latitude, 97°25' W longitude) lies on the northeastern part of the MVB where the belt overlaps with another major volcanic province, the Eastern cordillera3 (Fig. 1). A compilation6 of the bulk chemical analyses of the two major volcanic provinces indicates that the MVB is characterized largely by calc-alkaline series whereas rocks of the alkaline series dominate the Eastern cordiliera (EC). Pleistocene to Recent basaltic to rhyolitic volcanism in Los Humeros caldera, one of the best known examples of a well-developed caldera in Mexico7-9, presumably associated with the subduction of Cocos plate along the Middle America trench, shows that the initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios range from 0.7039 to 0.7048 and the initial 143Nd/144Nd ratios from 0.5126 to 0.5129. We show here that these isotope ratios are negatively correlated and lie on the mantle array defined by MORB and oceanic island rocks; implying that Los Humeros magmas were generated in the upper mantle with very little, if any, contribution from the subducted oceanic crust, sediments or continental crust.

  15. Atmosphere-magma ocean modeling of GJ 1132 b (United States)

    Schaefer, Laura; Wordsworth, Robin; Berta-Thompson, Zachory K.; Sasselov, Dimitar


    GJ 1132 b is a nearby Earth-sized exoplanet transiting an M dwarf, and is amongst the most highly characterizable small exoplanets currently known. Using a coupled atmosphere-magma ocean model, we determine that GJ 1132 b must have begun with more than 5 wt% initial water in order to still retain a water-based atmosphere. We also determine the amount of O2 that can build up in the atmosphere as a result of hydrogen dissociation and loss. We find that the magma ocean absorbs at most ~ 10% of the O2 produced, whereas more than 90% is lost to space through hydrodynamic drag. The results of the model depend strongly on the initial water abundance and the XUV model. The most common outcome for GJ 1132 b from our simulations is a tenuous atmosphere dominated by O2, although for very large initial water abundances, atmospheres with several thousands of bars of O2 are possible. A substantial steam envelope would indicate either the existence of an earlier H2 envelope or low XUV flux over the system's lifetime. A steam atmosphere would also imply the continued existence of a magma ocean on GJ 1132 b. Preliminary modeling with the addition of CO2 gas will be presented.

  16. Phase equilibrium modelling of granite magma petrogenesis: B. An evaluation of the magma compositions that result from fractional crystallization (United States)

    Garcia-Arias, Marcos; Stevens, Gary


    Several fractional crystallization processes (flow segregation, gravitational settling, filter-pressing), as well as batch crystallization, have been investigated in this study using thermodynamic modelling (pseudosections) to test whether they are able to reproduce the compositional trends shown by S-type granites. Three starting compositions comprising a pure melt phase and variable amounts of entrained minerals (0, 20 and 40 wt.% of the total magma) have been used to study a wide range of likely S-type magma compositions. The evolution of these magmas was investigated from the segregation from their sources at 0.8 GPa until emplacement at 0.3 GPa in an adiabatic path, followed by isobaric cooling until the solidus was crossed, in a closed-system scenario. The modelled magmas and the fractionated mineral assemblages are compared to the S-type granites of the Peninsula pluton, Cape Granite Suite, South Africa, which have a composition very similar to most of the S-type granites. The adiabatic ascent of the magmas digests partially the entrained mineral assemblage of the magmas, but unless this entrained assemblage represents less than 1 wt.% of the original magma, part of the mineral fraction survives the ascent up to the chosen pressure of emplacement. At the level of emplacement, batch crystallization produces magmas that only plot within the composition of the granites of the Peninsula pluton if the bulk composition of the original magmas already matched that of the granites. Flow segregation of crystals during the ascent and gravitational settling fractional crystallization produce bodies that are generally more mafic than the most mafic granites of the pluton and the residual melts have an almost haplogranitic composition, producing a bimodal compositional distribution not observed in the granites. Consequently, these two processes are ruled out. Filter-pressing fractional crystallization produces bodies in an onion-layer structure that become more felsic

  17. Advancing dynamic and thermodynamic modelling of magma oceans (United States)

    Bower, Dan; Wolf, Aaron; Sanan, Patrick; Tackley, Paul


    The techniques for modelling low melt-fraction dynamics in planetary interiors are well-established by supplementing the Stokes equations with Darcy's Law. But modelling high-melt fraction phenomena, relevant to the earliest phase of magma ocean cooling, necessitates parameterisations to capture the dynamics of turbulent flow that are otherwise unresolvable in numerical models. Furthermore, it requires knowledge about the material properties of both solid and melt mantle phases, the latter of which are poorly described by typical equations of state. To address these challenges, we present (1) a new interior evolution model that, in a single formulation, captures both solid and melt dynamics and hence charts the complete cooling trajectory of a planetary mantle, and (2) a physical and intuitive extension of a "Hard Sphere" liquid equation of state (EOS) to describe silicate melt properties for the pressure-temperature (P-T) range of Earth's mantle. Together, these two advancements provide a comprehensive and versatile modelling framework for probing the far-reaching consequences of magma ocean cooling and crystallisation for Earth and other rocky planets. The interior evolution model accounts for heat transfer by conduction, convection, latent heat, and gravitational separation. It uses the finite volume method to ensure energy conservation at each time-step and accesses advanced time integration algorithms by interfacing with PETSc. This ensures it accurately and efficiently computes the dynamics throughout the magma ocean, including within the ultra-thin thermal boundary layers (important for multi-component systems). Our new high P-T liquid EOS accurately captures the energetics and physical properties of the partially molten system whilst retaining the largest number of familiar EOS parameters. We demonstrate the power of our integrated dynamic and EOS model by exploring two crystallisation scenarios for Earth that are dictated by the coincidence of the liquid

  18. Differentiation mechanism of frontal-arc basalt magmas (United States)

    Kuritani, T.; Yoshida, T.; Kimura, J.; Hirahara, Y.; Takahashi, T.


    In a cooling magma chamber, magmatic differentiation can proceed both by fractionation of crystals from the main molten part of the magma body (homogeneous fractionation) and by mixing of the main magma with fractionated melt derived from low-temperature mush zones (boundary layer fractionation) (Jaupart and Tait, 1995, and references therein). The geochemical path caused by boundary layer fractionation can be fairly different from a path resulting from homogeneous fractionation (e.g., Langmuir, 1989). Therefore, it is important to understand the relative contributions of these fractionation mechanisms in magma chambers. Kuritani (2009) examined the relative roles of the two fractionation mechanisms in cooling basaltic magma chambers using a thermodynamics-based mass balance model. However, the basaltic magmas examined in the work were alkali-rich (Na2O+K2O > 4 wt.%). In this study, to explore differentiation mechanisms of frontal-arc basalt magmas that are volumetrically much more important than rear-arc alkali basalt magmas, the relative roles of the two fractionation mechanisms are examined for low-K tholetiitic basalt magma from Iwate Volcano, NE Japan arc, using the same mass balance model. First, the water content and the temperature of the Iwate magma were estimated. The Iwate lavas are moderately porphyritic, consisting of ~8 vol.% olivine and ~20 vol.% plagioclase phenocrysts. The olivine and plagioclase phenocrysts show significant compositional variations, and the Mg# of olivine phenocrysts (Mg#78-81) correlates positively with the An content of coexisting plagioclase phenocrysts (An85-92). The olivine phenocrysts with Mg# > ~82 do not form crystal aggregates with plagioclase. It is inferred from these observations that the phenocrysts with variable compositions were derived from a common magma with variable temperature in a magma chamber, and the plagioclase phenocrysts were all derived from mushy boundary layers along the walls of the magma chamber. By

  19. A mathematical model of aerosol holding chambers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zak, M; Madsen, J; Berg, E


    in the chamber with time. Four different spacers were connected via filters to a mechanical lung model, and aerosol delivery during "breathing" was determined from drug recovery from the filters. The formula correctly predicted the delivery of budesonide aerosol from the AeroChamber (Trudell Medical, London......, Ontario, Canada), NebuChamber (Astra, Södirtälje, Sweden) and Nebuhaler (Astra) adapted for babies. The dose of fluticasone proportionate delivered by the Babyhaler (Glaxco Wellcome, Oxbridge, Middlesex, UK) was 80% of that predicted, probably because of incomplete priming of this spacer. Of the above...

  20. The effects of depth-dependent crustal viscosity variation on visco-elastic response to inflation/deflation of magma chamber (United States)

    Yamasaki, Tadashi


    Development of the satellite observations (GPS and/or InSAR) has allowed us to precisely measure surface deformation. However any geodetic observation by itself does not tell us a mechanism of the deformation. All we can do the most is to compare such an observation to some quantitative predictions, only from which we can deduce a possible deformation mechanism. We therefore need to understand characteristic deformation pattern for a given source mechanism. This study particularly pays attention to magmatic activity in depth as the source, aiming to distinguish magma-induced crustal deformation by better knowing how the activity can be reflected in geodetically observable surface deformation. A parallelized 3-D finite element code, OREGANO_VE [e.g., Yamasaki and Houseman, 2015, J. Geodyn., 88, 80-89], is used to solve the linear Maxwell visco-elastic response to an applied internal inflation/deflation of magma chamber. The rectangular finite element model is composed with a visco-elastic layer overlaid by an elastic layer with thickness of H, and the visco-elastic layer extends over the rest of crust and the uppermost mantle. The visco-elastic crust has a depth-dependent viscosity (DDV) as an exponential function of depth due to temperature-dependent viscosity: hc = h0 exp[c(1 - z/L0)], where h0 is the viscosity at the bottom of the crust, c is a constant; c > 0 for DDV model and c = 0 for uniform viscosity (UNV) model, z is the depth, and L0 is a reference length-scale. The visco-elastic mantle has a spatially uniform viscosity hm. The inflation and/or deflation of sill-like magma chamber is implemented by using the split node method developed by Melosh and Raefsky [1981, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 71, 1391-1400]. UNV model with c = 0 employed in this study shows that the inflation-induced surface uplift would abate with time by visco-elastic relaxation. The post-inflation subsidence would erase the uplift in ~ 50 - 100 times Maxwell relaxation time of the crust

  1. Magma chamber history related to the shield building stage of Piton des Neiges volcano, La Réunion Island (United States)

    Berthod, Carole; Michon, Laurent; Famin, Vincent; Bascou, Jérôme; Bachelery, Patrick


    Piton des Neiges volcano (La Réunion hotspot) experienced a long-lasting shield building stage before entering its degenerative stage 0.4 my ago. The deep edifice incision due to the intense tropical erosion allowed the description for several decades of a layered gabbroic complex interpreted as a piece of magma chamber, which has been tectonically displaced (Chevallier & Vatin-Perignon, 1982; Upton & Wadsworth, 1972). Here, we combine field investigations, petrographic, mineralogical, geochemical and anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) studies to constrain the spatial distribution of the plutonic complex, to identify the physical and chemical processes and to integrate this complex in the evolution of Piton des Neiges (PdN). Field investigations allowed us to discover three additional massifs of gabbro and peridotite along the Mât River. The four massifs are overlaid by a pile of basic sills and a breccia interpreted as a debris avalanche deposit. Albeit spatially disconnected, the massifs show a relatively constant dip of the magnetic foliation toward the current summit of the volcano (i.e. toward the SSE). The two massifs cropping in the upper Mât River are exclusively composed of massive dunite and wherlite units with a cumulate texture and no visible dynamic structures. The two massifs located in the lower Mât River are made of olivine-gabbro, ferrogabbro and gabbro showing numerous flow structures and synmagmatic faults that indicates instabilities which trend NNW-SSE. Minerals (olivine, clinopyroxene and oxide) present primitive compositions in the two upper massifs and slightly differentiated ones in the lower massif. Given the consistency of our dataset, we propose that the four massifs correspond to outcrops of a unique chemically stratified magma chamber, whose center would have been located about 4 km North of the current summit of PdN. The existence of an initial PdN, North of the current edifice, is supported by morphological

  2. From a long-lived upper-crustal magma chamber to rapid porphyry copper emplacement: Reading the geochemistry of zircon crystals at Bajo de la Alumbrera (NW Argentina) (United States)

    Buret, Yannick; von Quadt, Albrecht; Heinrich, Christoph; Selby, David; Wälle, Markus; Peytcheva, Irena


    The formation of world class porphyry copper deposits reflect magmatic processes that take place in a deeper and much larger underlying magmatic system, which provides the source of porphyry magmas, as well as metal and sulphur-charged mineralising fluids. Reading the geochemical record of this large magmatic source region, as well as constraining the time-scales for creating a much smaller porphyry copper deposit, are critical in order to fully understand and quantify the processes that lead to metal concentration within these valuable mineral deposits. This study focuses on the Bajo de la Alumbrera porphyry copper deposit in Northwest Argentina. The deposit is centred on a dacitic porphyry intrusive stock that was mineralised by several pulses of porphyry magma emplacement and hydrothermal fluid injections. To constrain the duration of ore formation, we dated zircons from four porphyry intrusions, including pre-, syn- and post-mineralisation porphyries based on intersection relations between successive intrusion and vein generations, using high precision CA-ID-TIMS. Based on the youngest assemblages of zircon grains, which overlap within analytical error, all four intrusions were emplaced within 29 ka, which places an upper limit on the total duration of hydrothermal mineralisation. Re/Os dating of hydrothermal molybdenite fully overlaps with this high-precision age bracket. However, all four porphyries contain zircon antecrysts which record protracted zircon crystallisation during the ∼200 ka preceding the emplacement of the porphyries. Zircon trace element variations, Ti-in-zircon temperatures, and Hf isotopic compositions indicate that the four porphyry magmas record a common geochemical and thermal history, and that the four intrusions were derived from the same upper-crustal magma chamber. Trace element zoning within single zircon crystals confirms a fractional crystallisation trend dominated by titanite and apatite crystallisation. However, zircon

  3. Experimental modelling of ground deformation associated with shallow magma intrusions (United States)

    Galland, O.


    Active volcanoes experience ground deformation as a response to the dynamics of underground magmatic systems. The analysis of ground deformation patterns may provide important constraints on the dynamics and shape of the underlying volcanic plumbing systems. Nevertheless, these analyses usually take into account simplistic shapes (sphere, dykes, sills) and the results cannot be verified as the modelled systems are buried. In this contribution, I will present new results from experimental models of magma intrusion, in which both the evolution of ground deformation during intrusion and the shape of the underlying intrusion are monitored in 3D. The models consisted of a molten vegetable oil, simulating low viscosity magma, injected into cohesive fine-grained silica flour, simulating the brittle upper crust; oil injection resulted is sheet intrusions (dykes, sills and cone sheets). The initial topography in the models was flat. While the oil was intruding, the surface of the models slightly lifted up to form a smooth relief, which was mapped through time. After an initial symmetrical development, the uplifted area developed asymmetrically; at the end of the experiments, the oil always erupted at the steepest edge of the uplifted area. After the experiment, the oil solidified, the intrusion was excavated and the shape of its top surface mapped. The comparison between the uplifted zone and the underlying intrusions showed that (1) the complex shapes of the uplifted areas reflected the complex shapes of the underlying intrusions, (2) the time evolution of the uplifted zone was correlated with the evolution of the underlying intrusion, and (3) the early asymmetrical evolution of the uplifted areas can be used to predict the location of the eruption of the oil. The experimental results also suggest that complex intrusion shapes (inclined sheet, cone sheet, complex sill) may have to be considered more systematically in analyses of ground deformation patterns on volcanoes.

  4. Crystallization sequence of the Upper Border Series of the Skaergaard Intrusion: revised subdivision and implications for chamber-scale magma homogeneity (United States)

    Salmonsen, Lars Peter; Tegner, Christian


    Although it is one of the best-studied layered mafic intrusions in the world, the crystallization sequence of the Skaergaard Intrusion, east Greenland, remains in debate. In particular, it has been argued that the crystallization sequence in the Upper Border Series, which crystallized downwards from the roof of the magma chamber, differs from that in the Layered Series formed at the floor. The proposed deviation would require chemical stratification of the magma, and a reexamination of the crystallization sequence therefore has important implications for understanding the dynamics of the system. Here, we examine a new sample set from the Upper Border Series, combining field observations, petrography and anorthite contents of plagioclase with bulk rock Ti, V, P, Cu and Mn concentrations. We demonstrate that the first phases on the liquidus were plagioclase and olivine followed by augite, then ilmenite and magnetite (simultaneously), sulfides, apatite and finally ferrobustamite (now inverted to hedenbergite). This crystallization sequence represents extreme differentiation along the tholeiitic trend, and it mirrors those at the floor (Layered Series) and walls (Marginal Border Series). We therefore propose a revised subdivision of the Upper Border Series into equivalents of the subzones in the Layered Series denoted by apostrophes (LZa', LZb', etc.). Moreover, the first appearance of each of the cumulus phases occurs at similar plagioclase core anorthite contents. The mirror images of the crystallization sequences and the anorthite contents of plagioclase cores in the three series imply that the Skaergaard magma chamber solidified by in situ crystallization along the floor, walls and roof from one, largely homogenous, convecting magma body.

  5. Preliminary insights into a model for mafic magma fragmentation (United States)

    Edwards, Matt; Pioli, Laura; Andronico, Daniele; Cristaldi, Antonio; Scollo, Simona


    Fragmentation of mafic magmas remains a poorly understood process despite the common occurrence of low viscosity explosive eruptions. In fact, it has been commonly overlooked based on the assumption that low viscosity magmas have very limited explosivity and low potential to undergo brittle fragmentation. However, it is now known that highly explosive, ash forming eruptions can be relatively frequent at several mafic volcanoes. Three questions arise due to this - What is the specific fragmentation mechanism occuring in these eruptions? What are the primary factors controlling fragmentation efficiency? Can a link between eruption style and fragmentation efficiency be quantified? We addressed these questions by coupling theoretical observations and field analysis of the recent May 2016 eruption at Mount Etna volcano. Within this complex 10-day event three paroxysmal episodes of pulsating basaltic lava jets alternating with small lava flows were recorded from a vent within the Voragine crater. The associated plumes which were produced deposited tephra along narrow axes to the east and south east. Sampling was done on the deposits associated with the first two plumes and the third one. We briefly characterise the May 2016 eruption by assessing plume height, eruption phases, total erupted masses and fallout boundaries and comparing them to previous eruptions. We also analyse the total grainsize distribution (TGSD) of the scoria particles formed in the jets. Conventional methods for obtaining grainsize and total distributions of an eruption are based on mass and provide limited information on fragmentation though. For this reason, the TGSD was assessed by coupling particle analyser data and conventional sieving data to assess both particle size and number of particle distributions with better precision. This allowed for more accurate testing of several existing models describing the shape of the TGSD. Coupled further with observations on eruption dynamics and eruption

  6. Construction of the Vinalhaven Intrusive Complex, Maine, USA: the Plutonic Record of Evolving Magma Chambers Affected by Multiple Episodes of Replenishment, Rejuvenation, Crystal Accumulation and Eruption (United States)

    Wiebe, R. A.; Hawkins, D. P.


    Increasingly, the plutonic roots of volcanic systems can be shown to contain temporal records of events inferred from the study of volcanic rocks. The Vinalhaven intrusive complex preserves evidence for multiple episodes of silicic and mafic replenishments, rejuvenation of granite, and probable eruptive events over a nominal time-span of 1.7 Ma (Hawkins and Wiebe, this volume). The complex is about 12 km in diameter and consists mainly of cg granite, a thick section of arcuate, inward-dipping gabbro-diorite sheets in the southeastern half of the complex, and a circular core of fg granite. Field relations demonstrate that the base of the intrusion is along the southeastern margin of the complex, and the top is along the northwestern margin where it intrudes coeval volcanic rocks. Aphyric basaltic and granitic dikes fed this essentially bimodal intrusion. When basaltic dikes intersected a silicic chamber, basalt spread across a floor of silicic crystal mush to form gabbro-diorite sheets in granite. Several extensive layers of angular blocks of country rock occur within the mafic rocks. Granitic dikes and the fg granitic core of the complex have sharp to gradational contacts with cg granite, and, locally, both granites are intimately mixed and commingled. These relations indicate that new silicic injections mixed into partly crystallized resident magma. Several irregular bodies of porphyry (0.2 to 0.5 km in average dimension) intrude cg granite with sharp, gradational, or commingled contacts. The porphyry has 5 to 40% corroded phenocrysts, identical in composition to crystals in the granite, and a variably quenched matrix. Some of these bodies formed when late injections of basalt remelted largely solid portions of cg granite. New silicic input may have contributed to other porphyry bodies. The matrix probably quenched because of a sudden decrease in pressure, possibly due to eruption of magma from the chamber. The cg granite and inter-layered mafic rocks preserve a

  7. Geochemical models of melting and magma storage conditions for basalt lava from Santorini Volcano, Greece (United States)

    Baziotis, Ioannis; Kimura, Jun-Ichi; Pantazidis, Avgoustinos; Klemme, Stephan; Berndt, Jasper; Asimow, Paul


    Santorini volcano sits ˜150 km above the Wadati-Benioff zone of the Aegean arc, where the African plate subducts northward beneath the Eurasian continent (Papazachos et al. 2000). Santorini volcano has a long history: activity started ca. 650 ka (mainly rhyolites and rhyodacites), with active pulses following ca. 550 ka (basalt to rhyodacite) and ca. 360 ka (large explosive eruptions of andesite to rhyodacite and minor basalt), culminating in the caldera-forming Bronze-age Minoan event (Druitt et al. 1999). As in many arc volcanoes, scenarios of fractional crystallization with or without mixing between felsic and mafic magmas have been proposed to explain the compositions, textures, and eruptive styles of Santorini products (e.g., Huijsmans & Barton 1989; Montazavi & Sparks 2004; Andújar et al. 2015). Here we focus on a basalt lava from the southern part of Santorini volcano (Balos cove, 36˚ 21.7'N, 25˚ 23.8'E), one of the few basaltic localities in the Aegean arc. The goals are to infer constraints on the magma chamber conditions which lead to mafic eruption at Santorini Volcano and to evaluate the slab and mantle wedge conditions via geochemical and petrological mass balance modelling. We collected and characterised 20 samples for texture (SEM), mineral chemistry (FE-EPMA) and whole-rock chemistry (XRF). The basalts contain phenocrystic olivine (Ol) and clinopyroxene (Cpx) (Santorini basalts exhibit a pilotaxitic to trachytic texture defined by randomly to flow-oriented tabular Pl, respectively. The predominant minerals are calcic Pl (core An78-85 and rim An60-76; 45-50 vol.%), Cpx (En36-48Wo41-44Fs11-21; 10-15 vol.%) and Ol (Fo74-88; 10-12 vol.%). Idiomorphic to subidiomorphic Mt (<10μm diameter) with variable TiO2 contents (1.9-16.5 wt%) is a minor constituent (˜1-2 vol.%) in the less mafic samples. Observed mineralogy and major element chemistry suggest fractionation in a shallow magma chamber. Using the major element chemistry and PRIMACALC2 (Kimura

  8. Investigation of MAGMA chambers in the Western Great Basin. Final report, 9 June 1982-31 October 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peppin, W.A.


    This report summarizes efforts made by the Seismological Laboratory toward the detection and delineation of shallow crustal zones in the western Great Basin, and toward the development of methods to accomplish such detection. The work centers around the recently-active volcanic center near Long Valley, California. The work effort is broken down into three tasks: (1) network operations, (2) data analysis and interpretation, and (3) the study of shallow crustal amomalies (magma bodies). Section (1) describes the efforts made to record thousand of earthquakes near the Long Valley caldera, and focusses on the results obtained for the November 1984 round Valley earthquake. Section (2) describes the major effort of this contract, which was to quantify the large volume of seismic data being recorded as it pertains to the goals of this contract. Efforts described herein include (1) analysis of earthquake focal mechanisms, and (2) the classification, categorization, and interpretation of unusual seismic phases in terms of reflections and refractions from shallow-crustal anomalous zones. Section (3) summarizes the status of our research to date on the locations of magma bodies, with particular emphasis on a location corresponding to the map location of the south end of Hilton Creek fault. Five lines of independent evidence suggest that magma might be associated with this spot. Finally, new evidence on the large magma bodies within the Long Valley caldera, of interest to the DOE deep drilling project, is presented.

  9. Insights into magma depth under resurgent domes from analogue modelling (United States)

    Brothelande, Elodie; Merle, Olivier


    Post-collapse resurgence is a common process observed in many calderas, yet the mechanisms of this phenomenon are still poorly known. Whereas most models account for circular doming, deviations from circular shape is common in nature, reflecting either the shape of the underlying reservoir or the influence of regional structures. We conducted a series of scaled experiments to investigate the structural evolution of a resurgent dome in response to an elongated source. A sand-plaster mixture was chosen as the analogue for the brittle pile of volcanic rocks and silicone putty simulates the ductile behavior of the intruding magma. The uplift of the intrusion roof drives the resurgence. A set of 21 experiments have been conducted varying the thickness of the brittle overburden and the width of the silicone intrusion. Three types of extensional patterns associated with doming are observed: two lateral grabens, a single axial graben, and no graben. In the third type, the shape of the dome is significantly less elongated and extension is accommodated by two sets of normal faults, which are roughly concentric and radial from the center of the dome. These three extension modes are strongly related to the thickness of the brittle overburden. The "single axial graben" type, frequently observed in nature, corresponds to intermediate thicknesses. Results of experiments with a single graben show that the dome width is dependent on both tested parameters. In contrast, the graben width is strongly dependent on the overburden thickness whereas the intrusion width is of limited importance. As a significant result, the graben width shows an almost perfectly linear dependency upon the brittle overburden thickness. A simple geometrical model of the analogue system can be proposed, in which opposite master faults of the graben intersect at depth at the junction with the rising viscous intrusion. Geometric constants, or nearly so, such as the slope of the dome flanks and the dip of the

  10. A model for steady flows of magma-volatile mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Belan, Marco


    A general one-dimensional model for the steady adiabatic motion of liquid-volatile mixtures in vertical ducts with varying cross-section is presented. The liquid contains a dissolved part of the volatile and is assumed to be incompressible and in thermomechanical equilibrium with a perfect gas phase, which is generated by the exsolution of the same volatile. An inverse problem approach is used -- the pressure along the duct is set as an input datum, and the other physical quantities are obtained as output. This fluid-dynamic model is intended as an approximate description of magma-volatile mixture flows of interest to geophysics and planetary sciences. It is implemented as a symbolic code, where each line stands for an analytic expression, whether algebraic or differential, which is managed by the software kernel independently of the numerical value of each variable. The code is versatile and user-friendly and permits to check the consequences of different hypotheses even through its early steps. Only the las...

  11. Trace element evidence for anatexis at oceanic magma chamber roofs and the role of partial melts for contamination of fresh MORB (United States)

    Fischer, Lennart A.; Erdmann, Martin; France, Lydéric; Wolff, Paul E.; Deloule, Etienne; Zhang, Chao; Godard, Marguerite; Koepke, Jürgen


    At oceanic spreading centers, interactions between magma and hydrothermal convecting systems trigger major physical, thermal, and chemical exchanges. The two-pyroxene hornfels recovered from the base of the sheeted dike sequence at Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Site 1256 (equatorial Eastern Pacific) are interpreted as a conducting boundary layer between the underlying axial melt lens and the hydrothermally cooled sheeted dikes. They are cut by numerous small, felsic veins, which were recently interpreted as a product of hydrous partial melting of sheeted dikes. Here, we present trace element compositions of products (melts and residues) of hydrous partial melting experiments using basalts and hornfels from IODP Site 1256 as starting material. The experimental products generated between 910 °C and 970 °C match the natural lithologies from Site 1256 in terms of major and trace element compositions. The compositions of the anatectic melts correspond to the compositions of the felsic veins, while the residual minerals match the compositions of the two-pyroxene hornfels, evidencing that hydrous partial melting is an important magmatic process in the gabbro/dike transition of fast-spreading mid-oceanic ridges. Our results complement previous experimental studies on anatectic processes occurring at the roof of the magma chambers from fast-spreading mid-ocean ridges. Moreover, calculations of mixing and assimilation fractional crystallization using the experimental partial melts as contaminant/assimilant showed that anatectic melts can only be a minor contributor to the contamination process.

  12. Deformation Characteristic and Magma Chamber Parameters of Agung Volcano by SBAS-InSAR%利用SBAS-InSAR技术研究印尼Agung火山的形变特征与岩浆房参数

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季灵运; ZHONG Lu; 王庆良; 刘瑞春; 秦姗兰


    基于ALOS PALSAR影像,利用小基线集合成孔径雷达干涉测量技术,提取了位于印度尼西亚巴厘岛的Agung火山2007 ~ 2009年的地表形变时间序列,并基于Mogi点源模型和竖直椭球体模型反演了岩浆房参数.结果表明:Agung火山地区大气延迟相位干扰较严重,Agung火山在2007~2009年发生了较明显的隆升形变,且与时间呈正相关.竖直椭球体模型能够更好地拟合InSAR形变场,岩浆房位于火山体下方约5 km处.SBAS-InSAR结果表明,应加强跟踪监测Agung火山的潜在喷发危险性.%On the basis of ALOS PALSAR images,we extracted the time series of surface deformation field of Agung Volcano in Bali Island,Indonesia during 2007 and 2009 by SBAS-InSAR technique,and inversed magma chamber parameters based on the Mogi point source and vertical spheroid models.The results showed that:the interference of atmospheric delayed phase was severe in Agung Volcano area.Agung Volcano showed the upward deformation characteristic from 2007 to 2009,and kept positive correlation with time.Deformation modeling indicated that the deformation obtained by vertical spheroid model matched very well with the InSAR-derived deformation,and the magma chamber was located at about 5 km beneath the volcanic edifice.From the deformation results derived by SBAS-InSAR,we should monitor the potential eruption of Agung Volcano.

  13. Petrologic imaging of silicic magma chambers: new calibration of Al-in-hornblende barometry and applications to the Long Valley - Mono - Inyo active volcanic system. (United States)

    Medard, E.; Martin, A. M.


    Traditional Al-in-hornblende barometry relies on the hypothesis that the Al content in amphibole only depends on pressure, through the Tschermack substitution. However, Al content in amphibole also varies with temperature through the edenite substitution, resulting in large errors in amphibole barometry. Using literature data, we have recalibrated a temperature-independent barometer based on octahedral Al for amphiboles in rhyolitic and dacitic compositions (Médard et al., Goldschmidt 2013). Experimental pressures are reproduced with an average error of 36 MPa in the 100-400 MPa range. Our new amphibole barometer has been used to investigate the depth of magma storage underneath the recent eruptions of the Mono-Inyo volcanic chain. Preliminary investigation of samples from the Glass Creek and Obsidian flows, associated with the youngest eruptive activity to the South of the chain (the 1350 AD Inyo eruption), contain Al-rich amphiboles ( 10 wt% Al2O3) crystallized at pressures of 260 ± 20 MPa (9.8 ± 0.7 km) and a temperature of 835 °C. Similar amphibole crystals have been analyzed from products of the 1700 AD eruption on Pahoa island to the north of the chain by Bray (2014). Identical crystallization pressures of 260 ± 40 MPa are derived from their compositions, suggesting a constant pressure of magma storage under the entire Mono-Inyo volcanic chain. Highly crystalline mush samples from the Glass Creek dome have been interpreted as remobilized magma from the older Long Valley magma chamber. Low-Al amphiboles ( 7 wt% Al2O3) from a mush sample also crystallized at 260 ± 20 MPa and a temperature of 705 °C. The storage depth has thus been constant in the entire Long Valley - Mono - Inyo system over time. A storage depth of 9.8 ± 0.7 km is in excellent agreement with recent seismic work by Seccia et al. (2011) who used Vs to infer the presence of a highly molten (30-60 % melt) magmatic reservoir 7-11 km beneath the Long Valley caldera. Traditional Al

  14. Numerical investigation of permeability models for low viscosity magmas: Application to the 2007 Stromboli effusive eruption (United States)

    La Spina, G.; Polacci, M.; Burton, M.; de'Michieli Vitturi, M.


    Magma permeability is the most important factor controlling the transition between effusive and explosive styles during magma ascent at active volcanoes. When magma permeability is low, gas bubbles in the melt expand as the pressure decreases; above a critical gas volume fraction threshold, magma fragments, generating an explosive eruption. On the contrary, if magma is sufficiently permeable, gas ascends through the conduit towards the surface faster than the magma ascent speed, producing decoupling of gas and magma and reducing the maximum vesicularity. This decoupled flow inhibits fragmentation and leads to either an effusive eruption or quiescent degassing. Accurate modelling of permeability behaviour is therefore fundamental when simulating magma ascent processes. In this work, we compare different permeability models for low viscosity magmas using a 1D steady-state model. We use, as a test case, the 2007 effusive eruption at Stromboli volcano, Italy. We compare the numerical solutions computed using the linear Darcy's law with those obtained using the non-linear Forchheimer relation. Our numerical results show that, using Darcy's law and appropriate permeability models, it is possible to obtain an effusive eruption in agreement with observations. However, we found that, in the shallow conduit, the limit of applicability of Darcy's law (that is the modified Reynolds number Rem < 10) is exceeded due to high gas flow rates. Furthermore, we show that using Forchheimer's law and some parametric expressions for viscous and inertial permeabilities, results can be compatible with an effusive eruption, once appropriate values are chosen. However, one of the parameters required to obtain an effusive eruption, the friction coefficient between gas and melt, is several orders of magnitude lower than that determined from measurements of solid erupted samples. This result requires further experimental verification. We propose that our novel permeability modelling regime is

  15. Regional tectonics, geology, magma chamber processes and mineralisation of the Jinchuan nickel-copper-PGE deposit, Gansu Province, China: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. (Mike Porter


    The Jinchuan ultramafic intrusion was injected into three interconnected sub-chambers, each containing a separate orebody. It essentially comprises an olivine-orthopyroxene-chromite cumulate, with interstitial orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, plagioclase and phlogopite, and is predominantly composed of lherzolite (∼80%, with an outer rim of olivine pyroxenite and cores of mineralised dunite. Mineralisation occurs as disseminated and net-textured sulphides, predominantly within the dunite, with lesser, PGE rich lenses, late massive sulphide accumulations, small copper rich pods and limited mineralised diopside skarn in wall rock marbles. The principal ore minerals are pyrrhotite (the dominant sulphide, pentlandite, chalcopyrite, cubanite, mackinawite and pyrite, with a variety of platinum group minerals and minor gold. The deposit underwent significant post-magmatic tremolite-actinolite, chlorite, serpentine and magnetite alteration. The volume of the Jinchuan intrusion accounts for <3% of the total parental magma required to generate the contained olivine and sulphide. It is postulated that mafic melt, intruded into the lower crust, hydraulically supported by density contrast buoyancy from below the Moho, ponded in a large staging chamber, where crystallisation and settling formed a lower sulphide rich mush. This mush was subsequently injected into nearby shallow dipping faults to form the Jinchuan intrusion.

  16. Thermal models, stable isotopes and cooling ages from the incrementally constructed Tuolumne batholith, Sierra Nevada: why large chambers did exist (United States)

    Paterson, S. R.; Okaya, D. A.; Memeti, V.; Mundil, R.; Lackey, J.; Clemens-Knott, D.


    Our studies of the zoned, 1100 km2, 95-85 Ma Tuolumne batholith are in part designed to evaluate the thermal evolution of normally zoned, large magma bodies formed by the amalgamation of a few to many magma pulses. We use finite difference models with full spatial heterogeneity of rock properties, fine-scale internal grid spacing allowing for rock geometries at scales between sub-m to km’s, small internal time steps for runs over durations of days to millions of years and latent heat of fusion. Our initial stable isotopic studies, including δ18O variation in zircon (6-6.5‰), titanite (4.5-5.2‰), quartz (9-10‰), and whole rock (7-9 ‰) (Lackey et al. 2008, J. Pet.) and of the dD of biotites (-65 to -75‰) reveal isotopic exchange during magmatic cooling but the absence of a pervasive hydrothermal circulation system. We thus excluded advective cooling from our models. A range of incremental chamber construction scenarios are modeled including (1) repeated intrusions of rectangular or elliptical geometry (sills, dikes, or blobs); (2) a sequence of intrusions emplaced at specified but arbitrary times or according to a time rate with pulse shapes fixed or set to randomly vary within a range of dimensions and aspect ratios; (3) sheeted dike complexes in which the thermal model expands according to an extension rate to accommodate the emplacement of new dikes with width and time between dikes coupled to growth rate; (4) nested diapiric pulses; and (5) nested, irregularly shaped bodies based on maps or cross-sections that are digitally rendered into rock types, assigned thermal properties and intruded at specified times as new magma pulses. This wide range of batholith construction scenarios naturally results in a wide range of length and timescales of magma chambers. However, many likely scenarios for the TB, based on flux rates constrained by mapping and geochronology indicate that (1) the lobes of the Tuolumne batholith will crystallize in 100

  17. Numerical investigation of permeability models for low viscosity magmas: application to the 2007 Stromboli effusive eruption (United States)

    La Spina, Giuseppe; Burton, Mike; de'Michieli Vitturi, Mattia; Landi, Patrizia; Polacci, Margherita


    Magma permeability is the most important factor controlling the transition between effusive and explosive activity of a basaltic eruption. Indeed, when low viscosity magmas are not permeable enough, volatiles stay trapped into the melt, expanding and pushing up more and more magma as the pressure decreases. As soon as the volume fraction of the gas, or the overpressure of the bubbles, or the strain rate of the melt becomes too large, magma fragments, generating an explosive eruption. On the contrary, if magma is sufficiently permeable, gas is able to decouple from the melt and fragmentation does not occur, causing, thus, an effusive eruption. A correct modelisation of gas/magma decoupling is, therefore, fundamental to properly understand the ascent dynamics occurring during an eruption. Here we study several permeability models for a low viscosity magma using a 1D steady-state model for magma ascent dynamics, focussing, in particular, on the 2007 effusive eruption at Stromboli volcano, Italy. We compare the numerical solutions computed using respectively Darcy's and Forchheimer's law. We also take into account the different expressions for Darcian permeability introduced by Bai et al. (2010, 2011) for Stromboli volcano, comparing them against a new expression for permeability derived from the data collected by Polacci et al. (2009) on Stromboli scoria. The numerical results show that using the permeability expressions of Bai et al. (2010, 2011) with Darcy's law, magma fragments into an explosive eruption. Using the new permeability model, instead, the decoupling between gas and magma is sufficient to generate an effusive eruption. However, when Forchheimer's law is adopted, fragmentation is always achieved, even with our new permeability. For a broader investigation on permeability, we also adopt the permeability relation introduced by Degruyter et al. (2012) as a function of three parameters: bubble number density, throat-bubble size ratio, and tortuosity factor

  18. Regional tectonics, geology, magma chamber processes and mineralisation of the Jinchuan nickel-copper-PGE deposit, Gansu Province, China:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T.M. Mike Porter


    The Jinchuan Ni-Cu-PGE deposit (>500 Mt@1.2%Ni, 0.7%Cu, w0.4 g/t PGE), one of the largest magmatic sulphide deposits in the world, is located within the westernmost terrane of the North China Craton. It is hosted within the 6.5 km long, Neoproterozoic (w0.83 Ga) Jinchuan ultramafic intrusion, emplaced as a sill-like body into a Palaeoproterozoic suite of gneisses, migmatites, marbles and amphibolites, below an active intracratonic rift. The parental magma was high-Mg basalt, generated through melting of sub-crustal lithospheric mantle by a mantle plume during the initiation of Rodinia supercontinent breakup. The lower Palaeozoic collision of the exotic Qilian Block with the breakup-related southern margin of the craton accreted a subduction complex, and emplaced voluminous granitic intrusions and foreland basin sequences within the craton, to as far north as Jinchuan. During the Cainozoic, allochthonous lower Palaeozoic rocks were thrust up to 300 km to the northeast over cratonic basement, to within 25 km of the Jinchuan deposit. The Jinchuan ultramafic intrusion was injected into three interconnected sub-chambers, each containing a separate orebody. It essentially comprises an olivine-orthopyroxene-chromite cumulate, with interstitial orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, plagioclase and phlogopite, and is predominantly composed of lherzolite (w80%), with an outer rim of olivine pyroxenite and cores of mineralised dunite. Mineralisation occurs as disseminated and net-textured sulphides, predominantly within the dunite, with lesser, PGE rich lenses, late massive sulphide accumulations, small copper rich pods and limited mineralised diopside skarn in wall rock marbles. The principal ore minerals are pyrrhotite (the dominant sulphide), pentlandite, chalcopyrite, cubanite, mackinawite and pyrite, with a variety of platinum group minerals and minor gold. The deposit underwent significant post-magmatic tremolite-actinolite, chlorite, serpentine and magnetite alteration. The

  19. Application of Chaboche Model in Rocket Thrust Chamber Analysis (United States)

    Asraff, Ahmedul Kabir; Suresh Babu, Sheela; Babu, Aneena; Eapen, Reeba


    Liquid Propellant Rocket Engines are commonly used in space technology. Thrust chamber is one of the most important subsystems of a rocket engine. The thrust chamber generates propulsive thrust force for flight of the rocket by ejection of combustion products at supersonic speeds. Often double walled construction is employed for these chambers. The thrust chamber investigated here has its hot inner wall fabricated out of a high thermal conductive material like copper alloy and outer wall made of stainless steel. Inner wall is subjected to high thermal and pressure loads during operation of engine due to which it will be in the plastic regime. Main reasons for the failure of such chambers are fatigue in the plastic range (called as low cycle fatigue since the number of cycles to failure will be low in plastic range), creep and thermal ratcheting. Elasto plastic material models are required to simulate the above effects through a cyclic stress analysis. This paper gives the details of cyclic stress analysis carried out for the thrust chamber using different plasticity model combinations available in ANSYS (Version 15) FE code. The best model among the above is applied in the cyclic stress analysis of two dimensional (plane strain and axisymmetric) and three dimensional finite element models of thrust chamber. Cyclic life of the chamber is calculated from stress-strain graph obtained from above analyses.

  20. Application of a new multiphase multicomponent volcanic conduit model with magma degassing and crystallization to Stromboli volcano. (United States)

    La Spina, Giuseppe; Burton, Mike; de'Michieli Vitturi, Mattia


    reproduce both effusive and explosive eruptive activities at Stromboli volcano. Three different crystal components (olivine, pyroxene and feldspar) and two different gas species (water and carbon dioxide) are taken into account. The equilibrium profiles of crystallization as function of pressure, temperature and water content are modeled using the numerical codes AlphaMELTS and DAKOTA. The equilibrium of dissolved gas content, instead, is obtained using a non-linear fitting of data computed using VolatileCALC. With these data, we simulate numerically the lava effusion that occurred at Stromboli between 27 February and 2 April 2007, and find good agreement with the observed data (vesicularity, exsolved gas composition, crystal content and mass flow rate) at the vent. We find that the model is highly sensitive to input magma temperature, going from effusive to explosive eruption with temperature changes by just 20 °C. We thoroughly investigated through a sensitivity analysis the control of the temperature of magma chamber and of the radius of the conduit on the mass flow rate, obtaining also a set of admissible temperatures and conduit radii that produce results in agreement with the real observations.

  1. Temporal evolution of magma flow and degassing conditions during dome growth, insights from 2D numerical modeling (United States)

    Chevalier, Laure; Collombet, Marielle; Pinel, Virginie


    Understanding magma degassing evolution during an eruption is essential to improving forecasting of effusive/explosive regime transitions at andesitic volcanoes. Lava domes frequently form during effusive phases, inducing a pressure increase both within the conduit and within the surrounding rocks. To quantify the influence of dome height on magma flow and degassing, we couple magma and gas flow in a 2D numerical model. The deformation induced by magma flow evolution is also quantified. From realistic initial magma flow conditions in effusive regime (Collombet, 2009), we apply increasing pressure at the conduit top as the dome grows. Since volatile solubility increases with pressure, dome growth is then associated with an increase in magma dissolved water content at a given depth, which corresponds with a decrease in magma porosity and permeability. Magma flow evolution is associated with ground deflation of a few μrad in the near field. However this signal is not detectable as it is hidden by dome subsidence (a few mrad). A Darcy flow model is used to study the impact of pressure and permeability conditions on gas flow in the conduit and surrounding rock. We show that dome permeability has almost no influence on magma degassing. However, increasing pressure in the surrounding rock, due to dome loading, as well as decreasing magma permeability in the conduit limit permeable gas loss at the conduit walls, thus causing gas pressurization in the upper conduit by a few tens of MPa. Decreasing magma permeability and increasing gas pressure increase the likelihood of magma explosivity and hazard in the case of a rapid decompression due to dome collapse.

  2. Duration of the Banco Bonito Rhyolite Eruption, Vales Caldera, New Mexico based on magma transport modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, Benjamin R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Baldridge, W. Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gable, Carl W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sicilian, James M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Finite volume calculations of the flow of rhyolite are presented to investigate the fate of viscous magmas flowing in planar fractures with realistic length to width ratios of up to 2500:1. Heat and mass transfer for a melt with a temperature dependent viscosity and the potential to undergo phase change are considered. Magma driving pressures and dike widths are chosen to satisfy simple elastic considerations. These models are applied within a parameter space relevant to the Banco Bonito rhyolite flow, Valles caldera, New Mexico. We estimate a maximum eruption duration for the event of ~200 days, realized at a minimum possible dike width of 5-6 m and driving pressure of 7-8 MPa. Simplifications in the current model may warrant scaling of these results. However, we demonstrate the applicability of our model to magma dynamics issues and suggest that such models may be used to infer information about both the timing of an eruption and the evolution of the associated magma source.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Kukharonak


    Full Text Available The computer model for coordination of fuel spray characteristics with diesel combustion chamber parameters has been created in the paper.  The model allows to observe fuel sprays  develоpment in diesel cylinder at any moment of injection, to calculate characteristics of fuel sprays with due account of a shape and dimensions of a combustion chamber, timely to change fuel injection characteristics and supercharging parameters, shape and dimensions of a combustion chamber. Moreover the computer model permits to determine parameters of holes in an injector nozzle that provides the required fuel sprays characteristics at the stage of designing a diesel engine. Combustion chamber parameters for 4ЧН11/12.5 diesel engine have been determined in the paper.

  4. Heterogeneity in lunar anorthosite meteorites: implications for the lunar magma ocean model. (United States)

    Russell, Sara S; Joy, Katherine H; Jeffries, Teresa E; Consolmagno, Guy J; Kearsley, Anton


    The lunar magma ocean model is a well-established theory of the early evolution of the Moon. By this model, the Moon was initially largely molten and the anorthositic crust that now covers much of the lunar surface directly crystallized from this enormous magma source. We are undertaking a study of the geochemical characteristics of anorthosites from lunar meteorites to test this model. Rare earth and other element abundances have been measured in situ in relict anorthosite clasts from two feldspathic lunar meteorites: Dhofar 908 and Dhofar 081. The rare earth elements were present in abundances of approximately 0.1 to approximately 10× chondritic (CI) abundance. Every plagioclase exhibited a positive Eu-anomaly, with Eu abundances of up to approximately 20×CI. Calculations of the melt in equilibrium with anorthite show that it apparently crystallized from a magma that was unfractionated with respect to rare earth elements and ranged in abundance from 8 to 80×CI. Comparisons of our data with other lunar meteorites and Apollo samples suggest that there is notable heterogeneity in the trace element abundances of lunar anorthosites, suggesting these samples did not all crystallize from a common magma source. Compositional and isotopic data from other authors also suggest that lunar anorthosites are chemically heterogeneous and have a wide range of ages. These observations may support other models of crust formation on the Moon or suggest that there are complexities in the lunar magma ocean scenario to allow for multiple generations of anorthosite formation. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of rotation on crystal settling in a terrestrial magma ocean: Spherical shell model (United States)

    Maas, C.; Hansen, U.


    Like Moon or Mars, Earth experienced one or several deep magma ocean periods of globalextent in a later stage of its accretion. The crystallization of these magma oceans is of keyimportance for the chemical structure of Earth, the mantle evolution and the onset of platetectonics. Due to the fast rotation of early Earth and the small magma viscosity, rotationprobably had a profound effect on differentiation processes. For example, Matyska et al.[1994] propose that the distribution of heterogeneities like the two large low shear velocityprovinces (LLSVP) at the core mantle boundary is influenced by rotational dynamicsof early Earth. Further Garnero and McNamara [2008] suggest that the LLSVPs arevery long-living anomalies, probably reaching back to the time of differentiation andsolidification of Earth. However, nearly all previous studies neglect the effects of rotation.In our previous work using a Cartesian model, a strong influence of rotation as well asof latitude on the differentiation processes in an early magma ocean was revealed. Weshowed that crystal settling in an early stage of magma ocean crystallization cruciallydepends on latitude as well as on rotational strength and crystal density.In order to overcome the restrictions as to the geometry of the Cartesian model, we arecurrently developing a spherical model to simulate crystal settling in a rotating sphericalshell. This model will allow us not only to investigate crystal settling at the poles andthe equator, but also at latitudes in-between these regions, as well as the migration ofcrystals between poles and equator. ReferencesE. J. Garnero and A. K. McNamara. Structure and dynamics of earth's lower mantle.Science, 320(5876):626-628, 2008.C. Matyska, J. Moser, and D. A. Yuen. The potential influence of radiative heat transferon the formation of megaplumes in the lower mantle. Earth and Planetary ScienceLetters, 125(1):255-266, 1994.

  6. Multiple plagioclase crystal populations identified by crystal size distribution and in situ chemical data: Implications for timescales of magma chamber processes associated with the 1915 eruption of Lassen Peak, CA (United States)

    Salisbury, M.J.; Bohrson, W.A.; Clynne, M.A.; Ramos, F.C.; Hoskin, P.


    Products of the 1915 Lassen Peak eruption reveal evidence for a magma recharge-magma mixing event that may have catalyzed the eruption and from which four compositional members were identified: light dacite, black dacite, andesitic inclusion, and dark andesite. Crystal size distribution, textural, and in situ chemical (major and trace element and Sr isotope) data for plagioclase from these compositional products define three crystal populations that have distinct origins: phenocrysts (long axis > 0??5 mm) that typically have core An contents between 34 and 36 mol %, microphenocrysts (long axis between 0??1 and 0??5 mm) that have core An contents of 66-69, and microlites (long axis crystal growth rates and acicular and swallowtail crystal habits. Some plagioclase phenocrysts from the dacitic chamber were incorporated into the hybrid layer and underwent dissolution-precipitation, seen in both crystal textures and rim compositions. Average microphenocryst residence times are of the order of months. Microlites may have formed in response to decompression and/ or syn-eruptive degassing as magma ascended from the chamber through the volcanic conduit. Chemical distinctions in plagioclase microlite An contents reveal that melt of the dark andesite was more mafic than the melt of the other three compositions. We suggest that mixing of an intruding basaltic andesite and reservoir dacite before magma began ascending in the conduit allowed formation of a compositionally distinct microlite population. Melt in the other three products was more evolved because it had undergone differentiation during the months following initial mixing; as a consequence, melt and microlites among these three products have similar compositions. The results of this study highlight the integrated use of crystal size distribution, textural, and in situ chemical data in identifying distinct crystal populations and linking these populations to the thermal and chemical characteristics of complex magma

  7. Rician Channel Modeling for Multiprobe Anechoic Chamber Setups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Wei; Kyösti, Pekka; Hentilä, Lassi;


    This paper discusses over the air (OTA) testing for multiple input multiple output (MIMO) capable terminals, with emphasis on modeling Rician channel models in the multi-probe anechoic chamber setups. A technique to model Rician channels is proposed. The line-of-sight (LOS) component, with an arb......This paper discusses over the air (OTA) testing for multiple input multiple output (MIMO) capable terminals, with emphasis on modeling Rician channel models in the multi-probe anechoic chamber setups. A technique to model Rician channels is proposed. The line-of-sight (LOS) component...

  8. Effects of magma-induced stress within a cellular automaton model of volcanism (United States)

    Butters, Olivia J.; Sarson, Graeme R.; Bushby, Paul J.


    The cellular automaton model of Piegari, Di Maio, Scandone and Milano, J. Volc. Geoth. Res., 202, 22-28 (2011) is extended to include magma-induced stress (i.e. a local magma-related augmentation of the stress field). This constitutes a nonlinear coupling between the magma and stress fields considered by this model, which affects the statistical distributions of eruptions obtained. The extended model retains a power law relation between eruption size and frequency for most events, as expected from the self-organised criticality inspiring this model; but the power law now applies for a reduced range of size, and there are new peaks of relatively more frequent eruptions of intermediate and large size. The cumulative frequency of repose time between events remains well modelled by a stretched exponential function of repose time (approaching a pure exponential distribution only for the longest repose times), but the time scales of this behaviour are slightly longer, reflecting the increased preference for larger events. The eruptions are relatively more likely to have high volatile (water) content, so would generally be more explosive. The new model also naturally favours a central 'axial' transport conduit, as found in many volcano systems, but which otherwise must be artificially imposed within such models.

  9. A Magma Accretion Model for the Formation of Oceanic Lithosphere: Implications for Global Heat Loss

    CERN Document Server

    Hamza, V M; Alexandrino, C H


    A simple magma accretion model of the oceanic lithosphere is proposed and its implications for understanding the thermal field of oceanic lithosphere examined. The new model (designated VBA) assumes existence of lateral variations in magma accretion rates and temperatures at the boundary zone between the lithosphere and the asthenosphere. Heat flow and bathymetry variations calculated on the basis of the VBA model provide vastly improved fits to respective observational datasets. The improved fits have been achieved for the entire age range and without the need to invoke the ad-hoc hypothesis of large-scale hydrothermal circulation in stable ocean crust. The results suggest that estimates of global heat loss need to be downsized by at least 25%.

  10. Evidence of varying magma chambers and magmatic evolutionary histories for the Table Mountain Formation in the Carson-Iceberg Wilderness region, Sonora Pass, California (United States)

    Asami, R.; Putirka, K. D.; Pluhar, C. J.; Farner, M. J.; Torrez, G.; Shrum, B. L.; Jones, S.


    The Sonora Pass- Dardanelles region in the Carson- Iceberg Wilderness area is located in the central Sierra Nevada and home to the type section for latites (Slemmons, 1953), a volcanic rock that contains high potassium, clinopyroxene, and plagioclase phenocysts. Latite lavas and tuffs exposed in the Sonora Pass region originated from the sources in the eastern Sierra Nevada (Noble et al., 1974) where lavas flowed toward California's Great Valley, and were emplaced in stream valleys along the way, which are now inverted to form "table mountains", ergo the name "Table Mountain Latite" (TML) (Slemmons, 1966). Similarly high-K volcanic rocks of the same age are exposed at Grouse Meadows, which is just north of the Walker Lane Caldera east of Sonora Pass, and at the type section, between Red Peak and Bald Peak west of Sonora Pass. Latites lavas and tuffs in all three regions were analyzed for major oxides and trace elements with X-ray fluorescence spectrometry at California State University, Fresno. Analysis of three locations of (TML) at the type section show that they (Ransome, 1898), may have a different magmatic evolutionary history compared to other latites, exposed at Sonora Pass and Grouse Meadows, as the latter two show similar major oxide and trace element compositions. Most compelling is the contrast in the behavior of Al2O3 and CaO at the type section. Variation diagrams show that at the type section Al2O3 and CaO enrichment decreases with increasing amounts of MgO as fractional crystallization occurs. Conversely, at Sonora Peak and Grouse Meadows, CaO and Al2O3 concentrations mostly increase as MgO decreases with fractional crystallization. This contrasts shows that plagioclase was a major fractioning phase at the type section, but not at the other two localities. This suggests that the lava flows at the type section were erupted from a distinct set of magma chambers and vents that underwent a very distinct magmatic evolutionary history, perhaps involving

  11. Influence of extrusion rate and magma rheology on the growth of lava domes: Insights from particle-dynamics modeling (United States)

    Husain, Taha; Elsworth, Derek; Voight, Barry; Mattioli, Glen; Jansma, Pamela


    Lava domes are structures that grow by the extrusion of viscous silicic or intermediate composition magma from a central volcanic conduit. Repeated cycles of growth are punctuated by collapse, as the structure becomes oversized for the strength of the composite magma that rheologically stiffens and strengthens at its surface. Here we explore lava dome growth and failure mechanics using a two-dimensional particle-dynamics model. The model follows the evolution of fractured lava, with solidification driven by degassing induced crystallization of magma. The particle-dynamics model emulates the natural development of dome growth and rearrangement of the lava dome which is difficult in mesh-based analyses due to mesh entanglement effects. The deformable talus evolves naturally as a frictional carapace that caps a ductile magma core. Extrusion rate and magma rheology together with crystallization temperature and volatile content govern the distribution of strength in the composite structure. This new model is calibrated against existing observational models of lava dome growth. Results show that the shape and extent of the ductile core and the overall structure of the lava dome are strongly controlled by the infusion rate. The effects of extrusion rate on magma rheology are sensitive to material stiffness, which in turn is a function of volatile content and crystallinity. Material stiffness and material strength are key model parameters which govern magma rheology and subsequently the morphological character of the lava dome and in turn stability. Degassing induced crystallization causes material stiffening and enhances material strength reflected in non-Newtonian magma behavior. The increase in stiffness and strength of the injected magma causes a transition in the style of dome growth, from endogenous expansion of a ductile core, to stiffer and stronger intruding material capable of punching through the overlying material and resulting in the development of a spine or

  12. Bubble plumes generated during recharge of basaltic magma reservoirs (United States)

    Phillips, Jeremy C.; Woods, Andrew W.


    CO 2 is relatively insoluble in basaltic magma at low crustal pressures. It therefore exists as a gas phase in the form of bubbles in shallow crustal reservoirs. Over time these bubbles may separate gravitationally from the magma in the chamber. As a result, any new magma which recharges the chamber from deeper in the crust may be more bubble-rich and hence of lower density than the magma in the chamber. Using scaling arguments, we show that for typical recharge fluxes, such a source of low-viscosity, bubble-rich basalt may generate a turbulent bubble plume within the chamber. We also show that the bubbles are typically sufficiently small to have a low Reynolds number and to remain in the flow. We then present a series of analogue laboratory experiments which identify that the motion of such a turbulent bubble-driven line plume is well described by the classical theory of buoyant plumes. Using the classical plume theory we then examine the effect of the return flow associated with such bubble plumes on the mixing and redistribution of bubbles within the chamber. Using this model, we show that a relatively deep bubbly layer of magma may form below a thin foam layer at the roof. If, as an eruption proceeds, there is a continuing influx at the base of the chamber, then our model suggests that the bubble content of the bubbly layer may gradually increase. This may lead to a transition from lava flow activity to more explosive fire-fountaining activity. The foam layer at the top of the chamber may provide a flux for the continual outgassing from the flanks of the volcano [Ryan, Am. Geophys. Union Geophys. Monogr. 91 (1990)] and if it deepens sufficiently it may contribute to the eruptive activity [Vergniolle and Jaupart, J. Geophys. Res. 95 (1990) 2793-3001].

  13. Intrusion of granitic magma into the continental crust facilitated by magma pulsing and dike-diapir interactions: Numerical simulations (United States)

    Cao, Wenrong; Kaus, Boris J. P.; Paterson, Scott


    We conducted a 2-D thermomechanical modeling study of intrusion of granitic magma into the continental crust to explore the roles of multiple pulsing and dike-diapir interactions in the presence of visco-elasto-plastic rheology. Multiple pulsing is simulated by replenishing source regions with new pulses of magma at a certain temporal frequency. Parameterized "pseudo-dike zones" above magma pulses are included. Simulation results show that both diking and pulsing are crucial factors facilitating the magma ascent and emplacement. Multiple pulses keep the magmatic system from freezing and facilitate the initiation of pseudo-dike zones, which in turn heat the host rock roof, lower its viscosity, and create pathways for later ascending pulses of magma. Without diking, magma cannot penetrate the highly viscous upper crust. Without multiple pulsing, a single magma body solidifies quickly and it cannot ascent over a long distance. Our results shed light on the incremental growth of magma chambers, recycling of continental crust, and evolution of a continental arc such as the Sierra Nevada arc in California.

  14. A Magma Accretion Model for the Formation of Oceanic Lithosphere: Implications for Global Heat Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valiya M. Hamza


    Full Text Available A magma accretion model of oceanic lithosphere is proposed and its implications for understanding its thermal field examined. The new model (designated Variable Basal Accretion—VBA assumes existence of lateral variations in magma accretion rates and temperatures at the boundary zone between the lithosphere and the asthenosphere. However, unlike the previous thermal models of the lithosphere, the ratio of advection to conduction heat transfer is considered a space dependent variable. The results of VBA model simulations reveal that the thickness of the young lithosphere increases with distance from the ridge axis, at rates faster than those predicted by Half-Space Cooling models. Another noteworthy feature of the new model is its ability to account for the main features in the thermal behavior of oceanic lithosphere. The improved fits to bathymetry have been achieved for the entire age range and without the need to invoke the ad-hoc hypothesis of large-scale hydrothermal circulation. Also, use of VBA model does not lead to artificial discontinuities in the temperature field of the lithosphere, as is the case with GDH (Global Depth Heat Flow reference models. The results suggest that estimates of global heat loss need to be downsized by at least 25%.

  15. 3D gravity inversion and thermodynamic modelling reveal properties of shallow silicic magma reservoir beneath Laguna del Maule, Chile (United States)

    Miller, Craig A.; Williams-Jones, Glyn; Fournier, Dominique; Witter, Jeff


    Active, large volume, silicic magma systems are potentially the most hazardous form of volcanism on Earth. Knowledge of the location, size, and physical properties of silicic magma reservoirs, is therefore important for providing context in which to accurately interpret monitoring data and make informed hazard assessments. Accordingly, we present the first geophysical image of the Laguna del Maule volcanic field magmatic system, using a novel 3D inversion of gravity data constrained by thermodynamic modelling. The joint analysis of gravity and thermodynamic data allows for a rich interpretation of the magma system, and highlights the importance of considering the full thermodynamic effects on melt density, when interpreting gravity models of active magmatic systems. We image a 30 km3, low density, volatile rich magma reservoir, at around 2 km depth, containing at least 85% melt, hosted within a broader 115 km3 body interpreted as wholly or partially crystallised (>70% crystal) cumulate mush. Our model suggests a magmatic system with shallow, crystal poor magma, overlying deeper, crystal rich magma. Even though a large density contrast (-600 kg/m3) with the surrounding crust exists, the lithostatic load is 50% greater than the magma buoyancy force, suggesting buoyancy alone is insufficient to trigger an eruption. The reservoir is adjacent to the inferred extension of the Troncoso fault and overlies the location of an intruding sill, driving present day deformation. The reservoir is in close proximity to the 2.0 km3 Nieblas (rln) eruption at 2-3 ka, which we calculate tapped approximately 7% of the magma reservoir. However, we suggest that the present day magma system is not large enough to have fed all post-glacial eruptions, and that the location, or size of the system may have migrated or varied over time, with each eruption tapping only a small aliquot of the available magma. The presence of a shallow reservoir of volatile rich, near liquidus magma, in close

  16. Water content of primitive low-K tholeiitic basalt magma from Iwate Volcano, NE Japan arc: implications for differentiation mechanism of frontal-arc basalt magmas (United States)

    Kuritani, Takeshi; Yoshida, Takeyoshi; Kimura, Jun-Ichi; Hirahara, Yuka; Takahashi, Toshiro


    The water content of low-K tholeiitic basalt magma from Iwate volcano, which is located on the volcanic front of the NE Japan arc, was estimated using multi-component thermodynamic models. The Iwate lavas are moderately porphyritic, consisting of ~8 vol.% olivine and ~20 vol.% plagioclase phenocrysts. The olivine and plagioclase phenocrysts show significant compositional variations, and the Mg# of olivine phenocrysts (Mg#78-85) correlates positively with the An content of coexisting plagioclase phenocrysts (An85-92). The olivine phenocrysts with Mg# > ~82 do not form crystal aggregates with plagioclase phenocrysts. It is inferred from these observations that the phenocrysts with variable compositions were primarily derived from mushy boundary layers along the walls of a magma chamber. By using thermodynamic calculations with the observed petrological features of the lavas, the water content of the Iwate magma was estimated to be 4-5 wt.%. The high water content of the magma supports the recent consensus that frontal-arc magmas are remarkably hydrous. Using the estimated water content of the Iwate magma, the water content and temperature of the source mantle were estimated. Given that the Iwate magma was derived from a primary magma solely by olivine fractionation, the water content and temperature were estimated to be ~0.7 wt.% and ~1,310 °C, respectively. Differentiation mechanisms of low-K frontal-arc basalt magmas were also examined by application of a thermodynamics-based mass balance model to the Iwate magma. It is suggested that magmatic differentiation proceeds primarily through fractionation of crystals from the main molten part of a magma chamber when it is located at ~200 MPa.

  17. Magma Fragmentation (United States)

    Gonnermann, Helge M.


    Magma fragmentation is the breakup of a continuous volume of molten rock into discrete pieces, called pyroclasts. Because magma contains bubbles of compressible magmatic volatiles, decompression of low-viscosity magma leads to rapid expansion. The magma is torn into fragments, as it is stretched into hydrodynamically unstable sheets and filaments. If the magma is highly viscous, resistance to bubble growth will instead lead to excess gas pressure and the magma will deform viscoelastically by fracturing like a glassy solid, resulting in the formation of a violently expanding gas-pyroclast mixture. In either case, fragmentation represents the conversion of potential energy into the surface energy of the newly created fragments and the kinetic energy of the expanding gas-pyroclast mixture. If magma comes into contact with external water, the conversion of thermal energy will vaporize water and quench magma at the melt-water interface, thus creating dynamic stresses that cause fragmentation and the release of kinetic energy. Lastly, shear deformation of highly viscous magma may cause brittle fractures and release seismic energy.

  18. Detailed models for timing and efficiency in resistive plate chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Riegler, Werner


    We discuss detailed models for detector physics processes in Resistive Plate Chambers, in particular including the effect of attachment on the avalanche statistics. In addition, we present analytic formulas for average charges and intrinsic RPC time resolution. Using a Monte Carlo simulation including all the steps from primary ionization to the front-end electronics we discuss the dependence of efficiency and time resolution on parameters like primary ionization, avalanche statistics and threshold.

  19. Moonage Daydream: Reassessing the Simple Model for Lunar Magma Ocean Crystallization (United States)

    Rapp, J. F.; Draper, D. S.


    Details of the differentiation of a global-scale lunar magma ocean (LMO) remain enigmatic, as the Moon is not simply composed of highlands anorthosite and a suite of mare basalts as inferred from early studies. Results from recent orbital missions, and the increasingly detailed study of lunar samples, have revealed a much larger range of lithologies, from relatively MgO-rich and "purest anorthosite" discovered on the lunar far side by the M3 instrument on Chandraayan-1 to more exotic lithologies such as Si-rich domes and spinel-rich clasts distributed globally. To understand this increasingly complex geology, we must understand the initial formation and evolution of the LMO, and the composition of the cumulates this differentiation could have produced. Several attempts at modelling such a crystallization sequence have been made, and have raised as many questions as they have answered. We present results from our ongoing experimental simulations of magma ocean crystallization, investigating two end-member bulk compositions (TWM and LPUM) under fully fractional crystallization conditions. These simulations represent melting of the entire silicate portion of the Moon, as an end-member starting point from which to begin assessing the evolution of the lunar interior and formation of the lunar crust.

  20. Optimal three-field block-preconditioners for models of coupled magma/mantle dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Rhebergen, Sander; Wathen, Andrew J; Katz, Richard F


    For a prescribed porosity, the coupled magma/mantle flow equations can be formulated as a two field system of equations with velocity and pressure unknowns. Previous work has shown that while optimal preconditioners for the two field formulation can be constructed, the construction of preconditioners that are uniform with respect to model parameters is difficult. This limits the applicability of two field preconditioners in certain regimes of practical interest. We address this issue by reformulating the governing equations as a three field problem, which removes a term that was problematic in the two field formulation in favour of an additional equation for a pressure-like field. For the three-field problem, we develop and analyse new preconditioners and we show numerically that the new three-field preconditioners are optimal in terms of problem size and less sensitive to model parameters compared to the two-field preconditioner. This extends the applicability of optimal preconditioners for coupled mantle/ma...

  1. Draining mafic magma from conduits during Strombolian eruption (United States)

    Wadsworth, F. B.; Kennedy, B.; Branney, M. J.; Vasseur, J.; von Aulock, F. W.; Lavallée, Y.; Kueppers, U.


    During and following eruption, mafic magmas can readily drain downward in conduits, dykes and lakes producing complex and coincident up-flow and down-flow textures. This process can occur at the top of the plumbing system if the magma outgases as slugs or through porous foam, causing the uppermost magma surface to descend and the magma to densify. In this scenario the draining volume is limited by the gas volume outgassed. Additionally, magma can undergo wholesale backflow when the pressure at the base of the conduit or feeder dyke exceeds the driving pressure in the chamber beneath. This second scenario will continue until pressure equilibrium is established. These two scenarios may occur coincidently as local draining of uppermost conduit magma by outgassing can lead to wholesale backflow because the densification of magma is an effective way to modify the vertical pressure profile in a conduit. In the rare case where conduits are preserved in cross section, the textural record of draining is often complex and great care should be taken in interpreting bimodal kinematic trends in detail. Lateral cooling into country rock leads to lateral profiles of physical and flow properties and, ultimately, outgassing potential, and exploration of such profiles elucidates the complexity involved. We present evidence from Red Crater volcano, New Zealand, and La Palma, Canary Islands, where we show that at least one draining phase followed initial ascent and eruption. We provide a rheological model approach to understand gravitational draining velocities and therefore, the timescales of up- and down-flow cycles predicted. These timescales can be compared with observed geophysical signals at monitored mafic volcanoes worldwide. Finally, we discuss the implications of shallow magma draining for edifice stability, eruption longevity and magma-groundwater interaction.

  2. Turbulence modelling of flow fields in thrust chambers (United States)

    Chen, C. P.; Kim, Y. M.; Shang, H. M.


    Following the consensus of a workshop in Turbulence Modelling for Liquid Rocket Thrust Chambers, the current effort was undertaken to study the effects of second-order closure on the predictions of thermochemical flow fields. To reduce the instability and computational intensity of the full second-order Reynolds Stress Model, an Algebraic Stress Model (ASM) coupled with a two-layer near wall treatment was developed. Various test problems, including the compressible boundary layer with adiabatic and cooled walls, recirculating flows, swirling flows, and the entire SSME nozzle flow were studied to assess the performance of the current model. Detailed calculations for the SSME exit wall flow around the nozzle manifold were executed. As to the overall flow predictions, the ASM removes another assumption for appropriate comparison with experimental data to account for the non-isotropic turbulence effects.

  3. Depth of origin of magma in eruptions. (United States)

    Becerril, Laura; Galindo, Ines; Gudmundsson, Agust; Morales, Jose Maria


    Many volcanic hazard factors--such as the likelihood and duration of an eruption, the eruption style, and the probability of its triggering large landslides or caldera collapses--relate to the depth of the magma source. Yet, the magma source depths are commonly poorly known, even in frequently erupting volcanoes such as Hekla in Iceland and Etna in Italy. Here we show how the length-thickness ratios of feeder dykes can be used to estimate the depth to the source magma chamber. Using this method, accurately measured volcanic fissures/feeder-dykes in El Hierro (Canary Islands) indicate a source depth of 11-15 km, which coincides with the main cloud of earthquake foci surrounding the magma chamber associated with the 2011-2012 eruption of El Hierro. The method can be used on widely available GPS and InSAR data to calculate the depths to the source magma chambers of active volcanoes worldwide.

  4. Modeling of secondary organic aerosol yields from laboratory chamber data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Chan


    Full Text Available A product-specific model for secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation and composition based on equilibrium gas-particle partitioning is evaluated. The model is applied to represent laboratory data on the ozonolysis of α-pinene under dry, dark, and low-NOx conditions in the presence of ammonium sulfate seed aerosol. Using five major identified products, the model is fit to the chamber data. From the optimal fitting, SOA oxygen-to-carbon (O/C and hydrogen-to-carbon (H/C ratios are modeled. The discrepancy between measured H/C ratios and those based on the oxidation products used in the model fitting suggests the potential importance of particle-phase reactions. Data fitting is also carried out using the volatility basis set, wherein oxidation products are parsed into volatility bins. The product-specific model is best used for an SOA precursor for which a substantial fraction of the aerosol-phase oxidation products has been identified.

  5. Priming Silicic Giant Magma Bodies: Finding Evidence for Internal Forcing Versus External Triggering of Supereruptions by Phase Equilibria Modeling. (United States)

    Tramontano, S.; Gualda, G. A. R.; Ghiorso, M. S.; Kennedy, B.


    It is important to understand what triggers silicic eruptions because of the implications for modern-day systems. The goal of this project is to use phase equilibria modeling (i.e. rhyolite-MELTS) to determine to what extent magmas within the crust are induced to erupt due to external triggers (e.g. earthquakes; new magma injection; neighboring eruptions) and to what extent they naturally evolve to a point where eruption is inevitable (e.g. by fluid exsolution and decrease in magma strength and density). Whole-rock compositions from four rhyolite tuffs across the globe associated with large or supereruptions (Mamaku Tuff, New Zealand; Peach Spring Tuff, SW USA; early and late-erupted Bishop Tuff, California; and Toba Tuff, Indonesia) are studied using rhyolite-MELTS modeling. Key physical properties of magma are strongly affected by the initial volatile content due to fluid exsolution. By running simulations with varying water contents, we can track the evolution of fluid exsolution during crystallization. Isobaric (constrained temperature change at constant pressure) and isochoric (constrained temperature change at constant volume) models were run for the four compositions. In constrained-pressure scenarios, fluid is free to exsolve as crystallization proceeds, and the total system volume can increase or decrease accordingly; this would require deformation of the surrounding crust to accommodate the magma volume change. In constrained-volume scenarios, bubble exsolution is limited to the volume change due to crystallization; in this case, pressure can decrease or increase (if bubbles are absent or present). For fixed-pressure scenarios, fluid exsolution is more extensive and leads to internal triggering, at least for fluid-saturated conditions; external triggering is more likely in fluid-undersaturated conditions. For fixed-volume scenarios, none of the systems cross a fragmentation threshold for the crystal contents typically observed in natural pumice. If

  6. A test for Io's magma ocean: Modeling tidal dissipation with a partially molten mantle (United States)

    Bierson, C. J.; Nimmo, F.


    Magnetic induction measurements and astrometry provide constraints on the internal structure of Io, a volcanically active moon of Jupiter. We model the tidal response of a partially molten Io using an Andrade rheology which is supported by silicate deformation experiments. This model uses material properties similar to the Earth's mantle and includes feedbacks between partial melting, tidal heat production, and melt transport. We are able to satisfy constraints provided by the measured imaginary part of the tidal Love number Im(k2), the inferred depth and melt fraction of a near-surface partially molten layer, and the observed equatorial concentration of volcanic landforms. We predict a value for the real part of the tidal Love number of Re(k2) = 0.09 ± 0.02, much smaller than the value of Re(k2)≈0.5 predicted for an Io with a fluid magma ocean. Future spacecraft observations should be able to measure this value and test which model is correct.

  7. An optimal preconditioner for models of coupled magma/mantle dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Rhebergen, Sander; Katz, Richard F; Wathen, Andrew J


    This article considers the iterative solution of a finite element discretisation of magma dynamics equations. In simplified form, the magma dynamics equations share some features of the Stokes equations. We therefore formulate, analyse and numerically test a Elman, Silvester and Wathen-type block preconditioner for magma dynamics. We prove analytically, and demonstrate numerically, optimality of the preconditioner. The presented analysis highlights the dependence of the preconditioner on parameters in the magma dynamics equations that can affect convergence of iterative linear solvers. The analysis is verified through a range of two- and three-dimensional numerical examples on unstructured grids, from simple illustrate problems through to large problems on subduction zone-like geometries. The computer code to reproduce all numerical examples is freely available as supporting material.

  8. Magma Pathways and Their Interactions Inferred from InSAR and Stress Modeling at Nyamulagira Volcano, D.R. Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christelle Wauthier


    Full Text Available A summit and upper flank eruption occurred at Nyamulagira volcano, Democratic Republic of Congo, from 2–27 January 2010. Eruptions at Nyamulagira during 1996–2010 occurred from eruptive fissures on the upper flanks or within the summit caldera and were distributed along the ~N155E rift zone, whereas the 2011–2012 eruption occurred ~12 km ENE of the summit. 3D numerical modeling of Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR geodetic measurements of the co-eruptive deformation in 2010 reveals that magma stored in a shallow (~3.5 km below the summit reservoir intruded as two subvertical dikes beneath the summit and southeastern flank of the volcano. The northern dike is connected to an ~N45E-trending intra-caldera eruptive fissure, extending to an ~2.5 km maximum depth. The southern dike is connected to an ~N175E-trending flank fissure extending to the depth of the inferred reservoir at ~3.5 km. The inferred reservoir location is coincident with the reservoir that was active during previous eruptions in 1938–1940 and 2006. The volumetric ratio of total emitted magma (intruded in dikes + erupted to the contraction of the reservoir (rv is 9.3, consistent with pressure recovery by gas exsolution in the small, shallow modeled magma reservoir. We derive a modified analytical expression for rv, accounting for changes in reservoir volume induced by gas exsolution, as well as eruptive volume. By using the precise magma composition, we estimate a magma compressibility of 1.9–3.2 × 109 Pa−1 and rv of 6.5–10.1. From a normal-stress change analysis, we infer that intrusions in 2010 could have encouraged the ascent of magma from a deeper reservoir along an ~N45E orientation, corresponding to the strike of the rift transfer zone structures and possibly resulting in the 2011–2012 intrusion. The intrusion of magma to greater distances from the summit may be enhanced along the N45E orientation, as it is more favorable to the regional rift

  9. Age of the Lava Creek supereruption and magma chamber assembly at Yellowstone based on 40Ar/39Ar and U-Pb dating of sanidine and zircon crystals (United States)

    Matthews, Naomi E.; Vazquez, Jorge A.; Calvert, Andrew T.


    The last supereruption from the Yellowstone Plateau formed Yellowstone caldera and ejected the >1000 km3 of rhyolite that composes the Lava Creek Tuff. Tephra from the Lava Creek eruption is a key Quaternary chronostratigraphic marker, in particular for dating the deposition of mid Pleistocene glacial and pluvial deposits in western North America. To resolve the timing of eruption and crystallization history for the Lava Creek magma, we performed (1) 40Ar/39Ar dating of single sanidine crystals to delimit eruption age and (2) ion microprobe U-Pb and trace-element analyses of the crystal faces and interiors of single zircons to date the interval of zircon crystallization and characterize magmatic evolution. Sanidines from the two informal members composing Lava Creek Tuff yield a preferred 40Ar/39Ar isochron date of 631.3 ± 4.3 ka. Crystal faces on zircons from both members yield a weighted mean 206Pb/238U date of 626.5 ± 5.8 ka, and have trace element concentrations that vary with the eruptive stratigraphy. Zircon interiors yield a mean 206Pb/238U date of 659.8 ± 5.5 ka, and reveal reverse and/or oscillatory zoning of trace element concentrations, with many crystals containing high U concentration cores that likely grew from highly evolved melt. The occurrence of distal Lava Creek tephra in stratigraphic sequences marking the Marine Isotope Stage 16–15 transition supports the apparent eruption age of ∼631 ka. The combined results reveal that Lava Creek zircons record episodic heating, renewed crystallization, and an overall up-temperature evolution for Yellowstone's subvolcanic reservoir in the 103−104 year interval before eruption.

  10. 'Bubble chamber model' of fast atom bombardment induced processes. (United States)

    Kosevich, Marina V; Shelkovsky, Vadim S; Boryak, Oleg A; Orlov, Vadim V


    A hypothesis concerning FAB mechanisms, referred to as a 'bubble chamber FAB model', is proposed. This model can provide an answer to the long-standing question as to how fragile biomolecules and weakly bound clusters can survive under high-energy particle impact on liquids. The basis of this model is a simple estimation of saturated vapour pressure over the surface of liquids, which shows that all liquids ever tested by fast atom bombardment (FAB) and liquid secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) were in the superheated state under the experimental conditions applied. The result of the interaction of the energetic particles with superheated liquids is known to be qualitatively different from that with equilibrium liquids. It consists of initiation of local boiling, i.e., in formation of vapour bubbles along the track of the energetic particle. This phenomenon has been extensively studied in the framework of nuclear physics and provides the basis for construction of the well-known bubble chamber detectors. The possibility of occurrence of similar processes under FAB of superheated liquids substantiates a conceptual model of emission of secondary ions suggested by Vestal in 1983, which assumes formation of bubbles beneath the liquid surface, followed by their bursting accompanied by release of microdroplets and clusters as a necessary intermediate step for the creation of molecular ions. The main distinctive feature of the bubble chamber FAB model, proposed here, is that the bubbles are formed not in the space and time-restricted impact-excited zone, but in the nearby liquid as a 'normal' boiling event, which implies that the temperature both within the bubble and in the droplets emerging on its burst is practically the same as that of the bulk liquid sample. This concept can resolve the paradox of survival of intact biomolecules under FAB, since the part of the sample participating in the liquid-gas transition via the bubble mechanism has an ambient temperature

  11. Buffered and unbuffered dike emplacement on Earth and Venus - Implications for magma reservoir size, depth, and rate of magma replenishment (United States)

    Parfitt, E. A.; Head, J. W., III


    Models of the emplacement of lateral dikes from magma chambers under constant (buffered) driving pressure conditions and declining (unbuffered) driving pressure conditions indicate that the two pressure scenarios lead to distinctly different styles of dike emplacement. In the unbuffered case, the lengths and widths of laterally emplaced dikes will be severely limited and the dike lengths will be highly dependent on chamber size; this dependence suggests that average dike length can be used to infer the dimensions of the source magma reservoir. On Earth, the characteristics of many mafic-dike swarms suggest that they were emplaced in buffered conditions (e.g., the Mackenzie dike swarm in Canada and some dikes within the Scottish Tertiary). On Venus, the distinctive radial fractures and graben surrounding circular to oval features and edifices on many size scales and extending for hundreds to over a thousand km are candidates for dike emplacement in buffered conditions.

  12. The sensitivity of conduit flow models to basic input parameters: there is no need for magma trolls! (United States)

    Thomas, M. E.; Neuberg, J. W.


    Many conduit flow models now exist and some of these models are becoming extremely complicated, conducted in three dimensions and incorporating the physics of compressible three phase fluids (magmas), intricate conduit geometries and fragmentation processes, to name but a few examples. These highly specialised models are being used to explain observations of the natural system, and there is a danger that possible explanations may be getting needlessly complex. It is coherent, for instance, to propose the involvement of sub-surface dwelling magma trolls as an explanation for the change in a volcanoes eruptive style, but assuming the simplest explanation would prevent such additions, unless they were absolutely necessary. While the understanding of individual, often small scale conduit processes is increasing rapidly, is this level of detail necessary? How sensitive are these models to small changes in the most basic of governing parameters? Can these changes be used to explain observed behaviour? Here we will examine the sensitivity of conduit flow models to changes in the melt viscosity, one of the fundamental inputs to any such model. However, even addressing this elementary issue is not straight forward. There are several viscosity models in existence, how do they differ? Can models that use different viscosity models be realistically compared? Each of these viscosity models is also heavily dependent on the magma composition and/or temperature, and how well are these variables constrained? Magma temperatures and water contents are often assumed as "ball-park" figures, and are very rarely exactly known for the periods of observation the models are attempting to explain, yet they exhibit a strong controlling factor on the melt viscosity. The role of both these variables will be discussed. For example, using one of the available viscosity models a 20 K decrease in temperature of the melt results in a greater than 100% increase in the melt viscosity. With changes of

  13. Transient numerical model of magma ascent dynamics: application to the explosive eruptions at the Soufrière Hills Volcano (United States)

    La Spina, G.; de'Michieli Vitturi, M.; Clarke, A. B.


    Volcanic activity exhibits a wide range of eruption styles, from relatively slow effusive eruptions that produce lava flows and lava domes, to explosive eruptions that can inject large volumes of fragmented magma and volcanic gases high into the atmosphere. Although controls on eruption style and scale are not fully understood, previous research suggests that the dynamics of magma ascent in the shallow subsurface (systems. The model is novel in that it implements finite rates of volatile exsolution and velocity and pressure relaxation between the phases. We validate the model against a simple two-phase Riemann problem, the Air-Water Shock Tube problem, which contains strong shock and rarefaction waves. We then use the model to explore the role of the aforementioned finite rates in controlling eruption style and duration, within the context of two types of eruptions at the Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat: Vulcanian and sub-Plinian eruptions. Exsolution, pressure, and velocity relaxation rates all appear to exert important controls on eruption duration. More significantly, however, a single finite exsolution rate characteristic of the Soufrière Hills magma composition is able to produce both end-member eruption durations observed in nature. The duration therefore appears to be largely controlled by the timescales available for exsolution, which depend on dynamic processes such as ascent rate and fragmentation wave speed.

  14. The rheology of crystal-rich magmas (Kuno Award Lecture) (United States)

    Huber, Christian; Aldin Faroughi, Salah; Degruyter, Wim


    of dispersion of the magma (change in the state variables caused by either shear localization or crystal breakage). We argue that the model we propose is a first step to go beyond fitting experimental data and towards building a predictive rheology model for crystal-bearing magmas. Cooper, K.M., and Kent, A.J.R. (2014) Rapid remobilization of magmatic crystals kept in cold storage. Nature, 506(7489), 480-483. Dufek, J., and Bachmann, O. (2010) Quantum magmatism: Magmatic compositional gaps generated by melt-crystal dynamics. Geology, 38(8), 687-690. Huber, C., Bachmann, O., and Manga, M. (2009) Homogenization processes in silicic magma chambers by stirring and mushification (latent heat buffering). Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 283(1-4), 38-47.

  15. Volcano seismicity and ground deformation unveil the gravity-driven magma discharge dynamics of a volcanic eruption. (United States)

    Ripepe, Maurizio; Donne, Dario Delle; Genco, Riccardo; Maggio, Giuseppe; Pistolesi, Marco; Marchetti, Emanuele; Lacanna, Giorgio; Ulivieri, Giacomo; Poggi, Pasquale


    Effusive eruptions are explained as the mechanism by which volcanoes restore the equilibrium perturbed by magma rising in a chamber deep in the crust. Seismic, ground deformation and topographic measurements are compared with effusion rate during the 2007 Stromboli eruption, drawing an eruptive scenario that shifts our attention from the interior of the crust to the surface. The eruption is modelled as a gravity-driven drainage of magma stored in the volcanic edifice with a minor contribution of magma supplied at a steady rate from a deep reservoir. Here we show that the discharge rate can be predicted by the contraction of the volcano edifice and that the very-long-period seismicity migrates downwards, tracking the residual volume of magma in the shallow reservoir. Gravity-driven magma discharge dynamics explain the initially high discharge rates observed during eruptive crises and greatly influence our ability to predict the evolution of effusive eruptions.

  16. Dynamic model of intrusion of magma and/or magmatic fluids in the large-scale deformation source of the Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy). (United States)

    Crescentini, Luca; Amoruso, Antonella; Luongo, Annamaria


    The Campi Flegrei (CF) caldera is located in a densely populated area close to Naples (Southern Italy). It is renowned as a site of continual slow vertical movements. After the last eruption in 1538, the caldera generally subsided until 1969 when minor uplift occurred. In the early 1970s this uplift became significant (~1.5 m max). A further large uplift episode occurred from 1982 to 1984 (~1.8 m max), and subsequently smaller uplift episodes have occurred since then. Amoruso et al. (2014a,b) have recently shown that the CF surface deformation field from 1980 to 2013 can be decomposed into two stationary parts. Large-scale deformation can be explained by a quasi-horizontal source, oriented NW to SE and mathematically represented by a pressurized finite triaxial ellipsoid (PTE) ~4 km deep, possibly related to the injection of magma and/or magmatic fluids from a deeper magma chamber into a sill, or pressurization of interconnected (micro)cavities. Residual deformation not accounted for by PTE is confined to the Solfatara fumarolic area and can be mathematically explained by a small (point) pressurized oblate spheroid (PS) ~2 km below the Solfatara fumarolic field, that has been equated with a poroelastic response of the substratum to pore pressure increases near the injection point of hot magmatic fluids into the hydrothermal system. A satisfying feature of this double source model is that the geometric source parameters of each are constant over the period 1980-2013 with the exception of volume changes (potencies). Several papers have ascribed CF deformation to the injection of magmatic fluids at the base of the hydrothermal system. All models predict complex spatial and temporal evolution of the deformation pattern and consequently contrast with the observed deformation pattern stationarity. Also recently proposed dynamic models of sill intrusion in a shallow volcanic environment do not satisfy the observed CF deformation pattern stationarity. We have developed an

  17. Gravity fluctuations induced by magma convection at Kilauea Volcano, Hawai'i (United States)

    Carbone, Daniele; Poland, Michael P.


    Convection in magma chambers is thought to play a key role in the activity of persistently active volcanoes, but has only been inferred indirectly from geochemical observations or simulated numerically. Continuous microgravity measurements, which track changes in subsurface mass distribution over time, provide a potential method for characterizing convection in magma reservoirs. We recorded gravity oscillations with a period of ~150 s at two continuous gravity stations at the summit of Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai‘i. The oscillations are not related to inertial accelerations caused by seismic activity, but instead indicate variations in subsurface mass. Source modeling suggests that the oscillations are caused by density inversions in a magma reservoir located ~1 km beneath the east margin of Halema‘uma‘u Crater in Kīlauea Caldera—a location of known magma storage.

  18. Magma flow through elastic-walled dikes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhove, O.; Woods, A.W.; Boer, de A.


    A convection–diffusion model for the averaged flow of a viscous, incompressible magma through an elastic medium is considered. The magma flows through a dike from a magma reservoir to the Earth’s surface; only changes in dike width and velocity over large vertical length scales relative to the chara

  19. Modeling Chamber Transport for Heavy-Ion Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, W M; Niller, D A C; Tabak, M; Yu, S S; Peterson, P F; Welch, D R; Rose, D V; Olson, C L


    In a typical thick-liquid-wall scenario for heavy-ion fusion (HIF), between seventy and two hundred high-current beams enter the target chamber through ports and propagate about three meters to the target. Since molten-salt jets are planned to protect the chamber wall, the beams move through vapor from the jets, and collisions between beam ions and this background gas both strip the ions and ionize the gas molecules. Radiation from the preheated target causes further beam stripping and gas ionization. Due to this stripping, beams for heavy-ion fusion are expected to require substantial neutralization in a target chamber. Much recent research has, therefore, focused on beam neutralization by electron sources that were neglected in earlier simulations, including emission from walls and the target, photoionization by the target radiation, and pre-neutralization by a plasma generated along the beam path. When these effects are included in simulations with practicable beam and chamber parameters, the resulting focal spot is approximately the size required by a distributed radiator target.

  20. Modeling chamber transport for heavy-ion fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, W.M.; Callahan, D.A.; Tabak, M.; Yu, S.S.; Peterson, P.F.; Welch, D.R.; Rose, D.V.; Olson, C.L.


    In a typical thick-liquid-wall scenario for heavy-ion fusion (HIF), between seventy and two hundred high-current beams enter the target chamber through ports and propagate about three meters to the target. Since molten-salt jets are planned to protect the chamber wall, the beams move through vapor from the jets, and collisions between beam ions and this background gas both strip the ions and ionize the gas molecules. Radiation from the preheated target causes further beam stripping and gas ionization. Due to this stripping, beams for heavy-ion fusion are expected to require substantial neutralization in a target chamber. Much recent research has, therefore, focused on beam neutralization by electron sources that were neglected in earlier simulations, including emission from walls and the target, photoionization by the target radiation, and pre-neutralization by a plasma generated along the beam path. When these effects are included in simulations with practicable beam and chamber parameters, the resulting focal spot is approximately the size required by a distributed radiator target.

  1. RSRM Chamber Pressure Oscillations: Transit Time Models and Unsteady CFD (United States)

    Nesman, Tom; Stewart, Eric


    Space Shuttle solid rocket motor low frequency internal pressure oscillations have been observed since early testing. The same type of oscillations also are present in the redesigned solid rocket motor (RSRM). The oscillations, which occur during RSRM burn, are predominantly at the first three motor cavity longitudinal acoustic mode frequencies. Broadband flow and combustion noise provide the energy to excite these modes at low levels throughout motor burn, however, at certain times during burn the fluctuating pressure amplitude increases significantly. The increased fluctuations at these times suggests an additional excitation mechanism. The RSRM has inhibitors on the propellant forward facing surface of each motor segment. The inhibitors are in a slot at the segment field joints to prevent burning at that surface. The aft facing segment surface at a field joint slot burns and forms a cavity of time varying size. Initially the inhibitor is recessed in the field joint cavity. As propellant burns away the inhibitor begins to protrude into the bore flow. Two mechanisms (transit time models) that are considered potential pressure oscillation excitations are cavity-edge tones, and inhibitor hole-tones. Estimates of frequency variation with time of longitudinal acoustic modes, cavity edge-tones, and hole-tones compare favorably with frequencies measured during motor hot firing. It is believed that the highest oscillation amplitudes occur when vortex shedding frequencies coincide with motor longitudinal acoustic modes. A time accurate computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis was made to replicate the observations from motor firings and to observe the transit time mechanisms in detail. FDNS is the flow solver used to detail the time varying aspects of the flow. The fluid is approximated as a single-phase ideal gas. The CFD model was an axisymmetric representation of the RSRM at 80 seconds into burn.Deformation of the inhibitors by the internal flow was determined

  2. Magmatic (silicates/saline/sulfur-rich/CO2) immiscibility and zirconium and rare-earth element enrichment from alkaline magma chamber margins : Evidence from Ponza Island, Pontine Archipelago, Italy (United States)

    Belkin, H.E.; de Vivo, B.; Lima, A.; Torok, K.


    Fluid inclusions were measured from a feldspathoid-bearing syenite xenolith entrained in trachyte from Ponza, one of the islands of the Pontine Archipelago, located in the Gulf of Gaeta, Italy. The feldspathoid-bearing syenite consists mainly of potassium feldspar, clinopyroxene, amphibole, biotite, titanite, manganoan magnetite, apatite with minor nosean, Na-rich feldspar, pyrrhotite, and rare cheralite. Baddeleyite and zirkelite occur associated with manganoan magnetite. Detailed electron-microprobe analysis reveals enrichments in REE, Y, Nb, U, Th as well as Cl and F in appropriate phases. Fluid inclusions observed in potassium feldspar are either silicate-melt or aqueous inclusions. The aqueous inclusions can be further classified as. (1) one-phase vapor, (2) two-phase (V + L) inclusions, vapor-rich inclusions with a small amount of CO2 in most cases; homogenization of the inclusions always occurred in the vapor phase between 359 and 424??C, salinities vary from 2.9 to 8.5 wt. % NaCl equivalent; and. (3) three-phase and multiphase inclusions (hypersaline/sulfur-rich aqueous inclusions sometimes with up to 8 or more solid phases). Daughter minerals dissolve on heating before vapor/liquid homogenization. Standardless quantitative scanning electron microscope X-ray fluorescence analysis has tentatively identified the following chloride and sulfate daughter crystals; halite, sylvite, glauberite. arcanite, anhydrite, and thenardite. Melting of the daughter crystals occurs between 459 and 536??C (54 to 65 wt. % NaCI equivalent) whereas total homogenization is between 640 and 755??C. The occurrence of silicate-melt inclusions and high-temperature, solute-rich aqueous inclusions suggests that the druse or miarolitic texture of the xenolith is late-stage magmatic. The xenolith from Ponza represents a portion of the peripheral magma chamber wall that has recorded the magmatic/hydrothermal transition and the passage of high solute fluids enriched in chlorides, sulfur, and

  3. The chemical and isotopic differentiation of an epizonal magma body: Organ Needle pluton, New Mexico (United States)

    Verplanck, P.L.; Farmer, G.L.; McCurry, M.; Mertzman, S.A.


    Major and trace element, and Nd and Sr isotopic compositions of whole rocks and mineral separates from the Oligocene, alkaline Organ Needle pluton (ONP), southern New Mexico, constrain models for the differentiation of the magma body parental to this compositionally zoned and layered epizonal intrusive body. The data reveal that the pluton is rimmed by lower ??(Nd) (~-5) and higher 87Sr/86Sr (~0.7085) syenitic rocks than those in its interior (??(Nd) ~ 2, 87Sr/86Sr ~0.7060) and that the bulk compositions of the marginal rocks become more felsic with decreasing structural depth. At the deepest exposed levels of the pluton, the ??(Nd)~-5 lithology is a compositionally heterogeneous inequigranular syenite. Modal, compositional and isotopic data from separates of rare earth element (REE)-bearing major and accesory mineral phases (hornblende, titanite, apatite, zircon) demonstrate that this decoupling of trace and major elements in the inequigranular syenite results from accumulation of light REE (LREE)-bearing minerals that were evidently separated from silicic magmas as the latter rose along the sides of the magma chamber. Chemical and isotopic data for microgranular mafic enclaves, as well as for restite xenoliths of Precambrian granite wall rock, indicate that the isotopic distinction between the marginal and interior facies of the ONP probably reflects assimilation of the wall rock by ??(Nd) ~-2 mafic magmas near the base of the magma system. Fractional crystallization and crystal liquid separation of the crystally contaminated magma at the base and along the margins of the chamber generated the highly silicic magmas that ultimately pooled at the chamber top.

  4. Models of magma-aquifer interactions and their implications for hazard assessment (United States)

    Strehlow, Karen; Gottsmann, Jo; Tumi Gudmundsson, Magnús


    Interactions of magmatic and hydrological systems are manifold, complex and poorly understood. On the one side they bear a significant hazard potential in the form of phreatic explosions or by causing "dry" effusive eruptions to turn into explosive phreatomagmatic events. On the other side, they can equally serve to reduce volcanic risk, as resulting geophysical signals can help to forecast eruptions. It is therefore necessary to put efforts towards answering some outstanding questions regarding magma - aquifer interactions. Our research addresses these problems from two sides. Firstly, aquifers respond to magmatic activity and they can also become agents of unrest themselves. Therefore, monitoring the hydrology can provide a valuable window into subsurface processes in volcanic areas. Changes in temperature and strain conditions, seismic excitation or the injection of magmatic fluids into hydrothermal systems are just a few of the proposed processes induced by magmatic activity that affect the local hydrology. Interpretations of unrest signals as groundwater responses are described for many volcanoes and include changes in water table levels, changes in temperature or composition of hydrothermal waters and pore pressure-induced ground deformation. Volcano observatories can track these hydrological effects for example with potential field investigations or the monitoring of wells. To fully utilise these indicators as monitoring and forecasting tools, however, it is necessary to improve our understanding of the ongoing mechanisms. Our hydrogeophysical study uses finite element analysis to quantitatively test proposed mechanisms of aquifer excitation and the resultant geophysical signals. Secondly, volcanic activity is influenced by the presence of groundwater, including phreatomagmatic and phreatic eruptions. We focus here on phreatic explosions at hydrothermal systems. At least two of these impulsive events occurred in 2013: In August at the Icelandic volcano

  5. Structure of magma reservoirs beneath Merapi and surrounding volcanic centers of Central Java modeled from ambient noise tomography (United States)

    Koulakov, Ivan; Maksotova, Gulzhamal; Jaxybulatov, Kayrly; Kasatkina, Ekaterina; Shapiro, Nikolai M.; Luehr, Birger-G.; El Khrepy, Sami; Al-Arifi, Nassir


    We present a three-dimensional model of the distribution of S-wave velocity in the upper crust to a depth of 20 km beneath Central Java based on the analysis of seismic ambient noise data recorded by more than 100 seismic stations in 2004 associated with the MERAMEX project. To invert the Rayleigh wave dispersion curves to construct 2-D group-velocity maps and 3-D distributions of S-wave velocity, we have used a new tomographic algorithm based on iterative linearized inversion. We have performed a series of synthetic tests that demonstrate significantly higher resolution in the upper crust with this model compared to the local earthquake travel-time tomography (LET) model previously applied for the same station network. Beneath the southern flank of Merapi, we identify a large low-velocity anomaly that can be split into two layers. The upper layer reflects the ˜1 km thick sedimentary cover of volcanoclastic deposits. The deeper anomaly at depths of ˜4-8 km may represent a magma reservoir with partially molten rock that feeds several volcanoes in Central Java. Beneath the Merapi summit, we observe another low-velocity anomaly as deep as 8 km that may be associated with the active magma reservoir that feeds the eruptive activity of Merapi. In the southern portion of the study area, in the lower crust, we identify a low-velocity anomaly that may represent the top of the pathways of volatiles and melts ascending from the slab that was previously inferred from the LET model results. We observe that this anomaly is clearly separate from the felsic magma reservoirs in the upper crust.

  6. Self Sealing Magmas (United States)

    von Aulock, Felix W.; Wadsworth, Fabian B.; Kennedy, Ben M.; Lavallee, Yan


    During ascent of magma, pressure decreases and bubbles form. If the volume increases more rapidly than the relaxation timescale, the magma fragments catastrophically. If a permeable network forms, the magma degasses non-violently. This process is generally assumed to be unidirectional, however, recent studies have shown how shear and compaction can drive self sealing. Here, we additionally constrain skin formation during degassing and sintering. We heated natural samples of obsidian in a dry atmosphere and monitored foaming and impermeable skin formation. We suggest a model for skin formation that is controlled by diffusional loss of water and bubble collapse at free surfaces. We heated synthetic glass beads in a hydrous atmosphere to measure the timescale of viscous sintering. The beads sinter at drastically shorter timescales as water vapour rehydrates an otherwise degassed melt, reducing viscosity and glass transition temperatures. Both processes can produce dense inhomogeneities within the timescales of magma ascent and effectively disturb permeabilities and form barriers, particularly at the margins of the conduit, where strain localisation takes place. Localised ash in failure zones (i.e. Tuffisite) then becomes associated with water vapour fluxes and alow rapid rehydration and sintering. When measuring permeabilities in laboratory and field, and when discussing shallow degassing in volcanoes, local barriers for degassing should be taken into account. Highlighting the processes that lead to the formation of such dense skins and sintered infills of cavities can help understanding the bulk permeabilities of volcanic systems.

  7. Bayesian estimation of magma supply, storage, and eruption rates using a multiphysical volcano model: Kīlauea Volcano, 2000-2012 (United States)

    Anderson, Kyle R.; Poland, Michael P.


    Estimating rates of magma supply to the world's volcanoes remains one of the most fundamental aims of volcanology. Yet, supply rates can be difficult to estimate even at well-monitored volcanoes, in part because observations are noisy and are usually considered independently rather than as part of a holistic system. In this work we demonstrate a technique for probabilistically estimating time-variable rates of magma supply to a volcano through probabilistic constraint on storage and eruption rates. This approach utilizes Bayesian joint inversion of diverse datasets using predictions from a multiphysical volcano model, and independent prior information derived from previous geophysical, geochemical, and geological studies. The solution to the inverse problem takes the form of a probability density function which takes into account uncertainties in observations and prior information, and which we sample using a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm. Applying the technique to Kīlauea Volcano, we develop a model which relates magma flow rates with deformation of the volcano's surface, sulfur dioxide emission rates, lava flow field volumes, and composition of the volcano's basaltic magma. This model accounts for effects and processes mostly neglected in previous supply rate estimates at Kīlauea, including magma compressibility, loss of sulfur to the hydrothermal system, and potential magma storage in the volcano's deep rift zones. We jointly invert data and prior information to estimate rates of supply, storage, and eruption during three recent quasi-steady-state periods at the volcano. Results shed new light on the time-variability of magma supply to Kīlauea, which we find to have increased by 35-100% between 2001 and 2006 (from 0.11-0.17 to 0.18-0.28 km3/yr), before subsequently decreasing to 0.08-0.12 km3/yr by 2012. Changes in supply rate directly impact hazard at the volcano, and were largely responsible for an increase in eruption rate of 60-150% between 2001 and

  8. Bayesian estimation of magma supply, storage, and eruption rates using a multiphysical volcano model: Kīlauea Volcano, 2000–2012 (United States)

    Anderson, Kyle R.; Poland, Michael


    Estimating rates of magma supply to the world's volcanoes remains one of the most fundamental aims of volcanology. Yet, supply rates can be difficult to estimate even at well-monitored volcanoes, in part because observations are noisy and are usually considered independently rather than as part of a holistic system. In this work we demonstrate a technique for probabilistically estimating time-variable rates of magma supply to a volcano through probabilistic constraint on storage and eruption rates. This approach utilizes Bayesian joint inversion of diverse datasets using predictions from a multiphysical volcano model, and independent prior information derived from previous geophysical, geochemical, and geological studies. The solution to the inverse problem takes the form of a probability density function which takes into account uncertainties in observations and prior information, and which we sample using a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm. Applying the technique to Kīlauea Volcano, we develop a model which relates magma flow rates with deformation of the volcano's surface, sulfur dioxide emission rates, lava flow field volumes, and composition of the volcano's basaltic magma. This model accounts for effects and processes mostly neglected in previous supply rate estimates at Kīlauea, including magma compressibility, loss of sulfur to the hydrothermal system, and potential magma storage in the volcano's deep rift zones. We jointly invert data and prior information to estimate rates of supply, storage, and eruption during three recent quasi-steady-state periods at the volcano. Results shed new light on the time-variability of magma supply to Kīlauea, which we find to have increased by 35–100% between 2001 and 2006 (from 0.11–0.17 to 0.18–0.28 km3/yr), before subsequently decreasing to 0.08–0.12 km3/yr by 2012. Changes in supply rate directly impact hazard at the volcano, and were largely responsible for an increase in eruption rate of 60–150% between

  9. A chemostratigraphic study of the Campanian Ignimbrite eruption (Campi Flegrei, Italy): Insights on magma chamber withdrawal and deposit accumulation as revealed by compositionally zoned stratigraphic and facies framework (United States)

    Fedele, L.; Scarpati, C.; Sparice, D.; Perrotta, A.; Laiena, F.


    Petrochemical analyses of juvenile samples from twenty stratigraphic sections of the Campanian Ignimbrite medial deposits, located from 30 to 79 km from the vent, are presented here. Sampling has accurately followed a well-defined stratigraphic framework and the new component facies scheme. The Campanian Ignimbrite succession is formed by a basal plinian pumice fall deposit, overlain by a complex architecture of pyroclastic density current deposits emplaced from a single sustained pyroclastic density current through a mechanism of vertical and lateral accretion. The deposit is broadly zoned, from more evolved trachyte at its base to less evolved trachyte at its top, and is similarly less evolved with increasing distance from the area of emission. Irregular chemical trends are locally observed and interpreted to represent only a limited, "patchy" record of the entire vertical geochemical trend. The petrochemical variation observed horizontally was ascribed to changes in the flow dynamics and interaction between the advancing flow and the underlying topography. The results of this study were used to propose a unified volcanological-petrological model for the Campanian Ignimbrite eruption, taking into account the emplacement of both the proximal (i.e., the "Breccia Museo" formation) and medial deposits.

  10. Modeling of Fuel Film Cooling on Chamber Hot Wall (United States)


    wall-normal Cartesian coordinate y+ = dimensionless y-spacing at wall CEA = Chemical Equilibrium with Applications (computer program) CFD ...Introduction The walls of liquid rocket engine chambers and nozzles must contain large pressures while being exposed to very high temperature gases, and...The physical and chemical phenomena involved in hydrocarbon FFC is notionally represented in Fig. 1. Hydrocarbon fuel at the fuel tank temperature

  11. Felsic Melt Generation at the MOR Magma Chamber Roof: Trace Element Evidence of Experimental Hydrous Partial Melts for Anatectic Processes at the East-Pacific Rise (United States)

    Erdmann, M.; Fischer, L. A.; France, L.; Deloule, E.; Koepke, J.


    Felsic lithologies in oceanic crust environment are volumetrically small but occur frequently. Based on experimental and geochemical studies, different models for their generation are suggested, as fractional crystallization, partial melting of mafic lithologies, and liquid immiscibility. Geochemical studies on felsic lithologies from fast-spreading ridge systems imply that partial melting of previously hydrothermally altered mafic lithologies at the gabbro/dike transitions may play an important role (e.g., Wanless et al., 2010). For a detailed study of this process, we simulated experimentally anatexis at the gabbro/dike transition. In order to evaluate the potential of MORB contamination by anatectic melts, trace elements of the experimental melts were analyzed in-situ by applying secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). As starting material we used rock powder (125-200 μm) of different hydrothermally altered dikes and basaltic hornfelses (so-called granoblastic dikes) from the base of the sheeted dike complex of the IODP site 1256 (East-Pacific Rise, EPR). Such lithologies are assumed to undergo partial melting due to an upward moving of the axial melt lens after replenishment, while granoblastic lithologies are regarded as restitic material of anatectic processes (France et al., 2010). Partial melting experiments under water-saturated conditions were performed in internally heated pressure vessels (IHPV) under conditions similar to those prevailing at the base of the sheeted dike complex (i.e. 100 MPa, 910 to 1030°C, fO2=ΔQFM+1). Our results show that melting of altered basalt with melt fractions less than 20 % (corresponding to temperatures ≤ 970°C) exhibit residual phases perfectly matching those observed in basalts with granoblastic texture (i.e. clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene, plagioclase, magnetite). Anatectic melts of these low degree melting experiments show trace element pattern which are very similar to those of natural dacites from the EPR

  12. A Linearized Model for Wave Propagation through Coupled Volcanic Conduit-crack Systems Filled with Multiphase Magma (United States)

    Liang, C.; Dunham, E. M.; OReilly, O. J.; Karlstrom, L.


    Both the oscillation of magma in volcanic conduits and resonance of fluid-filled cracks (dikes and sills) are appealing explanations for very long period signals recorded at many active volcanoes. While these processes have been studied in isolation, real volcanic systems involve interconnected networks of conduits and cracks. The overall objective of our work is to develop a model of wave propagation and ultimately eruptive fluid dynamics through this coupled system. Here, we present a linearized model for wave propagation through a conduit with multiple cracks branching off of it. The fluid is compressible and viscous, and is comprised of a mixture of liquid melt and gas bubbles. Nonequilibrium bubble growth and resorption (BGR) is quantified by introducing a time scale for mass exchange between phases, following the treatment in Karlstrom and Dunham (2015). We start by deriving the dispersion relation for crack waves travelling along the multiphase-magma-filled crack embedded in an elastic solid. Dissipation arises from magma viscosity, nonequilibrium BGR, and radiation of seismic waves into the solid. We next introduce coupling conditions between the conduit and crack, expressing conservation of mass and the balance of forces across the junction. Waves in the conduit, like those in the crack, are influenced by nonequilibrium BGR, but the deformability of the surrounding solid is far less important than for cracks. Solution of the coupled system of equations provides the evolution of pressure and fluid velocity within the conduit-crack system. The system has various resonant modes that are sensitive to fluid properties and to the geometry of the conduit and cracks. Numerical modeling of seismic waves in the solid allows us to generate synthetic seismograms.

  13. Determination of crystal residence timescales in magma reservoirs by diffusion modeling of dendritic phosphorus zoning patterns in olivine (United States)

    Chakraborty, S.; Potrafke, A.


    Deciphering the early stages of crystallization and the chronological evolution of phenocrysts in magma reservoirs is one of the main goals in volcanology. Established approaches that model the concentration evolution of fast diffusing elements like Fe/Mg carry limited information on timescales once the concentration gradients are homogenized. Elements that diffuse more slowly, such as P and Al, become useful in these cases. We present a novel modeling tool that combines high-resolution EMP mapping of slow diffusing phosphorus in olivine with 2D kinetic modeling of the diffusive relaxation of initial chemical zoning pattern of P as well as Fe/Mg. The modeling approach offers a new possibility for determining crystal residence times in magma reservoirs. P diffusion coefficients from the experimental determination of [1] and Fe/Mg diffusion coefficients from [2] were used. The method yields a time-bracket between the minimum time required to homogenize the zoning of fast-diffusing Fe/Mg and the maximum time period for which details of chemical zoning of slow-diffusing P may be retained. To illustrate the approach we have studied the compositional zoning patterns of 7 olivine crystals from Piton de la Fournaise volcano, La Réunion. All crystals show a narrow range of forsterite contents (=Fo82-84) with fully homogenized Fe/Mg distribution, whereas P-mapping reveals oscillatory to dendritic zoning patterns [3]. P concentrations scatter in the range of 0.4 wt-% to below detection limit. Revealed phosphorus zoning patterns were considered to display the initial crystal architecture, whereas Fe and Mg zoning has been wiped out due to faster diffusion. For La Réunion magmas at 1453 K, timescales between few days to weeks were determined to be the time brackets for growth and residence of the olivine crystals in the magmas. These short residence times combined with knowledge of very fast developing dendritic crystals that have recently been revealed worldwide [e.g. 3

  14. Emplacement model of obsidian-rhyolite magma deduced from complete internal section of the Akaishiyama lava, Shirataki, northern Hokkaido, Japan (United States)

    Wada, K.; Sano, K.


    Simultaneously explosive and effusive eruptions of silicic magmas has shed light on the vesiculation and outgassing history of ascending magmas in the conduit and emplacement model of obsidian-rhyolite lavas (Castro et al., 2014; Shipper et al, 2013). As well as the knowledge of newly erupted products such as 2008-2009 Chaitén and 2011-2012 Cordón Caule eruptions, field and micro-textural evidences of well-exposed internal structure of obsidian-rhyolite lava leads to reveal eruption processes of silicic magmas. The Shirataki monogenetic volcano field, 2.2 million year age, northern Hokkaido, Japan, contains many outcrops of obsidian and vesiculated rhyolite zones (SiO2=76.7-77.4 wt.%). Among their outcrops, Akaishiyama lava shows good exposures of internal sections from the top to the bottom along the Kyukasawa valley with thickness of about 190 meters, showing the symmetrical structure comprising a upper clastic zone (UCZ; 5m thick), an upper dense obsidian zone (UDO; 15m), an upper banded obsidian zone (UBO; 70-80m), a central rhyolite zone (CR; 65m), a lower banded obsidian zone (LBO; 15m), a lower dense obsidian zone (LDO; 20m), and a lower clastic zone (LCZ; 3m). The upper banded obsidian zone is characterized by existence of spherulite concentration layers with tuffisite veins and rhyolite enclaves. Spherulites consisting of albite, cristobalaite and obsidian glass, are clustered in the dense obsidian. Tuffisite veins show brecciated obsidians in tuffaceous matrix, showing an outgassing path during the emplacement of obsidian lava. Perpendicular dip of spherulite parallel rows indicates the banded zone itself was the domain of vent area. From the observation of these occurrences in the internal section and rock texture, we show the qualitative formation model of Shirataki obsidian-rhyolite lava.

  15. Estimates of volume and magma input in crustal magmatic systems from zircon geochronology: the effect of modelling assumptions and system variables (United States)

    Caricchi, Luca; Simpson, Guy; Schaltegger, Urs


    Magma fluxes in the Earth's crust play an important role in regulating the relationship between the frequency and magnitude of volcanic eruptions, the chemical evolution of magmatic systems and the distribution of geothermal energy and mineral resources on our planet. Therefore, quantifying magma productivity and the rate of magma transfer within the crust can provide valuable insights to characterise the long-term behaviour of volcanic systems and to unveil the link between the physical and chemical evolution of magmatic systems and their potential to generate resources. We performed thermal modelling to compute the temperature evolution of crustal magmatic intrusions with different final volumes assembled over a variety of timescales (i.e., at different magma fluxes). Using these results, we calculated synthetic populations of zircon ages assuming the number of zircons crystallising in a given time period is directly proportional to the volume of magma at temperature within the zircon crystallisation range. The statistical analysis of the calculated populations of zircon ages shows that the mode, median and standard deviation of the populations varies coherently as function of the rate of magma injection and final volume of the crustal intrusions. Therefore, the statistical properties of the population of zircon ages can add useful constraints to quantify the rate of magma injection and the final volume of magmatic intrusions. Here, we explore the effect of different ranges of zircon saturation temperature, intrusion geometry, and wall rock temperature on the calculated distributions of zircon ages. Additionally, we determine the effect of undersampling on the variability of mode, median and standards deviation of calculated populations of zircon ages to estimate the minimum number of zircon analyses necessary to obtain meaningful estimates of magma flux and final intrusion volume.

  16. Estimates of volume and magma input in crustal magmatic systems from zircon geochronology: the effect of modelling assumptions and system variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca eCaricchi


    Full Text Available Magma fluxes in the Earth’s crust play an important role in regulating the relationship between the frequency and magnitude of volcanic eruptions, the chemical evolution of magmatic systems and the distribution of geothermal energy and mineral resources on our planet. Therefore, quantifying magma productivity and the rate of magma transfer within the crust can provide valuable insights to characterise the long-term behaviour of volcanic systems and to unveil the link between the physical and chemical evolution of magmatic systems and their potential to generate resources. We performed thermal modelling to compute the temperature evolution of crustal magmatic intrusions with different final volumes assembled over a variety of timescales (i.e., at different magma fluxes. Using these results, we calculated synthetic populations of zircon ages assuming the number of zircons crystallising in a given time period is directly proportional to the volume of magma at temperature within the zircon crystallisation range. The statistical analysis of the calculated populations of zircon ages shows that the mode, median and standard deviation of the populations varies coherently as function of the rate of magma injection and final volume of the crustal intrusions. Therefore, the statistical properties of the population of zircon ages can add useful constraints to quantify the rate of magma injection and the final volume of magmatic intrusions.Here, we explore the effect of different ranges of zircon saturation temperature, intrusion geometry, and wall rock temperature on the calculated distributions of zircon ages. Additionally, we determine the effect of undersampling on the variability of mode, median and standards deviation of calculated populations of zircon ages to estimate the minimum number of zircon analyses necessary to obtain meaningful estimates of magma flux and final intrusion volume.

  17. Implications of Viscosity-Contrast for Co-Extruding Two-Component Magmas, Triggering Eruptions and Forming Layered Domes (United States)

    Carrigan, C. R.; Clarke, S. M.


    Polymer co-extrusion experiments represent excellent dynamical analogies with two-magma transport and the effusion of composite lava domes. They demonstrate that the co-extrusion of magmas having different viscosity can explain not only the observed normal zoning in magma dikes and conduits but also the compositional layering observed in effused lava domes. New results indicate that dike and conduit zoning along with dome layering are strongly dependent on the viscosity contrast between the flowing magmas. Realistic models of magma storage and dike formation show that co-extrusion of magmas is both more readily explained and energetically preferred over serial intrusion processes. Co-extrusion during the formation of dikes may play an important role in triggering larger volcanic eruptions. Lubrication of the flow by a typically, more mafic, lower-viscosity component allows a more viscous but also more highly volatile-charged magma to be transported greater distances upward in the dike resulting in exsolution of a gas phase and the formation of a magma foam. Transition to a foam lowers the bulk density of the magma enabling dikes to propagate greater vertical distances for a given back pressure. Our new results suggest that a dike propagating across a sloping magma-chamber roof intersecting both "wet" silicic and relatively "dry" mafic layers has the greatest probability of reaching the surface in the dike segment where the magmas flow co-extrusively. Thus, bimodal eruptive compositions are dynamically preferred in such a petrologically common magmatic regime. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

  18. SilMush: A procedure for modeling of the geochemical evolution of silicic magmas and granitic rocks (United States)

    Hertogen, Jan; Mareels, Joyce


    A boundary layer crystallization modeling program is presented that specifically addresses the chemical fractionation in silicic magma systems and the solidification of plutonic bodies. The model is a Langmuir (1989) type approach and does not invoke crystal settling in high-viscosity silicic melts. The primary aim is to model a granitic rock as a congealed crystal-liquid mush, and to integrate major element and trace element modeling. The procedure allows for some exploratory investigation of the exsolution of H2O-fluids and of the fluid/melt partitioning of trace elements. The procedure is implemented as a collection of subroutines for the MS Excel spreadsheet environment and is coded in the Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) language. To increase the flexibility of the modeling, the procedure is based on discrete numeric process simulation rather than on solution of continuous differential equations. The program is applied to a study of the geochemical variation within and among three granitic units (Senones, Natzwiller, Kagenfels) from the Variscan Northern Vosges Massif, France. The three units cover the compositional range from monzogranite, over syenogranite to alkali-feldspar granite. An extensive set of new major element and trace element data is presented. Special attention is paid to the essential role of accessory minerals in the fractionation of the Rare Earth Elements. The crystallization model is able to reproduce the essential major and trace element variation trends in the data sets of the three separate granitic plutons. The Kagenfels alkali-feldspar leucogranite couples very limited variation in major element composition to a considerable and complex variation of trace elements. The modeling results can serve as a guide for the reconstruction of the emplacement sequence of petrographically distinct units. Although the modeling procedure essentially deals with geochemical fractionation within a single pluton, the modeling results bring up a

  19. Magma reservoirs from the upper crust to the Moho inferred from high-resolution Vp and Vs models beneath Mount St. Helens, Cascades, USA (United States)

    Kiser, Eric; Levander, Alan; Zelt, Colin; Palomeras, Imma; Schmandt, Brandon; Hansen, Steven; Creager, Kenneth; Ulberg, Carl


    Mount St. Helens is currently the most active volcano along the Cascadia arc. Though several studies investigated the magmatic system beneath Mount St. Helens following the May 18, 1980 eruption, tomographic imaging of the system has been limited to ~10 km depth due to the distribution of earthquakes in the region. This has made it difficult to estimate the volume of the shallow magma reservoir beneath the volcano, the regions of magma entry into the lower crust, and the connectivity of this magma system throughout the crust. The latter is particularly interesting as one interpretation of the Southern Washington Cascades Conductor (SWCC) suggests that the Mount St Helens and Mount Adams volcanic systems are connected in the middle crust (Hill et al., 2009). The multi-disciplinary iMUSH (imaging Magma Under St. Helens) project is designed to investigate these and other fundamental questions associated with Mount St. Helens. Here we present the first high-resolution 2D Vp and Vs models derived from travel-time data from the iMUSH 3D active-source seismic experiment. The experiment consisted of ~6000 seismograph stations which recorded 23 explosions and hundreds of local earthquakes. Directly beneath Mount St. Helens, we observe a high Vp/Vs body, inferred to be the upper/middle crustal magma reservoir, between 4 and 13 km depth. We observe a second high Vp/Vs body, likely of magmatic origin, at roughly the same depth beneath Indian Heaven Volcanic Field, which last erupted 9 ka. Southeast of Mount St. Helens is a low Vp column extending from the middle crust, ~15 km depth, to the Moho at ~40 km depth. A cluster of deep long-period events, typically associated with injection of magma, occurs at the northwestern boundary of this low Vp column. We interpret this as the middle-lower crust magma reservoir. In the lower crust, high Vp features bound the magma reservoir directly beneath Mount St. Helens and the Indian Heaven Volcanic Field. One explanation for these high Vp

  20. A predictive model for vapor concentration in a nose-only inhalation chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrow, D.M.; Blehm, K.D. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins (USA))


    A unique nose-only inhalation chamber was designed and constructed to deliver uniform concentrations of gas, vapor, and aerosol contaminants to mice. This research investigated the fluid dynamics of a vaporous contaminant in the vertical flow chamber. The vapor was introduced by allowing the liquid phase of the contaminant to evaporate freely into the chamber interior. A contaminant mass transfer model was developed to predict concentrations generated by the system. The mathematical model of the system used clean airflow, liquid surface area, thickness of the stagnant air layer covering the liquid, system pressure, contaminant diffusion coefficient, and contaminant vapor pressure to compute the vapor concentration delivered to exposure ports. The equation was verified by placing various containers of methyl isobutyl ketone in the chamber and determining with a photospectrometer the resulting equilibrium concentrations. Vapor pressure, diffusion coefficient, and system pressure were held constant while airflow, surface area, and stagnant air layer thickness were varied systematically within the chamber. The resulting empirical data points were compared to the curves predicted by the theoretical model. Empirical concentrations fell within 0 to 48% of the theoretical values, showing that the equation can be used to choose values for airflow, surface area, and stagnant air layer thickness that will result in chamber concentrations in close proximity to the target concentration. If an exact concentration is essential, parameters may be individually adjusted to converge on the target concentration.

  1. Lunar magma transport phenomena (United States)

    Spera, Frank J.


    An outline of magma transport theory relevant to the evolution of a possible Lunar Magma Ocean and the origin and transport history of the later phase of mare basaltic volcanism is presented. A simple model is proposed to evaluate the extent of fractionation as magma traverses the cold lunar lithosphere. If Apollo green glasses are primitive and have not undergone significant fractionation en route to the surface, then mean ascent rates of 10 m/s and cracks of widths greater than 40 m are indicated. Lunar tephra and vesiculated basalts suggest that a volatile component plays a role in eruption dynamics. The predominant vapor species appear to be CO CO2, and COS. Near the lunar surface, the vapor fraction expands enormously and vapor internal energy is converted to mixture kinetic energy with the concomitant high-speed ejection of vapor and pyroclasts to form lunary fire fountain deposits such as the Apollo 17 orange and black glasses and Apollo 15 green glass.

  2. Numerical Simulation of Magma Effects on Hydrothermal Venting at Ultra-Slow Spreading Southwest Indian Ridge (United States)

    Zang, Hong; Niu, Xiongwei; Ruan, Aiguo; Li, Jiabiao; Meng, Lin


    Finite element method is used to numerically simulate oceanic crust thermal dynamics in order to understand the hydrothermal venting mechanism at ultra-slow spreading ridge, whether is the ancient magma chamber still living and supplying hot magma for vents or have surrounding hotspots been affecting on the ridge continually with melting and hot magma. Two models are simulated, one is a horizontal layered oceanic crust model and the other is a model derived from wide angle seismic experiment of OBS at the ultra-slow spreading Southwest Indian Ridge (50°E, Zhao et al., 2013; Li et al., 2015; Niu et al., 2015). For the former two cases are simulated: without magma from upper mantel or with continuous magma supply, and for the latter supposing magma supply occurs only once in short period. The main conclusions are as follows: (1) Without melt magma supply at the oceanic crust bottom, a magma chamber can live only thousands ten thousand years. According to the simulated results in this case, the magma chamber revealed by seismic data at the mid-east shallow section of the Southwest Indian Ridge could only last 0.8Ma, the present hydrothermal venting is impossible to be the caused by the magma activity occurred during 8-11Ma (Sauter et al., 2009). (2) The magma chamber can live long time with continuous hot magma supply beneath the oceanic crust due to the melting effects of surrounding ridge hotspots, and would result hydrothermal venting with some tectonic structures condition such as detachment faults. We suggest that the present hydrothermal activities at the mid-east shallow section of the Southwest Indian Ridge are the results of melting effects or magma supply from surrounding hotspots. This research was granted by the National Basic Research program of China (grant 2012CB417301) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grants 41176046, 91228205). References Zhao, M., Qiu, X., Li, J., et al., 2013. Three-dimensional seismic structure of the Dragon

  3. Seismic tomography model reveals mantle magma sources of recent volcanic activity at El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain) (United States)

    García-Yeguas, Araceli; Ibáñez, Jesús M.; Koulakov, Ivan; Jakovlev, Andrey; Romero-Ruiz, M. Carmen; Prudencio, Janire


    We present a 3-D model of P and S velocities beneath El Hierro Island, constructed using the traveltime data of more than 13 000 local earthquakes recorded by the Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN, Spain) in the period from 2011 July to 2012 September. The velocity models were performed using the LOTOS code for iterative passive source tomography. The results of inversion were thoroughly verified using different resolution and robustness tests. The results reveal that the majority of the onshore area of El Hierro is associated with a high-velocity anomaly observed down to 10-12-km depth. This anomaly is interpreted as the accumulation of solid igneous rocks erupted during the last 1 Myr and intrusive magmatic bodies. Below this high-velocity pattern, we observe a low-velocity anomaly, interpreted as a batch of magma coming from the mantle located beneath El Hierro. The boundary between the low- and high-velocity anomalies is marked by a prominent seismicity cluster, thought to represent anomalous stresses due to the interaction of the batch of magma with crust material. The areas of recent eruptions, Orchilla and La Restinga, are associated with low-velocity anomalies surrounding the main high-velocity block. These eruptions took place around the island where the crust is much weaker than the onshore area and where the melted material cannot penetrate. These results put constraints on the geological model that could explain the origin of the volcanism in oceanic islands, such as in the Canaries, which is not yet clearly understood.

  4. Comparative Magma Oceanography (United States)

    Jones, J. H.


    The question of whether the Earth ever passed through a magma ocean stage is of considerable interest. Geochemical evidence strongly suggests that the Moon had a magma ocean and the evidence is mounting that the same was true for Mars. Analyses of martian (SNC) meteorites have yielded insights into the differentiation history of Mars, and consequently, it is interesting to compare that planet to the Earth. Three primary features of Mars contrast strongly to those of the Earth: (i) the extremely ancient ages of the martian core, mantle, and crust (about 4.55 b.y.); (ii) the highly depleted nature of the martian mantle; and (iii) the extreme ranges of Nd isotopic compositions that arise within the crust and depleted mantle. The easiest way to explain the ages and diverse isotopic compositions of martian basalts is to postulate that Mars had an early magma ocean. Cumulates of this magma ocean were later remelted to form the SNC meteorite suite and some of these melts assimilated crustal materials enriched in incompatible elements. The REE pattern of the crust assimilated by these SNC magmas was LREE enriched. If this pattern is typical of the crust as a whole, the martian crust is probably similar in composition to melts generated by small degrees of partial melting (about 5%) of a primitive source. Higher degrees of partial melting would cause the crustal LREE pattern to be essentially flat. In the context of a magma ocean model, where large degrees of partial melting presumably prevailed, the crust would have to be dominated by late-stage, LREE-enriched residual liquids. Regardless of the exact physical setting, Nd and W isotopic evidence indicates that martian geochemical reservoirs must have formed early and that they have not been efficiently remixed since. The important point is that in both the Moon and Mars we see evidence of a magma ocean phase and that we recognize it as such. Several lines of theoretical inference point to an early Earth that was also hot

  5. Viscosity of Campi Flregrei (Italy) magmas (United States)

    Misiti, Valeria; Vetere, Francesco; Scarlato, Piergiorgio; Behrens, Harald; Mangiacapra, Annarita; Freda, Carmela


    ν is the viscosity in Pa×s, T the temperature in K, and w is the water content in wt%; a, b, c, d, e, g are the Vogel-Fulcher-Tamman parameters. Each of the two compositions shows its own VTF parameters. Following this equation we can now calculate viscosity values for the two compositions under the condition inferred for Campi Flegrei magma chambers, i.e., water content from 0.3 to 3 wt%, T=1393K (Mangiacapra et al., 2008). For melt with 0.3 wt% water content we obtain viscosity values (ν in Pas) of 102.68and 102.24 for shoshonite and latite, respectively. At higher water contents of about 3 wt% the viscosity difference decreases to 101.71 (shoshonite) and 101.51 (latite). One important application of these data is the estimate of flow regime and magma rising velocity from deep to shallow reservoirs. Given the inferred magma water contents (0.3 and 3 wt%), temperature (1393K) and depth of deep and shallow reservoirs (9 and 4 km, respectively, Mangiacapra et al., 2008) and assuming a 2 m dyke wide, we have calculated (Lister and Kerry, 1991) a rising time from deep to shallow reservoir in the order of few minutes, 4.4 and 5.9 for a shoshonitic magma with 3 and 0.3 wt% water content, respectively. The same order of magnitude (4.1 and 5.2) has been obtained for latitic magma with similar amount of water. Lister and Kerry (1991) Fluid mechanical models of cracks propagation and their application to magmatic transport and dyke. Journal of Geophysical Research 96, 10049-10077. Mangiacapra A., Moretti, R., Rutherford L., Civetta L., Orsi G., Papale P. (2008) The deep magmatic system of the Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy). Geophysical Research Letters 35, L21304.

  6. 3D numerical modeling of mantle flow, crustal dynamics and magma genesis associated with slab roll-back and tearing: The eastern Mediterranean case (United States)

    Menant, Armel; Sternai, Pietro; Jolivet, Laurent; Guillou-Frottier, Laurent; Gerya, Taras


    Interactions between subduction dynamics and magma genesis have been intensely investigated, resulting in several conceptual models derived from geological, geochemical and geophysical data. To provide physico-chemical constraints on these conceptual models, self-consistent numerical simulations containing testable thermo-mechanical parameters are required, especially considering the three-dimensional (3D) natural complexity of subduction systems. Here, we use a 3D high-resolution petrological and thermo-mechanical numerical model to quantify the relative contribution of oceanic and continental subduction/collision, slab roll-back and tearing to magma genesis and transport processes. Our modeling results suggest that the space and time distribution and composition of magmas in the overriding plate is controlled by the 3D slab dynamics and related asthenospheric flow. Moreover, the decrease of the bulk lithospheric strength induced by mantle- and crust-derived magmas promotes the propagation of strike-slip and extensional fault zones through the overriding crust as response to slab roll-back and continental collision. Reduction of the lithosphere/asthenosphere rheological contrast by lithospheric weakening also favors the transmission of velocities from the flowing mantle to the crust. Similarities between our modeling results and the late Cenozoic tectonic and magmatic evolution across the eastern Mediterranean region suggest an efficient control of mantle flow on the magmatic activity in this region, which in turn promotes lithospheric deformation by mantle drag via melt-induced weakening effects.

  7. Measurements of a 1/4-scale model of an explosives firing chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastrnak, J.W.; Baker, C.F.; Simmons, L.F.


    In anticipation of increasingly stringent environmental regulations, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) proposes to construct a 60-kg firing chamber to provide blast-effects containment for most of its open-air, high-explosive, firing operations. Even though these operations are within current environmental limits, containment of the blast effects and hazardous debris will further drastically reduce emissions to the environment and minimize the generated hazardous waste. The major design consideration of such a chamber is its overall structural dynamic response in terms of long-term containment of all blast effects from repeated internal detonations of high explosives. Another concern is how much other portions of the facility outside the firing chamber must be hardened to ensure personnel protection in the event of an accidental detonation while the chamber door is open. To assess these concerns, a 1/4-scale replica model of the planned contained firing chamber was designed, constructed, and tested with scaled explosive charges ranging from 25 to 125% of the operational explosives limit of 60 kg. From 16 detonations of high explosives, 880 resulting strains, blast pressures, and temperatures within the model were measured to provide information for the final design. Factors of safety for dynamic yield of the firing chamber structure were calculated and compared to the design criterion of totally elastic response. The rectangular, reinforced-concrete chamber model exhibited a lightly damped vibrational response that placed the structure in alternating cycles of tension and compression. During compression, both the reinforcing steel and the concrete remained elastic.

  8. A simplified transient three-dimensional model for estimating the thermal performance of the vapor chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yen-Shu; Pei, Bau-Shei [Department of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, (Taiwan); Chien, Kuo-Hsiang; Wang, Chi-Chuan [Energy and Environment Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu 310, (Taiwan); Hung, Tzu-Chen [Department of Mechanical and Automation Engineering, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung County 840, (Taiwan)


    The vapor chambers (flat plate heat pipes) have been applied on the electronic cooling recently. To satisfy the quick-response requirement of the industries, a simplified transient three-dimensional linear model has been developed and tested in this study. In the proposed model, the vapor is assumed as a single interface between the evaporator and condenser wicks, and this assumption enables the vapor chamber to be analyzed by being split into small control volumes. Comparing with the previous available results, the calculated transient responses have shown good agreements with the existing results. For further validation of the proposed model, a water-cooling experiment was conducted. In addition to the vapor chamber, the heating block is also taken into account in the simulation. It is found that the inclusion of the capacitance of heating block shows a better agreement with the measurements. (author)

  9. Adipose tissue extract promotes adipose tissue regeneration in an adipose tissue engineering chamber model. (United States)

    Lu, Zijing; Yuan, Yi; Gao, Jianhua; Lu, Feng


    An adipose tissue engineering chamber model of spontaneous adipose tissue generation from an existing fat flap has been described. However, the chamber does not completely fill with adipose tissue in this model. Here, the effect of adipose tissue extract (ATE) on adipose tissue regeneration was investigated. In vitro, the adipogenic and angiogenic capacities of ATE were evaluated using Oil Red O and tube formation assays on adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) and rat aortic endothelial cells (RAECs), respectively. In vivo, saline or ATE was injected into the adipose tissue engineering chamber 1 week after its implantation. At different time points post-injection, the contents were morphometrically, histologically, and immunohistochemically evaluated, and the expression of growth factors and adipogenic genes was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and quantitative real-time PCR. With the exception of the baseline control group, in which fat flaps were not inserted into a chamber, the total volume of fat flap tissue increased significantly in all groups, especially in the ATE group. Better morphology and structure, a thinner capsule, and more vessels were observed in the ATE group than in the control group. Expression of angiogenic growth factors and adipogenic markers were significantly higher in the ATE group. ATE therefore significantly promoted adipose tissue regeneration and reduced capsule formation in an adipose tissue engineering chamber model. These data suggest that ATE provides a more angiogenic and adipogenic microenvironment for adipose tissue formation by releasing various cytokines and growth factors that also inhibit capsule formation.

  10. Modeling Integrated High-Yield IFE Target Explosions in Xenon Filled Chambers (United States)

    Fatenejad, Milad; Moses, Gregory


    We will present the results of several radiation-hydrodynamics simulations which model the aftermath of an exploding high yield (200 MJ) indirect drive target in a xenon filled reactor chamber. The goal is to determine the radial extent to which debris from the target and hohlraum expands into the target chamber. The 1D radiation-hydrodynamics code BUCKY is used to perform integrated simulations of the target explosion beginning from ignition and includes interactions between the chamber gas and tungsten first wall. The 3D radiation-hydrodynamics code Cooper will be used to model the growth of fluid instabilities as the target material expands into the xenon gas. Cooper will also be used to investigate the early-time interaction between the burning target and hohlraum shortly after ignition.

  11. 2D edge plasma modeling extended up to the main chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dekeyser, W., E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 300A, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Baelmans, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 300A, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Reiter, D.; Boerner, P.; Kotov, V. [Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, EURATOM-Association, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)


    Far SOL plasma flow, and hence main chamber recycling and plasma surface interaction, are today still only very poorly described by current 2D fluid edge codes, such as B2, UEDGE or EDGE2D, due to a common technical limitation. We have extended the B2 plasma fluid solver in the current ITER version of B2-EIRENE (SOLPS4.3) to allow plasma solutions to be obtained up to the 'real vessel wall', at least on the basis of ad hoc far SOL transport models. We apply here the kinetic Monte Carlo Code EIRENE on such plasma solutions to study effects of this model refinement on main chamber fluxes and sputtering, for an ITER configuration. We show that main chamber sputtering may be significantly modified both due to thermalization of CX neutrals in the far SOL and poloidally highly asymmetric plasma wall contact, as compared to hitherto applied teleportation of particle fluxes across this domain.

  12. Tissue engineering chamber promotes adipose tissue regeneration in adipose tissue engineering models through induced aseptic inflammation. (United States)

    Peng, Zhangsong; Dong, Ziqing; Chang, Qiang; Zhan, Weiqing; Zeng, Zhaowei; Zhang, Shengchang; Lu, Feng


    Tissue engineering chamber (TEC) makes it possible to generate significant amounts of mature, vascularized, stable, and transferable adipose tissue. However, little is known about the role of the chamber in tissue engineering. Therefore, to investigate the role of inflammatory response and the change in mechanotransduction started by TEC after implantation, we placed a unique TEC model on the surface of the groin fat pads in rats to study the expression of cytokines and tissue development in the TEC. The number of infiltrating cells was counted, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) expression levels in the chamber at multiple time points postimplantation were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Tissue samples were collected at various time points and labeled for specific cell populations. The result showed that new adipose tissue formed in the chamber at day 60. Also, the expression of MCP-1 and VEGF in the chamber decreased slightly from an early stage as well as the number of the infiltrating cells. A large number of CD34+/perilipin- perivascular cells could be detected at day 30. Also, the CD34+/perilipin+ adipose precursor cell numbers increased sharply by day 45 and then decreased by day 60. CD34-/perilipin+ mature adipocytes were hard to detect in the chamber content at day 30, but their number increased and then peaked at day 60. Ki67-positive cells could be found near blood vessels and their number decreased sharply over time. Masson's trichrome showed that collagen was the dominant component of the chamber content at early stage and was replaced by newly formed small adipocytes over time. Our findings suggested that the TEC implantation could promote the proliferation of adipose precursor cells derived from local adipose tissue, increase angiogenesis, and finally lead to spontaneous adipogenesis by inducing aseptic inflammation and changing local mechanotransduction.

  13. Experimental and modeling studies on number and size spectrum evolutions of aerosol particles within a chamber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Zai; HUANG Zhen; WANG JiaSong


    A size-specific aerosol dynamic model is set up to predict the evolution of particle number concentration within a chamber. Particle aggregation is based on the theory of Brownian coagulation, and the model not only comprises particle loss due to coagulation, but also considers the formation of large particles by collision. To validate the model, three different groups of chamber experiments with SMPS (Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer) are conducted. The results indicate that the advantage of the model over the past simple size bin model is its provision of detailed information of size spectrum evolution,and the results can be used to analyze the variations of number concentration and CMD (Count Median Diameter). Furthermore, some aerosol dynamic mechanisms that cannot be measured by instrument can be analyzed by the model simulation, which is significant for better understanding the removal and control mechanisms of ultrafine particles.

  14. Warm storage for arc magmas. (United States)

    Barboni, Mélanie; Boehnke, Patrick; Schmitt, Axel K; Harrison, T Mark; Shane, Phil; Bouvier, Anne-Sophie; Baumgartner, Lukas


    Felsic magmatic systems represent the vast majority of volcanic activity that poses a threat to human life. The tempo and magnitude of these eruptions depends on the physical conditions under which magmas are retained within the crust. Recently the case has been made that volcanic reservoirs are rarely molten and only capable of eruption for durations as brief as 1,000 years following magma recharge. If the "cold storage" model is generally applicable, then geophysical detection of melt beneath volcanoes is likely a sign of imminent eruption. However, some arc volcanic centers have been active for tens of thousands of years and show evidence for the continual presence of melt. To address this seeming paradox, zircon geochronology and geochemistry from both the frozen lava and the cogenetic enclaves they host from the Soufrière Volcanic Center (SVC), a long-lived volcanic complex in the Lesser Antilles arc, were integrated to track the preeruptive thermal and chemical history of the magma reservoir. Our results show that the SVC reservoir was likely eruptible for periods of several tens of thousands of years or more with punctuated eruptions during these periods. These conclusions are consistent with results from other arc volcanic reservoirs and suggest that arc magmas are generally stored warm. Thus, the presence of intracrustal melt alone is insufficient as an indicator of imminent eruption, but instead represents the normal state of magma storage underneath dormant volcanoes.

  15. Influence of immunization on Porphyromonas gingivalis colonization and invasion in the mouse chamber model. (United States)

    Genco, C A; Kapczynski, D R; Cutler, C W; Arko, R J; Arnold, R R


    The effects of immunization with invasive or noninvasive Porphyromonas (Bacteroides) gingivalis strains on the pathogenesis of infection in a mouse chamber model were examined. BALB/c mice were immunized by a single injection of heat-killed P. gingivalis invasive strain A7436 or W83 or noninvasive strain 33277, HG405, or 381 directly into subcutaneous chambers. P. gingivalis-specific antibody was detected in chamber fluid 21 days postimmunization, and mice were subsequently challenged by injection of exponential-phase P. gingivalis into chambers. Immunization with A7436 or W83 followed by challenge with A7436 protected mice against secondary abscess formation and death; however, P. gingivalis persisted in chambers for up to 14 days postchallenge. Immunization with noninvasive strain 33277, HG405, or 381 followed by challenge with invasive strain A7436 or W83 protected mice against secondary lesion formation and death. P. gingivalis was cultured from 33277- or HG405-immunized and nonimmunized animals to day 14. All P. gingivalis strains induced an immunoglobulin G response, as measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western immunoblotting of P. gingivalis whole-cell and outer membrane protein preparations. Western blot analyses indicated that sera from mice immunized with different invasive and noninvasive strains recognized common P. gingivalis antigens. In summary, immunization with invasive P. gingivalis A7436 and W83 or noninvasive P. gingivalis 33277, HG405, and 381 protected mice from secondary lesion formation and death after challenge with invasive P. gingivalis A7436 or W83. P. gingivalis-specific antibody did not, however, inhibit the colonization of P. gingivalis within chambers. Images PMID:1312515

  16. 3D numerical modeling of mantle flow, crustal dynamics and magma genesis associated with slab roll-back and tearing: The eastern Mediterranean case


    Menant, Armel; Sternai, Pietro; Jolivet, Laurent; Guillou-Frottier, Laurent; Gerya, Taras


    International audience; Interactions between subduction dynamics and magma genesis have been intensely investigated, resulting in several conceptual models derived from geological, geochemical and geophysical data. To provide physico-chemical constraints on these conceptual models, self-consistent numerical simulations containing testable thermo-mechanical parameters are required, especially considering the three-dimensional (3D) natural complexity of subduction systems. Here, we use a 3D hig...

  17. Numerical modeling of flow in a differential chamber of the gas-dynamic interface of a portable mass-spectrometer (United States)

    Pivovarova, E. A.; Smirnovsky, A. A.; Schmidt, A. A.


    Mathematical modeling of flow in the differential chamber of the gas-dynamic interface of a portable mass-spectrometer was carried out to comprehensively study the flow structure and make recommendations for the optimization of the gas-dynamic interface. Modeling was performed using an OpenFOAM open computational platform. Conditions for an optimal operating mode of the differential chamber were determined.

  18. Measurements of a 1/4-scale model of a 60-kg explosives firing chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastrnak, J.W.; Baker, C.F.; Simmons, L.F.


    In anticipation of increasingly stringent environmental regulations, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) proposes to construct a 60-kg firing chamber to provide blast-effects containment for, most of its open-air, high-explosive, firing operations. Even though these operations are within current environmental limits, containment of the blast effects and hazardous debris will further drastically reduce emissions to the environment and minimize the generated hazardous waste. The major design consideration of such a chamber is its overall structural dynamic response in terms of long-term containment of all blast effects from repeated internal detonations of high explosives. Another concern is how much other portions of the facility must be hardened to ensure personnel protection in the event of an accidental detonation. To assess these concerns, a 1/4-scale replica model of the planned contained firing chamber was designed, constructed, and tested with scaled explosive charges ranging from 25 to 125% of the operational explosives limit of 60 kg. From 16 detonations of high explosives, 880 resulting strains, blast pressures, and temperatures within the model were measured. Factors of safety for dynamic yield of the firing chamber structure were calculated and compared to the design criterion of totally elastic response. The rectangular, reinforced-concrete chamber model exhibited a lightly damped vibrational response that placed the structure in alternating cycles of tension and compression. During compression, both the reinforcing steel and the concrete remained elastic. During tension, the reinforcing steel remained elastic, but the concrete elastic limit was exceeded in two areas, the center spans of the ceiling and the north wall, where elastic safety factors as low as 0.66 were obtained, thus indicating that the concrete would be expected to crack in those areas. Indeed, visual post-test inspection of those areas revealed tight cracks in the concrete.

  19. Modelling of the pulverised coal preparation for combustion in a plasma chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Z. Jankoski; F.C. Lockwood; V. Messerle; E. Karpenko; A. Ustimenko [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom). Department of Mechanical Engineering


    The objective of this study is to simulate the behaviour of pulverized coal in the plasma chamber through numerical experiments carried out with the aid of developed thermodynamic, kinetic and multi dimensional computational fluid dynamics based mathematical models. The data needed for the validation of the numerical procedure were obtained from a cylindrical direct flow burner equipped with a plasmatron (plasma generator) with 100 kW of electric power and mounted on a full-scale boiler (Gusinoozersk TPP, Eastern Siberia). The experiments were carried out using 'Tugnuisk' bituminous coal. Two mathematical models were employed: the one ('1D Plasma-Coal') being one dimensional, but with an emphasis on complex chemistry, the other (3D FAFNIR) being fully three-dimensional with emphasis on the geometry and overall combustion processes. 1D Plasma-Coal numerical experiments gave the predicted temperatures and velocities of gas and solids along the chamber length; while the concentrations of the gas components (CO, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, C{sub 6}H{sub 6}, N{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O) were reported for the chamber exit. The degree of coal gasification showed that 54% of coal carbon was gasified within the plasma chamber. 3D numerical results for plasma jet spreading length were in good agreement with the measured data, while the temperature profiles within the plasma chamber were over predicted. The predictions of main species concentrations reveal that oxygen was completely consumed with the exit product stream consisting of combustible gases, un-burnt volatiles and char particles.

  20. Spatial Variation of Pressure in the Lyophilization Product Chamber Part 1: Computational Modeling. (United States)

    Ganguly, Arnab; Varma, Nikhil; Sane, Pooja; Bogner, Robin; Pikal, Michael; Alexeenko, Alina


    The flow physics in the product chamber of a freeze dryer involves coupled heat and mass transfer at different length and time scales. The low-pressure environment and the relatively small flow velocities make it difficult to quantify the flow structure experimentally. The current work presents the three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling for vapor flow in a laboratory scale freeze dryer validated with experimental data and theory. The model accounts for the presence of a non-condensable gas such as nitrogen or air using a continuum multi-species model. The flow structure at different sublimation rates, chamber pressures, and shelf-gaps are systematically investigated. Emphasis has been placed on accurately predicting the pressure variation across the subliming front. At a chamber set pressure of 115 mtorr and a sublimation rate of 1.3 kg/h/m(2), the pressure variation reaches about 9 mtorr. The pressure variation increased linearly with sublimation rate in the range of 0.5 to 1.3 kg/h/m(2). The dependence of pressure variation on the shelf-gap was also studied both computationally and experimentally. The CFD modeling results are found to agree within 10% with the experimental measurements. The computational model was also compared to analytical solution valid for small shelf-gaps. Thus, the current work presents validation study motivating broader use of CFD in optimizing freeze-drying process and equipment design.

  1. Combustion stability characteristics of the model chamber with various configurations of triplet impinging-jet injectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Chae Hoon [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Seol, Woo Seok [Korea Aerospace Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Shibanov, Alexander A. [Research Institute of Chemical Machine Building, Sergiev Posad (Russian Federation)


    Combustion stability characteristics in actual full-scale combustion chamber of a rocket engine are investigated by experimental tests with the model (sub-scale) chamber. The present hot-fire tests adopt the combustion chamber with three configurations of triplet impinging-jet injectors such as F-O-O-F, F-O-F, and O-F-O configurations. Combustion stability boundaries are obtained and presented by the parameters of combustion-chamber pressure and mixture (oxidizer/fuel) ratio. From the experimental tests, two instability regions are observed and the pressure oscillations have the similar patterns irrespective of injector configuration. But, the O-F-O injector configuration shows broader upper-instability region than the other configurations. To verify the instability mechanism for the lower and upper instability regions, air-purge acoustic test is conducted and the photograph of the flames is taken. As a result, it is found that the pressure oscillations in the two regions can be characterized by the first impinging point of hydraulic jets and pre-blowout combustion, respectively.

  2. The 2nd to 4th century explosive activity of Vesuvius: new data on the timing of the upward migration of the post-A.D. 79 magma chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaello Cioni


    Full Text Available We present volcanological data on the deposits of the Santa Maria Member (SMM, the eruption cycle occurred at Vesuvius (Italy in the period between the A.D. 79 plinian and the A.D. 472 subplinan eruptions. Historical accounts report only sporadic, poorly reliable descriptions of the volcanic activity in this period, during which a stratified sequence of ash and lapilli beds, up to 150 cm thick, with a total volume estimated around 0.15 km3, was widely dispersed on the outer slopes of the volcano. Stratigraphic studies and component analyses suggest that activity was characterized by mixed hydromagmatic and magmatic processes. The eruption style has been interpreted as repeated alternations of continuous and prolonged ash emission activity intercalated with short-lived, violent strombolian phases. Analyses of the bulk rock composition reveal that during the entire eruption cycle, magma maintained an homogeneous phonotephritic composition. In addition, the general trends of major and trace elements depicted by the products of the A.D. 79 and A.D. 472 eruptions converge to the SMM composition, suggesting a common mafic end-member for these eruptions. The volatile content measured in pyroxene-hosted melt inclusions indicates two main values of crystallization pressures, around 220 and 70 MPa, roughly corresponding to the previously estimated depth of the magma reservoirs of the A.D. 79 and A.D. 472 eruptions, respectively. The study of SMM eruption cycle may thus contribute to understand the processes governing the volcano reawakening immediately after a plinian event, and the timing and modalities which govern the migration of the magma reservoir.

  3. CrystalMoM: a tool for modeling the evolution of Crystals Size Distributions in magmas with the Method of Moments (United States)

    Colucci, Simone; de'Michieli Vitturi, Mattia; Landi, Patrizia


    It is well known that nucleation and growth of crystals play a fundamental role in controlling magma ascent dynamics and eruptive behavior. Size- and shape-distribution of crystal populations can affect mixture viscosity, causing, potentially, transitions between effusive and explosive eruptions. Furthermore, volcanic samples are usually characterized in terms of Crystal Size Distribution (CSD), which provide a valuable insight into the physical processes that led to the observed distributions. For example, a large average size can be representative of a slow magma ascent, and a bimodal CSD may indicate two events of nucleation, determined by two degassing events within the conduit. The Method of Moments (MoM), well established in the field of chemical engineering, represents a mesoscopic modeling approach that rigorously tracks the polydispersity by considering the evolution in time and space of integral parameters characterizing the distribution, the moments, by solving their transport differential-integral equations. One important advantage of this approach is that the moments of the distribution correspond to quantities that have meaningful physical interpretations and are directly measurable in natural eruptive products, as well as in experimental samples. For example, when the CSD is defined by the number of particles of size D per unit volume of the magmatic mixture, the zeroth moment gives the total number of crystals, the third moment gives the crystal volume fraction in the magmatic mixture and ratios between successive moments provide different ways to evaluate average crystal length. Tracking these quantities, instead of volume fraction only, will allow using, for example, more accurate viscosity models in numerical code for magma ascent. Here we adopted, for the first time, a quadrature based method of moments to track the temporal evolution of CSD in a magmatic mixture and we verified and calibrated the model again experimental data. We also show how

  4. Model of the heat source of the Cerro Prieto magma-hydrothermal system, Baja California, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elders, W.A.; Bird, D.K.; Williams, A.E.; Schiffman, P.; Cox, B.


    Earlier studies at Cerro Prieto by UCR have led to the development of a qualitative model for field flow in the geothermal system before it was drilled and perturbed by production. Current efforts are directed towards numerical modelling of heat and mass transfer in the system in this undisturbed state. A two-dimensional model assumes that the heat sources were a single basalt/gabbro intrusion which provided heat to the system as it cooled. After compiling various information on the physical properties of the reservoir, the enthalpy contained in two 1cm thick section across the reservoir orthogonal to each other was calculated. Next various shapes, sizes and depths for the intrusion as initial conditions and boundary conditions for the calculation of heat transfer were considered. A family of numerical models which so far gives the best matches to the conditions observed in the field today have in common a funnel-shaped intrusion with a top 4km wide emplaced at a depth of 5km some 30,000 to 50,000 years ago, providing heat to the geothermal system. Numerical modelling is still in progress. Although none of the models so far computed may be a perfect match for the thermal history of the reservoir, they all indicate that the intrusive heat source is young, close and large.

  5. [Studies of ozone formation potentials for benzene and ethylbenzene using a smog chamber and model simulation]. (United States)

    Jia, Long; Xu, Yong-Fu


    Ozone formation potentials from irradiations of benzene-NO(x) and ethylbenzene-NO(x) systems under the conditions of different VOC/NO(x) ratios and RH were investigated using a characterized chamber and model simulation. The repeatability of the smog chamber experiment shows that for two sets of ethylbenzene-NO(x) irradiations with similar initial concentrations and reaction conditions, such as temperature, relative humidity and relative light intensity, the largest difference in O3 between two experiments is only 4% during the whole experimental run. On the basis of smog chamber experiments, ozone formation of photo-oxidation of benzene and ethylbenzene was simulated in terms of the master chemical mechanism (MCM). The peak ozone values for benzene and ethylbenzene simulated by MCM are higher than the chamber data, and the difference between the MCM-simulated results and chamber data increases with increasing RH. Under the conditions of sunlight irradiations, with benzene and ethylbenzene concentrations being in the range of (10-50) x 10(-9) and NO(x) concentrations in the range of (10-100) x 10(-9), the 6 h ozone contributions of benzene and ethylbenzene were obtained to be (3.1-33) x 10(-9) and (2.6-122) x 10(-9), whereas the peak O3 contributions of benzene and ethylbenzene were (3.5-54) x 10(-9) and (3.8-164) x 10(-9), respectively. The MCM-simulated maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) values for benzene and ethylbenzene were 0.25/C and 0.97/C (per carbon), respectively. The maximum ozone reactivity (MOR) values for these two species were obtained to be 0.73/C and 1.03/C, respectively. The MOR value of benzene from MCM is much higher than that obtained by carter from SAPRC, indicating that SAPRC may underestimate the ozone formation potential of benzene.

  6. Emulating Spherical Wave Channel Models in Multi-probe Anechoic Chamber Setups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Wei; Carreño, Xavier; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum;


    to emulate spherical wave channel models in multi-probe anechoic chamber setups. In this paper, a technique based on the field synthesis principle is proposed to approximate spherical waves emitted from arbitrarily located point sources with arbitrary polarizations. Simulation results show that static...... spherical waves can be reproduced with a limited number of probes, and the field synthesis accuracy of spherical wave depends on the location of the source point....

  7. Model for the heat source of the Cerro Prieto magma-hydrothermal system, Baja California, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elders, W.A.; Bird, D.K.; Williams, A.E.; Schiffman, P.; Cox, B.


    Earlier studies at Cerro Prieto led to the development of a qualitative model for fluid flow in the geothermal system before it was drilled and perturbed by production. Current efforts are directed towards numerical modeling of heat and mass transfer in the system in this undisturbed state. This one-dimensional model assumes that the heat source was a single basalt/gabbro intrusion which provided heat to the system as it cooled. After compilation of various information of the physical properties of the reservoir, the enthalpy contained in two 1 cm thick sections across the reservoir orthogonal to each other was calculated. Various shapes, sizes and depths for the intrusion were considered as initial conditions and boundary conditions for the calculations of heat transfer. A family of numerical models which so far gives the best matches to the conditions observed in the field today have in common a funnel-shaped intrusion with a top 4 km wide emplaced at a depth of 5 km some 30,000 to 50,000 years ago, providing heat to the geothermal system.

  8. Decoherence and determinism in a one-dimensional cloud-chamber model

    CERN Document Server

    Sparenberg, Jean-Marc


    A possible explanation for the seemingly random nature of the measurement result in quantum mechanics was recently proposed by Sparenberg et al. In this approach, a measurement result is simply determined by the microscopic state of the measuring device. This interpretation led to a new discussion of Mott's problem, i.e. the paradoxical appearance of linear tracks in a cloud-chamber measurement of a radioactive source emitting spherical waves. It was proposed that the appearance of particular linear tracks was actually determined by the (random) positions of atoms or molecules inside the chamber. In the present work, we further explore this hypothesis, both analytically and numerically, in the framework of a recently established one-dimensional model by Carlone et al. In this model, meshes of localized spins 1/2 play the role of the cloud-chamber atoms and the spherical wave is replaced by a linear superposition of two wave packets moving from the origin to the left and to the right, evolving deterministicall...

  9. Constraining the GENIE model of neutrino-induced single pion production using reanalyzed bubble chamber data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Philip; McFarland, Kevin [University of Rochester, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rochester, NY (United States); Wilkinson, Callum [University of Bern, Laboratory for High Energy Physics (LHEP), Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Bern (Switzerland)


    The longstanding discrepancy between bubble chamber measurements of ν{sub μ}-induced single pion production channels has led to large uncertainties in pion production cross section parameters for many years. We extend the reanalysis of pion production data in deuterium bubble chambers where this discrepancy is solved (Wilkinson et al., PRD 90, 112017 2014) to include the ν{sub μ}n → μ{sup -}pπ{sup 0} and ν{sub μ}n → μ{sup -}nπ{sup +} channels, and use the resulting data to fit the parameters of the GENIE pion production model. We find a set of parameters that can describe the bubble chamber data better than the GENIE default parameters, and provide updated central values and reduced uncertainties for use in neutrino oscillation and cross section analyses which use the GENIE model. We find that GENIE's non-resonant background prediction has to be significantly reduced to fit the data, which may help to explain the recent discrepancies between simulation and data observed by the MINERνA coherent pion and NOνA oscillation analyses. (orig.)

  10. Evolution of magma feeding system in Kumanodake agglutinate activity, Zao Volcano, northeastern Japan (United States)

    Takebe, Yoshinori; Ban, Masao


    The Kumanodake agglutinate of Zao Volcano in northeastern Japan consists of pyroclastic surge layers accumulated during the early part of the newest stage of activity (ca. 33 ka to present). Our petrologic study of this agglutinate based on systematically collected samples aims to reveal the evolution of magma feeding system. To understand the magma evolution, we have examined samples from the agglutinate by using petrologic data including, petrography, analysis of minerals (plagioclase, pyroxene, and olivine), glass compositions, and whole rock major element and trace element (Ba, Sr, Cr, Ni, V, Rb, Zr, Nb, and Y) compositions. Agglutinate are mixed, medium-K, calc-alkaline olv-cpx-opx basaltic andesite (55.2-56.2% SiO2). Results show that the magma feeding system comprised a shallow felsic chamber injected by mafic magma from depth. The felsic magma (59-62% SiO2, 950-990 °C), which was stored at a shallower depth, had orthopyroxene (Mg# = 60-69), clinopyroxene (Mg# = 65-71), and low-An plagioclase (Anca. 58-70). The mafic magma is further divisible into two types: less-differentiated and more-differentiated, designed respectively as an initial mafic magma-1 and a second mafic magma-2. The original mafic magma-1 was olivine (Fo 84) basalt (ca. 48-51% SiO2, 1110-1140 °C). The second mafic magma-2, stored occasionally at 4-6 km depth, was basalt (1070-1110 °C) having Foca. 80 olivine and high-An (Anca. 90) plagioclase phenocrysts. These two magmas mixed (first mixing) to form hybrid mafic magma. The forced injections of the hybrid mafic magmas activated the felsic magma, and these two were mixed (second mixing) shortly before eruptions. The explosivity is inferred to have increased over time because the abundance of large scoria increased. Furthermore, the erupted magma composition became more mafic, which reflects increased percentage of the hybrid mafic magma involved in the second mixing. At the beginning of activity, the mafic magma also acted as a heat

  11. Modelling magma-drift interaction at the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woods, Andrew W.; Sparks, Steve; Bokhove, Onno; Lejeune, Anne-Marie; Connor, Charles B.; Hill, Britain E.


    We examine the possible ascent of alkali basalt magma containing 2 wt percent water through a dike and into a horizontal subsurface drift as part of a risk assessment for the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository beneath Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA. On intersection of the dike with the

  12. Mathematical Modelling of In-Chamber Processes in Hydrocombined Propellant Solid Rocket Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai A. Obukhov


    Full Text Available The special conditions of employment of commercial rockets in the sea environment has opened up new possibilities of improving motor performance. The interesting method suggests supplying water into the running motor. This paper reports the calculations and experiments carried out with solid propellant model setups. The results prove the validity of the proposed method and allow the refinement of calculation techniques for the prediction of solid rocket motor performance characteristics. The serviceability of the solid propellant charges working in combination with water is demonstrated. A mathematical model is proposed for the operation of a hydrocombined propellant motor with water and powdered additives applied to the combustion chamber."

  13. Barriers to transport induced by periodic oscillations in a physical model of the human vitreous chamber (United States)

    Oliveri, Alberto; Stocchino, Alessandro; Storace, Marco


    Understanding mixing processes that occur in the human vitreous chamber is of fundamental importance due to the relevant clinical implications in drug delivery treatments of several eye conditions. In this article we rely on experimental observations (which demonstrated that dispersion coefficients largely dominate diffusive coefficients) on a physical model of the human eye to perform an analysis based on Lagrangian trajectories. In particular, we study barriers to transport in a particularly significant two-dimensional section of the eye model by using nonlinear dynamical systems theoretical and numerical tools. Bifurcations in the system dynamics are investigated by varying the main physical parameters of the problem.

  14. Magma accumulation or second boiling - Investigating the ongoing deformation field at Montserrat, West Indies (United States)

    Collinson, Amy; Neuberg, Jurgen; Pascal, Karen


    For over 20 years, Soufriere Hills Volcano, Montserrat has been in a state of volcanic unrest. Intermittent periods of dome building have been punctuated by explosive eruptions and dome collapse events, endangering the lives of the inhabitants of the island. The last episode of active magma extrusion was in February 2010, and the last explosive event (ash venting) in March 2012. Despite a lack of eruptive activity recently, the volcano continues to emit significant volumes of SO2 and shows an ongoing trend of island inflation. Through the aid of three-dimensional numerical modelling, using a finite element method, we explore the potential sources of the ongoing island inflation. We consider both magmatic (dykes and chamber) and tectonic sources. Whilst a magmatic source suggests the possibility for further eruption, a tectonic source may indicate cessation of volcanic activity. We show that a magmatic source is the most likely scenario, and illustrate the effect of different sources (shapes, characters and depths) on the surface displacement. Furthermore, through the inclusion of topographic data, we investigate how the topography may affect the displacement pattern at the surface. We investigate the conflicting scenarios of magma chamber resupply versus second boiling - crystallisation-induced degassing. Based on numerical modelling results, we suggest the required pressurisation is too high for crystallisation-induced degassing to be the dominant process - thereby suggesting magma accumulation may be ongoing. However, we show that second boiling may be a contributing factor, particularly when taking into account the local tectonics and regional stretching.

  15. Magma Energy Research, 79-1. Semiannual report, October 1, 1978-March 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traeger, R.K.; Colp, J.L.; Neel, R.R. (eds.)


    A major effort in evaluating Kilauea Iki lava lake has been completed. The physical model based on FY 76 geophysical experiments is not correct in that a low viscosity, liquid lens of appreciable thickness does not exist. Mathematical models of the cooling of the lava lake and the state of solidification of the liquid lens were verified by thermal profile and permeability measurements. New jet-augmented drilling concepts successfully penetrated the viscous, multi-phase molten rock region in some locations where conventional drilling failed. Heat transfer studies in the lake suggest injection of fluids to enhance convection may be useful to extract energy from magma chamber margins. Other activities resulted in the completion and successful testing of a 800 cc simulation facility for evaluating simulated magma properties at temperatures to 1500/sup 0/C and pressures to 4 kbar. In materials compatibility studies, thermodynamic stability diagrams were developed for 15 pure metals in basaltic magma systems and compatibility tests completed. Results are being used to define simple alloy systems which may be compatible with magmas and to identify other superalloy materials candidates.

  16. 3GPP Channel Model Emulation with Analysis of MIMO-LTE Performances in Reverberation Chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil Arsalane


    Full Text Available Emulation methodology of multiple clusters channels for evaluating wireless communication devices over-the-air (OTA performance is investigated. This methodology has been used along with the implementation of the SIMO LTE standard. It consists of evaluating effective diversity gain (EDG level of SIMO LTE-OFDM system for different channel models according to the received power by establishing an active link between the transmitter and the receiver. The measurement process is set up in a Reverberation Chamber (RC. The obtained results are compared to the reference case of single input-single output (SISO in order to evaluate the real improvement attained by the implemented system.

  17. Age, geochemical and isotopic variations in volcanic rocks from the Coastal Range of Taiwan: Implications for magma generation in the Northern Luzon Arc (United States)

    Lai, Yu-Ming; Song, Sheng-Rong; Lo, Ching-Hua; Lin, Te-Hsien; Chu, Mei-Fei; Chung, Sun-Lin


    This paper reports the first systematic analysis of age and geochemical variations in volcanic rocks from the Coastal Range of Taiwan, the Northern Luzon Arc. The rocks, recovered from four main volcanoes, vary from low-K tholeiitic to medium-K calc-alkaline basalts to dacites. The rocks are typical of arc magmatic products, exhibiting enrichment in the large ion lithophile elements and depletion in the high field strength elements. Our new 40Ar/39Ar age data constrain the youngest eruption time in each of the four volcanoes, i.e., from north to south, at 7.2 Ma (Yuemei), 4.2 Ma (Chimei), 6.2 Ma (Chengkuang'ao) and 8.5 Ma (Tuluanshan), respectively. These data indicate that volcanism in the Northern Luzon Arc did not cease progressively from north to south, as previously alleged. The high and broadly uniform Nd isotope ratios [εNd = + 10.1 to + 8.8] and trace element characteristics of the rocks suggest a principal magma source from the depleted mantle wedge. Their overall geochemical variations are ascribed to magma chamber processes. The effects of magmatic differentiation and crustal contamination differ among each volcano, most likely owing to the discrepancy of residence time in individual magma chambers. Consequently, we propose a binary mixing model for the magma generation that involves arc magmas sourced from the depleted mantle wedge and up to 5% crustal contamination with a continental fragment split off from the Eurasian margin.

  18. One Dimensional Analysis Model of a Condensing Spray Chamber Including Rocket Exhaust Using SINDA/FLUINT and CEA (United States)

    Sakowski, Barbara; Edwards, Daryl; Dickens, Kevin


    Modeling droplet condensation via CFD codes can be very tedious, time consuming, and inaccurate. CFD codes may be tedious and time consuming in terms of using Lagrangian particle tracking approaches or particle sizing bins. Also since many codes ignore conduction through the droplet and or the degradating effect of heat and mass transfer if noncondensible species are present, the solutions may be inaccurate. The modeling of a condensing spray chamber where the significant size of the water droplets and the time and distance these droplets take to fall, can make the effect of droplet conduction a physical factor that needs to be considered in the model. Furthermore the presence of even a relatively small amount of noncondensible has been shown to reduce the amount of condensation [Ref 1]. It is desirable then to create a modeling tool that addresses these issues. The path taken to create such a tool is illustrated. The application of this tool and subsequent results are based on the spray chamber in the Spacecraft Propulsion Research Facility (B2) located at NASA's Plum Brook Station that tested an RL-10 engine. The platform upon which the condensation physics is modeled is SINDAFLUINT. The use of SINDAFLUINT enables the ability to model various aspects of the entire testing facility, including the rocket exhaust duct flow and heat transfer to the exhaust duct wall. The ejector pumping system of the spray chamber is also easily implemented via SINDAFLUINT. The goal is to create a transient one dimensional flow and heat transfer model beginning at the rocket, continuing through the condensing spray chamber, and finally ending with the ejector pumping system. However the model of the condensing spray chamber may be run independently of the rocket and ejector systems detail, with only appropriate mass flow boundary conditions placed at the entrance and exit of the condensing spray chamber model. The model of the condensing spray chamber takes into account droplet

  19. Development of an algebraic stress/two-layer model for calculating thrust chamber flow fields (United States)

    Chen, C. P.; Shang, H. M.; Huang, J.


    Following the consensus of a workshop in Turbulence Modeling for Liquid Rocket Thrust Chambers, the current effort was undertaken to study the effects of second-order closure on the predictions of thermochemical flow fields. To reduce the instability and computational intensity of the full second-order Reynolds Stress Model, an Algebraic Stress Model (ASM) coupled with a two-layer near wall treatment was developed. Various test problems, including the compressible boundary layer with adiabatic and cooled walls, recirculating flows, swirling flows and the entire SSME nozzle flow were studied to assess the performance of the current model. Detailed calculations for the SSME exit wall flow around the nozzle manifold were executed. As to the overall flow predictions, the ASM removes another assumption for appropriate comparison with experimental data, to account for the non-isotropic turbulence effects.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vrublevskyi


    Full Text Available CFD tools were used to investigate the influence of combustion chamber geometrical parameters on the engine performance indexes. A number of geometrical shapes of the combustion chamber are analyzed. The results have proved that there is an impact of the combustion chamber geometry on pollutant emissions amount.

  1. Modeling and dynamic properties of dual-chamber solid and liquid mixture vibration isolator (United States)

    Li, F. S.; Chen, Q.; Zhou, J. H.


    The dual-chamber solid and liquid mixture (SALiM) vibration isolator, mainly proposed for vibration isolation of heavy machines with low frequency, consists of four principle parts: SALiM working media including elastic elements and incompressible oil, multi-layers bellows container, rigid reservoir and the oil tube connecting the two vessels. The isolation system under study is governed by a two-degrees-of-freedom (2-DOF) nonlinear equation including quadratic damping. Simplifying the nonlinear damping into viscous damping, the equivalent stiffness and damping model is derived from the equation for the response amplitude. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulation reveal that the isolator's stiffness and damping have multiple properties with different parameters, among which the effects of exciting frequency, vibrating amplitude, quadratic damping coefficient and equivalent stiffness of the two chambers on the isolator's dynamics are discussed in depth. Based on the boundary characteristics of stiffness and damping and the main causes for stiffness hardening effect, improvement strategies are proposed to obtain better dynamic properties. At last, experiments were implemented and the test results were generally consistent with the theoretical ones, which verified the reliability of the nonlinear dynamic model.

  2. Juvenile pumice and pyroclastic obsidian reveal the eruptive conditions necessary for the stability of Plinian eruption of rhyolitic magma (United States)

    Giachetti, T.; Shea, T.; Gonnermann, H. M.; McCann, K. A.; Hoxsie, E. C.


    Significant explosive activity generally precedes or coexists with the large effusion of rhyolitic lava (e.g., Mono Craters; Medicine Lake Volcano; Newberry; Chaitén; Cordón Caulle). Such explosive-to-effusive transitions and, ultimately, cessation of activity are commonly explained by the overall waning magma chamber pressure accompanying magma withdrawal, albeit modulated by magma outgassing. The tephra deposits of such explosive-to-effusive eruptions record the character of the transition - abrupt or gradual - as well as potential changes in eruptive conditions, such as magma composition, volatiles content, mass discharge rate, conduit size, magma outgassing. Results will be presented from a detailed study of both the gas-rich (pumice) and gas-poor (obsidian) juvenile pyroclasts produced during the Plinian phase of the 1060 CE Glass Mountain eruption of Medicine Lake Volcano, California. In the proximal deposits, a multitude of pumice-rich sections separated by layers rich in dense clasts suggests a pulsatory behavior of the explosive phase. Density measurements on 2,600 pumices show that the intermediate, most voluminous deposits have a near constant median porosity of 65%. However, rapid increase in porosity to 75-80% is observed at both the bottom and the top of the fallout deposits, suggestive of rapid variations in magma degassing. In contrast, a water content of pyroclastic obsidians of approximately 0.6 wt% does remain constant throughout the eruption, suggesting that the pyroclastic obsidians degassed up to a constant pressure of a few megapascals. Numerical modeling of eruptive magma ascent and degassing is used to provide constraints on eruption conditions.

  3. A numerical model of initial recombination for high-LET irradiation: Application to liquid-filled ionization chambers (United States)

    Aguiar, P.; Pardo-Montero, J.


    In this paper we present a numerical model of initial recombination in media irradiated with high linear energy transfer (LET) ions, which relies on an amorphous track model of ionization of high LET particles, and diffusion, drift and recombination of ionized charge carriers. The model has fundamental applications for the study of recombination in non-polar liquids, as well as practical ones, like in modelling hadrontherapy dosimetry with ionization chambers. We have used it to study the response of liquid-filled ionization chambers to hadrontherapy beams: dependence of initial recombination on ion species, energy and applied external electric field.

  4. Plant growth modeling at the JSC variable pressure growth chamber - An application of experimental design (United States)

    Miller, Adam M.; Edeen, Marybeth; Sirko, Robert J.


    This paper describes the approach and results of an effort to characterize plant growth under various environmental conditions at the Johnson Space Center variable pressure growth chamber. Using a field of applied mathematics and statistics known as design of experiments (DOE), we developed a test plan for varying environmental parameters during a lettuce growth experiment. The test plan was developed using a Box-Behnken approach to DOE. As a result of the experimental runs, we have developed empirical models of both the transpiration process and carbon dioxide assimilation for Waldman's Green lettuce over specified ranges of environmental parameters including carbon dioxide concentration, light intensity, dew-point temperature, and air velocity. This model also predicts transpiration and carbon dioxide assimilation for different ages of the plant canopy.

  5. Use of a Rabbit Soft Tissue Chamber Model to Investigate Campylobacter jejuni - Host Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika eFlint


    Full Text Available Despite the prevalence of C. jejuni as an important food borne pathogen, the microbial factors governing its infection process are poorly characterized. In this study, we developed a novel rabbit soft tissue chamber model to investigate C. jejuni interactions with its host. The in vivo transcriptome profile of C. jejuni was monitored as a function of time post-infection by competitive microarray hybridization with cDNA obtained from C. jejuni grown in vitro. Genome-wide expression analysis identified 449 genes expressed at significantly different levels in vivo. Genes implicated to play important roles in early colonization of C. jejuni within the tissue chamber include up-regulation of genes involved in ribosomal protein synthesis and modification, heat shock response, and primary adaptation to the host environment (DccSR regulon. Genes encoding proteins involved in the TCA cycle and flagella related components were found to be significantly down regulated during early colonization. Oxidative stress defense and stringent response genes were found to be maximally induced during the acute infectious phase. Overall, these findings reveal possible mechanisms involved in adaptation of Campylobacter to the host.

  6. Semi-automated operation of Mars Climate Simulation chamber - MCSC modelled for biological experiments (United States)

    Tarasashvili, M. V.; Sabashvili, Sh. A.; Tsereteli, S. L.; Aleksidze, N. D.; Dalakishvili, O.


    The Mars Climate Simulation Chamber (MCSC) (GEO PAT 12 522/01) is designed for the investigation of the possible past and present habitability of Mars, as well as for the solution of practical tasks necessary for the colonization and Terraformation of the Planet. There are specific tasks such as the experimental investigation of the biological parameters that allow many terrestrial organisms to adapt to the imitated Martian conditions: chemistry of the ground, atmosphere, temperature, radiation, etc. MCSC is set for the simulation of the conduction of various biological experiments, as well as the selection of extremophile microorganisms for the possible Settlement, Ecopoesis and/or Terraformation purposes and investigation of their physiological functions. For long-term purposes, it is possible to cultivate genetically modified organisms (e.g., plants) adapted to the Martian conditions for future Martian agriculture to sustain human Mars missions and permanent settlements. The size of the chamber allows preliminary testing of the functionality of space-station mini-models and personal protection devices such as space-suits, covering and building materials and other structures. The reliability of the experimental biotechnological materials can also be tested over a period of years. Complex and thorough research has been performed to acquire the most appropriate technical tools for the accurate engineering of the MCSC and precious programmed simulation of Martian environmental conditions. This paper describes the construction and technical details of the equipment of the MCSC, which allows its semi-automated, long-term operation.

  7. Fractional crystallization of Si-undersaturated alkaline magmas leading to unmixing of carbonatites on Brava Island (Cape Verde) and a general model of carbonatite genesis in alkaline magma suites (United States)

    Weidendorfer, Daniel; Schmidt, Max W.; Mattsson, Hannes B.


    The carbonatites of Brava Island, Cape Verde hot spot, allow to investigate whether they represent small mantle melt fractions or form through extreme fractionation and/or liquid immiscibility from CO2-bearing silicate magmas. The intrusive carbonatites on Brava Island are part of a strongly silica-undersaturated pyroxenite, ijolite, nephelinite, nepheline syenite, combeite-foiditite, carbonatite series. The major and trace element composition of this suite is reproduced by a model fractionating olivine, clinopyroxene, perovskite, biotite, apatite, titanite, sodalite and FeTi oxides, all present as phenocrysts in the rocks corresponding to their fractionation interval. Fractionation of ~90 wt% crystals reproduces the observed geochemical trend from the least evolved ultramafic dikes (bulk X Mg = 0.64) to syenitic compositions. The modelled fractional crystallization leads to alkali enrichment, driving the melt into the carbonatite-silicate miscibility gap. An initial CO2 content of 4000 ppm is sufficient to saturate in CO2 at the point where the rock record suggests continuing unmixing carbonatites from nephelinites to nepheline syenites after 61 wt% fractionation. Such immiscibility is also manifested in carbonatite and silicate domains on a hand-specimen scale. Furthermore, almost identical primary clinopyroxene, biotite and carbonate compositions from carbonatites and nephelinites to nepheline syenites substantiate their conjugate character and our unmixing model. The modelled carbonatite compositions correspond to the natural ones except for their much higher alkali contents. The alkali-poor character of the carbonatites on Brava and elsewhere is likely a consequence of the release of alkali-rich CO2 + H2O fluids during final crystallization, which cause fenitization in adjacent rocks. We propose a general model for carbonatite generation during alkaline magmatism, where the fractionation of heavily Si-undersaturated, alkaline parent melts results in alkali and

  8. Volcano hazards implications of rhyolitic melt or magma at shallow depth under Krafla Caldera (United States)

    Eichelberger, John; Papale, Paolo; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn


    . Results should be directly applicable to densely populated Campi Felgrei, where complementary ICDP drilling is not targeted at a magmatic source, but may reveal similar structures. Solidified magma bodies that did not erupt have been imaged seismically at Campi Flegrei at depths of even less than 2 km. Modeling of convection and mixing processes inside shallow chambers show that such bodies may not be visible during emplacement from seismicity and deformation, and would instead "point" to larger depths even if most of the dynamics are much shallower.

  9. Contrasting sediment melt and fluid signatures for magma components in the Aeolian Arc: Implications for numerical modeling of subduction systems (United States)

    Zamboni, Denis; Gazel, Esteban; Ryan, Jeffrey G.; Cannatelli, Claudia; Lucchi, Federico; Atlas, Zachary D.; Trela, Jarek; Mazza, Sarah E.; De Vivo, Benedetto


    The complex geodynamic evolution of Aeolian Arc in the southern Tyrrhenian Sea resulted in melts with some of the most pronounced along the arc geochemical variation in incompatible trace elements and radiogenic isotopes worldwide, likely reflecting variations in arc magma source components. Here we elucidate the effects of subducted components on magma sources along different sections of the Aeolian Arc by evaluating systematics of elements depleted in the upper mantle but enriched in the subducting slab, focusing on a new set of B, Be, As, and Li measurements. Based on our new results, we suggest that both hydrous fluids and silicate melts were involved in element transport from the subducting slab to the mantle wedge. Hydrous fluids strongly influence the chemical composition of lavas in the central arc (Salina) while a melt component from subducted sediments probably plays a key role in metasomatic reactions in the mantle wedge below the peripheral islands (Stromboli). We also noted similarities in subducting components between the Aeolian Archipelago, the Phlegrean Fields, and other volcanic arcs/arc segments around the world (e.g., Sunda, Cascades, Mexican Volcanic Belt). We suggest that the presence of melt components in all these locations resulted from an increase in the mantle wedge temperature by inflow of hot asthenospheric material from tears/windows in the slab or from around the edges of the sinking slab.

  10. An improved low-temperature equation of state model for integrated IFE target-chamber response simulations (United States)

    Heltemes, Thad; Moses, Gregory


    A new quotidian equation of state model (QEOS) has been developed to perform integrated inertial fusion energy (IFE) target explosion-chamber response simulations. This QEOS model employs a scaled binding energy model for the ion EOS and utilizes both n- and l-splitting for determining the ionization state and electron EOS. This QEOS model, named BADGER, can perform both local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) and non-LTE EOS calculations. BADGER has been integrated with the 1-D radiation hydrodynamics code BUCKY to simulate the chamber response of an exploding indirect-drive deuterium-tritium (DT) target, xenon gas-filled chamber and tungsten first-wall armor. The simulated system is a prototypical configuration for the LIFE reactor study being conducted by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL).

  11. Model-aided radiometric determination of photolysis frequencies in a sunlit atmosphere simulation chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bohn


    Full Text Available In this work diurnal and seasonal variations of mean photolysis frequencies for the atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR at Forschungszentrum Jülich are calculated. SAPHIR has a complex construction with UV permeable teflon walls allowing natural sunlight to enter the reactor volume. The calculations are based on external measurements of solar spectral actinic flux and a model considering the time-dependent impact of shadows from construction elements as well as the influence of the teflon walls. Overcast and clear-sky conditions are treated in a consistent way and different assumptions concerning diffuse sky radiance distributions are tested. Radiometric measurements inside the chamber are used for an inspection of model predictions. Under overcast conditions we obtain 74% and 67% of external values for photolysis frequencies j(NO2 (NO2+hν→NO+O(3P and j(O1D (O3+hν→O2+O(1D, respectively. On a clear sky summer day these values are time-dependent within ranges 0.65–0.86 and 0.60–0.73, for j(NO2 and j(O1D, respectively. A succeeding paper (Bohn et al., 2004 is dealing with an on-road test of the model approach by comparison with photolysis frequencies from chemical actinometry experiments within SAPHIR.

  12. Volatile content of Hawaiian magmas and volcanic vigor (United States)

    Blaser, A. P.; Gonnermann, H. M.; Ferguson, D. J.; Plank, T. A.; Hauri, E. H.; Houghton, B. F.; Swanson, D. A.


    We test the hypothesis that magma supply to Kīlauea volcano, Hawai'i may be affected by magma volatile content. We find that volatile content and magma flow from deep source to Kīlauea's summit reservoirs are non-linearly related. For example, a 25-30% change in volatiles leads to a near two-fold increase in magma supply. Hawaiian volcanism provides an opportunity to develop and test hypotheses concerning dynamic and geochemical behavior of hot spot volcanism on different time scales. The Pu'u 'Ō'ō-Kupaianaha eruption (1983-present) is thought to be fed by essentially unfettered magma flow from the asthenosphere into a network of magma reservoirs at approximately 1-4 km below Kīlauea's summit, and from there into Kīlauea's east rift zone, where it erupts. Because Kīlauea's magma becomes saturated in CO2 at about 40 km depth, most CO2 is thought to escape buoyantly from the magma, before entering the east rift zone, and instead is emitted at the summit. Between 2003 and 2006 Kīlauea's summit inflated at unusually high rates and concurrently CO2emissions doubled. This may reflect a change in the balance between magma supply to the summit and outflow to the east rift zone. It remains unknown what caused this surge in magma supply or what controls magma supply to Hawaiian volcanoes in general. We have modeled two-phase magma flow, coupled with H2O-CO2 solubility, to investigate the effect of changes in volatile content on the flow of magma through Kīlauea's magmatic plumbing system. We assume an invariant magma transport capacity from source to vent over the time period of interest. Therefore, changes in magma flow rate are a consequence of changes in magma-static and dynamic pressure throughout Kīlauea's plumbing system. We use measured summit deformation and CO2 emissions as observational constraints, and find from a systematic parameter analysis that even modest increases in volatiles reduce magma-static pressures sufficiently to generate a 'surge' in

  13. SU-E-T-17: A Mathematical Model for PinPoint Chamber Correction in Measuring Small Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, T; Zhang, Y; Li, X; Heron, D.E.; Huq, M.Saiful [University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)


    Purpose: For small field dosimetry, such as measuring the cone output factor for stereotactic radiosurgery, ion chambers often result in underestimation of the dose, due to both the volume averaging effect and the lack of electron equilibrium. The purpose of this work is to develop a mathematical model, specifically for the pinpoint chamber, to calculate the correction factors corresponding to different type of small fields, including single cone-based circular field and non-standard composite fields. Methods: A PTW 0.015cc PinPoint chamber was used in the study. Its response in a certain field was modeled as the total contribution of many small beamlets, each with different response factor depending on the relative strength, radial distance to the chamber axis, and the beam angle. To get these factors, 12 cone-shaped circular fields (5mm,7.5mm, 10mm, 12.5mm, 15mm, 20mm, 25mm, 30mm, 35mm, 40mm, 50mm, 60mm) were irradiated and measured with the PinPoint chamber. For each field size, hundreds of readings were recorded for every 2mm chamber shift in the horizontal plane. These readings were then compared with the theoretical doses as obtained with Monte Carlo calculation. A penalized-least-square optimization algorithm was developed to find out the beamlet response factors. After the parameter fitting, the established mathematical model was validated with the same MC code for other non-circular fields. Results: The optimization algorithm used for parameter fitting was stable and the resulted response factors were smooth in spatial domain. After correction with the mathematical model, the chamber reading matched with the Monte Carlo calculation for all the tested fields to within 2%. Conclusion: A novel mathematical model has been developed for the PinPoint chamber for dosimetric measurement of small fields. The current model is applicable only when the beam axis is perpendicular to the chamber axis. It can be applied to non-standard composite fields. Further

  14. Magma plumbing beneath Anak Krakatau volcano, Indonesia: evidence for multiple magma storage regions (United States)

    Dahren, Börje; Troll, Valentin R.; Andersson, Ulf B.; Chadwick, Jane P.; Gardner, Màiri F.; Jaxybulatov, Kairly; Koulakov, Ivan


    Understanding magma plumbing is essential for predicting the behaviour of explosive volcanoes. We investigate magma plumbing at the highly active Anak Krakatau volcano (Indonesia), situated on the rim of the 1883 Krakatau caldera by employing a suite of thermobarometric models. These include clinopyroxene-melt thermobarometry, plagioclase-melt thermobarometry, clinopyroxene composition barometry and olivine-melt thermometry. Petrological studies have previously identified shallow magma storage in the region of 2-8 km beneath Krakatau, while existing seismic evidence points towards mid- to deep-crustal storage zone(s), at 9 and 22 km, respectively. Our results show that clinopyroxene in Anak Krakatau lavas crystallized at a depth of 7-12 km, while plagioclase records both shallow crustal (3-7 km) and sub-Moho (23-28 km) levels of crystallization. These magma storage regions coincide with well-constrained major lithological boundaries in the crust, implying that magma ascent and storage at Anak Krakatau is strongly controlled by crustal properties. A tandem seismic tomography survey independently identified a separate upper crustal (7 km). Both petrological and seismic methods are sensitive in detecting magma bodies in the crust, but suffer from various limitations. Combined geophysical and petrological surveys, in turn, offer increased potential for a comprehensive characterization of magma plumbing at active volcanic complexes.

  15. Surface deformation versus eruption rates of the two Eyjafjallajökull 2010 eruptions; implications for the magma plumbing system and origin of melts (United States)

    Pedersen, R.; Sigmundsson, F.; Hreinsdottir, S.; Arnadottir, T.; Hoskuldsson, A.; Gudmundsson, M. T.; Magnusson, E.


    Repeated geodetic measurements reveal how active volcanoes deform at the surface, and data inversion facilitates inferences about the related volume changes of underlying deformation sources. During an eruption, drainage from a shallow magma chamber can lead to direct correlation between magma flow rate and deformation rates, as observed previously in Iceland. In the simplest case, a constant scale factor relates magma flow rates, deformation rates on the surface, and inferred volume contraction of subsurface sources. The scale factor will depend on magma source geometry, compressibility of residing magma and rheological properties of the crustal rocks. During the two eruptions of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano, Iceland, in 2010 an entirely different behaviour was observed. This behaviour may be related to the rather unique plumbing system of this particular Icelandic volcano, which appears to have no shallow magma chamber. For the initial flank eruption, where olivine basalt were erupted during a period of about 3 weeks, the average eruption rate was comparable to the inferred flow rate during formation of a pre-eruptive network of intrusions. Detailed GPS and InSAR measurements have revealed a model for the subsurface magma plumbing system active prior to and during the events with multiple sills around 5 km depth. Such intrusions have occurred intermittently in this particular volcano for the past 18 years. During the subsequent explosive trachy-andesitic summit eruption, the relation between deformation rate and magma flow rate is more complex. A large discrepancy exists between the inferred erupted volume and the computed volume change based on the associated surface deformation. When recalculated to dense rock equivalent, the inferred volume change responsible for the main deformation is about one order of magnitude smaller than the sum of mapped erupted volumes. Furthermore, the spatial pattern of the deformation is complex, and not directly related to the

  16. Full System Model of Magnetron Sputter Chamber - Proof-of-Principle Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, C; Gilmer, G; Zepeda-Ruiz, L; Wemhoff, A; Barbee, T


    The lack of detailed knowledge of internal process conditions remains a key challenge in magnetron sputtering, both for chamber design and for process development. Fundamental information such as the pressure and temperature distribution of the sputter gas, and the energies and arrival angles of the sputtered atoms and other energetic species is often missing, or is only estimated from general formulas. However, open-source or low-cost tools are available for modeling most steps of the sputter process, which can give more accurate and complete data than textbook estimates, using only desktop computations. To get a better understanding of magnetron sputtering, we have collected existing models for the 5 major process steps: the input and distribution of the neutral background gas using Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC), dynamics of the plasma using Particle In Cell-Monte Carlo Collision (PIC-MCC), impact of ions on the target using molecular dynamics (MD), transport of sputtered atoms to the substrate using DSMC, and growth of the film using hybrid Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) and MD methods. Models have been tested against experimental measurements. For example, gas rarefaction as observed by Rossnagel and others has been reproduced, and it is associated with a local pressure increase of {approx}50% which may strongly influence film properties such as stress. Results on energies and arrival angles of sputtered atoms and reflected gas neutrals are applied to the Kinetic Monte Carlo simulation of film growth. Model results and applications to growth of dense Cu and Be films are presented.

  17. Super-resolution non-parametric deconvolution in modelling the radial response function of a parallel plate ionization chamber. (United States)

    Kulmala, A; Tenhunen, M


    The signal of the dosimetric detector is generally dependent on the shape and size of the sensitive volume of the detector. In order to optimize the performance of the detector and reliability of the output signal the effect of the detector size should be corrected or, at least, taken into account. The response of the detector can be modelled using the convolution theorem that connects the system input (actual dose), output (measured result) and the effect of the detector (response function) by a linear convolution operator. We have developed the super-resolution and non-parametric deconvolution method for determination of the cylinder symmetric ionization chamber radial response function. We have demonstrated that the presented deconvolution method is able to determine the radial response for the Roos parallel plate ionization chamber with a better than 0.5 mm correspondence with the physical measures of the chamber. In addition, the performance of the method was proved by the excellent agreement between the output factors of the stereotactic conical collimators (4-20 mm diameter) measured by the Roos chamber, where the detector size is larger than the measured field, and the reference detector (diode). The presented deconvolution method has a potential in providing reference data for more accurate physical models of the ionization chamber as well as for improving and enhancing the performance of the detectors in specific dosimetric problems.

  18. Airflow and thermal simulation in a controlled test chamber with different heating configurations using CFD modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candanedo, L.; Karava, P.; Bessoudo, M.; Tzempelikos, A.; Athienitis, A. [Concordia Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering; Handfield, L. [Inst. de Recherche d' Hydro-Quebec, Shawnigan, PQ (Canada)


    Efficient windows and facades can reduce perimeter heating and energy consumption costs in buildings. In this study, 3-D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models were developed to model airflow and heat transfer in a controlled test chamber at a Hydro-Quebec laboratory. The aim of the study was to investigate thermofluidic phenomena in the vicinity of windows and facades for rooms heated with baseboard heaters and rooms heated with heated windows. The particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique was employed to study the airflow in a plane close to a window that was heated with either embedded heaters or indirectly with a baseboard heater. The PIV system was synchronized with a data acquisition system which collected temperature data from the 4 walls, ceiling, floor, and each of the 5 windows. Time-averaged values were used for boundaries. Navier-Stokes equations were used to calculate laminar flow and heat transfer. An indoor zero-equation turbulence model was used to characterize indoor airflow. The Rayleigh number was used to categorize the nature of the buoyancy-induced flow. The simulations showed good agreement with experimental data. The largest differences in air speed measurements were found in the cavity formed by the blind and the window glazing. 6 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs.

  19. spark chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    A few cosmic rays pass through your body every second of every day, no matter where you are. Look at the spark chamber to your right – every flash is the track made by a cosmic ray from outer space. The spark chamber is filled with a special gas mixture. Cosmic rays knock electrons out of the atoms in the gas. These electrons accelerate towards high voltage metal strips layered throughout the chamber, creating sparks like little bolts of lightning.

  20. spark chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    A few cosmic rays pass through your body every second of every day, no matter where you are. Look at the spark chamber to your right – every flash is the track made by a cosmic ray from outer space. The spark chamber is filled with a special gas mixture. Cosmic rays knock electrons out of the atoms in the gas. These electrons accelerate towards high voltage metal strips layered throughout the chamber, creating sparks like little bolts of lightning.

  1. The novel chamber hardware design to improve the thin film deposition quality in both 12″ (300 mm and 18″ (450 mm wafers with the development of 3D full chamber modeling and experimental visual technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.-H. Liao


    Full Text Available The thin film deposition property and the process difference during the wafer size migration from 12″ (300 mm to 18″ (450 mm in the Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD equipment is improved and reduced, respectively, when the chamber hardware is designed with the help of 3D full chamber modeling and 3D experimental visual technique developed in this work. The accuracy of 3D chamber simulation model is demonstrated with the experimental visual technique measurement. With the CVD chamber hardware design of placing the inlet position and optimizing the distance between the susceptor edge and the reactor wall, the better thin film deposition property and the larger process compatibility during the wafer size migration from 12″ (300 mm to 18″ (450 mm for the industry cost reduction can be achieved. Non-dimensional Nusselt parameter is also found to be the effective indicator to monitor the thin film deposition property.

  2. Bone marrow-derived progenitor cells augment venous remodeling in a mouse dorsal skinfold chamber model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan E Doyle

    Full Text Available The delivery of bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs has been widely used to stimulate angiogenesis and arteriogenesis. We identified a progenitor-enriched subpopulation of BMDCs that is able to augment venular remodeling, a generally unexplored area in microvascular research. Two populations of BMDCs, whole bone marrow (WBM and Lin(-/Sca-1(+ progenitor cells, were encapsulated in sodium alginate and delivered to a mouse dorsal skinfold chamber model. Upon observation that encapsulated Sca-1(+ progenitor cells enhance venular remodeling, the cells and tissue were analyzed on structural and molecular levels. Venule walls were thickened and contained more nuclei after Sca-1(+ progenitor cell delivery. In addition, progenitors expressed mRNA transcript levels of chemokine (C-X-C motif ligand 2 (CXCL2 and interferon gamma (IFNγ that are over 5-fold higher compared to WBM. Tissues that received progenitors expressed significantly higher protein levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1, and platelet derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB compared to tissues that received an alginate control construct. Nine days following cell delivery, tissue from progenitor recipients contained 39% more CD45(+ leukocytes, suggesting that these cells may enhance venular remodeling through the modulation of the local immune environment. Results show that different BMDC populations elicit different microvascular responses. In this model, Sca-1(+ progenitor cell-derived CXCL2 and IFNγ may mediate venule enlargement via modulation of the local inflammatory environment.

  3. Source emission and model evaluation of formaldehyde from composite and solid wood furniture in a full-scale chamber (United States)

    This paper describes the measurement and model evaluation of formaldehyde source emissions from composite and solid wood furniture in a full-scale chamber under dynamic conditions using ASTM D 6670-01 (2007). Four brands of the same type furniture product were tested. The data we...

  4. Three dimensional CFD modeling and experimental validation of a single chamber solid oxide fuel cell fed by methane (United States)

    Nguyen, H. T.; Le, M. V.; Nguyen, T. A.; Nguyen, T. A. N.


    The solid oxide fuel cell is one of the promising technologies for future energy demand. Solid oxide fuel cell operated in the single-chamber mode exhibits several advantages over conventional single oxide fuel cell due to the simplified, compact, sealing-free cell structure. There are some studies on simulating the behavior of this type of fuel cell but they mainly focus on the 2D model. In the present study, a three-dimensional numerical model of a single chamber solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is reported and solved using COMSOL Multiphysics software. Experiments of a planar button solid oxide fuel cell were used to verify the simulation results. The system is fed by methane and oxygen and operated at 700°C. The cathode is LSCF6482, the anode is GDC-Ni, the electrolyte is LDM and the operating pressure is 1 atm. There was a good agreement between the cell temperature and current voltage estimated from the model and measured from the experiment. The results indicate that the model is applicable for the single chamber solid oxide fuel cell and it can provide a basic for the design, scale up of single chamber solid oxide fuel cell system.

  5. Three Dimensional Magma Wagging: Seismic Diagnostics And Forcing Mechanism (United States)

    Liao, Y.; Jellinek, M.; Bercovici, D.


    Seismic tremor involving 0.5-7 Hz ground oscillations are common precursors of explosive sillicic volcanism. Here we present recent progress on the development and application of the three dimensional magma-wagging model, which is extended from the magma wagging model for tremor [Jellinek and Bercovici, 2011, Bercovici et al., 2013]. In our model, a stiff magma column rising in a vertical conduit oscillates against a surrounding foamy annulus of bubbly magma, giving rise to tremor. Inside the volcanic conduit, the magma column undergoes swirling motion, in which each horizontal section of the column can trace elliptical trajectories. We propose seismic diagnostics for the characteristics of the swirling motion using the time-lag between seismic stations, and test our model by analyzing pre-eruptive seismic data from the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano. Our analysis demonstrates the existence of elliptical swirling motion more than one week before the eruption, and suggests that the 2009 eruption was accompanied by qualitative changes in the magma wagging behavior including fluctuations in eccentricity and a reversal in the direction of elliptical swirling motion when the eruption was immediately impending. We further explore the coupling between the dynamics of the gas flux in the foamy annulus and the wagging motion of the magma column. We show that the gas flux provides a driving force for the magma column to swirl against viscous damping. The coupling between gas flux and wagging motion also brings the possibility to link observation of out-gassing with seismic measurements.

  6. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Proportional multi-wire chamber. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle. Proportional wire chambers allow a much quicker reading than the optical or magnetoscriptive readout wire chambers.

  7. Mechanistic modeling of ophthalmic drug delivery to the anterior chamber by eye drops and contact lenses. (United States)

    Gause, Samuel; Hsu, Kuan-Hui; Shafor, Chancellor; Dixon, Phillip; Powell, Kristin Conrad; Chauhan, Anuj


    Ophthalmic drug for the anterior chamber diseases are delivered into tears by either eye drops or by extended release devices placed in the eyes. The instilled drug exits the eye through various routes including tear drainage into the nose through the canaliculi and transport across various ocular membranes. Understanding the mechanisms relevant to each route can be useful in predicting the dependency of ocular bioavailability on various formulation parameters, such as drug concentration, salinity, viscosity, etc. Mathematical modeling has been developed for each of the routes and validated by comparison with experiments. The individual models can be combined into a system model to predict the fraction of the instilled drug that reaches the target. This review summarizes the individual models for the transport of drugs across the cornea and conjunctiva and the canaliculi tear drainage. It also summarizes the combined tear dynamics model that can predict the ocular bioavailability of drugs instilled as eye drops. The predictions from the individual models and the combined model are in good agreement with experimental data. Both experiments and models predict that the corneal bioavailability for drugs delivered through eye drops is less than 5% due to the small area of the cornea in comparison to the conjunctiva, and the rapid clearance of the instilled solution by tear drainage. A contact lens is a natural choice for delivering drugs to the cornea due to the placement of the contact in the immediate vicinity of the cornea. The drug released by the contact towards the cornea surface is trapped in the post lens tear film for extended duration of at least 30min allowing transport of a large portion into the cornea. The model predictions backed by in vivo animal and clinical data show that the bioavailability increases to about 50% with contact lenses. This realization has encouraged considerable research towards delivering ocular drugs by contact lenses. Commercial

  8. Off-site air monitoring following methyl bromide chamber and building fumigations and evaluation of the ISCST air dispersion model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barry, T.; Swgawa, R.; Wofford, P. [Cal EPA, Sacramento, CA (United States)] [and others


    The Department of Pesticide Regulation`s preliminary risk characterization of methyl bromide indicated an inadequate margin of safety for several exposure scenarios. Characterization of the air concentrations associated with common methyl bromide use patterns was necessary to determine specific scenarios that result in an unacceptable margin of safety. Field monitoring data were used in conjunction with the Industrial Source Complex, Short Tenn (ISCST) air dispersion model to characterize air concentrations associated with various types of methyl bromide applications. Chamber and building fumigations were monitored and modelled. For each fumigation the emission rates, chamber or building specifications and on-site meteorological data were input into the ISCST model. The model predicted concentrations were compared to measured air concentrations. The concentrations predicted by the ISCST model reflect both the pattern and magnitude of the measured concentrations. Required buffer zones were calculated using the ISCST output.

  9. Abrupt transition from fractional crystallization to magma mixing at Gorely volcano (Kamchatka) after caldera collapse (United States)

    Gavrilenko, Maxim; Ozerov, Alexey; Kyle, Philip R.; Carr, Michael J.; Nikulin, Alex; Vidito, Christopher; Danyushevsky, Leonid


    A series of large caldera-forming eruptions (361-38 ka) transformed Gorely volcano, southern Kamchatka Peninsula, from a shield-type system dominated by fractional crystallization processes to a composite volcanic center, exhibiting geochemical evidence of magma mixing. Old Gorely, an early shield volcano (700-361 ka), was followed by Young Gorely eruptions. Calc-alkaline high magnesium basalt to rhyolite lavas have been erupted from Gorely volcano since the Pleistocene. Fractional crystallization dominated evolution of the Old Gorely magmas, whereas magma mixing is more prominent in the Young Gorely eruptive products. The role of recharge-evacuation processes in Gorely magma evolution is negligible (a closed magmatic system); however, crustal rock assimilation plays a significant role for the evolved magmas. Most Gorely magmas differentiate in a shallow magmatic system at pressures up to 300 MPa, ˜3 wt% H2O, and oxygen fugacity of ˜QFM + 1.5 log units. Magma temperatures of 1123-1218 °C were measured using aluminum distribution between olivine and spinel in Old and Young Gorely basalts. The crystallization sequence of major minerals for Old Gorely was as follows: olivine and spinel (Ol + Sp) for mafic compositions (more than 5 wt% of MgO); clinopyroxene and plagioclase crystallized at ˜5 wt% of MgO (Ol + Cpx + Plag) and magnetite at ˜3.5 wt% of MgO (Ol + Cpx + Plag + Mt). We show that the shallow magma chamber evolution of Old Gorely occurs under conditions of decompression and degassing. We find that the caldera-forming eruption(s) modified the magma plumbing geometry. This led to a change in the dominant magma evolution process from fractional crystallization to magma mixing. We further suggest that disruption of the magma chamber and accompanying change in differentiation process have the potential to transform a shield volcanic system to that of composite cone on a global scale.

  10. The parent magmas of the SNC meteorites (United States)

    Longhi, J.; Pan, V.


    Mineral compositions, partition coefficients, and computer-graphic representations of liquidus phase boundaries are used here to calculate parent magma compositions for Nakhla, Chassigny, and the xenocryst assemblage in EETA79001B, ALHA77005, and the EETA79001A groundmass. The calculated SNC parent magma compositions have low concentrations of Al2O3 and widely varying wollastonitite (CaO) component. In this regard they resemble basaltic komatiites, but their range of Wo is more extensive than that of basaltic komatiites and trace element characteristics are different. The calculated Nakhla parent magma has an unusually high Wo content and does not resemble any other known magmatic composition. A model of SNC petrogenesis is proposed.

  11. Evaporation and ignition of droplets in combustion chambers modeling and simulation (United States)

    Betelin, V. B.; Smirnov, N. N.; Nikitin, V. F.; Dushin, V. R.; Kushnirenko, A. G.; Nerchenko, V. A.


    Computer simulation of liquid fuel jet injection into heated atmosphere of combustion chamber, mixture formation, ignition and combustion need adequate modeling of evaporation, which is extremely important for the curved surfaces in the presence of strong heat and mass diffusion fluxes. Combustion of most widely spread hydrocarbon fuels takes place in a gas-phase regime. Thus, evaporation of fuel from the surface of droplets turns to be one of the limiting factors of the process as well. The problems of fuel droplets atomization, evaporation being the key factors for heterogeneous reacting mixtures, the non-equilibrium effects in droplets atomization and phase transitions will be taken into account in describing thermal and mechanical interaction of droplets with streaming flows. In the present paper processes of non-equilibrium evaporation of small droplets will be discussed. As it was shown before, accounting for non-equilibrium effects in evaporation for many types of widely used liquids is crucial for droplet diameters less than 100 μm, while the surface tension effects essentially manifest only for droplets below 0.1 μm. Investigating the behavior of individual droplets in a heated air flow allowed to distinguish two scenarios for droplet heating and evaporation. Small droplets undergo successively heating, then cooling due to heat losses for evaporation, and then rapid heating till the end of their lifetime. Larger droplets could directly be heated up to a critical temperature and then evaporate rapidly. Droplet atomization interferes the heating, evaporation and combustion scenario. The scenario of fuel spray injection and self-ignition in a heated air inside combustion chamber has three characteristic stages. At first stage of jet injection droplets evaporate very rapidly thus cooling the gas at injection point, the liquid jet is very short and changes for a vapor jet. At second stage liquid jet is becoming longer, because evaporation rate decreases due

  12. Assessment of the GECKO-A modeling tool using chamber observations for C12 alkanes (United States)

    Aumont, B.; La, S.; Ouzebidour, F.; Valorso, R.; Mouchel-Vallon, C.; Camredon, M.; Lee-Taylor, J. M.; Hodzic, A.; Madronich, S.; Yee, L. D.; Loza, C. L.; Craven, J. S.; Zhang, X.; Seinfeld, J.


    Secondary Organic Aerosol (SOA) production and ageing is the result of atmospheric oxidation processes leading to the progressive formation of organic species with higher oxidation state and lower volatility. Explicit chemical mechanisms reflect our understanding of these multigenerational oxidation steps. Major uncertainties remain concerning the processes leading to SOA formation and the development, assessment and improvement of such explicit schemes is therefore a key issue. The development of explicit mechanism to describe the oxidation of long chain hydrocarbons is however a challenge. Indeed, explicit oxidation schemes involve a large number of reactions and secondary organic species, far exceeding the size of chemical schemes that can be written manually. The chemical mechanism generator GECKO-A (Generator for Explicit Chemistry and Kinetics of Organics in the Atmosphere) is a computer program designed to overcome this difficulty. GECKO-A generates gas phase oxidation schemes according to a prescribed protocol assigning reaction pathways and kinetics data on the basis of experimental data and structure-activity relationships. In this study, we examine the ability of the generated schemes to explain SOA formation observed in the Caltech Environmental Chambers from various C12 alkane isomers and under high NOx and low NOx conditions. First results show that the model overestimates both the SOA yields and the O/C ratios. Various sensitivity tests are performed to explore processes that might be responsible for these disagreements.

  13. Storage and interaction of compositionally heterogeneous magmas from the 1986 eruption of Augustine Volcano, Alaska (United States)

    Roman, Diana C.; Cashman, Katharine V.; Gardner, Cynthia A.; Wallace, Paul J.; Donovan, John J.


    Compositional heterogeneity (56–64 wt% SiO2 whole-rock) in samples of tephra and lava from the 1986 eruption of Augustine Volcano, Alaska, raises questions about the physical nature of magma storage and interaction beneath this young and frequently active volcano. To determine conditions of magma storage and evolutionary histories of compositionally distinct magmas, we investigate physical and chemical characteristics of andesitic and dacitic magmas feeding the 1986 eruption. We calculate equilibrium temperatures and oxygen fugacities from Fe-Ti oxide compositions and find a continuous range in temperature from 877 to 947°C and high oxygen fugacities (ΔNNO=1–2) for all magmas. Melt inclusions in pyroxene phenocrysts analyzed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and electron probe microanalysis are dacitic to rhyolitic and have water contents ranging from Augustine, and we interpret the mafic endmember to have been intruded from depth. Mixing appears to have continued as magmas ascended towards the vent. We suggest that the physical structure of the magma storage system beneath Augustine contributed to the sustained compositional heterogeneity of this eruption, which is best explained by magma storage and interaction in a vertically extensive system of interconnected dikes rather than a single coherent magma chamber and/or conduit. The typically short repose period (∼10 years) between Augustine's recent eruptive pulses may also inhibit homogenization, as short repose periods and chemically heterogeneous magmas are observed at several volcanoes in the Cook Inlet region of Alaska.

  14. Modelling and simulation of double chamber microbial fuel cell. Cell voltage, power density and temperature variation with process parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shankar, Ravi; Mondal, Prasenjit; Chand, Shri [Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Uttaranchal (India). Dept. of Chemical Engineering


    In the present paper steady state models of a double chamber glucose glutamic acid microbial fuel cell (GGA-MFC) under continuous operation have been developed and solved using Matlab 2007 software. The experimental data reported in a recent literature has been used for the validation of the models. The present models give prediction on the cell voltage and cell power density with 19-44% errors, which is less (up to 20%) than the errors on the prediction of cell voltage made in some recent literature for the same MFC where the effects of the difference in pH and ionic conductivity between anodic and cathodic solutions on cell voltage were not incorporated in model equations. It also describes the changes in anodic and cathodic chamber temperature due to the increase in substrate concentration and cell current density. Temperature profile across the membrane thickness has also been studied. (orig.)

  15. A new view of the He-Ar-CO 2 degassing at mid-ocean ridges: Homogeneous composition of magmas from the upper mantle (United States)

    Paonita, Antonio; Martelli, Mauro


    Deep-sea exploration is rapidly improving our understanding of volatiles geochemistry in mid-ocean-ridge igneous products. It is also placing greater constraints on degassing processes of the Earth's mantle, with the result that degassing models based on vapour-melt equilibrium are no longer able to explain the increasing number of data. In fact, such models force to postulate an upper mantle strongly heterogeneous at any scale, and cannot account for the widespread carbon supersaturation of the recovered igneous products. Here we review the global He-Ar-CO 2 dataset of fluid inclusions in mid-ocean-ridge glasses using the framework of advanced modelling of multicomponent bubble growth in magmas. We display that non-equilibrium fractionations among He, Ar and CO 2, driven by their different diffusivities in silicate melts, are common in most of the natural conditions of magma decompression and their signature strongly depends on pressure of degassing. Due to the comparable Ar and CO 2 diffusivity, magma degassing at low pressure fractionates both the He/Ar and He/CO 2 ratio by a similar extent, while the slower CO 2 diffusion at high pressure causes early kinetic effects on Ar/CO 2 ratio and dramatically changes the degassing path. On this ground, the very different geochemical signatures among suites of data coming from different ridge segments mainly depend on the depth of the magma chamber where the melt was stored. Besides, the variations inside a single suite highlight variable ascent speed and cooling rate of the emplaced lava. The large variations in both the He/CO 2 and Ar/CO 2 ratios at almost constant He/Ar, displayed in glasses coming from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge 24-30°N segment and the Rodriguez Triple Junction, are therefore interpreted as a high-pressure signature. In contrast, the simultaneous increase in both He/CO 2 and He/Ar of the East Pacific Rise, Pito Seamount and South-East Indian Ridge data sets suggests the dominance of low

  16. The Campi Flegrei Deep Drilling Project `CFDDP': Understanding the Magma-Aquifers Interaction at Large Calderas (United States)

    de Natale, G.; Troise, C.; Sacchi, M.


    Campi Flegrei caldera is a good example of the most explosive volcanism on the Earth, a potential source of global catastrophes. Alike several similar volcanic areas (Yellowstone and Long Valley, USA; Santorini, Greece; Iwo Jima, Japan, etc.) its volcanic activity, i.e. eruptions and unrests, is dominated by physical mechanisms involving the strict interaction between shallow magma sources and geothermal systems. Furthermore, just like similar areas, it should be characterised by very large shallow magma chambers, filled by residual magma left after the ignimbritic caldera forming eruptions. However, neither the physical mechanisms of magma-water interaction, nor the evidence for such large magma chamber, have been ever clear enough to be used for detailed volcanological interpretation and eruption forecast. The CFDDP project aims to understand, for the first time, the location and rehology of large residual magma chambers and the mechanisms of interaction between magma and aquifer systems to generate eruptions and unrests. CFDDP is then structured as a large multidisciplinary project, with a main volcanological aim and with a further goal to launch a geothermal energy exploitation project in the area. A larger goal of the CFDDP project is to establish at Campi Flegrei, a densely urbanised area in a developed western country, a natural laboratory to study volcanic risk, environmental issues, monitoring technologies, geothermal energy exploitation.

  17. Wire Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Magnetoscriptive readout wire chamber. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  18. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia


    Magnetoscriptive readout wire chamber.Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  19. Geology of magma systems: background and review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterfreund, A.R.


    A review of basic concepts and current models of igneous geology is presented. Emphasis is centered on studies of magma generation, ascent, emplacement, evolution, and surface or near-surface activity. An indexed reference list is also provided to facilitate future investigations.

  20. Two-dimensional magma-repository interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhove, O.


    Two-dimensional simulations of magma-repository interactions reveal that the three phases --a shock tube, shock reflection and amplification, and shock attenuation and decay phase-- in a one-dimensional flow tube model have a precursor. This newly identified phase ``zero'' consists of the impact of

  1. Exponential decay of concentration variance during magma mixing: Robustness of a volcanic chronometer and implications for the homogenization of chemical heterogeneities in magmatic systems (United States)

    Rossi, Stefano; Petrelli, Maurizio; Morgavi, Daniele; González-García, Diego; Fischer, Lennart A.; Vetere, Francesco; Perugini, Diego


    The mixing of magmas is a fundamental process in the Earth system causing extreme compositional variations in igneous rocks. This process can develop with different intensities both in space and time, making the interpretation of compositional patterns in igneous rocks a petrological challenge. As a time-dependent process, magma mixing has been suggested to preserve information about the time elapsed between the injection of a new magma into sub-volcanic magma chambers and eruptions. This allowed the use of magma mixing as an additional volcanological tool to infer the mixing-to-eruption timescales. In spite of the potential of magma mixing processes to provide information about the timing of volcanic eruptions its statistical robustness is not yet established. This represents a prerequisite to apply reliably this conceptual model. Here, new chaotic magma mixing experiments were performed at different times using natural melts. The degree of reproducibility of experimental results was tested repeating one experiment at the same starting conditions and comparing the compositional variability. We further tested the robustness of the statistical analysis by randomly removing from the analysed dataset a progressively increasing number of samples. Results highlight the robustness of the method to derive empirical relationships linking the efficiency of chemical exchanges and mixing time. These empirical relationships remain valid by removing up to 80% of the analytical determinations. Experimental results were applied to constrain the homogenization time of chemical heterogeneities in natural magmatic system during mixing. The calculations show that, when the mixing dynamics generate millimetre thick filaments, homogenization timescales of the order of a few minutes are to be expected.

  2. Open-system dynamics and mixing in magma mushes (United States)

    Bergantz, G. W.; Schleicher, J. M.; Burgisser, A.


    Magma dominantly exists in a slowly cooling crystal-rich or mushy state. Yet, observations of complexly zoned crystals, some formed in just one to ten years, as well as time-transgressive crystal fabrics imply that magmas mix and transition rapidly from a locked crystal mush to a mobile and eruptable fluid. Here we use a discrete-element numerical model that resolves crystal-scale granular interactions and fluid flow, to simulate the open-system dynamics of a magma mush. We find that when new magma is injected into a reservoir from below, the existing magma responds as a viscoplastic material: fault-like surfaces form around the edges of the new injection creating a central mixing bowl of magma that can be unlocked and become fluidized, allowing for complex mixing. We identify three distinct dynamic regimes that depend on the rate of magma injection. If the magma injection rate is slow, the intruded magma penetrates and spreads by porous media flow through the crystal mush. With increasing velocity, the intruded magma creates a stable cavity of fluidized magma that is isolated from the rest of the reservoir. At higher velocities still, the entire mixing bowl becomes fluidized. Circulation within the mixing bowl entrains crystals from the walls, bringing together crystals from different parts of the reservoir that may have experienced different physiochemical environments and leaving little melt unmixed. We conclude that both granular and fluid dynamics, when considered simultaneously, can explain observations of complex crystal fabrics and zoning observed in many magmatic systems.

  3. The Mobile Chamber (United States)

    Scharfstein, Gregory; Cox, Russell


    A document discusses a simulation chamber that represents a shift from the thermal-vacuum chamber stereotype. This innovation, currently in development, combines the capabilities of space simulation chambers, the user-friendliness of modern-day electronics, and the modularity of plug-and-play computing. The Mobile Chamber is a customized test chamber that can be deployed with great ease, and is capable of bringing payloads at temperatures down to 20 K, in high vacuum, and with the desired metrology instruments integrated to the systems control. Flexure plans to lease Mobile Chambers, making them affordable for smaller budgets and available to a larger customer base. A key feature of this design will be an Apple iPad-like user interface that allows someone with minimal training to control the environment inside the chamber, and to simulate the required extreme environments. The feedback of thermal, pressure, and other measurements is delivered in a 3D CAD model of the chamber's payload and support hardware. This GUI will provide the user with a better understanding of the payload than any existing thermal-vacuum system.

  4. Wire Chamber

    CERN Multimedia


    Two wire chambers made originally for the R807 Experiment at CERN's Intersecting Storage Rings. In 1986 they were used for the PS 201 experiment (Obelix Experiment) at LEAR, the Low Energy Antiproton Ring. The group of researchers from Turin, using the chambers at that time, changed the acquisition system using for the first time 8 bit (10 bit non linear) analog to digital conversion for incoming signals from the chambers. The acquisition system was controlled by 54 CPU and 80 digital signal processors. The power required for all the electronics was 40 kW. For the period, this system was one of the most powerful on-line apparatus in the world. The Obelix Experiment was closed in 1996. To find more about how a wire chamber works, see the description for object CERN-OBJ-DE-038.

  5. Tectonic Influence on Magma Storage and Ascent During the Older Evolutionary Stages (223-105 ka) of the Lipari Island (Aeolian Archipelago, Southern Italy) (United States)

    di Martino, C.; Frezzotti, M.; Lucchi, F.; Peccerillo, A.; Tranne, C.; Diamond, L.


    Pure CO2 fluid inclusions are observed in fifteen quartz-rich xenoliths collected in basaltic-andesitic to andesitic volcanic products relevant to the older evolutionary stages of Lipari Island (223-105 ka). In volcanics forming central composite volcanoes (M. Mazzacaruso, 223-127 ka; M. S.Angelo, 105 ka), fluid inclusions are trapped during two distinct events: early Type I inclusions formed before host magma transport, and late (i.e. secondary) Type II inclusions trapped during magma ascent. Early Type I inclusions show homogenization temperatures corresponding to densities from 0.9 to 0.6 g/cc, while Type II inclusions record a considerably lower density interval between 0.38 and 0.1 g/cc. At the estimated trapping temperatures between 950 and 1090°C, obtained density values correspond to pressures of 0.58- 0.25 GPa (22-10 km) for Type I, and 0.13-0.03 GPa (5.5-1 km) for Type II inclusions, respectively. In those magmas erupted from fissural eruptive vents aligned along the main regional NNW-SSE and E-W faults systems (Timpone Ospedale, Monterosa and M. Chirica; 223-127 ka) only early Type I inclusions are observed. Density values form to two distinct intervals between 0.87 and 0.6 g/cc (0.53-0.25 GPa; 20-10 km; M. Chirica), and between 0.68-0.18 g/cc (0.32-0.05 GPa; 12-2 km; Timpone Ospedale and Monterosa). Fluid inclusion data together with tectonic features outline a complex magma storage and ascent evolution during the Lipari's older evolutionary stages. Beneath the central volcanoes of M. Mazzacaruso, M. S.Angelo and the M. Chirica, two magma reservoirs, located at lower crustal depths (~22 km; close to the Moho) and at very shallow levels (5.5-1 km), are present. Mantle-Derived magmas are accumulated into the deep magma chamber and may then reside in the shallower reservoir for a short period of time before being erupted to the surface. Such a magma feeding system is similar to those outlined for the Alicudi and Stromboli volcanoes, and for most of the

  6. A Model Parameter Extraction Method for Dielectric Barrier Discharge Ozone Chamber using Differential Evolution (United States)

    Amjad, M.; Salam, Z.; Ishaque, K.


    In order to design an efficient resonant power supply for ozone gas generator, it is necessary to accurately determine the parameters of the ozone chamber. In the conventional method, the information from Lissajous plot is used to estimate the values of these parameters. However, the experimental setup for this purpose can only predict the parameters at one operating frequency and there is no guarantee that it results in the highest ozone gas yield. This paper proposes a new approach to determine the parameters using a search and optimization technique known as Differential Evolution (DE). The desired objective function of DE is set at the resonance condition and the chamber parameter values can be searched regardless of experimental constraints. The chamber parameters obtained from the DE technique are validated by experiment.

  7. Comparative physical and immunological aspects of the chimpanzee and guinea-pig subcutaneous chamber models of Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection. (United States)

    Arko, R J; Wong, K H


    Physical and immunological characteristics of the chimpanzee and guinea-pig subcutaneous chamber models for Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection were compared to evaluate their usefulness for gonococcal research. Urethral infection in chimpanzees anatomically resembled the human infection; however, individual variation in response, limited availability, and the presence of interfering micro-organisms in the urethra were found to limit the usefulness of the chimpanzee in immunological research. Although the guinea-pig subcutaneous chamber model may not be suitable for studying the attachment of gonococci to host cells or for the local production of IgA, it does have the immunological advantages of being more sensitive to infection, less variable in response, free of interfering micro-organisms, and is readily available to investigators. Except for differences in sensitivity and variability, results with the guinea-pig model paralleled results obtained in experiments with chimpanzees. Unlike chimpanzees, guinea-pigs are a comparatively inexpensive, rapidly replenishable animal, which after subcutaneous implantation with small porous chambers provide a convenient model for studying most immunological aspects of gonococcal infections. PMID:403994

  8. Heat Transfer Model with Two Heat Transfer Coefficients Along a Multiperforated Plate--Application to Combustion Chamber Wall Cooling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Brice Pêtre; Eva Dorignac; Jean Jacques Vullierme


    Walls'cooling of aeronautic propeller combustion chamber is performed with the injection, through the combustion chamber wall, of a part of the air coming from compressors placed upstream. Measurements of the wall thermal fields are made by infrared thermography along the injection wall. This injection wall is pierced by 9 rows of 8 holes (α=90°) in staggered configuration (p/D=s/D=6). We propose a model using two heat transfer coefficients to represent the convective exchanges. The results are non-dimensioned and presented in comparison with the case without holes. The use of this model allows us to define 4 zones. Those 4 zones exist for the 5 blowing rates.

  9. Constraints from Field Geology for Numerical Modeling of the Crustal Overturn Processes During the Cretaceous High-Magma-Flux Episode in the Central and Southern Sierra Nevada, USA (United States)

    Cao, W.; Paterson, S. R.; Kaus, B. J.; Anderson, J. L.; Memeti, V.


    Building on prior studies, recent fieldwork combined with geochronology, thermobarometry and geochemistry studies in the Cretaceous Sierra Nevada arc reveal the following arc-scale features: 1) The Middle to Late Cretaceous Sierra Nevada arc has a 30-35 km thick granodioritic to tonalitic upper-middle crust and may have had up to 30-35 km of mafic to ultramafic lower crust, including dehydrated amphibolitic residues. 2) Plutons emplaced during the ~20 myr long High-Magma-Flux Episode (HMFE, 105-85 Ma) include large batholiths (~1000 km2 at exposure level) with growth histories occurring over millions of years (e.g. ~9 myr for Tuolumne Batholith). Magma pulses creating such large intrusions could vary from up to 103 km3 in dimension depending on different growth models. 3) In the central Sierra Nevada, emplacement depths of the granitoid plutons during the HMFE are 7-15 km with shallow emplaced plutons’ solidi at usually ~700 -760 °C. 4) Plutons intruding only slightly older volcanic host rocks in the central and southern Sierra Nevada indicate that host rocks’ downward displacement of ~7-25 km depths occurred within 1-3 myr. This process is accompanied with the long-lived arc exhumation since at least middle Jurassic. 5) Steep syn-emplacement subsolidus lineations, rim monoclines, and plastic shear strain in pluton aureoles suggest ductile deformations of host rock materials. 6) Partial melting occurred along the margins of plutons and in the middle-lower crust, as represented in the more deeply exposed southern Sierra (30-45 km). 7) Magmatic to subsolidus foliations in plutons and ductile shear zones in host rocks indicate NW-trending transpressional tectonics during the HMFE. 8) Isotopic oxygen data and mass balance calculation indicate that crustal components provides more than 50% of the entire arc’s mass. Intra-crustal magma sources of the HMFE are sustained possibly by thickened crust due to contractional tectonics. These observations in the central

  10. Magma heating by decompression-driven crystallization beneath andesite volcanoes. (United States)

    Blundy, Jon; Cashman, Kathy; Humphreys, Madeleine


    Explosive volcanic eruptions are driven by exsolution of H2O-rich vapour from silicic magma. Eruption dynamics involve a complex interplay between nucleation and growth of vapour bubbles and crystallization, generating highly nonlinear variation in the physical properties of magma as it ascends beneath a volcano. This makes explosive volcanism difficult to model and, ultimately, to predict. A key unknown is the temperature variation in magma rising through the sub-volcanic system, as it loses gas and crystallizes en route. Thermodynamic modelling of magma that degasses, but does not crystallize, indicates that both cooling and heating are possible. Hitherto it has not been possible to evaluate such alternatives because of the difficulty of tracking temperature variations in moving magma several kilometres below the surface. Here we extend recent work on glassy melt inclusions trapped in plagioclase crystals to develop a method for tracking pressure-temperature-crystallinity paths in magma beneath two active andesite volcanoes. We use dissolved H2O in melt inclusions to constrain the pressure of H2O at the time an inclusion became sealed, incompatible trace element concentrations to calculate the corresponding magma crystallinity and plagioclase-melt geothermometry to determine the temperature. These data are allied to ilmenite-magnetite geothermometry to show that the temperature of ascending magma increases by up to 100 degrees C, owing to the release of latent heat of crystallization. This heating can account for several common textural features of andesitic magmas, which might otherwise be erroneously attributed to pre-eruptive magma mixing.

  11. Modeling of Liquid Level and Bubble Behavior in Vacuum Chamber of RH Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-hong LI; Yan-ping BAO; Rui WANG; Min WANG; Qing-xue HUANG; Yu-gui LI


    In the Ruhrstahl-Heraeus (RH)refining process,liquid steel flow pattern in a ladle is controlled by the fluid flow behavior in the vacuum chamber.Potassium chloride solution and NaOH solution saturated with CO 2 were respectively used as a tracer to investigate the liquid and gas flow behaviors in the vacuum chamber.Principal compo-nent and comparative analysis were made to show the factors controlling mixing and circulation flow rate.The liquid level and bubble behavior in the vacuum chamber greatly affect fluid flow in RH process.Experiments were per-formed to investigate the effects of liquid steel level,gas flow rate,bubble residence time,and gas injection mode on mixing,decarburization,and void fraction.The results indicate that the mixing process can be divided into three re-gions:the flow rate-affected zone,the concentration gradient-affected zone,and their combination.The liquid steel level in the vacuum chamber of 300 mm is a critical point in the decarburization transition.For liquid level lower than 300 mm,liquid steel circulation controls decarburization,while for liquid level higher than 300 mm,bubble behavior is the main controlling factor.During the RH process,it is recommended to use the concentrated bubble injection mode for low gas flow rates and the uniform bubble injection mode for high gas flow rates.

  12. Modeling of the saturation current of a fission chamber taking into account the distorsion of electric field due to space charge effects

    CERN Document Server

    Poujade, O; Poujade, Olivier; Lebrun, Alain


    Fission chambers were first made fifty years ago for neutron detection. At the moment, the French Atomic Energy Commission \\textsf{(CEA-Cadarache)} is developing a sub-miniature fission chamber technology with a diameter of 1.5 mm working in the current mode (Bign). To be able to measure intense fluxes, it is necessary to adjust the chamber geometry and the gas pressure before testing it under real neutron flux. In the present paper, we describe a theoretical method to foresee the current-voltage characteristics (sensitivity and saturation plateau) of a fission chamber whose geometrical features are given, taking into account the neutron flux to be measured (spectrum and intensity). The proposed theoretical model describes electric field distortion resulting from charge collection effect. A computer code has been developed on this model basis. Its application to 3 kinds of fission chambers indicates excellent agreement between theoretical model and measured characteristics.

  13. Utilizing ARC EMCS Seedling Cassettes as Highly Versatile Miniature Growth Chambers for Model Organism Experiments (United States)

    Freeman, John L.; Steele, Marianne K.; Sun, Gwo-Shing; Heathcote, David; Reinsch, S.; DeSimone, Julia C.; Myers, Zachary A.


    The aim of our ground testing was to demonstrate the capability of safely putting specific model organisms into dehydrated stasis, and to later rehydrate and successfully grow them inside flight proven ARC EMCS seedling cassettes. The ARC EMCS seedling cassettes were originally developed to support seedling growth during space flight. The seeds are attached to a solid substrate, launched dry, and then rehydrated in a small volume of media on orbit to initiate the experiment. We hypothesized that the same seedling cassettes should be capable of acting as culture chambers for a wide range of organisms with minimal or no modification. The ability to safely preserve live organisms in a dehydrated state allows for on orbit experiments to be conducted at the best time for crew operations and more importantly provides a tightly controlled physiologically relevant growth experiment with specific environmental parameters. Thus, we performed a series of ground tests that involved growing the organisms, preparing them for dehydration on gridded Polyether Sulfone (PES) membranes, dry storage at ambient temperatures for varying periods of time, followed by rehydration. Inside the culture cassettes, the PES membranes were mounted above blotters containing dehydrated growth media. These were mounted on stainless steel bases and sealed with plastic covers that have permeable membrane covered ports for gas exchange. The results showed we were able to demonstrate acceptable normal growth of C.elegans (nematodes), E.coli (bacteria), S.cerevisiae (yeast), Polytrichum (moss) spores and protonemata, C.thalictroides (fern), D.discoideum (amoeba), and H.dujardini (tardigrades). All organisms showed acceptable growth and rehydration in both petri dishes and culture cassettes initially, and after various time lengths of dehydration. At the end of on orbit ISS European Modular Cultivation System experiments the cassettes could be frozen at ultra-low temperatures, refrigerated, or chemically

  14. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  15. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Was used in ISR (Intersecting Storage Ring) split field magnet experiment. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  16. Wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  17. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia


    Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  18. Analytical model of surface uplift above axisymmetric flat-lying magma intrusions: Implications for sill emplacement and geodesy


    Galland, Olivier; Scheibert, Julien


    58 pages, 17 figures, 2 tables. Accepted in Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research; International audience; In this paper, we develop a new axisymmetric analytic model of surface uplift upon sills and laccoliths, based on the formulation of a thin bending plate lying on an elastic foundation. In contrast to most former models also based on thin bending plate formulation, our model accounts for (i) axi-symmetrical uplift, (ii) both upon and outside the intrusion. The model accounts for...

  19. Modelling of 4D seismic data for the monitoring of the steam chamber growth during SAGD process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerat, O.; Adjemian, F.; Auvinet, A.; Baroni, A.; Bemer, E.; Eschard, R.; Etienne, G.; Renard, G.; Servant, G. [IFP, Lyon (France); Michel, L.; Rodriguez, S.; Aubin, F. [CGG Veritas, Calgary, AB (Canada); Euzen, T. [IFP Technologies Canada Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)


    Reservoir heterogeneities influence the performance of heavy-oil production by the steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) process. This paper reported on a study that evaluated the impact of reservoir heterogeneities on the steam chamber growth in a heavy oil field of the Canadian Athabasca McMurray Formation. The study involved three steps: (1) the construction of an initial static model, (2) the simulation of the thermal production of heavy oil with two coupled fluid-flow and geomechanical models, and (3) the production of synthetic seismic maps at different steps of steam injection. Two periods of SAGD production were studied in detail, notably the early times of steam injection and later on when the steam chamber developed laterally and vertically towards the top of the reservoir. The objective was to improve the interpretation of 4D seismic data in steam-assisted production at an early stage by understanding how the steam would be distributed along the injection well in the first few weeks or months of steam injection. The study was based on a fully integrated approach that involved geology, geophysics, reservoir and geomechanics. The study revealed that for long periods of production, the reservoir-scale heterogeneities can impact the production by a limitation of the steam chamber growth upwards. However, paths and drains in the upper part of the reservoir could allow the steam to propagate in low-pay areas or in thief zones. 11 refs., 18 figs.

  20. Measuring oxygen tension modulation, induced by a new pre-radiotherapy therapeutic, in a mammary window chamber mouse model (United States)

    Schafer, Rachel; Gmitro, Arthur F.


    Tumor regions under hypoxic or low oxygen conditions respond less effectively to many treatment strategies, including radiation therapy. A novel investigational therapeutic, NVX-108 (NuvOx Pharma), has been developed to increase delivery of oxygen through the use of a nano-emulsion of dodecofluoropentane. By raising pO2 levels prior to delivering radiation, treatment efficacy may be improved. To aid in evaluating the novel drug, oxygen tension was quantitatively measured, spatially and temporally, to record the effect of administrating NVX-108 in an orthotopic mammary window chamber mouse model of breast cancer. The oxygen tension was measured through the use of an oxygen-sensitive coating, comprised of phosphorescent platinum porphyrin dye embedded in a polystyrene matrix. The coating, applied to the surface of the coverslip of the window chamber through spin coating, is placed in contact with the mammary fat pad to record the oxygenation status of the surface tissue layer. Prior to implantation of the window chamber, a tumor is grown in the SCID mouse model by injection of MCF-7 cells into the mammary fat pad. Two-dimensional spatial distributions of the pO2 levels were obtained through conversion of measured maps of phosphorescent lifetime. The resulting information on the spatial and temporal variation of the induced oxygen modulation could provide valuable insight into the optimal timing between administration of NVX-108 and radiation treatment to provide the most effective treatment outcome.

  1. [Implantation of newborn mice skin cells with chamber method to construct a model of hair follicle development]. (United States)

    Xiao, Shun-e; Hu, Zhi-qi; Feng, Chuan-bo; Liu, Ge; Miao, Yong


    To construct a convenient, reliable and visual model of hair follicle development to test the hair-inductive potential of follicular cells and investigate the molecular mechanism regulating hair follicle morphogenesis and cycling. An open chamber was transplanted into the nude mice dorsal skin, dermal and epidermal cells isolated from newborn C57BL/6 mice skin were mixed at a specific ratio and then injected into the chamber together, 1 week after transplantation, the chamber was removed, and then, hair formation and regeneration after hair plucking was observed. 1 week after cells implantation, the wound was moist without apparent contraction and among that pink and translucent tissue was formed. 2 weeks after implantation, the wound healed completely. 3 weeks after implantation, black hair grew from the skin was observed. 4 weeks after implantation, thick and black hair grew from the skin vertically. Completely developed structure of hair follicle was observed with paraffin section and HE staining. 1 week after plucking, new hair had regrown. The ratio of cell component was varied, whereas the other component was fixed at 1 x 10(7) cells. When the number of epidermal cells was reduced to 1 x 10(6) cells, the efficiency of hair follicle reconstitution was mostly unchanged. On the other hand, the density of newly formed hair was diminished considerably by reducing the number of dermal cells to 5 x 10(6) cells or lower. Neither epidermal cells nor dermal cells transplanted alone formed hair follicle. Newborn mice skin cells transplanted by chamber method can construct a complete model of hair follicle development, which can be used to test the hair-inductive potential of follicular cells and investigate the molecular mechanism regulating hair follicle morphogenesis and cycling.

  2. MAGMIX: a basic program to calculate viscosities of interacting magmas of differing composition, temperature, and water content (United States)

    Frost, T.P.; Lindsay, J.R.


    MAGMIX is a BASIC program designed to predict viscosities at thermal equilibrium of interacting magmas of differing compositions, initial temperatures, crystallinities, crystal sizes, and water content for any mixing proportion between end members. From the viscosities of the end members at thermal equilibrium, it is possible to predict the styles of magma interaction expected for different initial conditions. The program is designed for modeling the type of magma interaction between hypersthenenormative magmas at upper crustal conditions. Utilization of the program to model magma interaction at pressures higher than 200 MPa would require modification of the program to account for the effects of pressure on heat of fusion and magma density. ?? 1988.

  3. Modeling, Calibration, and Verification of a Fission Chamber for ACRR Experimentersa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coburn Jonathan


    Full Text Available When performing research at a reactor facility, experimenters often need to determine the neutron fluence achieved during an operation. Facilities typically provide guidance in the form of neutron fluence per megajoule (MJ or through passive dosimetry results. After experiment completion, there is sometimes a delay of several days (or weeks before the passive dosimetry results are available. In the interim, an experimenter does not have confirmation that the desired irradiation levels were reached. Active dosimetry may provide an estimate of neutron fluxes, but few active detectors are available that have been calibrated to measure neutron fluxes obtained inside the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR central cavity environment. For past experiments at the ACRR, the neutron fluence was calculated by integrating the response of a fission chamber rate detection signal and then normalizing this integral to fluence determined from passive dosimetry. An alternative method of directly measuring neutron flux is desired; the new methodology described provides a complete neutron flux profile after a reactor pulse, utilizing fission chamber physics in combination with a compensating ion chamber to extract and convert a current signal to neutron flux as a function of time.

  4. Modeling, Calibration, and Verification of a Fission Chamber for ACRR Experimentersa (United States)

    Coburn, Jonathan; Luker, S. Michael; Parma, Edward J.; DePriest, K. Russell


    When performing research at a reactor facility, experimenters often need to determine the neutron fluence achieved during an operation. Facilities typically provide guidance in the form of neutron fluence per megajoule (MJ) or through passive dosimetry results. After experiment completion, there is sometimes a delay of several days (or weeks) before the passive dosimetry results are available. In the interim, an experimenter does not have confirmation that the desired irradiation levels were reached. Active dosimetry may provide an estimate of neutron fluxes, but few active detectors are available that have been calibrated to measure neutron fluxes obtained inside the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) central cavity environment. For past experiments at the ACRR, the neutron fluence was calculated by integrating the response of a fission chamber rate detection signal and then normalizing this integral to fluence determined from passive dosimetry. An alternative method of directly measuring neutron flux is desired; the new methodology described provides a complete neutron flux profile after a reactor pulse, utilizing fission chamber physics in combination with a compensating ion chamber to extract and convert a current signal to neutron flux as a function of time. Work supported by the United States Department of Energy at Sandia National Laboratories. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  5. The mechanics of shallow magma reservoir outgassing (United States)

    Parmigiani, A.; Degruyter, W.; Leclaire, S.; Huber, C.; Bachmann, O.


    Magma degassing fundamentally controls the Earth's volatile cycles. The large amount of gas expelled into the atmosphere during volcanic eruptions (i.e., volcanic outgassing) is the most obvious display of magmatic volatile release. However, owing to the large intrusive:extrusive ratio, and considering the paucity of volatiles left in intrusive rocks after final solidification, volcanic outgassing likely constitutes only a small fraction of the overall mass of magmatic volatiles released to the Earth's surface. Therefore, as most magmas stall on their way to the surface, outgassing of uneruptible, crystal-rich magma storage regions will play a dominant role in closing the balance of volatile element cycling between the mantle and the surface. We use a numerical approach to study the migration of a magmatic volatile phase (MVP) in crystal-rich magma bodies ("mush zones") at the pore scale. Our results suggest that buoyancy-driven outgassing is efficient over crystal volume fractions between 0.4 and 0.7 (for mm-sized crystals). We parameterize our pore-scale results for MVP migration in a thermomechanical magma reservoir model to study outgassing under dynamical conditions where cooling controls the evolution of the proportion of crystal, gas, and melt phases and to investigate the role of the reservoir size and the temperature-dependent viscoelastic response of the crust on outgassing efficiency. We find that buoyancy-driven outgassing allows for a maximum of 40-50% volatiles to leave the reservoir over the 0.4-0.7 crystal volume fractions, implying that a significant amount of outgassing must occur at high crystal content (>0.7) through veining and/or capillary fracturing.

  6. Magma ascent and emplacement in a continental rift setting: lessons from alkaline complexes in active and ancient rift zones (United States)

    Hutchison, William; Lloyd, Ryan; Birhanu, Yelebe; Biggs, Juliet; Mather, Tamsin; Pyle, David; Lewi, Elias; Yirgu, Gezahgen; Finch, Adrian


    overlying country rock. These new constraints on magma ascent and volatile ponding in alkaline plutonic systems complement the deformation mechanisms and conceptual models developed for active systems in the Ethiopian Rift. Volcanic-plutonic pairs are rarely considered together but these data demonstrate the power of using constraints from 'fossil' magma chambers to infer sub-volcanic processes at active complexes and vice-versa.

  7. A novel convolution-based approach to address ionization chamber volume averaging effect in model-based treatment planning systems (United States)

    Barraclough, Brendan; Li, Jonathan G.; Lebron, Sharon; Fan, Qiyong; Liu, Chihray; Yan, Guanghua


    The ionization chamber volume averaging effect is a well-known issue without an elegant solution. The purpose of this study is to propose a novel convolution-based approach to address the volume averaging effect in model-based treatment planning systems (TPSs). Ionization chamber-measured beam profiles can be regarded as the convolution between the detector response function and the implicit real profiles. Existing approaches address the issue by trying to remove the volume averaging effect from the measurement. In contrast, our proposed method imports the measured profiles directly into the TPS and addresses the problem by reoptimizing pertinent parameters of the TPS beam model. In the iterative beam modeling process, the TPS-calculated beam profiles are convolved with the same detector response function. Beam model parameters responsible for the penumbra are optimized to drive the convolved profiles to match the measured profiles. Since the convolved and the measured profiles are subject to identical volume averaging effect, the calculated profiles match the real profiles when the optimization converges. The method was applied to reoptimize a CC13 beam model commissioned with profiles measured with a standard ionization chamber (Scanditronix Wellhofer, Bartlett, TN). The reoptimized beam model was validated by comparing the TPS-calculated profiles with diode-measured profiles. Its performance in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) quality assurance (QA) for ten head-and-neck patients was compared with the CC13 beam model and a clinical beam model (manually optimized, clinically proven) using standard Gamma comparisons. The beam profiles calculated with the reoptimized beam model showed excellent agreement with diode measurement at all measured geometries. Performance of the reoptimized beam model was comparable with that of the clinical beam model in IMRT QA. The average passing rates using the reoptimized beam model increased substantially from 92.1% to

  8. Crystallization and Cooling of a Deep Silicate Magma Ocean (United States)

    Bower, Dan; Wolf, Aaron


    Impact and accretion simulations of terrestrial planet formation suggest that giant impacts are both common and expected to produce extensive melting. The moon-forming impact, for example, likely melted the majority of Earth's mantle to produce a global magma ocean that subsequently cooled and crystallised. Understanding the cooling process is critical to determining magma ocean lifetimes and recognising possible remnant signatures of the magma ocean in present-day mantle heterogeneities. Modelling this evolution is challenging, however, due to the vastly different timescales and lengthscales associated with turbulent convection (magma ocean) and viscous creep (present-day mantle), in addition to uncertainties in material properties and chemical partitioning. We consider a simplified spherically-symmetric (1-D) magma ocean to investigate both its evolving structure and cooling timescale. Extending the work of Abe (1993), mixing-length theory is employed to determine convective heat transport, producing a high resolution model that parameterises the ultra-thin boundary layer (few cms) at the surface of the magma ocean. The thermodynamics of mantle melting are represented using a pseudo-one-component model, which retains the simplicity of a standard one-component model while introducing a finite temperature interval for melting. This model is used to determine the cooling timescale for a variety of plausible thermodynamic models, with special emphasis on comparing the center-outwards vs bottom-up cooling scenarios that arise from the assumed EOS.

  9. MAGMA: analysis of two-channel microarrays made easy. (United States)

    Rehrauer, Hubert; Zoller, Stefan; Schlapbach, Ralph


    The web application MAGMA provides a simple and intuitive interface to identify differentially expressed genes from two-channel microarray data. While the underlying algorithms are not superior to those of similar web applications, MAGMA is particularly user friendly and can be used without prior training. The user interface guides the novice user through the most typical microarray analysis workflow consisting of data upload, annotation, normalization and statistical analysis. It automatically generates R-scripts that document MAGMA's entire data processing steps, thereby allowing the user to regenerate all results in his local R installation. The implementation of MAGMA follows the model-view-controller design pattern that strictly separates the R-based statistical data processing, the web-representation and the application logic. This modular design makes the application flexible and easily extendible by experts in one of the fields: statistical microarray analysis, web design or software development. State-of-the-art Java Server Faces technology was used to generate the web interface and to perform user input processing. MAGMA's object-oriented modular framework makes it easily extendible and applicable to other fields and demonstrates that modern Java technology is also suitable for rather small and concise academic projects. MAGMA is freely available at

  10. Seismic Tremors and Three-Dimensional Magma Wagging (United States)

    Liao, Y.; Bercovici, D.


    Seismic tremor is a feature shared by many silicic volcanoes and is a precursor of volcanic eruption. Many of the characteristics of tremors, including their frequency band from 0.5 Hz to 7 Hz, are common for volcanoes with very different geophysical and geochemical properties. The ubiquitous characteristics of tremor imply that it results from some generation mechanism that is common to all volcanoes, instead of being unique to each volcano. Here we present new analysis on the magma-wagging mechanism that has been proposed to generate tremor. The model is based on the suggestion given by previous work (Jellinek & Bercovici 2011; Bercovici 2013) that the magma column is surrounded by a compressible, bubble-rich foam annulus while rising inside the volcanic conduit, and that the lateral oscillation of the magma inside the annulus causes observable tremor. Unlike the previous two-dimensional wagging model where the displacement of the magma column is restricted to one vertical plane, the three-dimensional model we employ allows the magma column to bend in different directions and has angular motion as well. Our preliminary results show that, without damping from viscous deformation of the magma column, the system retains angular momentum and develops elliptical motion (i.e., the horizontal displacement traces an ellipse). In this ''inviscid'' limit, the magma column can also develop instabilities with higher frequencies than what is found in the original two-dimensional model. Lateral motion can also be out of phase for various depths in the magma column leading to a coiled wagging motion. For the viscous-magma model, we predict a similar damping rate for the uncoiled magma column as in the two-dimensional model, and faster damping for the coiled magma column. The higher damping thus requires the existence of a forcing mechanism to sustain the oscillation, for example the gas-driven Bernoulli effect proposed by Bercovici et al (2013). Finally, using our new 3

  11. Thermo-mechanical two-phase flow models of magma ascent in the continental crust with and without extension (United States)

    Schmeling, Harro; Maruqart, Gabriele; Weinberg, Roberto; Cruden, Sandy


    Melting within the lower continental crust with and without extension and subsequent ascent of silicic melts is modelled by a thermo-mechanical two-phase flow approach. The approach is based on the conservation equations of mass, momentum, and energy for melt and solid, respectively, and includes a simplified binary melting model, as well as compaction / decompaction of the solid matrix. The rheology is based on dislocation creep of quartzite or granite, and includes plasticity. 2D models are carried out for cases without and with differential melt-matrix flow. As control parameter the heat flow is varied between 75 and 90 mW m-2 at the base of a thickened continental crust. In the case of no differential flow (batch melting) the model predicts episodic melting, rise and freezing of partially molten magmatic bodies. The recurrence time inversely scales with the bottom heat flux. In the case of allowing for melt migration, no such episodicity is observed anymore. Melt accumulates within melt rich layers and bodies, which subsequently rise through the crust by a combination of diapirism and decompaction related sinking of solid material through the melt rich layer. Final emplacement depths are between 30 and 15 km, shapes of the resulting plutons are visualized by the evolved enrichment and depletion fields. They show a strong dependence on the applied bottom heat fluxes.

  12. Generation of new continental crust by sublithospheric silicic-magma relamination in arcs: A test of Taylor's andesite model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro, Antonio; Vogt, Katharina; Gerya, Taras


    The paradox of the Earth's continental crust is that although this reservoir is generally regarded as having differentiated from the mantle, it has an andesitic bulk composition that contrasts with the intrinsic basaltic composition of mantle-derived melts. Classical models for new crust generation

  13. Crystallization of microlites during magma ascent: the fluid mechanics of 1980 1986 eruptions at Mount St Helens (United States)

    Geschwind, C.-H.; Rutherford, Malcolm J.


    Eruptions of Mount St Helens (Washington, USA) decreased in intensity and explosivity after the main May 18, 1980 eruption. As the post-May 18 eruptions progressed, albitic plagioclase microlites began to appear in the matrix glass, although the bulk composition of erupted products, the phenocryst compositions and magmatic temperatures remained fairly constant. Equilibrium experiments on a Mount St Helens white pumice show that at 160 MPa water pressure and 900°C, conditions deduced for the 8 km deep magma storage zone, the stable plagioclase is An47. The microlites in the natural samples, which are more albitic, had to grow at lower water pressures during ascent. Isothermal decompression experiments reported here demonstrate that a decrease in water pressure from 160 to 2 MPa over four to eight days is capable of producing the albitic groundmass plagioclase and evolved melt compositions observed in post-May 18 1980 dacites. Because groundmass crystallization occurs over a period of days during and after decreases in pressure, microlite crystallization in the Mount St Helens dacites must have occurred during the ascent of each magma batch from a deep reservoir rather than continuously in a shallow holding chamber. This is consistent with data on the kinetics of amphibole breakdown, which require that a significant portion of magma vented in each eruption ascended from a depth of at least 6.5 km (˜160 MPa water pressure) in a matter of days. The size and shape of the microlite population have not been studied because of the small size of the experimental samples; it is possible that the texture continues to mature long after chemical equilibrium is approached. As the temperature, composition, crystal content and water content of magma in the deep reservoir remained approximately constant from May 1980 to at least March 1982, the spectacular decrease in eruption intensity during this period cannot be attributed to changes in viscosity or density of the magma

  14. Analysis of turbojet combustion chamber performances based on flow field simplified mathematical model (United States)

    Rotaru, Constantin


    In this paper are presented some results about the study of combustion chamber geometrical configurations that are found in aircraft gas turbine engines. The main focus of this paper consists in a study of a new configuration of the aircraft engine combustion chamber with an optimal distribution of gas velocity in front of the turbine. This constructive solution could allow a lower engine rotational speed, a lower temperature in front of the first stage of the turbine and the possibility to increase the turbine pressure ratio. The Arrhenius relationship, which describes the basic dependencies of the reaction rate on pressure, temperature and concentration has been used. and the CFD simulations were made with jet A fuel (which is presented in the Fluent software database) for an annular flame tube with 24 injectors. The temperature profile at the turbine inlet exhibits nonuniformity due to the number of fuel injectors used in the circumferential direction, the spatial nonuniformity in dilution air cooling and mixing characteristics as well as other secondary flow patterns and instabilities that are set up in the flame tube.

  15. Magma storage under Iceland's Eastern Volcanic Zone (United States)

    Maclennan, J.; Neave, D.; Hartley, M. E.; Edmonds, M.; Thordarson, T.; Morgan, D. J.


    The Eastern Volcanic Zone (EVZ) of Iceland is defined by a number of volcanic systems and large basaltic eruptions occur both through central volcanoes (e.g. Grímsvötn) and on associated fissure rows (e.g. Laki, Eldgjá). We have collected a large quantity of micro-analytical data from a number of EVZ eruptions, with the aim of identifying common processes that occur in the premonitory stages of significant volcanic events. Here, we focus on the AD 1783 Laki event, the early postglacial Saksunarvatn tephra and the sub-glacially erupted Skuggafjöll tindar and for each of these eruptions we have >100 olivine-hosted or plagioclase-hosted melt inclusion analyses for major, trace and volatile elements. These large datasets are vital for understanding the history of melt evolution in the plumbing system of basaltic volcanoes. Diverse trace element compositions in melt inclusions hosted in primitive macrocrysts (i.e. Fo>84, An>84) indicate that the mantle melts supplied to the plumbing system of EVZ eruptions are highly variable in composition. Concurrent mixing and crystallisation of these melts occurs in crustal magma bodies. The levels of the deepest of these magma bodies are not well constrained by EVZ petrology, with only a handful of high-CO2 melt inclusions from Laki providing evidence for magma supply from >5 kbar. In contrast, the volatile contents of melt inclusions in evolved macrocrysts, which are close to equilibrium with the carrier liquids, indicate that final depths of inclusion entrapment are 0.5-2 kbar. The major element composition of the matrix glasses shows that the final pressure of equilibration between the melt and its macrocryst phases also occurred at 0.5-2 kbar. The relationship between these pressures and seismic/geodetic estimates of chamber depths needs to be carefully evaluated. The melt inclusion and macrocryst compositional record indicates that injection of porphyritic, gas-rich primitive melt into evolved/enriched and degassed shallow

  16. Layering in peralkaline magmas, Ilímaussaq Complex, S Greenland (United States)

    Hunt, Emma J.; Finch, Adrian A.; Donaldson, Colin H.


    The peralkaline to agpaitic Ilímaussaq Complex, S. Greenland, displays spectacular macrorhythmic (> 5 m) layering via the kakortokite (agpaitic nepheline syenite), which outcrops as the lowest exposed rocks in the complex. This study applies crystal size distribution (CSD) analyses and eudialyte-group mineral chemical compositions to study the marker horizon, Unit 0, and the contact to the underlying Unit - 1. Unit 0 is the best-developed unit in the kakortokites and as such is ideal for gaining insight into processes of crystal formation and growth within the layered kakortokite. The findings are consistent with a model whereby the bulk of the black and red layers developed through in situ crystallisation at the crystal mush-magma interface, whereas the white layer developed through a range of processes operating throughout the magma chamber, including density segregation (gravitational settling and flotation). Primary textures were modified through late-stage textural coarsening via grain overgrowth. An open-system model is proposed, where varying concentrations of halogens, in combination with undercooling, controlled crystal nucleation and growth to form Unit 0. Our observations suggest that the model is applicable more widely to the layering throughout the kakortokite series and potentially other layered peralkaline/agpaitic rocks around the world.

  17. Gradients in physical parameters in zoned felsic magma bodies: Implications for evolution and eruptive withdrawal (United States)

    Wolff, J. A.; Wörner, G.; Blake, S.


    Five diverse, well documented, chemically zoned magmas have been chosen from the literature to demonstrate the extent and patterns of density and viscosity gradients in zoned magma chambers. The patterns are used to assess implications for development of zonation, and withdrawal dynamics and preservation of systematic chemical variations in the final pyroclastic deposit. These examples are: Bishop Tuff, California (high-silica rhyolite); Los Humeros, Mexico (calc-alkaline rhyolite to andesite); Fogo A, Azores (trachyte); Laacher See, Eifel (phonolite) and Tenerife, Canary Islands (phonolite). It was necessary to make several simplifying assumptions in order to calculate viscosity and density profiles through each system; results are particularly sensitive to magmatic water and crystal contents. Nevertheless, the following conclusions can be drawn: (1) Small, strongly zoned, alkaline magma systems which evolved through fractional crystallisation of a basaltic parent (Fogo A, Laacher See) have suffered a partial time-integrated volatile depletion prior to eruption. The most likely mechanism of volatile loss is degassing of the uppermost, highly differentiated, "cupola" magma layer. (2) Eruption withdrawal dynamics are critically dependent on density gradients (and therefore on volatile content and phenocryst abundance), while viscosity variations play a subordinate rôle in the chosen examples. (3) Formation of a chemically zoned tephra sequence by eruption of chemically zoned felsic magma requires a pre-eruptive volatile gradient in the magma chamber. (4) Withdrawal-layer thicknesses during eruptions from naturally zoned magma chambers are of the order of 100 m. (5) The quantitative treatment of gravitational liquid segregation processes by Nilson et al. (1985) successfully predicts times required for zonation of magma bodies: typically 10 3-10 4 years for small alkaline systems, and > 10 5 years for large silicic systems.

  18. A convolution model for obtaining the response of an ionization chamber in static non standard fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Castano, D. M.; Gonzalez, L. Brualla; Gago-Arias, M. A.; Pardo-Montero, J.; Gomez, F.; Luna-Vega, V.; Sanchez, M.; Lobato, R. [Radiation Physics Laboratory, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 15782 (Spain) and Dpto de Fisica de Particulas, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 15782 (Spain); Servicio de Radiofisica ERESA, Consorcio Hospital General Universitario de Valencia, 46014 (Spain); Dpto de Fisica de Particulas, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 15782 (Spain); Radiation Physics Laboratory, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Spain and Dpto de Fisica de Particulas, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 15782 (Spain); Servicio de Radiofisica y Proteccion Radiologica, Hospital Clinico Universitario de Santiago, Santiago de Compostela, 15782 (Spain)


    Purpose: This work contains an alternative methodology for obtaining correction factors for ionization chamber (IC) dosimetry of small fields and composite fields such as IMRT. The method is based on the convolution/superposition (C/S) of an IC response function (RF) with the dose distribution in a certain plane which includes chamber position. This method is an alternative to the full Monte Carlo (MC) approach that has been used previously by many authors for the same objective. Methods: The readout of an IC at a point inside a phantom irradiated by a certain beam can be obtained as the convolution of the dose spatial distribution caused by the beam and the IC two-dimensional RF. The proposed methodology has been applied successfully to predict the response of a PTW 30013 IC when measuring different nonreference fields, namely: output factors of 6 MV small fields, beam profiles of cobalt 60 narrow fields and 6 MV radiosurgery segments. The two-dimensional RF of a PTW 30013 IC was obtained by MC simulation of the absorbed dose to cavity air when the IC was scanned by a 0.6 x 0.6 mm{sup 2} cross section parallel pencil beam at low depth in a water phantom. For each of the cases studied, the results of the IC direct measurement were compared with the corresponding obtained by the C/S method. Results: For all of the cases studied, the agreement between the IC direct measurement and the IC calculated response was excellent (better than 1.5%). Conclusions: This method could be implemented in TPS in order to calculate dosimetry correction factors when an experimental IMRT treatment verification with in-phantom ionization chamber is performed. The miss-response of the IC due to the nonreference conditions could be quickly corrected by this method rather than employing MC derived correction factors. This method can be considered as an alternative to the plan-class associated correction factors proposed recently as part of an IAEA work group on nonstandard field dosimetry.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Zdebik


    Full Text Available The paper presents problems concerning the modelling of anaerobic sludge stabilization, with the additional substrate (waste transported, dairy butchery sewage in psychrophilic fermentation conditions in the range 10–20 °C and mesophilic at 35 °C. Simulation test was conducted in the two digesters. Results of the study allowed to evaluate the effectiveness of conducting these processes in separate chambers, i.e. the psychrophilic and mesophilic chamber. During the simulations, terms of obtaining volatile fatty acids and biogas in conjunction with the operating conditions of the chambers indicated.

  20. Establishment of an in vitro model of the human placental barrier by placenta slice culture and ussing chamber. (United States)

    Song, Dianrong; Guo, Jie; Han, Fang; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Yanan; Wang, Yuhua


    Our purpose was to establish an in vitro model of the human placental barrier based on placenta slice culture and Ussing chamber. The villous morphology, beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG), mRNA and efflux function of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), and the permeability of the fluorescent marker were confirmed. The results showed that syncytiotrophoblast cells with abundant endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria were covered with a dense microvillus in the placenta slice. The β-hCG secretion levels in the Ussing chamber were 274.13 ± 13.52 mIU/mL at 5 h, significantly higher than that in the incubator 95.2 ± 13.14 mIU/mL, and β-hCG continued to secrete for 48 h. P-gp mRNA was expressed in the placenta slice. The Rho123 apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) value from maternal side to the fetal side was 26.34 ± 1.87 nm/s, but it was significantly increased, to 289.55 ± 6.02 nm/s after adding verapamil. The Rho123 efflux value was >2. The fluorescein Papp value was (3.42 ± 0.24) × 10(-3) nm/s. In contrast, the fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran (FD70) Papp value was (3.93 ± 0.08) × 10(-5) nm/s. This indicates that the placenta slice in the Ussing chamber had the activity of a placenta, and can act as a valuable in vitro model of placental barrier.

  1. Interpretation of thermochronological cooling ages using thermal modelling: an example from shallow magma intrusions from the Kerguelen archipelago (United States)

    Ahadi, Floriane; Delpech, Guillaume; Gautheron, Cécile; Nomade, Sébastien; Zeyen, Hermann; Guillaume, Damien


    much younger and range from 1.4 ± 0.7 Ma to 0.8 ± 0.1 Ma. Combined with the thermochronological approach, the thermal structure of the crust beneath the Kerguelen Plateau was established by inverse modelling of gravity, geoid and topography data. The results suggest a mean current thermal gradient of ˜40°/km for the Kerguelen Plateau. Moreover, thermal modelling allows reconstructing heat diffusion in 1D after successive sill intrusions (vertically and horizontally) in order to confirm AHe data can be interpreted as exhumation ages in both complexes. In this case, the mean thermal gradient can be considered to convert the cooling rates in erosion rates.

  2. U-Th fractionation by fluids in K-rich magma genesis: The Vico volcano, Central Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villemant, B.; Flehoc, C.


    The /sup 230/Th-/sup 238/U disequilibrium method has been applied to the potassic volcanic series of Vico (Latium, Central Italy). The 3 main events of the recent volcanic activity have been dated using whole-rock isochrons. The lava flows of the main cone were erupted between 260 and 180 ky. Pyroclastic flows are dated around 90 ky and the final effusive activity (Mte. Venere) around 60 ky. These results are in good agreement with previous K/Ar ages. The intense Th-U fractionation (Th/U varying from 3.2 to 11) is apparently not related to processes of partial melting and crystal fractionation. The Th-U fractionation is the most intense in basic terms of the first episode, and is due to the percolation of a deep hydrothermal fluid which impoverishes U in different batches of primary magmas. More limited Th-U fractionations in highly differentiated magma are due to U (accompanied by Sb and alkalies) enrichments in the shallow magma chambers. A time-integrated model is proposed for the evolution of the (/sup 230/Th//sup 232/Th) ratio in the mantle source of Vico. It shows that Th-U and Th-Ta fractionations are probably related to the bulk K, U and Th enrichment of the mantle of the Roman Province, around 300 ky ago. A metasomatic enrichment by a silicate melt is proposed to explain the anomalously high Th-U and Th-Ta fractionations.

  3. Magma Oceans on Exoplanets and Early Earth (United States)

    Elkins-Tanton, Linda


    Late, giant accretionary impacts likely form multiple magma oceans of some depth in young rocky planets. Models of magma ocean solidification that incorporate water, carbon, and other incompatible volatile elements in small amounts predict a range of first-order outcomes important to planetary evolution. First, initial planetary bulk composition and size determine the composition of the earliest degassed atmosphere. This early atmosphere appears in a rapid burst at the end of solidification, determined by the ability of nucleating bubbles to reach the surface. Larger planets will have briefer and more catastrophic atmospheric degassing during solidification of any magma ocean. Second, this early atmosphere is sufficiently insulating to keep the planetary surface hot for millions of years. Depending upon the atmospheric composition and temperature structure these hot young planets may be observable from Earth or from satellites. Third, small but significant quantities of volatiles remain in the planet's solid mantle, encouraging convection, plate tectonics, and later atmospheric degassing through volcanism. A critical outcome of magma ocean solidification is the development of a solid mantle density gradient with den-sity increasing with radius, which will flow to gravitational stability. Shallow, dense, damp material will carry its water content as it sinks into the perovskite stability zone and transforms into perovskite. Even in models with very low initial water contents, a large fraction of the sinking upper mantle material will be forced to dewater as it crosses the boundary into the relatively dry lower mantle, leaving its water behind in a rapid flux as it sinks. This water ad-dition could initiate or speed convection in planets in which perovskite is stable, that is, planets larger than Mars.

  4. The Sub-Arctic Carbon Cycle: Assimilating Multi-Scale Chamber, Tower and Aircraft Flux Observations into Ecological Models (United States)

    Hill, T. C.; Stoy, P. C.; Baxter, R.; Clement, R.; Disney, M.; Evans, J.; Fletcher, B.; Gornall, J.; Harding, R.; Hartley, I. P.; Ineson, P.; Moncrieff, J.; Phoenix, G.; Sloan, V.; Poyatos, R.; Prieto-Blanco, A.; Subke, J.; Street, L.; Wade, T. J.; Wayolle, A.; Wookey, P.; Williams, M. D.


    measurements during the peak growing season provided an estimate of landscape variability alongside the temporal sampling from fixed tower systems, and a means to constrain upscaling via models. Assimilation of these multi-scale data into an ecosystem carbon model yielded improved constraints on processes, particularly the turnover rates of soil carbon. Our work shows that these improvements cannot be attained with a single source of data (chamber, tower or aircraft).

  5. Temporal evolution of granitic magmas in the Luanchuan metallogenic belt, east Qinling Orogen, central China: Implications for Mo metallogenesis (United States)

    Li, Dong; Han, Jiangwei; Zhang, Shouting; Yan, Changhai; Cao, Huawen; Song, Yaowu


    The Luanchuan metallogenic belt, located within the eastern part of the Qinling Orogen, central China, hosts a number of world-class Mo deposits that are closely related to small late Mesozoic granitic plutons. Zircon U-Pb dating of distinct plutons in the Luanchuan metallogenic belt has yielded ages of 153 ± 1, 154 ± 2, 152 ± 2, and 148 ± 1 Ma. Molybdenite Re-Os isotopic compositions of Yuku ore district in the southern part of Luanchuan metallogenic belt has yielded an isochron age of 146 ± 1 Ma, which is consistent with the large-scale mineralization ages in the northern part of the Luanchuan metallogenic belt. A combination of previous studies and new geochronological and isotopic data show a concordant temporal and genetic link between granitic magmatism and Mo mineralization in the Luanchuan metallogenic belt, suggesting that this mineralization episode formed the most extensive Mo mineralization belt in the east Qinling Orogen. Zircon grains from Mo-related granitic plutons show similar trace element distributions. High-precision Multi Collector-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) Pb isotope analysis of K-feldspar megacrysts from mineralization-related granites suggest that they were derived from the lower crust. Similarly, the Pb isotopic compositions of pyrite coprecipitated with molybdenite also suggest that the metals were derived form the lower crust, with probably minor mantle contribution. A continuum mineralization model that describes the sourcing of Mo from an evolving granitic magma over successive differentiation events, possibly in separate but connected magma chambers, could explain the remarkable Mo enrichment in the Luanchuan metallogenic belt. The volatile- and Mo-bearing granitic magmas ascended as diapirs from the deep crust, and were emplaced as dikes in the upper crust. Lithological differences between these Mo-bearing granites may relate to different stages in the evolution of individual magmas. Finally, ore

  6. Constraints on the Rates of Replenishment, Magma Mixing, and Crystal Recycling at Santorini Volcano, Greece (United States)

    Martin, V. M.; Davidson, J. P.; Morgan, D. J.; Jerram, D. A.


    Santorini is a young, active volcano, which preserves abundant evidence for open-system processes such as magma replenishment and crystal recycling, and thus represents an ideal system in which to study magma chamber dynamics. Santorini is the largest volcanic centre in the Aegean arc, with an eruptive history spanning more than 250,000 years over two eruptive cycles. The cycles are dominated by extended periods of effusive shield-building activity with occasional large-magnitude explosive eruptions, the Minoan eruption of ~3600 years ago being the most recent. Current activity consists of a phase of post-caldera reconstruction, focused recently on the intra-caldera Kameni islands. Microsampling to measure 87Sr/86Sr ratios of plagioclase cores indicates the presence of a complex plumbing system beneath Santorini. Large rhyodacitic deposits typically contain a mafic component, interpreted as the eruption trigger. In some cases, the mafic magma groundmass and phenocrysts are isotopically similar to their rhyodacite host; other deposits show the opposite, implying the coexistence of isotopically distinct magma batches. To add further complexity, plagioclase phenocrysts are in some cases in equilibrium with their groundmass while others show the reverse, implying modification due to crystal recycling or shallow mixing processes prior to eruption. Mafic enclaves in the recent Kameni lavas, again interpreted as the probable eruption trigger, provide some constraints on the rates of these recycling, mixing, and triggering processes. Glomerocrysts and xenocrysts of recycled gabbroic cumulate material are present in a number of Kameni enclaves. Isotopic and chemical disequilibrium between the cumulate crystals and the host indicate that these fragments are derived from pre- existing crystal mush piles pervaded by the replenishing melts as they migrated to shallow levels, creating disequilibrium between the cumulate mineral cores and the replenishing melts. 87Sr/86Sr isotope

  7. 内置小室毛发重建模型%Hair reconstitution by the endo-chamber model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李泽华; 胡志奇


    目的:建立一个高效、可重复的毛发重建模型,观察其诱导毛发的效果,探讨毛发发育的机制并为脱发的细胞学治疗提供实验基础.方法:制做假体小室置于裸鼠背部皮下,制备新生C57BL/6鼠真皮和表皮细胞混悬液,注射于裸鼠背部预置的小室内.7d后剪开表皮拆除小室,创面旷置,观察创面皮肤的愈合及毛发生长情况.结果:通过内置小室模型成功构建了毛发组织,新生毛发长出体表并具有良好方向性与生长密度,组织学检测其毛囊结构与正常组织无异.结论:内置小室是更为优化的毛发重建模型,成功诱导形成了正常结构的毛发组织,特别是毛发发育的早期,在有效避免外部因素的影响下,建立了类似于机体的内环境,更加有利于毛发的发育形成.%Objective The aims of this study were to build a efficient, reproducible hair reconstitution model to evaluate the result of hair inducing and to explore the mechanism of hair morphogenesis and to provide an experimental basis for cell therapy of hair loss. Method An endo-chamber was made and grafted subcutaneously at dorsal site of the nude mouse. Cell suspension obtained from newborn C57BL/6 mice skin was injected into the endo-chamber. Seven days later, skin of the implanted site was cut off and the endo-chamber was removed. By leaving the wound untreated, the wound healing and hair reconstitution were observing every days after the endo-chamber removal. Result Hairs reconstituted successfully by the endo-chamber. New hairs grew with appropriate direction and density, which were proved no difference with the normal tissue by histological examination. Conclusion As an optimized hair reconstitution model, the endo-chamber assay which effectively avoided extraneous interference, built an internal environment suitable for hair formation and development, especially in the early period of hair morphogenesis.

  8. Volatiles Which Increase Magma Viscosity (United States)

    Webb, S.


    The standard model of an erupting volcano is one in which the viscosity of a decompressing magma increases as the volatiles leave the melt structure to form bubbles. It has now been observed that the addition of the "volatiles" P, Cl and F result in an increase in silicate melt viscosity. This observation would mean that the viscosity of selected degassing magmas would decrease rather than increase. Here we look at P, Cl and F as three volatiles which increase viscosity through different structural mechanisms. In all three cases the volatiles increase the viscosity of peralkaline composition melts, but appear to always decrease the viscosity of peraluminous melts. Phosphorus causes the melt to unmix into a Na-P rich phase and a Na-poor silicate phase. Thus as the network modifying Na (or Ca) are removed to the phosphorus-rich melt, the matrix melt viscosity increases. With increasing amounts of added phosphorus (at network modifying Na ~ P) the addition of further phosphorus causes a decrease in viscosity. The addition of chlorine to Fe-free aluminosilicate melts results in an increase in viscosity. NMR data on these glass indicates that the chlorine sits in salt-like structures surrounded by Na and/or Ca. Such structures would remove network-modifying atoms from the melt structure and thus result in an increase in viscosity. The NMR spectra of fluorine-bearing glasses shows that F takes up at least 5 different structural positions in peralkaline composition melts. Three of these positions should result in a decrease in viscosity due to the removal of bridging oxygens. Two of the structural positons of F, however, should result in an increase in viscosity as they require the removal of network-modifying atoms from the melt structure (with one of the structures being that observed for Cl). This would imply that increasing amounts of F might result in an increase in viscosity. This proposed increase in viscosity with increasing F has now been experimentally confirmed.



    Dariusz Zdebik; Marcin Głodniok; Paweł Zawartka


    The paper presents problems concerning the modelling of anaerobic sludge stabilization, with the additional substrate (waste transported, dairy butchery sewage) in psychrophilic fermentation conditions in the range 10–20 °C and mesophilic at 35 °C. Simulation test was conducted in the two digesters. Results of the study allowed to evaluate the effectiveness of conducting these processes in separate chambers, i.e. the psychrophilic and mesophilic chamber. During the simulations, terms of obtai...

  10. Oxygen isotope heterogeneity of arc magma recorded in plagioclase from the 2010 Merapi eruption (Central Java, Indonesia) (United States)

    Borisova, Anastassia Y.; Gurenko, Andrey A.; Martel, Caroline; Kouzmanov, Kalin; Cathala, Annick; Bohrson, Wendy A.; Pratomo, Indyo; Sumarti, Sri


    Chemical and isotopic compositions of magmatic crystals provide important information to distinguish between deep juvenile and crustal contributions. In this work, high-resolution multicollector secondary ion mass spectrometry data reveal strong variations of δ18O values in three plagioclase crystals (800-1700 μm) from two representative basaltic andesite samples of the 2010 Merapi eruption (Central Java, Indonesia). The δ18O values (from 4.6‰ to 7.9‰) are interpreted to reflect oxygen isotope heterogeneity in the melt composition during plagioclase growth. The lowest δ18O values (4.6-6.6‰) are found in anorthite-rich cores (An82-97), whereas higher δ18O values (5.7-7.9‰) are found in anorthite-poorer zones (An33-86), typically in crystal rims. Combining these new plagioclase δ18O data with δ18O of calc-silicate crustal xenoliths erupted between 1994 and 1998, the composition of glass inclusions hosted by the anorthite-rich plagioclase (An82-92), available experimental data, and the results of thermodynamic modeling using the Magma Chamber Simulator code, we conclude that the abundant anorthite-rich cores crystallized from a mantle-derived hydrous basaltic to basaltic trachyandesite melt that recharged a deeper (200-600 MPa) magma storage zone, whereas lower anorthite zones crystallized at shallower levels (100-200 MPa). The oxygen isotope variations in the plagioclase are explained by a two-stage model of interaction of the hydrous, mafic mantle-derived magma (1) with old crustal rocks depleted in 18O due to high temperature alteration that yielded the low δ18O values in the anorthite-rich cores at deep levels (13-20 km), and later (2) with 18O-enriched carbonate material that yielded the high δ18O values in anorthite-poorer zones at shallow levels (∼4.5-9 km). Thermodynamic modeling is consistent with ∼18 wt.% assimilation of crustal calc-silicate material at 925-950 °C and 100-200 MPa by the 2010 Merapi basaltic andesite magma prior to

  11. A new in vivo model using a dorsal skinfold chamber to investigate microcirculation and angiogenesis in diabetic wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langer, Stefan


    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetes mellitus describes a dysregulation of glucose metabolism due to improper insulin secretion, reduced insulin efficacy or both. It is a well-known fact that diabetic patients are likely to suffer from impaired wound healing, as diabetes strongly affects tissue angiogenesis. Until now, no satisfying in vivo murine model has been established to analyze the dynamics of angiogenesis during diabetic wound healing. To help understand the pathophysiology of diabetes and its effect on angiogenesis, a novel in vivo murine model was established using the skinfold chamber in mice.Materials and Methods: Mutant diabetic mice (db; wildtype mice ( and laboratory BALB/c mice were examined. They were kept in single cages with access to laboratory chow with an 12/12 hour day/night circle. Lesions of the panniculus muscle (Ø 2 mm were created in the center of the transparent window chamber and the subsequent muscular wound healing was then observed for a period of 22 days. Important analytic parameters included vessel diameter, red blood cell velocity, vascular permeability, and leakage of muscle capillaries and post capillary venules. The key parameters were functional capillary density (FCD and angiogenesis positive area (APA.Results: We established a model which allows high resolution in vivo imaging of functional angiogenesis in diabetic wounds. As expected, db mice showed impaired wound closure (day 22 compared to wounds of BALB/c or WT mice (day 15. FCD was lower in diabetic mice compared to WT and BALB/c during the entire observation period. The dynamics of angiogenesis also decreased in db mice, as reflected by the lowest APA levels. Significant variations in the skin buildup were observed, with the greatest skin depth in db mice. Furthermore, in db mice, the dermis:subcutaneous ratio was highly shifted towards the subcutaneous layers as opposed to WT or BALB/c mice.Conclusion: Using this new in vivo model of the skinfold chamber, it

  12. Viscosity of mafic magmas at high pressures (United States)

    Cochain, B.; Sanloup, C.; Leroy, C.; Kono, Y.


    While it is accepted that silica-rich melts behave anomalously with a decrease of their viscosity at increased pressures (P), the viscosity of silica-poor melts is much less constrained. However, modeling of mantle melts dynamics throughout Earth's history, including the magma ocean era, requires precise knowledge of the viscous properties of silica-poor magmas. We extend here our previous measurements on fayalite melt to natural end-members pyroxenite melts (MgSiO3 and CaSiO3) using in situ X-ray radiography up to 8 GPa. For all compositions, viscosity decreases with P, rapidly below 5 GPa and slowly above. The magnitude of the viscosity decrease is larger for pyroxene melts than for fayalite melt and larger for the Ca end-member within pyroxene melts. The anomalous viscosity decrease appears to be a universal behavior for magmas up to 13 GPa, while the P dependence of viscosity beyond this remains to be measured. These results imply that mantle melts are very pervasive at depth.

  13. Fluid modeling of resistive plate chambers: impact of transport data on development of streamers and induced signals (United States)

    Bošnjaković, D.; Petrović, Z. Lj; Dujko, S.


    We discuss the implementation of transport data in modeling of resistive plate chambers (RPCs), which are used for timing and triggering purposes in many high energy physics experiments. Particularly, we stress the importance of making a distinction between flux and bulk transport data when non-conservative collisions, such as attachment and/or ionization, are present. A 1.5-dimensional fluid model with photoionization is employed to demonstrate how the duality of transport data affects the calculated signals of the ATLAS triggering RPC and ALICE timing RPC used at CERN, and also a timing RPC with high \\text{S}{{\\text{F}}6} content. It is shown that in the case of timing RPCs, the difference between the induced charges calculated using flux and bulk transport data can reach several hundred percent at lower operating electric fields. The effects of photoionization and space charge are also discussed.

  14. Secondary emission gas chamber

    CERN Document Server

    In'shakov, V; Skvortsov, V


    For a hadron calorimeter active element there is considered a gaseous secondary emis-sion detector (150 micron gap, 50 kV/cm). Such one-stage parallel plate chamber must be a radiation hard, fast and simple. A model of such detector has been produced, tested and some characteristics are presented.

  15. Chamber transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Heavy ion beam transport through the containment chamber plays a crucial role in all heavy ion fusion (HIF) scenarios. Here, several parameters are used to characterize the operating space for HIF beams; transport modes are assessed in relation to evolving target/accelerator requirements; results of recent relevant experiments and simulations of HIF transport are summarized; and relevant instabilities are reviewed. All transport options still exist, including (1) vacuum ballistic transport, (2) neutralized ballistic transport, and (3) channel-like transport. Presently, the European HIF program favors vacuum ballistic transport, while the US HIF program favors neutralized ballistic transport with channel-like transport as an alternate approach. Further transport research is needed to clearly guide selection of the most attractive, integrated HIF system.

  16. Tracking dynamics of magma migration in open-conduit systems (United States)

    Valade, Sébastien; Lacanna, Giorgio; Coppola, Diego; Laiolo, Marco; Pistolesi, Marco; Donne, Dario Delle; Genco, Riccardo; Marchetti, Emanuele; Ulivieri, Giacomo; Allocca, Carmine; Cigolini, Corrado; Nishimura, Takeshi; Poggi, Pasquale; Ripepe, Maurizio


    Open-conduit volcanic systems are typically characterized by unsealed volcanic conduits feeding permanent or quasi-permanent volcanic activity. This persistent activity limits our ability to read changes in the monitored parameters, making the assessment of possible eruptive crises more difficult. We show how an integrated approach to monitoring can solve this problem, opening a new way to data interpretation. The increasing rate of explosive transients, tremor amplitude, thermal emissions of ejected tephra, and rise of the very-long-period (VLP) seismic source towards the surface are interpreted as indicating an upward migration of the magma column in response to an increased magma input rate. During the 2014 flank eruption of Stromboli, this magma input preceded the effusive eruption by several months. When the new lateral effusive vent opened on the Sciara del Fuoco slope, the effusion was accompanied by a large ground deflation, a deepening of the VLP seismic source, and the cessation of summit explosive activity. Such observations suggest the drainage of a superficial magma reservoir confined between the crater terrace and the effusive vent. We show how this model successfully reproduces the measured rate of effusion, the observed rate of ground deflation, and the deepening of the VLP seismic source. This study also demonstrates the ability of the geophysical network to detect superficial magma recharge within an open-conduit system and to track magma drainage during the effusive crisis, with a great impact on hazard assessment.

  17. Biases in greenhouse gases static chambers measurements in stabilization ponds: Comparison of flux estimation using linear and non-linear models (United States)

    Silva, Juan P.; Lasso, Ana; Lubberding, Henk J.; Peña, Miguel R.; Gijzen, Hubert J.


    The closed static chamber technique is widely used to quantify greenhouse gases (GHG) i.e. CH4, CO2 and N2O from aquatic and wastewater treatment systems. However, chamber-measured fluxes over air-water interfaces appear to be subject to considerable uncertainty, depending on the chamber design, lack of air mixing in the chamber, concentration gradient changes during the deployment, and irregular eruptions of gas accumulated in the sediment. In this study, the closed static chamber technique was tested in an anaerobic pond operating under tropical conditions. The closed static chambers were found to be reliable to measure GHG, but an intrinsic limitation of using closed static chambers is that not all the data for gas concentrations measured within a chamber headspace can be used to estimate the flux due to gradient concentration curves with non-plausible and physical explanations. Based on the total data set, the percentage of curves accepted was 93.6, 87.2, and 73% for CH4, CO2 and N2O, respectively. The statistical analyses demonstrated that only considering linear regression was inappropriate (i.e. approximately 40% of the data for CH4, CO2 and N2O were best fitted to a non-linear regression) for the determination of GHG flux from stabilization ponds by the closed static chamber technique. In this work, it is clear that when R2adj-non-lin > R2adj-lin, the application of linear regression models is not recommended, as it leads to an underestimation of GHG fluxes by 10-50%. This suggests that adopting only or mostly linear regression models will affect the GHG inventories obtained by using closed static chambers. According to our results, the misuse of the usual R2 parameter and only the linear regression model to estimate the fluxes will lead to reporting erroneous information on the real contribution of GHG emissions from wastewater. Therefore, the R2adj and non-linear regression model analysis should be used to reduce the biases in flux estimation by the

  18. Modeling of Uneven Flow and Electromagnetic Field Parameters in the Combustion Chamber of Liquid Rocket Engine with a Near-wall Layer Available

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Rudinskii


    Full Text Available The paper concerns modeling of an uneven flow and electromagnetic field parameters in the combustion chamber of the liquid rocket engine with a near-wall layer available.The research objective was to evaluate quantitatively influence of changing model chamber mode of the liquid rocket engine on the electro-physical characteristics of the hydrocarbon fuel combustion by-products.The main method of research was based on development of a final element model of the flowing path of the rocket engine chamber and its adaptation to the boundary conditions.The paper presents a developed two-dimensional non-stationary mathematical model of electro-physical processes in the liquid rocket engine chamber using hydrocarbon fuel. The model takes into consideration the features of a gas-dynamic contour of the engine chamber and property of thermo-gas-dynamic characteristics of the ionized products of combustion of hydrocarbonic fuel. Distributions of magnetic field intensity and electric conductivity received and analyzed taking into account a low-temperature near-wall layer. Special attention is paid to comparison of obtained calculation values of the electric current, which is taken out from intrachamber space of the engine with earlier published data of other authors.

  19. Source emission and model evaluation of formaldehyde from composite and solid wood furniture in a full-scale chamber (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyu; Mason, Mark A.; Guo, Zhishi; Krebs, Kenneth A.; Roache, Nancy F.


    This paper describes the measurement and model evaluation of formaldehyde source emissions from composite and solid wood furniture in a full-scale chamber at different ventilation rates for up to 4000 h using ASTM D 6670-01 (2007). Tests were performed on four types of furniture constructed of different materials and from different manufacturers. The data were used to evaluate two empirical emission models, i.e., a first-order and power-law decay model. The experimental results showed that some furniture tested in this study, made only of solid wood and with less surface area, had low formaldehyde source emissions. The effect of ventilation rate on formaldehyde emissions was also examined. Model simulation results indicated that the power-law decay model showed better agreement than the first-order decay model for the data collected from the tests, especially for long-term emissions. This research was limited to a laboratory study with only four types of furniture products tested. It was not intended to comprehensively test or compare the large number of furniture products available in the market place. Therefore, care should be taken when applying the test results to real-world scenarios. Also, it was beyond the scope of this study to link the emissions to human exposure and potential health risks.

  20. Emplacement and Solidification of Inter-Layerd Silicic and Mafic Magmas, Isle au Haut Igneous Complex, Maine (United States)

    Patwardhan, K.; Marsh, B. D.


    The Isle au Haut Igneous Complex, Maine, presents an intriguing association of basaltic and granitic rocks in the form of a composite layered sequence of alternating gabbroic and dioritic units. The 413 Ma complex may have formed by periodic replenishment or invasion of mafic magma into an evolving, more silicic magma chamber (Chapman & Rhodes, 1992; JVGR). The interaction of a denser magma overlying a less dense magma promotes Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities (RTI), resulting in overturning initiated through pipes and the eventual formation of a stable configuration of diorite over gabbro (Chapman & Rhodes, 1992; JVGR). Field exposures on the southern parts of the island covering a 160 m section through the sequence shows four gabbroic-dioritic pairs (i.e., gabbro over diorite) exhibiting strong interaction between the two in the forms of diapiric pipes of diorite intruding gabbro and gabbro pillows caught in diorite. It is clear that the two magmas were simultaneously molten, and this presents an opportunity to observe the physics and chemistry of interaction between gabbroic magma and partly molten diorite. Emplacement of denser, sill like gabbroic magma over solidifying, less dense dioritic magma may also have given rise to structures resembling load casts and flame structures common to sedimentary rocks. That the diorite was significantly solidified (e.g., ~55% crystals) at the time of intrusion of the gabbroic magma is reflected in field and textural relationships suggesting that overturning due to gravitational instability was initiated but did not go to completion. That is, the diorite was strong enough to act as a rigid medium for gabbro emplacement and subsequent support without wholesale mixing, but at the same time was weak enough to yield low density melt, perhaps through compaction, to undergo RTI at the interfaces and form extensive ensembles of diapiric pipes in the overlying gabbro. We examine the physics and chemistry of this process beginning with

  1. Cooling Before Super-Eruption: No Evidence of Rejuvenation in a Crystal-Rich Dacite Magma Body, Southern Great Basin Ignimbrite Province, Utah and Nevada (United States)

    Ross, K. T.; Christiansen, E. H.; Best, M. G.; Dorais, M.


    The model of rejuvenation of a near-solidus crystal mush to produce large volumes of crystal-rich magma is tested here by analyzing the mineralogical, chemical, modal, and physical characteristics of the 31.1 Ma super-eruptive (2000 km3) Cottonwood Wash Tuff. It is the oldest in a series of three so-called "monotonous intermediate" ignimbrites from the Indian Peak-Caliente volcanic field in southern Utah and Nevada. A crystal-rich (~50% Pl + Qz + Hbl + Bt + Mag + Ilm + Cpx + Zrn + Ap + Po) dacite (62 - 69 wt% SiO2), the Cottonwood Wash Tuff is similar in age, volume, mineralogy, crystallinity, and elemental composition to the 28.0 Ma, ~5000 km3 Fish Canyon Tuff (~45% Pl + Kfs + Qz + Hbl + Bt + Ttn + Mag + Ilm + Ap + Zrn + Po, 66 - 68 wt% SiO2), used as the basis of the rejuvenation model. The Cottonwood Wash magma chamber was compositionally varied as shown by mineral and juvenile clast compositions. Whole-rock compositional variations are likely due to the variation of mineral proportions induced by shear in the magma chamber. Mineral compositions and experimental phase relationships show the pre-eruption magma crystallized at 800°C, 2.5 kb under water-undersaturated but oxidized conditions (delta QFM = 2.1). The majority of plagioclase and amphibole grains exhibit small-scale oscillatory zonation; where systematic compositional zonation exists, normal and reverse zonation are equally present. Cathodoluminescence of quartz reveals typically normally zoned phenocrysts with late resorption, considered to be the result of eruptive decompression. Many of the characteristics used to identify the rejuvenation of a near-solidus mush for the Fish Canyon Tuff are not present in the Cottonwood Wash Tuff [i.e., reversely zoned hornblende or plagioclase, partially remelted mineral aggregates, evidence of fluid saturation, resorption textures not related to decompression, rapakivi mantles, and hybrid andesite inclusions.] The Cottonwood Wash magma system did not undergo

  2. A Binomial Mixture Model for Classification Performance: A Commentary on Waxman, Chambers, Yntema, and Gelman (1989). (United States)

    Thomas, Hoben


    Individual differences in children's performance on a classification task are modeled by a two component binomial mixture distribution. The model accounts for data well, with variance accounted for ranging from 87 to 95 percent. (RJC)

  3. Mineralogy and geochemistry of microgranular enclaves in Palaeoproterozoic Malanjkhand granitoids, central India: evidence of magma mixing, mingling, and chemical equilibration (United States)

    Kumar, Santosh; Rino, Vikoleno


    Palaeoproterozoic ( ca 2,480 Ma) felsic magmatism of Malanjkhand region of central Indian Precambrian shield, referred to as Malanjkhand granitoids (MG), contain xenoliths of country rocks and mesocratic to melanocratic, fine-grained porphyritic microgranular enclaves (ME). The shape of ME is spheroidal, ellipsoidal, discoidal, elongated, and lenticular, varying in size from a few centimeters to about 2 m across. The contact of ME with the host MG is commonly sharp, crenulate, and occasionally diffuse, which we attribute to the undercooling and disaggregation of ME globules within the cooler host MG. The ME as well as MG show hypidiomorphic texture with common mineral Hbl-Bt-Kfs-Pl-Qtz assemblage, but differ in modal proportions. The variation in minerals' composition, presence of apatite needles, elongated biotites, resorbed plagiclase, ocellar quartz, and other mafic-felsic xenocrysts strongly oppose the restite and cognate origins of ME. Compositions of plagioclases (An3-An29), amphiboles (Mg/Mg+Fe2+=0.55-0.69), and biotites (Mg/Mg+Fe2+=0.46-0.60) of ME are slightly distinct or similar to those of MG, which suggest partial to complete equilibration during mafic-felsic magma interactions. Al-in-amphibole estimates the MG pluton emplacement at ca 3.4 ± 0.5 kbar, and therefore, magma mixing and mingling must have occurred at or below this level. The FerightleftharpoonsMg substitution in biotites of ME and MG largely suggests subduction-related, calc-alkaline metaluminous (I-type) nature of felsic melts. Most major and trace elements against SiO2 produce near linear variation trends for ME and MG, probably generated by the mixing of mafic and felsic magmas in various proportions. Trace including rare earth elements patterns of ME-MG pairs, however, show partial to complete equilibration, most likely governed by different degrees of elemental diffusion. The available evidence supports the model of ME origin that coeval mafic (enclave) and felsic (MG) magmas produced

  4. Reconstructing Magma Degassing and Fragmentation: The 1060 CE Plinian Eruption of Medicine Lake Volcano, California (United States)

    Giachetti, T.; Gonnermann, H. M.; Crozier, J.


    Magma fragmentation during explosive volcanic eruptions occurs when the bubble overpressure exceeds some threshold. Because bubble coalescence and ensuing permeable outgassing allow partial release of bubble overpressure, high magma permeabil
ity is thought to adversely affect magma fragmentation and the ability of magma to erupt explosively. We used the Plinian phase of the 1060 CE Glass Mountain eruption of Medicine Lake Volcano, California, to show that this is not necessarily the case. We performed numerical modeling of eruptive magma ascent and bubble growth to predict the development of magma porosity, permeability, and the built-up of gas pressure inside bubbles. We explicitly took into account permeable outgassing in the model. We used the measured porosity and permeability of the Plinian pyroclasts, together with percolation modeling, to reconstruct the conditions for magma degassing and fragmentation. Our results show that the porosity and permeability of pyroclasts coincide with the conditions required for fragmentation of the erupting magma. The onset of fragmentation occurs when the decompression rate reaches about 2 MPa.s-1, corresponding to a constant melt viscosity of ˜107 Pa.s and a magma porosity of approximately 0.75, conditions met for a mass discharge rate of about 107 kg.s-1, a cross sectional area of about 2,000 m2, and at a depth of approximately 1 km. Pyroclasts formed from magma that fragmented over a depth range of several tens of meters, probably reflecting some degree of lateral variability in magma porosity in the conduit. The model also indicates that, even if the magma was highly permeable at the onset of fragmentation, permeable outgassing did not affect fragmentation. The transition to an effusive activity and the emission of obsidian after the Plinian phase of the Glass Mountain eruption is most probably due to a decrease in decompression rate.

  5. Modeling organic aerosol from the oxidation of α-pinene in a Potential Aerosol Mass (PAM chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Chen


    Full Text Available A model has been developed to simulate the formation and evolution of secondary organic aerosol (SOA and was tested against data produced in a Potential Aerosol Mass (PAM flow reactor and a large environmental chamber. The model framework is based on the two-dimensional volatility basis set approach (2D-VBS, in which SOA oxidation products in the model are distributed on the 2-D space of effective saturation concentration (Ci* and oxygen-to-carbon ratio (O : C. The modeled organic aerosol mass concentrations (COA and O : C agree with laboratory measurements within estimated uncertainties. However, while both measured and modeled O : C increase with increasing OH exposure as expected, the increase of modeled O : C is rapid at low OH exposure and then slows as OH exposure increases while the increase of measured O : C is initially slow and then accelerates as OH exposure increases. A global sensitivity analysis indicates that modeled COA values are most sensitive to the assumed values for the number of Ci* bins, the heterogeneous OH reaction rate coefficient, and the yield of first-generation products. Modeled SOA O : C values are most sensitive to the assumed O : C of first-generation oxidation products, the number of Ci* bins, the heterogeneous OH reaction rate coefficient, and the number of O : C bins. All these sensitivities vary as a function of OH exposure. The sensitivity analysis indicates that the 2D-VBS model framework may require modifications to resolve discrepancies between modeled and measured O : C as a function of OH exposure.

  6. Experimental constraints on the outgassing dynamics of basaltic magmas (United States)

    Pioli, L.; Bonadonna, C.; Azzopardi, B. J.; Phillips, J. C.; Ripepe, M.


    The dynamics of separated two-phase flow of basaltic magmas in cylindrical conduits has been explored combining large-scale experiments and theoretical studies. Experiments consisted of the continuous injection of air into water or glucose syrup in a 0.24 m diameter, 6.5 m long bubble column. The model calculates vesicularity and pressure gradient for a range of gas superficial velocities (volume flow rates/pipe area, 10-2-102 m/s), conduit diameters (100-2 m), and magma viscosities (3-300 Pa s). The model is calibrated with the experimental results to extrapolate key flow parameters such as Co (distribution parameter) and Froude number, which control the maximum vesicularity of the magma in the column, and the gas rise speed of gas slugs. It predicts that magma vesicularity increases with increasing gas volume flow rate and decreases with increasing conduit diameter, until a threshold value (45 vol.%), which characterizes churn and annular flow regimes. Transition to annular flow regimes is expected to occur at minimum gas volume flow rates of 103-104 m3/s. The vertical pressure gradient decreases with increasing gas flow rates and is controlled by magma vesicularity (in bubbly flows) or the length and spacing of gas slugs. This study also shows that until conditions for separated flow are met, increases in magma viscosity favor stability of slug flow over bubbly flow but suggests coexistence between gas slugs and small bubbles, which contribute to a small fraction of the total gas outflux. Gas flow promotes effective convection of the liquid, favoring magma homogeneity and stable conditions.

  7. Magma deformation and emplacement in rhyolitic dykes (United States)

    McGowan, Ellen; Tuffen, Hugh; James, Mike; Wynn, Peter


    Silicic eruption mechanisms are determined by the rheological and degassing behaviour of highly-viscous magma ascending within shallow dykes and conduits. However, we have little knowledge of how magmatic behaviour shifts during eruptions as dykes and conduits evolve. To address this we have analysed the micro- to macro-scale textures in shallow, dissected rhyolitic dykes at the Tertiary Húsafell central volcano in west Iceland. Dyke intrusion at ~3 Ma was associated with the emplacement of subaerial rhyolitic pyroclastic deposits following caldera formation[1]. The dykes are dissected to ~500 m depth, 2-3 m wide, and crop out in two stream valleys with 5-30 m-long exposures. Dykes intrude diverse country rock types, including a welded ignimbrite, basaltic lavas, and glacial conglomerate. Each of the six studied dykes is broadly similar, exhibiting obsidian margins and microcrystalline cores. Dykes within pre-fractured lava are surrounded by external tuffisite vein networks, which are absent from dykes within conglomerate, whereas dykes failed to penetrate the ignimbrite. Obsidian at dyke margins comprises layers of discrete colour. These display dramatic thickness variations and collapsed bubble structures, and are locally separated by zones of welded, brecciated and flow-banded obsidian. We use textural associations to present a detailed model of dyke emplacement and evolution. Dykes initially propagated with the passage of fragmented, gas-charged magma and generation of external tuffisite veins, whose distribution was strongly influenced by pre-existing fractures in the country rock. External tuffisites retained permeability throughout dyke emplacement due to their high lithic content. The geochemically homogenous dykes then evolved via incremental magma emplacement, with shear deformation localised along emplacement boundary layers. Shear zones migrated between different boundary layers, and bubble deformation promoted magma mobility. Brittle

  8. Quantitative simulation of the hydrothermal systems of crystallizing magmas on the basis of transport theory and oxygen isotope data: an analysis of the Skaergaard intrusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, D. (Univ. of Arizona, Tucson); Taylor, H.P. Jr.


    Application of the principles of transport theory to studies of magma-hydrothermal systems permits quantitative predictions to be made of the consequences of magma intruding into permeable rocks. Transport processes which redistribute energy, mass, and momentum in these environments can be represented by a set of partial differential equations involving the rate of change of extensive properties in the system. Numerical approximation and computer evaluation of the transport equations effectively simulate the crystallization of magma, cooling of the igneous rocks, advection of chemical components, and chemical and isotopic mass transfer between minerals and aqueous solution. Numerical modeling of the deep portions of the Skaergaard magma-hydrothermal system has produced detailed maps of the temperature, pressure, fluid velocity, integrated fluid flux, delta/sup 18/O-values in rock and fluid, and extent of nonequilibrium exchange reactions between fluid and rock as a function of time for a two-dimensional cross-section through the pluton. An excellent match was made between calculated delta/sup 18/O-values and the measured delta/sup 18/O-values in the three principal rock units, basalt, gabbro, and gneiss, as well as in xenoliths of roof rocks that are now embedded in Layered Series; the latter were evidently depleted in /sup 18/O early in the system's cooling history, prior to falling to the bottom of the magma chamber. The best match was realized for a system in which the bulk rock permeabilities were 10/sup -13/ cm/sup 2/ for the intrusion, 10/sup 11/ cm/sup 2/ for basalt, and 10/sup -16/ cm/sup 2/ for gneiss; reaction domain sizes were 0.2 cm in the intrusion and gneiss and 0.01 cm in the basalts, and activation energy for the isotope exchange reaction between fluid and plagioclase was 30 kcal/ mole.

  9. Conduit Magma Storage during the 800 BP Quilotoa Eruption, Ecuador (United States)

    Ort, M. H.; Cashman, K. V.; Di Muro, A.; Best, J. A.; Rosi, M.; Mothes, P. A.; Bustillos, J.


    The 800 BP eruption of Quilotoa produced two large ignimbrites, U1 (~5.8 km3 DRE) and U3 (~1.8 km3 DRE). These eruptions were separated by a series of much smaller eruptions over one to several weeks, as inferred from 1) the intercalation of secondary pyroclastic and debris flow deposits between U1 and U3, 2) deposits from phreatic explosions from the U1 ignimbrite surface, 3) oxidation of the upper 2 m of U1, and 4) a lack of erosion of the U1 surface. Why did the main phase of the eruption (U1) stall when eruptable magma was available? How did explosive activity stop and restart? We address these questions by examining deposits (U2) emplaced during the 'hiatus' that provide information on the conditions in the conduit and vent area between explosive episodes. The lowest sub-unit, U2a, forms a series of pumiceous surge deposits found only within 5 km of the crater rim. U2b is a vitric-poor, crystal- and lithic-rich fall deposit distributed to about 15 km from the crater. U2c is a thin gray fine ash containing 2-5-mm-diameter rhyolite lapilli that is present within 6 km of the vent. Similar lapilli also occur in the lowermost few centimeters of U3 and appear to be from a dome that exploded as the new magma arrived at the surface; their presence as small ballistic fragments ties U2c to lowermost U3 in time. U2a appears to have been emplaced by episodic surges and weak fallout plumes, whereas U2b and U2c were deposited from a series of sustained eruption columns. Moreover, the lack of U2b grain-size variation with distance suggests that the grain size was determined at the vent, not by transport. FTIR analysis of CO2 and H2O in melt inclusions (MIs) indicates that a deep magma chamber (>400 MPa; ~12 km) fed U1. U2a and U2b MIs plot along vapor isopleths, suggesting equilibration at pressures to about 300 MPa as CO2 outgassed. U2b MIs have lower CO2 than U2a, perhaps indicating continued degassing during the 'hiatus'. MIs from the lower few centimeters of U3 lie along

  10. Melt production constrained by the topographic signature of the Altiplano-Puna Magma Body (United States)

    Perkins, J. P.; Ward, K. M.; de Silva, S. L.; Zandt, G.; Beck, S. L.; Finnegan, N. J.


    The Altiplano-Puna Magma Body (APMB) is a ~200 km diameter, ~10 km thick elliptical zone of low seismic shear velocity interpreted as partial melt within the mid crust of the Central Andes (Ward et al., 2014). It is thought to be the crustal magmatic source for a flare-up of large-volume ignimbrites since 10 Ma (e.g. de Silva et al., 1989), and recent rapid uplift events such as those at Uturuncu volcano appear to be associated with magmatism from the APMB at depth (e.g., Fialko and Pearse, 2011). Hence, the APMB is a first-order geologic feature on par with the Sierra Nevada batholith in CA. Here we use the topographic signature of the low-density APMB in order to quantitatively constrain the melt production necessary to generate a magmatic zone of this size. A long-wavelength, ~1 km high topographic dome spatially coincides with the seismically measured extent of the APMB. The peak of the long wavelength dome acts as a regional drainage divide, and exposed basement rock elevations show that doming is a structural feature and does not reflect solely the accumulation of volcanic deposits on the plateau. Additionally, the minimal free-air gravity anomaly above the APMB and the dome's length scale suggest that the uplift is isostatically compensated. Based on a buried load isostatic model (e.g., Forsyth, 1985), the dome above the APMB implies that 5.6-5.8 km of crustal thickening occurred during the emplacement of the magma body. Our estimate compares well with calculations of crustal addition using magma chamber volume and a standard melt mixing model (Ward et al., 2014), and suggests that the magma production rate for the APMB may be within the range of 70-117 km3/km/yr, similar to rates of the Late Cretaceous magmatic episode in the Sierra Nevada Batholith (e.g., Ducea, 2001). Surface topography may therefore be able to provide quantitative constraints on the magnitude of pluton-scale melt fluxes.

  11. Code and Solution Verification of 3D Numerical Modeling of Flow in the Gust Erosion Chamber (United States)

    Yuen, A.; Bombardelli, F. A.


    Erosion microcosms are devices commonly used to investigate the erosion and transport characteristics of sediments at the bed of rivers, lakes, or estuaries. In order to understand the results these devices provide, the bed shear stress and flow field need to be accurately described. In this research, the UMCES Gust Erosion Microcosm System (U-GEMS) is numerically modeled using Finite Volume Method. The primary aims are to simulate the bed shear stress distribution at the surface of the sediment core/bottom of the microcosm, and to validate the U-GEMS produces uniform bed shear stress at the bottom of the microcosm. The mathematical model equations are solved by on a Cartesian non-uniform grid. Multiple numerical runs were developed with different input conditions and configurations. Prior to developing the U-GEMS model, the General Moving Objects (GMO) model and different momentum algorithms in the code were verified. Code verification of these solvers was done via simulating the flow inside the top wall driven square cavity on different mesh sizes to obtain order of convergence. The GMO model was used to simulate the top wall in the top wall driven square cavity as well as the rotating disk in the U-GEMS. Components simulated with the GMO model were rigid bodies that could have any type of motion. In addition cross-verification was conducted as results were compared with numerical results by Ghia et al. (1982), and good agreement was found. Next, CFD results were validated by simulating the flow within the conventional microcosm system without suction and injection. Good agreement was found when the experimental results by Khalili et al. (2008) were compared. After the ability of the CFD solver was proved through the above code verification steps. The model was utilized to simulate the U-GEMS. The solution was verified via classic mesh convergence study on four consecutive mesh sizes, in addition to that Grid Convergence Index (GCI) was calculated and based on

  12. Modelling the Cast Component Weight in Hot Chamber Die Casting using Combined Taguchi and Buckingham's π Approach (United States)

    Singh, Rupinder


    Hot chamber (HC) die casting process is one of the most widely used commercial processes for the casting of low temperature metals and alloys. This process gives near-net shape product with high dimensional accuracy. However in actual field environment the best settings of input parameters is often conflicting as the shape and size of the casting changes and one have to trade off among various output parameters like hardness, dimensional accuracy, casting defects, microstructure etc. So for online inspection of the cast components properties (without affecting the production line) the weight measurement has been established as one of the cost effective method (as the difference in weight of sound and unsound casting reflects the possible casting defects) in field environment. In the present work at first stage the effect of three input process parameters (namely: pressure at 2nd phase in HC die casting; metal pouring temperature and die opening time) has been studied for optimizing the cast component weight `W' as output parameter in form of macro model based upon Taguchi L9 OA. After this Buckingham's π approach has been applied on Taguchi based macro model for the development of micro model. This study highlights the Taguchi-Buckingham based combined approach as a case study (for conversion of macro model into micro model) by identification of optimum levels of input parameters (based on Taguchi approach) and development of mathematical model (based on Buckingham's π approach). Finally developed mathematical model can be used for predicting W in HC die casting process with more flexibility. The results of study highlights second degree polynomial equation for predicting cast component weight in HC die casting and suggest that pressure at 2nd stage is one of the most contributing factors for controlling the casting defect/weight of casting.

  13. Modeling and validation of single-chamber microbial fuel cell cathode biofilm growth and response to oxidant gas composition (United States)

    Ou, Shiqi; Zhao, Yi; Aaron, Douglas S.; Regan, John M.; Mench, Matthew M.


    This work describes experiments and computational simulations to analyze single-chamber, air-cathode microbial fuel cell (MFC) performance and cathodic limitations in terms of current generation, power output, mass transport, biomass competition, and biofilm growth. Steady-state and transient cathode models were developed and experimentally validated. Two cathode gas mixtures were used to explore oxygen transport in the cathode: the MFCs exposed to a helium-oxygen mixture (heliox) produced higher current and power output than the group of MFCs exposed to air or a nitrogen-oxygen mixture (nitrox), indicating a dependence on gas-phase transport in the cathode. Multi-substance transport, biological reactions, and electrochemical reactions in a multi-layer and multi-biomass cathode biofilm were also simulated in a transient model. The transient model described biofilm growth over 15 days while providing insight into mass transport and cathodic dissolved species concentration profiles during biofilm growth. Simulation results predict that the dissolved oxygen content and diffusion in the cathode are key parameters affecting the power output of the air-cathode MFC system, with greater oxygen content in the cathode resulting in increased power output and fully-matured biomass.

  14. Mantle decarbonation and Archean high-Mg magmas (United States)

    Edwards, Garth R.


    Magnesium-rich mane to ultramafic extrusions were most common in the Archean and pose interesting petrological problems. The high Mg content of komatiites (>18 wt%, for example, is usually interpreted as indicating an origin at higher temperatures than exist in mantle melting zones in the modern Earth. Current contrasting models for the origin of komatiites in the mantle require either high degrees of melting or lower degrees of melting at great depth. A potential complementary mechanism for Mg enrichment in magmas involves the melting of magnesite-bearing garnet Iherxolite. In this model, the ascending primary mafic or ultramafic magma is enriched in MgO by the loss of some off the CO2 to the adjacent mantle at pressures of ˜2.2 GPa, where the magma becomes saturated with CO2. To generate komatiite in this way from a picritelike parent, for example, requires that the primary magma lose some of its major and trace element components to the adjacent mantle concurrently with the CO2. Production of magnesian magmas by magnesite breakdown may not have required the heat or depth of those produced by other means; this mechanism may help to explain some apparently low Archean geothermal gradients, as well as the contemporaneity of Archean diamonds and komatites. The mantle magnesite could have formed by direct reaction of primordial CO2 or CO with hot, protomantle material during Earth's accretionary period.

  15. Ames Culture Chamber System: Enabling Model Organism Research Aboard the international Space Station (United States)

    Steele, Marianne


    Understanding the genetic, physiological, and behavioral effects of spaceflight on living organisms and elucidating the molecular mechanisms that underlie these effects are high priorities for NASA. Certain organisms, known as model organisms, are widely studied to help researchers better understand how all biological systems function. Small model organisms such as nem-atodes, slime mold, bacteria, green algae, yeast, and moss can be used to study the effects of micro- and reduced gravity at both the cellular and systems level over multiple generations. Many model organisms have sequenced genomes and published data sets on their transcriptomes and proteomes that enable scientific investigations of the molecular mechanisms underlying the adaptations of these organisms to space flight.

  16. Doriot Climatic Chambers (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Doriot Climatic Chambers are two, 60-feet long, 11-feet high, 15-feet wide chambers that are owned and operated by NSRDEC. The Doriot Climatic Chambers are among...

  17. Lunar Magma Ocean Crystallization: Constraints from Fractional Crystallization Experiments (United States)

    Rapp, J. F.; Draper, D. S.


    The currently accepted paradigm of lunar formation is that of accretion from the ejecta of a giant impact, followed by crystallization of a global scale magma ocean. This model accounts for the formation of the anorthosite highlands crust, which is globally distributed and old, and the formation of the younger mare basalts which are derived from a source region that has experienced plagioclase extraction. Several attempts at modelling the crystallization of such a lunar magma ocean (LMO) have been made, but our ever-increasing knowledge of the lunar samples and surface have raised as many questions as these models have answered. Geodynamic models of lunar accretion suggest that shortly following accretion the bulk of the lunar mass was hot, likely at least above the solidus]. Models of LMO crystallization that assume a deep magma ocean are therefore geodynamically favorable, but they have been difficult to reconcile with a thick plagioclase-rich crust. A refractory element enriched bulk composition, a shallow magma ocean, or a combination of the two have been suggested as a way to produce enough plagioclase to account for the assumed thickness of the crust. Recently however, geophysical data from the GRAIL mission have indicated that the lunar anorthositic crust is not as thick as was initially estimated, which allows for both a deeper magma ocean and a bulk composition more similar to the terrestrial upper mantle. We report on experimental simulations of the fractional crystallization of a deep (approximately 100km) LMO with a terrestrial upper mantle-like (LPUM) bulk composition. Our experimental results will help to define the composition of the lunar crust and mantle cumulates, and allow us to consider important questions such as source regions of the mare basalts and Mg-suite, the role of mantle overturn after magma ocean crystallization and the nature of KREEP

  18. Role of Yield Stress in Magma Rheology (United States)

    Kurokawa, A.; Di Giuseppe, E.; Davaille, A.; Kurita, K.


    Magmas are essentially multiphase material composed of solid crystals, gaseous bubbles and silicate liquids. They exhibit various types of drastic change in rheology with variation of mutual volumetric fractions of the components. The nature of this variable rheology is a key factor in controlling dynamics of flowing magma through a conduit. Particularly the existence of yield stress in flowing magma is expected to control the wall friction and formation of density waves. As the volumetric fraction of solid phase increases yield stress emerges above the critical fraction. Several previous studies have been conducted to clarify this critical value of magmatic fluid both in numerical simulations and laboratory experiments ([Lejeune and Pascal, 1995], [Saar and Manga 2001], [Ishibashi and Sato 2010]). The obtained values range from 13.3 to 40 vol%, which display wide variation and associated change in rheology has not been clarified well. In this presentation we report physical mechanism of emergence of yield stress in suspension as well as the associated change in the rheology based on laboratory experiments using analog material. We utilized thermogel aqueous suspension as an analog material of multiphase magma. Thermogel, which is a commercial name for poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) (PNIPAM) undergoes volumetric phase change at the temperature around 35C:below this temperature the gel phase absorbs water and swells while below this it expels water and its volume shrinks. Because of this the volumetric fraction of gel phase systematically changes with temperature and the concentration of gel powder. The viscosity measured at lower stress drastically decreases across this phase change with increasing temperature while the viscosity at higher stress does not exhibit large change across the transition. We have performed a series of rheological measurements focusing on the emergence of yield stress on this aqueous suspension. Since the definition of yield stress is not

  19. Directed Energy Anechoic Chamber (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Directed Energy Anechoic Chamber comprises a power anechoic chamber and one transverse electromagnetic cell for characterizing radiofrequency (RF) responses of...

  20. Using cGPS to estimate the magma budget for Soufrière Hills volcano, Montserrat, West Indies (United States)

    Collinson, Amy; Neuberg, Jurgen; Pascal, Karen


    For over 20 years, Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat has been in a state of volcanic unrest. Intermittent periods of dome building have been punctuated by explosive eruptions and dome collapse events, endangering the lives of the inhabitants of the island. The last episode of active magma extrusion was in February 2010, and the last explosive event (ash venting) in March 2012. Despite a lack of recent eruptive activity, the volcano continues to emit significant volumes of SO2 and shows an ongoing trend of island inflation as indicated by cGPS. Through the aid of three-dimensional numerical modelling, using a finite element method, we model the cGPS data to explore the potential sources of the ongoing island deformation. We consider both magmatic (dykes and chambers) and tectonic sources which result in entirely different interpretations: Whilst a magmatic source suggests the possibility for further eruption, a tectonic source may indicate cessation of volcanic activity. We investigate the effects that different sources (shapes, characters and depths) have on the surface displacement. We demonstrate that whilst a tectonic contribution cannot be completely discounted, the dominant source is magmatic. Consequently, we define a best-fit model which we use to assess the source volume change, and therefore, the potential current magma budget. Based on the similarity in the relative displacement between the cGPS stations at every episode of the eruption, we assume that the displacement for all Phases and Pauses can be explained by the same basic source. Therefore, we interpret the cGPS data with our source model for all the preceding Pauses and Phases to estimate the magma budget feeding the entire eruption. Subsequently, we derive important insights into the potential future eruptive behaviour of the volcano.

  1. submitter Modeling the thermodynamics and kinetics of sulfuric acid-dimethylamine-water nanoparticle growth in the CLOUD chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Ahlm, L; Schobesberger, S; Praplan, A P; Kim, J; Tikkanen, O -P; Lawler, M J; Smith, J N; Tröstl, J; Acosta Navarro, J C; Baltensperger, U; Bianchi, F; Donahue, N M; Duplissy, J; Franchin, A; Jokinen, T; Keskinen, H; Kirkby, J; Kürten, A; Laaksonen, A; Lehtipalo, K; Petäjä, T; Riccobono, F; Rissanen, M P; Rondo, L; Schallhart, S; Simon, M; Winkler, P M; Worsnop, D R; Virtanen, A; Riipinen, I


    Dimethylamine (DMA) has a stabilizing effect on sulfuric acid (SA) clusters, and the SA and DMA molecules and clusters likely play important roles in both aerosol particle formation and growth in the atmosphere. We use the monodisperse particle growth model for acid-base chemistry in nanoparticle growth (MABNAG) together with direct and indirect observations from the CLOUD4 and CLOUD7 experiments in the cosmics leaving outdoor droplets (CLOUD) chamber at CERN to investigate the size and composition evolution of freshly formed particles consisting of SA, DMA, and water as they grow to 20 nm in dry diameter. Hygroscopic growth factors are measured using a nano-hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (nano-HTDMA), which combined with simulations of particle water uptake using the thermodynamic extended-aerosol inorganics model (E-AIM) constrain the chemical composition. MABNAG predicts a particle-phase ratio between DMA and SA molecules of 1.1–1.3 for a 2 nm particle and DMA gas-phase mixing ratio...

  2. Calibration model for the MDT chambers of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Bagnaia, P; Biebel, O; Bini, C; Borroni, S; Celio, P; Cirilli, M; Curti, M; De Salvo, A; Deile, M; Di Luise, S; Di Mattia, A; Diehl, E; Dimitrov, G; Dubbert, J; Duckeck, G; Falciano, S; Gadomski, S; Gauzzi, P; Groh, M; Hertenberger, R; Hessey, N; Horvat, S; Iodice, M; Kaiser, S; Kortner, O; Kroha, H; Kolos, S; Levin, D; Luminari, L; Martin, B; McKee, S; Merkl, D; Orestano, D; Pasqualucci, E; Petrucci, F; Pontecorvo, L; Potrap, I; Rauscher, F; Rosati, S; Solfaroli Camillocci, E; Spogli, L; Ströhmer, R; Tique Aires Viegas, F; Verducci, M; Vilucchi, E; Van Eldik, N; van Kesteren, Z; von Loeben, J; Woudstra, M; Zhou, B


    The calibration procedures defined for the Monitored Drift Tube detectors of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer are reviewed with special emphasis on the model developed and on the data processing. The calibration is based upon track segments reconstructed in the spectrometer, therefore the achievable accuracy depends upon the muon tracks statistics. The calibration parameters have to be produced, validated and made available to be used in reconstruction within one day from the end of the LHC fill. These requirements on the statistics and the latency dictated the development of a dedicated data stream for calibration. The data collection, processing and computing is described.

  3. Modeling of a heat sink and high heat flux vapor chamber (United States)

    Vadnjal, Aleksander

    An increasing demand for a higher heat flux removal capability within a smaller volume for high power electronics led us to focus on a novel cold plate design. A high heat flux evaporator and micro channel heat sink are the main components of a cold plate which is capable of removing couple of 100 W/cm2. In order to describe performance of such porous media device a proper modeling has to be addressed. A universal approach based on the volume average theory (VAT) to transport phenomena in porous media is shown. An approach on how to treat the closure for momentum and energy equations is addressed and a proper definition for friction factors and heat transfer coefficients are discussed. A numerical scheme using a solution to Navier-Stokes equations over a representative elementary volume (REV) and the use of VAT is developed to show how to compute friction factors and heat transfer coefficients. The calculation show good agreement with the experimental data. For the heat transfer coefficient closure, a proper average for both fluid and solid is investigated. Different types of heating are also investigated in order to determine how it influences the heat transfer coefficient. A higher heat fluxes in small area condensers led us to the micro channels in contrast to the classical heat fin design. A micro channel can have various shapes to enhance heat transfer, but the shape that will lead to a higher heat flux removal with a moderate pumping power needs to be determined. The standard micro-channel terminology is usually used for channels with a simple cross section, e.g. square, round, triangle, etc., but here the micro channel cross section is going to be expanded to describe more complicated and interconnected micro scale channel cross sections. The micro channel geometries explored are pin fins (in-line and staggered) and sintered porous micro channels. The problem solved here is a conjugate problem involving two heat transfer mechanisms; (1) porous media

  4. Modelling ELM heat flux deposition on the ITER main chamber wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kočan, M., E-mail: [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, F-13067 St Paul lez Durance Cedex (France); Pitts, R.A.; Lisgo, S.W.; Loarte, A. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, F-13067 St Paul lez Durance Cedex (France); Gunn, J.P. [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA/DSM/IRFM, Cadarache, 13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Fuchs, V. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Association EURATOM/IPP.CR, Praha 18200 (Czech Republic)


    The interaction of ELM filaments with the ITER beryllium first wall panels (FWPs) is studied using a simple ad-hoc fluid model of the filament parallel transport, taking into account the full, three-dimensional structure of the FWPs, including magnetic shadowing effects. The calculated ELM surface heat loads are used as input to the RACLETTE heat transfer code to estimate the FWP surface temperature rise. The results indicate that controlled ELMs in ITER during burning plasma operation (ΔW{sub ELM} ≈ 0.6 M J) will not lead to melting or significant evaporation of the beryllium surfaces, even in the case of high ELM broadening and the minimum allowable distance between the primary and secondary separatrices. The ELM-averaged steady-state heat load also stays below the maximum power handling capability of the FWPs.

  5. Two-stage Lagrangian modeling of ignition processes in ignition quality tester and constant volume combustion chambers

    KAUST Repository

    Alfazazi, Adamu


    The ignition characteristics of isooctane and n-heptane in an ignition quality tester (IQT) were simulated using a two-stage Lagrangian (TSL) model, which is a zero-dimensional (0-D) reactor network method. The TSL model was also used to simulate the ignition delay of n-dodecane and n-heptane in a constant volume combustion chamber (CVCC), which is archived in the engine combustion network (ECN) library ( A detailed chemical kinetic model for gasoline surrogates from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was utilized for the simulation of n-heptane and isooctane. Additional simulations were performed using an optimized gasoline surrogate mechanism from RWTH Aachen University. Validations of the simulated data were also performed with experimental results from an IQT at KAUST. For simulation of n-dodecane in the CVCC, two n-dodecane kinetic models from the literature were utilized. The primary aim of this study is to test the ability of TSL to replicate ignition timings in the IQT and the CVCC. The agreement between the model and the experiment is acceptable except for isooctane in the IQT and n-heptane and n-dodecane in the CVCC. The ability of the simulations to replicate observable trends in ignition delay times with regard to changes in ambient temperature and pressure allows the model to provide insights into the reactions contributing towards ignition. Thus, the TSL model was further employed to investigate the physical and chemical processes responsible for controlling the overall ignition under various conditions. The effects of exothermicity, ambient pressure, and ambient oxygen concentration on first stage ignition were also studied. Increasing ambient pressure and oxygen concentration was found to shorten the overall ignition delay time, but does not affect the timing of the first stage ignition. Additionally, the temperature at the end of the first stage ignition was found to increase at higher ambient pressure

  6. Exoplanet Magma Ocean Magnetic Fields may be Common (United States)

    Bourzutschky, Alexander; Stevenson, David


    Kepler data suggest that many exoplanets have low densities for their mass, and therefore probably have hydrogen-rich atmospheres. For all but very thin atmospheres, these have a convective zone beneath the radiative outer region, and as a consequence have high temperatures at the assumed silicate surface, usually above the liquidus, implying a magma ocean. In many cases, the resulting high internal temperatures are sufficient to allow for dynamo action in the magma. There, the electrical conductivities are high enough to support such a dynamo but not so high that the thermal conductivity favors conduction over convection. High conductivity is bad for a dynamo so this lower thermal conductivity makes such magma ocean dynamos preferable to a putative iron core dynamo.In our simple models, the atmospheres of exoplanets will contain a convective zone beneath a radiative zone if sufficiently thick. We develop a simple model for the surface temperature of a rocky exoplanet with atmosphere-to-planet mass ratios 0.001% to 10%, planet masses 1-10 M⊕, and effective temperatures 150-1000 K. In most models with atmosphere mass ratios greater than 0.1% the rocky surface is above 1500 K, above the liquidus for silicate magma. Assuming a fully molten silicate magma ocean planet of Earthlike composition, the primary mode of heat transport is convection except at the high-temperature, high atmosphere mass ratio end. From that, even with conservative estimates of the electrical conductivity of the liquid silicate magma, the nominal magnetic Reynolds number at the surface seldom falls below 10. Thus the tentative conclusion is that rocky exoplanets with sufficiently thick atmospheric envelopes to melt the surface can generate magnetic fields irrespective of their putative cores. Estimates of the magnetic field were done following Christensen, yielding surface values in the range of 0.1 to 0.5 Gauss.

  7. Mineralogical evidence for lamproite magma mixing and storage at mantle depths: Socovos fault lamproites, SE Spain (United States)

    Cambeses, A.; Garcia-Casco, A.; Scarrow, J. H.; Montero, P.; Pérez-Valera, L. A.; Bea, F.


    Detailed textural and mineral chemistry characterisation of lamproites from the Socovos fault zone, SE Spain Neogene Volcanic Province (NVP) combining X-ray element maps and LA-ICP-MS spot analyses has provided valuable information about mantle depth ultrapotassic magma mixing processes. Despite having similar whole-rock compositions, rocks emplaced in the Socovos fault are mineralogically varied: including type-A olivine-phlogopite lamproites; and type-B clinopyroxene-phlogopite lamproites. The Ol-lacking type-B predates Ol-bearing type-A by c. 2 million years. We propose that the mineralogical variations, which are representative of lamproites in the NVP as a whole, indicate mantle source heterogeneities. Major and trace element compositions of mineral phases suggest both metasomatised harzburgite and veined pyroxenite sources that were most likely closely spatially related. Thin section scale textural and compositional variations in mineral phases reveal heterogeneous mantle- and primitive magma-derived crystals. The variety of crystals points to interaction and mingling-mixing of ultrapotassic magma batches at mantle depths prior crustal emplacement. The mixing apparently occurred in a mantle melting zone with a channelised flow regime and localised magma chambers-reservoirs. Magma interaction was interrupted when the Socovos and other lithosphere-scale faults tore down to the mantle source region, triggering rapid ascent of the heterogeneous lamproite magma.

  8. Eddy Flow during Magma Emplacement: The Basemelt Sill, Antarctica (United States)

    Petford, N.; Mirhadizadeh, S.


    The McMurdo Dry Valleys magmatic system, Antarctica, forms part of the Ferrar dolerite Large Igneous Province. Comprising a vertical stack of interconnected sills, the complex provides a world-class example of pervasive lateral magma flow on a continental scale. The lowermost intrusion (Basement Sill) offers detailed sections through the now frozen particle macrostructure of a congested magma slurry1. Image-based numerical modelling where the intrusion geometry defines its own unique finite element mesh allows simulations of the flow regime to be made that incorporate realistic magma particle size and flow geometries obtained directly from field measurements. One testable outcome relates to the origin of rhythmic layering where analytical results imply the sheared suspension intersects the phase space for particle Reynolds and Peclet number flow characteristic of macroscopic structures formation2. Another relates to potentially novel crystal-liquid segregation due to the formation of eddies locally at undulating contacts at the floor and roof of the intrusion. The eddies are transient and mechanical in origin, unrelated to well-known fluid dynamical effects around obstacles where flow is turbulent. Numerical particle tracing reveals that these low Re number eddies can both trap (remove) and eject particles back into the magma at a later time according to their mass density. This trapping mechanism has potential to develop local variations in structure (layering) and magma chemistry that may otherwise not occur where the contact between magma and country rock is linear. Simulations indicate that eddy formation is best developed where magma viscosity is in the range 1-102 Pa s. Higher viscosities (> 103 Pa s) tend to dampen the effect implying eddy development is most likely a transient feature. However, it is nice to think that something as simple as a bumpy contact could impart physical and by implication chemical diversity in igneous rocks. 1Marsh, D.B. (2004), A

  9. Modeling of diesel/CNG mixing in a pre-injection chamber (United States)

    Abdul-Wahhab, H. A.; Aziz, A. R. A.; Al-Kayiem, H. H.; Nasif, M. S.


    Diesel engines performance can be improved by adding combustible gases to the liquid diesel. In this paper, the propagation of a two phase flow liquid-gas fuel mixture into a pre-mixer is investigated numerically by computational fluid dynamics simulation. CNG was injected into the diesel within a cylindrical conduit operates as pre-mixer. Four injection models of Diesel-CNG were simulated using ANSYS-FLUENT commercial software. Two CNG jet diameters were used of 1 and 2 mm and the diesel pipe diameter was 9 mm. Two configurations were considered for the gas injection. In the first the gas was injected from one side while for the second two side entries were used. The CNG to Diesel pressure ratio was varied between 1.5 and 3. The CNG to Diesel mass flow ratios were varied between 0.7 and 0.9. The results demonstrate that using double-sided injection increased the homogeneity of the mixture due to the swirl and acceleration of the mixture. Mass fraction, in both cases, was found to increase as the mixture flows towards the exit. As a result, this enhanced mixing is likely to lead to improvement in the combustion performance.

  10. Pre-eruption recharge of the Bishop magma system (United States)

    Wark, D.A.; Hildreth, W.; Spear, F.S.; Cherniak, D.J.; Watson, E.B.


    The 650 km3 rhyolitic Bishop Tuff (eastern California, USA), which is stratigraphically zoned with respect to temperatures of mineral equilibration, reflects a corresponding thermal gradient in the source magma chamber. Consistent with previous work, application of the new TitaniQ (Ti-in-quartz) thermometer to quartz phenocryst rims documents an ???100 ??C temperature increase with chamber depth at the time of eruption. Application of TitaniQ to quartz phenocryst cores, however, reveals lower temperatures and an earlier gradient that was less steep, with temperature increasing with depth by only ???30 ??C. In many late-erupted crystals, sharp boundaries that separate low-temperature cores from high-temperature rims cut internal cathodoluminescent growth zoning, indicating partial phenocryst dissolution prior to crystallization of the high-temperature rims. Rimward jumps in Ti concentration across these boundaries are too abrupt (e.g., 40 ppm across a distance of <10 ??m) to have survived magmatic temperatures for more than ???100 yr. We interpret these observations to indicate heating-induced partial dissolution of quartz, followed by growth of high-temperature rims (made possible by lowering of water activity due to addition of CO2) within 100 yr of the climactic 760 ka eruption. Hot mafic melts injected into deeper parts of the magma system were the likely source of heat and CO2, raising the possibility that eruption and caldera collapse owe their origin to a recharge event. ?? 2007 Geological Society of America.

  11. Application of the finite difference method to model pH and substrate concentration in a double-chamber microbial fuel cell. (United States)

    Zhang, Liwei; Deshusses, Marc


    The purpose of this study was to develop a mathematical model that can describe glucose degradation in a microbial fuel cell (MFC) with the use of finite difference approach. The dynamic model can describe both substrate and pH changes in the anode chamber of a double-chamber MFC. It was developed using finite differences and incorporates basic mass transfer concepts. Model simulation results could fit the experimental data for substrate consumption well, while there was a moderate discrepancy (maximum 0.11 pH unit) between the simulated pH and the experimental data. A parametric sensitivity analysis showed that increases in acetate and propionate consumption rates can cause great decrease in chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the anode chamber, while an increase in glucose consumption rate does not result in significant changes of COD reduction. Therefore, the rate limitation steps of glucose degradation are the oxidations of secondary degradation products of glucose (acetate and propionate). Due to the buffering effect of the nutrient solution, the increases in glucose, acetate and propionate consumption rates did not result in much change on pH of the anode chamber.

  12. The analysis of applicability of the refractive-index-matching method for flow investigation by LDA method in models of the fire chambers of complex geometry (United States)

    Rakhmanov, Vitaly V.; Kulikov, Dmitry V.


    Possibility of use of a refractive-index-matching method for flow investigation by LDA method in models of the fire chambers of complex geometry is shown. The technique of flows investigation by LDA method is developed. The given technique can be successfully applied in leading branches of a thermal and hydropower engineering, in case of need of flows diagnostics in models of devices with the complex geometry.

  13. Anti-HIV-1 activity of flavonoid myricetin on HIV-1 infection in a dual-chamber in vitro model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Pasetto

    Full Text Available HIV infection by sexual transmission remains an enormous global health concern. More than 1 million new infections among women occur annually. Microbicides represent a promising prevention strategy that women can easily control. Among emerging therapies, natural small molecules such as flavonoids are an important source of new active substances. In this study we report the in vitro cytotoxicity and anti-HIV-1 and microbicide activity of the following flavonoids: Myricetin, Quercetin and Pinocembrin. Cytotoxicity tests were conducted on TZM-bl, HeLa, PBMC, and H9 cell cultures using 0.01-100 µM concentrations. Myricetin presented the lowest toxic effect, with Quercetin and Pinocembrin relatively more toxic. The anti-HIV-1 activity was tested with TZM-bl cell plus HIV-1 BaL (R5 tropic, H9 and PBMC cells plus HIV-1 MN (X4 tropic, and the dual tropic (X4R5 HIV-1 89.6. All flavonoids showed anti-HIV activity, although Myricetin was more effective than Quercetin or Pinocembrin. In TZM-bl cells, Myricetin inhibited ≥90% of HIV-1 BaL infection. The results were confirmed by quantification of HIV-1 p24 antigen in supernatant from H9 and PBMC cells following flavonoid treatment. In H9 and PBMC cells infected by HIV-1 MN and HIV-1 89.6, Myricetin showed more than 80% anti-HIV activity. Quercetin and Pinocembrin presented modest anti-HIV activity in all experiments. Myricetin activity was tested against HIV-RT and inhibited the enzyme by 49%. Microbicide activities were evaluated using a dual-chamber female genital tract model. In the in vitro microbicide activity model, Myricetin showed promising results against different strains of HIV-1 while also showing insignificant cytotoxic effects. Further studies of Myricetin should be performed to identify its molecular targets in order to provide a solid biological foundation for translational research.

  14. Combined effect of permeability and crystallization on the explosive eruption of basaltic magma (United States)

    Moitra, P.; Gonnermann, H. M.; Houghton, B. F.; Crozier, J.


    Plinian eruptions are the most dangerous style of eruptive activity of basaltic magma. In this study, we focus on the two best studied Plinian eruptions of basaltic magma at Mt. Tarawera, New Zealand (1886 CE) and Mt. Etna, Italy (122 BCE). We measured and analyzed the porosity-permeability relationships of the pyroclasts from both eruptions. We then used numerical modeling to assess the relative importance of two competing processes during eruptive magma ascent, which are the syneruptive crystallization that increases viscosity, potentially increasing bubble overpressure, and the open-system degassing of the permeable magma that allows the pressurized gas to escape, potentially reducing bubble overpressure. We find that the onset of crystallization is likely to have occurred prior to the onset of magma percolation. The orders of magnitude increase in magma viscosity due to the nucleation and growth of microlites had the combined effect of rapidly increasing the decompression rate, due to viscous pressure losses associated with magma flow within the volcanic conduit, and decreasing the rates of bubble growth, thus building up large overpressures inside bubbles. Although measured permeabilities of the studied pyroclasts are 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than their silicic counterpart, our model results show that crystallization and subsequent increase in viscosity are likely to surpass the effect of open-system gas loss, thus increasing bubble overpressure, required for explosive magma fragmentation.

  15. Shallow magma targets in the western US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardee, H.C.


    Within the next few years a hole will be drilled into a shallow magma body in the western US for the purpose of evaluating the engineering feasibility of magma energy. This paper examines potential drilling sites for these engineering feasibility experiments. Target sites high on the list are ones that currently exhibit good geophysical and geological data for shallow magma and also have reasonable operational requirements. Top ranked sites for the first magma energy well are Long Valley, CA, and Coso/Indian Wells, CA. Kilauea, HI, also in the top group, is an attractive site for some limited field experiments. A number of additional sites offer promise as eventual magma energy sites, but sparsity of geophysical data presently prevents these sites from being considered for the first magma energy well.

  16. Magma Generation and Transport in Subduction Zones: Numerical Simulations of Chemical, Thermal and Mechanical Coupling During Magma Ascent by Porous Flow (United States)

    Arcay, D.; Gerya, T.; Tackley, P.


    Most subduction zones are characterized by significant magmatic activity responsible for building trench-parallel volcanic arcs above descending slabs. High magma production rates observed within the arcs result from infiltration of water-rich fluids released by slab dehydration. The released water triggers hydrous melting of hot mantle wedges located above the cold slabs. However, the process of magma transport from the melt generation region located above the hydrated slab surface at 100-300 km depth to the magma extraction zone at the volcanic arc surface, and its influence on mantle wedge deformation, are not well known. In particular, during basaltic liquid ascent through the mantle wedge, decreasing pressure and temperature changes are likely to induce significant compositional variations, especially in terms of dissolved water content. Relationships between melt transport and mantle wedge deformation are also not clearly understood. We present a numerical model of magma generation and transport in subduction zones, that simulates chemical, thermal, and mechanical interactions between fluids and solid rocks along the magma ascent pathway. Magma migration is modelled by a porous flow across a constant permeability matrix, while the solid downward current associated with subduction in the mantle wedge, is included. The heat advected by the percolating liquid phase as well as latent heat effect associated with melting will be included. Water exchanges between the molten rock and the solid matrix are computed as a function of pressure, temperature, and solubilities laws in melt. We will first present benchmark results to validate the porous flow modelling as well as the ernery equation resolution for a two- phase flow. The aqueous and magmatic fluid repartition within the mantle wedge will then be presented. Magma productivity rates, varying along the magma ascent path way, will be discussed as a function of magma viscosity.

  17. Silicic magma differentiation in ascent conduits. Experimental constraints (United States)

    Rodríguez, Carmen; Castro, Antonio


    Crystallization of water-bearing silicic magmas in a dynamic thermal boundary layer is reproduced experimentally by using the intrinsic thermal gradient of piston-cylinder assemblies. The standard AGV2 andesite under water-undersaturated conditions is set to crystallize in a dynamic thermal gradient of about 35 °C/mm in 10 mm length capsules. In the hotter area of the capsule, the temperature is initially set at 1200 °C and decreases by programmed cooling at two distinct rates of 0.6 and 9.6 °C/h. Experiments are conducted in horizontally arranged assemblies in a piston cylinder apparatus to avoid any effect of gravity settling and compaction of crystals in long duration runs. The results are conclusive about the effect of water-rich fluids that are expelled out the crystal-rich zone (mush), where water saturation is reached by second boiling in the interstitial liquid. Expelled fluids migrate to the magma ahead of the solidification front contributing to a progressive enrichment in the fluxed components SiO2, K2O and H2O. The composition of water-rich fluids is modelled by mass balance using the chemical composition of glasses (quenched melt). The results are the basis for a model of granite magma differentiation in thermally-zoned conduits with application of in-situ crystallization equations. The intriguing textural and compositional features of the typical autoliths, accompanying granodiorite-tonalite batholiths, can be explained following the results of this study, by critical phenomena leading to splitting of an initially homogeneous magma into two magma systems with sharp boundaries. Magma splitting in thermal boundary layers, formed at the margins of ascent conduits, may operate for several km distances during magma transport from deep sources at the lower crust or upper mantle. Accordingly, conduits may work as chromatographic columns contributing to increase the silica content of ascending magmas and, at the same time, leave behind residual mushes that

  18. Two crustal flowing channels and volcanic magma migration underneath the SE margin of the Tibetan Plateau as revealed by surface wave tomography (United States)

    Wu, Tengfei; Zhang, Shuangxi; Li, Mengkui; Qin, Weibing; Zhang, Chaoyu


    The SE margin of the Tibetan Plateau is an important area to develop a better understanding of the plateau uplift and the Indian-Eurasian continental collision dynamics. Previous studies have reported widespread low-velocity anomalies beneath this region, particularly in the Tengchong volcanic field (TCVF). However, the spatial distribution and dynamic processes of these low-velocity anomalies are not well constrained. In this study, a 3-D S-wave velocity structure model of the crust and upper mantle (10-120 km) in the region is constructed by the inversion of surface wave dispersion data. A two-step inversion procedure is adopted to generate the S-wave velocity structure images. The measured phase velocities and inverted S-wave velocities jointly show a large-scale low-velocity anomaly distributed in the crust, consistent with the view that the region is the passageway of the eastward migration of Tibetan Plateau material. Two crustal flowing channels are clearly observed at depths of ∼20 km and ∼30 km, which connect and rotate clockwise around the Eastern Himalaya Syntaxis. Beneath the TCVF, there are two prominent low-velocity anomaly zones at depths of ∼15-25 km and ∼50-80 km, which indicate the existence of magma chambers. One of the crustal flowing channels is connected with the magma chamber of the TCVF, and the other has a short branch north of Kunming toward the Mile-Shizong fault at a depth of 20 km. Based on the distribution of the S-wave velocities under the TCVF, a dynamic model of the Tengchong volcano magma system is proposed to explain the migration patterns of the volcanic material.

  19. Geochemical characteristics of hydrous basaltic magmas due to assimilation and fractional crystallization: the Ikoma gabbroic complex, southwest Japan (United States)

    Koizumi, N.; Okudaira, T.; Ogawa, D.; Yamashita, K.; Suda, Y.


    To clarify the processes that occur in hydrous basaltic magma chambers, we have undertaken detailed petrological and geochemical analyses of mafic and intermediate rocks from the Ikoma gabbroic complex, southwest Japan. The complex consists mainly of hornblende gabbros, hornblende gabbronorites, and hornblende leucogabbros. The hornblende leucogabbros are characterized by low TiO2 and high CaO contents, whereas the hornblende gabbronorites have high TiO2 and low CaO contents. The initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (SrI) of the hornblende gabbronorites and hornblende gabbros are higher than those of the hornblende leucogabbros and plagioclase, and they may have resulted from a higher degree of assimilation of metasediments. The geochemical features of the hornblende leucogabbros and hornblende gabbronorites can be explained by accumulation of plagioclase and ilmenite, respectively, in a hybrid magma that formed by chemical interaction between mafic magma and metasediment, whereas the hornblende gabbros were produced by a high degree of crustal assimilation and fractional crystallization of this hybrid magma. As a result of the density differences between crystals and melt, the Ikoma gabbroic rocks formed by the accumulation of plagioclase in the middle of the magma chamber and by the accumulation of ilmenite in the bottom of the chamber. Taking into account the subsequent assimilation and fractional crystallization, our observations suggest an enriched mantle (SrI = ~0.7071) as the source material for the Ikoma gabbros.

  20. The three stages of magma ocean cooling (United States)

    Warren, Paul H.


    Models of magma ocean (MO) cooling and crystallization can provide important constraints on MO plausibility for a given planet, on the origin of long term, stable crusts, and even on the origin of the solar system. Assuming the MO is initially extensive enough to have a mostly molten surface, its first stage of cooling is an era of radiative heat loss from the surface, with extremely rapid convection below, and no conductive layer in between. The development of the chill crust starts the second stage of MO cooling. Heat loss is now limited by conduction through the crust. The third stage of cooling starts when the near surface MO evolves compositionally to the point of saturation with feldspar. At this point, the cooling rate again precipitously diminishes, the rate of crustal thickness growth as a function of temperature suddenly increases. More work on incorporating chemical constraints into the evolving physical models of MO solidification would be worthwhile.

  1. Geochronology and assembly model of the Wooley Creek batholith, Klamath Mountains, northern California: A potential equivalent for magma reservoirs below cordilleran volcanoes (United States)

    Coint, N.; Barnes, C. G.; Yoshinobu, A. S.; Chamberlain, K.; Barnes, M. A.


    The Wooley Creek batholith located in the Klamath Mountains, northern California, is a tilted, calc-alkaline pluton emplaced between 159 and 155 Ma through three different accreted terranes. Exposure of 10 km structural relief through the intrusive complex and the preservation of associated roof dikes makes it an ideal place to understand the volcanic-plutonic connection. The batholith can be divided in three main zones. Two-pyroxene diorite to tonalite that are texturally heterogeneous constitute the lower zone. CA-TIMS data indicate that it was emplaced over much less than 1 m.y. (159.22 × 0.10 Ma to 158.99 × 0.17 Ma). The scatter observed in bulk rock compositions, coupled with field observations and pyroxene trace element analysis suggest that lower-zone magmas were emplaced rapidly as numerous batches that did not homogenize. Mass balance calculations indicate that these rocks are 30-100% cumulate (Barnes et al., AGU Fall meeting 2013), suggesting that a large volume of melt was extracted from the system. The upper zone is upwardly zoned from biotite hornblende tonalite in the lowest structural level to biotite hornblende granite at the top. CA-TIMS data indicate that the upper zone was also emplaced in a short time interval: 158.25 × 0.46 Ma and 158.21 × 0.17 Ma. Upper-zone rocks define linear trends in Harker diagrams, consistent with fractional crystallization. Hornblende trace element concentrations vary consistently throughout the zone, however no correlation exists between the SiO2 content of the rock and the hornblende trace element concentrations, indicating that hornblende grew from a homogeneous melt. The upper zone was therefore interpreted as representing a frozen magmatic reservoir that was once able to convect and homogenize. The broad upward zoning formed by melt percolation through a crystal-rich mush. The central zone is a transition zone. It was emplaced between 159.01 × 0.20 Ma and 158.30 × 0.16 Ma and is composed of rocks from both

  2. On the cooling of a deep terrestrial magma ocean (United States)

    Monteux, J.; Andrault, D.; Samuel, H.


    In its early evolution, the Earth mantle likely experienced several episodes of complete melting enhanced by giant impact heating, short-lived radionuclides heating and viscous dissipation during the metal/silicate separation. We have developed numerical models to monitor the thermo-chemical evolution of a cooling and crystallizing magma ocean from an initially fully molten mantle. For this purpose, we use a 1D approach accounting for turbulent convective heat transfer. Our numerical model benchmarked with analytical solutions solves the heat equation in spherical geometry. This model also integrates recent and strong experimental constraints from mineral physics such as adiabatic temperature profiles and liquidus/solidus up 140 GPa for different mantle compositions. Our preliminary results show that a deep magma ocean starts to crystallize rapidly after its formation. The cooling efficiency of the magma ocean is strongly dependent on the coupling with the core cooling. Hence, depending on the thermal boundary layer thickness at the CMB, the thermal coupling between the core and magma ocean can either insulate the core during the MO solidification and favor a hot core, generate the formation of a thin basal molten layer or empty the heat from the core. Then, once the melt fraction reaches a critical value, the cooling efficiency becomes limited.

  3. Calc-alkali rocks derived from tholeiite magma in Hakone volcano; pyroxene crystallization trends and pyroxene geothermometry to estimate the magma temperature (United States)

    Ishii, T.


    Calc-alkali rocks are widely distributed in the island arcs. The several models of their magma-genesis were proposed by many geoscientists (e.g. Kuno 1950, Osborn 1959, Sakuyama 1981, Tatsumi 2011) on the bases of precise petrological investigations. Crystallization trends of rock forming minerals (pyroxene, feldspar etc.) in the individual lava flow of the hydrous tholeiitic magma are represented by chemical zoning from phenocryst through microphenocryst to the groundmass in each lava. Those trends indicate degassing (or dehydrating) trends of erupted lava (Ishii 1991). Crystallization trend of minerals of hydrous magma in the subvolcanic magma reservoir is represented by core of phenocrysts throughout lava-flow strata in each volcano. Those trends indicate water-enrichment (or hydrating) trend in the magma reservoir. On the bases of the detailed analyses of the pyroxene crystallization sequences as well as estimated magmatic temperatures using pyroxene geothermometer, for calc-alkali rocks from the Central Cone (CC) in the Hakone volcano, the following working hypothesis is suggested, i.e. those calc-alkali rocks are induced by magma mixing between high temperature (about 1120 Degree Centigrade) tholeiite magma and low temperature (about 970 Degree Centigrade) magma, the latter is originated from fractional crystallization of the primitive high temperature hydras island-arc tholeiite magma within magma reservoir under closed environment for water. Reference Ishii, T., 1991. Lava-flow and subvolcanic magma reservoir composition trends in the Ca-poor pyroxenes of Hakone Volcano, Japan. Jour. Petrol., 32, 429-450 Kuno, H., 1950. Petrology of Hakone volcano and the adjacent areas, Japan. Bull. Geol. Soc. Am., 61, 957-1019. Sakuyama, M., 1981. Petrological study of the Myoko and Kurohime volcanoes, Japan: crystallization sequence and evidence for magma mixing. Jour. Petrol., 22, 553-583. Osborn, E. F., 1959. Role of oxygen pressure in the crystallization and

  4. Experimental Constraints on a Vesta Magma Ocean (United States)

    Hoff, C.; Jones, J. H.; Le, L.


    A magma ocean model was devised to relate eucrites (basalts) and diogenites (orthopyroxenites), which are found mixed together as clasts in a suite of polymict breccias known as howardites. The intimate association of eucritic and diogenitic clasts in howardites argues strongly that these three classes of achondritic meteorites all originated from the same planetoid. Reflectance spectral evidence (including that from the DAWN mission) has long suggested that Vesta is indeed the Eucrite Parent Body. Specifically, the magma ocean model was generated as follows: (i) the bulk Vesta composition was taken to be 0.3 CV chondrite + 0.7 L chondrite but using only 10% of the Na2O from this mixture; (ii) this composition is allowed to crystallize at 500 bar until approx. 80% of the system is solid olivine + low-Ca pyroxene; (iii) the remaining 20% liquid crystallizes at one bar from 1250C to 1110C, a temperature slightly above the eucrite solidus. All crystallization calculations were performed using MELTS. In this model, diogenites are produced by cocrystallization of olivine and pyroxene in the >1250C temperature regime, with Main Group eucrite liquids being generated in the 1300-1250C temperature interval. Low-Ca pyroxene reappears at 1210C in the one-bar calculations and fractionates the residual liquid to produce evolved eucrite compositions (Stannern Trend). We have attempted to experimentally reproduce the Vesta magma ocean. In the MELTS calculation, the change from 500 bar to one bar results in a shift of the olivine:low-Ca pyroxene boundary so that the 1250C liquid is now in the olivine field and, consequently, olivine should be the first-crystallizing phase, followed by low-Ca pyroxene at 1210C, and plagioclase at 1170C. Because at one bar the olivine:low-Ca pyroxene boundary is a peritectic, fractional crystallization of the 1210C liquid proceeds with only pyroxene crystallization until plagioclase appears. Thus, the predictions of the MELTS calculation are clear

  5. Magma mixing during the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption (United States)

    Portnyagin, M.; Borisova, A. Y.; Plechov, P.; Shkurski, B.; Stefansson, A.


    We performed detailed study of matrix glasses, olivines and melt inclusions in 6 samples of tephras of the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption. Tephras erupted during the early basaltic stage (March 20 - April 13) are very homogeneous with respect to matrix glass compositions and host assemblage of primitive phenocrysts (olivine Fo75-87, Cr-spinel Cr# = 0.14 - 0.55). The olivines have normal or rhythmic zoning which suggests multiple episodes of mixing with more primitive magmas and crystallization before eruption. Glasses of the initial andesitic stage (April 14 - 30) fall into three groups: basaltic (group 2a, andesitic (group 2b, >80% ) and dacitic (group 2c, andesitic stage (May 1 - 22, group 3) have exclusively andesitic composition, slightly more primitive than on the early stage. The compositions of olivine cores and Cr-spinel inclusions in olivine in the late stage andesites are identical to those in basalts and suggest injection of basaltic magma into silicic magma shortly before eruption of andesite. The composition of shallow magma reservoir before the 2010 eruption could have composition similar to the group 2c glasses. A remarkable peculiarity of silicic Eyjafjallajökull glasses is high Cl (0.2-0.45 wt%) and high Cl/K2O (0.07-0.13) which are higher compared to basaltic glasses and primitive inclusions in olivine (Cl=0.02-0.09 wt%, Cl/K2O=0.04-0.09). The Cl enrichment in silicic Eyjafjallajökull melts may be an indicator of assimilation of crustal rocks altered via interaction with Cl-rich surface or oceanic waters. To estimate the residence time of basaltic xenocrysts in andesitic magma erupted on May 11, we measured compositional profiles in olivine xenocrysts and calculated the time required to form such a zoning via Fe-Mg diffusion. Orientation of the studied olivine sections has been determined with universal table and verified by comparing the facet angles with the ideal olivine crystal shape. Our modeling indicates that the high-Mg olivine

  6. The Effect of Thermal Cycling on Crystal-Liquid Separation During Lunar Magma Ocean Differentiation (United States)

    Mills, Ryan D.


    Differentiation of magma oceans likely involves a mixture of fractional and equilibrium crystallization [1]. The existence of: 1) large volumes of anorthosite in the lunar highlands and 2) the incompatible- rich (KREEP) reservoir suggests that fractional crystallization may have dominated during differentiation of the Moon. For this to have occurred, crystal fractionation must have been remarkably efficient. Several authors [e.g. 2, 3] have hypothesized that equilibrium crystallization would have dominated early in differentiation of magma oceans because of crystal entrainment during turbulent convection. However, recent numerical modeling [4] suggests that crystal settling could have occurred throughout the entire solidification history of the lunar magma ocean if crystals were large and crystal fraction was low. These results indicate that the crystal size distribution could have played an important role in differentiation of the lunar magma ocean. Here, I suggest that thermal cycling from tidal heating during lunar magma ocean crystallization caused crystals to coarsen, leading to efficient crystal-liquid separation.

  7. Timescales of Quartz Crystallization and the Longevity of the Bishop Giant Magma Body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gualda, Guilherme A.R.; Pamukcu, Ayla S.; Ghiorso, Mark S.; Anderson, Jr. , Alfred T.; Sutton, Stephen R.; Rivers, Mark L. (OFM Res.); (Vanderbilt); (UC)


    Supereruptions violently transfer huge amounts (100 s-1000 s km{sup 3}) of magma to the surface in a matter of days and testify to the existence of giant pools of magma at depth. The longevity of these giant magma bodies is of significant scientific and societal interest. Radiometric data on whole rocks, glasses, feldspar and zircon crystals have been used to suggest that the Bishop Tuff giant magma body, which erupted {approx}760,000 years ago and created the Long Valley caldera (California), was long-lived (>100,000 years) and evolved rather slowly. In this work, we present four lines of evidence to constrain the timescales of crystallization of the Bishop magma body: (1) quartz residence times based on diffusional relaxation of Ti profiles, (2) quartz residence times based on the kinetics of faceting of melt inclusions, (3) quartz and feldspar crystallization times derived using quartz+feldspar crystal size distributions, and (4) timescales of cooling and crystallization based on thermodynamic and heat flow modeling. All of our estimates suggest quartz crystallization on timescales of <10,000 years, more typically within 500-3,000 years before eruption. We conclude that large-volume, crystal-poor magma bodies are ephemeral features that, once established, evolve on millennial timescales. We also suggest that zircon crystals, rather than recording the timescales of crystallization of a large pool of crystal-poor magma, record the extended periods of time necessary for maturation of the crust and establishment of these giant magma bodies.

  8. Timescales of quartz crystallization and the longevity of the Bishop giant magma body. (United States)

    Gualda, Guilherme A R; Pamukcu, Ayla S; Ghiorso, Mark S; Anderson, Alfred T; Sutton, Stephen R; Rivers, Mark L


    Supereruptions violently transfer huge amounts (100 s-1000 s km(3)) of magma to the surface in a matter of days and testify to the existence of giant pools of magma at depth. The longevity of these giant magma bodies is of significant scientific and societal interest. Radiometric data on whole rocks, glasses, feldspar and zircon crystals have been used to suggest that the Bishop Tuff giant magma body, which erupted ~760,000 years ago and created the Long Valley caldera (California), was long-lived (>100,000 years) and evolved rather slowly. In this work, we present four lines of evidence to constrain the timescales of crystallization of the Bishop magma body: (1) quartz residence times based on diffusional relaxation of Ti profiles, (2) quartz residence times based on the kinetics of faceting of melt inclusions, (3) quartz and feldspar crystallization times derived using quartz+feldspar crystal size distributions, and (4) timescales of cooling and crystallization based on thermodynamic and heat flow modeling. All of our estimates suggest quartz crystallization on timescales of <10,000 years, more typically within 500-3,000 years before eruption. We conclude that large-volume, crystal-poor magma bodies are ephemeral features that, once established, evolve on millennial timescales. We also suggest that zircon crystals, rather than recording the timescales of crystallization of a large pool of crystal-poor magma, record the extended periods of time necessary for maturation of the crust and establishment of these giant magma bodies.

  9. Zircon reveals protracted magma storage and recycling beneath Mount St. Helens (United States)

    Claiborne, L.L.; Miller, C.F.; Flanagan, D.M.; Clynne, M.A.; Wooden, J.L.


    Current data and models for Mount St. Helens volcano (Washington, United States) suggest relatively rapid transport from magma genesis to eruption, with no evidence for protracted storage or recycling of magmas. However, we show here that complex zircon age populations extending back hundreds of thousands of years from eruption age indicate that magmas regularly stall in the crust, cool and crystallize beneath the volcano, and are then rejuvenated and incorporated by hotter, young magmas on their way to the surface. Estimated dissolution times suggest that entrained zircon generally resided in rejuvenating magmas for no more than about a century. Zircon elemental compositions reflect the increasing influence of mafic input into the system through time, recording growth from hotter, less evolved magmas tens of thousands of years prior to the appearance of mafic magmas at the surface, or changes in whole-rock geochemistry and petrology, and providing a new, time-correlated record of this evolution independent of the eruption history. Zircon data thus reveal the history of the hidden, long-lived intrusive portion of the Mount St. Helens system, where melt and crystals are stored for as long as hundreds of thousands of years and interact with fresh influxes of magmas that traverse the intrusive reservoir before erupting. ?? 2010 Geological Society of America.

  10. Comparison of depth-dose distributions of proton therapeutic beams calculated by means of logical detectors and ionization chamber modeled in Monte Carlo codes (United States)

    Pietrzak, Robert; Konefał, Adam; Sokół, Maria; Orlef, Andrzej


    The success of proton therapy depends strongly on the precision of treatment planning. Dose distribution in biological tissue may be obtained from Monte Carlo simulations using various scientific codes making it possible to perform very accurate calculations. However, there are many factors affecting the accuracy of modeling. One of them is a structure of objects called bins registering a dose. In this work the influence of bin structure on the dose distributions was examined. The MCNPX code calculations of Bragg curve for the 60 MeV proton beam were done in two ways: using simple logical detectors being the volumes determined in water, and using a precise model of ionization chamber used in clinical dosimetry. The results of the simulations were verified experimentally in the water phantom with Marcus ionization chamber. The average local dose difference between the measured relative doses in the water phantom and those calculated by means of the logical detectors was 1.4% at first 25 mm, whereas in the full depth range this difference was 1.6% for the maximum uncertainty in the calculations less than 2.4% and for the maximum measuring error of 1%. In case of the relative doses calculated with the use of the ionization chamber model this average difference was somewhat greater, being 2.3% at depths up to 25 mm and 2.4% in the full range of depths for the maximum uncertainty in the calculations of 3%. In the dose calculations the ionization chamber model does not offer any additional advantages over the logical detectors. The results provided by both models are similar and in good agreement with the measurements, however, the logical detector approach is a more time-effective method.

  11. Rheology of crystal-bearing natural magmas: Torsional deformation experiments at 800 °C and 100 MPa (United States)

    Okumura, Satoshi; Kushnir, Alexandra R. L.; Martel, Caroline; Champallier, Rémi; Thibault, Quentin; Takeuchi, Shingo


    Rheological behavior of crystal-bearing magma is a controlling factor of magma flow dynamics and hence the style of volcanic eruptions. In this study, we performed torsional deformation experiments to determine the viscosity of crystal-bearing rhyolitic and dacitic magmas. The experiments were conducted at a temperature of 800 °C and under confining and pore fluid pressures of 100 and 80 MPa, respectively, by using an internally heated gas-medium deformation apparatus. To simulate the rheology of natural magma, we deformed volcanic rocks with 16 and 45 vol% crystallinities and gas bubbles. These rocks have different crystal and bubble shape and size, which appear to influence magma rheology. By using the mechanical data obtained, we calculated flow indices and viscosities for these magmas. For magma with 16 vol% crystallinity, the flow index showed good agreement with previous data obtained from experiments on synthetic magma analogues and model predictions. In contrast, the flow index was smaller than those obtained from previous experiments and model predictions at 45 vol% crystallinity, which may be explained by considering that natural magma contains crystals with different shapes and sizes. We also found that the apparent viscosity of the magma increased when sample-scale fractures were observed in run products. This means that the heterogeneity of natural magma causes locally stiff regions within the sample owing to crystal interaction. Our data indicate that the viscosity of crystal-rich magma is strongly dependent on the strain rate. This implies that magma ascending in a volcanic conduit shows a plug-type flow because the viscosity decreases near the conduit rim where the strain rate is high. Additionally, if shear localises near the rim, a currently unrecognised mechanism may contribute to outgassing from the central portion of the conduit because outgassing is difficult to facilitate without shear deformation.

  12. Formation of redox gradients during magma-magma mixing (United States)

    Ruprecht, P.; Fiege, A.; Simon, A. C.


    Magma-mixing is a key process that controls mass transfer in magmatic systems. The variations in melt compositions near the magma-magma interface potentially change the Fe oxidation state [1] and, thus, affect the solubility and transport of metals. To test this hypothesis, diffusion-couple experiments were performed at 1000 °C, 150 MPa and QFM+4. Synthesized crystal-bearing cylinders of hydrous dacite and hydrous basaltic andesite were equilibrated for up to 80 h. The run products show that mafic components (Fe, Mg, etc.) were transported from the andesite into the dacite, while Si, Na and K diffused from the dacite into the andesite. A crystal dissolution sequence in the order of cpx, opx, plag, and spl/il was observed for the andesite. We combined μ-XANES spectroscopy at Fe K-edge [2] with two-oxide oxybarometry [3] to measure redox profiles within our experiments. Here, fO2 decreased towards the interface within the dacite and increased towards the interface within the andesite. This discontinuous fO2 evolution, with a sharp redox gradient of ~1.8 log fO2 units at the interface was maintained throughout the time-series despite the externally imposed fO2 of the vessel. We propose a combination of two mechanisms that create and sustain this redox gradient: 1) The dissolution of cpx and opx in the andesite mainly introduced Fe2+ into the melt, which diffused towards the dacite, lowering Fe3+/SFe near the interface. 2) Charge balance calculations in the melt during diffusive exchange suggest net positive charge excess in the andesite near the interface (i.e., oxidation) and net negative charge excess in the dacite near the interface (i.e., reduction). We suggest that this (metastable) redox layer can help to explain the contrasting Au/Cu ratios observed for arc-related porphyry-type ore deposits. [1] Moretti (2005), Ann. Geophys. 48, 583-608. [2] Cottrell et al. (2009), Chem. Geol. 268, 167-179. [3] Ghiorso and Evans (2008), Am. J. Sci. 308, 957-1039.

  13. Temporal magma source changes at Gaua volcano, Vanuatu island arc (United States)

    Beaumais, Aurélien; Bertrand, Hervé; Chazot, Gilles; Dosso, Laure; Robin, Claude


    Gaua Island (also called Santa Maria), from the central part of the Vanuatu arc, consists of a large volcano marked by a caldera that hosts the active Mount Garet summit cone. In this paper, a geochemical study including Sr, Nd, Pb and Hf isotopic compositions of 25 lavas emitted since 1.8 Ma is presented, with a focus on the volcanic products that preceded (old volcanics, main cone and pyroclastic series) and followed (Mount Garet) the caldera forming event. All lavas show an island arc signature with enrichment in LILE and depletion in HFSE. Post-caldera lavas define a medium-K calc-alkaline trend, whereas lavas from the former main cone have high-K calc-alkaline compositions. Compared to the pre-caldera volcanic suite, the Mount Garet lavas have similar Th/Nb ( 1.5), 143Nd/144Nd ( 0.51295) and 176Hf/177Hf ( 0.28316) ratios, but higher Ba/La ( 42 vs. 27) and 87Sr/86Sr (0.70417 vs. 0.70405) ratios and lower Ce/Pb ( 2.7 vs. 4.6), La/Sm ( 2.5 vs. 4.0) and 206Pb/204Pb (18.105 vs. 18.176) ratios. High Th/Nb and low Nd and Hf isotopic ratios compared to N-MORB suggest the contribution of 2% of subducted sediment melt to the mantle source of Gaua magmas. Most of the observed differences between pre- and post-caldera lavas can be accounted for by the involvement of at least two portions of the mantle wedge, metasomatized by different slab-derived aqueous fluids. In addition, the lower La/Sm (at a given 143Nd/144Nd) ratios of Mount Garet lavas suggest a higher degree of partial melting ( 10-15%) compared to the pre-caldera lavas ( 5%). The Santa Maria Pyroclastic Series (SMPS) eruption probably triggered the caldera collapse, in response to emptying of the magmatic chamber. This event may have allowed new access to the surface for a geochemically distinct batch of magma issued from a separate magma chamber, resulting in the birth and construction of Mount Garet within the caldera. As both magmatic suites were emitted over a very short time, the storage of their parental

  14. Why do Martian Magmas erupt? (United States)

    Balta, J. B.; McSween, H. Y.


    Eruption of silicate lava, whether on Earth or another planet, requires that at some depth the melt has lower density than the surrounding rocks. As the densities of silicate liquids change during crystallization, whether a particular silicate liquid will erupt or be trapped at a level of neutral buoyancy is a complex yet fundamental issue for planetary dynamics. In general, 3 factors drive surface eruptions: inherent buoyancy relative to mantle phases, compositional evolution, and volatile contents. These factors manifest on Earth as terrestrial basalts commonly have compositions close to a density minimum [1]. Recent work has produced estimates of Martian parental magma compositions [2-5] based on shergottite meteorites and from Gusev crater. Using the MELTS algorithm [6] and other density calibrations, we simulated evolution of these liquids, focusing on density changes. For much of the crystallization path, density is controlled by FeO. All of the liquids begin with ρ ~ 2.8 g/cc at 1 bar, and the evolution of liquid density is controlled by the liquidus phases. At low pressures, olivine is the liquidus phase for each melt, and as FeO is not incompatible in olivine, olivine crystallization decreases liquid density, increasing buoyancy with crystallization. However, FeO is incompatible in pyroxene, and thus liquids crystallizing pyroxene become denser and less buoyant with crystallization, producing liquids with densities up to and above 3.0 g/cc. As the olivine-pyroxene saturation relationship is affected by pressure and chemistry, the identity of the liquidus phase and density evolution will vary between magmas. Without spreading centers, Mars has no location where the mantle approaches the surface, and it is likely that any magma which is denser than the crust will stall below or within that crust. The crystallization path of a liquid is a function of pressure, with pyroxene crystallizing first at P > 10 kbar (~80 km depth), close to the base of the Martian

  15. Interaction between two contrasting magmas in the Albtal pluton (Schwarzwald, SW Germany): textural and mineral-chemical evidence (United States)

    Michel, Lorenz; Wenzel, Thomas; Markl, Gregor


    The magmatic evolution of the Variscan Albtal pluton, Schwarzwald, SW Germany, is explored using detailed textural observations and the chemical composition of plagioclase and biotite in both granite and its mafic magmatic enclaves (MMEs). MMEs probably formed in a two-step process. First, mafic magma intruded a granitic magma chamber and created a boundary layer, which received thermal and compositional input from the mafic magma. This is indicated by corroded "granitic" quartz crystals and by large "granitic" plagioclase xenocrysts, which contain zones of higher anorthite and partly crystallized from a melt of higher Sr content. Texturally, different plagioclase types (e.g. zoned and inclusion-rich types) correspond to different degrees of overprint most likely caused by a thermal and compositional gradient in the boundary layer. The intrusion of a second mafic magma batch into the boundary layer is recorded by a thin An50 zone along plagioclase rims that crystallized from a melt enriched in Sr. Most probably, the second mafic intrusion caused disruption of the boundary layer, dispersal of the hybrid magma in the granite magma and formation of the enclaves. Rapid thermal quenching of the MMEs in the granite magma is manifested by An30 overgrowths on large plagioclase grains that contain needle apatites. Our results demonstrate the importance of microtextural investigations for the reconstruction of possible mixing end members in the formation of granites.

  16. Sulfate Saturated Hydrous Magmas Associated with Hydrothermal Gold Ores (United States)

    Chambefort, I.; Dilles, J. H.; Kent, A. J.


    -ICP-MS. Yanacocha anhydrite, hosted by amphiboles, are enriched in FeO (up to 0.6 wt%) and present positive anomalies in Eu and SrO (up to 8000ppm in anhydrite blebs hosted by high Al amphibole of the sample RC6). Anhydrite hosted by clinopyroxene (CPx) and low Al amphibole present higher Ce2O3 content (up to 2000ppm in CPx). In comparison, hydrothermal anhydrite analyzed from El Salvador, Butte and Ajo ore deposits contain less SrO (~ 2000 ppm) and no FeO. Pinatubo anhydrite phenocrysts and inclusions from the 1991 Pinatubo dacite yield low FeO contents, except anhydrite included in amphibole. These data suggest FeO in anhydrite is a product of subsolidus diffusion from the host. The breakdown of abundant anhydrite crystals "stored" in the magma may source of SO2-rich hydrothermal fluids that produced the sulfur enrichment (>500 M Tonnes) observed the Yanacocha hydrothermal gold deposits. The two populations of amphibole are evidence of magma mixing in the Yanacocha magmatic rocks. A sulfate-saturated oxidized dacitic magma chamber resided at about 4 to 8 km depth and 800°C was periodically underplated or fed by hydrous sulfate-rich oxidized basaltic-andesite magma. The shape of the irregular anhydrite blebs suggest that these inclusions could have been trapped as an immiscible sulfate- phosphate rich melt, despite the fact that anhydrite normally has a liquidus temperature of 1450°C and the host amphiboles crystallized at no more than 1050°C based on experiments on andesites and dacites.

  17. Seismic Tremors and Magma Wagging During Explosive Volcanism (United States)

    Jellinek, M.; Bercovici, D.


    Volcanic tremor is a ubiquitous feature of explosive eruptions. This ground oscillation persists for minutes to weeks and is characterized by a remarkably narrow band of frequencies (i.e., ~0.5 - 7 Hz). Prior to major eruptions, tremor can occur in concert with ground deformation probably related to a buildup of magmatic gas. Volcanic tremor is, thus, of particular value for eruption forecasting. Most models for volcanic tremor rely on specific properties of the geometry, structure and constitution of volcanic conduits as well as the gas content of the erupting magma. Because neither the initial structure nor the evolution of the magma-conduit system will be the same from one volcano to the next, it is surprising that tremor characteristics are so consistent among different volcanoes. Indeed, this universality of tremor properties remains a major enigma. Here we employ the contemporary view that silicic magma rises in the conduit as a columnar plug surrounded by a highly vesicular annulus of sheared bubbles. We demonstrate that, for most geologically relevant conditions, the magma column will oscillate or "wag" against the restoring "gas-spring" force of the annulus at observed tremor frequencies. In contrast to previous models, the magma wagging oscillation is relatively insensitive to the conduit structure and geometry, thereby predicting the narrow band of tremor frequencies observed around the world. Moreover, the model predicts that as an eruption proceeds there will be an upward drift in both the maximum frequency and the total signal frequency bandwidth, the nature of which depends on the explosivity of the eruption, as observed.

  18. Three-Dimensional Numerical Simulation for Coherent Flamelet Model in a Swirl Chamber Diesel Engine%涡流室式柴油机相关火焰微元燃烧模型的三维数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏兴兰; 李德桃; 董刚; 杨文明


    The combustion in the swirl chamber is broken into three phases: low temperature ignition kinetics, high temperature premixed kinetics burn and diffusion burn phase.While the burn in the main chamber is considered as diffusion combustion. The shell ignition model, global Arrhenius equation and coherent flamelet model are used to model low temperature ignition, high temperature premixed burn and diffusion burn respectively. Three-dimensional numerical calculation code is developed. The change of temperature fields in the swirl chamber is studied. The pressure and the heat release rate predicted by the model are coincided with the results derived from experiments.

  19. Important role of magma mixing in generating the Mesozoic monzodioritic-granodioritic intrusions related to Cu mineralization, Tongling, East China: evidence from petrological and in situ Sr-Hf isotopic data (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Chen, ChangJian


    The Mesozoic ore-bearing high-Mg monzodioritic-granodioritic rocks in the Tongling mining district (East China) have been described as having adakitic affinities, and their origin has been attributed to partial melting of delaminated eclogite at depth in the mantle, followed by interaction of the resultant granitic magma with mantle peridotite. Here we present petrological data and in situ Sr isotopic data for zoned plagioclase that are inconsistent with the eclogite-derived model, and instead propose a model that involves magma mixing of siliceous crustal melts and basaltic magma that was derived from metasomatized mantle by subduction zone fluids in an extensional regime. The principal geochemical signatures of these Mesozoic rocks include a hydrous and high-K calc-alkaline affinity, high values of Mg#, high Sr abundances, high Sr/Y and La/Yb ratios, ɛNd(t)=-13.1 to -9.0, and ISr=0.70707-0.70824. The magma mixing model is supported by (1) the common existence of mafic microgranular enclaves (MMEs) and the disequilibrium textures of plagioclase and hornblende, (2) the increase in Ti and Al(IV) from hornblende cores to rims, and the overgrowths of high-Ca pyroxene around hornblende grains as well, indicative of episode of heating and rejuvenation of the magma chamber as a result of recharge of mafic magma, (3) the 87Sr/86Sr ratios of embayed high-Ca cores of plagioclase that are distinctly lower than in the euhedral low-Ca overgrowth rims, (4) negative correlations between whole-rock Nd and Sr isotopic ratios, and (5) the significant differences in the values of ɛHf(t) (-9.5 to -26) within different zircons from the same intrusion. We propose that underplating of hydrous basaltic magma from the metasomatized lithospheric mantle in the lower crust resulted in partial melting of the lower crustal rocks (Precambrian TTG gneisses and amphibolite/granulite) under water-saturated conditions, during which plagioclase decomposed, leaving hornblende-rich restites and

  20. Proposal of a numerical modeling of reactive flows in combustion chambers of turbojet engines; Proposition d`une modelisation numerique des ecoulements reactifs dans les foyers de turboreacteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravet, F. [Rouen Univ., 76 - Mont-Saint-Aignan (France)]|[SNECMA, 77 - Moissy-Cramayel (France); Baudoin, Ch.; Schultz, J.L. [SNECMA, 77 - Moissy-Cramayel (France)


    Simplifying hypotheses are required when combustion and aerodynamic phenomena are considered simultaneously. In this paper, a turbulent combustion model is proposed, in which the combustion chemistry is reduced to a single reaction. In this way, only two variables are needed to describe the problem and combustion can be characterized by the consumption of one of the two reactive species. In a first step, the instantaneous consumption rate is obtained using the Lagrangian form of the mass fraction equation of the species under consideration, and by considering the equilibrium state only. This state is determined in order to preserve the consistency with results that should be obtained using a complete kinetics scheme. In a second step, the average rate is determined using the instantaneous consumption term and a probabilistic density function. This model was tested on various configurations and in particular on an experimental main chamber and on a reheating chamber. Results indicate that this model could be used to predict temperature levels inside these combustion chambers. Other applications, like the prediction of pollutant species emission can be considered. (J.S.) 12 refs.

  1. ISR Intersection Vacuum Chamber

    CERN Multimedia


    This special vacuum chamber presenting a lateral opening at the beam crossing point is one of the many chambers specifically designed for a particular experiment. Here it is shown during assembly at the ISR mechanical worshop.

  2. Magma Energy Research Project, FY80 annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colp, J.L. (ed.)


    The technical feasibility of extracting energy from magma bodies is explored. Five aspects of the project are studied: resource location and definition, source tapping, magma characterization, magma/material compatibility, and energy extraction.

  3. Magma mixing enhanced by bubble segregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Wiesmaier


    Full Text Available That rising bubbles may significantly affect magma mixing paths has already been demon strated by analogue experiments. Here, for the first time, bubble-advection experiments are performed employing volcanic melts at magmatic temperatures. Cylinders of basaltic glass were placed below cylinders of rhyolite glass. Upon melting, interstitial air formed bubbles that rose into the rhyolite melt, thereby entraining tails of basaltic liquid. The formation of plume-like filaments of advected basalt within the rhyolite was characterized by microCT and subsequent high-resolution EMP analyses. Melt entrainment by bubble ascent appears to be an efficient mechanism for mingling volcanic melts of highly contrasting compositions and properties. MicroCT imaging reveals bubbles trailing each other and multiple filaments coalescing into bigger ones. Rheological modelling of the filaments yields viscosities of up to 2 orders of magnitude lower than for the surrounding rhyolitic liquid. Such a viscosity contrast implies that bubbles rising successively are likely to follow this pathway of low resistance that previously ascending bubbles have generated. Filaments formed by multiple bubbles would thus experience episodic replenishment with mafic material. Inevitable implications for the concept of bubble advection in magma mixing include thereby both an acceleration of mixing because of decreased viscous resistance for bubbles inside filaments and non-conventional diffusion systematics because of intermittent supply of mafic material (instead of a single pulse inside a material. Inside the filaments, the mafic material was variably hybridised to andesitic through rhyolitic composition. Compositional profiles alone are ambiguous, however, to determine whether single or multiple bubbles were involved during formation of a filament. Statistical analysis, employing concentration variance as measure of homogenisation, demonstrates that also filaments appearing as single

  4. Comparison of depth-dose distributions of proton therapeutic beams calculated by means of logical detectors and ionization chamber modeled in Monte Carlo codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietrzak, Robert [Department of Nuclear Physics and Its Applications, Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, Katowice (Poland); Konefał, Adam, E-mail: [Department of Nuclear Physics and Its Applications, Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, Katowice (Poland); Sokół, Maria; Orlef, Andrzej [Department of Medical Physics, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center, Institute of Oncology, Gliwice (Poland)


    The success of proton therapy depends strongly on the precision of treatment planning. Dose distribution in biological tissue may be obtained from Monte Carlo simulations using various scientific codes making it possible to perform very accurate calculations. However, there are many factors affecting the accuracy of modeling. One of them is a structure of objects called bins registering a dose. In this work the influence of bin structure on the dose distributions was examined. The MCNPX code calculations of Bragg curve for the 60 MeV proton beam were done in two ways: using simple logical detectors being the volumes determined in water, and using a precise model of ionization chamber used in clinical dosimetry. The results of the simulations were verified experimentally in the water phantom with Marcus ionization chamber. The average local dose difference between the measured relative doses in the water phantom and those calculated by means of the logical detectors was 1.4% at first 25 mm, whereas in the full depth range this difference was 1.6% for the maximum uncertainty in the calculations less than 2.4% and for the maximum measuring error of 1%. In case of the relative doses calculated with the use of the ionization chamber model this average difference was somewhat greater, being 2.3% at depths up to 25 mm and 2.4% in the full range of depths for the maximum uncertainty in the calculations of 3%. In the dose calculations the ionization chamber model does not offer any additional advantages over the logical detectors. The results provided by both models are similar and in good agreement with the measurements, however, the logical detector approach is a more time-effective method. - Highlights: • Influence of the bin structure on the proton dose distributions was examined for the MC simulations. • The considered relative proton dose distributions in water correspond to the clinical application. • MC simulations performed with the logical detectors and the

  5. Magma storage and evolution of the most recent effusive and explosive eruptions from Yellowstone Caldera (United States)

    Befus, Kenneth S.; Gardner, James E.


    Between 70 and 175 ka, over 350 km3 of high-silica rhyolite magma erupted both effusively and explosively from within the Yellowstone Caldera. Phenocrysts in all studied lavas and tuffs are remarkably homogenous at the crystal, eruption, and caldera-scale, and yield QUILF temperatures of 750 ± 25 °C. Phase equilibrium experiments replicate the observed phenocryst assemblage at those temperatures and suggest that the magmas were all stored in the upper crust. Quartz-hosted glass inclusions contain 1.0-2.5 % H2O and 50-600 ppm CO2, but some units are relatively rich in CO2 (300-600 ppm) and some are CO2-poor (50-200 ppm). The CO2-rich magmas were stored at 90-150 MPa and contained a fluid that was 60-75 mol% CO2. CO2-poor magmas were stored at 50-70 MPa, with a more H2O-rich fluid (X_{{{text{CO}}2 }} = 40-60 %). Storage pressures and volatiles do not correlate with eruption age, volume, or style. Trace-element contents in glass inclusions and host matrix glass preserve a systematic evolution produced by crystal fractionation, estimated to range from 36 ± 12 to 52 ± 12 wt%. Because the erupted products contain Yellowstone magmatic system may undergo rapid changes. The variations in depth suggest the magmas were sourced from multiple chambers that follow similar evolutionary paths in the upper crust.

  6. More Evidence for Multiple Meteorite Magmas (United States)

    Taylor, G. J.


    Cosmochemists have identified six main compositional types of magma that formed inside asteroids during the first 100 million years of Solar System history. These magmas vary in their chemical and mineralogical make up, but all have in common low concentrations of sodium and other volatile elements. Our low-sodium-magma diet has now changed. Two groups of researchers have identified a new type of asteroidal magma that is rich in sodium and appears to have formed by partial melting of previously unmelted, volatile-rich chondritic rock. The teams, one led by James Day (University of Maryland) and the other by Chip Shearer (University of New Mexico), studied two meteorites found in Antarctica, named Graves Nunatak 06128 and 06129, using a battery of cosmochemical techniques. These studies show that an even wider variety of magmas was produced inside asteroids than we had thought, shedding light on the melting histories and formation of asteroids.

  7. Electrical conductivity of intermediate magmas from Uturuncu Volcano (Bolivia) (United States)

    Laumonier, Mickael; Gaillard, Fabrice; Sifre, David


    Magmas erupted at Uturuncu volcano (South Bolivia) comes from the Altiplano-Puna Magma Body (APMB, Chile-Bolivia), a crustal massive body of 80 km long by 10 km thick located at ~ 35 km depth named. Recent magneto telluric surveys reveal a resistivity lower than 1 ohm.m due to the presence of melt which could result in the reactivation of the volcano. In order to better constrain the resistivity profiles and thus the conditions of magma storage of the APMB, we have performed in situ electrical measurements on natural dacites and andesites from Uturuncu with a 4-wire set up in a piston cylinder and internally heated pressure vessel. The range of temperature (500 to 1300°C), pressure (0.3 to 2 Gpa), and the various water contents covers the respective ranges occurring at natural conditions. The results show that the conductivity increases with the temperature and the water content but slightly decreases with the pressure. Then a model was built from these results so as to help in (i) interpreting the electrical signature of natural magmas, (ii) constraining their conditions (chemical composition, temperature, pressure, water content, melt fraction) from the source to the storage location and (iii) providing information on the interior structure of a volcano and its reservoir.

  8. Extension by faulting, stretching and magma intrusion in Ethiopia (United States)

    Bastow, I. D.; Keir, D.


    The 2001-2004 Ethiopia Afar Geoscientific Lithospheric Experiment showed that high seismic wavespeed, dense, mafic crustal intrusions exist beneath many zones of Quaternary magmatism in the Main Ethiopian rift, and that crustal thinning is minimal. From these observations, a consensus quickly emerged that extension presently occurs not by ductile stretching and brittle faulting but by magma intrusion. Striking InSAR images and accompanying seismic data from the 2005 Afar diking episode provided further compelling evidence in support of the magma assisted rifting hypothesis. Patterns of mantle seismic anisotropy, constrained by a combination of body and surface-wave analysis showed that melt intrusion likely also plays an important role in accommodating extension at greater depths in the extending plate. Evidence from further north in Afar, however, where crustal thickness decreases abruptly into the Danakil Depression, is not so easily explained by the magma assisted rifting hypothesis. Subsidence of the newly forming margin towards and below sea level, and eruption of voluminous basalt flows, is likely the result of late-stage thinning of the heavily intruded, weakened plate just before the onset of seafloor spreading. Faulting, stretching and magma intrusion are thus each important, but at different times during breakup. Combining, not isolating, these mechanisms of strain in new rifting models and appreciating how plate strength varies during rifting is essential in developing a clearer understanding of the incomplete geological record that documents continental breakup over time.

  9. Magma plumbing for the 2014-2015 Holuhraun eruption, Iceland (United States)

    Geiger, Harri; Mattsson, Tobias; Deegan, Frances M.; Troll, Valentin R.; Burchardt, Steffi; Gudmundsson, Ólafur; Tryggvason, Ari; Krumbholz, Michael; Harris, Chris


    The 2014-2015 Holuhraun eruption on Iceland was located within the Askja fissure swarm but was accompanied by caldera subsidence in the Bárðarbunga central volcano 45 km to the southwest. Geophysical monitoring of the eruption identified a seismic swarm that migrated from Bárðarbunga to the Holuhraun eruption site over the course of two weeks. In order to better understand this lateral connection between Bárðarbunga and Holuhraun, we present mineral textures and compositions, mineral-melt-equilibrium calculations, whole rock and trace element data, and oxygen isotope ratios for selected Holuhraun samples. The Holuhraun lavas are compositionally similar to recorded historical eruptions from the Bárðarbunga volcanic system but are distinct from the historical eruption products of the nearby Askja system. Thermobarometry calculations indicate a polybaric magma plumbing system for the Holuhraun eruption, wherein clinopyroxene and plagioclase crystallized at average depths of ˜17 km and ˜5 km, respectively. Crystal resorption textures and oxygen isotope variations imply that this multilevel plumbing system facilitated magma mixing and assimilation of low-δ18O Icelandic crust prior to eruption. In conjunction with the existing geophysical evidence for lateral migration, our results support a model of initial vertical magma ascent within the Bárðarbunga plumbing system followed by lateral transport of aggregated magma batches within the upper crust to the Holuhraun eruption site.

  10. Rheology of phonolitic magmas - the case of the Erebus lava lake (United States)

    Le Losq, Charles; Neuville, Daniel R.; Moretti, Roberto; Kyle, Philip R.; Oppenheimer, Clive


    Long-lived active lava lakes are comparatively rare and are typically associated with low-viscosity basaltic magmas. Erebus volcano, Antarctica, is unique today in hosting a phonolitic lava lake. Phonolitic magmas can erupt explosively, as in the 79 CE Plinian eruption of Vesuvius volcano, Italy, and it is therefore important to understand their physical properties. The phonolite at Erebus has slightly higher silica content than that at Vesuvius yet its present activity is predominantly non-explosive. As a contribution to understanding such contrasting eruptive behaviour, we focus on the rheological differences between these comparable magmas. In particular, we evaluate the viscosity of the Erebus phonolite magma by integrating new experimental data within a theoretical and empirical framework. The resulting model enables estimation of the Erebus melt viscosity as a function of temperature, crystal and water concentrations, with an uncertainty of, at most, ± 0.45 log (Pa s). Using reported ranges for these parameters, we predict that the magma viscosity in the upper region of the plumbing system of Erebus ranges between 105 and 107 Pas. This is substantially higher than has been hitherto considered with significant implications for modelling the dynamics of the lava lake, conduit and magma reservoir system. Our analysis highlights the generic challenges encountered in calculation of magma viscosity and presents an approach that can be applied to other cases.

  11. Lifetime and size of shallow magma bodies controlled by crustal-scale magmatism (United States)

    Karakas, Ozge; Degruyter, Wim; Bachmann, Olivier; Dufek, Josef


    Magmatic processes on Earth govern the mass, energy and chemical transfer between the mantle, crust and atmosphere. To understand magma storage conditions in the crust that ultimately control volcanic activity and growth of continents, an evaluation of the mass and heat budget of the entire crustal column during magmatic episodes is essential. Here we use a numerical model to constrain the physical conditions under which both lower and upper crustal magma bodies form. We find that over long durations of intrusions (greater than 105 to 106 yr), extensive lower crustal mush zones develop, which modify the thermal budget of the upper crust and reduce the flux of magma required to sustain upper crustal magma reservoirs. Our results reconcile physical models of magma reservoir construction and field-based estimates of intrusion rates in numerous volcanic and plutonic localities. Young igneous provinces (less than a few hundred thousand years old) are unlikely to support large upper crustal reservoirs, whereas longer-lived systems (active for longer than 1 million years) can accumulate magma and build reservoirs capable of producing super-eruptions, even with intrusion rates smaller than 10-3 to 10-2 km3 yr-1. Hence, total duration of magmatism should be combined with the magma intrusion rates to assess the capability of volcanic systems to form the largest explosive eruptions on Earth.

  12. Internal triggering of volcanic eruptions: tracking overpressure regimes for giant magma bodies (United States)

    Tramontano, Samantha; Gualda, Guilherme A. R.; Ghiorso, Mark S.


    Understanding silicic eruption triggers is paramount for deciphering explosive volcanism and its potential societal hazards. Here, we use phase equilibria modeling to determine the potential role of internal triggering - wherein magmas naturally evolve to a state in which eruption is inevitable - in rhyolitic magma bodies. Whole-rock compositions from five large to super-sized rhyolitic deposits are modeled using rhyolite-MELTS. By running simulations with varying water contents, we can track crystallization and bubble exsolution during magma solidification. We use simulations with variable enthalpy and fixed pressure for the five compositions. The interplay between bubble exsolution and crystallization can lead to an increase in the system volume, which can lead to magma overpressurization. We find that internal triggering is possible for high-silica rhyolite magmas crystallizing at pressures below 300 MPa (50 wt.%, which makes magma immobile - high-silica rhyolite eruptions from such depths would require external triggering, but examples are scarce or entirely absent. Calculated crystallinities at which the critical overpressure threshold is reached compare favorably with observed crystal contents in natural samples for many systems, suggesting that internal evolution plays a critical role in triggering eruptions. Systems in which fluid saturation happens late relative to crystallization or in which degassing is effective can delay or avoid internal triggering. We argue that priming by crystallization and bubble exsolution is critical for magma eruption, and external triggering serves simply as the final blow - rather than being the driving force - of explosive rhyolitic eruptions.

  13. Oxygen isotope geochemistry of mafic magmas at Mt. Vesuvius (United States)

    Dallai, Luigi; Raffaello, Cioni; Chiara, Boschi; Claudia, D'oriano


    above the range of typical mantle minerals. The δ18Oolivine and δ18Ocpxof the minerals from all the studied eruptions define variable degrees of carbonate interaction and magma crystallization for the different eruptions, and possibly within the same eruption, and show evidence of oxygen isotope equilibrium at high temperature. However, energy-constrained AFC model suggest that carbonate assimilation was limited. On the basis of our data, we suggest that interaction between magma and a fluxing, decarbonation-derived CO2 fluid may be partly accounted for the measured O-isotope compositions.

  14. A decadal view of magma fragmentation (United States)

    Cashman, K. V.; Rust, A.


    preservation. By extension, parts of the magma that were not well connected fragment to ash, thus the fine ash produced by explosive activity defines the efficiency of fragmentation. Rapid decompression of porous samples in the laboratory generates fragments with power law size distributions that reflect both the ΔP of fragmentation and the sample porosity. TGSDs of pyroclastic fall deposits show that fragmentation efficiency is typically high (> 50%) in silicic eruptions. Moreover, a comparison of vesicle size distributions with the TGSD for the 1980 Mount St. Helens deposit shows similar power law exponents for vesicles in pumice and ash component of the fall deposit. In contrast, the fragmentation efficiency is negligible (< 5%) in mafic eruptions, consistent with low power law exponents in scoria, and suggest that exponential, rather than power law, fits are more appropriate for mafic tephra deposits. A primary challenge for the future is integration of these observational and experimental data into numerical models of magma ascent and eruption.

  15. Transport network and flow mechanism of shallow ore-bearing magma in Tongling ore cluster area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG; Jun; WANG; Qingfei; HUANG; Dinghua


    Abundant studies revealed that shallow intrusions of the Yanshanian epoch resulted in the mass mineralization of the Tongling region. Various evidences showed there existed a concealed magma chamber at -10 km depth in the middle part of this region during Yanshanian epoch, from which the ore-forming magma was generated and then transported to the superficial layer. Yet the transport network and flow mechanism of the shallow ore-bearing magma, the key problem associ- ated with ore-forming process, was relatively little focused on. Integrate analysis of structural me- chanics, statistical fractal and geological facts suggested that NE trending high-angle fold-related thrust faults and the tessellated basement ones served as the main pathways for the shallow magma's transporting, moreover, the saddle void spaces among adjacent strata in the folds upon this fault system provided the place for magma's emplacement. So the folds in the upper part and faults in the lower part of the upper crust constituted the fluid's transport and emplacement network. During the deformation of geologic body with multi-layer structure, the layers in the upper part tended to fold when received the jacking stress from the lower part, while the lower one inclined to fault undergoing loads of the upper part. And the producing probability of this structure assemblage was highly increased in the condition, such as in the Tongling area, that the mechanic rigidity of the lower layers was stronger than that of the upper ones. For the pre-existence of fluid-conducting network, the top magma with high volatile in the magma chamber transported rapidly to the superficial layer in dyking pattern, located in the void spaces of folds, filled and reconstructed them. The sudden drop of pressure caused the fluid unmixing from the magma and mass ore-forming elements concentration. Pulse activity of the dyking may be the principal reason why magmatic bodies in the Tongling area were spatially

  16. Magma Mixing: Why Picrites are Not So Hot (United States)

    Natland, J. H.


    porosity in regions where crustal-level magma chambers and flanking rift zones do not have a chance to form. Low-magma supply is favored. In the ocean basins, such upper mantle mainlining occurs only at certain fracture zones, deep propagating rifts at microplates, or ultra-slow spreading ridges, but no liquids (glasses) with >10% MgO occur at any of these places. On continents, rift structures through cratons might allow this, but so far no picrite, ferropicrite, or meimichite that has been adequately described from these places lacks evidence for end-member mixing. Low-temperature iron-rich magmas can accumulate in the deep lower crust and later rise to form substantial intrusions (e.g. Skaergaard) or erupt as flood basalts (Columbia River). Some komatiites might represent high-temperature liquids, but many are so altered that original liquid compositions cannot be deduced (e.g., Gorgona). The hottest intraplate volcano is Kilauea, Hawaii, where rare picrite glass with 15% MgO has an estimated eruptive temperature (1) of ~1350C and a potential temperature at 1 GPa of ~1420C. Lavas at all other linear island chains, Iceland and even west Greenland where picrites are abundant, are cooler than this. (1) Beattie, P., 1993. CMP 115: 103-111.

  17. Experimental determination of temperatures of the inner wall of a boiler combustion chamber for the purpose of verification of a CFD model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Trávníček


    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the non-destructive method of determination of temperatures in the boiler combustion chamber. This method proves to be significant mainly as regards CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations of combustion processes, in case of which it is subsequently advisable to verify the data calculated using CFD software application with the actually measured data. Verification of the method was based on usage of reference combustion equipment (130 kW which performs combustion of a mixture of waste sawdust and shavings originating in the course of production of wooden furniture. Measuring of temperatures inside the combustion chamber is – considering mainly the high temperature values – highly demanding and requires a special type of temperature sensors. Furthermore, as regards standard operation, it is not possible to install such sensors without performing structural alterations of the boiler. Therefore, for the purpose of determination of these temperatures a special experimental device was constructed while exploiting a thermal imaging system used for monitoring of the surface temperature of outer wall of the reference boiler. Temperatures on the wall of the boiler combustion chamber were determined on the basis of data measured using the experimental device as well as data from the thermal imaging system. These values might serve for verification of the respective CFD model of combustion equipment.

  18. Experimental Study of Lunar and SNC Magmas (United States)

    Rutherford, Malcolm J.


    The research described in this progress report involved the study of petrological, geochemical, and volcanic processes that occur on the Moon and the SNC meteorite parent body, generally accepted to be Mars. The link between these studies is that they focus on two terrestrial-type parent bodies somewhat smaller than earth, and the fact that they focus on the types of magmas (magma compositions) present, the role of volatiles in magmatic processes, and on processes of magma evolution on these planets. We are also interested in how these processes and magma types varied over time.In earlier work on the A15 green and A17 orange lunar glasses, we discovered a variety of metal blebs. Some of these Fe-Ni metal blebs occur in the glass; others (in A17) were found in olivine phenocrysts that we find make up about 2 vol 96 of the orange glass magma. The importance of these metal spheres is that they fix the oxidation state of the parent magma during the eruption, and also indicate changes during the eruption . They also yield important information about the composition of the gas phase present, the gas that drove the lunar fire-fountaining. During the tenure of this grant, we have continued to work on the remaining questions regarding the origin and evolution of the gas phase in lunar basaltic magmas, what they indicate about the lunar interior, and how the gas affects volcanic eruptions. Work on Martian magmas petrogenesis questions during the tenure of this grant has resulted in advances in our methods of evaluating magmatic oxidation state variations in Mars and some new insights into the compositional variations that existed in the SNC magmas over time . Additionally, Minitti has continued to work on the problem of possible shock effects on the abundance and distribution of water in Mars minerals.

  19. Magma beneath Yellowstone National Park (United States)

    Eaton, G.P.; Christiansen, R.L.; Iyer, H.M.; Pitt, A.M.; Mabey, D.R.; Blank, H.R.; Zietz, I.; Gettings, M.E.


    The Yellowstone plateau volcanic field is less than 2 million years old, lies in a region of intense tectonic and hydrothermal activity, and probably has the potential for further volcanic activity. The youngest of three volcanic cycles in the field climaxed 600,000 years ago with a voluminous ashflow eruption and the collapse of two contiguous cauldron blocks. Doming 150,000 years ago, followed by voluminous rhyolitic extrusions as recently as 70,000 years ago, and high convective heat flow at present indicate that the latest phase of volcanism may represent a new magmatic insurgence. These observations, coupled with (i) localized postglacial arcuate faulting beyond the northeast margin of the Yellowstone caldera, (ii) a major gravity low with steep bounding gradients and an amplitude regionally atypical for the elevation of the plateau, (iii) an aeromagnetic low reflecting extensive hydrothermal alteration and possibly indicating the presence of shallow material above its Curie temperature, (iv) only minor shallow seismicity within the caldera (in contrast to a high level of activity in some areas immediately outside), (v) attenuation and change of character of seismic waves crossing the caldera area, and (vi) a strong azimuthal pattern of teleseismic P-wave delays, strongly suggest that a body composed at least partly of magma underlies the region of the rhyolite plateau, including the Tertiary volcanics immediately to its northeast. The Yellowstone field represents the active end of a system of similar volcanic foci that has migrated progressively northeastward for 15 million years along the trace of the eastern Snake River Plain (8). Regional aeromagnetic patterns suggest that this course was guided by the structure of the Precambrian basement. If, as suggested by several investigators (24), the Yellowstone magma body marks a contemporary deep mantle plume, this plume, in its motion relative to the North American plate, would appear to be "navigating" along a

  20. Chemical and isotopic fractionation of wet andesite in a temperature gradient: Experiments and models suggesting a new mechanism of magma differentiation (United States)

    Huang, F.; Lundstrom, C. C.; Glessner, J.; Ianno, A.; Boudreau, A.; Li, J.; Ferré, E. C.; Marshak, S.; DeFrates, J.


    offsets are 2.8‰ and 9.9‰, respectively, much greater than the range of Fe-Mg isotope variation in high-temperature terrestrial samples. In contrast, no obvious chemical differentiation was observed in a similar experiment (of 33 days duration) where the temperature ranged from 550 to 350 °C, indicating the critical role of the melt in causing the differentiation observed in the 950-350 °C experiment. If temperature gradients can be sustained for the multi-million-year time scales implied by geochronology in some plutonic systems, thermal migration could play a heretofore unrecognized role in the development of differentiated plutons. Elemental distributions, dominated by phase equilibria, cannot be used to discriminate thermal migration from conventional magma differentiation processes such as fractional crystallization. However, the observation of Fe-Mg isotopic variations in partially molten portions of the experiment indicates that these isotopic systems could provide a unique fingerprint to this process. This result could also provide a possible explanation for the Fe-Mg isotope variations observed in high-temperature silicate rocks and minerals.

  1. Plasma chemistry in wire chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, J.


    The phenomenology of wire chamber aging is discussed and fundamentals of proportional counters are presented. Free-radical polymerization and plasma polymerization are discussed. The chemistry of wire aging is reviewed. Similarities between wire chamber plasma (>1 atm dc-discharge) and low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas, which have been more widely studied, are suggested. Construction and use of a system to allow study of the plasma reactions occurring in wire chambers is reported. A proportional tube irradiated by an {sup 55}Fe source is used as a model wire chamber. Condensable species in the proportional tube effluent are concentrated in a cryotrap and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Several different wire chamber gases (methane, argon/methane, ethane, argon/ethane, propane, argon/isobutane) are tested and their reaction products qualitatively identified. For all gases tested except those containing methane, use of hygroscopic filters to remove trace water and oxygen contaminants from the gas resulted in an increase in the average molecular weight of the products, consistent with results from low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas. It is suggested that because water and oxygen inhibit polymer growth in the gas phase that they may also reduce polymer deposition in proportional tubes and therefore retard wire aging processes. Mechanistic implications of the plasma reactions of hydrocarbons with oxygen are suggested. Unresolved issues in this work and proposals for further study are discussed.

  2. Ionization chambers for LET determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Franz-Joachim; Bassler, Niels; Tölli, Heikki


    resolution and high sensitivity are necessary. For exact dosimetry which is done using ionization chambers (ICs), the recombination taking place in the IC has to be known. Up to now, recombination is corrected phenomenologically and more practical approaches are currently used. Nevertheless, Jaff´e's theory...... of columnar recombination was designed to model the detector efficiency of an ionization chamber. Here, we have shown that despite the approximations and simplification made, the theory is correct for the LETs typically found in clinical radiotherapy employing particles from protons to carbon ions...

  3. Rates and Mechanisms of Solidification in Large Magma Bodies: Implications for Melt Extraction in all Tectonic Settings (United States)

    VanTongeren, J. A.


    As is observed in both experiment and theory, in the absence of hydrothermal convection, the majority of magma chamber heat loss occurs via conduction through the roof of the intrusion and into the cold country rock above. The formation of an upper solidification front (or Upper Border Series, UBS), recorded in the rocks both geochemically and texturally, is a natural outcome of the progression of the solidification front from the cold roof to the hot center of the magma chamber. There are, however, a few unique layered mafic intrusions for which little or no UBS exists. In this study, I examine the thermal evolution and crystallization rates of several classic layered intrusions as it is recorded in the extent of the preserved UBS. For those intrusions that have experienced crystallization at the roof, such as the Skaergaard Intrusion, the development of a UBS reduces the temperature gradient at the roof and effectively slows the rate of heat loss from the main magma body. However, for those intrusions that do not have an UBS, such as the Bushveld Complex, the cooling rate is controlled only by the maximum rate of conductive heat loss through the overlying roof rocks, which decreases with time. The implications are two-fold: (1) The relative thickness of the UBS in large intrusions may be the key to quantifying their cooling and solidification rates; and (2) The nature of the magma mush zone near the roof of an intrusion may depend principally on the long-term thermal evolution of the magma body. Particularly at the end stages of crystallization, when the liquids are likely to be highly evolved and high viscosities may inhibit convection, intrusions lacking a well-defined UBS may provide important insights into the mechanics of crystal-liquid separation, melt extraction, and compaction in felsic plutons as well as mafic intrusions. These results are important for long-lived (>500 kyr) or repeatedly replenished magma chambers in all tectonic settings.

  4. Lithospheric deformation and mantle/crust coupling related to slab roll-back and tearing processes: the role of magma-related rheological weakening highlighted by 3D numerical modeling (United States)

    Menant, Armel; Jolivet, Laurent; Guillou-Frottier, Laurent; Sternai, Pietro; Gerya, Taras


    Active convergent margins are the locus of various large-scale lithospheric processes including subduction, back-arc opening, lithospheric delamination, slab tearing and break-off. Coexistence of such processes results in a complex lithospheric deformation pattern through the rheological stratification of the overriding lithosphere. In this context, another major feature is the development of an intense arc- and back-arc-related magmatism whose effects on lithospheric deformation by rheological weakening are largely unknown. Quantifying this magma-related weakening effect and integrating the three-dimensional (3D) natural complexity of subduction system is however challenging because of the large number of physico-chemical processes involved (e.g. heat advection, dehydration of subducted material, partial melting of the mantle wedge). We present here a set of 3D high-resolution petrological and thermo-mechanical numerical experiments to assess the role of low-viscosity magmatic phases on lithospheric deformation associated with coeval oceanic and continental subduction, followed by slab retreat and tearing processes. Results in terms of crustal kinematics, patterns of lithospheric deformation and distribution and composition of magmatic phases are then compared to a natural example displaying a similar geodynamical evolution: the eastern Mediterranean subduction zone. Our modeling results suggest that the asthenospheric flow controls the ascending trajectories of mantle-derived magmatic sources developed in the mantle wedge in response to dehydration of oceanic slab. Once stored at the base of the overriding continental crust, low-viscosity mantle- and crustal-derived magmatic phases allow to decrease the lithospheric strength. This weakening then enhances the propagation of localized extensional and strike-slip deformation in response to slab roll-back and extrusion tectonics respectively. In addition, we show that storage of large amounts of low-viscosity magmas

  5. Slab melting and magma generation beneath the southern Cascade Arc (United States)

    Walowski, K. J.; Wallace, P. J.; Clynne, M. A.


    Magma formation in subduction zones is interpreted to be caused by flux melting of the mantle wedge by fluids derived from dehydration of the downgoing oceanic lithosphere. In the Cascade Arc and other hot-slab subduction zones, however, most dehydration reactions occur beneath the forearc, necessitating a closer investigation of magma generation processes in this setting. Recent work combining 2-D steady state thermal models and the hydrogen isotope composition of olivine-hosted melt inclusions from the Lassen segment of the Cascades (Walowski et al., 2014; in review) has shown that partial melting of the subducted basaltic crust may be a key part of the subduction component in hot arcs. In this model, fluids from the slab interior (hydrated upper mantle) rise through the slab and cause flux-melting of the already dehydrated MORB volcanics in the upper oceanic crust. In the Shasta and Lassen segments of the southern Cascades, support for this interpretation comes from primitive magmas that have MORB-like Sr isotope compositions that correlate with subduction component tracers (H2O/Ce, Sr/P) (Grove et al. 2002, Borg et al. 2002). In addition, mass balance calculations of the composition of subduction components show ratios of trace elements to H2O that are at the high end of the global arc array (Ruscitto et al. 2012), consistent with the role of a slab-derived melt. Melting of the subducted basaltic crust should contribute a hydrous dacitic or rhyolitic melt (e.g. Jego and Dasgupta, 2013) to the mantle wedge rather than an H2O-rich aqueous fluid. We are using pHMELTS and pMELTS to model the reaction of hydrous slab melts with mantle peridotite as the melts rise through the inverted thermal gradient in the mantle wedge. The results of the modeling will be useful for understanding magma generation processes in arcs that are associated with subduction of relatively young oceanic lithosphere.

  6. Streamer chamber: pion decay

    CERN Multimedia


    The real particles produced in the decay of a positive pion can be seen in this image from a streamer chamber. Streamer chambers consist of a gas chamber through which a strong pulsed electric field is passed, creating sparks as a charged particle passes through it. A magnetic field is added to cause the decay products to follow curved paths so that their charge and momentum can be measured.

  7. Prototype multiwire proportional chamber

    CERN Multimedia


    Chambers of this type were initially developed within the Alpha project (finally not approved). They were designed such to minimize the radiation length with a view to a mass spectrometer of high resolution meant to replace the Omega detector. The chambers were clearly forerunners for the (drift) chambers later built for R606 with the novel technique of crimping the wires. See also photo 7510039X.

  8. Electromagnetic reverberation chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Besnier, Philippe


    Dedicated to a complete presentation on all aspects of reverberation chambers, this book provides the physical principles behind these test systems in a very progressive manner. The detailed panorama of parameters governing the operation of electromagnetic reverberation chambers details various applications such as radiated immunity, emissivity, and shielding efficiency experiments.In addition, the reader is provided with the elements of electromagnetic theory and statistics required to take full advantage of the basic operational rules of reverberation chambers, including calibration proc

  9. Low temperature combustion of organic coal-water fuel droplets containing petrochemicals while soaring in a combustion chamber model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valiullin Timur R.


    Full Text Available The paper examines the integral characteristics (minimum temperature, ignition delay times of stable combustion initiation of organic coal-water fuel droplets (initial radius is 0.3-1.5 mm in the oxidizer flow (the temperature and velocity varied in ranges 500-900 K, 0.5-3 m/s. The main components of organic coal-water fuel were: brown coal particles, filter-cakes obtained in coal processing, waste engine, and turbine oils. The different modes of soaring and ignition of organic coal-water fuel have been established. The conditions have been set under which it is possible to implement the sustainable soaring and ignition of organic coal-water fuel droplets. We have compared the ignition characteristics with those defined in the traditional approach (based on placing the droplets on a low-inertia thermocouple junction into the combustion chamber. The paper shows the scale of the influence of heat sink over the thermocouple junction on ignition inertia. An original technique for releasing organic coal-water fuel droplets to the combustion chamber was proposed and tested. The limitations of this technique and the prospects of experimental results for the optimization of energy equipment operation were also formulated.

  10. How temperature-dependent elasticity alters host rock/magmatic reservoir models: A case study on the effects of ice-cap unloading on shallow volcanic systems (United States)

    Bakker, Richard R.; Frehner, Marcel; Lupi, Matteo


    In geodynamic numerical models of volcanic systems, the volcanic basement hosting the magmatic reservoir is often assumed to exhibit constant elastic parameters with a sharp transition from the host rocks to the magmatic reservoir. We assess this assumption by deriving an empirical relation between elastic parameters and temperature for Icelandic basalts by conducting a set of triaxial compression experiments between 200 °C and 1000 °C. Results show a significant decrease of Young's modulus from ∼38 GPa to less than 4.7 GPa at around 1000 °C. Based on these laboratory data, we develop a 2D axisymmetric finite-element model including temperature-dependent elastic properties of the volcanic basement. As a case study, we use the Snæfellsjökull volcanic system, Western Iceland to evaluate pressure differences in the volcanic edifice and basement due to glacial unloading of the volcano. First, we calculate the temperature field throughout the model and assign elastic properties accordingly. Then we assess unloading-driven pressure differences in the magma chamber at various depths in models with and without temperature-dependent elastic parameters. With constant elastic parameters and a sharp transition between basement and magma chamber we obtain results comparable to other studies. However, pressure changes due to surface unloading become smaller when using more realistic temperature-dependent elastic properties. We ascribe this subdued effect to a transition zone around the magma chamber, which is still solid rock but with relatively low Young's modulus due to high temperatures. We discuss our findings in the light of volcanic processes in proximity to the magma chamber, such as roof collapse, dyke injection, or deep hydrothermal circulation. Our results aim at quantifying the effects of glacial unloading on magma chamber dynamics and volcanic activity.

  11. Refrigeration Test Chamber (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The enclosed and environmentally controlled chamber is able to test four units (single-phase) simultaneously at conditions ranging from tundra to desert temperatures...


    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Doriot Climatic Chambers reproduce environmental conditions occurring anywhere around the world. They provide an invaluable service by significantly reducing the...

  13. Bayesian inversion of data from effusive volcanic eruptions using physics-based models: Application to Mount St. Helens 2004--2008 (United States)

    Anderson, Kyle; Segall, Paul


    Physics-based models of volcanic eruptions can directly link magmatic processes with diverse, time-varying geophysical observations, and when used in an inverse procedure make it possible to bring all available information to bear on estimating properties of the volcanic system. We develop a technique for inverting geodetic, extrusive flux, and other types of data using a physics-based model of an effusive silicic volcanic eruption to estimate the geometry, pressure, depth, and volatile content of a magma chamber, and properties of the conduit linking the chamber to the surface. A Bayesian inverse formulation makes it possible to easily incorporate independent information into the inversion, such as petrologic estimates of melt water content, and yields probabilistic estimates for model parameters and other properties of the volcano. Probability distributions are sampled using a Markov-Chain Monte Carlo algorithm. We apply the technique using GPS and extrusion data from the 2004–2008 eruption of Mount St. Helens. In contrast to more traditional inversions such as those involving geodetic data alone in combination with kinematic forward models, this technique is able to provide constraint on properties of the magma, including its volatile content, and on the absolute volume and pressure of the magma chamber. Results suggest a large chamber of >40 km3 with a centroid depth of 11–18 km and a dissolved water content at the top of the chamber of 2.6–4.9 wt%.

  14. Water-rich and volatile-undersaturated magmas at Hekla volcano, Iceland (United States)

    Lucic, Gregor; Berg, Anne-Sophie; Stix, John


    Olivine-hosted melt inclusions from four eruptions at Hekla volcano in Iceland were analyzed for their dissolved H2O, CO2, S, and Cl contents. A positive correlation among the repose interval, magmatic evolution, and volatile contents of magmas is revealed. H2O is the dominant volatile species; it behaves as an incompatible component, increasing in concentration over time as a result of fractional crystallization in the magma. The full suite of H2O contents ranges from a low of 0.80 wt % in basaltic andesites to a maximum of 5.67 wt % in rhyolites. Decreasing H2O/K2O at fixed major element compositions suggests that syneruptive degassing reduces H2O contents significantly. Hekla magmas are CO2 poor, with very low concentrations present only in the most evolved compositions (˜20-30 ppm or less). The decrease in S content from basaltic andesite to rhyolite demonstrates that sulfide saturation is attained when the melt composition reaches basaltic andesite, resulting in the precipitation of pyrrhotite. Low CO2/Nb ratios suggest that vapor saturation is most likely reached during an early period of cooling and solidification in the crust. Fresh injections of mafic magma interact with previously solidified intrusives, producing new melts that are volatile undersaturated. Vapor saturation pressures obtained using the most volatile-rich melt inclusions suggest the presence of a magma chamber at a minimum depth of ˜7 km. This is in agreement with geophysical observations from recent small-volume eruptions, but given the possibility of volatile-undersaturated melts, some of the magmas may reside at greater depths.

  15. Oxygen isotope composition of mafic magmas at Vesuvius (United States)

    Dallai, L.; Cioni, R.; Boschi, C.; D'Oriano, C.


    that crystal growth possibly occurred during magma ascent from the source region or in a shallow reservoir at about 8-10 km depth. Recently, experimental data have suggested massive carbonate assimilation (up to about 20%) to derive potassic alkali magmas from trachybasaltic melts. Accordingly, the δ18O variability and the trace element contents of the studied minerals suggest possible contamination of primary melts by an O-isotope enriched, REE-poor contaminant like the limestone of Vesuvius basement. The δ18Oolivine and δ18Ocpx of the studied minerals define variable degrees of carbonate assimilation and magma crystallization for the different eruptions, and possibly within the same eruption, and show evidence of oxygen isotope equilibrium at high temperature. However, energy-constrained AFC model suggest that carbonate contamination was limited. On the basis of our data, we suggest that interaction between magma and a fluxing, decarbonation-derived CO2 fluid may be partly accounted for the measured O-isotope compositions.

  16. The FiR 1 photon beam model adjustment according to in-air spectrum measurements with the Mg(Ar) ionization chamber. (United States)

    Koivunoro, H; Schmitz, T; Hippeläinen, E; Liu, Y-H; Serén, T; Kotiluoto, P; Auterinen, I; Savolainen, S


    The mixed neutron-photon beam of FiR 1 reactor is used for boron-neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in Finland. A beam model has been defined for patient treatment planning and dosimetric calculations. The neutron beam model has been validated with an activation foil measurements. The photon beam model has not been thoroughly validated against measurements, due to the fact that the beam photon dose rate is low, at most only 2% of the total weighted patient dose at FiR 1. However, improvement of the photon dose detection accuracy is worthwhile, since the beam photon dose is of concern in the beam dosimetry. In this study, we have performed ionization chamber measurements with multiple build-up caps of different thickness to adjust the calculated photon spectrum of a FiR 1 beam model.

  17. Interannual variation of methane emissions in a boreal peatland - cross-evaluation of chamber measurements (7 years) and model results (LPJ-WHyMe) (United States)

    Forbrich, Inke; Wania, Rita; Saarnio, Sanna; Schäfer, Carolyn; Kutzbach, Lars; Wilmking, Martin


    Boreal peatlands are a major natural source of methane (CH4). Due to a lack of longterm measurements, the interannual variability of CH4 emission is still uncertain. To fill this gap, a combination of measurements and models is necessary. Here, we present chamber measurements of 7 years from a boreal mire in Finland and compare them with the output of a methane model that is integrated into a dynamic global vegetation model (LPJ-WHyMe: Wania et al. 2010). The mire is characterized by three microsite types which vary in vegetation cover and hydrology (hummocks, lawns, flarks). Chamber measurements have been conducted on all three microsite types in 1993 (Saarnio et al. 1997) and 2005-2007 (Becker et al. 2008, Schäfer 2007, Forbrich et al., in prep.), while in 1996-1998 they have been conducted exclusively on lawns (Saarnio et al. 2000). When all microsite types were measured, we upscale these measurements using classified high-aerial photographs (Becker et al. 2008). Additionally, we analyze the time series of measurements on lawns, which represent the most dominant CH4 source in the peatland (contributing on average 80% to the ecosystem flux: Forbrich et al., in prep.). LPJ-WHyMe has been applied for the grid cell containing the peatland for the years 1988-2008 using the settings of Wania et al. (2010). The upscaled chamber measurements (ecosystem flux estimate) for 1993 and 2005-2007 are generally lower than the model estimates (7-52%). Reasons for the mismatch can be both caused by the measurements and the model: Chamber measurements do miss ebullition fluxes (contributing 68.2% to the modelled annual emission: Wania et al. 2010) and/or the linear flux calculation underestimates the actual flux (Forbrich et al. 2010) while LPJ-WHyMe tends to overestimate the available carbon pool (Wania et al. 2009). Absolute values of observations of lawns in 1993 are well matched by model results (Wania et al. 2010). However, for the other years the model output is

  18. Dropping stones in magma oceans - Effects of early lunar cratering (United States)

    Hartmann, W. K.


    A new methodology is used to calculate the accumulation rate of megaregolith materials for two models of early lunar cratering, both with and without episodes of late cataclysmic cratering. Results show that the pulverization of early rock layers was an important process competing with the formation of a coherent rock lithosphere at the surface of the hypothetical lunar magma ocean. If a magma ocean existed, then its initial cooling was marked by a period of pre-lithospheric chaos in which impacts punched through the initially thin rocky skin, mixing rock fragments with splashed magma. Furthermore, the results show that intense brecciation and pulverization of rock materials must have occurred to a depth of at least tens of kilometers in the first few hundred years of lunar history regardless of whether a 'terminal lunar cataclysm' occurred around 4.0 G.y. ago. The predicted pattern of brecciation and the ages of surviving rock fragments is similar to that actually observed among lunar samples. More reliable dating of basin-forming events and models of rock exhumation and survival are needed in order to understand better the relation between the early intense bombardment of the moon and the samples collected on the moon today.

  19. Differentiation of Vesta: Implications for a shallow magma ocean

    CERN Document Server

    Neumann, Wladimir; Spohn, Tilman


    The Dawn mission confirms predictions that the asteroid 4 Vesta is differentiated with an iron-rich core, a silicate mantle and a basaltic crust, and confirms Vesta as the parent body of the HED meteorites. To better understand its early evolution, we perform numerical calculations of the thermo-chemical evolution adopting new data obtained by the Dawn mission such as mass, bulk density and size of the asteroid. We have expanded the model of Neumann et al. (2012) that includes accretion, compaction, melting and associated changes of material properties and partitioning of 26Al, advective heat transport, and differentiation by porous flow, to include convection and effective cooling in a magma ocean. Depending on the melt fraction, the heat transport by melt segregation is modelled either by porous flow or by convection and heat flux of a magma ocean with a high effective thermal conductivity. We show that partitioning of 26Al and its transport with the silicate melt is crucial for the formation of a magma oce...

  20. Petrology of the most recent ultrapotassic magmas from the Roman Province (Central Italy) (United States)

    Gaeta, M.; Freda, C.; Marra, F.; Di Rocco, T.; Gozzi, F.; Arienzo, I.; Giaccio, B.; Scarlato, P.


    We report on the newly discovered lava flow that erupted in the Colli Albani Volcanic District, which is the most recent and, geochemically the most peculiar effusive event recognised in the entire ultrapotassic Roman Province (Central Italy). This lava flow is associated with the Monte Due Torri scoria cone, located approximately 5 km south of the Albano hydromagmatic centre (69-36 ka). The Monte Due Torri scoria cone displays well-preserved morphological characteristics and the 40 ± 7 ka age determined for the associated lava flow indicates that its activity was nearly contemporaneous to the most recent, explosive activity that occurred at the Albano centre from 41 to 36 ka. By comparing chemical and petrological features of the Monte Due Torri lava flow, Albano products, and older products (> 69 ka), we show that the youngest Colli Albani eruptions were fed by two new batches of parental magmas that originated in a phlogopite-bearing metasomatised mantle, each one feeding one of the two youngest eruptive cycles (at 69 ka and 41-36 ka). The trace element signature, e.g., very low Pb content, of primitive (MgO > 3 wt.%) magmas feeding the initiation of the hydromagmatic activity at Albano (69 ka) and the subsequent effusive activity at Monte Due Torri (40 ka) indicates that a magma chamber located in the deep anhydrite-bearing dolomite formation was tapped. However, the polygenic activity, the changes in magma composition, and the variable thermometamorphic clasts occurring in the hydromagmatic deposits (recording variable substrata) suggest, particularly for the Albano eruptive centre, a more complex plumbing system consisting of at least two more magma chambers at a shallower depth, i.e., in the Mesozoic limestone and Pliocene pelite formations. The large amount of stratigraphic, volcanological, and geochemical data collected for the Colli Albani Volcanic District, one of the main districts in the ultrapotassic Roman Province, enable us to contribute insights

  1. DELPHI time projection chamber

    CERN Multimedia


    The time projection chamber is inserted inside the central detector of the DELPHI experiment. Gas is ionised in the chamber as a charged particle passes through, producing an electric signal from which the path of the particle can be found. DELPHI, which ran from 1989 to 2000 on the LEP accelerator, was primarily concerned with particle identification.

  2. Fluidized bed combustion chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kullendorff, A.; Wikner, J.


    The chamber is confined in a pressure vessel. The lower part of the chamber has tilted parallel gutters up to the height of the fluidized bed. The slope of the gutter walls is 5 degrees-15 degrees and the top area of the gutters is 1.3 to 3 times larger than their bottom.

  3. Target chambers for gammashpere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, M.P.; Falout, J.W.; Nardi, B.G. [and others


    One of our responsibilities for Gammasphere, was designing and constructing two target chambers and associated beamlines to be used with the spectrometer. The first chamber was used with the early implementation phase of Gammasphere, and consisted of two spun-Al hemispheres welded together giving a wall thickness of 0.063 inches and a diameter of 12 inches.

  4. Climatic chamber ergometer

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Atkins, AR


    Full Text Available The design and calibration of an ergometer for exercising subjects during calorimetric studies in the climate chamber, are described. The ergometer is built into the climatic chamber and forms an integral part of the whole instrumentation system foe...

  5. BEBC bubble chamber

    CERN Multimedia


    Looking up into the interior of BEBC bubble chamber from the expansion cylinder. At the top of the chamber two fish-eye lenses are installed and three other fish-eye ports are blanked off. In the centre is a heat exchanger.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Experience Japan The Japanese Chamber of Commerce and Industry will further promote its Japan-experience program and seek cooperation with various Chinese institutions.Between early May and June 2007,the chamber organized a Chinese college student delegation to Japan with the support from its members in China.

  7. Trace Element Mobility During Mixing of Magmas as a Proxy for Determination of Volcanic Eruption Time-Scales (United States)

    Perugini, Diego; de Campos, Cristina P.; Petrelli, Maurizio; Poli, Gampiero; Dingwell, Donald B.


    Understanding the timing of volcanic eruptions is a central issue in volcanological research. To date, no one method appears capable of providing unequivocal information on the imminence of a volcanic explosion. One volcanic area in which the knowledge of eruption timescales is crucial is the Phlegrean Fields region home to more than 1.5 million people (Orsi et al., 1996). Recent magmatism (ca. 60ka BP to 1538 AD) has generated mostly explosive events; in the last 15 kyrs ca. 70 eruptions have been recognized (e.g. Orsi et al., 1996). Understanding the mechanisms triggering such eruptions is crucial, since the Phlegrean Fields caldera is considered as an active volcanic system that is thus likely to erupt in the future. To this aim, the variation of chemical element compositions in two pyroclastic sequences (Astroni 6 and Averno 2, Phlegrean Fields, Italy) is studied. Both sequences are compositionally zoned indicating a variability of melt compositions in the magma chamber prior to eruption. A clear dichotomy between the behavior of major vs. trace elements is also observed in both sequences, with major elements displaying nearly linear inter-elemental trends and trace elements showing a variable scattered behavior. Together with previous petrological investigations (e.g. Civetta et al., 1997) these observations are consistent with the hypothesis that magma mixing processes played a key role in the evolution of these two magmatic systems. Recently it has been suggested that mixing processes in igneous systems may strongly influence the mobility of trace elements inducing a ‘diffusive fractionation' phenomenon, whose extent depends on the mixing time-scale (Perugini et al., 2006; 2008). Here we merge information from 1) detailed geochemical studies of natural samples from Phlegrean Fields, 2) numerical simulations of magma mixing, and 3) magma mixing experiments (using as end-members natural compositions from Phlegrean Fields; e.g. De Campos et al., 2004) to

  8. Magma crystallisation on a steep side-wall: Physical behaviour of the crystal mush (United States)

    Humphreys, M.; Holness, M. B.


    The Marginal Border Series of the Skaergaard Intrusion, East Greenland, crystallised on the steeply dipping side-walls of the magma chamber. The rocks represent a series of mafic cumulates which crystallised inwards during fractional crystallisation of a single pulse of basaltic magma. They show the same progression of mineral assemblage and the same cryptic mineral compositional variation as that of the better known Layered Series, which crystallised on the chamber floor, demonstrating the “onion-skin” style of solidification of this box-shaped magma chamber. The original study of Wager & Deer (1939) divided the Marginal Border Series into the outer Tranquil Zone and an inner Banded Zone, although this field-based division bears no relationship with the progressive fractionation of the gabbros. A key feature of the Tranquil Zone is the “Wavy Pyroxene Rock”, which comprises geometrically aligned, lensoid segregations of very coarse-grained plagioclase and poikilitic augite set within otherwise uniform, unbanded and homogeneous gabbro. These segregations consistently strike parallel to the chamber wall and dip towards the contact. The shape, size, grain-size and mineralogy of the segregations change systematically away from the intrusion wall. They become bigger, chemically more evolved and more irregular in shape with increasing distance from the intrusion’s margins, and thus with stratigraphic position. We suggest that the Wavy Pyroxene Rock represents tearing of the poorly-consolidated crystal mush, during localised sagging of the vertical mush zone. Small, regularly spaced and shaped, tears formed in the thinner, more rapidly chilled, outer parts of the MBS, while larger irregular tears occurred in the inner, highly porous and poorly consolidated regions. Once the tears had formed, interstitial liquid moved into the space, crystallising as relatively evolved coarse-grained segregations. We use mineral chemistry to estimate the porosity when tearing

  9. Timescales for permeability reduction and strength recovery in densifying magma (United States)

    Heap, M. J.; Farquharson, J. I.; Wadsworth, F. B.; Kolzenburg, S.; Russell, J. K.


    Transitions between effusive and explosive behaviour are routine for many active volcanoes. The permeability of the system, thought to help regulate eruption style, is likely therefore in a state of constant change. Viscous densification of conduit magma during effusive periods, resulting in physical and textural property modifications, may reduce permeability to that preparatory for an explosive eruption. We present here a study designed to estimate timescales of permeability reduction and strength recovery during viscous magma densification by coupling measurements of permeability and strength (using samples from a suite of variably welded, yet compositionally identical, volcanic deposits) with a rheological model for viscous compaction and a micromechanical model, respectively. Bayesian Information Criterion analysis confirms that our porosity-permeability data are best described by two power laws that intersect at a porosity of 0.155 (the "changepoint" porosity). Above and below this changepoint, the permeability-porosity relationship has a power law exponent of 8.8 and 1.0, respectively. Quantitative pore size analysis and micromechanical modelling highlight that the high exponent above the changepoint is due to the closure of wide (∼200-300 μm) inter-granular flow channels during viscous densification and that, below the changepoint, the fluid pathway is restricted to narrow (∼50 μm) channels. The large number of such narrow channels allows porosity loss without considerable permeability reduction, explaining the switch to a lower exponent. Using these data, our modelling predicts a permeability reduction of four orders of magnitude (for volcanically relevant temperatures and depths) and a strength increase of a factor of six on the order of days to weeks. This discrepancy suggests that, while the viscous densification of conduit magma will inhibit outgassing efficiency over time, the regions of the conduit prone to fracturing, such as the margins, will

  10. The link between volcanism and plutonism in epizonal magma systems; high-precision U-Pb zircon geochronology from the Organ Mountains caldera and batholith, New Mexico (United States)

    Rioux, Matthew; Farmer, G. Lang; Bowring, Samuel A.; Wooton, Kathleen M.; Amato, Jeffrey M.; Coleman, Drew S.; Verplanck, Philip L.


    The Organ Mountains caldera and batholith expose the volcanic and epizonal plutonic record of an Eocene caldera complex. The caldera and batholith are well exposed, and extensive previous mapping and geochemical analyses have suggested a clear link between the volcanic and plutonic sections, making this an ideal location to study magmatic processes associated with caldera volcanism. Here we present high-precision thermal ionization mass spectrometry U-Pb zircon dates from throughout the caldera and batholith, and use these dates to test and improve existing petrogenetic models. The new dates indicate that Eocene volcanic and plutonic rocks in the Organ Mountains formed from ~44 to 34 Ma. The three largest caldera-related tuff units yielded weighted mean 206Pb/238U dates of 36.441 ± 0.020 Ma (Cueva Tuff), 36.259 ± 0.016 Ma (Achenback Park tuff), and 36.215 ± 0.016 Ma (Squaw Mountain tuff). An alkali feldspar granite, which is chemically similar to the erupted tuffs, yielded a synchronous weighted mean 206Pb/238U date of 36.259 ± 0.021 Ma. Weighted mean 206Pb/238U dates from the larger volume syenitic phase of the underlying Organ Needle pluton range from 36.130 ± 0.031 to 36.071 ± 0.012 Ma, and the youngest sample is 144 ± 20 to 188 ± 20 ka younger than the Squaw Mountain and Achenback Park tuffs, respectively. Younger plutonism in the batholith continued through at least 34.051 ± 0.029 Ma. We propose that the Achenback Park tuff, Squaw Mountain tuff, alkali feldspar granite and Organ Needle pluton formed from a single, long-lived magma chamber/mush zone. Early silicic magmas generated by partial melting of the lower crust rose to form an epizonal magma chamber. Underplating of the resulting mush zone led to partial melting and generation of a high-silica alkali feldspar granite cap, which erupted to form the tuffs. The deeper parts of the chamber underwent continued recharge and crystallization for 144 ± 20 ka after the final eruption. Calculated magmatic

  11. Magmatism vs mushmatism: Numerical modelling of melt migration and accumulation in partially molten crust (United States)

    Roele, Katarina; Jackson, Matthew; Morgan, Joanna


    We present a quantitative model of heat and mass transport in a compacting crustal mush created by the repetitive intrusion of mantle-derived basaltic sills. At very low sill emplacement rates, we find that the maximum melt fraction remains small, far below that required to create an eruptible magma, and consistent with purely thermal models published previously. However, at intermediate (and realistic) sill emplacement rates, we observe the formation of a high melt fraction layer within a low melt fraction background. The high melt fraction layer migrates upwards towards the top of the mush (which is defined by the location of the solidus isotherm) and, despite occupying a high melt fraction, the melt in the layer has a composition corresponding to a progressively larger degree of fractionation during upwards migration, because it locally equilibrates with mush at progressively lower temperature. Thus the composition of the melt in the high melt fraction layer becomes progressively more evolved. The high melt fraction layer resembles a conventional magma chamber, but is produced by changes in bulk composition in response to melt migration, rather than the addition of heat. Indeed, such a layer can form even when the mush is cooling overall. The magma within the layer is at sufficiently high melt fraction to be eruptible, but is not located in the hottest region of the mush where the temperature is highest. This is a new method to produce a magma chamber within a crustal mush, and also to evolve the composition of the melt in the chamber. Our results show that high melt fractions need not be associated with high temperature; they also show that eruptible melt fractions can be created at much lower emplacement rates than predicted by purely thermal models. These high melt fractions are transient, and spatially localized within larger mush zones. Moreover, chemical differentiation does not require fractional crystallisation in a largely liquid magma chamber. Our

  12. Using Intensive Variables to Constrain Magma Source Regions (United States)

    Edwards, B. R.; Russell, J. K.


    In the modern world of petrology, magma source region characterization is commonly the realm of trace element and isotopic geochemistry. However, major element analyses of rocks representing magmatic compositions can also be used to constrain source region charactertistics, which enhance the results of isotopic and trace element studies. We show examples from the northern Cordilleran volcanic province (NCVP), in the Canadian Cordillera, where estimations of thermodynamic intensive variables are used to resolve different source regions for mafic alkaline magmas. We have taken a non-traditional approach to using the compositions of three groups of mafic, alkaline rocks to characterize the source regions of magmas erupted in the NCVP. Based on measured Fe2O3 and FeO in rocks from different locations, the Atlin volcanic district (AVD), the Fort Selkirk volcanic complex (FSVC), the West Tuya volcanic field, (WTVF), we have estimated oxygen fugacities (fO2) for the source regions of magmas based on the model of Kress and Carmichael (1991) and the computational package MELTS/pMelts (Ghiorso and Sack, 1995; Ghiorso et al., 2002). We also have used Melts/pMelts to estimate liquidus conditions for the compositions represented by the samples as well as activities of major element components. The results of our calculations are useful for distinguishing between three presumably different magma series: alkaline basalts, basanites, and nephelinites (Francis and Ludden, 1990; 1995). Calculated intensive variables (fO2, activities SiO2, KAlSiO4, Na2SiO3) show clear separation of the samples into two groups: i) nephelinites and ii) basanites/alkaline basalts. The separation is especially evident on plots of log fO2 versus activity SiO2. The source region for nephelinitic magmas in the AVD is up to 2 log units more oxidized than that for the basanites/basalts as well as having a distinctly lower range of activities of SiO2. Accepting that our assumptions about the magmas

  13. Search for shallow magma accumulations at Augustine Volcano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kienle, J.; Lalla, D.J.; Pearson, C.F.; Barrett, S.A.


    A search was made for shallow magma accumulations beneath Augustine Volcano using primarily three geophysical techniques: (1) temperature and heat flow measurements, (2) active and passive seismic refraction, and (3) three-dimensional modeling of aeromagnetic data. With these studies it was hoped to gain insight into the interval structure of Augustine Volcano, to delineate, if possible, the size and shape of near surface magma bodies and to assess the potential of the volcano as a natural laboratory for hot rock and magma geothermal energy research. Augustine was chosen because it is a very young and very active volcano with several historic eruptions in 1812, 1883, 1935, 1964/64. One of the main targets for the geophysical studies was a summit lava dome of about 0.05 km/sup 3/ volume, extruded in 1963/64 and suspected to still contain considerable residual heat, perhaps be still partially molten years after its intrusion. Five months after the field work in 1975 this dome was exploded in January 1976. One month later, a hot (about 650 to 800/sup 0/C) viscous dome was intruded into the January summit crater.

  14. The chlorine isotope fingerprint of the lunar magma ocean. (United States)

    Boyce, Jeremy W; Treiman, Allan H; Guan, Yunbin; Ma, Chi; Eiler, John M; Gross, Juliane; Greenwood, James P; Stolper, Edward M


    The Moon contains chlorine that is isotopically unlike that of any other body yet studied in the Solar System, an observation that has been interpreted to support traditional models of the formation of a nominally hydrogen-free ("dry") Moon. We have analyzed abundances and isotopic compositions of Cl and H in lunar mare basalts, and find little evidence that anhydrous lava outgassing was important in generating chlorine isotope anomalies, because (37)Cl/(35)Cl ratios are not related to Cl abundance, H abundance, or D/H ratios in a manner consistent with the lava-outgassing hypothesis. Instead, (37)Cl/(35)Cl correlates positively with Cl abundance in apatite, as well as with whole-rock Th abundances and La/Lu ratios, suggesting that the high (37)Cl/(35)Cl in lunar basalts is inherited from urKREEP, the last dregs of the lunar magma ocean. These new data suggest that the high chlorine isotope ratios of lunar basalts result not from the degassing of their lavas but from degassing of the lunar magma ocean early in the Moon's history. Chlorine isotope variability is therefore an indicator of planetary magma ocean degassing, an important stage in the formation of terrestrial planets.

  15. Experiments on the rheology of vesicle-bearing magmas (United States)

    Vona, Alessandro; Ryan, Amy G.; Russell, James K.; Romano, Claudia


    We present a series of high temperature uniaxial deformation experiments designed to investigate the effect of bubbles on the magma bulk viscosity. Starting materials having variable vesicularity (φ = 0 - 66%) were synthesized by high-temperature foaming (T = 900 - 1050 ° C and P = 1 bar) of cores of natural rhyolitic obsidian from Hrafntinnuhryggur, Krafla, Iceland. These cores were subsequently deformed using a high-temperature uniaxial press at dry atmospheric conditions. Each experiment involved deforming vesicle-bearing cores isothermally (T = 750 ° C), at constant displacement rates (strain rates between 0.5-1 x 10-4 s-1), and to total strains (ɛ) of 10-40%. The viscosity of the bubble-free melt (η0) was measured by micropenetration and parallel plate methods and establishes a baseline for comparing data derived from experiments on vesicle rich cores. At the experimental conditions, the presence of vesicles has a major impact on the rheological response, producing a marked decrease of bulk viscosity (maximum decrease of 2 log units Pa s) that is best described by a two-parameter empirical equation: log ηBulk = log η0 - 1.47 * [φ/(1-φ)]0.48. Our model provides a means to compare the diverse behaviour of vesicle-bearing melts reported in the literature and reflecting material properties (e.g., analogue vs. natural), geometry and distribution of pores (e.g. foamed/natural vs. unconsolidated/sintered materials), and flow regime. Lastly, we apply principles of Maxwell relaxation theory, combined with our parameterization of bubble-melt rheology, to map the potential onset of non-Newtonian behaviour (strain localization) in vesiculated magmas and lavas as a function of melt viscosity, vesicularity, strain rate, and geological condition. Increasing vesicularity in magmas can initiate non-Newtonian behaviour at constant strain rates. Lower melt viscosity sustains homogeneous Newtonian flow in vesiculated magmas even at relatively high strain rates.

  16. Oxygen isotope evolution of the Lake Owyhee volcanic field, Oregon, and implications for low-δ18O magmas of the Snake River Plain - Yellowstone hotspot (United States)

    Blum, T.; Kitajima, K.; Nakashima, D.; Valley, J. W.


    increasing meteoric water transport to depth and generating conditions for regional scale hydrothermal alteration of the crust. The intricacies of deformation rate and style, and the resulting crustal permeability-depth relations along the hotspot track, offer a qualitative explanation for low-δ18O magmas being pervasive in the CSRP, but restricted to post-caldera and late stage ignimbrites in the eastern SRP centers. This model has significant implications for the evolution of SRP-Y systems, as the thermal inputs required to drive both hydrothermal alteration and crustal melting complicate production of long-lived shallow crustal magma chambers. In addition, this model adds to a growing data set (e.g. Tangbai-Dabie-Sulu province, British Tertiary Igneous Province, etc.) demonstrating low-δ18O magmas can be generated in conjunction with regional scale hydrothermal alteration of the crust, and that this process has occurred throughout the geologic past where extensional tectonics and high thermal fluxes are superimposed.

  17. 3-D Modeling of Heat and Mass Transfer during Combustion of Solid Fuel in Bkz-420-140-7C Combustion Chamber of Kazkhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliya Askarova


    Full Text Available In this paper the results obtained by the numerical method of modeling of Ekibastuz coal burning in BKZ-420 combustion chamber of Kazakhstan Power Plant are presented. They are devoted to the numerical simulation of combustion processes in the furnace boiler BKZ-420. Boiler’s steam generates capacity equal 420 T/h. Boiler has six vertical pulverized coal burners arranged in two levels with three burners on the front wall of the boiler. High ash, low-grade coal from Ekibastuz burned in the furnace. Its ash content is 40%, volatile – 24%, humidity–5%, highest calorific value is 16750 kJ/kg. Milling dispersity of coal was equal to R90 = 15%.It was shown in this research that the most intense burning is observed in the central part of the chamber where the flow temperature reaches about 980 °C and it is seen that the temperature reaches a peak in the cross sections of the burners location. The combustion reaction there occurs more intensively.

  18. PS wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia


    A wire chamber used at CERN's Proton Synchrotron accelerator in the 1970s. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  19. OPAL Jet Chamber Prototype

    CERN Multimedia

    OPAL was one of the four experiments installed at the LEP particle accelerator from 1989 - 2000. OPAL's central tracking system consists of (in order of increasing radius) a silicon microvertex detector, a vertex detector, a jet chamber, and z-chambers. All the tracking detectors work by observing the ionization of atoms by charged particles passing by: when the atoms are ionized, electrons are knocked out of their atomic orbitals, and are then able to move freely in the detector. These ionization electrons are detected in the dirfferent parts of the tracking system. This piece is a prototype of the jet chambers

  20. Stress perturbation given on the Mount Fuji Volcano Magma System caused by the Tohoku Megathrust Earthquake, Japan (United States)

    Fujita, E.; Kozono, T.; Ozawa, T.; Ueda, H.; Kohno, Y.; Yoshioka, S.; Toda, N.; Kikuchi, A.; Ida, Y.


    Earthquake often triggers volcanic eruptions nearby, and its mechanism is widely discussed. The megathrust earthquake on March 11, 2011, in Tohoku, Japan, caused enormous crustal deformation over the mainland of Japan, and 20 volcanoes showed abnormal activities. In this presentation, we evaluate the perturbation given on Mount Fuji volcanic system. We applied the Finite-Element Method (FEM) to calculate both static and quasi-static stress changes. The Japanese main-land and the Mount Fuji region are modeled based on seismic tomography, as well as the effects of the topography. Our results changes indicate that the static stress change due to Tohoku earthquake is in the order of 0.01MPa. In addition, an induced Mw5.9 East-Shizuoka earthquake occurred four days after the major earthquake beneath the south flank of Mount Fuji. This seismic fault is estimated to be located above the magma reservoir in the mid-crust, based on the inversion of ground deformation data, and FEM result suggests the stress changes of 0.1-1MPa. We also consider the quasi-static model to evaluate the mechanism of time lag between earthquakes and volcanic eruption. We applied the visco-elastic (Maxwell) model to crustal structure. We must obtain strain velocity in each time step, which controls the response after. Our results shows that the differential stress around the main shock region will reduce to 78 % of the static stress change in 100 years, but will increase to 7% of the static stress change beneath the magma reservoir of Mount Fuji volcano. Our interest is in whether these disturbances are sufficient to excite the magma and trigger and eruption. Here we consider two kinds of processes leading to an eruption. The first one is the promotion of the promotion of bubbling due to depressurization, and the other is the stress changes in the surrounding rocks. We performed numerical simulations of depressurization bubbling by VERA code (Fujita et al., 2007, IUGG). We assume initial bubble

  1. High temperature uniaxial deformation experiment of bubble-free highly crystalline magmas; a case study for the high-Mg andesite from Goshiki-dai lava plateau, southwest Japan (Invited) (United States)

    Ishibashi, H.


    Rheological property of magma is a key factor for understanding various volcanic processes. Natural magmas commonly have crystals of various volume fraction and such suspended crystals strongly affect on magma rheology. For dilute to intermediately crystalline magmas, previous studies (e.g., Ishibashi, 2009JVGR; Vona et al. 2011ChemGeol) experimentally investigated the effects of suspended crystals on apparent viscosities and the model predicting the effects of crystals is proposed by Mader et al. (2013JVGR). However, for highly crystalline magmas, our knowledge on their complex rheological behaviors is still not enough even for bubble-free system whereas several experimental studies have been done (e.g., Carrichi et al., 2007EPSL; Picard et al., 2013JGR). Understanding rheological property in the crystal-melt two phase system is important for considering magma dynamics in deep magma chambers and dykes and also for investigating the property in bubble-crystal-melt three phase system. In this study, uniaxial compression deformation experiments were done for bubble-free, highly crystalline natural lava under high temperature, 1atm pressure conditions to investigate the effects of suspended crystals on rheology of bubble-free magma. The high-Mg andesite erupted at ca. 15 Ma from Goshiki-dai lava plateau, southwest Japan, was used for starting materials. The lava is aphyric, bubble-free, and composed of fine-grained elongated plagioclase, pyroxenes, and magnetite crystals and unaltered silicate glass. Crystal volume fraction is ca. 0.65. Samples were cut into rectangular with 15mm length, 15mm width, and 30 mm high from massive portion of lava without any visible fracture. The samples were deformed by using the high temperature uniaxial compression apparatus, installed at Earthquake Research Institute, the University of Tokyo, under conditions of temperature from 1292 to 1133 K, log strain rate from -5.5 to -2.5, and 1 atm pressure. Total strains of the samples are

  2. Thermomechanical controls on magma supply and volcanic deformation: application to Aira caldera, Japan (United States)

    Hickey, James; Gottsmann, Joachim; Nakamichi, Haruhisa; Iguchi, Masato


    Ground deformation often precedes volcanic eruptions, and results from complex interactions between source processes and the thermomechanical behaviour of surrounding rocks. Previous models aiming to constrain source processes were unable to include realistic mechanical and thermal rock properties, and the role of thermomechanical heterogeneity in magma accumulation was unclear. Here we show how spatio-temporal deformation and magma reservoir evolution are fundamentally controlled by three-dimensional thermomechanical heterogeneity. Using the example of continued inflation at Aira caldera, Japan, we demonstrate that magma is accumulating faster than it can be erupted, and the current uplift is approaching the level inferred prior to the violent 1914 Plinian eruption. Magma storage conditions coincide with estimates for the caldera-forming reservoir ~29,000 years ago, and the inferred magma supply rate indicates a ~130-year timeframe to amass enough magma to feed a future 1914-sized eruption. These new inferences are important for eruption forecasting and risk mitigation, and have significant implications for the interpretations of volcanic deformation worldwide.

  3. Thermomechanical controls on magma supply and volcanic deformation: application to Aira caldera, Japan (United States)

    Hickey, James; Gottsmann, Joachim; Nakamichi, Haruhisa; Iguchi, Masato


    Ground deformation often precedes volcanic eruptions, and results from complex interactions between source processes and the thermomechanical behaviour of surrounding rocks. Previous models aiming to constrain source processes were unable to include realistic mechanical and thermal rock properties, and the role of thermomechanical heterogeneity in magma accumulation was unclear. Here we show how spatio-temporal deformation and magma reservoir evolution are fundamentally controlled by three-dimensional thermomechanical heterogeneity. Using the example of continued inflation at Aira caldera, Japan, we demonstrate that magma is accumulating faster than it can be erupted, and the current uplift is approaching the level inferred prior to the violent 1914 Plinian eruption. Magma storage conditions coincide with estimates for the caldera-forming reservoir ~29,000 years ago, and the inferred magma supply rate indicates a ~130-year timeframe to amass enough magma to feed a future 1914-sized eruption. These new inferences are important for eruption forecasting and risk mitigation, and have significant implications for the interpretations of volcanic deformation worldwide. PMID:27619897

  4. Micro-textures in plagioclase from 1994e1995 eruption, Barren Island Volcano:Evidence of dynamic magma plumbing system in the Andaman subduction zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.L. Renjith


    A systematic account of micro-textures and a few compositional profiles of plagioclase from high-alumina basaltic aa lava erupted during the year 1994e1995, from Barren Island Volcano, NE India ocean, are presented for the first time. The identified micro-textures can be grouped into two categories:(i) Growth related textures in the form of coarse/fine-sieve morphology, fine-scale oscillatory zoning and resorption surfaces resulted when the equilibrium at the crystal-melt interface was fluctuated due to change in temperature or H2O or pressure or composition of the crystallizing melt;and (ii) morphological texture, like glomerocryst, synneusis, swallow-tailed crystal, microlite and broken crystals, formed by the influence of dynamic behavior of the crystallizing magma (convection, turbulence, degassing, etc.). Each micro-texture has developed in a specific magmatic environment, accordingly, a first order magma plumbing model and crystallization dynamics are envisaged for the studied lava unit. Magma generated has undergone extensive fractional crystallization of An-rich plagioclase in stable magmatic environment at a deeper depth. Subsequently they ascend to a shallow chamber where the newly brought crystals and pre-existing crystals have undergone dynamic crystallization via dissolution-regrowth processes in a convective self-mixing environment. Such repeated recharge-recycling processes have produced various populations of plagioclase with different micro-textural stratigraphy in the studied lava unit. Intermittent degassing and eruption related decompression have also played a major role in the final stage of crystallization dynamics.

  5. Sphene-centered ocellar texture as a petrological tool to unveil the mechanism facilitating magma mixing (United States)

    Gogoi, Bibhuti; Saikia, Ashima; Ahmad, Mansoor


    The sphene-centered ocellar texture is a unique magma mixing feature characterized by leucocratic ocelli of sphene enclosed in a biotite/hornblende-rich matrix (Hibbard, 1991). The ocelli usually consist of plagioclase, K-feldspar and quartz with sphene crystals at its centre. Although geochemical and isotopic data provide concrete evidence for the interaction between two compositionally distinct magmas, the exact processes by which mixing takes place is yet uncertain. So, textural analysis can be used to decipher the behaviour of two disparate magmas during mixing. Presented work is being carried out on the sphene ocelli, occurring in hybrid rocks of the Nimchak Granite Pluton (NGP), to understand its formation while two compositionally different magmas come in contact and try to equilibrate. The NGP is ca. 1 km2in extent which has been extensively intruded by number of mafic dykes exhibiting well preserved magma mixing and mingling structures and textures in the Bathani Volcano-Sedimentary Sequence (BVSS) located on the northern fringe of the Proterozoic Chotanagpur Granite Gneiss Complex (CGGC) of eastern Indian Shield. From petrographic and mineral chemical studies we infer that when basaltic magma intruded the crystallizing granite magma chamber, initially the two compositionally different magmas existed as separate entities. The first interaction that took place between the two phases is diffusion of heat from the relatively hotter mafic magma to the colder felsic one followed by diffusion of elemental components like K and incompatible elements from the felsic to the mafic domain. Once thermal equilibrium was attained between the mafic and felsic melts, the rheological contrasts between the two phases were greatly reduced. This allowed the felsic magma to back-vein into the mafic magma. The influx of back-veined felsic melt into the mafic system disrupted the equilibrium conditions in the mafic domain wherein minerals like amphibole, plagioclase and biotite

  6. ALICE Time Projection Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Lippmann, C


    The Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is the main device in the ALICE 'central barrel' for the tracking and identification (PID) of charged particles. It has to cope with unprecedented densities of charges particles.

  7. Vacuum chamber 'bicone'

    CERN Multimedia


    This chamber is now in the National Museum of History and Technology, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, USA, where it was exposed in an exhibit on the History of High Energy Accelerators (1977).

  8. High rate drift chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, D.C. (Fermilab, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States)); Berisso, M.C. (Fermilab, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States)); Gutierrez, G. (Fermilab, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States)); Holmes, S.D. (Fermilab, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States)); Wehmann, A. (Fermilab, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States)); Avilez, C. (Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Guanajuato, Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico)); Felix, J. (Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Guanajuato, Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico)); Moreno, G. (Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Guanajuato, Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico)); Romero, M. (Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Guanajuato, Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico)); Sosa, M. (Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Guanajuato, Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico)); Forbush, M. (Department of Physics, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)); Huson, F.R. (Department of Physics, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)); Wightman, J.A. (Department of Physi


    Fermilab experiment 690, a study of target dissociation reactions pp[yields]pX using an 800 GeV/c proton beam and a liquid hydrogen target, collected data in late 1991. The incident beam and 600-800 GeV/c scattered protons were measured using a system of six 6 in.x4 in. and two 15 in.x8 in. pressurized drift chambers spaced over 260 m. These chambers provided precise measurements at rates above 10 MHz (2 MHz per cm of sense wire). The measurement resolution of the smaller chambers was 90 [mu]m, and the resolution of the larger chambers was 125 [mu]m. Construction details and performance results, including radiation damage, are presented. ((orig.))

  9. Toxic Test Chambers (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Hazardous material test facility Both facilities have 16,000 cubic foot chambers, equipped with 5000 CFM CBR filter systems with an air change...

  10. Bubble chamber: antiproton annihilation

    CERN Multimedia


    These images show real particle tracks from the annihilation of an antiproton in the 80 cm Saclay liquid hydrogen bubble chamber. A negative kaon and a neutral kaon are produced in this process, as well as a positive pion. The invention of bubble chambers in 1952 revolutionized the field of particle physics, allowing real tracks left by particles to be seen and photographed by expanding liquid that had been heated to boiling point.

  11. Crustal Assimilation and Magma Recharge in the Recent Mt. Etna Magma Plumbing System: Evidence from In Situ Plagioclase Textural and Compositional Data (United States)

    Pitcher, B. W.; Bohrson, W. A.; Viccaro, M.


    Mt. Etna is Europe's largest and most active volcano, and as a result of its proximity to populated areas, understanding the structure of its magma plumbing system and the nature of its magmatic processes is essential for better predicting eruptive hazards. The aim of this study is to document core to rim textural, chemical, and isotopic variations in plagioclase, in order to investigate the physical characteristics of the subvolcanic magma system and processes by which magmas evolve. Nomarski Differential Interference Contrast (NDIC) imaging was used to characterize the complex textures of plagioclase crystals in six trachybasaltic samples from eruption years 1974, 1981, 2001, and 2004. Approximately 30 NDIC images per sample revealed 6 textural categories defined by combinations of monotonous, oscillatory, sieve, and patchy zoning. Core to rim electron microprobe analyses carried out at distinct textural boundaries revealed variable anorthite (An) (mol %) values ranging from 92 to 44. In most phenocrysts, An decreases non-monotonically from core to rim, and simple correlations among An, FeO (wt. %), textural type, and eruption year are lacking, indicating intricate crystallization histories that likely reflect changing magma chamber conditions. Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (LA-ICPMS) 87Sr/86Sr analyses were performed on cores and rims of selected crystals from each textural type within each sample. Phenocryst 87Sr/86Sr values ranged from ~0.70300 to 0.70370 (±.00002), and were significantly lower than preliminary groundmass 87Sr/86Sr values, which ranged from ~0.70466 to 0.70498. Whole-rock 87Sr/86Sr values are between groundmass and crystal values. The Δ87Sr/86Sr within each crystal, defined as rim minus core, varied from -0.00030 to +0.00011; while most crystals exhibit a core to rim increase, some showed a decrease and some had constant 87Sr/86Sr. The prevalence of core to rim increases, combined with whole rock and preliminary

  12. Anhydrite solubility in differentiated arc magmas (United States)

    Masotta, M.; Keppler, H.


    The solubility of anhydrite in differentiated arc magmas was experimentally studied at 200 MPa and 800-1000 °C over a range of oxygen fugacities, from 0.5 log units above the Ni-NiO buffer to the hematite-magnetite buffer. Anhydrite is stable only at oxidizing conditions (fO2 ⩾ Re-ReO2), whereas sulfides only form under reducing conditions. The solubility of anhydrite in the melt ultimately regulates the amount of sulfur available to partition between melt and fluid phase during the eruption. At oxidizing conditions, the solubility product of anhydrite increases with temperature, nbo/t and melt water content. We provide a new calibration of the anhydrite solubility product (KSP = XCaO * XSO3), which reproduces all available experimental data with greatly improved accuracy: In this equation, the molar fractions XCaO and XSO3 in the melt as well as the number of non-bridging oxygen atoms per tetrahedron (nbo/t) are calculated on an anhydrous basis (H2O refers to the melt water content, T is temperature in Kelvin). We apply our model to estimate the sulfur yield of some recent volcanic eruptions and we show that the sulfur yield of the 1991 Mt. Pinatubo dacite eruption was unusually large, because only a small fraction of the sulfur was locked up in anhydrite. In general, high sulfur yields are expected when anhydrite solubility in the melt is high, i.e. for somewhat depolymerized melts. For rhyolitic systems, most of the available sulfur will be locked up in anhydrite, so that even very large eruptions may only have a small effect on global surface temperatures. Our model therefore allows improved predictions of the environmental impact of explosive volcanic eruptions.

  13. Melt production and magma emplacement: What use are they? (United States)

    Nimmo, F.


    I will review the processes of melt production and magma emplacement and address two questions: how do these processes affect planetary evolution?; and what can we learn from observing them, both now and in the future? Melt production is primarily controlled by the temperature of the planetary interior. The extraction of melt from silicate mantles has a number of effects. Firstly, it advects heat (e.g. Io, Venus?). Secondly, it segregates radiogenic materials into the crust, thus cooling the mantle (e.g. Mars, Earth). Thirdly, it removes volatiles from the interior (e.g. Venus, Mars). Recognition that melting is occurring gives us information about likely conditions inside the planet. Models of melt generation by convective upwelling have been used to constrain the interior properties of the Earth, Venus and Mars. Melting during tidal heating (Io) or accretion is less well understood. Magma emplacement is primarily controlled by the density of the magma and the surrounding material. Extrusive activity is likely for high volatile concentrations or low crustal densities. Water is particularly difficult to erupt, since (unlike silicates) the melt is denser than the solid. Different styles of magma emplacement are observed: voluminous surface flows and volcanic edifices of various kinds (ubiquitous); giant radiating dyke swarms (Earth, Venus, Mars); intrusive sills and diapirs (Earth, Venus?, Mars?, Europa?). The extrusive emplacement of magma will cause resurfacing, and is thus easily detected. The release of volatiles during emplacement may have local (e.g. Laki) or global (Venus? Mars?) effects on climate and atmosphere. Intrusive emplacement is harder to detect, but may interact with local volatiles to create unusual landforms (Earth, Mars). The style and volume of emplacement is a useful diagnostic tool. The morphology of lava flows gives information about the rheology and composition of the flow material (e.g. Venus, Miranda). Observations of dykes may be used to

  14. Results of emulsion chamber experiments with very high-energy cosmic rays which are difficult to explain in the framework of the Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    Slavatinsky, S A


    Recent results of emulsion chamber experiments on the observation of unusual events and new phenomena in cosmic ray particle interactions in the energy range beyond 10 PeV are presented in this review. Particular attention is given to the following items: (1) Centauro- type events with violation of charge (isotropic) symmetry in hadron production; (2) fan-shaped events which argue in favor of a new mechanism of coplanar emission of secondaries; (3) events with halos produced by collimated bundles of high energy gammas and hadrons; (4) penetrating hadrons with abnormal absorption in lead. The present paper contains main characteristics of the events and phenomena under review as well as discussion of their possible interpretation. It is conceivable that the observed events are manifestation of New Physics beyond the Standard Model. Further progress in studying the new phenomena in cosmic ray experiments for the next few years, in view of LHC startup, is considered. (13 refs).

  15. Results of emulsion chamber experiments with very high-energy cosmic rays which are difficult to explain in the framework of the standard model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slavatinsky, S.A


    Recent results of emulsion chamber experiments on the observation of unusual events and new phenomena in cosmic ray particle interactions in the energy range beyond 10 PeV are presented in this review. Particular attention is given to the following items: - 1. Centauro-type events with violation of charge (isotopic) symmetry in hadron production; - 2. fan-shaped events which argue in favour of a new mechanism of coplanar emission of secondaries; - 3. events with halos produced by collimated bundles of high energy gammas and hadrons; - 4. penetrating hadrons with abnormal absorption in lead. The present paper contains main characteristics of the events and phenomena under review as well as discussion of their possible interpretation. It is conceivable that the observed events are the manifestation of New Physics beyond the Standard Model. Further progress in studying the new phenomena in cosmic ray experiments for the next few years, in view of LHC startup, is considered.

  16. How caldera collapse shapes the shallow emplacement and transfer of magma in active volcanoes (United States)

    Corbi, F.; Rivalta, E.; Pinel, V.; Maccaferri, F.; Bagnardi, M.; Acocella, V.


    Calderas are topographic depressions formed by the collapse of a partly drained magma reservoir. At volcanic edifices with calderas, eruptive fissures can circumscribe the outer caldera rim, be oriented radially and/or align with the regional tectonic stress field. Constraining the mechanisms that govern this spatial arrangement is fundamental to understand the dynamics of shallow magma storage and transport and evaluate volcanic hazard. Here we show with numerical models that the previously unappreciated unloading effect of caldera formation may contribute significantly to the stress budget of a volcano. We first test this hypothesis against the ideal case of Fernandina, Galápagos, where previous models only partly explained the peculiar pattern of circumferential and radial eruptive fissures and the geometry of the intrusions determined by inverting the deformation data. We show that by taking into account the decompression due to the caldera formation, the modeled edifice stress field is consistent with all the observations. We then develop a general model for the stress state at volcanic edifices with calderas based on the competition of caldera decompression, magma buoyancy forces and tectonic stresses. These factors control: 1) the shallow accumulation of magma in stacked sills, consistently with observations; 2) the conditions for the development of circumferential and/or radial eruptive fissures, as observed on active volcanoes. This top-down control exerted by changes in the distribution of mass at the surface allows better understanding of how shallow magma is transferred at active calderas, contributing to forecasting the location and type of opening fissures.

  17. Two magma bodies beneath the summit of Kilauea Volcano unveiled by isotopically distinct melt deliveries from the mantle (United States)

    Pietruszka, Aaron J; Heaton, Daniel E.; Marske, Jared P.; Garcia, Michael O.


    The summit magma storage reservoir of Kīlauea Volcano is one of the most important components of the magmatic plumbing system of this frequently active basaltic shield-building volcano. Here we use new high-precision Pb isotopic analyses of Kīlauea summit lavas—from 1959 to the active Halema‘uma‘u lava lake—to infer the number, size, and interconnectedness of magma bodies within the volcano's summit reservoir. From 1971 to 1982, the 206Pb/204Pb ratios of the lavas define two separate magma mixing trends that correlate with differences in vent location and/or pre-eruptive magma temperature. These relationships, which contrast with a single magma mixing trend for lavas from 1959 to 1968, indicate that Kīlauea summit eruptions since at least 1971 were supplied from two distinct magma bodies. The locations of these magma bodies are inferred to coincide with two major deformation centers identified by geodetic monitoring of the volcano's summit region: (1) the main locus of the summit reservoir ∼2–4 km below the southern rim of Kīlauea Caldera and (2) a shallower magma body 4 km3 of lava erupted), must therefore be sustained by a nearly continuous supply of new melt from the mantle. The model results show that a minimum of four compositionally distinct, mantle-derived magma batches were delivered to the volcano (at least three directly to the summit reservoir) since 1959. These melt inputs correlate with the initiation of energetic (1959 Kīlauea Iki) and/or sustained (1969–1974 Mauna Ulu, 1983-present Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō and 2008-present Halema‘uma‘u) eruptions. Thus, Kīlauea's eruptive behavior is partly tied to the delivery of new magma batches from the volcano's source region within the Hawaiian mantle plume.

  18. Compositional variability in mafic arc magmas over short spatial and temporal scales: Evidence for the signature of mantle reactive melt channels (United States)

    Rawson, Harriet; Keller, Tobias; Fontijn, Karen; Pyle, David M.; Mather, Tamsin A.; Smith, Victoria C.; Naranjo, José A.


    Understanding arc magma genesis is critical to deciphering the construction of continental crust, understanding the relationship between plutonic and volcanic rocks, and for assessing volcanic hazards. Arc magma genesis is complex. Interpreting the underlying causes of major and trace element diversity in erupted magmas is challenging and often non-unique. To navigate this complexity mafic magma diversity is investigated using sample suites that span short temporal and spatial scales. These constraints allow us to evaluate models of ar