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Sample records for model macaca fascicularis

  1. Monyet Ekor Panjang (Macaca fascicularis sebagai Model Diabetes Melitus: Pengaruh Hiperglikemia pada Lipid Darah, Serum Oksida Nitrik, dan Tingkah Laku Klinis (THE LONG TAILED MACAQUE (MACACA FASCICULARIS AS A MODEL OF DIABETES MELITUS : EFFECT OF HYPE

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    Sri Kayati Widyastuti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Monyet Ekor Panjang (Macaca fascicularis sebagai Model Diabetes Melitus: Pengaruh Hiperglikemia pada Lipid Darah, Serum Oksida Nitrik, dan Tingkah Laku Klinis   (THE LONG TAILED MACAQUE (MACACA FASCICULARIS AS A MODEL OF DIABETES MELITUS : EFFECT OF HYPERGLICEMIA ON BLOOD LIPID, SERUM NITRIC OXIDE, AND CLINICAL BEHAVIOUR

  2. Identification and Characterization of MicroRNAs in Macaca fascicularis by EST Analysis

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    Hao Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small noncoding RNAs which repress gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. In this study, an expressed sequence tag (EST-based combined method was applied for the detection of miRNAs in Macaca fascicularis which is used as a model animal extensively in medical experiments, particularly those involved with neuroscience and disease. Initially, previously known miRNA sequences from metazoans were used to blast with the EST databases of Macaca fascicularis, and then a range of filtering criteria was conducted to remove some pseudo ones. At last a total of 8 novel conserved miRNAs were identified; their functions were further predicted and analyzed. Together, our study provides insight into miRNAs and their functions in Macaca fascicularis, indicating that the EST analysis is an efficient and affordable alternative approach for identifying novel miRNA candidates.

  3. Osseointegration of dental implants in Macaca fascicularis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, R. S.; Odang, R. W.; Odelia, L.

    2017-08-01

    Osseointegration is an important factor in determining the success of a dental implant. It can be assessed from the osseointegration that occurs between the implant and the bone. The implant stability is determined by the osseous support at the implant-bone interface, which is commonly evaluated by histomorphometric analysis. This study aimed to evaluate whether the osseointegration level measured by a Low Resonance Frequency Analyzer (LRFA) gave results as good as those obtained by histomorphometric examination. Six male Macaca fascicularis were used in this study. In each animal, two types of loading were performed: immediate and delayed loading. Clinical examination and LRFA measurement were performed to determine osseointegration at the first and second weeks and at the first, second, third, and fourth months. After four months, histomorphometric examination was performed. The relationship between the histomorphometric examination and LRFA measurement was compared using the Pearson correlation coefficient. There was no significant difference in the osseointegration between immediate loading and delayed loading (p > 0.05) The bone-implant contact percentage in the first group did not differ significantly from that in the second group. Statistical analysis showed that there was a strong correlation between LRFA measurement and histomorphometric examination. Osseointegration could be evaluated through LRFA measurement as well as through histomorphometric examination.

  4. Mitogenomic phylogeny of the common long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis fascicularis).

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    Liedigk, Rasmus; Kolleck, Jakob; Böker, Kai O; Meijaard, Erik; Md-Zain, Badrul Munir; Abdul-Latiff, Muhammad Abu Bakar; Ampeng, Ahmad; Lakim, Maklarin; Abdul-Patah, Pazil; Tosi, Anthony J; Brameier, Markus; Zinner, Dietmar; Roos, Christian

    2015-03-21

    Long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) are an important model species in biomedical research and reliable knowledge about their evolutionary history is essential for biomedical inferences. Ten subspecies have been recognized, of which most are restricted to small islands of Southeast Asia. In contrast, the common long-tailed macaque (M. f. fascicularis) is distributed over large parts of the Southeast Asian mainland and the Sundaland region. To shed more light on the phylogeny of M. f. fascicularis, we sequenced complete mitochondrial (mtDNA) genomes of 40 individuals from all over the taxon's range, either by classical PCR-amplification and Sanger sequencing or by DNA-capture and high-throughput sequencing. Both laboratory approaches yielded complete mtDNA genomes from M. f. fascicularis with high accuracy and/or coverage. According to our phylogenetic reconstructions, M. f. fascicularis initially diverged into two clades 1.70 million years ago (Ma), with one including haplotypes from mainland Southeast Asia, the Malay Peninsula and North Sumatra (Clade A) and the other, haplotypes from the islands of Bangka, Java, Borneo, Timor, and the Philippines (Clade B). The three geographical populations of Clade A appear as paraphyletic groups, while local populations of Clade B form monophyletic clades with the exception of a Philippine individual which is nested within the Borneo clade. Further, in Clade B the branching pattern among main clades/lineages remains largely unresolved, most likely due to their relatively rapid diversification 0.93-0.84 Ma. Both laboratory methods have proven to be powerful to generate complete mtDNA genome data with similarly high accuracy, with the DNA-capture and high-throughput sequencing approach as the most promising and only practical option to obtain such data from highly degraded DNA, in time and with relatively low costs. The application of complete mtDNA genomes yields new insights into the evolutionary history of M. f

  5. Evaluation of two monkey species (Macaca mulatta and Macaca fascicularis) as possible models for human Helicobacter pylori disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euler, A R; Zurenko, G E; Moe, J B; Ulrich, R G; Yagi, Y

    1990-10-01

    Endoscopic, histologic, and microbiologic evaluations of 21 cynomolgus and 34 rhesus monkeys for naturally occurring Helicobacter pylori infection were done. H. pylori was never isolated from any cynomolgus monkey, but was found in 12 rhesus monkeys. A general correlation existed between a positive culture and a gastric inflammatory response. Inoculation challenges were then undertaken. Four cynomolgus and five rhesus monkeys received two different H. pylori strains isolated from humans. Five rhesus monkeys received an isolate obtained from rhesus monkeys. Evaluation of the cynomolgus monkeys 7 and 14 days later revealed no H. pylori. Endoscopies of the rhesus monkeys were done 7, 14, 21, 28, and 56 days later. One rhesus monkey, which received the isolate from humans, became H. pylori positive at day 21 and remained positive through day 56. Restriction enzyme analysis of genomic DNA at day 56 revealed that the isolate was not identical to the challenge strain isolated from humans. All five rhesus monkeys that received the strain isolated from rhesus monkeys became H. pylori positive by day 14 and remained positive through day 56 Antral inflammation developed in all monkeys. Restriction enzyme analysis of genomic DNA on day 56 confirmed that four of five isolates were identical to the challenge strain isolated from rhesus monkeys. DNA hybridization documented homology between the challenge strains isolated from humans and rhesus monkeys plus those isolated at day 56. In this study, we showed that the rhesus monkey, if given a strain of H. pylori isolated from rhesus monkeys, develops a gastric infection with accompanying histological changes, making this model suitable for further development.

  6. Effects of synthetic glycosides on steroid balance in Macaca fascicularis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinow, M.R.; Elliott, W.H.; McLaughlin, P.; Upson, B.

    1987-01-01

    The predominantly beta-anomer of diosgenin glucoside (DG) was synthesized and its effects on cholesterol homeostasis were tested in monkeys. Cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) were fed, during two 3-week periods, a semipurified diet with 0.1% cholesterol and a similar ration containing 1% DG, respectively. A Chow diet was given for 5 weeks between the experimental periods. Cholesterol and bile acid balance were analyzed during the last week of each semipurified diet. Diosgenin glucoside reduced cholesterolemia from 292 mg/dl to 172 mg/dl, decreased intestinal absorption of exogenous cholesterol from 62.4% to 26.0%, and increased secretion of endogenous cholesterol from -0.8 to 93.5 mg/day. The fecal excretion of neutral steroids rose from 40.7 to 157.3 mg/day; that of bile acids changed, nonsignificantly, from 23.1 to 16.0 mg/day. The cholesterol balance was -44 mg/day in the control period, and 88 mg/day in the DG-fed animals. No toxic signs were observed. Thus, when long-term studies demonstrate that the glucoside is well tolerated, DG and other synthetic glycosides with similar activities may be of use in the management of hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis

  7. Pharmacokinetics of Cefovecin in Cynomolgus Macaques (Macaca fascicularis), Olive Baboons (Papio anubis), and Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatto)

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    Raabe, Brigitte M.; Lovaglio, Jamie A.; Grover, GScott; Brown, Scott A.; Boucher, Joseph F.; Yuan, Yang; Civil, Jacqueline R.; Gillhouse, Kimberly A.; Stubbs, Makeida N.; Hoggatt, Amber F.; Halliday, Lisa C.; Fortman, Jeffrey D.

    2011-05-01

    Cefovecin sodium is a long-acting, third-generation, cephalosporin antibiotic approved for the treatment of skin infections in dogs and cats. The pharmacokinetic properties of cefovecin were evaluated in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis), olive baboons (Papio anubis), and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatto) by using a single-dose (8 mg/kg SC) dosing regimen. Plasma cefovecin concentrations were determined by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry, and a noncompartmental model was used to determine pharmacokinetic parameters. The half-life of cefovecin was 4.95 {+-} 1.47 h in cynomolgus macaques, 9.17 {+-} 1.84 h in olive baboons, and 8.40 {+-} 2.53 h in rhesus macaques. These values are considerably lower than the half-lives previously published for dogs (133 h) and cats (166 h). The extended half-life of cefovecin in dogs and cats is speculated to be due to active reabsorption of drug in the kidney tubules because plasma clearance is well below the normal glomerular filtration rate. In nonhuman primates, renal clearance rates approximated plasma clearance rates, suggesting that active renal reabsorption of cefovecin does not occur in these species. The pharmacokinetic properties of cefovecin in nonhuman primates are vastly different from the pharmacokinetic properties in dogs and cats, precluding its use as a long-acting antibiotic in nonhuman primates. This study highlights the importance of performing pharmacokinetic studies prior to extralabel drug usage.

  8. Delayed response task performance as a function of age in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

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    Darusman, H S; Call, J; Sajuthi, D

    2014-01-01

    We compared delayed response task performance in young, middle-aged, and old cynomolgus monkeys using three memory tests that have been used with non-human primates. Eighteen cynomolgus monkeys-6 young (4-9 years), 6 middle-aged (10-19 years), and 6 old (above 20 years)-were tested. In general......, the old monkeys scored significantly worse than did the animals in the two other age groups. Longer delays between stimulus presentation and response increased the performance differences between the old and younger monkeys. The old monkeys in particular showed signs of impaired visuo-spatial memory...... and deteriorated memory consolidation and executive functioning. These results add to the body of evidence supporting the utility of Macaca fascicularis in studies of cognition and as a potential translational model for age-associated memory impairment/dementia-related disorders....

  9. Probing around implants and teeth with healthy or inflamed peri-implant mucosa/gingival. A histologic comparison in cynomolgus monkeys. (Macaca fascicularis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Søren; Holmstrup, Palle; Stoltze, K.

    2002-01-01

    Osseointegrated oral implants; teeth; phathology; peri-implant mucositis; gingivitis; peri-implantitis; periodontitis; diagnosis; probing depth; non-human primates; cynomolgus monkeys: Macaca fascicularis...

  10. Aggressive behavior of macaques, Macaca fascicularis (Raffles, 1821) on tourists at Kaliurang nature recreation forest, Yogyakarta

    OpenAIRE

    DJUWANTOKO; RETNO NUR UTAMI; WIYONO

    2008-01-01

    Research was conducted in Kaliurang nature recreation forest area, in Gunung Merapi National Park, Yogyakarta. The research aim to investigate the proportion of aggressive behavior of monkeys [Macaca fascicularis (Raffles, 1821)] to tourists. Direct observation method was used to observe the monkeys behavior in the interaction to the tourists. And questioners were distributed to the tourists to know expectation of the tourists which related to the existence of the monkeys in that conservation...

  11. Probing around implants and teeth with healthy or inflamed peri-implant mucosa/gingival. A histologic comparison in cynomolgus monkeys. (Macaca fascicularis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Søren; Holmstrup, Palle; Stoltze, K.

    2002-01-01

    Osseointegrated oral implants; teeth; phathology; peri-implant mucositis; gingivitis; peri-implantitis; periodontitis; diagnosis; probing depth; non-human primates; cynomolgus monkeys: Macaca fascicularis......Osseointegrated oral implants; teeth; phathology; peri-implant mucositis; gingivitis; peri-implantitis; periodontitis; diagnosis; probing depth; non-human primates; cynomolgus monkeys: Macaca fascicularis...

  12. γ-Ray-induced reciprocal translocations in spermatogonia of the crab-eating monkey (Macaca fascicularis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Y.; Tobari, I.; Yamagiwa, J.; Utsugi, T.; Kitazume, M.; Nakai, S.

    1984-01-01

    The yield of translocations induced by γ-rays in the crab-eating monkey (Macaca fascicularis) spermatogonia were studied by cytological analysis in spermatocytes derived from them. The frequencies of translocations were 0.09 per cent at 0 Gy, 1.9 per cent at 1 Gy, 2.5 per cent at 2 Gy and 1.3 per cent at 3 Gy, showing a humped dose-response curve with a peak yield around 2 Gy. No remarkable inter-seasonal or inter-animal variations in the induction of translocation were observed. The frequencies in the crab-eating monkey were significantly higher than those in the same Macaca genus, the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta). This inter-species difference in radiosensitivity might be affected by the condition of spermatogonial stem cells at the time of exposure to radiation, depending on the seasonal change in spermatogenetic activity. (orig.)

  13. High resolution karyotype of Thai crab-eating macaque (Macaca fascicularis

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    Fan Xiaobo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative chromosome banding analysis and/or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH studies are established approaches to compare human and ape chromosomes. FISH banding is a relatively new and not routinely applied method very well suited to provide to a better understanding of the evolutionary history of primate and human phylogeny. Here multicolor banding (MCB-applying probes derived from Homo sapiens were used to analyze the chromosomes of Thai crab-eating macaque (Macaca fascicularis. The results agree with those of previous studies in other macaques, e.g. Macaca sylvanus or Macaca nemestrina. This result highlights that morphological differences within the Cercopithecoidea must be found rather in subchromosomal changes or even in epigenetics than in gross structural alterations.

  14. Developmental Anatomy of Cerebellum of Long-Tailed Macaque (Macaca fascicularis at the First Trimester of Gestation

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    Tri Wahyu Pangestiningsih

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Long tailed macaque was one of animal models in biomedical research because it has  many similarities with humans, both anatomical and physiological properties. There were many research about cerebellum associated with its role in the coordination of muscle activity. Understanding of normal development of cerebellum long tailed macaque may help to understand about the development in human cerebellum and its abnormalities. Embryonic and fetal brain samples were obtained through caesarean section and were  then made for histological preparation stained with cresyl violet. Staining results were observed using a microscope with a digital camera. Images obtained are processed by graphics software Adobe Photoshop CS 8.0. Cerebellum Macaca fascicularis Ed40 showed the isthmus and rhombic lip that were composed of ventricular layer, mantle layer, and marginal layer. Cerebellum Macaca fascicularis Fd55 showed future lobes and future  fissures, but the cortex and medulla are not bounded clear. The cortex consisted of the external granular layer, neuroblast basket, and neuroblast stellate, while the  medulla consisted of neuroblast deep cerebellar nuclei. From this research, we concluded that neurons were on stage of proliferation and migration in the embryo aged 40 days, then differentiated and migrated to form cortex  cerebellum and deep cerebellar nuclei at the age of 55 days, but the development of the cerebellum was not fully completed yet.

  15. Mammary Gland Cell Culture of Macaca fascicularis as a Reservoir for Stem Cells

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    Silmi Mariya

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The mammary gland contains adult stem cells that are capable of self-renewal and are likely target for neoplastic transformation leading to breast cancer. In this study, we developed a cell culture derived from the mammary glands of cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis (MfMC and furthermore identified the expression of markers for stemness and estrogen receptor-associated activities. We found that the primary culture can be successfully subcultured to at least 3 passages, primarily epithelial-like in morphology, the cultured cells remained heterogenous in phenotype as they expressed epithelial cell markers CD24, CK18, and marker for fibroblast S1004A. Importantly, the cell population also consistently expressed the markers of mammary stem cells (ITGB1 or CD29 and ITGA6 or CD49f, mesenchymal stem cells (CD73 and CD105 and pluripotency (NANOG, OCT4, SOX2. In addition to this, the cells were also positive for Estrogen Receptor (ER, and ER-activated marker Trefoil Factor 1, suggesting an estrogen responsiveness of the culture model. These results indicate that our cell culture model is a reliable model for acquiring a population of cells with mammary stem cell properties and that these cultures may also serve as a reservoir from which more purified populations of stem cell populations can be isolated in the future.

  16. Engineering Macaca fascicularis cytochrome P450 2C20 to reduce animal testing for new drugs.

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    Rua, Francesco; Sadeghi, Sheila J; Castrignanò, Silvia; Di Nardo, Giovanna; Gilardi, Gianfranco

    2012-12-01

    In order to develop in vitro methods as an alternative to P450 animal testing in the drug discovery process, two main requisites are necessary: 1) gathering of data on animal homologues of the human P450 enzymes, currently very limited, and 2) bypassing the requirement for both the P450 reductase and the expensive cofactor NADPH. In this work, P450 2C20 from Macaca fascicularis, homologue of the human P450 2C8 has been taken as a model system to develop such an alternative in vitro method by two different approaches. In the first approach called "molecular Lego", a soluble self-sufficient chimera was generated by fusing the P450 2C20 domain with the reductase domain of cytochrome P450 BM3 from Bacillus megaterium (P450 2C20/BMR). In the second approach, the need for the redox partner and also NADPH were both obviated by the direct immobilization of the P450 2C20 on glassy carbon and gold electrodes. Both systems were then compared to those obtained from the reconstituted P450 2C20 monooxygenase in presence of the human P450 reductase and NADPH using paclitaxel and amodiaquine, two typical drug substrates of the human P450 2C8. The K(M) values calculated for the 2C20 and 2C20/BMR in solution and for 2C20 immobilized on electrodes modified with gold nanoparticles were 1.9 ± 0.2, 5.9 ± 2.3, 3.0 ± 0.5 μM for paclitaxel and 1.2 ± 0.2, 1.6±0.2 and 1.4 ± 0.2 μM for amodiaquine, respectively. The data obtained not only show that the engineering of M. fascicularis did not affect its catalytic properties but also are consistent with K(M) values measured for the microsomal human P450 2C8 and therefore show the feasibility of developing alternative in vitro animal tests. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Nutritional Composition of Fruits Selected by Long-Tailed Macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in Kuala Selangor, Malaysia.

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    Kassim, Norazila; Hambali, Kamarul; Amir, Aainaa

    2017-01-01

    Proximate analysis of twelve species of fruits commonly consumed by long-tailed macaques ( Macaca fascicularis ), i.e., Arenga pinnata , Areca catechu , Terminalia catappa , Elaeis guineensis , Lagerstroemia tomentosa , Mangifera indica , Cascabela thevetia , Muntingia calabura , Musa sp., Artocarpus heterophyllus , Ficus tinctoria ssp. gibbosa and Ficus microcarpa , was conducted with the specific objective to determine the nutritional composition of the foodstuffs of long-tailed macaques. The results showed the following order of nutrients: fibre, protein, fat and ash. Based on the results of the chemical analysis, the highest percentage of fibre content (52.7%), protein (9.9%), fat (77.2%) and ash (8.5%) were found in A. catechu , T. catappa , E. guineensis and C. thevetia , respectively. The nutrient composition of these twelve fruit species was found to differ (ANOVA test: crude protein, F (11,24) = 87.978, p catappa had the highest protein content, and the total mineral content was highest in C. thevetia .

  18. Aggressive behavior of macaques, Macaca fascicularis (Raffles, 1821 on tourists at Kaliurang nature recreation forest, Yogyakarta

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    DJUWANTOKO

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Research was conducted in Kaliurang nature recreation forest area, in Gunung Merapi National Park, Yogyakarta. The research aim to investigate the proportion of aggressive behavior of monkeys [Macaca fascicularis (Raffles, 1821] to tourists. Direct observation method was used to observe the monkeys behavior in the interaction to the tourists. And questioners were distributed to the tourists to know expectation of the tourists which related to the existence of the monkeys in that conservation area. Analyses of the interactions suggest that monkeys respond differentially to tourists according to the age/sex classes involved. Additionally, adult and subadult male monkeys participated in more aggressive behaviors than expected, while adult female monkeys and immature participated in such behaviors less than expected. These variations in interaction patterns between monkeys and tourists may have substantial implications for management issues and that the potential for gaining or reducing the tourists to visit in that forest recreation.

  19. Physiological and behavioural stress responses in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) to noise associated with construction work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westlund, K; Fernström, A-L; Wergård, E-M

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the behavioural and physiological responses to environmental disturbances (live and recorded dynamite explosions) in laboratory non-human primates in preparation for a future tunnel construction underneath our animal facility. In a pilot study (A) on 20...... female Macaca fascicularis, a day of test blasts resulted in an increase in faecal cortisol and immunoreactive cortisol metabolites (CICM), and the animals reacted behaviourally with vertical flight and vocalizations. In a follow-up study (B), we assessed the impact of 10 days of exposure to recorded...... was largely unaffected in the two groups. It was decided not to introduce a research moratorium on biomedical research planned to be conducted during the future tunnel construction, and that a conditional stimulus ('warning signal') will be used....

  20. Infeksi Cacing Saluran Pencernaan Monyet Ekor Panjang (Macaca fascicularis Yang Diperdagangkan Di Pasar Satria Denpasar

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    Kadek Ari Dwipayanti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui jenis dan intensitas serta prevalensi infeksi cacing saluran pencernaan pada monyet ekor panjang (Macaca fascicularis yang diperdagangkan di Pasar Satria Denpasar. Empat puluh lima sampel feses M. fascicularis (24 ekor monyet betina dan 21 ekor monyet jantan diambil secara aseptis, diberi label dan selanjutnya diperiksa di laboratorium Parasitologi FKH Universitas Udayana. Sampel diperiksa menggunakan metode konsentrasi sedimentasi untuk mengidentifikasi jenis cacing dan modifikasi McMaster untuk mengetahui intensitas infeksi. Jenis cacing saluran pencernaan yang berhasil diidentifikasi berturut-turut adalah Ancylostoma sp. (91,1%, Trichostrongylus sp./Oesophagostonum sp. (73,3%, Trichuris sp. (22,2%, Ascaris sp. dan Taenia sp. (4,4%. Rataan intensitas infeksi cacing      Ancylostoma sp. 4913 ± 4849 telur per gram tinja, Thrichostrongylus sp./ Oesophagostonum sp. 871 ± 816 telur per gram tinja, Trichuris sp. berkisar      171 ± 111 telur per gram tinja. Ascaris sp. dan Taenia sp. memiliki intensitas terendah yakni <100 telur per gram tinja. Secara umum prevalensi kecacingan adalah 93,3%. Prevalensi kecacingan pada monyet betina (52,2% sedangkan pada monyet jantan (48,8%. Berdasarkan umur, prevalensi kecacingan pada anakan, bayi, dan dewasa berturut-turut (72,1%, (25,6%, dan (2,3%. Pola infeksi umumnya tipe infeksi campuran (82,3% dibandingkan infeksi tunggal (17,7%.

  1. Collection of Macaca fascicularis cDNAs derived from bone marrow, kidney, liver, pancreas, spleen, and thymus

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    Kameoka Yosuke

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consolidating transcriptome data of non-human primates is essential to annotate primate genome sequences, and will facilitate research using non-human primates in the genomic era. Macaca fascicularis is a macaque monkey that is commonly used for biomedical and ecological research. Findings We constructed cDNA libraries of Macaca fascicularis, derived from tissues obtained from bone marrow, liver, pancreas, spleen, and thymus of a young male, and kidney of a young female. In total, 5'-end sequences of 56,856 clones were determined. Including the previously established cDNA libraries from brain and testis, we have isolated 112,587 cDNAs of Macaca fascicularis, which correspond to 56% of the curated human reference genes. Conclusion These sequences were deposited in the public sequence database as well as in-house macaque genome database http://genebank.nibio.go.jp/qfbase/. These data will become valuable resources for identifying functional parts of the genome of macaque monkeys in future studies.

  2. RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq of lymph node, spleen, and thymus transcriptome from wild Peninsular Malaysian cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis

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    Joey Ee Uli

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis is an extensively utilised nonhuman primate model for biomedical research due to its biological, behavioural, and genetic similarities to humans. Genomic information of cynomolgus macaque is vital for research in various fields; however, there is presently a shortage of genomic information on the Malaysian cynomolgus macaque. This study aimed to sequence, assemble, annotate, and profile the Peninsular Malaysian cynomolgus macaque transcriptome derived from three tissues (lymph node, spleen, and thymus using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq technology. A total of 174,208,078 paired end 70 base pair sequencing reads were obtained from the Illumina Hi-Seq 2500 sequencer. The overall mapping percentage of the sequencing reads to the M. fascicularis reference genome ranged from 53–63%. Categorisation of expressed genes to Gene Ontology (GO and KEGG pathway categories revealed that GO terms with the highest number of associated expressed genes include Cellular process, Catalytic activity, and Cell part, while for pathway categorisation, the majority of expressed genes in lymph node, spleen, and thymus fall under the Global overview and maps pathway category, while 266, 221, and 138 genes from lymph node, spleen, and thymus were respectively enriched in the Immune system category. Enriched Immune system pathways include Platelet activation pathway, Antigen processing and presentation, B cell receptor signalling pathway, and Intestinal immune network for IgA production. Differential gene expression analysis among the three tissues revealed 574 differentially expressed genes (DEG between lymph and spleen, 5402 DEGs between lymph and thymus, and 7008 DEGs between spleen and thymus. Venn diagram analysis of expressed genes revealed a total of 2,630, 253, and 279 tissue-specific genes respectively for lymph node, spleen, and thymus tissues. This is the first time the lymph node, spleen, and thymus transcriptome of the

  3. Aiding pest control management of long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis fascicularis) in Malaysia by using molecular markers of mitochondrial DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Latiff, M. A. B.; Abdul-Patah, P.; Yaakop, S.; Md-Zain, B. M.

    2017-10-01

    The long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis fascicularis) has been the center of human wildlife conflict in Malaysia since 1970s. This well-adapted and opportunistic primates have been dominating wide range of habitat in Malaysia such as primary and secondary forest, mangrove, as well as human settlements. The conventional practices of translocation by the authorities are threatening the uniqueness of gene pool for this species and ironically contradicting with the ultimate purpose of genetic conservation of this species. The objectives of this study is to determine the level of genetic separation between populations of long-tailed macaques, primarily focusing on populations distributed in northern Peninsular Malaysia. A total of 954 base pairs of control regions mtDNA was sequenced and analyzed from 27 samples of M. fascicularis. The results exhibited a highly homogenous state of populations for long-tailed macaques genetically and this ultimately indicate unsuitable management and planning in terms of pest control management of the species. Authorities are suggested to translocate the species at least within the state boundaries to avoid homogeneity of gene pools for the particular species.

  4. Pharmacokinetics of 2 Formulations of Buprenorphine in Macaques (Macaca mulatta and Macaca fascicularis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunamaker, Elizabeth A; Halliday, Lisa C; Moody, David E; Fang, Wenfang B; Lindeblad, Matthew; Fortman, Jeffrey D

    2013-01-01

    Buprenorphine is the cornerstone of pain management in nonhuman primates, but the pharmacokinetics of this widely used drug are unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic profiles of buprenorphine (0.01 and 0.03 mg/kg IM) and sustained-release buprenorphine (0.2 mg/kg SC) in 2 macaque species (M. mulatta and M. fascicularis) by using mass spectrometry. The pharmacokinetics did not differ significantly between species, and buprenorphine was dose-proportional at the tested doses. The low and high doses of buprenorphine had elimination half-lives of 2.6 ± 0.7 and 5.3 ± 2.0 h, respectively, but the low-dose data were constrained by the sensitivity of the analytical method. Sustained-release buprenorphine had an elimination half-life of 42.6 ± 26.2 h. The AUC0-Tlast of buprenorphine were 9.1 ± 4.3 and 39.0 ± 25.1 ng×h/mL for the low and high doses, respectively, and sustained-release buprenorphine had an AUC0-Tlast of 177 ± 74 ng×h/mL. Assuming a hypothesized therapeutic buprenorphine plasma concentration threshold of 0.1 ng/mL in macaques, these results suggest that buprenorphine doses of 0.01 mg/kg IM should be administered every 6 to 8 h, whereas doses of 0.03 mg/kg IM can be administered every 12 h. These results further demonstrate that a single 0.2-mg/kg SC injection of sustained-release buprenorphine maintains plasma concentrations above 0.1 ng/mL for 5 d in macaques. These findings support a new dosing strategy using sustained-release buprenorphine to improve pain management, decrease animal stress, improve animal welfare, and simplify the postoperative management of nonhuman primates in laboratory animal and zoological settings. PMID:23562033

  5. Ancestry, Plasmodium cynomolgi prevalence and rhesus macaque admixture in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) bred for export in Chinese breeding farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinjun; Meng, Yuhuan; Houghton, Paul; Liu, Mingyu; Kanthaswamy, Sreetharan; Oldt, Robert; Ng, Jillian; Trask, Jessica Satkoski; Huang, Ren; Singh, Balbir; Du, Hongli; Smith, David Glenn

    2017-04-01

    Most cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) used in the United States as animal models are imported from Chinese breeding farms without documented ancestry. Cynomolgus macaques with varying rhesus macaque ancestry proportions may exhibit differences, such as susceptibility to malaria, that affect their suitability as a research model. DNA of 400 cynomolgus macaques from 10 Chinese breeding farms was genotyped to characterize their regional origin and rhesus ancestry proportion. A nested PCR assay was used to detect Plasmodium cynomolgi infection in sampled individuals. All populations exhibited high levels of genetic heterogeneity and low levels of inbreeding and genetic subdivision. Almost all individuals exhibited an Indochinese origin and a rhesus ancestry proportion of 5%-48%. The incidence of P. cynomolgi infection in cynomolgus macaques is strongly associated with proportion of rhesus ancestry. The varying amount of rhesus ancestry in cynomolgus macaques underscores the importance of monitoring their genetic similarity in malaria research. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Pharmacokinetics of 2 Formulations of Transdermal Fentanyl in Cynomolgus Macaques (Macaca fascicularis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Amy M; Kelly, Richard; Fetterer, David P; Rico, Pedro J; Bailey, Emily J

    2016-01-01

    Fentanyl is a μ-opioid agonist that often is used as the analgesic component for balanced anesthesia in both human and veterinary patients. Minimal information has been published regarding appropriate dosing, and the pharmacokinetics of fentanyl are unknown in NHP. The pharmacokinetic properties of 2 transdermal fentanyl delivery methods, a solution (2.6 and 1.95 mg/kg) and a patch (25 µg/h), were determined when applied topically to the dorsal scapular area of cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis). Serum fentanyl concentrations were analyzed by using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. Compared with the patch, the transdermal fentanyl solution generated higher drug concentrations over longer time. Adverse reactions occurred in the macaques that received the transdermal fentanyl solution at 2.6 mg/kg. Both preparations showed significant interanimal variability in the maximal serum drug levels, time to achieve maximal fentanyl levels, elimination half-life, and AUC values. Both the maximal concentration and the time at which this concentration occurred were increased in macaques compared with most other species after application of the transdermal fentanyl patch and compared with dogs after application of the transdermal fentanyl solution. The pharmacokinetic properties of transdermal fentanyl in macaques are markedly different from those in other veterinary species and preclude its use as a long-acting analgesic drug in NHP. PMID:27423151

  7. Diagnoses and Treatment of Dental Disorders in a Research Colony of Macaca fascicularis: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Philippe; Brecheisen, Muriel; de Carvalho, Rafael; Bergadano, Alessandra

    2017-09-01

    During daily routine oral examinations in a research colony of nonhuman primates (NHPs, Macaca fascicularis), a variety of oral-dental lesions were identified. A dental care program was established based on these findings. Based on the presence of dental clinical signs and their severity, 31 animals were triaged to be examined and treated by a veterinarian. Clinical examination consisted of visual inspection using a periodontal probe/explorer and full or partial mouth dental radiographs. Treatment was performed during the same procedure. Some animals had a follow-up examination including radiographs months later. Four common dental diseases were diagnosed: periodontal disease, caries, tooth fracture, and tooth attrition. Less frequent were dental abscess, enamel hypomineralization, gingival hyperplasia, hypercementosis, tooth luxation, tooth dysplasia, root resorption, abrasion. Less severe periodontal disease was treated conservatively. If severely affected, teeth were extracted. Well-circumscribed caries without endodontic involvement were treated by composite restoration. Teeth with extensive caries and pulp involvement were extracted. Teeth with exposed pulp were treated via extraction or orthograde root canal treatment. In this case series, 27 (87%) of 31 NHPs exhibited at least 1 moderate to severe dental lesion that required treatment. The presumable improvement in welfare and weight of oral/dental lesions for the overall health status in research NHPs encourages us to continue this program prospectively.

  8. Use of photogrammetry as a means to assess hybrids of rhesus (Macaca mulatta) and long-tailed (M. fascicularis) macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadejaroen, Janya; Hamada, Yuzuru; Kawamoto, Yoshi; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda

    2015-01-01

    Rhesus (Macaca mulatta) and long-tailed (M. fascicularis) macaques are the most commonly used non-human primate models for biomedical research, but it is difficult to identify these two species in the hybrid zone (15-20°N). In this work, we used morphological values obtained via photogrammetry to assess hybrids of rhesus and long-tailed macaques at Khao Khieow Open Zoo (KKZ; 13°21'N, 101°06'E), eastern Thailand. Long-tailed and rhesus macaques have species-specific tail lengths and contrasts of their yellowish pelages. The accuracy and precision of the relative tail length (%RTL) and the contrast of the yellow hue (Cb*) of the pelage, as obtained from photographs, were compared with the corresponding direct measurements (morphometrics). The photogrammetric and morphometric measurements of %RTL and Cb* were highly significantly correlated (r = 0.989 and 0.980, p photogrammetry can be utilized to identify macaque species or hybrids when species identification relies mainly on tail length and pelage color.

  9. Antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) and eradication regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Tetsufumi; Aoki, Wataru; Mizuno, Takashi; Wakazono, Kuniko; Ohno, Junki; Nakai, Tsunehiro; Nomiya, Takao; Fujii, Miki; Fusegawa, Keiichi; Kinoshita, Kazuya; Hamada, Takakazu; Ikeda, Yoshinori

    2017-02-01

    Campylobacter spp. are zoonotic pathogens, however, knowledge about their presence and antimicrobial resistance in nonhuman primates is limited. Our animal facility purchased cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) from various Asian countries: China, Cambodia, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Vietnam. Colonization by Campylobacter spp. was investigated in 238 of the monkeys from 2009 to 2012 and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out for these isolates. Furthermore, we eradicated these pathogens from these monkeys. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 47 monkeys from three specific countries: China, Cambodia, and Indonesia, with respective isolation rates of 15%, 36%, and 67%. Two monkeys, which were each infected with Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, showed clinical symptoms of diarrhea and bloody feces. In total, 41 isolates of C. coli and 17 isolates of C. jejuni were detected. Antimicrobial susceptibility varied: in the monkeys from China, erythromycin (ERY)-, tetracycline (TET)-, and ciprofloxacin-resistant C. coli, in the monkeys from Cambodia, amoxicillin-intermediate, TET- and ciprofloxacin-resistant C. coli and amoxicillin- and ciprofloxacin-resistant C. jejuni, and in the monkeys from Indonesia, ciprofloxacin-resistant C. coli and TET- and ciprofloxacin-resistant C. jejuni were common (>75%). Multiresistant isolates of C. coli were found in monkeys from all countries and multiresistant isolates of C. jejuni were found in monkeys from Indonesia. The eradication rate with azithromycin was comparable to that with gentamicin (GEN) by oral administration, and was higher than those with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (AMC) and chloramphenicol (CHL). From the perspective of zoonosis, we should acknowledge multiresistant Campylobacter spp. isolated from the monkeys as a serious warning. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Stimulus-Food Pairings Produce Stimulus-Directed Touch Screen Responding in Cynomolgus Monkeys ("Macaca Fascicularis") with or without a Positive Response Contingency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Christopher E.; Myers, Todd M.

    2009-01-01

    Acquisition and maintenance of touch-screen responding was examined in naive cynomolgus monkeys ("Macaca fascicularis") under automaintenance and classical conditioning arrangements. In the first condition of Experiment 1, we compared acquisition of screen touching to a randomly positioned stimulus (a gray square) that was either stationary or…

  11. Detection and Quantification of Male-Specific Fetal DNA in the Serum of Pregnant Cynomolgus Monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasmin, Lubna; Takano, Jun-ichiro; Nagai, Yasushi; Otsuki, Junko; Sankai, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    Because of their developmental similarities to humans, nonhuman primates are often used as a model to study fetal development for potential clinical applications in humans. The detection of fetal DNA in maternal plasma or serum offers a source of fetal genetic material for prenatal diagnosis. However, no such data have been reported for cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis), an important model in biomedical research. We have developed a specific, highly sensitive PCR system for detecting and quantifying male-specific fetal DNA in pregnant cynomolgus monkeys. We used multiplex quantitative real-time PCR to analyze cell-free DNA in maternal blood serum obtained from 46 pregnant monkeys at gestational weeks 5, 12, and 22. The presence of SRY gene and DYS14 Y chromosomal sequences was determined in 28 monkeys with male-bearing pregnancies. According to confirmation of fetal sex at birth, the probe and primers for detecting the Y chromosomal regions at each time point revealed 100% specificity of the PCR test and no false-positive or false-negative results. Increased levels of the SRY-specific sequences (mean, 4706 copies/mL serum DNA; range, 1731 to 12,625) and DYS14-specific sequences (mean, 54,814 copies/mL serum DNA; range, 4175–131,250 copies) were detected at week 22. The SRY- and DYS14-specific probes appear to be an effective combination of markers in a multiplex PCR system. To our knowledge, this report is the first to describe the detection of cell-free DNA in cynomolgus monkeys. PMID:25730760

  12. Jaw-muscle architecture and mandibular morphology influence relative maximum jaw gapes in the sexually dimorphic Macaca fascicularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terhune, Claire E; Hylander, William L; Vinyard, Christopher J; Taylor, Andrea B

    2015-05-01

    Maximum jaw gape is a performance variable related to feeding and non-feeding oral behaviors, such as canine gape displays, and is influenced by several factors including jaw-muscle fiber architecture, muscle position on the skull, and jaw morphology. Maximum gape, jaw length, and canine height are strongly correlated across catarrhine primates, but relationships between gape and other aspects of masticatory apparatus morphology are less clear. We examine the effects of jaw-adductor fiber architecture, jaw-muscle leverage, and jaw form on gape in an intraspecific sample of sexually dimorphic crab-eating macaques (Macaca fascicularis). As M. fascicularis males have relatively larger maximum gapes than females, we predict that males will have muscle and jaw morphologies that facilitate large gape, but these morphologies may come at some expense to bite force. Male crab-eating macaques have relatively longer jaw-muscle fibers, masseters with decreased leverage, and temporomandibular joint morphologies that facilitate the production of wide gapes. Because relative canine height is correlated with maximum gape in catarrhines, and males have relatively longer canines than females, these results support the hypothesis that male M. fascicularis have experienced selection to increase maximum gape. The sexes do not differ in relative masseter physiologic cross-sectional area (PCSA), but males compensate for a potential trade-off between muscle excursion versus muscle force with increased temporalis weight and PCSA. This musculoskeletal configuration is likely functionally significant for behaviors involving aggressive canine biting and displays in male M. fascicularis and provides additional evidence supporting the multifactorial nature of the catarrhine masticatory apparatus. Our results have implications for the evolution of craniofacial morphology in catarrhine primates and reinforce the importance of evaluating additional factors other than feeding behavior and diet

  13. The effects of moderate ethanol consumption on the liver of the monkey, Macaca fascicularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivester, Priscilla; Shively, Carol A; Register, Thomas C; Grant, Kathleen A; Reboussin, David M; Cunningham, Carol C

    2003-11-01

    Although evidence has accumulated for the cardioprotective effects of moderate ethanol consumption, little is known about the effects on the liver of consuming the equivalent of two drinks per day. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of moderate ethanol administration on the hepatic content of enzymes involved in ethanol oxidation, on hepatic lipid accumulation, and on serum markers of liver function/damage in the monkey, Macaca fascicularis. Ovariectomized, adult monkeys were maintained for 34 months on an atherogenic diet containing cholesterol 1.21 mg/kJ. They were trained to drink ethanol plus vehicle at a dose of 0.5 g/kg body weight, which was administered 5 days a week for 2 years. Blood was collected for ethanol concentrations (1 hr after ethanol administration) and was also assayed for gamma-glutamyltransferase, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities. Liver obtained at necropsy was analyzed for triglyceride and cholesterol contents and for alcohol dehydrogenase, cytochrome P450 2E1, and cytochrome P450 3A4 by Western blots. The blood ethanol concentrations measured 1 hr after ethanol administration were relatively constant over the 2-year dosing period. Hepatic levels of alcohol dehydrogenase and the cytochrome P450s were not significantly different between ethanol-consuming animals and control animals. Ethanol-associated increases in liver triglyceride were not significant due to high variability in hepatic lipid content in both the controls and ethanol consumers. However, covariance analyses using pretreatment concentrations of plasma cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-I suggested that the ethanol-related increase in hepatic free cholesterol was significant. Relative to controls, alcohol consumers had higher levels of serum ALT and a transient increase in ALP at 5 months. The observations made in this study on primates administered an atherogenic diet suggest that moderate ethanol ingestion has modest

  14. Establishment of reference values for complete blood count and blood gases in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    NAKAYAMA, Shunya; KOIE, Hiroshi; KANAYAMA, Kiichi; KATAKAI, Yuko; ITO-FUJISHIRO, Yasuyo; SANKAI, Tadashi; YASUTOMI, Yasuhiro; AGEYAMA, Naohide

    2017-01-01

    Cynomolgus monkeys are closely related to humans phylogenetically, and this has resulted in their widespread use as a preclinical model. Hematological data with regard to these monkeys are thus important. Although reference values for blood components and sex hormones have been established for cynomolgus monkeys, those for arterial blood gases have not. The arterial blood gases quickly reflect respiratory and circulatory dynamics, and are thus useful for animal management and safe general anesthesia and surgical operations. Furthermore, since O2 is transported by RBC, CBC and blood gases are closely related. The present study aimed to establish reference values for arterial blood gases and CBC in cynomolgus monkeys over a wide age range. Blood gases and CBC of arterial blood, collected from 41 female and 21 male anesthetized monkeys, were measured. Age correlated with RBC, HGB and HCT in the CBC. Values differed significantly between males and females in pCO2, CO2 concentration, MCV and MCH. The pH of blood was equivalent to that of humans and pCO2 was more stable, whereas MCV and MCH were lower than those in humans. Erythrocytes were smaller and less pigmented than in other Macaca species. Several relationships between gender and age, and blood gases and CBC were identified in cynomolgus monkeys. In conclusion, these reference values will be useful as markers for veterinary applications and in the care and maintenance of these animals. PMID:28381665

  15. Nutrient Intake and Digestibility of Cynomolgus Monkey (Macaca fascicularis Fed with High Soluble Carbohydrate Diet: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEWI APRI ASTUTI

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available High carbohydrate as obese diet is not yet available commercially for monkeys. Therefore, this preliminary study was to carry out nutrient intake and digestibility of cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis fed with high soluble carbohydrate diet compared to monkey chow. Five adult female macaques (average body weight 2.67 kg were made to consume freshly diet. Commercial monkey chows (contains 3500 cal/g energy and 35% starch were fed to three adult females (average body weight 3.62 kg. Nutrient intakes and digestibility parameters were measured using modified metabolic cages. Result showed that average of protein, fat, starch, and energy intakes in treatment diet were higher than control diet (T-test. Fat intake in the treatment diet was three times higher, while starch and energy intakes were almost two times higher than monkey chow. Digestibility percentage of all nutrients were the same in both diets except for the protein. The study concludes that the freshly prepared high sugar diet was palatable and digestible for the cynomolgus monkeys. Further studies are in progress to develop obese diet high in energy content based on fat and source of starch treatments.

  16. AKTIVITAS ASPARTAT AMINOTRANSFERASE (AST DAN ALANIN TRANSAMINASE (ALT PADA MONYET EKOR PANJANG (Macaca fascicularis OBESITAS DI PURA LUHUR ULUWATU, BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayu Paramita Lestari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian obsevasional-deskriptif dengan pendekatan cross-sectional telah dilakukan untuk mengetahui aktivitas aspartat aminotransferase (AST dan alanin transaminase (ALT pada monyet ekor panjang (Macaca fascicularis obesitas yang hidup liar di kawasan Pura Luhur Uluwatu, Bali. Sebanyak 16 ekor monyet ekor panjang berhasil dibius menggunakan ketamine dosis 10 mg/kg berat badan dicampur dengan premedikasi xylasin dosis 1-2 mg/kg berat badan. Sampel yang digunakan adalah serum darah monyet obesitas yang diambil dari monyet dalam keadaan terbius. Dari 16 ekor monyet, 12 ekor tergolong obesitas berdasarkan Indeks Massa Tubuh dan Berat Badan. Aktivitas aspartat aminotransferase (AST dan alanin transaminase (ALT ditentukan menggunakan mesin automatic chemistry analyzer (Indiko-Thermo Scientific. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan nilai AST bervariasi dari 43-88 U/L dan ALT 26-77 U/L dengan rataan 69,4 ± 14,9 U/L. Dari hasil penelitian dapat disimpulkan bahwa nilai AST dan ALT monyet obesitas cenderung lebih tinggi dari nilai AST dan ALT normal.

  17. Molecular detection and prevalence of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. among long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sricharern, Wanat; Inpankaew, Tawin; Keawmongkol, Sarawan; Supanam, Juthamas; Stich, Roger W; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn

    2016-06-01

    Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. are divergent protozoal intestinal parasites that infect human beings and other animals, including non-human primates. Although long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) reside in human communities in Thailand, the prevalence of Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. in these primates has not been previously investigated. The objective of this study was to evaluate long-tailed macaques living near human communities as possible hosts of these intestinal parasites. In 2014, 200 fecal samples were randomly collected from long-tailed macaques living in different areas of Lopburi province, Thailand, and tested with a panel of PCR assays for Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. G. duodenalis assemblage B was most frequently detected (6%), while assemblage A and an inconclusive assemblage were detected in single samples, for a total G. duodenalis infection rate of 7%. Two samples (1%) tested positive for Cryptosporidium spp., which were both classified as monkey genotypes. No significant associations were found between G. duodenalis infection and sex or location of macaques. This study indicates that long-tailed macaques can carry G. duodenalis and, to a lesser extent, Cryptosporidium spp. monkey genotype. These results warrant education of residents and tourists to limit contact with long-tailed macaques and to take hygienic precautions to mitigate risk of zoonotic and anthroponotic transmission of these parasites between people and macaques. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Segmental mandibular bone reconstruction with a carbonate-substituted hydroxyapatite-coated modular endoprosthetic poly(ɛ-caprolactone) scaffold in Macaca fascicularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanchareonsook, Nattharee; Tideman, Henk; Feinberg, Stephen E; Jongpaiboonkit, Leenaporn; Lee, Shermin; Flanagan, Colleen; Krishnaswamy, Gita; Jansen, John

    2014-07-01

    A bio-degradable scaffold incorporating osteoinductive factors is one of the alternative methods for achieving the regeneration of a mandibular bone defect. The current pilot study addressed such a bone reconstruction in a non-human primate model, Macaca fascicularis monkeys, with an engineered poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffold, provided with a carbonate-substituted hydroxyapatite coating. The scaffolds were implanted into unilaterally created mandibular segmental defects in 24 monkeys. Three experimental groups were formed: (1) scaffolds with rhBMP-2 (n = 8), (2) scaffolds with autologous mixed bone marrow cells (n = 8), and (3) empty scaffolds as a control group (n = 8). Evaluation was based on clinical observation as well as micro-CT, mechanical, and histological analyses. Despite a high infection rate, the overall results showed that the currently designed PCL scaffolds had insufficient load-bearing capability, and complete bone union was not achieved after 6 months of implantation. Nevertheless, the group of PCL scaffolds loaded with rhBMP-2 showed evidence of bone-regenerative potential, in contrast to PCL with autologous mixed bone marrow cells and the control group. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Identification of microRNAs in Macaca fascicularis (Cynomolgus Monkey by Homology Search and Experimental Validation by Small RNA-Seq and RT-qPCR Using Kidney Cortex Tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaligara Veeranagouda

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs present in tissues and biofluids are emerging as sensitive and specific safety biomarkers. MiRNAs have not been thoroughly described in M. fascicularis, an animal model used in pharmaceutical industry especially in drug safety evaluation. Here we investigated the miRNAs in M. fascicularis. For Macaca mulatta, a closely related species of M. fascicularis, 619 stem-loop precursor miRNAs (pre-miRNAs and 914 mature miRNAs are available in miRBase version 21. Using M. mulatta miRNAs as a reference list and homology search tools, we identified 604 pre-miRNAs and 913 mature miRNAs in the genome of M. fascicularis. In order to validate the miRNAs identified by homology search we attempted to sequence miRNAs expressed in kidney cortex from M. fascicularis. MiRNAs expressed in kidney cortex may indeed be released in urine upon kidney cortex damage and be potentially used to monitor drug induced kidney injury. Hence small RNA sequencing libraries were prepared using kidney cortex tissues obtained from three naive M. fascicularis and sequenced. Analysis of sequencing data indicated that 432 out of 913 mature miRNAs were expressed in kidney cortex tissues. Assigning these 432 miRNAs to pre-miRNAs revealed that 273 were expressed from both the -5p and -3p arms of 150 pre-miRNAs and 159 miRNAs expressed from either the -5p or -3p arm of 176 pre-miRNAs. Mapping sequencing reads to pre-miRNAs also facilitated the detection of twenty-two new miRNAs. To substantiate miRNAs identified by small RNA sequencing, 313 miRNAs were examined by RT-qPCR. Expression of 262 miRNAs in kidney cortex tissues ware confirmed by TaqMan microRNA RT-qPCR assays. Analysis of kidney cortex miRNA targeted genes suggested that they play important role in kidney development and function. Data presented in this study may serve as a valuable resource to assess the renal safety biomarker potential of miRNAs in Cynomolgus monkeys.

  20. Zinc bioavailability from legumes in non-human primates (Macaca fascicularis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sockalingam, S.

    1984-01-01

    Zinc bioavailability from legumes in non-human primates (M. Fascicularis) was studied by: (1) determining zinc requirements of adolescent monkeys, (2) validating the use of extrinsic zinc label in peas, (3) validating the blood appearance and disappearance technique, and (4) measuring zinc absorption and endogenous excretion from control and legume diets. Ten monkeys were assigned to the control (CG) and legume groups (LG) based on their initial body weights and plasma zinc concentrations. Zinc salt or legumes served as the source of zinc for CG and LG, respectively. The animals were adapted for three weeks to 2.23, 5.70, 11.67, 16.70 and 30.00 ppm dietary zinc for the requirement and bioavailability experiments and 5.70 ppm dietary zinc for the extrinsic labeling study and the blood appearance and disappearance study. Zinc requirement was determined using the following criteria: body weight, clinical signs and plasma, leukocyte and erythrocyte zinc concentrations. The use of the extrinsic label was validated by comparing percent absorption of 65 Zn (salt) and intrinsically labeled 65 Zn from peas. The blood appearance and disappearance of orally administered /sup 69m/Zn (CG) and 65 Zn(LG) and intravenously administered 65 Zn was determined serially in blood over an eight hour period. Zinc absorption and regulation in the CG and LG was determined by the fecal balance method and endogenous excretion of intravenously administered 65 Zn. The zinc requirement for adolescent M. Fascicularis was between 11.67 and 16.70 ppm dietary zinc per day

  1. Cell envelope and cell wall immunization of Macaca fascicularis: effect on the progression of ligature-induced periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, S C; Brunsvold, M; Jones, A; Wood, R; Ebersole, J L

    1995-12-01

    The nonhuman primate, Macaca fascicularis, was used to study the role of immunization with selected members of the periodontopathic microbiota in the longitudinal progression of ligature-induced periodontitis. Animals were immunized with cell envelope antigens prepared from Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia, and a mixture prepared from Fusobacterium nucleatum, Campylobacter rectus, and Actinomyces viscosus. Serum immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM and IgA isotype antibodies increased significantly in all immunization groups and were specific for each of the immunogens. P. gingivalis and P. intermedia immunization resulted in a stabilization of the proportions of these species throughout most of the experiment. The high P. gingivalis antibody titer resulted in low P. gingivalis numbers being recovered. P. gingivalis immunization, while lowering recoverable viable P. gingivalis, resulted in significantly increased levels of Prevotella loescheii, Prevotella buccae, Bacteroides macacae and Prevotella melaninogenica compared with preligation and preimmunization levels. Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Capnocytophaga spp. and Eikenella spp. remained at preligation levels postimmunization. Campylobacter spp. increased significantly during the course of the experiment in all groups, whereas the levels of Fusobacterium spp. decreased. Plaque indices and bleeding on probing showed significant increases in all groups following ligation, with the placebo group showing the greatest increase. Pocket depth measurements revealed that , whereas the placebo animals showed an approximate 5% increase, the P. gingivalis- and P. intermedia-immunized groups showed nearly a 20% increase in pocket depth. Attachment level measurements showed significantly greater attachment loss in the P. gingivalis- and P. intermedia-immunized groups, and the F. nucleatum + C. rectus + A. viscosus immunization appeared to prevent significant changes in pocket depth/attachment level loss

  2. DINAMIKA PROFIL HEMATOLOGI DAN RASIO NETROFIL:LIMFOSIT MONYET EKOR PANJANG (MACACA FASCICULARIS PADA PENGATURAN MIKROKLIMAT RUANGAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridzki M.F. Binol

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to obtain the profile of physiological hematology (erythrocyte, PCV, Hb, MCV, MCH, MCHC, and leukocyte and the profile of ratio between neutrophil and lymphocyte of long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis in different microclimate conditions due to the room’s temperature and humidity setting. The symptom of stress was also observed in this study. The research used 10 male macaques aged of 4 until 5 years old which placed in room temperature and humidity of 29,00±1,95°C and 79,52±1,57% respectively 7 days for adaptation period. Further more, the room temperature and humidity were set into 25,79±1,16°C and 80,19±9,05% during 14 days for treatment period. For the last treatment, macaques were reconditioned in room temperature and humidity of 29,00±1,95°C and 79,52±1,57% during 14 days for post-treatment period. Blood samplings were collected through femoralis vein on last day of adaptation period, continued with treatment and post-treatment periods as the day 1, 4, 7, 14, and 28. The results showed that there were not significant difference by room temperature and humidity setting to hematology and neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio. It could be proven by all parameters score obtained were still in normal ranges compared to literatures. There was also no stress symptom based on neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio measurement. Condition with room temperature and humidity of 25,79±1,16°C dan 80,19±9,05% regarded as the most suitable condition for long-tailed macaque’s life

  3. Population Recovery of Nicobar Long-Tailed Macaque Macaca fascicularis umbrosus following a Tsunami in the Nicobar Islands, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velankar, Avadhoot D; Kumara, Honnavalli N; Pal, Arijit; Mishra, Partha Sarathi; Singh, Mewa

    2016-01-01

    Natural disasters pose a threat to isolated populations of species with restricted distributions, especially those inhabiting islands. The Nicobar long tailed macaque.Macaca fascicularis umbrosus, is one such species found in the three southernmost islands (viz. Great Nicobar, Little Nicobar and Katchal) of the Andaman and Nicobar archipelago, India. These islands were hit by a massive tsunami (Indian Ocean tsunami, 26 December 2004) after a 9.2 magnitude earthquake. Earlier studies [Umapathy et al. 2003; Sivakumar, 2004] reported a sharp decline in the population of M. f. umbrosus after thetsunami. We studied the distribution and population status of M. f. umbrosus on thethree Nicobar Islands and compared our results with those of the previous studies. We carried out trail surveys on existing paths and trails on three islands to get encounter rate as measure of abundance. We also checked the degree of inundation due to tsunami by using Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) on landsat imageries of the study area before and after tsunami. Theencounter rate of groups per kilometre of M. f. umbrosus in Great Nicobar, Little Nicobar and Katchal was 0.30, 0.35 and 0.48 respectively with the mean group size of 39 in Great Nicobar and 43 in Katchal following the tsunami. This was higher than that reported in the two earlier studies conducted before and after the tsunami. Post tsunami, there was a significant change in the proportion of adult males, adult females and immatures, but mean group size did not differ as compared to pre tsunami. The results show that population has recovered from a drastic decline caused by tsunami, but it cannot be ascertained whether it has reached stability because of the altered group structure. This study demonstrates the effect of natural disasters on island occurring species.

  4. Analysis of sea almond (Terminalia catappa) cracking sites used by wild Burmese long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis aurea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falótico, Tiago; Spagnoletti, Noemi; Haslam, Michael; Luncz, Lydia V; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda; Gumert, Michael

    2017-05-01

    Nut-cracking is shared by all non-human primate taxa that are known to habitually use percussive stone tools in the wild: robust capuchins (Sapajus spp.), western chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus), and Burmese long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis aurea). Despite opportunistically processing nuts, Burmese long-tailed macaques predominantly use stone tools to process mollusks in coastal environments. Here, we present the first comprehensive survey of sea almond (Terminalia catappa) nut-cracking sites created by macaques. We mapped T. catappa trees and nut-cracking sites that we encountered along the intertidal zone and forest border on the coasts of Piak Nam Yai Island, Thailand. For each nut-cracking site, we measured the physical properties (i.e., size, weight, use-wear) of hammer stones and anvils. We found that T. catappa trees and nut-cracking sites primarily occurred on the western coast facing the open sea, and cracking sites clusters around the trees. We confirmed previous results that nut cracking tools are among the heaviest tools used by long-tailed macaques; however, we found our sample of T. catappa stone tools lighter than a previously collected sea almond sample that, unlike our sample, was collected immediately after use within the intertidal zone. The difference was likely the result of tidal influences on tool-use sites. We also found that tool accumulations above the intertidal region do not resemble those within them, possibly leading to incomplete assessments of macaque stone tools through archaeological techniques that would use these durable sites. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Population Recovery of Nicobar Long-Tailed Macaque Macaca fascicularis umbrosus following a Tsunami in the Nicobar Islands, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velankar, Avadhoot D.; Kumara, Honnavalli N.

    2016-01-01

    Natural disasters pose a threat to isolated populations of species with restricted distributions, especially those inhabiting islands. The Nicobar long tailed macaque.Macaca fascicularis umbrosus, is one such species found in the three southernmost islands (viz. Great Nicobar, Little Nicobar and Katchal) of the Andaman and Nicobar archipelago, India. These islands were hit by a massive tsunami (Indian Ocean tsunami, 26 December 2004) after a 9.2 magnitude earthquake. Earlier studies [Umapathy et al. 2003; Sivakumar, 2004] reported a sharp decline in the population of M. f. umbrosus after thetsunami. We studied the distribution and population status of M. f. umbrosus on thethree Nicobar Islands and compared our results with those of the previous studies. We carried out trail surveys on existing paths and trails on three islands to get encounter rate as measure of abundance. We also checked the degree of inundation due to tsunami by using Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) on landsat imageries of the study area before and after tsunami. Theencounter rate of groups per kilometre of M. f. umbrosus in Great Nicobar, Little Nicobar and Katchal was 0.30, 0.35 and 0.48 respectively with the mean group size of 39 in Great Nicobar and 43 in Katchal following the tsunami. This was higher than that reported in the two earlier studies conducted before and after the tsunami. Post tsunami, there was a significant change in the proportion of adult males, adult females and immatures, but mean group size did not differ as compared to pre tsunami. The results show that population has recovered from a drastic decline caused by tsunami, but it cannot be ascertained whether it has reached stability because of the altered group structure. This study demonstrates the effect of natural disasters on island occurring species. PMID:26886197

  6. The role of anthropic, ecological, and social factors in sleeping site choice by long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotcorne, Fany; Maslarov, Cindy; Wandia, I Nengah; Fuentes, Agustin; Beudels-Jamar, Roseline C; Huynen, Marie-Claude

    2014-12-01

    When choosing their sleeping sites, primates make adaptive trade-offs between various biotic and abiotic constraints. In human-modified environments, anthropic factors may play a role. We assessed the influence of ecological (predation), social (intergroup competition), and anthropic (proximity to human settlements) factors in sleeping site choice by long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) occupying a habitat at the interface of natural forests and human-modified zones in Bali Barat National Park, Indonesia. Over the course of 56 nights, we collected data relating to physical features of sleeping trees, patterns of the use of sleeping sites within the home range, pre-sleep behavior, diurnal ranging patterns and availability of natural and human food. Overall, the macaques used 17 sleeping sites with 37 sleeping trees. When the monkeys slept in forest zones, they selected sleeping trees that had larger trunks but were not significantly taller than surrounding trees. Though the macaques rarely re-used sleeping sites on consecutive nights, they frequently re-used four sites over the study period. The group favored sleeping within the core area of its home range, despite the occurrence of frequent agonistic intergroup encounters there. Macaques preferentially selected sleeping trees located within or near human-modified zones, especially when human food was abundant and natural food was scarce. These results partially support the hypothesis that long-tailed macaques choose their sleeping sites to avoid predation; proximity to human settlements appears to be the primary factor influencing sleeping site choice in this primate species. Our results reflect the strong influence that anthropic factors have on primates, which subsist in increasingly human-dominated landscapes. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Marine prey processed with stone tools by Burmese long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis aurea) in intertidal habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumert, Michael D; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda

    2012-11-01

    Long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) feed opportunistically in many habitats. The Burmese subspecies (M. f. aurea) inhabits coastal areas in southwestern Thailand and Myanmar, and some of their populations have adapted lithic customs for processing encased foods in intertidal habitats. We investigated the diet of such macaques in Laemson National Park, Thailand, and identified the variety of foods they processed with stones. We conducted 36 shore surveys to study tool sites following feeding activity, during which we counted the minimum number of individual (MNI) food items found at each site. We identified 47 food species (43 animals and four plants), from 37 genera. We counted 1,991 food items during surveys. Nearly all were mollusks (n = 1,924), with the small remainder primarily consisting of crustaceans and nuts. The two most common foods, rock oysters (Saccostrea cucullata; n = 1,062) and nerite snails (Nerita spp.; n = 538), composed 80.2% of our sample. Four prey species comprised 83.2% of the sample (MNI = 1,656), S. cucullata (n = 1,062), Nerita chamaeleon (n = 419), Thais bitubercularis (n = 95), and Monodonta labio (n = 80). Macaques selected a wide variety of foods. However, they heavily concentrated on those that were abundant, easy to access, and sufficiently sized. The Burmese long-tailed macaque stone-processed diet, which focuses on intertidal marine prey, differs from Sapajus and Pan, who use stones primarily for encased nuts and fruits. In terms of diversity of foods exploited, coastal stone-based predation by macaques resembles the diet of coastal-foraging humans (Homo sapiens sapiens). Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Population Recovery of Nicobar Long-Tailed Macaque Macaca fascicularis umbrosus following a Tsunami in the Nicobar Islands, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avadhoot D Velankar

    Full Text Available Natural disasters pose a threat to isolated populations of species with restricted distributions, especially those inhabiting islands. The Nicobar long tailed macaque.Macaca fascicularis umbrosus, is one such species found in the three southernmost islands (viz. Great Nicobar, Little Nicobar and Katchal of the Andaman and Nicobar archipelago, India. These islands were hit by a massive tsunami (Indian Ocean tsunami, 26 December 2004 after a 9.2 magnitude earthquake. Earlier studies [Umapathy et al. 2003; Sivakumar, 2004] reported a sharp decline in the population of M. f. umbrosus after thetsunami. We studied the distribution and population status of M. f. umbrosus on thethree Nicobar Islands and compared our results with those of the previous studies. We carried out trail surveys on existing paths and trails on three islands to get encounter rate as measure of abundance. We also checked the degree of inundation due to tsunami by using Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI on landsat imageries of the study area before and after tsunami. Theencounter rate of groups per kilometre of M. f. umbrosus in Great Nicobar, Little Nicobar and Katchal was 0.30, 0.35 and 0.48 respectively with the mean group size of 39 in Great Nicobar and 43 in Katchal following the tsunami. This was higher than that reported in the two earlier studies conducted before and after the tsunami. Post tsunami, there was a significant change in the proportion of adult males, adult females and immatures, but mean group size did not differ as compared to pre tsunami. The results show that population has recovered from a drastic decline caused by tsunami, but it cannot be ascertained whether it has reached stability because of the altered group structure. This study demonstrates the effect of natural disasters on island occurring species.

  9. Dose-response relationship of γ-ray-induced reciprocal translocations at low doses in spermatogonia of the crab-eating monkey (Macaca fascicularis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Yoichi; Tobari, Izuo; Yamagiwa, Junji; Utsugi, Toyoko; Okamoto, Masanori; Nakai, Sayaka

    1985-01-01

    The yield of translocations induced by acute γ-irradiation at low doses in the crab-eating monkey's (Macaca fascicularis) spermatogonia was examined. Over the low dose range from 0 to 1 Gy, the dose-response relationship for translocation yield was a linear one. To estimate the sensitivity to the induction of translocations in the crab-eating monkey's spermatogonia, the slope of the regression line was compared with those in other mammalian species. Consequently, over the low dose range below 1 Gy, the sensitivity of the crab-eating monkey's spermatogonia to translocation induction was similar to several mammalian species, the mouse, Chinese hamster, and the rabbit, but significantly higher than that of the rhesus monkey and lower than that of the marmoset. (Auth.)

  10. Dose-response relationship for translocation induction in spermatogonia of the crab-eating monkey (Macaca fascicularis) by chronic γ-ray-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobari, Izuo; Matsuda, Yoichi; Xiaohung, Gu; Yamagiwa, Junju; Utsugi, Toyoko; Kitazume, Masayuki; Okamoto, Masanori

    1988-01-01

    The induction of reciprocal translocations in spermatogonia of the crab-eating monkey (Macaca fascicularis) by chronic γ-irradiation was examined. The frequencies of translocation per cell were 0.15% at 0.3 Gy, 0.27% at 1.0 Gy and 0.33% at 1.5 Gy. The dose-response relationship for translocation yield was a linear one with a regression coefficient (b) of 0.16 · 10 -2 . When the slope (b) of the regression line was compared with that at a high dose rate (0.25 Gy/min, b = 1.79 · 10 -2 , it was clear that the induction rate of translocations after chronic γ-irradiation was only about one-tenth of that after high-dose-rate irradiation. Thus, there was evidence for a pronounced dose-rate effect in the crab-eating monkey. (author). 27 refs.; 2 figs.; 3 tabs

  11. Disproportionate participation by age/sex classes in aggressive interactions between long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) and human tourists at Padangtegal monkey forest, Bali, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Agustín; Gamerl, Scott

    2005-06-01

    We observed 420 aggressive interactions between tourists and Macaca fascicularis at the Padangtegal Wanara Wana Temple forest site in Bali, Indonesia, during the months of June and July 2001. The data collected included patterns of aggression, presence or absence of food, and demographic information on resident macaques and human visitors. Analyses of the interactions suggest that macaques respond differentially to humans according to the age/sex classes involved. Additionally, adult and subadult male macaques participated in more aggressive behaviors than expected, while adult female macaques and immatures participated in such behaviors less than expected. These variations in interaction patterns between macaques and tourists may have substantial implications for management issues and the potential for pathogen transmission. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Acute traumatic spinal cord injury induces glial activation in the cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, A D; Westmoreland, S V; Evangelous, N R; Graham, A; Sledge, J; Nesathurai, S

    2012-06-01

    Traumatic spinal cord injury leads to direct myelin and axonal damage and leads to the recruitment of inflammatory cells to site of injury. Although rodent models have provided the greatest insight into the genesis of traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI), recent studies have attempted to develop an appropriate non-human primate model. We explored TSCI in a cynomolgus macaque model using a balloon catheter to mimic external trauma to further evaluate the underlying mechanisms of acute TSCI. Following 1hour of spinal cord trauma, there were focal areas of hemorrhage and necrosis at the site of trauma. Additionally, there was a marked increased expression of macrophage-related protein 8, MMP9, IBA-1, and inducible nitric oxide synthase in macrophages and microglia at the site of injury. This data indicate that acute TSCI in the cynomolgus macaque is an appropriate model and that the earliest immunohistochemical changes noted are within macrophage and microglia populations. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Antibody Responses in the Nonhuman Primate, Macaca Fascicularis, to Protein Toxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-01

    Desensitization t patients to bee venom or dust mite involves chronic exposure to the partiular antigen. Patients in which desensitization is ef ective...to manipulate various parameters of disease and therapy not possible in humans. Historically, the use of animal models dates at least to the...various therapies and normal physiologic changes such as during pregnancy (Rao 1980), neonatal status (Einhorn 1987), age related decline in antibody

  14. Reticulospinal neurons in the pontomedullary reticular formation of the monkey (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, S T; Davidson, A G; Buford, J A

    2009-11-10

    Recent neurophysiological studies indicate a role for reticulospinal neurons of the pontomedullary reticular formation (PMRF) in motor preparation and goal-directed reaching in the monkey. Although the macaque monkey is an important model for such investigations, little is known regarding the organization of the PMRF in the monkey. In the present study, we investigated the distribution of reticulospinal neurons in the macaque. Bilateral injections of wheat germ agglutinin conjugated to horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) were made into the cervical spinal cord. A wide band of retrogradely labeled cells was found in the gigantocellular reticular nucleus (Gi) and labeled cells continued rostrally into the caudal pontine reticular nucleus (PnC) and into the oral pontine reticular nucleus (PnO). Additional retrograde tracing studies following unilateral cervical spinal cord injections of cholera toxin subunit B revealed that there were more ipsilateral (60%) than contralateral (40%) projecting cells in Gi, while an approximately 50:50 ratio contralateral to ipsilateral split was found in PnC and more contralateral projections arose from PnO. Reticulospinal neurons in PMRF ranged widely in size from over 50 microm to under 25 microm across the major somatic axis. Labeled giant cells (soma diameters greater than 50 microm) comprised a small percentage of the neurons and were found in Gi, PnC and PnO. The present results define the origins of the reticulospinal system in the monkey and provide an important foundation for future investigations of the anatomy and physiology of this system in primates.

  15. The influence of social structure on social isolation in amphetamine-treated Java monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobbout, D.A.; Ellenbroek, B.A.; Cools, A.R.

    1996-10-01

    Amphetamine-induced social isolation in monkeys has often been considered a valid animal model for certain negative symptoms of schizophrenia. However, there appear to be many ambiguities in relation to the exact nature of the isolation. Therefore, the effect of orally administered amphetamine (AMP) on the occurrence of social isolation in Java monkeys was studied. In part I the rank dependency of the effects of AMP (0.5mg/kg) was investigated in four alpha-males and three beta-males. AMP increased 'proximity' and 'passive groom', and decreased 'active allogroom' in alpha-males. In contrast, AMP decreased all three behavioural elements to a certain extent in beta-males. It is concluded that AMP induces social isolation in beta-males, but not in alpha-males. In part II of this study the AMP-induced behaviour of the treated monkey and the simultaneously occurring changes in the non-treated monkeys were investigated in a detailed study of a single social group. AMP significantly reduced the frequency of 'exploration', 'locomotion', 'self-groom', 'swing', 'active groom', 'inspect', 'approach' and originally-present stereotypies. Thus AMP apparently reduces the ability to initiate behaviour which is characteristic for the adult animal. AMP did not affect the frequency of 'present' and 'play' and enhanced that of 'aggression' and 'fear' in the beta-male; it also elicited various juvenile-like behaviours in both alpha- and beta-males, suggesting that AMP induces a behavioural regression. Furthermore, the behaviour of the non-treated monkeys of the group was decisive for the occurrence of social isolation of the treated monkey. Thus, the effects of AMP on the social behaviour of Java monkeys depend on the individual sensitivity, the social position which the subject occupies in its group, and the behaviour of the partners of the treated subject.

  16. Histologic and histomorphometric evaluation of peri-implant bone subjected to immediate loading: an experimental study with Macaca fascicularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanos, George E; Toh, Chooi Gait; Siar, Chong Huat; Swaminathan, Dasan

    2002-01-01

    Immediately loaded splinted implants can become osseointegrated when they are placed in the anterior part of the mandible. The concept of immediate loading has not been well examined in the posterior mandible. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hard tissue reactions around immediately loaded implants placed in the posterior mandible in the monkey model. Six adult M. fascicularis monkeys were used in this study. Thirty-six Ankylos implants (Degussa Dental, Hanau-Wolfgang, Germany) were placed after extraction of the second premolar, first, and second molar teeth and complete healing of the sockets. Control (C) group implants were placed and, after osseointegration, were loaded for 1 month using temporary acrylic resin prostheses and later for 2 months using splinted metal crowns. In the contralateral region of the mandible, test (T) group implants were placed and loaded immediately with the same sequence as carried out for the C implants. After sacrifice of the animals, specimens were examined histologically and evaluated histomorphometrically. All implants were osseointegrated. Compact, cortical bone in contact with the implant surface without any gaps or connective tissue formation was demonstrated. Histomorphometric findings of the bone-implant-contacts showed no significant differences between the T and C group implants. Peri-implant mineralized bone areas presented statistically significant differences and showed a higher density of bone between the threads of immediately loaded implants (P < .05). Immediately loaded splinted implants in the posterior mandible can become osseointegrated with a hard tissue peri-implant response similar to that of delayed loaded implants. Moreover, immediate loading seems to increase the ossification of the alveolar bone around endosseous implants.

  17. Symptoms and behavioral features induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) in an old Java monkey [Macaca cynomolgus fascicularis (Raffles)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degryse, A D; Colpaert, F C

    1986-05-01

    The study concerns symptoms and behavioral characteristics induced by MPTP in a 20-year-old Macaca cynomolgus fascicularis, their evolution over 7 months, and the animal's response to 1-dopa treatment. The symptoms which the animal developed include those that have been described earlier in Macaca mulatta and Saimiri sciureus, i.e., rigidity, action tremor, postural tremor, postural flexion, hypokinesia, and bradykinesia. In addition, however, the animal developed a 3.8 Hz resting tremor which in humans is pathognomonic of Parkinson's disease, as well as cogwheeling, the glabellar tap sign, drooling, impaired ability to relax, and many other symptoms. Also unlike previously described MPTP monkeys, the animal's symptoms neither improved spontaneously, nor did they remain stable shortly after MPTP injection. Instead, symptoms steadily progressed to reach a severe status 2 months after MPTP, and further progression was apparent after another 5 months. Therapeutic responses to 1-dopa required accumulation of or kindling by the 100 mg unit doses that were spaced 4 hr apart, were often organized in time as ON episodes that alternated with OFF episodes, and were associated with dyskinesias and bizarre behavior. Of particular interest is that the animal showed kinesia paradoxa which, in humans, constitutes a feature that is unique to Parkinson's disease among the extrapyramidal disorders. In addition to available evidence, the present findings validate the syndrome induced by MPTP in monkey as an animal analogue of Parkinson's disease. Taxonomic category, age, and the occurrence of shock in response to MPTP are discussed as variables that may possibly co-determine the pathology which MPTP may induce in monkey.

  18. [Ferumoxide labeled Flk1+ CD31- CD34- human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and its in vivo tracing in the brains of Macaca Fascicularis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ming; Wang, Ren-Zhi; Zhu, Hua; Zhang, Nan; Wang, Chang-Jun; Wei, Jun-Ji; Lu, Shan; Li, Qin; Yin, Xiao-Ming; Han, Qin; Ma, Wen-Bin; Qin, Chuang; Zhao, Chun-Hua; An, Yi-Hua; Kong, Yan-Guo

    2008-10-01

    To explore the method for labeling Flk1+ CD31- CD34- human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) with ferumoxide-PLL and evaluate the feasibility of its tracing after transplantation into the brains of Macaca Fascicularis. The hBMSCs were incubated with ferumoxide-PLL. Trypan blue staining, Prussian blue staining, and transmission electron microscope were performed to show intracellular iron, marking efficiency, and the vigor of the labeled cells. After the hBMSCs were transplanted into the brains of cynomolgus monkeys by stereotaxis, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed to trace the cells in vivo. Cell survival and differentiation were studied with immunohistochemistry, Prussian blue staining, and HE staining. The marking efficiency of the ferumoxide-PLL was 96%. Iron particles were found intracytoplasmic of the hBMSCs by Prussian blue staining and transmission electron microscopy. The relaxation rates of labeled cells in MRI were 4.4 and 4.2 times higher than those of the unlabeled cells. Hypointensity area was found by MRI three weeks after transplantation. Many hBMSCs and new vessels were found in the transplantation zone by pathological and immunofluorescence methods. Ferumoxide-PLL can effectively label hBMSCs and thus increase its contrast in MRI results. The cells can survive in the brains of cynomolgus monkeys. The labeled hBMSCs can be traced in vivo by MRI.

  19. Immunoreactivity for Choline Acetyltransferase of Peripheral-Type (pChAT) in the Trigeminal Ganglion Neurons of the Non-Human Primate Macaca fascicularis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koga, Tsuneyuki; Bellier, Jean-Pierre; Kimura, Hiroshi; Tooyama, Ikuo

    2013-01-01

    Transcripts of the choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) gene reveal a number of different splice variants including ChAT of a peripheral type (pChAT). Immunohistochemical staining of the brain using an antibody against pChAT clearly revealed peripheral cholinergic neurons, but failed to detect cholinergic neurons in the central nervous system. In rodents, pChAT-immunoreactivity has been detected in cholinergic parasympathetic postganglionic and enteric ganglion neurons. In addition, pChAT has been observed in non-cholinergic neurons such as peripheral sensory neurons in the trigeminal and dorsal root ganglia. The common type of ChAT (cChAT) has been investigated in many parts of the brain and the spinal cord of non-human primates, but little information is available about the localization of pChAT in primate species. Here, we report the detection of pChAT immunoreactivity in trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons and its co-localization with Substance P (SP) and/or calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the cynomolgus monkey, Macaca fascicularis. Neurons positive for pChAT were observed in a rather uniform pattern in approximately half of the trigeminal neurons throughout the TG. Most pChAT-positive neurons had small or medium-sized cell bodies. Double-immunofluorescence staining showed that 85.1% of SP-positive cells and 74.0% of CGRP-positive cells exhibited pChAT immunoreactivity. Most pChAT-positive cells were part of a larger population of neurons that co-expressed SP and/or CGRP

  20. Probing around implants and teeth with healthy or inflamed peri-implant mucosa/gingiva. A histologic comparison in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schou, Søren; Holmstrup, Palle; Stoltze, Kaj; Hjørting-Hansen, Erik; Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Skovgaard, Lene Theil

    2002-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain a better understanding of probing measurements around osseointegrated oral implants. A comparison was made of probe tip position around Astra Tech implants and teeth of eight cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) in conditions of i) healthy peri-implant mucosa/gingiva, ii) mild mucositis/gingivitis, iii) severe mucositis/gingivitis or iv) peri-implantitis/periodontitis. Histological sections of 128 probes that were attached to implants or teeth with surrounding tissues were prepared by the cutting-grinding technique. No systematic differences were identified in the clinical and histological estimates of the distance between the mucosal/gingival margin and the probe tip. The differences were mainly smaller than 0.5 mm, and in no case were they larger than 0.7 mm. For implants and teeth with healthy peri-implant mucosa/gingiva, the distance between the probe tip and the alveolar bone was similar and ranged from 0.5 to 1.5 mm (P = 0.97). However, the probe tip was closer to bone around implants than around teeth in conditions of mild mucositis/gingivitis (P = 0.034), severe mucositis/gingivitis (P implantitis/periodontitis (P implants with severe mucositis and peri-implantitis, the distance was generally smaller than 0.5 mm, whereas teeth with severe gingivitis and periodontitis showed distances that mainly ranged from 0.5 to 1.5 mm. In conclusion, the probing measurements around osseointegrated oral implants and teeth were different. Even mild marginal inflammation was associated with deeper probe penetration around implants in comparison to teeth.

  1. A novel wireless recording and stimulating multichannel epicortical grid for supplementing or enhancing the sensory-motor functions in monkey (Macaca fascicularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Giuliano Zippo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Artificial brain-machine interfaces (BMIs represent a prospective step forward supporting or replacing faulty brain functions. So far, several obstacles, such as the energy supply, the portability and the biocompatibility, have been limiting their effective translation in advanced experimental or clinical applications. In this work, a novel 16 channel chronically implantable epicortical grid has been proposed. It provides wireless transmission of cortical recordings and stimulations, with induction current recharge. The grid has been chronically implanted in a non-human primate (Macaca fascicularis and placed over the somato-motor cortex such that 13 electrodes recorded or stimulated the primary motor cortex and 3 the primary somatosensory cortex, in the deeply anaesthetized animal. Cortical sensory and motor recordings and stimulations have been performed within 3 months from the implant. In detail, by delivering motor cortex epicortical single spot stimulations (1 to 8V, 1 to 10 Hz, 500ms, biphasic waves, we analyzed the motor topographic precision, evidenced by tunable finger or arm movements of the anesthetized animal. The responses to light mechanical peripheral sensory stimuli (blocks of 100 stimuli, each single stimulus being < 1ms and interblock intervals of 1.5 to 4 s have been analyzed. We found 150 to 250ms delayed cortical responses from fast finger touches, often spread to nearby motor stations. We also evaluated the grid electrical stimulus interference with somatotopic natural tactile sensory processing showing no suppressing interference with sensory stimulus detection. In conclusion, we propose a chronically implantable epicortical grid which can accommodate most of current technological restrictions, representing an acceptable candidate for BMI experimental and clinical uses.

  2. Comparing the relative benefits of grooming-contact and full-contact pairing for laboratory-housed adult female Macaca fascicularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Grace H; Thom, Jinhee P; Chu, Katherine L; Crockett, Carolyn M

    2012-03-01

    Tactile social contact is the most effective form of environmental enrichment for promoting normal behavior in captive primates. For laboratory macaques housed indoors, pair housing is the most common method for socialization. Pairs can be housed either in full contact (FC), or in protected contact (PC). At Washington National Primate Research Center, PC is provided by grooming-contact (GC) cages whereby two partners are housed individually in adjacent cages with access to each other through widely spaced vertical bars. Grooming-contact has been used to accommodate research protocol restrictions and improve the likelihood of compatibility for various pairings, in part by enabling male-female pairs. This study compares the benefits between the two housing types by video recording 14 pairs of adult female Macaca fascicularis in four sequential housing phases following an ABBA design: baseline grooming-contact, full contact shortly after introduction, 1-month-later full contact, and after reversion to grooming-contact. Prior to this study, pairs had been housed compatibly in GC. Twelve of the 14 long-term pairs transitioned successfully to full contact and data presented exclude the two failed pairs. Allogrooming increased significantly when pairs first switched from GC to FC (P = 0.018), but the effect did not last through the on 1-month-later FC phase suggesting that the initial improvement in affiliative behavior was a transitory novelty response that did not persist. Self-grooming significantly decreased between the first GC and first FC phases (P = 0.016), likely due to redirected allogrooming. Non-contact affiliative behavior towards partner or other conspecifics in the room did not differ, nor did agonism towards partner or others in the room. Occurrence of abnormal, tension, manipulation, miscellaneous active, and inactive behaviors did not differ significantly across housing phases. Proximity measurements indicated that pairs were significantly out of arm

  3. Costs of mate-guarding in wild male long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis): physiological stress and aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard-Buttoz, Cédric; Heistermann, Michael; Rahmi, Erdiansyah; Agil, Muhammad; Fauzan, Panji Ahmad; Engelhardt, Antje

    2014-09-01

    Mate-guarding is an important determinant of male reproductive success in a number of species. However, it is known to potentially incur costs. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of mate-guarding on male physiological stress and aggression in long-tailed macaques, a species in which males mate-guard females to a lesser extent than predicted by the Priority of Access model (PoA). The study was carried out during two mating periods on three groups of wild long-tailed macaques in Indonesia by combining behavioral observations with non-invasive measurements of fecal glucocorticoid (fGC) levels. Mate-guarding was associated with a general rise in male stress hormone levels but, from a certain threshold of mate-guarding onwards, increased vigilance time was associated with a decrease in stress hormone output. Mate-guarding also increased male-male aggression rate and male vigilance time. Overall, alpha males were more physiologically stressed than other males independently of mating competition. Increased glucocorticoid levels during mate-guarding are most likely adaptive since it may help males to mobilize extra-energy required for mate-guarding and ultimately maintain a balanced energetic status. However, repeated exposure to high levels of stress over an extended period is potentially deleterious to the immune system and thus may carry costs. This potential physiological cost together with the cost of increased aggression mate-guarding male face may limit the male's ability to mate-guard females, explaining the deviance from the PoA model observed in long-tailed macaques. Comparing our results to previous findings we discuss how ecological factors, reproductive seasonality and rank achievement may modulate the extent to which costs of mate-guarding limit male monopolization abilities. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Amyloid beta 1-42 and phoshorylated tau threonin 231 in brains of aged cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis

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    Huda Shalahudin Darusman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Pathological hallmarks indicative of Alzheimer’s disease, which are the plaques of Amyloid Beta 1-42 and neurofibrillary tangles, were found in brain of aged cynomolgus monkey. The aim of the study was to investigate if aged monkeys exhibiting spatial memory impairment and levels of biomarkers indicative of Alzheimer’s disease, had brain lesions similar to human patients suffering from senile dementia. Generating immunohistochemistry technique to biomarkers of Amyloid beta 1-42 and the phosphorylated tau 231, our study assessed the amyloidopathy, such as indicative to the senile plaques and cerebral amyloid angiopathy, and the tauopathy, to possible neurofibrillary tangles. Six aged monkeys were selected based on their spatial memory performance and profile of biomarkers of Alzheimer’s disease, divided equally to affected aged subject - with Memory-affected and low amyloid level, and aged with higher performance in memory and amyloid, as the age-matched subjects. Using immunohistochemistry, plaques of Amyloid Beta 1-42 were observed in two out of three brains of aged subjects with memory impairment and biomarkers indicative of Alzheimer’s disease. The cerebral amyloid angiopathy was observed in both aged monkey groups, and unlike in the human, the amyloids were found to deposit in the small veins and capillaries. In one of the affected individuals, phosphorylated tau was positively stained intracellularly of the neurons, indicating a possibility of an early stage of the formation of tangles. These findings add to the body of evidence of the utility of the aged cynomolgus monkeys as a spontaneous model for Alzheimer-related disease.

  5. Reference intervals for biochemical and haematological analytes of juvenile captive-bred long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) from Mauritius with examination of the effects of individual characteristics using principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naiken, Sandiren; Griffiths, Mary-Ann; Hurdial, Jaymahalaxmi R; Narainapoulle, Sam; Honess, Paul

    2016-12-01

    The Mauritian cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis) is widely used in biomedical research. Determining reference intervals for biochemical and haematological analytes provides an important tool for clinical diagnosis and pre-clinical research. Blood samples from 736 Mauritian long-tailed macaques were analysed to determine reference intervals of 13 biochemical and 10 haematological analytes. The need for partitioning the reference interval between males and females was determined. To examine the variation associated with age, body weight and sex on the analytes, our correlating, multivariate data set was first reduced using principal component analysis, and then the effect of these characteristics on factor scores was examined using GLM analysis. Partitioning of reference intervals, based on sex, was recommended for albumin, alkaline phosphatase and mean corpuscular haemoglobin. Sex significantly influenced the concentration of lymphocytes, granulocytes and white blood cells. These findings provide useful reference data for research involving Mauritian long-tailed macaques. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Correlations between serum levels of beta amyloid, cerebrospinal levels of tau and phospho tau, and delayed response tasks in young and aged cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darusman, Huda Shalahudin; Sajuthi, D; Kalliokoski, O

    2013-01-01

    In an attempt to explore cynomolgus monkeys as an animal model for Alzheimer's disease, the present study focused on the Alzheimer's biomarkers beta amyloid 1-42 (Aβ42 ) in serum, and total tau (t-tau) and phosphorylated tau (p-tau) levels in cerebrospinal fluid....

  7. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) levels reflect endogenous LH production and response to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) challenge in the older female macaque (Macaca fascicularis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Francisco M.; Chen, Jiangang; Gee, Nancy A.; Lohstroh, Pete; Lasley, Bill L.

    2012-01-01

    Hypothesis We propose that the adrenal gland of an older higher primate female animal model will respond to a human chorionic gonadotropic (hCG) hormone challenge by secreting additional dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS). Such a response in surgically and chemically-castrated animals will provide proof-of-concept and a validated animal model for future studies to explore the rise of DHEAS during the menopausal transition of women. Methods Twenty four 18–26 y/o female cynomolgus monkeys were screened for ovarian function then either ovariectomized (n=4) or treated with a gonadotropic releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) (n=20) to block ovarian steroid production. Following a recovery period from surgery or down-regulation, a single dose challenge (1,000 IU; IM) of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) was then administered in order to determine if LH/CG could accelerate circulating DHEAS production. Serum DHEAS, bioactive LH and urinary metabolites of ovarian sex steroids were monitored before, during and following these treatments. Results Circulating LH bioactivity and immunoreactive DHEAS concentrations were suppressed in all animals 14 days post administration of GnRHa. Urinary metabolites of estradiol and progesterone remained low following surgery or the flare reaction to GnRHa. Circulating DHEAS levels were increased following hCG administration and the increase in individual animals was proportional to the pre-treatment DHEAS baseline. Circulating DHEAS concentrations were positively correlated to endogenous LH bioactive concentrations prior to, and were increased by hCG challenge while no concomitant change was observed in ovarian steroid hormone excretion. Conclusion These data demonstrate a positive adrenal androgen response to LH/CG in older female higher primates and suggests a mechanism for the rise in adrenal androgen production during the menopausal transition in women. These results also illustrate that the nonhuman primate animal model can be

  8. Effect of hormone replacement and selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) on the biomechanics and biochemistry of pelvic support ligaments in the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahryarinejad, Azin; Gardner, Thomas R; Cline, J Mark; Levine, William N; Bunting, Haley A; Brodman, Michael D; Ascher-Walsh, Charles J; Scotti, Richard J; Vardy, Michael D

    2010-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of selective estrogen receptor modulators and ethinyl estradiol on the biomechanical and biochemical properties of the uterosacral and round ligaments in the monkey model of menopause. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study on 11 female macaque monkeys. Ovariectomized monkeys received 12 weeks of placebo, raloxifene, tamoxifen, or ethinyl estradiol. Biomechanical step-strain testing and real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed on the uterosacral and round ligaments. Tamoxifen and raloxifene uterosacrals expressed differing collagen I/III receptor density ratios, but both selective estrogen receptor modulators showed decreased tensile stiffness compared to ethinyl estradiol and controls. These findings support a possible effect of selective estrogen receptor modulators on biomechanical and biochemical properties of uterosacrals. This may play a role in pelvic organ prolapse. Copyright (c) 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A Unilateral Cervical Spinal Cord Contusion Injury Model in Non-Human Primates (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salegio, Ernesto A.; Sparrey, Carolyn J.; Camisa, William; Fischer, Jason; Leasure, Jeremi; Buckley, Jennifer; Nout-Lomas, Yvette S.; Rosenzweig, Ephron S.; Moseanko, Rod; Strand, Sarah; Hawbecker, Stephanie; Lemoy, Marie-Josee; Haefeli, Jenny; Ma, Xiaokui; Nielson, Jessica L.; Edgerton, V.R.; Ferguson, Adam R.; Tuszynski, Mark H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The development of a non-human primate (NHP) model of spinal cord injury (SCI) based on mechanical and computational modeling is described. We scaled up from a rodent model to a larger primate model using a highly controllable, friction-free, electronically-driven actuator to generate unilateral C6-C7 spinal cord injuries. Graded contusion lesions with varying degrees of functional recovery, depending upon pre-set impact parameters, were produced in nine NHPs. Protocols and pre-operative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were used to optimize the predictability of outcomes by matching impact protocols to the size of each animal's spinal canal, cord, and cerebrospinal fluid space. Post-operative MRI confirmed lesion placement and provided information on lesion volume and spread for comparison with histological measures. We evaluated the relationships between impact parameters, lesion measures, and behavioral outcomes, and confirmed that these relationships were consistent with our previous studies in the rat. In addition to providing multiple univariate outcome measures, we also developed an integrated outcome metric describing the multivariate cervical SCI syndrome. Impacts at the higher ranges of peak force produced highly lateralized and enduring deficits in multiple measures of forelimb and hand function, while lower energy impacts produced early weakness followed by substantial recovery but enduring deficits in fine digital control (e.g., pincer grasp). This model provides a clinically relevant system in which to evaluate the safety and, potentially, the efficacy of candidate translational therapies. PMID:26788611

  10. Anesthetic management in intrauterine surgery to evaluate an experimental model of myelomeningocele in non human primates (Macaca mulatta Anestesia em cirurgia intra-uterina para avaliar um modelo experimental de mielomeningocele em primatas não humanos (Macaca mulatta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Galván-Montaño

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Evaluate the anesthetic management in intrauterine surgery to induce myelomeningocele in non human primates Macaca mulatta. METHODS: A total of nine fetuses had intrauterine surgery; laminectomy was performed on them in L5 and L6. The studied variables were: maternal death, fetus death, cardiac frequency, respiratory frequency, arterial pressure, temperature, and oxygen saturation. RESULTS: No maternal or fetal deaths occurred; the only variable that was reported below the normal ranges was temperature. CONCLUSION: No maternal or fetal deaths occurred; the only variable that was reported below the normal ranges was temperature.OBJETIVO: Avaliar o manejo anestésico em cirurgia intra-uterina para induzir mielomeningocelo em primatas não humanos, Macaca mulatta. MÉTODOS: Operaram-se um total de nove fetos in útero que foram submetidos à laminectomia em L5 e L6. As variáveis a estudar foram mortes maternas ou fetais, freqüência cardíaca e respiratória, pressão arterial, temperatura e saturação de oxigênio. RESULTADOS: Não se apresentaram mortes maternas ou fetais, a temperatura se manteve abaixo dos 36°C, não tendo repercussões no bem-estar dos macacos. CONCLUSÃO: Não ocorreu nenhum óbito materno ou fetal, sendo que a única variável abaixo do normal foi a temperatura.

  11. The influence of rearing conditions on maternal behavior in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, P.J.A.; Vossen, J.M.H.

    1996-01-01

    We studied the influence of rearing on the adequacy of maternal behavior by comparing 20 harem-reared and 15 peer-reared primiparous cynomolgus monkeys. We used them plus 11 wild-caught females to extend this comparison to multiparous subjects and also to compare primiparae with multiparae. We

  12. Pedicled Instep Flap and Tibial Nerve Reconstruction in a Cynomolgus Monkey [Macaca fascicularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Weiss

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A male cynomolgus monkey experienced extensive soft tissue trauma to the right caudal calf area. Some weeks after complete healing of the original wounds, the monkey developed a chronic pressure sore on plantar surface of the heel of its right foot. A loss of sensitivity in the sole of the foot was hypothesized. The skin defect was closed by a medial sensate pedicled instep flap followed by counter transplantation of a full thickness graft from the interdigital webspace. The integrity of the tibial nerve was revised and reconstructed by means of the turnover flap technique. Both procedures were successful. This is an uncommon case in an exotic veterinary patient as it demonstrates a reconstructive skin flap procedure for the treatment of a chronic, denervated wound in combination with the successful reconstruction of 2.5 cm gap in the tibial nerve.

  13. Relationship between Social Rank and Cortisol and Testosterone concentrations in Male Cynomolgus Monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    OpenAIRE

    Czoty, Paul W.; Gould, Robert W.; Nader, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    In nonhuman primate social groups, biological differences related to social status have proven useful in investigating mechanisms of sensitivity to various disease states. Physiological and neurobiological differences between dominant and subordinate monkeys have been interpreted in the context of chronic social stress. The present experiments were designed to investigate the relationships between basal cortisol and testosterone concentrations and the establishment and maintenance of the soci...

  14. Mapping of FGF1 in the Medulla Oblongata of Macaca fascicularis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisem, Naomi J.; Takeuchi, Shigeko; Imamura, Toru; Abdelalim, Essam M.; Tooyama, Ikuo

    2012-01-01

    FGF1 is highly expressed in neurons and it has been proposed to play a role in the neuroprotection and in regeneration. Low FGF1 expression in neurons has been linked to increased vulnerability in cholinergic neurons. Previous reports have shown that the expression of FGF1 in rat brain is localized to the cholinergic nuclei of the medulla oblongata, with low ratio of neurons positive for FGF1 in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMNV). The role of FGF1 in the primate brain has yet to be clarified. In this study, we mapped FGF1 immunoreactivity in the medulla oblongata of cynomolgus monkey brainstems. Our results demonstrated that FGF1 immunoreactivity follows the pattern of distribution of cholinergic nuclei in the medulla oblongata; with strong localization of FGF1 to cholinergic neurons of the hypoglossal nucleus, the facial nucleus and the nucleus ambiguus. In contrast, the DMNV shows markedly lower FGF1 immunoreactivity. Localization of FGF1 to cholinergic neurons was only observed in the lateral region of the DMNV, with higher immunoreactivity in the rostral ventral-lateral region of the DMNV. These findings are consistent with the distribution of FGF1 immunoreactivity in previous studies of the rat brain

  15. Increased rigidity with age in social behavior of Java-monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenema, H.C.; Hooff, van J.A.R.A.M.; Gispen, W.H.; Spruijt, B.M.

    2001-01-01

    In this study we investigated the effect of aging on the structure of behavior of socially housed Java-monkeys. Indices of the sequential structure of an animal's own ongoing behavior and of its responses to behavior of other animals were calculated using an information statistic approach. These

  16. Increased rigidity with age in social behavior of Java-monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Veenema, H.C.; Hooff, J.A.R.A.M. van; Spruijt, B.M.

    2001-01-01

    In this study we investigated the effect of aging on the structure of behavior of socially housed Java-monkeys. Indices of the sequential structure of an animal s own ongoing behavior and of its responses to behavior of other animals were calculated using an information statistic approach. These

  17. Stress-relevant social behaviors of middle-class male cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ding; Zhou, Yuan

    2015-11-18

    Stress from dominance ranks in human societies, or that of other social animals, especially nonhuman primates, can have negative influences on health. Individuals holding different social status may be burdened with various stress levels. The middle class experiences a special stress situation within the dominance hierarchy due to its position between the higher and lower classes. Behaviorally, questions about where middle-class stress comes from and how individuals adapt to middle-class stress remain poorly understood in nonhuman primates. In the present study, social interactions, including aggression, avoidance, grooming and mounting behaviors, between beta males, as well as among group members holding higher or lower social status, were analyzed in captive male-only cynomolgus monkey groups. We found that aggressive tension from the higher hierarchy members was the main origin of stress for middle-class individuals. However, behaviors such as attacking lower hierarchy members immediately after being the recipient of aggression, as well as increased avoidance, grooming and mounting toward both higher and lower hierarchy members helped alleviate middle-class stress and were particular adaptations to middle-class social status.

  18. Experimental Infection of Cynomolgus Macaques (Macaca fascicularis) with Aerosolized Monkeypox Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    routes, vaccinia virus or rabbitpox virus in rabbits by intradermal (i.d.) or aerosol routes, monkeypox virus in dormice, prairie dogs or ground...occurring most commonly in the African Congo [35]. An outbreak of human monkeypox occurred in the Midwestern US in 2003 after contact with prairie dogs ...lactate from tissues. Lactate is the end product when anaerobic glycolysis occurs in low oxygen conditions. Increased LDH in MPX infection indicates

  19. Pharmacokinetics of 3 Formulations of Meloxicam in Cynomolgus Macaques (Macaca fascicularis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Cassondra; Frost, Patrice; Kirschner, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Meloxicam is a commonly used COX2-preferential NSAID in both human and veterinary patients. Minimal information has been published regarding appropriate dosing in nonhuman primates. Here we investigated the pharmacokinetic parameters of 3 formulations of meloxicam in cynomolgus macaques. A single dose of meloxicam SR, an extended-release formulation purported to provide therapeutic levels for as long as 72 h, was compared with the intramuscular and oral formulations dosed for 3 consecutive days and as a single dose. The oral formulation, both over 3 d and as a single dose, yielded lower plasma levels and a shorter duration than did intramuscular and sustained-release subcutaneous formulations. The intramuscular formulation, both over 3 d and as a single dose, provided lower plasma levels and a shorter duration than did a sustained-release subcutaneous formulation. The sustained-release formulations generated the highest plasma concentrations for the longest periods of time. None of the formulations caused significant effects on kidney or liver function. Our results indicate that the sustained-release formulation of meloxicam can achieve an adequate steady-state plasma concentration for 2 to 3 d in nonhuman primates. The standard intramuscular formulation provides adequate plasma concentrations for 12 to 24 h, with waxing and waning levels associated with daily dosing. The oral formulation has limited utility in nonhuman primates because of low circulating levels of drug. PMID:25255073

  20. Reach–to-grasp movements in macaca fascicularis monkeys: the Isochrony Principle at work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa eSartori

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Humans show a spontaneous tendency to increase the velocity of their movements depending on the linear extent of their trajectory in order to keep execution time approximately constant. Termed the isochrony principle, this compensatory mechanism refers to the observation that the velocity of voluntary movements increases proportionally with their linear extension. Although there is a wealth of psychophysical data regarding isochrony in humans, there is none regarding non-human primates. The present study attempts to fill that gap by investigating reach-to-grasp movement kinematics in free-ranging macaques. Video footage of monkeys grasping objects located at different distances was analyzed frame-by-frame using digitalization techniques. The amplitude of arm peak velocity was found to be correlated with the distance to be covered, and total movement duration remained invariant although target distances varied. Like in humans, the ‘isochrony principle’ seems to be operative as there is a gearing down/up of movement velocity that is proportional to the distance to be covered in order to allow for a relatively constant movement duration. Based on a centrally generated temporal template, this mode of motor programming could be functional in macaques given the high speed and great instability of posture and joint kinematics characterizing their actions. The data presented here take research in the field of comparative motor control a step forward as they are based on precise measurements of spontaneous grasping movements by animals living/acting in their natural environment.

  1. Aging, dominance history, and social behavior in Java-monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Veenema, H.C.; Spruijt, B.M.; Vanhooff, J.A.R.A.M.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the dominance history of socially housed Java-monkeys on the aging process. In monkeys, social subordinance is generally associated with elevated levels of cortisol, which, in turn, have been suggested to influence cognitive decline. As

  2. Normal Anatomy, Histology, and Spontaneous Pathology of the Nasal Cavity of the Cynomolgus Monkey (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamanza, Ronnie; Taylor, Ian; Gregori, Michela; Hill, Colin; Swan, Mark; Goodchild, Joel; Goodchild, Kane; Schofield, Jane; Aldous, Mark; Mowat, Vasanthi

    2016-07-01

    The evaluation of inhalation studies in monkeys is often hampered by the scarcity of published information on the relevant nasal anatomy and pathology. We examined nasal cavities of 114 control cynomolgus monkeys from 11 inhalation studies evaluated 2008 to 2013, in order to characterize and document the anatomic features and spontaneous pathology. Compared to other laboratory animals, the cynomolgus monkey has a relatively simple nose with 2 unbranched, dorsoventrally stacked turbinates, large maxillary sinuses, and a nasal septum that continues into the nasopharynx. The vomeronasal organ is absent, but nasopalatine ducts are present. Microscopically, the nasal epithelium is thicker than that in rodents, and the respiratory (RE) and transitional epithelium (TE) rest on a thick basal lamina. Generally, squamous epithelia and TE line the vestibule, RE, the main chamber and nasopharynx, olfactory epithelium, a small caudodorsal region, while TE is observed intermittently along the passages. Relatively high incidences of spontaneous pathology findings, some resembling induced lesions, were observed and included inflammation, luminal exudate, scabs, squamous and respiratory metaplasia or hyperplasia, mucous cell hyperplasia/metaplasia, and olfactory degeneration. Regions of epithelial transition were the most affected. This information is considered helpful in the histopathology evaluation and interpretation of inhalation studies in monkeys. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. The Effect Of PHA And SEA On Mitotic Index Of Lymphocyte Cell Of Macaca Fasciulare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubis, Masnelli; Iwiq-Indrawati

    2003-01-01

    The observation of influences of PHA (phytohemagglutinin) and SEA (staphilucoccal enterotoxin A) on mitotic index of lymphocyte of Macaca Fascicularis had been done. Half milliliters of lymphocyte cells stimulated with PHA or SEA were cultured in 10 ml RPMI + 1.0 ml Fetal Bouvine Serum (FBS ) + 0.1 ml L-glutamine + 0.15 ml PHA or 0.1 ml SEA ( 0.5 μg/ml ) + 0.1 ml Colchisin on 37 degree C for 96 hours. The result demonstrated that the frequency of mitotic index stimulated with PHA was higher than that of SEA. The average of mitotic index with PHA was 18.56 %, and with SEA was 8.3 %. (author)

  4. Mitochondrial DNA analyses and ecological niche modeling reveal post-LGM expansion of the Assam macaque (Macaca assamensis) in the foothills of Nepal Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, Laxman; Chalise, Mukesh K; He, Kai; Acharya, Bipin K; Kawamoto, Yoshi; Jiang, Xuelong

    2018-03-01

    Genetic diversity of a species is influenced by multiple factors, including the Quaternary glacial-interglacial cycles and geophysical barriers. Such factors are not yet well documented for fauna from the southern border of the Himalayan region. This study used mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences and ecological niche modeling (ENM) to explore how the late Pleistocene climatic fluctuations and complex geography of the Himalayan region have shaped genetic diversity, population genetic structure, and demographic history of the Nepalese population of Assam macaques (Macaca assamensis) in the Himalayan foothills. A total of 277 fecal samples were collected from 39 wild troops over almost the entire distribution of the species in Nepal. The mtDNA fragment encompassing the complete control region (1121 bp) was recovered from 208 samples, thus defining 54 haplotypes. Results showed low nucleotide diversity (0.0075 ± SD 0.0001) but high haplotype diversity (0.965 ± SD 0.004). The mtDNA sequences revealed a shallow population genetic structure with a moderate but statistically significant effect of isolation by distance. Demographic history analyses using mtDNA sequences suggested a post-pleistocene population expansion. Paleodistribution reconstruction projected that the potential habitat of the Assam macaque was confined to the lower elevations of central Nepal during the Last Glacial Maximum. With the onset of the Holocene climatic optimum, the glacial refugia population experienced eastward range expansion to higher elevations. We conclude that the low genetic diversity and shallow population genetic structure of the Assam macaque population in the Nepal Himalaya region are the consequence of recent demographic and spatial expansion. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Taxonomy Icon Data: crab-eating macaque [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available crab-eating macaque Macaca fascicularis Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Primate Macaca_fasci...cularis_L.png Macaca_fascicularis_NL.png Macaca_fascicularis_S.png Macaca_fascicularis..._NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Macaca+fascicularis&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/tax...onomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Macaca+fascicularis&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_i...con/icon.cgi?i=Macaca+fascicularis&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Macaca+fascicularis&t=NS ...

  6. Phylogenetic relationships of Malaysia's pig-tailed macaque Macaca nemestrina based on D-loop region sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Latiff M. A., B.; Ampeng, A.; Yaakop, S.; Md-Zain B., M.

    2014-09-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among Malaysian pig-tailed macaques have never been established even though the data are crucial in aiding conservation plan for the species. The aims of this study is to establish the phylogenetic relationships of Macaca nemestrina in Malaysia. A total of 21 genetic samples of M. nemestrina yielding 458 bp of D-loop sequences were used in phylogenetic analyses, in addition to one sample of M. fascicularis which was used as an outgroup. Sequence character analysis revealed that D-loop locus contains 23% parsimony informative character detected among the ingroups. Further analysis indicated a clear separation between populations originating from different regions; the Malay Peninsula populations are separated from Borneo Insular population; and Perak population formed a distinctive clade within Peninsular Malaysia populations. Phylogenetic trees (NJ, MP and Bayesian) portray a consistent clustering paradigm as Borneo population was distinguished from Peninsula population (100% bootstrap value in the NJ, MP, 1.00 posterior probability in Bayesian trees). Perak's population was separated from other Peninsula populations (100% in NJ, 99% in MP and 1.00 in Bayesian). D-loop region of mtDNA is proven to be a suitable locus in studying the separation of M. nemestrina at population level. These findings are crucial in aiding the conservation management and translocation process of M. fascicularis populations in Malaysia.

  7. Exploring of primate models of tick-borne flaviviruses infection for evaluation of vaccines and drugs efficacy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia S Pripuzova

    Full Text Available Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV is one of the most prevalent and medically important tick-borne arboviruses in Eurasia. There are overlapping foci of two flaviviruses: TBEV and Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus (OHFV in Russia. Inactivated vaccines exist only against TBE. There are no antiviral drugs for treatment of both diseases. Optimal animal models are necessary to study efficacy of novel vaccines and treatment preparations against TBE and relative flaviviruses. The models for TBE and OHF using subcutaneous inoculation were tested in Cercopithecus aethiops and Macaca fascicularis monkeys with or without prior immunization with inactivated TBE vaccine. No visible clinical signs or severe pathomorphological lesions were observed in any monkey infected with TBEV or OHFV. C. aethiops challenged with OHFV showed massive hemolytic syndrome and thrombocytopenia. Infectious virus or viral RNA was revealed in visceral organs and CNS of C. aethiops infected with both viruses; however, viremia was low. Inactivated TBE vaccines induced high antibody titers against both viruses and expressed booster after challenge. The protective efficacy against TBE was shown by the absence of virus in spleen, lymph nodes and CNS of immunized animals after challenge. Despite the absence of expressed hemolytic syndrome in immunized C. aethiops TBE vaccine did not prevent the reproduction of OHFV in CNS and visceral organs. Subcutaneous inoculation of M. fascicularis with two TBEV strains led to a febrile disease with well expressed viremia, fever, and virus reproduction in spleen, lymph nodes and CNS. The optimal terms for estimation of the viral titers in CNS were defined as 8-16 days post infection. We characterized two animal models similar to humans in their susceptibility to tick-borne flaviviruses and found the most optimal scheme for evaluation of efficacy of preventive and therapeutic preparations. We also identified M. fascicularis to be more susceptible to

  8. Towards an in vitro model of Plasmodium hypnozoites suitable for drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembele, Laurent; Gego, Audrey; Zeeman, Anne-Marie; Franetich, Jean-François; Silvie, Olivier; Rametti, Armelle; Le Grand, Roger; Dereuddre-Bosquet, Nathalie; Sauerwein, Robert; van Gemert, Geert-Jan; Vaillant, Jean-Christophe; Thomas, Alan W; Snounou, Georges; Kocken, Clemens H M; Mazier, Dominique

    2011-03-31

    Amongst the Plasmodium species in humans, only P. vivax and P. ovale produce latent hepatic stages called hypnozoites, which are responsible for malaria episodes long after a mosquito bite. Relapses contribute to increased morbidity, and complicate malaria elimination programs. A single drug effective against hypnozoites, primaquine, is available, but its deployment is curtailed by its haemolytic potential in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient persons. Novel compounds are thus urgently needed to replace primaquine. Discovery of compounds active against hypnozoites is restricted to the in vivo P. cynomolgi-rhesus monkey model. Slow growing hepatic parasites reminiscent of hypnozoites had been noted in cultured P. vivax-infected hepatoma cells, but similar forms are also observed in vitro by other species including P. falciparum that do not produce hypnozoites. P. falciparum or P. cynomolgi sporozoites were used to infect human or Macaca fascicularis primary hepatocytes, respectively. The susceptibility of the slow and normally growing hepatic forms obtained in vitro to three antimalarial drugs, one active against hepatic forms including hypnozoites and two only against the growing forms, was measured. The non-dividing slow growing P. cynomolgi hepatic forms, observed in vitro in primary hepatocytes from the natural host Macaca fascicularis, can be distinguished from similar forms seen in P. falciparum-infected human primary hepatocytes by the differential action of selected anti-malarial drugs. Whereas atovaquone and pyrimethamine are active on all the dividing hepatic forms observed, the P. cynomolgi slow growing forms are highly resistant to treatment by these drugs, but remain susceptible to primaquine. Resistance of the non-dividing P. cynomolgi forms to atovaquone and pyrimethamine, which do not prevent relapses, strongly suggests that these slow growing forms are hypnozoites. This represents a first step towards the development of a practical medium

  9. Towards an in vitro model of Plasmodium hypnozoites suitable for drug discovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Dembele

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Amongst the Plasmodium species in humans, only P. vivax and P. ovale produce latent hepatic stages called hypnozoites, which are responsible for malaria episodes long after a mosquito bite. Relapses contribute to increased morbidity, and complicate malaria elimination programs. A single drug effective against hypnozoites, primaquine, is available, but its deployment is curtailed by its haemolytic potential in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient persons. Novel compounds are thus urgently needed to replace primaquine. Discovery of compounds active against hypnozoites is restricted to the in vivo P. cynomolgi-rhesus monkey model. Slow growing hepatic parasites reminiscent of hypnozoites had been noted in cultured P. vivax-infected hepatoma cells, but similar forms are also observed in vitro by other species including P. falciparum that do not produce hypnozoites.P. falciparum or P. cynomolgi sporozoites were used to infect human or Macaca fascicularis primary hepatocytes, respectively. The susceptibility of the slow and normally growing hepatic forms obtained in vitro to three antimalarial drugs, one active against hepatic forms including hypnozoites and two only against the growing forms, was measured.The non-dividing slow growing P. cynomolgi hepatic forms, observed in vitro in primary hepatocytes from the natural host Macaca fascicularis, can be distinguished from similar forms seen in P. falciparum-infected human primary hepatocytes by the differential action of selected anti-malarial drugs. Whereas atovaquone and pyrimethamine are active on all the dividing hepatic forms observed, the P. cynomolgi slow growing forms are highly resistant to treatment by these drugs, but remain susceptible to primaquine.Resistance of the non-dividing P. cynomolgi forms to atovaquone and pyrimethamine, which do not prevent relapses, strongly suggests that these slow growing forms are hypnozoites. This represents a first step towards the development of a

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DNOV-01-0482 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DNOV-01-0482 gb|AAO66447.1| CXCR4 [Macaca fascicularis] gb|AAO66448.1| CXCR4 [Macaca fasci...cularis] gb|AAO66449.1| CXCR4 [Macaca fascicularis] gb|AAO66450.1| CXCR4 [Macaca fascicularis] AAO66447.1 8e-54 71% ...

  11. Variation in hair δ13C and δ15N values in long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) from Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillaci, Michael A.; Castellini, J. Margaret; Stricker, Craig A.; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Lee, Benjamin P.Y.-H.

    2014-01-01

    Much of the primatology literature on stable isotope ratios of carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) has focused on African and New World species, with comparatively little research published on Asian primates. Here we present hair δ13C and δ15N isotope values for a sample of 33 long-tailed macaques from Singapore. We evaluate the suggestion by a previous researcher that forest degradation and biodiversity loss in Singapore have led to a decline in macaque trophic level. The results of our analysis indicated significant spatial variability in δ13C but not δ15N. The range of variation in δ13C was consistent with a diet based on C3 resources, with one group exhibiting low values consistent with a closed canopy environment. Relative to other macaque species from Europe and Asia, the macaques from Singapore exhibited a low mean δ13C value but mid-range mean δ15N value. Previous research suggesting a decline in macaque trophic level is not supported by the results of our study.

  12. A pair choice test to identify female mating patterns in relation to ovulation in long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikitopoulos, E.; Heistermann, M.; Vries, Han de; Hooff, J.A.R.A.M. van; Sterck, E.H.M.

    2005-01-01

    Female mammals may exert choice for mates directly by mating selectively. Alternatively, females can mate promiscuously, allowing sperm competition and/or cryptic female choice to operate. Primate sexual behaviour is probably a compromise between conflicting male and female interests, so it may be

  13. Use of Operant Performance to Guide and Evaluate Medical Treatment in an Adult Male Cynomolgus Macaque (Macaca fascicularis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    improve animal welfare in laboratory settings and to guide effective therapies and veterinary practices. The present study is a case report of...treatment. The affected monkey received ketoprofen, buprenorphine , or their combination but continued to perform poorly during daily operant behavioral...evening administration of buprenorphine (0.01 mg/kg IM) was added to the treatment regimen of ketoprofen (2.0 mg/kg IM) ad- ministration in the

  14. Amyloid beta1–42 and the phoshorylated tau threonine 231 in brains of aged cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darusman, Huda Shalahudin; Gjedde, Albert; Sajuthi, Dondin

    2014-01-01

    Pathological hallmarks indicative of Alzheimer's disease (AD), which are the plaques of amyloid beta1-42 and neurofibrillary tangles, were found in brain of aged cynomolgus monkey. The aim of this study was to investigate if aged monkeys exhibiting spatial memory impairment and levels of biomarkers...... angiopathy, and the tauopathy, to possible neurofibrillary tangles. Six aged monkeys were selected based on their spatial memory performance and profile of biomarkers of AD, divided equally to affected aged subject - with Memory-affected and low amyloid level, and aged with higher performance in memory...... and amyloid, as the age-matched subjects. Using immunohistochemistry, plaques of amyloid beta1-42 were observed in two out of three brains of aged subjects with memory impairment and biomarkers indicative of AD. The cerebral amyloid angiopathy was observed in both aged monkey groups, and unlike in the human...

  15. The Effect Of SEA On Long Tail Monkeys (Macaca Fascicularis) Lymphocyte Culture Gamma Ray-Irradiated In Vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wa'id, Abdul; Lusiyanti, Yanti

    2000-01-01

    Staphylococus enteroxine (SEA) is one of toxins produced by the bacterium Staphylococus aureus. In the culture, SEA has proven as a potent stimulator of lymphocytes in man event at fg/ml concentrations. This research studied the effect of SEA compared to Phytohaemagglutinine (PHA) on the peripheral blood lymphocytes culture of the long-tail monkeys. About 5 ml blood was collected from 5 monkeys and irradiated using Gamma Cell-220 P3TIR with doses of 0 (control); 1.0; 2.0; 3.0 and 4.0 Gy. The blood samples were cultured in the appropriate growth medium based on standard procedure and added with 1.0 ml (0.5 mug/ml) SEA or 0.15 ml PHA. The cultures were then incubated for 96 hours and prepared the slides. The results showed that on the unirradiated peripheral blood lymphocytes of long-tail monkeys the mitotic indices obtained using PHA and SEA are relatively similar. On the irradiated lymphocytes with doses of 1-3 Gy, the mitotic indices using SEA are relatively higher than that of PHA. Dose responses of dicentric, ring and acentric fragment of both PHA and SEA are relatively the same

  16. Effects of MDMA Injections on the Behavior of Socially-Housed Long-Tailed Macaques (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesta, Sébastien; Reymond, Gilles; Pozzobon, Matthieu; Duhamel, Jean-René

    2016-01-01

    3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methyl amphetamine (MDMA) is one of the few known molecules to increase human and rodent prosocial behaviors. However, this effect has never been assessed on the social behavior of non-human primates. In our study, we subcutaneously injected three different doses of MDMA (1.0, 1.5 or 2.0mg/kg) to a group of three, socially housed, young male long-tailed macaques. More than 200 hours of behavioral data were recorded, during 68 behavioral sessions, by an automatic color-based video device that tracked the 3D positions of each animal and of a toy. This data was then categorized into 5 exclusive behaviors (resting, locomotion, foraging, social contact and object play). In addition, received and given social grooming was manually scored. Results show several significant dose-dependent behavioral effects. At 1.5mg/kg only, MDMA induces a significant increase in social grooming behavior, thus confirming the prosocial effect of MDMA in macaques. Additionally, at 1.5 and 2.0 mg/kg MDMA injection substantially decreases foraging behavior, which is consistent with the known anorexigenic effect of this compound. Furthermore, at 2.0 mg/kg MDMA injection induces an increase in locomotor behavior, which is also in accordance with its known stimulant property. Interestingly, MDMA injected at 1.0mg/kg increases the rate of object play, which might be interpreted as a decrease of the inhibition to manipulate a unique object in presence of others, or, as an increase of the intrinsic motivation to manipulate this object. Together, our results support the effectiveness of MDMA to study the complex neurobiology of primates' social behaviors.

  17. Effects of MDMA Injections on the Behavior of Socially-Housed Long-Tailed Macaques (Macaca fascicularis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Ballesta

    Full Text Available 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methyl amphetamine (MDMA is one of the few known molecules to increase human and rodent prosocial behaviors. However, this effect has never been assessed on the social behavior of non-human primates. In our study, we subcutaneously injected three different doses of MDMA (1.0, 1.5 or 2.0mg/kg to a group of three, socially housed, young male long-tailed macaques. More than 200 hours of behavioral data were recorded, during 68 behavioral sessions, by an automatic color-based video device that tracked the 3D positions of each animal and of a toy. This data was then categorized into 5 exclusive behaviors (resting, locomotion, foraging, social contact and object play. In addition, received and given social grooming was manually scored. Results show several significant dose-dependent behavioral effects. At 1.5mg/kg only, MDMA induces a significant increase in social grooming behavior, thus confirming the prosocial effect of MDMA in macaques. Additionally, at 1.5 and 2.0 mg/kg MDMA injection substantially decreases foraging behavior, which is consistent with the known anorexigenic effect of this compound. Furthermore, at 2.0 mg/kg MDMA injection induces an increase in locomotor behavior, which is also in accordance with its known stimulant property. Interestingly, MDMA injected at 1.0mg/kg increases the rate of object play, which might be interpreted as a decrease of the inhibition to manipulate a unique object in presence of others, or, as an increase of the intrinsic motivation to manipulate this object. Together, our results support the effectiveness of MDMA to study the complex neurobiology of primates' social behaviors.

  18. Behavioral ecology and commensal long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) populations in Bali, Indonesia: impact of anthropic factors

    OpenAIRE

    Brotcorne, Fany

    2014-01-01

    Coexistence between humans and wildlife is one of the major challenge to biodiversity conservation in the onset of this new millennium. In addition to the development of protected areas providing refuges for wildlife populations, another option relies on the sharing of space, i.e., tolerating wildlife living alongside human populations in non-protected interface zones. During the last century, massive human encroachment into wildlife natural habitat has led to an increasing number of worldwid...

  19. Morphological integration of anatomical, developmental, and functional postcranial modules in the crab-eating macaque (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conaway, Mark A; Schroeder, Lauren; von Cramon-Taubadel, Noreen

    2018-03-22

    Integration and modularity reflect the coordinated action of past evolutionary processes and, in turn, constrain or facilitate phenotypic evolvability. Here, we analyze magnitudes of integration in the macaque postcranium to test whether 20 a priori defined modules are (1) more tightly integrated than random sets of postcranial traits, and (2) are differentiated based on mode of definition, with developmental modules expected to be more integrated than functional or anatomical modules. The 3D morphometric data collected for eight limb and girdle bones for 60 macaques were collated into anatomical, developmental, and functional modules. A resampling technique was used to create random samples of integration values for each module for statistical comparison. Our results found that not all a priori defined modules were more strongly integrated than random samples of postcranial traits and that specific types of modules did not present consistent patterns of integration. Rather, girdle and joint modules were consistently less integrated than limb modules, and forelimb elements were less integrated than hindlimbs. The results suggest that morphometrically complex modules tend to be less integrated than simple limb bones, irrespective of the number of available traits. However, differences in integration of the fore- and hindlimb more likely reflects the multitude of locomotory, feeding, and social functions involved. It remains to be tested whether patterns of integration identified here are primate universals, and to what extent they vary depending on phylogenetic or functional factors. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Alzheimer's Abeta vaccination of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandy, Sam; DeMattos, Ron B; Lemere, Cynthia A; Heppner, Frank L; Leverone, Jodi; Aguzzi, Adriano; Ershler, William B; Dai, Jinlu; Fraser, Paul; St George Hyslop, Peter; Holtzman, David M; Walker, Lary C; Keller, Evan T

    2004-02-01

    Recent preliminary data suggest that vaccination with Alzheimer's Abeta might reduce senile plaque load and stabilize cognitive decline in human Alzheimer's disease. To examine the mechanisms and consequences of anti-Abeta-antibody formation in a species more closely related to humans, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were vaccinated with aggregated Abeta(1-42). Immunized monkeys developed anti-Abeta titers exceeding 1:1000, and their plasma Abeta levels were 5-10-fold higher than the plasma Abeta levels observed in monkeys vaccinated with aggregated amylin. These data support the use of non-human primates to model certain phenomena associated with vaccination of humans with aggregated Alzheimer's Abeta.

  1. Alzheimer A beta vaccination of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandy, Sam; DeMattos, Ron B; Lemere, Cynthia A; Heppner, Frank L; Leverone, Jodi; Aguzzi, Adriano; Ershler, William B; Dai, Jinlu; Fraser, Paul; Hyslop, Peter St George; Holtzman, David M; Walker, Lary C; Keller, Evan T

    2004-01-01

    Recent preliminary data suggest that vaccination with Alzheimer A beta might reduce senile plaque load and stabilize cognitive decline in human Alzheimer disease. To examine the mechanisms and consequences of anti-A beta-antibody formation in a species more closely related to humans, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were vaccinated with aggregated A beta 1-42. Immunized monkeys developed anti-A beta titers exceeding 1:1000, and their plasma A beta levels were 5- to 10-fold higher than the plasma A beta levels observed in monkeys vaccinated with aggregated amylin. These data support the use of nonhuman primates to model certain phenomena associated with vaccination of humans with aggregated Alzheimer A beta.

  2. Cytotoxic and proliferative T cell responses in HIV-1-infected Macaca nemestrina.

    OpenAIRE

    Kent, S J; Corey, L; Agy, M B; Morton, W R; McElrath, M J; Greenberg, P D

    1995-01-01

    Macaca nemestrina has been described as an animal model for acute HIV-1 infection. This animal, unlike most infected humans, appears to contain HIV-1 replication. Therefore analysis of HIV-1-specific proliferative and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses following HIV-1 challenge of M. nemestrina may provide information into the role of such responses in both the control of acute HIV infection and protective immunity. Although CD4+ T cell responses to HIV-1 are generally difficult to detect...

  3. Beneficial Insect Attraction to Milkweeds (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis in Washington State, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. James

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Native plant and beneficial insect associations are relatively unstudied yet are important in native habitat restoration programs for improving and sustaining conservation biological control of arthropod pests in agricultural crops. Milkweeds (Asclepias spp. are currently the focus of restoration programs in the USA aimed at reversing a decline in populations of the milkweed-dependent monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus; however, little is known of the benefits of these plants to other beneficial insects. Beneficial insects (predators, parasitoids, pollinators attracted to two milkweed species (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis in central Washington State, WA, USA were identified and counted on transparent sticky traps attached to blooms over five seasons. Combining all categories of beneficial insects, means of 128 and 126 insects per trap were recorded for A. speciosa and A. fascicularis, respectively. Predatory and parasitic flies dominated trap catches for A. speciosa while parasitic wasps were the most commonly trapped beneficial insects on A. fascicularis. Bees were trapped commonly on both species, especially A. speciosa with native bees trapped in significantly greater numbers than honey bees. Beneficial insect attraction to A. speciosa and A. fascicularis was substantial. Therefore, these plants are ideal candidates for habitat restoration, intended to enhance conservation biological control, and for pollinator conservation. In central Washington, milkweed restoration programs for enhancement of D. plexippus populations should also provide benefits for pest suppression and pollinator conservation.

  4. Beneficial Insect Attraction to Milkweeds (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis) in Washington State, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, David G; Seymour, Lorraine; Lauby, Gerry; Buckley, Katie

    2016-06-29

    Native plant and beneficial insect associations are relatively unstudied yet are important in native habitat restoration programs for improving and sustaining conservation biological control of arthropod pests in agricultural crops. Milkweeds (Asclepias spp.) are currently the focus of restoration programs in the USA aimed at reversing a decline in populations of the milkweed-dependent monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus); however, little is known of the benefits of these plants to other beneficial insects. Beneficial insects (predators, parasitoids, pollinators) attracted to two milkweed species (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis) in central Washington State, WA, USA were identified and counted on transparent sticky traps attached to blooms over five seasons. Combining all categories of beneficial insects, means of 128 and 126 insects per trap were recorded for A. speciosa and A. fascicularis, respectively. Predatory and parasitic flies dominated trap catches for A. speciosa while parasitic wasps were the most commonly trapped beneficial insects on A. fascicularis. Bees were trapped commonly on both species, especially A. speciosa with native bees trapped in significantly greater numbers than honey bees. Beneficial insect attraction to A. speciosa and A. fascicularis was substantial. Therefore, these plants are ideal candidates for habitat restoration, intended to enhance conservation biological control, and for pollinator conservation. In central Washington, milkweed restoration programs for enhancement of D. plexippus populations should also provide benefits for pest suppression and pollinator conservation.

  5. Equilibrium Performance Changes Produced by Atropine in M. mulatta and M. fascicularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    M. FASCICULARIS C. Thomas Bennett, Major, MSC, USA Neal E. Lof, B.S. Donald N. Farrer, Ph.D. Joel L. Mattsson, Lieutenant Colonel, USAF, BSG ...od a given compound (decaborane, a high- energy fuel ) ol both species for tit- same task (33). Ilnfortunately, the authors did not present tl: data

  6. Can Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) Represent Invisible Displacement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filion, Christine M.; Washburn, David A.; Gulledge, Jonathan P.

    1996-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to assess whether or not rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) could represent the unperceived movements of a stimulus. Subjects were tested on 2 computerized tasks, HOLE (monkeys) and LASER (humans and monkeys), in which subjects needed to chase or shoot at, respectively, a moving target that either remained visible or became invisible for a portion of its path of movement. Response patterns were analyzed and compared between target-visible and target-invisible conditions. Results of Experiments 1, 2, and 3 demonstrated that the monkeys are capable of extrapolating movement. That this extrapolation involved internal representation of the target's invisible movement was suggested but not confirmed. Experiment 4, however, demonstrated that the monkeys are capable of representing the invisible displacements of a stimulus.

  7. Human iPS cell-derived dopaminergic neurons function in a primate Parkinson's disease model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Tetsuhiro; Morizane, Asuka; Doi, Daisuke; Magotani, Hiroaki; Onoe, Hirotaka; Hayashi, Takuya; Mizuma, Hiroshi; Takara, Sayuki; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Inoue, Haruhisa; Morita, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Michio; Okita, Keisuke; Nakagawa, Masato; Parmar, Malin; Takahashi, Jun

    2017-08-30

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) are a promising source for a cell-based therapy to treat Parkinson's disease (PD), in which midbrain dopaminergic neurons progressively degenerate. However, long-term analysis of human iPS cell-derived dopaminergic neurons in primate PD models has never been performed to our knowledge. Here we show that human iPS cell-derived dopaminergic progenitor cells survived and functioned as midbrain dopaminergic neurons in a primate model of PD (Macaca fascicularis) treated with the neurotoxin MPTP. Score-based and video-recording analyses revealed an increase in spontaneous movement of the monkeys after transplantation. Histological studies showed that the mature dopaminergic neurons extended dense neurites into the host striatum; this effect was consistent regardless of whether the cells were derived from patients with PD or from healthy individuals. Cells sorted by the floor plate marker CORIN did not form any tumours in the brains for at least two years. Finally, magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography were used to monitor the survival, expansion and function of the grafted cells as well as the immune response in the host brain. Thus, this preclinical study using a primate model indicates that human iPS cell-derived dopaminergic progenitors are clinically applicable for the treatment of patients with PD.

  8. Effect of Elevated Carbon Dioxide on Two Scleractinian Corals: Porites cylindrica (Dana, 1846 and Galaxea fascicularis (Linnaeus, 1767

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yii-Siang Hii

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reveals the effect of elevated pCO2 on Porites cylindrica and Galaxea fascicularis. The corals responded differently under elevated pCO2. Zooxanthellae cell density, cell mitotic index, and photosynthesis rate of P. cylindrica decreased drastically under the elevated pCO2. At the end of the experiment, P. cylindrica suffered from a declining calcium carbonate precipitation rate. G. fascicularis increased its respiration rate and expelled 71% of its symbiotic zooxanthellae algae under elevated pCO2. Photosynthetic pigments in the remaining zooxanthellae algae increased from 1.85 to 11.5 times to sustain its photosynthetic outputs. At the end of the experiment, G. fascicularis managed to increase the rate of its calcium carbonate precipitation. Increase pCO2 in the atmosphere may affect species diversity of coral reefs.

  9. Socialization in pigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worlein, Julie M; Kroeker, Rose; Lee, Grace H; Thom, Jinhee P; Bellanca, Rita U; Crockett, Carolyn M

    2017-01-01

    In response to new emphasis by regulatory agencies regarding socialization, behavioral management programs are allocating greater resources to maximize socialization opportunities for laboratory primates. Information regarding predictors of compatibility and risk of injury for all laboratory-housed species of macaques are needed to make social introductions and pairings as efficient and safe as possible. This study presents data on 674 pairs of pigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) at the Washington National Primate Research Center over a 7-year period. During pair introduction, behavior was monitored while the degree of tactile contact was gradually increased. Based on observed behavior, pairs were assigned a behavioral introduction score (BIS), rating the quality of their interactions for each day of introduction. Animals deemed compatible, based on the BIS and technologist judgment, were allowed to progress to continuous contact with no staff present. A small proportion of animals deemed compatible at introduction was later separated for subsequent incompatibility or aggression; these proportions were higher in full contact compared to protected contact pairings. Of 674 pairs, 75% were deemed compatible at introduction in protected contact; 86 of these pairs were later transitioned to full contact with 98% compatibility. Predictors of decreased compatibility assessed during protected contact introductions included age (adult pairs were less compatible), the BIS on the last day of introduction, and aggression or injury during the introductory period. Predictors of injuries during the protected contact introduction process included: aggression on the first day of introduction, a negative BIS on the first or last day of introduction, and, surprisingly, the presence of grooming on the first day of introduction. Injuries during both introduction and subsequent pairing in protected contact were rare; however, injury rates increased significantly during full

  10. Cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) experimentally infected with B19V and hepatitis A virus: no evidence of the co-infection as a cause of acute liver failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Luciane Almeida Amado; Marchevsky, Renato Sergio; Gaspar, Ana Maria Coimbra; Garcia, Rita de Cassia Nasser Cubel; Almeida, Adilson José de; Pelajo-Machado, Marcelo; Castro, Tatiana Xavier de; Nascimento, Jussara Pereira do; Brown, Kevin E; Pinto, Marcelo Alves

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to analyse the course and the outcome of the liver disease in the co-infected animals in order to evaluate a possible synergic effect of human parvovirus B19 (B19V) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) co-infection. Nine adult cynomolgus monkeys were inoculated with serum obtained from a fatal case of B19V infection and/or a faecal suspension of acute HAV. The presence of specific antibodies to HAV and B19V, liver enzyme levels, viraemia, haematological changes, and necroinflammatory liver lesions were used for monitoring the infections. Seroconversion was confirmed in all infected groups. A similar pattern of B19V infection to human disease was observed, which was characterised by high and persistent viraemia in association with reticulocytopenia and mild to moderate anaemia during the period of investigation (59 days). Additionally, the intranuclear inclusion bodies were observed in pro-erythroblast cell from an infected cynomolgus and B19V Ag in hepatocytes. The erythroid hypoplasia and decrease in lymphocyte counts were more evident in the co-infected group. The present results demonstrated, for the first time, the susceptibility of cynomolgus to B19V infection, but it did not show a worsening of liver histopathology in the co-infected group.

  11. Leydig cell number and function in the adult cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) is increased by daily hCG treatment but not by daily FSH treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teerds, K. J.; Rommerts, F. F.; van de Kant, H. J.; de rooij, D. G.

    1989-01-01

    Daily treatment of adult cynomolgus monkeys with 450 i.u. hCG for 16 days resulted in a significant 163% increase in the number of Leydig cells, and a 9-fold rise in plasma testosterone concentrations. The number of proliferating Leydig cells was very low, even after 16 days of treatment with hCG.

  12. Stimulus-Food Pairings Produce Stimulus-Directed Touch-Screen Responding in Cynomolgus Monkeys (MACACA Fascicularis) With or Without a Positive Response Contingency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    1972) found distinct lever-directed response topographies depending on whether lever extension was paired with food or electrical brain stimulation...correspondence between CS- and US-directed behavior engen - dered by response-independent reinforcement schedules (with and without SP). These findings have

  13. Early changes of cortical blood flow, brain temperature and electrical activity after whole-body irradiation of the monkey (Macaca fascicularis) (dose range: 3-20 Gy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Court, L.; Gourmelon, P.; Mestries, J.C.

    1987-02-01

    A polyparametric investigation was carried out on 31 monkeys chronically wearing bioinstrumentation allowing to get and process simultaneously local brain blood flow, cerebral temperature, and energies in various frequency bands of the brain electrical activity. This method, which supplied data during several consecutive days, made it possible to study both the biological rhythms at the level of the various parameters, and their fast variations. The effects of whole-body gamma or neutron-gamma irradiation were studied in the 3-20 Gy dose range. Immediate changes after exposure demonstrated different radiosensitivities at the level of the rhythms of the various parameters, and/or their recovery, as well as dose-effect relationships [fr

  14. Innate-like gammadelta T cell responses to mycobacterium Bacille Calmette-Guerin using the public V gamma 2 repertoire in Macaca fascicularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairo, Cristiana; Hebbeler, Andrew M; Propp, Nadia; Bryant, Joseph L; Colizzi, Vittorio; Pauza, C David

    2007-07-01

    The V gamma 2 V delta 2 T cell subset responds to Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) immunization in macaques and may be a component of protective immunity against tuberculosis. We characterized the effects of BCG on the V gamma 2 V delta 2 T cell receptor repertoire by comparing the starting population of V gamma 2 chains in cynomolgus macaques with the repertoire found after priming or booster immunization with BCG. The starting repertoire was dominated by public V gamma 2 chain sequences that were found repeatedly among unrelated animals. Primary exposure to BCG triggered expansion of cells expressing public V gamma 2 chains and booster immunization was often associated with contraction of these same subsets. Thus, BCG-reactive V gamma 2 chains were present at high frequency in the repertoire of mycobacteria-naïve macaques and they comprised the major response to primary or booster immunization. Normal selection processes that created the naïve V gamma 2 repertoire in macaques, also encoded the capacity for rapid responses to mycobacteria. The unusual composition of a normal V gamma 2 repertoire helps to explain the powerful gammadelta T cell responses to BCG immunization.

  15. Reconciliation and relationship quality in Assamese macaques (Macaca assamensis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cooper, M.A.; Bernstein, I.S.; Hemelrijk, C.K.

    A consistent conclusion in reconciliation research is that animals that reconcile are likely to have strong social bonds. This has led to the hypothesis that reconciliation occurs most often between valuable social partners. We tested this hypothesis in a group of Assamese macaques (Macaca

  16. Novel Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers Reveal Genetic Differentiation between Two Sympatric Types of Galaxea fascicularis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Nakajima

    Full Text Available The reef-building, scleractinian coral, Galaxea fascicularis, is classified into soft and hard types, based on nematocyst morphology. This character is correlated with the length of the mitochondrial non-coding region (mt-Long: soft colony type, and nematocysts with wide capsules and long shafts; mt-Short: hard colony type, and nematocysts with thin capsules and short shafts. We isolated and characterized novel polymorphic microsatellite markers for G. fascicularis using next-generation sequencing. Based upon the mitochondrial non-coding region, 53 of the 97 colonies collected were mt-Long (mt-L and 44 were mt-Short (mt-S. Among the 53 mt-L colonies, 27 loci were identified as amplifiable, polymorphic microsatellite loci, devoid of somatic mutations and free of scoring errors. Eleven of those 27 loci were also amplifiable and polymorphic in the 44 mt-S colonies; these 11 are cross-type microsatellite loci. The other 16 loci were considered useful only for mt-L colonies. These 27 loci identified 10 multilocus lineages (MLLs among the 53 mt-L colonies (NMLL/N = 0.189, and the 11 cross-type loci identified 7 MLLs in 44 mt-S colonies (NMLL/N = 0.159. Significant genetic differentiation between the two types was detected based on the genetic differentiation index (FST = 0.080, P = 0.001. Bayesian clustering also indicated that these two types are genetically isolated. While nuclear microsatellite genotypes also showed genetic differentiation between mitochondrial types, the mechanism of divergence is not yet clear. These markers will be useful to estimate genetic diversity, differentiation, and connectivity among populations, and to understand evolutionary processes, including divergence of types in G. fascicularis.

  17. Identification of a novel yolk protein in the hermatypic coral Galaxea fascicularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Hideki; Andoh, Tadashi; Watanabe, Toshiki

    2007-03-01

    The reef-building (or hermatypic) coral Galaxea fascicularis (Anthozoa, Hexacorallia, Scleractinia) has an annual reproductive cycle. Females of G. fascicularis release packages (or ;bundles') of eggs for external fertilization, whereas male individuals form bundles consisting of sperm and infertile ;pseudo-eggs' that are thought to confer buoyancy to the male bundle. In the egg of G. fascicularis, four proteins (GfEP-1 to 4) were found to be stored in high abundance, and three of them (GfEP-1, 2 and 3) are generated by processing of a vitellogenin (Vg)-like precursor. In the present study, a cDNA encoding GfEP-4 was cloned and its sequence determined (GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ accession no. AB259859). The amino acid sequence of this protein does not exhibit similarity to known proteins, including Vgs or other yolk proteins found in some invertebrates. The expression of GfEP-4 mRNA was observed in females, and also in the majority of males examined, although expression levels were lower than in females. The GfEP-4 protein was detected in pseudo-eggs, where its concentration was 20-100 times lower than in eggs. In contrast, GfEP-1, 2 and 3 were not detected in pseudo-eggs. A protein (28 kDa) which cross-reacted with anti-GfEP-4 antibodies was detected in eggs of the coral Montipora digitata, suggesting the possibility that homologs of this protein are present in the eggs of other scleractinian corals.

  18. Habitat Characteristics and Population of Booted Macaque (Macaca ochreata in Tanjung Peropa Wildlife Reserve, Southeast Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsa Zsa Fairuztania

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Macaca ochreata is one of Sulawesi endemic primates, which are distributed only in Southeast Sulawesi. This study aimed to identify habitat characteristics and estimated Macaca ochreata population was conducted in February until March of 2017 at Kalobo Block Forest, Tanjung Peropa Wildlife Reserve (TPWR. Habitat characteristics were identified using vegetation analysis and population was estimated by concentration count method. The highest Important Value Index of trees were Pangium edule, Artocarpus elastica, and Meliostoma nitida which were Macaca ochreata’s food plants. There were 33 species of 17 families of Macaca’s food plants on the study site. Macaca ochreata were found in trees with stratum B and stratum C. A total of 4 groups of Macaca ochreata encountered consisting 56 individuals. Population density of Macaca ochreata was 22,4 individu/km2.

  19. Interactive effects of oxygen, carbon dioxide and flow on photosynthesis and respiration in the scleractinian coral Galaxea fascicularis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osinga, Ronald; Derksen-Hooijberg, Marlous; Wijgerde, Tim; Verreth, Johan A.J.

    2017-01-01

    Rates of dark respiration and net photosynthesis were measured for six replicate clonal fragments of the stony coral Galaxea fascicularis (Linnaeus 1767), which were incubated under 12 different combinations of dissolved oxygen (20%, 100% and 150% saturation), dissolved carbon dioxide (9.5 and

  20. PET imaging using parkinsonian primate model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Yuji

    2004-01-01

    Many animal models have been for studying neutrodegenerative diseases in humans. Among them, Parkinson's disease (PD) model in primates treated with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) is expected to be valid and useful in the field of regenerative medicine. MPTP-treated monkeys demonstrate parkinsonian syndrome, such as tremor, dyskinesia, rigidity, immobility, caused by the degeneration of dopamine neurons at the nigrostriatal pathway. In this model, investigation of cognitive impairment that is one of the important aspects of PD could be possible. We evaluated the degeneration process of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons with positron emission tomography (PET) using unanesthetized MPTP-treated two cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). The tracers used were [11C]PE2I, [11C]DOPA, [11C]raclopride for monitoring dopamine transporter (DAT) densities, dopamine (DA) turnover, dopamine D2-receptor (D2R) densities, respectively. The gross behavioral observation was also performed referring to the criteria of the PD symptoms. The motor dysfunction was not clearly observed up to the cumulative doses of 3 mg/kg MPTP. This period was called 'asymptomatic period'. As a result of PET scans in the asymptomatic period, DAT densities and DA turnover had already decreased greatly, but D2R densities had not changed clearly. These findings suggest that PET imaging can delineate the dopaminergic dysfunction in vivo even in the asymptomatic period. In human study of PD, it is reported that parkinsonism is shown after great loss of dopaminergic neutrons as well as pre-synaptic dysfunction. MPTP-treated monkeys demonstrate the parkinsonian syndrome with the similar mechanism as human PD. It can be expected that PET study with MPTP-monkeys would provide important clues relevant to the underlying cause of PD and be useful for preclinical study of regenerative medicine in this disease. (author)

  1. Ventricular Parasystole in a Neonatal Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta)

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, Dalis E; Dozier, Brandy L; Stanton, Jeffrey J; Colgin, Lois MA; MacAllister, Rhonda

    2016-01-01

    A 6-d-old Indian-origin female rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) presented with bradycardia shortly after sedation with ketamine. No other cardiac abnormalities were apparent. Approximately 2 wk after the initial presentation, the macaque was again bradycardic and exhibited a regularly irregular arrhythmia on a prestudy examination. ECG, echocardiography, blood pressure measurement, SpO2 assessment, and a CBC analysis were performed. The echocardiogram and bloodwork were normal, but the infant ...

  2. Yawning and social styles: Different functions in tolerant and despotic macaques (Macaca tonkeana and Macaca fuscata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zannella, Alessandra; Stanyon, Roscoe; Palagi, Elisabetta

    2017-08-01

    Yawning is a multifunctional behavior with a role in social communication. In Old World monkeys, the "tension yawn" is often used as a threat, allowing individuals to completely expose their canines. To explore the role of this phenomenon, we selected 2 closely related species-Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) and Tonkean macaques (M. tonkeana)-which differ primarily in terms of their tolerance levels. Japanese macaques are classified as despotic; Tonkean macaques are classified as tolerant. Both species live in multimale-multifemale societies, show a high level of sexual dimorphism, and have comparable yawning repertoires that include displaying a covered teeth yawn and an uncovered gums yawn. We found comparable baseline frequencies of the 2 yawning types and a similar distribution of these behaviors according to sex (males yawned more frequently than females). This morphological homogeneity permitted us to evaluate potential differences in the meaning of yawning as a function of social tension, aggressive contexts, and dominance hierarchy. Divergent social styles determine a functional dichotomy in the use of the covered teeth yawn and the uncovered gums yawn. The covered teeth yawn is not susceptible to social and environmental stimuli and seems to be a form of yawning mostly linked to the physiology of the sleep-wake cycle. However, the uncovered gums yawn is modulated according to different social contexts, and its use could be favored by natural selection, especially in tolerant species, which apparently require more elaborate forms of social communication. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios in body water and hair: modeling isotope dynamics in nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, Shannon P; Valenzuela, Luciano O; Remien, Christopher H; Enright, Lindsey E; Jorgensen, Matthew J; Kaplan, Jay R; Wagner, Janice D; Cerling, Thure E; Ehleringer, James R

    2012-07-01

    The stable isotopic composition of drinking water, diet, and atmospheric oxygen influence the isotopic composition of body water ((2)H/(1)H, (18)O/(16)O expressed as δ(2) H and δ(18)O). In turn, body water influences the isotopic composition of organic matter in tissues, such as hair and teeth, which are often used to reconstruct historical dietary and movement patterns of animals and humans. Here, we used a nonhuman primate system (Macaca fascicularis) to test the robustness of two different mechanistic stable isotope models: a model to predict the δ(2)H and δ(18)O values of body water and a second model to predict the δ(2)H and δ(18)O values of hair. In contrast to previous human-based studies, use of nonhuman primates fed controlled diets allowed us to further constrain model parameter values and evaluate model predictions. Both models reliably predicted the δ(2)H and δ(18)O values of body water and of hair. Moreover, the isotope data allowed us to better quantify values for two critical variables in the models: the δ(2)H and δ(18)O values of gut water and the (18)O isotope fractionation associated with a carbonyl oxygen-water interaction in the gut (α(ow)). Our modeling efforts indicated that better predictions for body water and hair isotope values were achieved by making the isotopic composition of gut water approached that of body water. Additionally, the value of α(ow) was 1.0164, in close agreement with the only other previously measured observation (microbial spore cell walls), suggesting robustness of this fractionation factor across different biological systems. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Nucleotide sequence of the triosephosphate isomerase gene from Macaca mulatta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Old, S.E.; Mohrenweiser, H.W. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor (USA))

    1988-09-26

    The triosephosphate isomerase gene from a rhesus monkey, Macaca mulatta, charon 34 library was sequenced. The human and chimpanzee enzymes differ from the rhesus enzyme at ASN 20 and GLU 198. The nucleotide sequence identity between rhesus and human is 97% in the coding region and >94% in the flanking regions. Comparison of the rhesus and chimp genes, including the intron and flanking sequences, does not suggest a mechanism for generating the two TPI peptides of proliferating cells from hominoids and a single peptide from the rhesus gene.

  5. Assessment of obesity in pigtailed monkeys (Macaca nemestrina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walike, B C; Goodner, C J; Koerker, D J; Chideckel, E W; Kalnasy, L W

    1977-01-01

    Obesity was studied in a colony of 873 Macaca nemestrina to establish tools for epidemiologic studies, to examine a genetic form of obesity, to document age/sex relationships to obesity, and to compare metabolic profiles of obese and normal monkeys. Age/weight growth curves were analyzed to select the most obese monkeys and age- and sex-matched normal controls. Degree of adiposity was determined using tritiated water for estimation of lean body mass. Body weight, anterior trunk height, and abdominal and triceps skinfolds were measured. Fasting insulin, fasting free fatty acids, and glucose disappearance rate were determined. The results give evidence of similarities between macaque and human obestiy.

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-VPAC-01-0807 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-VPAC-01-0807 gb|AAO73490.1| CX3CR1 [Macaca fascicularis] gb|AAO73491.1| CX3CR1 [Maca...ca fascicularis] gb|AAO73498.1| CX3CR1 [Macaca mulatta] gb|AAO73500.1| CX3CR1 [Macaca mulatta] gb|AAO73501.1| CX3CR1 [Macaca mulatta] AAO73490.1 5e-67 81% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-STRI-01-0392 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-STRI-01-0392 gb|AAO73490.1| CX3CR1 [Macaca fascicularis] gb|AAO73491.1| CX3CR1 [Maca...ca fascicularis] gb|AAO73498.1| CX3CR1 [Macaca mulatta] gb|AAO73500.1| CX3CR1 [Macaca mulatta] gb|AAO73501.1| CX3CR1 [Macaca mulatta] AAO73490.1 1e-60 85% ...

  8. Intraspecific interactions in a scleractinian coral, Galaxea fascicularis: Induced formation of sweeper tentacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidaka, Michio; Yamazato, Kiyoshi

    1984-10-01

    Sweeper tentacles of Galaxea fascicularis have a different nematocyst composition than do ordinary tentacles. The sweeper tentacles contain many large microbasic b-mastigophores (MbM) instead of the microbasic p-mastigophores (MpM) which are abundant in the acrospheres of ordinary tentacles. There is, however, an intermediate type of tentacle which has both large MbM and MpM. These tentacles may represent those undergoing transformation from ordinary into sweeper tentacles or vice versa. Two polyps isolated from the same colony (syngeneic pairs), or from colonies belonging to different colour morphs (presumed allogeneic pairs), were set about 5 mm apart with tentacles touching, and then maintained for about two months in this position. Tissue fusion was observed only in syngeneic pairs. In some allogeneic combinations, one polyp of the pair was damaged or killed by the other. The dominant polyp developed many sweeper tentacles. In other allogeneic combinations, both polyps survived and no, or only a few, sweeper tentacles were formed. Tissue fusion also failed to occur in the allogeneic combinations.

  9. Spontaneous meningioma in a pig-tailed macaque (Macaca nemestrina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Plesker

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of spontaneous meningioma in a female pig-tailed macaque (Macaca nemestrina more than 24 years old. Clinically, the monkey displayed slow, weak, and insecure movements and poor vision. A tumorous mass was present at the floor of the cranial vault extending from the optic chiasm towards the foramen magnum. It compressed adjacent parts of the brain, infiltrated the sphenoidal and occipital bone, and showed transcranial expansion into the pharyngeal area. Histologically, the tumor was consistent with a meningioma displaying mostly meningothelial and some microcystic components. Since only six cases of meningiomas in nonhuman primates have been reported so far and only two of these meningiomas have been described in detail, the findings of each case should be reported to expand the knowledge base of this type of tumor. In addition, this is the first description of a meningioma in pig-tailed macaques.

  10. Nectin-4 Interactions Govern Measles Virus Virulence in a New Model of Pathogenesis, the Squirrel Monkey (Saimiri sciureus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpeut, Sébastien; Sawatsky, Bevan; Wong, Xiao-Xiang; Frenzke, Marie; Cattaneo, Roberto; von Messling, Veronika

    2017-06-01

    In addition to humans, only certain nonhuman primates are naturally susceptible to measles virus (MeV) infection. Disease severity is species dependent, ranging from mild to moderate for macaques to severe and even lethal for certain New World monkey species. To investigate if squirrel monkeys ( Saimiri sciureus ), which are reported to develop a course of disease similar to humans, may be better suited than macaques for the identification of virulence determinants or the evaluation of therapeutics, we infected them with a green fluorescent protein-expressing MeV. Compared to cynomolgus macaques ( Macaca fascicularis ) infected with the same virus, the squirrel monkeys developed more-severe immunosuppression, higher viral load, and a broader range of clinical signs typical for measles. In contrast, infection with an MeV unable to interact with the epithelial receptor nectin-4, while causing immunosuppression, resulted in only a mild and transient rash and a short-lived elevation of the body temperature. Similar titers of the wild-type and nectin-4-blind MeV were detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and lymph node homogenates, but only the wild-type virus was found in tracheal lavage fluids and urine. Thus, our study demonstrates the importance of MeV interactions with nectin-4 for clinical disease in the new and better-performing S. sciureus model of measles pathogenesis. IMPORTANCE The characterization of mechanisms underlying measles virus clinical disease has been hampered by the lack of an animal model that reproduces the course of disease seen in human patients. Here, we report that infection of squirrel monkeys ( Saimiri sciureus ) fulfills these requirements. Comparative infection with wild-type and epithelial cell receptor-blind viruses demonstrated the importance of epithelial cell infection for clinical disease, highlighting the spread to epithelia as an attractive target for therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2017 American Society for

  11. Signals use by leaders in Macaca tonkeana and Macaca mulatta: group-mate recruitment and behaviour monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueur, Cédric; Petit, Odile

    2010-03-01

    Animals living in groups have to make consensus decisions and communicate with each other about the time, or the direction, in which to move. In some species, the process relies on the proposition of a single individual, i.e. a first individual suggests a movement and the other group members decide whether or not to join this individual. In Tonkean (Macaca tonkeana) and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), it has been observed that this first individual displays specific signals at departure. In this paper, we aimed to explore the function of such behaviours, i.e. if these behaviours were recruitment signals or only cues about the motivation of the first departed individual. We carried out temporal analyses and studied the latencies of the first departed individual's behaviours and of the joining of other group members. We also assessed whether the social style of a species in terms of dominance and kinship relationships influenced the patterns of signal emissions. We then analyzed how the first departed individual decided to make a pause or to stop it according to the identities of group members that joined the collective movement. Results showed that Tonkean macaques and rhesus macaques seemed to use back-glances to monitor the joining of other group members and pauses to recruit such individuals. This was especially the case for highly socially affiliated individuals in Tonkean macaques and kin-related individuals in rhesus macaques. Moreover, back-glances and pauses disappeared when such individuals joined the first departed individual. From these results, we suggested that such behaviour could be considered intentional. Such findings could not be highlighted without temporal analyses and accurate observations on primate groups in semi-free ranging conditions.

  12. Thrombotic stroke in the anesthetized monkey (Macaca mulatta): characterization by MRI - A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauberti, Maxime; Gakuba, Clement; Orset, Cyrille; Obiang, Pauline; Guedin, Pierre; Balossier, Anne; Diependaele, Anne-Sophie; Young, Alan R.; Agin, Veronique; Chazalviel, Laurent; Vivien, Denis

    2012-01-01

    The lack of a relevant stroke model in large nonhuman primates hinders the development of innovative diagnostic/therapeutic approaches concerned with this cerebrovascular disease. Our objective was to develop a novel and clinically relevant model of embolic stroke in the anesthetized monkey that incorporates readily available clinical imaging techniques and that would allow the possibility of drug delivery including strategies of reperfusion. Thrombin was injected into the lumen of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) in 12 anesthetized (sevoflurane) male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Sequential MRI studies (including angiography, FLAIR, PWI, DWI, and gadolinium-enhanced T1W imaging) were performed in a 3 T clinical MRI. Physiological and biochemical parameters were monitored throughout the investigations. Once standardized, the surgical procedure induced transient occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in all operated animals. All animals studied showed spontaneous reperfusion, which occurred some time between 2 h and 7 days post-ictus. Eighty percent of the studied animals showed diffusion/perfusion mismatch. The ischemic lesions at 24 h spared both superficial and profound territories of the MCA. Some animals presented hemorrhagic transformation at 7 days post-ictus. In this study, we developed a pre-clinically relevant model of embolic stroke in the anesthetized nonhuman primate. (authors)

  13. Alloscardovia macacae sp. nov., isolated from the milk of a macaque (Macaca mulatta), emended description of the genus Alloscardovia and proposal of Alloscardovia criceti comb. nov

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Killer, Jiří; Ročková, Š.; Vlková, E.; Rada, V.; Havlík, J.; Kopečný, Jan; Bunešová, V.; Benada, Oldřich; Kofroňová, Olga; Pechar, R.; Profousová, I.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 12 (2013), s. 4439-4446 ISSN 1466-5026 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/08/1091 Grant - others:GA MZe(CZ) QJ1210093 Program:QJ Institutional support: RVO:67985904 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : alanine * asparagine * Alloscardovia macacae Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.798, year: 2013

  14. Interactive effects of oxygen, carbon dioxide and flow on photosynthesis and respiration in the scleractinian coralGalaxea fascicularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osinga, Ronald; Derksen-Hooijberg, Marlous; Wijgerde, Tim; Verreth, Johan A J

    2017-06-15

    Rates of dark respiration and net photosynthesis were measured for six replicate clonal fragments of the stony coral Galaxea fascicularis (Linnaeus 1767), which were incubated under 12 different combinations of dissolved oxygen (20%, 100% and 150% saturation), dissolved carbon dioxide (9.5 and 19.1 µmol l -1 ) and water flow (1-1.6 versus 4-13 cm s -1 ) in a repeated measures design. Dark respiration was enhanced by increased flow and increased oxygen saturation in an interactive way, which relates to improved oxygen influx into the coral tissue. Oxygen saturation did not influence net photosynthesis: neither hypoxia nor hyperoxia affected net photosynthesis, irrespective of flow and pH, which suggests that hyperoxia does not induce high rates of photorespiration in this coral. Flow and pH had a synergistic effect on net photosynthesis: at high flow, a decrease in pH stimulated net photosynthesis by 14%. These results indicate that for this individual of G. fascicularis , increased uptake of carbon dioxide rather than increased efflux of oxygen explains the beneficial effect of water flow on photosynthesis. Rates of net photosynthesis measured in this study are among the highest ever recorded for scleractinian corals and confirm a strong scope for growth. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. Effects of Human Management Events on Conspecific Aggression in Captive Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theil, Jacob H; Beisner, Brianne A; Hill, Ashley E; McCowan, Brenda

    2017-03-01

    Conspecific aggression in outdoor-housed rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) at primate research facilities is a leading source of trauma and can potentially influence animal wellbeing and research quality. Although aggression between macaques is a normal part of daily social interactions, human presence might affect the frequency of various behaviors and instigate increases in conspecific aggression. We sought to determine how and which human management events affect conspecific aggression both immediately after an event and throughout the course of a day. From June 2008 through December 2009, we recorded agonistic encounters among macaques living in 7 social groups in large outdoor field cages. Behavioral data were then synchronized with specific management events (for example, feeding, enclosure cleaning, animal catching) that occurred within or near the enclosure. By using an Information Theoretical approach, 2 generalized linear mixed models were developed to estimate the effects of human management events on 1) aggression after individual management events and 2) daily levels of aggression. Univariate analysis revealed an increase in the rate of aggression after a management event occurred. The best predictor of aggression in a cage was the type of management event that occurred. Various factors including the number of daily management events, the total time of management events, the technicians involved, reproductive season, and their interactions also showed significant associations with daily aggression levels. Our findings demonstrate that human management events are associated with an increase in conspecific aggression between rhesus macaques and thus have implications regarding how humans manage primates in research facilities.

  16. Grooming reciprocity in female tibetan macaques macaca thibetana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Dongpo; Li, Jinhua; Garber, Paul A; Sun, Lixing; Zhu, Yong; Sun, Binghua

    2012-06-01

    Grooming among nonhuman primates is widespread and may represent an important service commodity that is exchanged within a biological marketplace. In this study, using focal animal sampling methods, we recorded grooming relationships among 12 adult females in a free-ranging group of Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana) at Huangshan, China, to determine the influence of rank and kinship on grooming relationships, and whether females act as reciprocal traders (exchange grooming received for grooming given) or interchange traders (interchange grooming for social tolerance or other commodities). The results showed that: (1) grooming given was positively correlated with grooming received; (2) kinship did not exert a significant influence on grooming reciprocity; and (3) grooming reciprocity occurred principally between individuals of adjacent rank; however, when females of different rank groomed, females tended to groom up the hierarchy (lower ranking individuals groomed higher ranking individuals more than vice versa). Our results support the contention that both grooming reciprocity and the interchange of grooming for tolerance represent important social tactics used by female Tibetan macaques. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Pathogenic infection of Macaca nemestrina with a CCR5-tropic subtype-C simian-human immunodeficiency virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Ruijiang

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina have been used in AIDS research for years, less is known about the early immunopathogenic events in this species, as compared to rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta. Similarly, the events in early infection are well-characterized for simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIV, but less so for chimeric simian-human immunodeficiency viruses (SHIV, although the latter have been widely used in HIV vaccine studies. Here, we report the consequences of intrarectal infection with a CCR5-tropic clade C SHIV-1157ipd3N4 in pig-tailed macaques. Results Plasma and cell-associated virus was detectable in peripheral blood and intestinal tissues of all four pig-tailed macaques following intrarectal inoculation with SHIV-1157ipd3N4. We also observed a rapid and irreversible loss of CD4+ T cells at multiple mucosal sites, resulting in a marked decrease of CD4:CD8 T cell ratios 0.5–4 weeks after inoculation. This depletion targeted subsets of CD4+ T cells expressing the CCR5 coreceptor and having a CD28-CD95+ effector memory phenotype, consistent with the R5-tropism of SHIV-1157ipd3N4. All three animals that were studied beyond the acute phase seroconverted as early as week 4, with two developing cross-clade neutralizing antibody responses by week 24. These two animals also demonstrated persistent plasma viremia for >48 weeks. One of these animals developed AIDS, as shown by peripheral blood CD4+ T-cell depletion starting at 20 weeks post inoculation. Conclusion These findings indicate that SHIV-1157ipd3N4-induced pathogenesis in pig-tailed macaques followed a similar course as SIV-infected rhesus macaques. Thus, R5 SHIV-C-infection of pig-tailed macaques could provide a useful and relevant model for AIDS vaccine and pathogenesis research.

  18. Emotional states after grooming interactions in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Masataka; Yamada, Kazunori; Nakamichi, Masayuki

    2015-11-01

    In animal societies, the effect of grooming interactions on anxiety reduction is unclear. This study examined the effects of giving and receiving grooming on anxiety reduction in free ranging female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) by measuring rates of self-scratching as an index of anxiety. In this study, the authors used a focal-animal sampling method, targeting 17 females at Katsuyama, Okayama prefecture, Japan. They evaluated affiliative relationships, which were defined by standard proximity rates, and found that females' self-scratching rates were lower after grooming affiliated partners than during matched-control periods (occurring on another day, beginning at approximately the same time of day as the corresponding postgrooming period) and not after grooming unaffiliated partners. Moreover, regardless of affiliative relationships, self-scratching rates were lower after receiving grooming than during matched-control periods. These findings did not change after excluding data in which groomer and groomee were in proximity after the grooming interaction. In addition, multivariable analysis showed that affiliative relationships, but not kinship or rank distances, were related to differences in the rates of self-scratching between giving grooming and matched-control periods. In contrast, neither affiliative relationships nor kinship nor rank distances affected differences in self-scratching rates between receiving grooming and matched-control periods. Therefore, individuals' anxiety levels decreased both after giving grooming to affiliated partners and after receiving grooming, regardless of affiliative relationships. This is the first empirical study to support the notion that giving grooming to affiliated partners is self-rewarding in Japanese macaques. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Reproductive and Life History Parameters of Wild Female Macaca assamensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schülke, Oliver; Heistermann, Michael; Ostner, Julia

    2010-01-01

    Information on basic reproductive parameters and life-history traits is crucial for the understanding of primate evolution, ecology, social behavior, and reproductive strategies. Here, we report 4 yr of data on reproductive and life-history traits for wild female Assamese macaques (Macaca assamensis) at Phu Khieo Wildlife Sanctuary, northeastern Thailand. During 2 consecutive reproductive seasons, we investigated reproductive behavior and sexual swelling size in 16 females and collected 1832 fecal samples. Using enzyme immunoassays, we measured fecal estrogen and progesterone metabolites to assess ovarian activity and timing of ovulation and to ascertain conceptions and pregnancies. Timing of reproduction was strictly seasonal (births: April–July, 86% in April–June, 4 yr, n = 29; conceptions: October–February, 65% in December–January, 2 yr, n = 17). Females showed no cyclic ovarian activity outside the mating season and conceived in their first or second cycle (mean: 1.2 cycles to conception, n = 13). Gestation length was on average 164.2 d (range: 158–170, n = 10), and females had their first infant at an age of 5 yr (n = 4). Interbirth intervals were bimodally distributed, with females giving birth on average every 13.9 or 23.2 mo. Shorter interbirth intervals were linked to early parturition within the birth season. Most females displayed subcaudal sexual swellings which, however, did not reliably indicate female reproductive status or fertility. Overall, our results fall within the range of findings reported for other macaque species. These results thus add to the growing body of information available for wild macaques, facilitating comparative studies for a better understanding of interspecific differences in social and reproductive patterns. PMID:20651906

  20. Pre- and post-harvest influences on seed dormancy status of an Australian Goodeniaceae species, Goodenia fascicularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyle, Gemma L; Steadman, Kathryn J; Daws, Matthew I; Adkins, Steve W

    2008-07-01

    The period during which seeds develop on the parent plant has been found to affect many seed characteristics, including dormancy, through interactions with the environment. Goodenia fascicularis (Goodeniaceae) seeds were used to investigate whether seeds of an Australian native forb, harvested from different environments and produced at different stages of the reproductive period, differ in dormancy status. During the reproductive phase, plants were grown ex situ in warm (39/21 degrees C) or cool (26/13 degrees C) conditions, with adequate or limited water availability. The physiological dormancy of resulting seeds was measured in terms of the germination response to warm stratification (34/20 degrees C, 100 % RH, darkness). Plants in the cool environment were tall and had high above-ground biomass, yet yielded fewer seeds over a shorter, later harvest period when compared with plants in the warm environment. Seeds from the cool environment also had higher viability and greater mass, despite a significant proportion (7 % from the cool-wet environment) containing no obvious embryo. In the warm environment, the reproductive phase was accelerated and plants produced more seeds despite being shorter and having lower above-ground biomass than those in the cool environment. Ten weeks of warm stratification alleviated physiological dormancy in seeds from all treatments resulting in 80-100 % germination. Seeds that developed at warm temperatures were less dormant (i.e. germination percentages were higher) than seeds from the cool environment. Water availability had less effect on plant and seed traits than air temperature, although plants with reduced soil moisture were shorter, had lower biomass and produced fewer, less dormant seeds than plants watered regularly. Goodenia fascicularis seeds are likely to exhibit physiological dormancy regardless of the maternal environment. However, seeds collected from warm, dry environments are likely to be more responsive to warm

  1. Macaca munzala: a new species from Western Arunachal Pradesh, Northeastern India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinha, A.; Datta, A.; Madhusudan, M.D.; Mishra, C.

    2005-01-01

    Macaca, comprising 20 well-characterized species, represents the largest and one of the most ecologically and socially diverse of all the nonhuman primate genera. We report the discovery of a macaque that is new to science from the high altitudes of western Arunachal Pradesh, a biodiversity-rich

  2. Essentialism in the Absence of Language? Evidence from Rhesus Monkeys ("Macaca mulatta")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Webb; Shankar, Maya; Santos, Laurie R.

    2010-01-01

    We explored whether rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) share one important feature of human essentialist reasoning: the capacity to track category membership across radical featural transformations. Specifically, we examined whether monkeys--like children (Keil, 1989)--expect a transformed object to have the internal properties of its original…

  3. A Behavioral Taxonomy of Loneliness in Humans and Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitanio, John P.; Hawkley, Louise C.; Cole, Steven W.; Cacioppo, John T.

    2014-01-01

    Social relationships endow health and fitness benefits, but considerable variation exists in the extent to which individuals form and maintain salutary social relationships. The mental and physical health effects of social bonds are more strongly related to perceived isolation (loneliness) than to objective social network characteristics. We sought to develop an animal model to facilitate the experimental analysis of the development of, and the behavioral and biological consequences of, loneliness. In Study 1, using a population-based sample of older adults, we examined how loneliness was influenced both by social network size and by the extent to which individuals believed that their daily social interactions reflected their own choice. Results revealed three distinct clusters of individuals: (i) individuals with large networks who believed they had high choice were lowest in loneliness, (ii) individuals with small social networks who believed they had low choice were highest in loneliness, and (iii) the remaining two groups were intermediate and equivalent in loneliness. In Study 2, a similar three-group structure was identified in two separate samples of adult male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) living in large social groups: (i) those high in sociability who had complex social interaction with a broad range of social partners (putatively low in loneliness), (ii) those low in sociability who showed tentative interactions with certain classes of social partners (putatively high in loneliness), and (iii) those low in sociability who interacted overall at low levels with a broad range of social partners (putatively low or intermediate in loneliness). This taxonomy in monkeys was validated in subsequent experimental social probe studies. These results suggest that, in highly social nonhuman primate species, some animals may show a mismatch between social interest and social attainment that could serve as a useful animal model for experimental and mechanistic

  4. Factors increasing snake detection and perceived threat in captive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etting, Stephanie F; Isbell, Lynne A; Grote, Mark N

    2014-02-01

    The primary predators of primates are all ambush hunters, and yet felids, raptors, and snakes differ in aspects of their ecology that affect the evasive strategies of their primate prey. Felids and raptors can traverse long distances quickly, thus the urgency of threat they present increases as they come closer in proximity to primates. In contrast, snakes do not move rapidly over long distances, and so primates may be reasonably safe even at close distances provided snakes can be detected and monitored. We investigated the ability of captive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) to detect snakes at distances ranging from 15 to 1.5 m. We also examined variation in intensity of perceived threat by applying a Hidden Markov Model to infer changes in underlying state from observable behaviors, that is, increased attention and mobbing. We found that the macaques often failed to detect snake models but that closer proximity improved snake detection, which is necessary before threat can be perceived. We also found that having only one individual in fairly close proximity (≤ 7.5 m) was sufficient to alert the rest of the group and so the chances of detection did not increase with increasing group size. Finally, we found that when the snakes were perceived, they did not elicit greater intensity of response with closer proximity. These results provide evidence that the threat from snakes is greatest when they are in proximity to primates but are unseen. When snakes are seen, however, distance appears not to affect primates' perceived risk, in contrast to their perceived risk from raptors and felids. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Sex Differences in the Development of Social Relationships in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amici, Federica; Langos, Doreen; Widdig, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have documented the importance of social bonding for the enhancement of individual fitness. However, little is known about how social relationships develop through ontogeny, and whether their development follows the same trajectory in males and females. Here we analyzed affiliative interactions (proximity, social grooming, play) combined with demographic and genetic data in semi-free-ranging rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) on Cayo Santiago over their first 4 yr of life (from birth to sexual maturation) to understand how these interactions change through development in both sexes. Generalized linear mixed models revealed that social behaviors mostly followed different developmental trajectories in males and females and were highly dependent on the social context. In particular, sex differences in social behavior varied through development depending on the partner’s sex and age. Females engaged in more social interactions than males, especially with other females, and were more involved in grooming around the time of maturation. In contrast, males interacted more with males and age peers, especially around maturation. Sex differences in social behavior varied through development, but also depended on rank, partner’s rank, and kin line, although not consistently. High-ranking individuals, especially older females, were generally preferred as social partners. Moreover, both male and female individuals interacted mostly with maternal kin, although males also preferred paternal kin over nonkin. Importantly, most developmental changes in sociality happened when individuals were ca. 2 yr old, suggesting that this might be a milestone in the development of sociality in rhesus macaques. The only notable exception to this pattern was play, which was more pronounced in males from the beginning of their lives. We propose that play might serve as a trigger of sex differences in social behavior, with sex differences emerging early in development and

  6. Bases estructurales de la memoria declarativa. Estudio de la interacción entre la formación del hipocampo y la corteza cerebral en el primate Macaca fascicularis.

    OpenAIRE

    Legidos García, María Ester

    2014-01-01

    La memoria otorga al ser humano una biografía y un conjunto de hechos que le proporciona una identidad, le orienta en el mundo y en su entorno cultural (memoria declarativa). Evidencias clínicas y experimentales muestran que los centros nerviosos cuyo epicentro es el lóbulo temporal medial, son imprescindibles para la consolidación y evocación de los recuerdos. Entre estos centros nerviosos destaca la Formación del Hipocampo (FH) compuesta de giro dentado, campos amónicos CA3, CA2, CA1, subíc...

  7. Image collection: 44 [Togo Picture Gallery[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 44 Macaca_fascicularis_NL.png カニクイザル Cynomolgus Macaca fascicularis 9541 生物アイコン,脊索動物門,脊椎動物亜門,哺乳綱,獣亜綱,真獣下綱,霊長目

  8. White-cheeked macaque (Macaca leucogenys): A new macaque species from Medog, southeastern Tibet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng; Zhao, Chao; Fan, Peng-Fei

    2015-07-01

    We describe a newly discovered Macaca species from the Medog, in southeastern Tibet, China, Macaca leucogenys sp. nov or the "white-cheeked macaque". Based on 738 photos taken during direct observations and captured by camera traps this new species appears to be distinct from the Macaca sinica species group. Moreover, the species is distinguished from all potential sympatric macaque species (M. mulatta, M. thibetana, M. assamensis, and M. munzala) in exhibiting a suite of pelage characteristics including relatively uniform dorsal hair pattern, hairy ventral pelage, relative hairless short tail, prominent pale to white side- and chin-whiskers creating a white cheek and round facial appearance, dark facial skin on the muzzle, long and thick hairs on its neck, and a round rather than arrow-shaped male genitalia. This new macaque species was found to exploit a diverse set of habitat types from tropical forest at 1395 m, to primary and secondary evergreen broad-leaved forest at 2000 m, as well as mixed broadleaf-conifer forest at 2700 m. Its range may extend to neighboring counties in Tibet and the part of southeastern Tibet controlled by India. The white-cheeked macaque is threatened by illegal hunting and the construction of hydropower stations. Discovery of this new primate species further highlights the high value for biodiversity conservation of southeastern Tibet and calls for more intensive surveys, studies, and environmental protection in this area. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Highly heterogeneous bacterial communities associated with the South China Sea reef corals Porites lutea, Galaxea fascicularis and Acropora millepora.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Li

    Full Text Available Coral harbor diverse and specific bacteria play significant roles in coral holobiont function. Bacteria associated with three of the common and phylogenetically divergent reef-building corals in the South China Sea, Porites lutea, Galaxea fascicularis and Acropora millepora, were investigated using 454 barcoded-pyrosequencing. Three colonies of each species were sampled, and 16S rRNA gene libraries were constructed individually. Analysis of pyrosequencing libraries showed that bacterial communities associated with the three coral species were more diverse than previous estimates based on corals from the Caribbean Sea, Indo-Pacific reefs and the Red Sea. Three candidate phyla, including BRC1, OD1 and SR1, were found for the first time in corals. Bacterial communities were separated into three groups: P. lutea and G. fascicular, A. millepora and seawater. P. lutea and G. fascicular displayed more similar bacterial communities, and bacterial communities associated with A. millepora differed from the other two coral species. The three coral species shared only 22 OTUs, which were distributed in Alphaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria and an unclassified bacterial group. The composition of bacterial communities within each colony of each coral species also showed variation. The relatively small common and large specific bacterial communities in these corals implies that bacterial associations may be structured by multiple factors at different scales and that corals may associate with microbes in terms of similar function, rather than identical species.

  10. Characterization of classical major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II genes in northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Xi-He; Dai, Zheng-Xi; Zheng, Yong-Tang

    2017-12-01

    The northern pig-tailed macaque (Macaca leonina) has been identified as an independent species from the pig-tailed macaque group. The species is a promising animal model for HIV/AIDS pathogenesis and vaccine studies due to susceptibility to HIV-1. However, the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genetics in northern pig-tailed macaques remains poorly understood. We have previously studied the MHC class I genes in northern pig-tailed macaques and identified 39 novel alleles. Here, we describe the MHC class II alleles in all six classical loci (DPA, DPB, DQA, DQB, DRA, and DRB) from northern pig-tailed macaques using a sequence-based typing method for the first time. A total of 60 MHC-II alleles were identified of which 27 were shared by other macaque species. Additionally, northern pig-tailed macaques expressed a single DRA and multiple DRB genes similar to the expression in humans and other macaque species. Polymorphism and positive selection were detected, and phylogenetic analysis suggested the presence of a common ancestor in human and northern pig-tailed macaque MHC class II allelic lineages at the DQA, DQB, and DRB loci. The characterization of full-length MHC class II alleles in this study significantly improves understanding of the immunogenetics of northern pig-tailed macaques and provides the groundwork for future animal model studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Long-Term Cognitive Functioning in Single-Dose Total-Body Gamma-Irradiated Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanbury, David B.; Peiffer, Ann M.; Dugan, Greg; Andrews, Rachel N.; Cline, J. Mark

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effects of a potentially lethal radiation exposure on the brain for long-term cognitive sequelae were investigated using Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) adopted from other facilities after analysis of acute radiation response via the Centers for Medical Countermeasures against Radiation (CMCR) network. Fifty-nine animals were given the opportunity to participate in cognitive cage-side testing. The animals that received single-dose gamma irradiation were significantly less likely to engage in cognitive testing than the controls, suggesting that irradiated animals may have differences in cognitive ability. Five irradiated (6.75–8.05 Gy) and three naïve control animals self-selected, were extensively trained and administered a simple visual discrimination with reversal (SVD+R) task 2–3 times per week for 11–18 months. Each session consisted of 30 trials in which the animals were required to choose the correct visual stimulus for a food reward. After the initial presentation, the stimulus that signaled the presence of food was twice reversed once the animal reached criterion (90% accuracy across four consecutive sessions). While the limited sample size precluded definitive statistical analysis, irradiated animals took longer to reach the criterion subsequent to reversal than did control animals, suggesting a relative deficiency in cognitive flexibility. These results provide preliminary data supporting the potential use of a nonhuman primate model to study radiation-induced, late-delayed cognitive deficits. PMID:27740889

  12. Molecular cloning and anti-HIV-1 activities of APOBEC3s from northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Liang; Song, Jia-Hao; Pang, Wei; Zheng, Yong-Tang

    2016-07-18

    Northern pig-tailed macaques (NPMs, Macaca leonina) are susceptible to HIV-1 infection largely due to the loss of HIV-1-restricting factor TRIM5α. However, great impediments still exist in the persistent replication of HIV-1 in vivo, suggesting some viral restriction factors are reserved in this host. The APOBEC3 proteins have demonstrated a capacity to restrict HIV-1 replication, but their inhibitory effects in NPMs remain elusive. In this study, we cloned the NPM A3A-A3H genes, and determined by BLAST searching that their coding sequences (CDSs) showed 99% identity to the corresponding counterparts from rhesus and southern pig-tailed macaques. We further analyzed the anti-HIV-1 activities of the A3A-A3H genes, and found that A3G and A3F had the greatest anti-HIV-1 activity compared with that of other members. The results of this study indicate that A3G and A3F might play critical roles in limiting HIV-1 replication in NPMs in vivo. Furthermore, this research provides valuable information for the optimization of monkey models of HIV-1 infection.

  13. Seroprevalence of Antibodies against Pkn1, a Novel Potential Immunogen, in Chlamydia trachomatis-Infected Macaca nemestrina and Human Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achchhe L. Patel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis (CT is an important cause of sexually transmitted genital tract infections (STIs and trachoma. Despite major research into chlamydial pathogenesis and host immune responses, immunoprotection has been hampered by the incomplete understanding of protective immunity in the genital tract. Characterized vaccine candidates have shown variable efficacy ranging from no protection to partial protection in vivo. It is therefore a research priority to identify novel chlamydial antigens that may elicit protective immune responses against CT infection. In the present study we assessed the seroprevalence of antibodies against protein kinase1 (Pkn1, DNA ligaseA (LigA, and major outer membrane protein A (OmpA following natural CT infection in humans and in experimentally induced CT infection in Macaca nemestrina. Antigenic stretches of Pkn1, LigA, and OmpA were identified using bioinformatic tools. Pkn1, LigA, and OmpA genes were cloned in bacterial expression vector and purified by affinity chromatography. Our results demonstrate significantly high seroprevalence of antibodies against purified Pkn1 and OmpA in sera obtained from the macaque animal model and human patients infected with CT. In contrast no significant seroreactivity was observed for LigA. The seroprevalence of antibodies against Pkn1 suggest that nonsurface chlamydial proteins could also be important for developing vaccines for C. trachomatis.

  14. Drinking typography established by scheduled induction predicts chronic heavy drinking in a monkey model of ethanol self-administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Kathleen A; Leng, Xiaoyan; Green, Heather L; Szeliga, Kendall T; Rogers, Laura S M; Gonzales, Steven W

    2008-10-01

    We have developed an animal model of alcohol self-administration that initially employs schedule-induced polydipsia (SIP) to establish reliable ethanol consumption under open access (22 h/d) conditions with food and water concurrently available. SIP is an adjunctive behavior that is generated by constraining access to an important commodity (e.g., flavored food). The induction schedule and ethanol polydipsia generated under these conditions affords the opportunity to investigate the development of drinking typologies that lead to chronic, excessive alcohol consumption. Adult male cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were induced to drink water and 4% (w/v in water) ethanol by a Fixed-Time 300 seconds (FT-300 seconds) schedule of banana-flavored pellet delivery. The FT-300 seconds schedule was in effect for 120 consecutive sessions, with daily induction doses increasing from 0.0 to 0.5 g/kg to 1.0 g/kg to 1.5 g/kg every 30 days. Following induction, the monkeys were allowed concurrent access to 4% (w/v) ethanol and water for 22 h/day for 12 months. Drinking typographies during the induction of drinking 1.5 g/kg ethanol emerged that were highly predictive of the daily ethanol intake over the next 12 months. Specifically, the frequency in which monkeys ingested 1.5 g/kg ethanol without a 5-minute lapse in drinking (defined as a bout of drinking) during induction strongly predicted (correlation 0.91) subsequent ethanol intake over the next 12 months of open access to ethanol. Blood ethanol during induction were highly correlated with intake and with drinking typography and ranged from 100 to 160 mg% when the monkeys drank their 1.5 g/kg dose in a single bout. Forty percent of the population became heavy drinkers (mean daily intakes >3.0 g/kg for 12 months) characterized by frequent "spree" drinking (intakes >4.0 g/kg/d). This model of ethanol self-administration identifies early alcohol drinking typographies (gulping the equivalent of 6 drinks) that evolve into

  15. Single subcutaneous dosing of cefovecin in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakker, J.; Thuesen, Line Risager; Braskamp, G.

    2011-01-01

    was to determine whether cefovecin is a suitable antibiotic to prevent skin wound infection in rhesus monkeys. Therefore, the pharmacokinetics (PK) of cefovecin after a single subcutaneous injection at 8 mg/kg bodyweight in four rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and sensitivity of bacterial isolates from fresh skin...... maximum plasma concentration (C(max) ) of cefovecin was 78 µg/mL and was achieved after 57 min. The mean apparent long elimination half-life (t½) was 6.6 h and excretion occurred mainly via urine. The MIC for the majority of the bacteria examined was >100 µg/mL. The PK of cefovecin in rhesus monkeys...

  16. Genotyping of TRIM5 locus in northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina, a primate species susceptible to Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Xue-Long

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pig-tailed macaques are the only Old World monkeys known to be susceptible to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 infection. We have previously reported that the TRIM5-Cyclophilin A (TRIMCyp fusion in pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina is dysfunctional in restricting HIV-1, which may explain why pig-tailed macaques are susceptible to HIV-1 infection. Similar results have also been reported by other groups. However, according to the current primate taxonomy, the previously reported M. nemestrina are further classified into three species, which all belong to the Macaca spp. This calls for the need to look into the previous studies in more details. Results The local species Northern pig-tailed macaque (M. leonina was analyzed for the correlation of TRIM5 structure and HIV-1 infection. Eleven M. leonina animals were analyzed, and all of them were found to possess TRIM5-CypA fusion at the TRIM5 locus. The transcripts encoding the dysfunctional TRIM5-CypA should result from the G-to-T mutation in the 3'-splicing site of intron 6. Polymorphism in the putative TRIMCyp recognition domain was observed. The peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs of M. leonina were susceptible to HIV-1 infection. Consistent with the previous results, expression of the M. leonina TRIMCyp in HeLa-T4 cells rendered the cells resistant to HIV-2ROD but not to SIVmac239 infection. Conclusion The susceptibility of M. leonina to HIV-1 infection is due to the dysfunctional TRIM5-CypA fusion in the TRIM5 locus. This finding should broaden our perspective in developing better HIV/AIDS non-human primate animal models.

  17. Endozoochorous seed dispersal by Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata): Effects of temporal variation in ranging and seed characteristics on seed shadows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Yamato; Morimoto, Mayumi

    2016-02-01

    Variation in seed shadows generated by frugivores is caused by daily, seasonal, and inter-annual variation in ranging, as well as inter-specific variability in gut passage times according to seed characteristics. We studied the extent to which seed weight, specific gravity, and daily (morning, afternoon, and evening) and inter-annual (2004 vs. 2005) variation in ranging affected seed shadows generated by wild Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) in northern Japan. The macaques ingested fleshy fruits of 11 species during the two year study period; Viburnum dilatatum (Caprifoliaceae: heavier seeds with higher specific gravity) and Rosa multiflora (Rosaceae: lighter seeds with lower specific gravity) were eaten frequently in both years. The travel distances of macaques after feeding on V. dilatatum and R. multiflora fruits were estimated by combining feeding locations and ranging patterns measured in the field with gut passage times of model seeds in captive animals. Median travel distances after fruit feeding were 431 (quantile range: 277-654) and 478 m (265-646), respectively, with a maximum of 1,261 m. Neither year nor time of day affected travel distances. The gut passage time of model V. dilatatum seeds was longer than that of model R. multiflora seed, but this did not affect dispersal distances. Seed shadows for both species over 2 years showed unimodal distribution (peak: 101-500 m) and more than 90%, 20%, and 3% of ingested seeds were estimated to be dispersed >100, >500, and >1000 m, respectively, the longest known distances among macaque species. R. multiflora seeds tended to be dispersed further in 2004 than 2005, but V. dilatatum seeds were not, implying that inter-annual variations in ranging pattern due to the distribution and abundance of nut fruiting could affect dispersal distance. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MMUR-01-1015 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MMUR-01-1015 ref|NP_001123902.1| toll-like receptor 6 [Macaca mulatta] dbj|BAG...55054.1| toll-like receptor 6 [Macaca fascicularis] dbj|BAG55055.1| toll-like receptor 6 [Macaca mulatta] NP_001123902.1 0.0 85% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OPRI-01-0286 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OPRI-01-0286 ref|NP_001123902.1| toll-like receptor 6 [Macaca mulatta] dbj|BAG...55054.1| toll-like receptor 6 [Macaca fascicularis] dbj|BAG55055.1| toll-like receptor 6 [Macaca mulatta] NP_001123902.1 0.0 72% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-05-0060 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-05-0060 ref|NP_001123902.1| toll-like receptor 6 [Macaca mulatta] dbj|BAG...55054.1| toll-like receptor 6 [Macaca fascicularis] dbj|BAG55055.1| toll-like receptor 6 [Macaca mulatta] NP_001123902.1 0.0 62% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MLUC-01-0960 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MLUC-01-0960 ref|NP_001123902.1| toll-like receptor 6 [Macaca mulatta] dbj|BAG...55054.1| toll-like receptor 6 [Macaca fascicularis] dbj|BAG55055.1| toll-like receptor 6 [Macaca mulatta] NP_001123902.1 0.0 82% ...

  2. Differential host response to LPS variants in amniochorion and the TLR4/MD-2 system in Macaca nemestrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Justine; Jain, Sumita; Carl, David J.; Paolella, Louis; Darveau, Richard P.; Gravett, Michael G.; Waldorf, Kristina M. Adams

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Microbial-specific factors are likely critical in determining whether bacteria trigger preterm labor. Structural variations in lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a component of gram-negative bacteria, can determine whether LPS has an inflammatory (agonist) or anti-inflammatory (antagonist) effect through Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Our objective was to determine whether amniochorion can discriminate between LPS variants in a nonhuman primate model. We also cloned Macaca nemestrina TLR4 and MD-2 and compared this complex functionally to the human homologue to establish whether nonhuman primates could be used to study TLR4 signaling in preterm birth. STUDY DESIGN Amniochorion explants from M. nemestrina were stimulated with a panel of LPS variants for 24 hours. Supernatants were analyzed for IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8 and prostaglandins E2 and F2α. Tissue expression of TLR1, 2, 4, 6, MyD88 and NF-kB was studied by RT-PCR. M. nemestrina TLR4 and MD2 genes were cloned and compared with their human counterparts in a recombinant TLR4 signaling system to determine LPS sensitivity. RESULTS LPS variants differentially stimulated cytokines and prostaglandins, which was not related to transcriptional changes of TLR4 or other TLRs. Nearly all elements of LPS binding and TLR4 leucine-rich repeats were conserved between humans and M. nemestrina. TLR4/MD-2 signaling complexes from both species were equally sensitive to LPS variants. CONCLUSIONS LPS variants elicit a hierarchical inflammatory response within amniochorion that may contribute to preterm birth. LPS sensitivity is similar between M. nemestrina and humans, validating M. nemestrina as an appropriate model to study TLR4 signaling in preterm birth. PMID:20619890

  3. The influence of kinship and dominance hierarchy on grooming partner choice in free-ranging Macaca mulatta brevicaudus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cheng-Feng; Liao, Zhi-Jie; Sueur, Cedric; Sha, John Chih Mun; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Peng

    2018-04-18

    In group-living animals, individuals do not interact uniformly with their conspecifics. Among primates, such heterogeneity in partner choice can be discerned from affiliative grooming patterns. While the preference for selecting close kin as grooming partners is ubiquitous across the primate order, the selection of higher-ranking non-kin individuals as grooming partners is less common. We studied a group of provisioned rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta brevicaudus) on Hainan Island, China, to examine rank-related benefits of grooming exchanges and the influence of kin relationships. We tested four hypotheses based on Seyfarth's model: (1) there will be kin preference in grooming relationships; (2) grooming between non-kin individuals will be directed up the dominance rank; (3) grooming between non-kin individuals will reduce aggression from higher-ranking ones; and (4) non-kin individuals will spend more time grooming with adjacent ranked ones. We found that grooming relationships between kin individuals were stronger than those between non-kin individuals. For non-kin relationships, lower-ranking individuals received less aggression from higher-ranking ones through grooming; a benefit they could not derive through grooming exchanges with individuals related by kinship. Individuals spent more time grooming adjacent higher-ranking non-kin individuals and higher-ranking individuals also received more grooming from non-kin individuals. Our results supported Seyfarth's model for predicting partner choice between non-kin individuals. For relationships between kin individuals, we found results that were not consistent with prediction for the exchanges of aggression and grooming, indicating the importance to control for the influence of kinship in future studies.

  4. Cloning, sequencing, and polymorphism analysis of novel classical MHC class I alleles in northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Xi-He; Dai, Zheng-Xi; Zheng, Yong-Tang

    2016-04-01

    The northern pig-tailed macaque (Macaca leonina) has been confirmed to be an independent species from the pig-tailed macaque group of Old World monkey. We have previously reported that the northern pig-tailed macaques were also susceptible to HIV-1. Here, to make this animal a potential HIV/AIDS model and to discover the mechanism of virus control, we attempted to assess the role of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-restricted immune responses to HIV-1 infection, which was associated with viral replication and disease progression. As an initial step, we first cloned and characterized the classical MHC class I gene of northern pig-tailed macaques. In this study, we identified 39 MHC class I alleles including 17 MHC-A and 22 MHC-B alleles. Out of these identified alleles, 30 were novel and 9 were identical to alleles previously reported from other macaque species. The MHC-A and MHC-B loci were both duplicates as rhesus macaques and southern pig-tailed macaques. In addition, we also detected the patterns of positive selection in northern pig-tailed macaques and revealed the existence of balance selection with 20 positive selection sites in the peptide binding region. The analysis of B and F peptide binding pockets in northern and southern pig-tailed macaques and rhesus macaques suggested that they were likely to share a few common peptides to present. Thus, this study provides important MHC immunogenetics information and adds values to northern pig-tailed macaques as a promising HIV/AIDS model.

  5. Choriodecidual group B streptococcal inoculation induces fetal lung injury without intra-amniotic infection and preterm labor in Macaca nemestrina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina M Adams Waldorf

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Early events leading to intrauterine infection and fetal lung injury remain poorly defined, but may hold the key to preventing neonatal and adult chronic lung disease. Our objective was to establish a nonhuman primate model of an early stage of chorioamnionitis in order to determine the time course and mechanisms of fetal lung injury in utero. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Ten chronically catheterized pregnant monkeys (Macaca nemestrina at 118-125 days gestation (term=172 days received one of two treatments: 1 choriodecidual and intra-amniotic saline (n=5, or 2 choriodecidual inoculation of Group B Streptococcus (GBS 1×10(6 colony forming units (n=5. Cesarean section was performed regardless of labor 4 days after GBS or 7 days after saline infusion to collect fetal and placental tissues. Only two GBS animals developed early labor with no cervical change in the remaining animals. Despite uterine quiescence in most cases, blinded review found histopathological evidence of fetal lung injury in four GBS animals characterized by intra-alveolar neutrophils and interstitial thickening, which was absent in controls. Significant elevations of cytokines in amniotic fluid (TNF-α, IL-8, IL-1β, IL-6 and fetal plasma (IL-8 were detected in GBS animals and correlated with lung injury (p<0.05. Lung injury was not directly caused by GBS, because GBS was undetectable in amniotic fluid (~10 samples tested/animal, maternal and fetal blood by culture and polymerase chain reaction. In only two cases was GBS cultured from the inoculation site in low numbers. Chorioamnionitis occurred in two GBS animals with lung injury, but two others with lung injury had normal placental histology. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A transient choriodecidual infection can induce cytokine production, which is associated with fetal lung injury without overt infection of amniotic fluid, chorioamnionitis or preterm labor. Fetal lung injury may, thus, occur silently without

  6. Early involvement in friendships predicts later plasma concentrations of oxytocin and vasopressin in juvenile rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Aliza Rachel Weinstein

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The neuropeptides oxytocin (OT and vasopressin (AVP are involved in social bonding in attachment relationships, but their role in friendship is poorly understood. We investigated whether rhesus macaques’ (Macaca mulatta friendships at age one predicted plasma OT and AVP at two later time points. Subjects were 54 rhesus macaques at the California National Primate Research Center. Blood was drawn during a brief capture-and-release in the home cage, and plasma assayed for OT and AVP using an enzyme immunoassay. Separate linear mixed models for each sex tested the effects of dominance rank, age, sampling time point, housing condition, parturition status, two blood draw timing measures, and five friendship types: proximity friendships, play friendships, reciprocal friendships (a preference for a peer that also preferred the subject, multiplex friendships (friendships displayed in more than one behavioral domain, and total number of friendships. Females’ number of reciprocal and play friendships at age one significantly predicted later OT; additionally, these two friendship types interacted with rank, such that high-ranking females with the fewest friendships had the highest OT concentrations. Friendship did not predict later OT levels in males, however proximity, play, reciprocal, and total number of friendships predicted males’ plasma AVP. Play and total number of friendships also tended to predict AVP in females. Our results show that peripheral measures of neuroendocrine functioning in juvenile rhesus monkeys are influenced by early involvement in friendships. Friendships have an especially strong impact on an individual’s psychosocial development, and our data suggest OT and AVP as potential underlying mechanisms. Moreover, sex differences in the functioning of the OT and AVP systems, and their relation to friendship, may have important clinical implications for the use of OT as a therapeutic, as well as informing the social context in

  7. Alveolar ridge dimensional changes following ridge preservation procedure with novel devices: part 3 - histological analysis in non-human primate model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yingying; Tang, Jianxia; Min, Seiko; Guo, Lijia; Liu, Yitong; Xie, Yilin; Xiong, Jimin; Wang, Songlin; Araújo, Mauricio G; Zadeh, Homayoun H; Liu, Yi

    2017-11-01

    This study sought to investigate the histological changes following tooth extraction, ridge preservation and augmentation, using novel devices designed to obturate the oral orifice of extraction sockets (SocketKAP™) and provide structural support for sockets with defective bony walls (SocketKAGE™) in a non-human primate model. Six Macaca fascicularis were imaged by cone beam computed tomography to register their preoperative alveolar bone. Three teeth were extracted in each animal, yielding intact socket walls and were divided into three intervention groups: unassisted healing negative control (Group A); SocketKAP™ (Group B); filled with anorganic bovine bone mineral (ABBM) + SocketKAP™ (Group C). Three additional teeth were extracted in each animal, followed by surgical resection of the entire buccal alveolar bone and divided into three groups: negative control (Group D); SocketKAP™ + SocketKAGE™ (Group E); ABBM + SocketKAP™ + SocketKAGE™ (Group F). Animals were euthanized after 12 weeks, and treatment sites were examined by histology and histomorphometric analysis. Control sockets with unassisted healing (Groups A and D) underwent severe loss of bone width, height and total area (approximately 40-60% loss). Application of SocketKAP™ in sites with intact walls, as well as SocketKAP™ plus SocketKAGE™ in sites with defective buccal walls lead to higher preservation of alveolar bone height after 12 weeks post-intervention. Addition of ABBM leads to the highest degree of alveolar bone dimensional preservation. Control sites with unassisted healing (Groups A and D), as well as sites treated with extraction socket devices (Groups B and E) without ABBM yielded higher percentage of vital bone, compared with sites filled with ABBM (Groups C and F). No adverse histological responses were noted to SocketKAP™ or SocketKAGE™ devices. SocketKAP™ + SocketKAGE™ devices proved effective in reducing post-extraction alveolar bone resorption

  8. Acute-phase responses in healthy and diseased rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Anne Kirstine Havnsøe; Lundsgaard, Jo F. H.; Bakker, Jaco

    2014-01-01

    Five acute-phase reactants—serum amyloid A (SAA), C-reactive protein (CRP), haptoglobin, albumin, and iron—were measured using commercially available assays in 110 healthy rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), and reference intervals were established for future use in health monitoring of this species....... Reference intervals established were as follows: SAA, 29.5–87.7 mg/L; CRP, 0–17.5 mg/L; haptoglobin, 354.3–2,414.7 mg/L; albumin, 36.1–53.0 g/L; and iron, 13.3–40.2 lmol/L. Furthermore, changes in the acute-phase reactants were studied in two additional groups of animals: eight rhesus macaques suffering...... decreases in albumin and iron concentrations were observed. These results show that SAA, CRP, and haptoglobin are positive acute-phase proteins, whereas albumin and iron are negative acute-phase reactants in rhesus macaques....

  9. [Comparisons of aggressive behavior for Tibetan Macaques (Macaca thibetana) to tourists from Mt. Huangshan, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Huan; Li, Jin-Hua; Sun, Bing-Hua; Zhu, Yong

    2010-08-01

    To investigate the relationship between monkey-human aggressive behaviors and age/sex classes of monkey (initiator) and human (recipient), by using all-occurrence sampling and continuous recording, we evaluated the monkey-human aggressive behaviors between macaques (Macaca thibetana) and tourists at Mt. Huangshan in two periods (Nov.-Dec.2008 and Apr.-May 2009). After we divide the aggression into three types according to the dangerous level to tourists, some significant patterns were observed.Our observations indicate that Tibetan macaques respond differently to human according to the age/sex classes involved. On one hand, We found that the adult male monkeys tend to be more aggressive than expected (Ptourist exploring places.

  10. Sex Determination According to the Lengths of Hand Bones in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca Mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Huaxiang; Zhao, Xiaojin; Hu, Fengxia; Hu, Haiyang

    2017-10-01

    Measurement of hand bone length has been used for sex determination in humans and nonhuman primates (McFadden and Bracht: Early Hum Dev 85 (2009) 117-124; El-Morsi and Al-Hawary: J Forensic Leg Med 20 (2013) 6-13). The aim of this study was to determine the sex of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) on the basis of the lengths of corresponding rows of metacarpals and phalanges in a macaque population by means of developing discriminant functions. Measurements on direct dry bones only included lengths for 19 bones of the left hand in 39 macaques (consisting of 13 adult males and 26 adult females). The results revealed that the mean values of males were significantly greater than those of females for all of the metacarpals and phalanges. The results were obtained in 84.4% of accuracy from distal phalanges, 93.8% from middle phalanges, and 96.9% from both metacarpals and proximal phalanges, respectively. There was a remarkable difference in the magnitude of sex dimorphism in lengths of each section of the hand bones between the population of macaques and humans. This difference may be attributable to the interaction between genetic factors and various environmental factors. As sex differences of hand bones are population-specific (Lazenby: Am J phys Anthropol 118 (2002) 378-384; Lu, Huo, Shi, Peng, Dang, Jiao, Zhu, Zhong, and Chen: Acta Aantomica Sinica 39 (2008) 267-271; Eshak, Ahmed, and Gawad: J Forensic Leg Med 18 (2011) 246-252), the discriminant equations for all of the metacarpals and phalanges are applicable to the population of Macaca mulatta from the Taihang Mountain. Anat Rec, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Anat Rec, 300:1741-1746, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Familial circadian rhythm disorder in the diurnal primate, Macaca mulatta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina V Zhdanova

    Full Text Available In view of the inverse temporal relationship of central clock activity to physiological or behavioral outputs in diurnal and nocturnal species, understanding the mechanisms and physiological consequences of circadian disorders in humans would benefit from studies in a diurnal animal model, phylogenetically close to humans. Here we report the discovery of the first intrinsic circadian disorder in a family of diurnal non-human primates, the rhesus monkey. The disorder is characterized by a combination of delayed sleep phase, relative to light-dark cycle, mutual desynchrony of intrinsic rhythms of activity, food intake and cognitive performance, enhanced nighttime feeding or, in the extreme case, intrinsic asynchrony. The phenotype is associated with normal length of intrinsic circadian period and requires an intact central clock, as demonstrated by an SCN lesion. Entrainment to different photoperiods or melatonin administration does not eliminate internal desynchrony, though melatonin can temporarily reinstate intrinsic activity rhythms in the animal with intrinsic asynchrony. Entrainment to restricted feeding is highly effective in animals with intrinsic or SCN lesion-induced asynchrony. The large isolated family of rhesus macaques harboring the disorder provides a powerful new tool for translational research of regulatory circuits underlying circadian disorders and their effective treatment.

  12. Comparative anatomy of the arm muscles of the Japanese monkey (Macaca fuscata) with some comments on locomotor mechanics and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aversi-Ferreira, Tales Alexandre; Aversi-Ferreira, Roqueline A G M F; Bretas, Rafael Vieira; Nishimaru, Hiroshi; Nishijo, Hisao

    2016-08-01

    The anatomical literature on the genus Macaca has focused mainly on the rhesus monkey. However, some aspects in the positional behaviors of the Japanese monkey may be different from those in rhesus monkey, suggesting that the anatomical details of these species are divergent. Four thoracic limbs of Macaca fuscata adults were dissected. The arm muscles in Japanese macaques are more similar to rhesus monkeys and Papio; these characteristics are closer to those of bearded capuchins than apes, indicating more proximity of this genus to New World primates. The anatomical features observed favor quadrupedal locomotor behaviors on the ground and in arboreal environments. Japanese monkeys, rhesus monkeys, and bearded capuchins, which share more primitive characteristics in their arm muscles, present features that favor both arboreal and quadrupedal locomotor behaviors, whereas apes, mainly Pan and Gorilla, which spend more time on the ground, present more quadrupedal specializations. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Normal Hematological, Biochemical, and Serum Electrolyte Values for a Colony of Rhesus Monkeys ’Macaca mulatta’,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-10-28

    provided by NAMRL Biomedical Sciences Division and Veterinary Sciences Division personnel are appreciated. The authors are especially grateful to Don...insufficiency in the rhesus monkey. Endocrinology , 50: 664-676, 1952. 7. Hartmen, C.G., and Straus, W.L., Jr. (Ed.), The An y. of the Rhesus Mok (caca...D.P., Valerjo, M.G., and -f Rininger, B.F., Hematologic changes associated with pregnancy and parturition in Macaca mulatta. Lab. Anim. Care, 20

  14. Bilateral neurotoxic amygdala lesions in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta): Consistent pattern of behavior across different social contexts

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Christopher J.; Emery, Nathan J.; Capitanio, John P.; Mason, William A.; Mendoza, Sally P.; Amaral, David G.

    2008-01-01

    Although the amygdala has been repeatedly implicated in normal primate social behavior, great variability exists in the specific social and nonsocial behavioral changes observed after bilateral amygdala lesions in nonhuman primates. One plausible explanation pertains to differences in social context. To investigate this idea, we measured the social behavior of amygdala-lesioned and unoperated rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in two contexts. Animals interacted in four-member social groups over...

  15. Macaca silenus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu

    This article reports the structure of dominance and its relationship with social grooming in wild lion-tailed macaque females. The strength of dominance hierarchy was 0.79 on a scale of 0 to 1 indicating a moderate linearity in the ranking system. Dominance scores were converted into an ordinal as well as an interval scale.

  16. Social networks dynamics revealed by temporal analysis: An example in a non-human primate (Macaca sylvanus) in "La Forêt des Singes".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, Sebastian; Zhang, Peng; Cabanes, Guénaël

    2017-06-01

    This study applied a temporal social network analysis model to describe three affiliative social networks (allogrooming, sleep in contact, and triadic interaction) in a non-human primate species, Macaca sylvanus. Three main social mechanisms were examined to determine interactional patterns among group members, namely preferential attachment (i.e., highly connected individuals are more likely to form new connections), triadic closure (new connections occur via previous close connections), and homophily (individuals interact preferably with others with similar attributes). Preferential attachment was only observed for triadic interaction network. Triadic closure was significant in allogrooming and triadic interaction networks. Finally, gender homophily was seasonal for allogrooming and sleep in contact networks, and observed in each period for triadic interaction network. These individual-based behaviors are based on individual reactions, and their analysis can shed light on the formation of the affiliative networks determining ultimate coalition networks, and how these networks may evolve over time. A focus on individual behaviors is necessary for a global interactional approach to understanding social behavior rules and strategies. When combined, these social processes could make animal social networks more resilient, thus enabling them to face drastic environmental changes. This is the first study to pinpoint some of the processes underlying the formation of a social structure in a non-human primate species, and identify common mechanisms with humans. The approach used in this study provides an ideal tool for further research seeking to answer long-standing questions about social network dynamics. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Surrogate mobility and orientation affect the early neurobehavioral development of infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmer, Amanda M; Ruggiero, Angela M; Novak, Melinda A; Meyer, Jerrold S; Suomi, Stephen J

    2008-05-01

    A biological mother's movement appears necessary for optimal development in infant monkeys. However, nursery-reared monkeys are typically provided with inanimate surrogate mothers that move very little. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a novel, highly mobile surrogate mother on motor development, exploration, and reactions to novelty. Six infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were reared on mobile hanging surrogates (MS) and compared to six infants reared on standard stationary rocking surrogates (RS) and to 9-15 infants reared with their biological mothers (MR) for early developmental outcome. We predicted that MS infants would develop more similarly to MR infants than RS infants. In neonatal assessments conducted at Day 30, both MS and MR infants showed more highly developed motor activity than RS infants on measures of grasping (p = .009), coordination (p = .038), spontaneous crawl (p = .009), and balance (p = .003). At 2-3 months of age, both MS and MR infants displayed higher levels of exploration in the home cage than RS infants (p = .016). In a novel situation in which only MS and RS infants were tested, MS infants spent less time near their surrogates in the first five minutes of the test session than RS infants (p = .05), indicating a higher level of comfort. Collectively, these results suggest that when nursery-rearing of infant monkeys is necessary, a mobile hanging surrogate may encourage more normative development of gross motor skills and exploratory behavior and may serve as a useful alternative to stationary or rocking surrogates.

  18. Robust representations of individual faces in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) but not monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubert, Jessica; Weldon, Kimberly B; Parr, Lisa A

    2017-03-01

    Being able to recognize the faces of our friends and family members no matter where we see them represents a substantial challenge for the visual system because the retinal image of a face can be degraded by both changes in the person (age, expression, pose, hairstyle, etc.) and changes in the viewing conditions (direction and degree of illumination). Yet most of us are able to recognize familiar people effortlessly. A popular theory for how face recognition is achieved has argued that the brain stabilizes facial appearance by building average representations that enhance diagnostic features that reliably vary between people while diluting features that vary between instances of the same person. This explains why people find it easier to recognize average images of people, created by averaging multiple images of the same person together, than single instances (i.e. photographs). Although this theory is gathering momentum in the psychological and computer sciences, there is no evidence of whether this mechanism represents a unique specialization for individual recognition in humans. Here we tested two species, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), to determine whether average images of different familiar individuals were easier to discriminate than photographs of familiar individuals. Using a two-alternative forced-choice, match-to-sample procedure, we report a behaviour response profile that suggests chimpanzees encode the faces of conspecifics differently than rhesus monkeys and in a manner similar to humans.

  19. The Influence of Kinship on Familiar Natal Migrant Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Monika; Widdig, Anja

    2014-01-01

    In most primate species, females remain in the natal group with kin while males disperse away from kin around the time of puberty. Philopatric females bias their social behavior toward familiar maternal and paternal kin in several species, but little is known about kin bias in the dispersing sex. Male dispersal is likely to be costly because males encounter an increased risk of predation and death, which might be reduced by dispersing together with kin and/or familiar males (individuals that were born and grew up in same natal group) or into a group containing kin and/or familiar males. Here we studied the influence of kinship on familiar natal migrant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) on Cayo Santiago, Puerto Rico, by combining demographic, behavioral, and genetic data. Our data suggest that kinship influences spatial proximity between recent natal immigrants and males familiar to them. Immigrants were significantly nearer to more closely related familiar males than to more distantly related individuals. Within a familiar subgroup, natal migrants were significantly closer to maternal kin, followed by paternal kin, then non-kin, and finally to males related via both the maternal and paternal line. Spatial proximity between natal immigrants and familiar males did not decrease over time in the new group, suggesting that there is no decline in associations between these individuals within the first months of immigration. Overall, our results might indicate that kinship is important for the dispersing sex, at least during natal dispersal when kin are still available. PMID:24850977

  20. Effect of radiation and age on immunoglobulin levels in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, W.H.; Hackleman, S.M.; Braun, A.M.; Pennington, P.; Saphire, D.G.; Scheffler, J.; Wigle, J.C.; Cox, A.B.

    1994-01-01

    We report the results of a study on the immunoglobulin levels of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in a colony consisting of the survivors of monkeys that received a single whole-body exposure of protons, electrons or X rays between 1964 and 1969. This colony has been maintained to assess the long-term effects of ionizing radiation on astronauts and high-flying pilots. Of the original 358 monkeys that were retained for lifetime studies, 129 (97 irradiated and 32 controls) were available for our study. We found no significant difference between the irradiated and control monkeys in mean levels of IgA, IgG and IgM, irrespective of the radiation treatment. The availability of these aged monkeys provided a unique opportunity to compare their immunoglobulin levels to those of other monkeys of various ages, and thus assess the effect of age on immunoglobulin levels. We found that only the IgA levels increase with age. 48 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  1. Acute-phase responses in healthy and diseased rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogh, Anne K H; Lundsgaard, Jo F H; Bakker, Jaco; Langermans, Jan A M; Verreck, Frank A W; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads; Jacobsen, Stine; Bertelsen, Mads Frost

    2014-06-01

    Five acute-phase reactants-serum amyloid A (SAA), C-reactive protein (CRP), haptoglobin, albumin, and iron-were measured using commercially available assays in 110 healthy rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), and reference intervals were established for future use in health monitoring of this species. Reference intervals established were as follows: SAA, 29.5-87.7 mg/L; CRP, 0-17.5 mg/L; haptoglobin, 354.3-2,414.7 mg/ L; albumin, 36.1-53.0 g/L; and iron, 13.3-40.2 micromol/L. Furthermore, changes in the acute-phase reactants were studied in two additional groups of animals: eight rhesus macaques suffering from acute traumatic injuries and nine rhesus macaques experimentally infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis reflecting a chronic active inflammation. In animals with inflammation, SAA and haptoglobin concentrations were moderately increased, while CRP increased more than 200-fold. In addition, marked decreases in albumin and iron concentrations were observed. These results show that SAA, CRP, and haptoglobin are positive acute-phase proteins, whereas albumin and iron are negative acute-phase reactants in rhesus macaques.

  2. Signaling context modulates social function of silent bared-teeth displays in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisner, Brianne A; McCowan, Brenda

    2014-02-01

    The signaling context has been found to change the meaning of the silent bared-teeth display (SBT) in pigtail macaques (Macaca nemestrina) such that the SBT in apparently peaceful contexts communicates subordination, a long-term pattern of behavior, whereas in conflict contexts it communicates immediate submission (PNAS, 104: 1581-1586). However, the context dependent nature of the SBT has not yet been explored in other species. We investigated SBT usage with respect to grooming, severe aggression, and signaler-receiver sex, rank difference, and body size in seven captive groups of rhesus macaques. Peaceful SBTs were given most often to male receivers by male and female signalers whereas conflict SBTs were given to both male and female receivers primarily by female signalers. Male signalers rarely gave SBTs (peaceful or conflict) to female receivers. Unlike pigtail macaques, peaceful SBTs in rhesus were often accompanied by withdrawal behavior (referred to as peaceful SBT-leave), which influenced grooming, but not aggression, at the dyadic level. Severe aggression was less frequent among dyads using peaceful SBTs (regardless of withdrawal behavior) than those using conflict SBTs. In contrast, grooming was more frequent among dyads using peaceful SBT-stay signals than those using peaceful SBT-leave signals or conflict SBTs. In total, our results indicate that peaceful SBTs are a functionally different signal from conflict SBTs in rhesus macaques. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Evaluation of cell sheet application on one wall bone defect in Macaca nemestrina through periostin expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamin, R. Y.; Soeroso, Y.; Amir, L.; Idrus, E.

    2017-08-01

    Chronic periodontitis is an oral disease in which the destruction of periodontal tissue leads to tooth loss. Regenerative therapy for attachment cannot be applied to one wall bone defects owing to the minimal existing healthy bone. Tissue engineering in the form of cell sheets has been developed to overcome this limitation. In a previous study, cell sheet application to a one wall bone defect in Macaca nemestrina showed good clinical results. To evaluate the effectiveness of cell sheet application histologically, the level of periostin expression in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of M. nemestrina was determined. Periostin is a 90-kDa protein that regulates coordination and interaction for regeneration and tissue repair. A laboratory observation study was performed to see the differences in periostin levels in samples collected from M. nemestrina’s GCF, where a cell sheet was applied to the bone defect. Gel electrophoresis with SDS-PAGE was performed to detect periostin expression based on its molecular weight and to compare the expression band between the cell sheet and the control at 1, 2, and 3 weeks after treatment. The gel electrophoresis result shows different thicknesses of the protein band around the molecular weight of periostin between the cell sheet groups.

  4. Pharmacokinetics of buprenorphine following intravenous and intramuscular administration in male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Kristi R.; Pypendop, Bruno H.; Christe, Kari L.

    2014-01-01

    This study reports the pharmacokinetics of buprenorphine in conscious rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) after intravenous (IV) and intramuscular (IM) administration. Four healthy, opioid-naïve, socially-housed, adult male macaques were used. Buprenorphine (0.03 mg/kg) was administered intravenously as a bolus or intramuscularly on separate occasions. Blood samples were collected prior to, and up to 24 h, post-administration. Serum buprenorphine concentrations were analyzed with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was performed with commercially available software. Mean residence time in the IV study as compared to the IM study was 177 (159–189) minutes vs. 185 (174–214) minutes, respectively [median (range)]. In the IV study, concentration back extrapolated to time zero was found to be 33.0 (16.8–57.0) ng/mL [median (range)]. On the other hand, the maximum serum concentration found in the IM study was 11.8 (6.30–14.8) ng/mL [median (range)]. Rhesus macaques maintained concentrations greater than 0.10 ng/mL for over 24 h in the IV study and over 12 h in the IM study. Bioavailability was found to be 68.1 (59.3–71.2)% [median (range)]. No significant adverse effects were observed in the monkeys at the 0.03 mg/kg dose of buprenorphine during either study. PMID:24666428

  5. Delayed imitation of lipsmacking gestures by infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Paukner

    Full Text Available Human infants are capable of accurately matching facial gestures of an experimenter within a few hours after birth, a phenomenon called neonatal imitation. Recent studies have suggested that rather than being a simple reflexive-like behavior, infants exert active control over imitative responses and 'provoke' previously imitated gestures even after a delay of up to 24 h. Delayed imitation is regarded as the hallmark of a sophisticated capacity to control and flexibly engage in affective communication and has been described as an indicator of innate protoconversational readiness. However, we are not the only primates to exhibit neonatal imitation, and delayed imitation abilities may not be uniquely human. Here we report that 1-week-old infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta who show immediate imitation of a lipsmacking gesture also show delayed imitation of lipsmacking, facilitated by a tendency to refrain from lipsmacking toward a still face during baseline measurements. Individual differences in delayed imitation suggest that differentially matured cortical mechanisms may be involved, allowing some newborns macaques to actively participate in communicative exchanges from birth. Macaque infants are endowed with basic social competencies of intersubjective communication that indicate cognitive and emotional commonality between humans and macaques, which may have evolved to nurture an affective mother-infant relationship in primates.

  6. Distribution of an 125I-labelled chloroquine analogue in a pregnant macaca monkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dencker, L.; Lindquist, N.G.; Ullberg, S.

    1975-01-01

    Whole body autoradiography of a pregnant monkey (Macaca irus) of late gestation was performed 72 h after an intravenous injection of the 125 I-labelled chloroquine analogue 4-(3-dimethylaminopropylamino)-7-iodoquinoline (DAPQ). The overall distribution pattern in the monkey was similar to that which was earlier observed in rodents. A few species differences, however, were found in the monkey as compared to the rodents: a high accumulation in the inner part of the adrenal cortex, a high level in the central nervous system, and generally a higher retention in the tissues. The accumulation in the cortex may be of significance for the cortisone-like effects of the 4-aminoquinolines in rheumatoid arthritis and allied conditions. The fact that no accumulation was found in the adrenal cortex of mice and rats indicates that these species may not be appropriate in studies on the mechanisms involved in the anti-inflammatory action of the 4-aminoquinolines. As was earlier observed in small rodents the melanin containing structures accumulated the drug. In both the mother and the fetus a high concentration was thus seen in the uveal tract of the eye, in the inner ear (in the stria vascularis of the cochlea and the planum semilunatum of the ampullae) and in the hair follicles. This accumulation can be related to reported disturbances-also transplacentally induced-in vision and hearing

  7. A non-invasive study of alopecia in Japanese macaques Macaca fuscata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng ZHANG

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This article provides information on the phenomenon of alopecia in Japanese macaques, Macaca fuscata, in various environments and proposes a 3-step scoring system for a quantitative assessment of hair loss. Results suggest that alopecia is commonly observed in Japanese macaques, with 20.5% of individuals showing head alopecia and 4.7% showing back alopecia across eight study groups. Alopecia was more commonly observed in adult females (30.8% individuals showing head alopecia and 15.3% showing back alopecia than in other age-sex classes. Seasonal variation of back alopecia was noted, in particular, individuals with patchy back hair were more frequently observed in winter than in summer. Seasonal variation was not observed in head hair. The distribution of alopecia was also different among study groups. The wild population generally had better hair condition than provisioned populations and captive populations. The present study used a non-invasive alopecia scoring system which can be a useful, rapid and non-invasive tool to monitor animal health and well-being at a population level [Current Zoology 57 (1: 26–35, 2011].

  8. Male mate choice in Tibetan macaques Macaca thibetana at Mt. Huangshan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min ZHANG, Jinhua LI, Yong ZHU, Xi WANG, Su WANG

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Though females are generally more selective in mate choice, males may also benefit from mate choice if male reproductive success is limited by factors other than simply the number of female mates, and if females differ in short-term reproductive potential. We studied male mate choice in a free-ranging troop of Tibetan macaques Macaca thibetana at Mt. Huangshan, China, from August 2007 to April 2008. We employed focal animal sampling and all occurrence sampling to record sexual related behaviors. Eight adult females were divided into three female quality categories according to the females’ age, rank and parity. Using male mating effort as a proxy for male mate choice, we found that males do distinguish female quality and show time-variant mating strategies. Specifically, females with dominant rank, high fecundity, and middle age attracted significantly more males. Our results suggest that female short-term reproductive potential appears to be an important variable in determining male mating effort. Male Tibetan macaques do exercise mate choice for higher quality females as well as reduce useless reproductive cost, which is consistent with the direct benefits theory of mate choice [Current Zoology 56 (2: 213–221, 2010].

  9. Transmission of Chagas disease via blood transfusions in 2 immunosuppressed pigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Derek L; Torrence, Annie E; Vogel, Keith W; Stockinger, Diane E; Nelson, Veronica; Murnane, Robert D; Baldessari, Audrey; Kuller, LaRene; Agy, Michael; Kiem, Hans-Peter; Hotchkiss, Charlotte E

    2014-02-01

    A 2.25-y-old male pigtailed macaque (Macaca nemestrina) was experimentally irradiated and received a bone marrow transplant. After transplantation and engraftment, the macaque had unexpected recurring pancytopenia and dependent edema of the prepuce, scrotum, and legs. The diagnostic work-up included a blood smear, which revealed a trypomastigote consistent with Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease (CD). We initially hypothesized that the macaque had acquired the infection when it lived in Georgia. However, because the animal had received multiple blood transfusions, all blood donors were screened for CD. One male pigtailed macaque blood donor, which was previously housed in Louisiana, was positive for T. cruzi antibodies via serology. Due to the low prevalence of infection in Georgia, the blood transfusion was hypothesized to be the source of T. cruzi infection. The transfusion was confirmed as the mechanism of transmission when screening of archived serum revealed seroconversion after blood transfusion from the seropositive blood donor. The macaque made a full clinical recovery, and further follow-up including thoracic radiography, echocardiography, and gross necropsy did not show any abnormalities associated with CD. Other animals that received blood transfusions from the positive blood donor were tested, and one additional pigtailed macaque on the same research protocol was positive for T. cruzi. Although CD has been reported to occur in many nonhuman primate species, especially pigtailed macaques, the transmission of CD via blood transfusion in nonhuman primates has not been reported previously.

  10. Effects on executive function following damage to the prefrontal cortex in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Tara L; Schettler, Stephen P; Killiany, Ronald J; Rosene, Douglas L; Moss, Mark B

    2009-04-01

    Executive function is a term used to describe the cognitive processes subserved by the prefrontal cortex (PFC). An extensive body of work has characterized the effects of damage to the PFC in nonhuman primates, but it has focused primarily on the capacity of recognition and working memory. One limitation in studies of the functional parcellation of the PFC has been the absence of tests that assess executive function or its functional components. The current study used an adaptation of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, a classic test of frontal lobe and executive function in humans, to assess the effects of bilateral lesions in the dorsolateral PFC on executive function in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta). The authors used the category set-shifting task, which requires the monkey to establish a pattern of responding to a specific category (color or shape) based on reward contingency, maintain that pattern of responding, and then shift to responding to a different category when the reward contingency changes. Rhesus monkeys with lesions of the dorsolateral PFC were impaired in abstraction, establishing a response pattern to a specific category and maintaining and shifting that response pattern on the category set-shifting task. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Free-ranging Cayo Santiago rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta): III. Dental eruption patterns and dental pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Turnquist, Jean E; Kessler, Matthew J

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the dental eruption patterns, dentition, and dental wear, including tooth loss and breakage, of the free-ranging population of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) on Cayo Santiago (CS), Puerto Rico, ranging from 24 hr to 25 years old. Of the 694 monkeys on the island in the year 1985, 688 (99.1%; 366 males, 322 females) were captured and the dentition of 685 subjects (98.7% of the total population; 366 males, 319 females) was examined. Animals ranged in age from less than 24 hr to 331 months (27.58 years), encompassing the entire life span of the CS macaques. Results demonstrated that the first deciduous teeth appeared as early as the third day of life and that the sequence of dental eruption was comparable to the pattern observed in laboratory rhesus. However, there were slight differences in the age of eruption of individual teeth. For example, the canines and third molars erupted about a year later in the CS macaques compared to some laboratory rhesus. Overall, CS rhesus had good oral health and dental condition although tooth wear, loss, and breakage were common in aged animals, especially in males. This report, combined with earlier studies on morphological characteristics and skeletal remains of the CS macaques, provides the basis for further studies on the biology, genetics, life history, and effects of the environment on rhesus monkeys. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Facial width-to-height ratio relates to dominance style in the genus Macaca

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    Marta Borgi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Physical, visual, chemical, and auditory cues signalling fighting ability have independently evolved in many animal taxa as a means to resolve conflicts without escalating to physical aggression. Facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR, i.e., the relative width to height of the face has been associated with dominance-related phenotypes both in humans and in other primates. In humans, faces with a larger fWHR are perceived as more aggressive. Methods. We examined fWHR variation among 11 species of the genus Macaca. Macaques have been grouped into four distinct categories, from despotic to tolerant, based on their female dominance style. Female dominance style is related to intra- and inter-sexual competition in both males and females and is the result of different evolutionary pressure across species. We used female dominance style as a proxy of intra-/inter-sexual competition to test the occurrence of correlated evolution between competitive regimes and dominance-related phenotypes. fWHR was calculated from 145 2D photographs of male and female adult macaques. Results. We found no phylogenetic signal on the differences in fWHR across species in the two sexes. However, fWHR was greater, in females and males, in species characterised by despotic female dominance style than in tolerant species. Discussion. Our results suggest that dominance-related phenotypes are related to differences in competitive regimes and intensity of inter- and intra-sexual selection across species.

  13. Circulation of Campylobacter spp. in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta held in captivity: a longitudinal study

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    Márcia Cristina Ribeiro Andrade

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacteriosis is an extremely important zoonosis, circulating freely in the environment. In nonhuman primates kept in open facilities and bred for experimental purposes, the presence of Campylobacter spp. could cause severe damage to the production and interfere with the results of scientific research. In this paper, we assessed the circulation of Campylobacter spp. in a colony of clinically healthy rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta destined to research. The analysis was carried out during seven non-consecutive years. Data showed that despite several changes made in animal management along the studied years in order to control this zoonosis, reduction of bacterial charge did not occur. Significant differences among the age groups and sex were observed. Infants showed higher susceptibility than adult animals. In general males were more infected than females. Modifications adopted in the handling techniques need to be reviewed with the intent of improving the production, reducing bacterial infection of the stock and avoiding undesirable cross reactions in the research carried out with these animals. Therefore, this paper alerts professionals that work directly with captive rhesus monkeys about the risks of Campylobacter spp. infection and possible interference on the experimental procedures.

  14. Proteome profiling of the sperm maturation milieu in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) epididymis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Jin, Shao-Hua; Liu, Xue-Xia; Wang, Wen-Juan; Liu, Fu-Jun

    2016-04-01

    The mammalian spermatozoon acquires its fertilising potential during transit through the epididymis, where it interacts with epididymal luminal fluid proteins (the sperm maturation milieu). In order to highlight the epididymal-specific function of the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) in sperm maturation, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of epididymal luminal fluid proteins was followed by identification by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/ Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) or MALDI-TOF/TOF and revealed over five hundred spots, comprising 198 non-redundant proteins. Some mass spectrometric data were confirmed by western blotting identification. Some common epididymal fluid proteins were identified, such as clusterin, α-1-antitrypsin, malate dehydrogenase, L-lactate dehydrogenase B, α-1-acid glycoprotein 1 and α-mannosidase. More than 7% of all proteins were anti-oxidative, which might control oxidative stress within the male tract. When compared with bull and human epididymal luminal fluid proteins, those in the rhesus monkey had more overlap with the human, which provides evidence of a close evolutionary relationship between the rhesus monkey and man. This study provides new proteomic information on possible rhesus monkey epididymal functions and novel potential biomarkers for the noninvasive assessment of male fertility.

  15. Construction of an integrated welfare assessment system (MacWel) for Macaques (Macaca spp.) in human husbandry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchner, Marlene; Bakker, Jaco

    2015-01-01

    Welfare, whereas the 12 corresponding criteria were enriched with additional attributes: Comfortable Lighting, Absence of Noise, Ease of movement and natural habitat. The authors will further proceed with using more experts in a Delphi method for the translation procedure to aggre-gated levels to be able......The paper describes the construction procedure of an assessment protocol for Macaques (Macaca spp.). The authors have chosen an integrative approach, currently frequently used for the construction of such protocols with a clear preference for animal-based parameters to assess the welfare states...

  16. Impaired performance from brief social isolation of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) - A multiple video-task assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, David A.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1991-01-01

    Social isolation has been demonstrated to produce profound and lasting psychological effects in young primates. In the present investigation, two adult rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were isolated from one another for up to 6 days and tested on 7 video tasks designed to assess psychomotor and cognitive functioning. Both the number and quality (i.e., speed and accuracy) of responses were significantly compromised in the social isolation condition relative to levels in which the animals were tested together. It is argued that adult rhesus are susceptible to performance disruption by even relatively brief social isolation, and that these effects can best be assessed by a battery of complex and sensitive measures.

  17. Choriodecidual infection downregulates angiogenesis and morphogenesis pathways in fetal lungs from Macaca nemestrina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan M McAdams

    Full Text Available Intrauterine exposure to amniotic fluid (AF cytokines is thought to predispose to bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD. We evaluated the effects of GBS exposure on RNA expression in fetal lung tissue to determine early molecular pathways associated with fetal lung injury that may progress to BPD.Ten chronically catheterized pregnant monkeys (Macaca nemestrina at 118-125 days gestation (term = 172 days received choriodecidual inoculation of either: 1 Group B Streptococcus (n = 5 or 2 saline (n = 5. Cesarean section and fetal necropsy was performed in the first week after GBS or saline inoculation regardless of labor. RNA was extracted from fetal lungs and profiled by microarray. Results were analyzed using single gene, Gene Set, and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Validation was by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry.Despite uterine quiescence in most cases, fetal lung injury occurred in four GBS cases (intra-alveolar neutrophils, interstitial thickening and one control (peri-mortem hemorrhage. Significant elevations of AF cytokines (TNF-α, IL-8, IL-1β, IL-6 were detected in GBS versus controls (p<0.05. Lung injury was not directly caused by GBS, because GBS was undetectable by culture and PCR in the AF and fetal lungs. A total of 335 genes were differentially expressed greater than 1.5 fold (p<0.05 with GBS exposure associated with a striking upregulation of genes in innate and adaptive immunity and downregulation of pathways for angiogenesis, morphogenesis, and cellular growth and development.A transient choriodecidual infection may induce fetal lung injury with profound alterations in the genetic program of the fetal lung before signs of preterm labor. Our results provide a window for the first time into early molecular pathways disrupting fetal lung angiogenesis and morphogenesis before preterm labor occurs, which may set the stage for BPD. A strategy to prevent BPD should target the fetus in utero to attenuate alterations in the fetal lung

  18. Concealed fertility and extended female sexuality in a non-human primate (Macaca assamensis.

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    Ines Fürtbauer

    Full Text Available In numerous primates living in mixed-sex groups, females display probabilistic cues of fertility to simultaneously concentrate paternity to dominant males while diluting it amongst others as a means to reduce the risk of infanticide and to increase male care for offspring. A few species, however, lack these cues and potentially conceal fertility from males; yet, to date, little is known about mating patterns and their underlying proximate mechanisms in such species. Here, we investigated mating activity and sexual consortships relative to female reproductive state in wild Assamese macaques (Macaca assamensis, a species where females lack prominent anogenital swellings and copulation calls. During two mating seasons (2837 contact hours we recorded sexual and social behaviors, sexual consortships, and collected 1178 fecal samples (n = 15 females which were analyzed for progestogen concentrations to assess female reproductive state and to determine the timing of ovulation and conception. Although mostly conceiving in their first ovarian cycle, females were sexually receptive throughout the entire 4-month mating season, and within-cycle mating frequencies were not increased during fertile phases. Dominant males did not monopolize fertile matings, and consortships by high-ranking males lasted for long periods, which were not exclusively linked to female fertile phases. Furthermore, females copulated promiscuously but not randomly, i.e. for almost every female, matings were concentrated to a certain male, irrespective of male rank. Collectively, we demonstrate that fertility is undisclosed to males. The extreme extended female sexuality facilitated by concealed fertility may allow females to create differentiated mating relationships within a promiscuous mating system. Our study provides important new insight into the plasticity of female sexuality in non-human primates.

  19. Flexibility in food extraction techniques in urban free-ranging bonnet macaques, Macaca radiata.

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    Madhur Mangalam

    Full Text Available Non-human primate populations, other than responding appropriately to naturally occurring challenges, also need to cope with anthropogenic factors such as environmental pollution, resource depletion, and habitat destruction. Populations and individuals are likely to show considerable variations in food extraction abilities, with some populations and individuals more efficient than others at exploiting a set of resources. In this study, we examined among urban free-ranging bonnet macaques, Macaca radiata (a local differences in food extraction abilities, (b between-individual variation and within-individual consistency in problem-solving success and the underlying problem-solving characteristics, and (c behavioral patterns associated with higher efficiency in food extraction. When presented with novel food extraction tasks, the urban macaques having more frequent exposure to novel physical objects in their surroundings, extracted food material from PET bottles and also solved another food extraction task (i.e., extracting an orange from a wire mesh box, more often than those living under more natural conditions. Adults solved the tasks more frequently than juveniles, and females more frequently than males. Both solution-technique and problem-solving characteristics varied across individuals but remained consistent within each individual across the successive presentations of PET bottles. The macaques that solved the tasks showed lesser within-individual variation in their food extraction behavior as compared to those that failed to solve the tasks. A few macaques appropriately modified their problem-solving behavior in accordance with the task requirements and solved the modified versions of the tasks without trial-and-error learning. These observations are ecologically relevant - they demonstrate considerable local differences in food extraction abilities, between-individual variation and within-individual consistency in food extraction

  20. Localization of glycine-containing neurons in the Macaca monkey retina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrickson, A.E.; Koontz, M.A.; Pourcho, R.G.; Sarthy, P.V.; Goebel, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    Autoradiography following 3H-glycine (Gly) uptake and immunocytochemistry with a Gly-specific antiserum were used to identify neurons in Macaca monkey retina that contain a high level of this neurotransmitter. High-affinity uptake of Gly was shown to be sodium dependent whereas release of both endogenous and accumulated Gly was calcium dependent. Neurons labeling for Gly included 40-46% of the amacrine cells and nearly 40% of the bipolars. Synaptic labeling was seen throughout the inner plexiform layer (IPL) but with a preferential distribution in the inner half. Bands of labeled puncta occurred in S2, S4, and S5. Both light and postembedding electron microscopic (EM) immunocytochemistry identified different types of amacrine and bipolar cell bodies and their synaptic terminals. The most heavily labeled Gly+ cell bodies typically were amacrine cells having a single, thick, basal dendrite extending deep into the IPL and, at the EM level, electron-dense cytoplasm and prominent nuclear infoldings. This cell type may be homologous with the Gly2 cell in human retina and the AII/Gly2 of cat retina. Gly+ amacrines synapse most frequently onto Gly- amacrines and both Gly- and Gly+ bipolars. Gly+ bipolar cells appeared to be cone bipolars because their labeled dendrites could be traced only to cone pedicles. The pattern of these labeled dendritic trees indicated that both diffuse and midget types of biopolars were Gly+. The EM distribution of labeled synapses showed Gly+ amacrine synapses throughout the IPL, but these composed only 11-23% of the amacrine population. Most of the Gly+ bipolar terminals were in the inner IPL, where 70% of all bipolar terminals were labeled

  1. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) detect rhythmic groups in music, but not the beat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honing, Henkjan; Merchant, Hugo; Háden, Gábor P; Prado, Luis; Bartolo, Ramón

    2012-01-01

    It was recently shown that rhythmic entrainment, long considered a human-specific mechanism, can be demonstrated in a selected group of bird species, and, somewhat surprisingly, not in more closely related species such as nonhuman primates. This observation supports the vocal learning hypothesis that suggests rhythmic entrainment to be a by-product of the vocal learning mechanisms that are shared by several bird and mammal species, including humans, but that are only weakly developed, or missing entirely, in nonhuman primates. To test this hypothesis we measured auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) in two rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), probing a well-documented component in humans, the mismatch negativity (MMN) to study rhythmic expectation. We demonstrate for the first time in rhesus monkeys that, in response to infrequent deviants in pitch that were presented in a continuous sound stream using an oddball paradigm, a comparable ERP component can be detected with negative deflections in early latencies (Experiment 1). Subsequently we tested whether rhesus monkeys can detect gaps (omissions at random positions in the sound stream; Experiment 2) and, using more complex stimuli, also the beat (omissions at the first position of a musical unit, i.e. the 'downbeat'; Experiment 3). In contrast to what has been shown in human adults and newborns (using identical stimuli and experimental paradigm), the results suggest that rhesus monkeys are not able to detect the beat in music. These findings are in support of the hypothesis that beat induction (the cognitive mechanism that supports the perception of a regular pulse from a varying rhythm) is species-specific and absent in nonhuman primates. In addition, the findings support the auditory timing dissociation hypothesis, with rhesus monkeys being sensitive to rhythmic grouping (detecting the start of a rhythmic group), but not to the induced beat (detecting a regularity from a varying rhythm).

  2. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta detect rhythmic groups in music, but not the beat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henkjan Honing

    Full Text Available It was recently shown that rhythmic entrainment, long considered a human-specific mechanism, can be demonstrated in a selected group of bird species, and, somewhat surprisingly, not in more closely related species such as nonhuman primates. This observation supports the vocal learning hypothesis that suggests rhythmic entrainment to be a by-product of the vocal learning mechanisms that are shared by several bird and mammal species, including humans, but that are only weakly developed, or missing entirely, in nonhuman primates. To test this hypothesis we measured auditory event-related potentials (ERPs in two rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta, probing a well-documented component in humans, the mismatch negativity (MMN to study rhythmic expectation. We demonstrate for the first time in rhesus monkeys that, in response to infrequent deviants in pitch that were presented in a continuous sound stream using an oddball paradigm, a comparable ERP component can be detected with negative deflections in early latencies (Experiment 1. Subsequently we tested whether rhesus monkeys can detect gaps (omissions at random positions in the sound stream; Experiment 2 and, using more complex stimuli, also the beat (omissions at the first position of a musical unit, i.e. the 'downbeat'; Experiment 3. In contrast to what has been shown in human adults and newborns (using identical stimuli and experimental paradigm, the results suggest that rhesus monkeys are not able to detect the beat in music. These findings are in support of the hypothesis that beat induction (the cognitive mechanism that supports the perception of a regular pulse from a varying rhythm is species-specific and absent in nonhuman primates. In addition, the findings support the auditory timing dissociation hypothesis, with rhesus monkeys being sensitive to rhythmic grouping (detecting the start of a rhythmic group, but not to the induced beat (detecting a regularity from a varying rhythm.

  3. Diversity and molecular phylogeny of mitochondrial DNA of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, M Kamrul; Feeroz, M Mostafa; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Engel, Gregory A; Kanthaswamy, Sree; Smith, David Glenn

    2014-11-01

    While studies of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in the eastern (e.g., China) and western (e.g., India) parts of their geographic range have revealed major genetic differences that warrant the recognition of two different subspecies, little is known about genetic characteristics of rhesus macaques in the transitional zone extending from eastern India and Bangladesh through the northern part of Indo-China, the probable original homeland of the species. We analyzed genetic variation of 762 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA from 86 fecal swab samples and 19 blood samples from 25 local populations of rhesus macaque in Bangladesh collected from January 2010 to August 2012. These sequences were compared with those of rhesus macaques from India, China, and Myanmar. Forty-six haplotypes defined by 200 (26%) polymorphic nucleotide sites were detected. Estimates of gene diversity, expected heterozygosity, and nucleotide diversity for the total population were 0.9599 ± 0.0097, 0.0193 ± 0.0582, and 0.0196 ± 0.0098, respectively. A mismatch distribution of paired nucleotide differences yielded a statistically significantly negative value of Tajima's D, reflecting a population that rapidly expanded after the terminal Pleistocene. Most haplotypes throughout regions of Bangladesh, including an isolated region in the southwestern area (Sundarbans), clustered with haplotypes assigned to the minor haplogroup Ind-2 from India reflecting an east to west dispersal of rhesus macaques to India. Haplotypes from the southeast region of Bangladesh formed a cluster with those from Myanmar, and represent the oldest rhesus macaque haplotypes of Bangladesh. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that rhesus macaques first entered Bangladesh from the southeast, probably from Indo-China, then dispersed westward throughout eastern and central India. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Flexibility in food extraction techniques in urban free-ranging bonnet macaques, Macaca radiata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangalam, Madhur; Singh, Mewa

    2013-01-01

    Non-human primate populations, other than responding appropriately to naturally occurring challenges, also need to cope with anthropogenic factors such as environmental pollution, resource depletion, and habitat destruction. Populations and individuals are likely to show considerable variations in food extraction abilities, with some populations and individuals more efficient than others at exploiting a set of resources. In this study, we examined among urban free-ranging bonnet macaques, Macaca radiata (a) local differences in food extraction abilities, (b) between-individual variation and within-individual consistency in problem-solving success and the underlying problem-solving characteristics, and (c) behavioral patterns associated with higher efficiency in food extraction. When presented with novel food extraction tasks, the urban macaques having more frequent exposure to novel physical objects in their surroundings, extracted food material from PET bottles and also solved another food extraction task (i.e., extracting an orange from a wire mesh box), more often than those living under more natural conditions. Adults solved the tasks more frequently than juveniles, and females more frequently than males. Both solution-technique and problem-solving characteristics varied across individuals but remained consistent within each individual across the successive presentations of PET bottles. The macaques that solved the tasks showed lesser within-individual variation in their food extraction behavior as compared to those that failed to solve the tasks. A few macaques appropriately modified their problem-solving behavior in accordance with the task requirements and solved the modified versions of the tasks without trial-and-error learning. These observations are ecologically relevant - they demonstrate considerable local differences in food extraction abilities, between-individual variation and within-individual consistency in food extraction techniques among free

  5. Using biological markets principles to examine patterns of grooming exchange in Macaca thibetana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, K N; Berman, C M; Ogawa, H; Li, J

    2011-12-01

    Biological markets principles offer testable hypotheses to explain variation in grooming exchange patterns among nonhuman primates. They predict that when within-group contest competition (WGC) is high and dominance hierarchies steep, grooming interchange with other "commodity" behaviors (such as agonistic support) should prevail. In contrast, when WGC is low and gradients shallow, market theory predicts that grooming reciprocity should prevail. We tested these predictions in a wild, provisioned Tibetan macaque (Macaca thibetana) group across six time periods during which the group had been subjected to varying degrees of range restriction. Data on female-female aggression, grooming, and support were collected using all-occurrences and focal animal sampling techniques, and analyzed using ANCOVA methods and correlation analyses. We found that hierarchical steepness varied significantly across periods, but did not correlate with two indirect indicators of WGC (group size and range restriction) in predicted directions. Contrary to expectations, we found a negative correlation between steepness and group size, perhaps because the responses of group members to external risks (i.e. prolonged and unavoidable exposure to humans) may have overshadowed the effects of WGC. As predicted, grooming reciprocity was significant in each period and negatively correlated with steepness, even after we controlled group size, kinship, rank differences, and proximity. In contrast, there was no evidence for grooming interchange with agonistic support or for a positive relationship between interchange and steepness. We hypothesize that stressful conditions and/or the presence of stable hierarchies during each period may have led to a greater market demand for grooming than support. We suggest that future studies testing these predictions consider more direct measures of WGC and commodities in addition to support, such as feeding tolerance and access to infants. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals

  6. Population density-dependent hair cortisol concentrations in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmer, A M; Novak, M A; Meyer, J S; Suomi, S J

    2014-04-01

    Population density is known to influence acute measures of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity in a variety of species, including fish, deer, birds, and humans. However, the effects of population density on levels of chronic stress are unknown. Given the fact that exposure to chronically elevated levels of circulating glucocorticoids results in a host of health disparities in animals and humans alike, it is important to understand how population density may impact chronic stress. We assessed hair cortisol concentrations (HCCs), which are reliable indicators of chronic HPA axis activity, in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) to determine the influence of population density on these values. In Experiment 1, we compared HCCs of monkeys living in high-density (HD; 1 monkey/0.87m(2)) and low-density (LD; 1 monkey/63.37m(2)) environments (N=236 hair samples) and found that HD monkeys exhibited higher hair cortisol across all age categories (infant, juvenile, young adult, adult, and aged) except infancy and aged (F(5)=4.240, p=0.001), for which differences were nearly significant. HD monkeys also received more severe fight wounds than LD monkeys (χ(2)=26.053, ppopulation levels across 5 years in the adult LD monkeys (N=155 hair samples) and found that increased population density was significantly positively correlated with HCCs in this semi-naturalistic population (r(s)=0.975, p=0.005). These are the first findings to demonstrate that increased population density is associated with increased chronic, endogenous glucocorticoid exposure in a nonhuman primate species. We discuss the implications of these findings with respect to laboratory research, population ecology, and human epidemiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Speech-like orofacial oscillations in stump-tailed macaque (Macaca arctoides) facial and vocal signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoda, Aru; Maruhashi, Tamaki; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda; Koda, Hiroki

    2017-10-01

    Speech is unique to humans and characterized by facial actions of ∼5 Hz oscillations of lip, mouth or jaw movements. Lip-smacking, a facial display of primates characterized by oscillatory actions involving the vertical opening and closing of the jaw and lips, exhibits stable 5-Hz oscillation patterns, matching that of speech, suggesting that lip-smacking is a precursor of speech. We tested if facial or vocal actions exhibiting the same rate of oscillation are found in wide forms of facial or vocal displays in various social contexts, exhibiting diversity among species. We observed facial and vocal actions of wild stump-tailed macaques (Macaca arctoides), and selected video clips including facial displays (teeth chattering; TC), panting calls, and feeding. Ten open-to-open mouth durations during TC and feeding and five amplitude peak-to-peak durations in panting were analyzed. Facial display (TC) and vocalization (panting) oscillated within 5.74 ± 1.19 and 6.71 ± 2.91 Hz, respectively, similar to the reported lip-smacking of long-tailed macaques and the speech of humans. These results indicated a common mechanism for the central pattern generator underlying orofacial movements, which would evolve to speech. Similar oscillations in panting, which evolved from different muscular control than the orofacial action, suggested the sensory foundations for perceptual saliency particular to 5-Hz rhythms in macaques. This supports the pre-adaptation hypothesis of speech evolution, which states a central pattern generator for 5-Hz facial oscillation and perceptual background tuned to 5-Hz actions existed in common ancestors of macaques and humans, before the emergence of speech. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Pyrosequencing as a method for SNP identification in the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanthaswamy S

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta are the primate most used for biomedical research, but phenotypic differences between Indian-origin and Chinese rhesus macaques have encouraged genetic methods for identifying genetic differences between these two populations. The completion of the rhesus genome has led to the identification of many single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in this species. These single nucleotide polymorphisms have many advantages over the short tandem repeat (STR loci currently used to assay genetic variation. However, the number of currently identified polymorphisms is too small for whole genome analysis or studies of quantitative trait loci. To that end, we tested a combination of methods to identify large numbers of high-confidence SNPs, and screen those with high minor allele frequencies (MAF. Results By testing our previously reported single nucleotide polymorphisms, we identified a subset of high-confidence, high-MAF polymorphisms. Resequencing revealed a large number of regionally specific SNPs not identified through a single pyrosequencing run. By resequencing a pooled sample of four individuals, we reliably identified loci with a MAF of at least 12.5%. Finally, we found that when applied to a larger, geographically variable sample of rhesus, a large proportion of our loci were variable in both populations, and very few loci were ancestry informative. Despite this fact, the SNP loci were more effective at discriminating Indian and Chinese rhesus than STR loci. Conclusion Pyrosequencing and pooled resequencing are viable methods for the identification of high-MAF SNP loci in rhesus macaques. These SNP loci are appropriate for screening both the inter- and intra-population genetic variation.

  9. Do Tonkean macaques (Macaca tonkeana) perceive what conspecifics do and do not see?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canteloup, Charlotte; Piraux, Emilie; Poulin, Nicolas; Meunier, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    The understanding of the visual perception of others, also named visual perspective taking, is a component of Theory of Mind. Although strong evidence of visual perspective taking has been reported in great apes, the issue is more open to discussion in monkeys. We investigated whether Tonkean macaques (Macaca tonkeana) know what conspecifics do and do not see, using a food competition paradigm originally developed in great apes. We tested individuals in pairs, after establishing the dominance relationship within each pair. Twenty-one pairs were tested in four different conditions. In one condition, the subordinate had the choice between two pieces of food, one that was visible only to it and another that was also visible to the dominant. It was predicted that if the subordinate understands that the dominant cannot see both pieces of food because one is hidden from its view, the subordinate should preferentially go for the food visible only to itself. In the three other conditions, we varied the temporal and visual access to food for both individuals, to control for alternative explanations based on dominance. We recorded the first movement direction chosen by subjects, i.e. towards a) visible food b) hidden food or c) elsewhere; and the outcome of the test, i.e. the quantity of food obtained. Results showed that subordinates moved preferentially for the hidden food when released simultaneously with the dominant and also with a head start on the dominant. By contrast, dominants' choices of the two pieces of food were random. We also describe and discuss some of the strategies used by subordinates in these tests. According to the whole of our results, Tonkean macaques seem capable of visual perspective taking despite the fact that a low-level explanation as behavior reading has not been totally excluded.

  10. Do Tonkean macaques (Macaca tonkeana perceive what conspecifics do and do not see?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Canteloup

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of the visual perception of others, also named visual perspective taking, is a component of Theory of Mind. Although strong evidence of visual perspective taking has been reported in great apes, the issue is more open to discussion in monkeys. We investigated whether Tonkean macaques (Macaca tonkeana know what conspecifics do and do not see, using a food competition paradigm originally developed in great apes. We tested individuals in pairs, after establishing the dominance relationship within each pair. Twenty-one pairs were tested in four different conditions. In one condition, the subordinate had the choice between two pieces of food, one that was visible only to it and another that was also visible to the dominant. It was predicted that if the subordinate understands that the dominant cannot see both pieces of food because one is hidden from its view, the subordinate should preferentially go for the food visible only to itself. In the three other conditions, we varied the temporal and visual access to food for both individuals, to control for alternative explanations based on dominance. We recorded the first movement direction chosen by subjects, i.e. towards a visible food b hidden food or c elsewhere; and the outcome of the test, i.e. the quantity of food obtained. Results showed that subordinates moved preferentially for the hidden food when released simultaneously with the dominant and also with a head start on the dominant. By contrast, dominants’ choices of the two pieces of food were random. We also describe and discuss some of the strategies used by subordinates in these tests. According to the whole of our results, Tonkean macaques seem capable of visual perspective taking despite the fact that a low-level explanation as behavior reading has not been totally excluded.

  11. Whom to groom and for what? Patterns of grooming in female Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubová, Veronika; Konečná, Martina; Šmilauer, Petr; Wallner, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Grooming is one of the most conspicuous social interactions among nonhuman primates. The selection of grooming partners can provide important clues about factors relevant for the distribution of grooming within a social group. We analyzed grooming behavior among 17 semi-free ranging female Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus). We tested whether grooming is related to kinship, rank and friendship. Furthermore, we tested whether grooming is reciprocated or exchanged for rank related benefits (i.e. lower aggression and increased tolerance whilst feeding). We found that in general grooming was reciprocally exchanged, directed up the hierarchy and at the same time affected by friendship and kinship. Grooming was more frequent among individuals with higher friendship values as well as amongst related individuals. We also divided our data set on the basis of rank difference and tested if different power asymmetries between individuals affected the tendency to exchange grooming for rank related benefits and grooming reciprocation. In support of our initial hypothesis our results show that the reciprocation of grooming was a significant predictor of grooming interactions between individuals of similar rank, but not between those individuals more distantly separated in the social hierarchy. However, we did not find any evidence for grooming being exchanged for rank related benefits in either data set. Our results, together with previously published studies, illustrate the behavioral flexibility of macaques. It is clear that multiple studies of the same species are necessary to gather the data required for the solid comparative studies needed to shed light on patterns of grooming behavior in primates.

  12. Maintaining social cohesion is a more important determinant of patch residence time than maximizing food intake rate in a group-living primate, Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazahari, Nobuko

    2014-04-01

    Animals have been assumed to employ an optimal foraging strategy (e.g., rate-maximizing strategy). In patchy food environments, intake rate within patches is positively correlated with patch quality, and declines as patches are depleted through consumption. This causes patch-leaving and determines patch residence time. In group-foraging situations, patch residence times are also affected by patch sharing. Optimal patch models for groups predict that patch residence times decrease as the number of co-feeding animals increases because of accelerated patch depletion. However, group members often depart patches without patch depletion, and their patch residence time deviates from patch models. It has been pointed out that patch residence time is also influenced by maintaining social proximity with others among group-living animals. In this study, the effects of maintaining social cohesion and that of rate-maximizing strategy on patch residence time were examined in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). I hypothesized that foragers give up patches to remain in the proximity of their troop members. On the other hand, foragers may stay for a relatively long period when they do not have to abandon patches to follow the troop. In this study, intake rate and foraging effort (i.e., movement) did not change during patch residency. Macaques maintained their intake rate with only a little foraging effort. Therefore, the patches were assumed to be undepleted during patch residency. Further, patch residence time was affected by patch-leaving to maintain social proximity, but not by the intake rate. Macaques tended to stay in patches for short periods when they needed to give up patches for social proximity, and remained for long periods when they did not need to leave to keep social proximity. Patch-leaving and patch residence time that prioritize the maintenance of social cohesion may be a behavioral pattern in group-living primates.

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-RMAC-20-0039 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-RMAC-20-0039 dbj|BAF48408.1| melanocortin 1 receptor [Macaca fuscata] dbj|BAF4...8409.1| melanocortin 1 receptor [Macaca fuscata] dbj|BAF48410.1| melanocortin 1 receptor [Macaca fuscata] db...j|BAF48411.1| melanocortin 1 receptor [Macaca fuscata] dbj|BAF48412.1| melanocortin 1 receptor [Macaca fusca...ta] dbj|BAF48413.1| melanocortin 1 receptor [Macaca fuscata] dbj|BAF48414.1| melanocortin 1 receptor [Maca...ca fuscata] dbj|BAF48415.1| melanocortin 1 receptor [Macaca fuscata] dbj|BAF48423.1| melanocortin 1 receptor [Macaca fascicularis] BAF48408.1 1e-177 99% ...

  14. Experience-based human perception of facial expressions in Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Xandria; Meints, Kerstin; Majolo, Bonaventura

    2017-01-01

    Background Facial expressions convey key cues of human emotions, and may also be important for interspecies interactions. The universality hypothesis suggests that six basic emotions (anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise) should be expressed by similar facial expressions in close phylogenetic species such as humans and nonhuman primates. However, some facial expressions have been shown to differ in meaning between humans and nonhuman primates like macaques. This ambiguity in signalling emotion can lead to an increased risk of aggression and injuries for both humans and animals. This raises serious concerns for activities such as wildlife tourism where humans closely interact with wild animals. Understanding what factors (i.e., experience and type of emotion) affect ability to recognise emotional state of nonhuman primates, based on their facial expressions, can enable us to test the validity of the universality hypothesis, as well as reduce the risk of aggression and potential injuries in wildlife tourism. Methods The present study investigated whether different levels of experience of Barbary macaques, Macaca sylvanus, affect the ability to correctly assess different facial expressions related to aggressive, distressed, friendly or neutral states, using an online questionnaire. Participants’ level of experience was defined as either: (1) naïve: never worked with nonhuman primates and never or rarely encountered live Barbary macaques; (2) exposed: shown pictures of the different Barbary macaques’ facial expressions along with the description and the corresponding emotion prior to undertaking the questionnaire; (3) expert: worked with Barbary macaques for at least two months. Results Experience with Barbary macaques was associated with better performance in judging their emotional state. Simple exposure to pictures of macaques’ facial expressions improved the ability of inexperienced participants to better discriminate neutral and distressed

  15. Standardized Full-Field Electroretinography in the Green Monkey (Chlorocebus sabaeus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouskila, Joseph; Javadi, Pasha; Palmour, Roberta M

    2014-01-01

    Full-field electroretinography is an objective measure of retinal function, serving as an important diagnostic clinical tool in ophthalmology for evaluating the integrity of the retina. Given the similarity between the anatomy and physiology of the human and Green Monkey eyes, this species has...... increasingly become a favorable non-human primate model for assessing ocular defects in humans. To test this model, we obtained full-field electroretinographic recordings (ERG) and normal values for standard responses required by the International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision (ISCEV...... in humans and other non-human primate species (Macaca mulatta and Macaca fascicularis). These results validate the Green Monkey as an excellent non-human primate model, with potential to serve for testing retinal function following various manipulations such as visual deprivation or drug evaluation....

  16. Comparison of noncontact infrared thermometry and 3 commercial subcutaneous temperature transponding microchips with rectal thermometry in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunell, Marla K

    2012-07-01

    This study compared a noncontact infrared laser thermometer and 3 different brands of subcutaneous temperature transponding microchips with rectal thermometry in 50 rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). The data were analyzed by using intraclass correlation coefficients and limits of agreement. In addition, the technical capabilities and practicality of the thermometers in the clinical setting were reviewed. None of the alternative techniques investigated was equivalent to rectal thermometry in rhesus macaques. Temperatures obtained by using microchips had higher correlation and agreed more closely with rectal temperatures than did those obtained by the noncontact infrared method. However, transponding microchips did not yield consistent results. Due to difficulty in positioning nonsedated macaques in their homecage, subcutaneous microchips were not practical in the clinical setting. Furthermore, pair-housed macaques may be able to break or remove microchips from their cagemates.

  17. Primacy and recency effects in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) using a serial probe recognition task. III. A developmental analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzke, S M; Castro, C A

    1998-04-01

    In children, the recency effect emerges prior to the primacy effect. To determine whether this dissociation is also seen in nonhuman primates, we evaluated the development of the primacy and recency effect in 3 young adult (35 months) and 4 adolescent (21 months) male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) using a six-item serial probe recognition (SPR) task. As predicted, the young adult monkeys displayed both effects, while the adolescent monkeys only displayed the recency effect. Not until after 26 months of training on the SPR task did the adolescent monkeys exhibit both the primacy and recency effect. Interference and strategy differences are discussed in terms of the results along with an interpretation of Rudy's (1992) configural association theory of cognitive development. Additional possible explanations for this developmental dissociation include the delayed maturation of the neocortical, hippocampal, and/or cholinergic systems, the latter two having been shown to be important in the expression of the primacy but not the recency effect.

  18. Analogical reasoning and the differential outcome effect: transitory bridging of the conceptual gap for rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemming, Timothy M; Thompson, Roger K R; Beran, Michael J; Washburn, David A

    2011-07-01

    Monkeys, unlike chimpanzees and humans, have a marked difficulty acquiring relational matching-to-sample (RMTS) tasks that likely reflect the cognitive foundation upon which analogical reasoning rests. In the present study, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) completed a categorical (identity and nonidentity) RMTS task with differential reward (pellet ratio) and/or punishment (timeout ratio) outcomes for correct and incorrect choices. Monkeys in either differential reward-only or punishment-only conditions performed at chance levels. However, the RMTS performance of monkeys experiencing both differential reward and punishment conditions was significantly better than chance. Subsequently when all animals experienced nondifferential outcomes tests, their RMTS performance levels were at chance. These results indicate that combining differential reward and punishment contingencies provide an effective, albeit transitory, scaffolding for monkeys to judge analogical relations-between-relations. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  19. Dengue, Japanese encephalitis and Chikungunya virus antibody prevalence among captive monkey (Macaca nemestrina) colonies of Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakgoi, Khajornpong; Nitatpattana, Narong; Wajjwalku, Worawidh; Pongsopawijit, Pornsawan; Kaewchot, Supakarn; Yoksan, Sutee; Siripolwat, Voravit; Souris, Marc; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    The potential of macaque Macaca nemestrina leonina in Thailand to be infected by endemic arboviruses was assessed. The prevalence of antibodies of three arboviruses actively circulating in Thailand was determined by Plaque Reduction Neutralization assay procedures using samples from captive colonies in Northern Thailand. Out of 38 macaques, 9 (24%) presented reacting antibodies against dengue virus, 5 (13%) against Japanese encephalitis virus, and 4 (10%) against Chikungunya virus. Our results indicate that the northern pig-tailed macaque in Thailand can be infected by these arboviruses, inferring therefore that their virus specific vectors have bitten them. Given that, northern pig-tailed macaque represents an abundant population, living in close range to human or in peridomestic setting, they could play a role as potential reservoir host for arboviruses circulating in Thailand. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Social tolerance in wild female crested macaques (Macaca nigra) in Tangkoko-Batuangus Nature Reserve, Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duboscq, Julie; Micheletta, Jérôme; Agil, Muhammad; Hodges, Keith; Thierry, Bernard; Engelhardt, Antje

    2013-04-01

    In primates, females typically drive the evolution of the social system and present a wide diversity of social structures. To understand this diversity, it is necessary to document the consistency and/or flexibility of female social structures across and within species, contexts, and environments. Macaques (Macaca sp.) are an ideal taxon for such comparative study, showing both consistency and variation in their social relations. Their social styles, constituting robust sets of social traits, can be classified in four grades, from despotic to tolerant. However, tolerant species are still understudied, especially in the wild. To foster our understanding of tolerant societies and to assess the validity of the concept of social style, we studied female crested macaques, Macaca nigra, under entirely natural conditions. We assessed their degree of social tolerance by analyzing the frequency, intensity, and distribution of agonistic and affiliative behaviors, their dominance gradient, their bared-teeth display, and their level of conciliatory tendency. We also analyzed previously undocumented behavioral patterns in grade 4 macaques: reaction upon approach and distribution of affiliative behavior across partners. We compared the observed patterns to data from other populations of grade 4 macaques and from species of other grades. Overall, female crested macaques expressed a tolerant social style, with low intensity, frequently bidirectional, and reconciled conflicts. Dominance asymmetry was moderate, associated with an affiliative bared-teeth display. Females greatly tolerated one another in close proximity. The observed patterns matched the profile of other tolerant macaques and were outside the range of patterns of more despotic species. This study is the first comprehensive analysis of females' social behavior in a tolerant macaque species under natural conditions and as such, contributes to a better understanding of macaque societies. It also highlights the relevance

  1. Piracetam-induced changes on the brainstem auditory response in anesthetized juvenile rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Report of two clinical cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand-Rivera, A; Gonzalez-Pina, R; Hernandez-Godinez, B; Ibanez-Contreras, A; Bueno-Nava, A; Alfaro-Rodriguez, A

    2012-10-01

    We describe two clinical cases and examine the effects of piracetam on the brainstem auditory response in infantile female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). We found that the interwave intervals show a greater reduction in a 3-year-old rhesus monkey compared to a 1-year-old rhesus monkey. In this report, we discuss the significance of these observations. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. The effect of site (deltoid or gluteus muscle) of intramuscular administration of anaesthetic drugs on the course of immobilisation in macaque monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    OpenAIRE

    Ladislav Hess; Jiří Málek; Alice Kurzová; Martin Votava

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of site of intramuscular administration of anaesthetic drugs on the course of immobilisation in macaque monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Twenty macaque monkeys were given medetomidine (25 µg·kg-1) and ketamine (3 mg·kg-1) intramuscularly to the deltoid (n = 10 animals) or gluteus (n = 10 animals) muscles. Behavioural changes, loss of aggressiveness, immobilisation time and cardiorespiratory changes were recorded. The effect of drugs was reversed after 20 ...

  3. Genome sequencing and comparison of two nonhuman primate animal models, the cynomolgus and Chinese rhesus macaques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Guangmei; Zhang, Guojie; Fang, Xiaodong

    2011-01-01

    The nonhuman primates most commonly used in medical research are from the genus Macaca. To better understand the genetic differences between these animal models, we present high-quality draft genome sequences from two macaque species, the cynomolgus/crab-eating macaque and the Chinese rhesus...

  4. A model for mapping of Ebola and Marburg RNA integration sites in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A model for mapping of Ebola and Marburg RNA integration sites in rhesus Macaca mulatta genome in silico: Ebola virus acceptors sites located on chromosomes 4, ... Alternatively, chromatic DNA might be a more effective target for future Ebola genomic vaccines sequestered at a nuclear location inaccessible to incoming ...

  5. Collagen Sponge Functionalized with Chimeric Anti-BMP-2 Monoclonal Antibody Mediates Repair of Critical-Size Mandibular Continuity Defects in a Nonhuman Primate Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilin Xie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibody-mediated osseous regeneration (AMOR has been introduced by our research group as a tissue engineering approach to capture of endogenous growth factors through the application of specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs immobilized on a scaffold. Specifically, anti-Bone Morphogenetic Protein- (BMP- 2 mAbs have been demonstrated to be efficacious in mediating bone repair in a number of bone defects. The present study sought to investigate the application of AMOR for repair of mandibular continuity defect in nonhuman primates. Critical-sized mandibular continuity defects were created in Macaca fascicularis locally implanted with absorbable collagen sponges (ACS functionalized with chimeric anti-BMP-2 mAb or isotype control mAb. 2D and 3D analysis of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT imaging demonstrated increased bone density and volume observed within mandibular continuity defects implanted with collagen scaffolds functionalized with anti-BMP-2 mAb, compared with isotype-matched control mAb. Both CBCT imaging and histologic examination demonstrated de novo bone formation that was in direct apposition to the margins of the resected bone. It is hypothesized that bone injury may be necessary for AMOR. This is evidenced by de novo bone formation adjacent to resected bone margins, which may be the source of endogenous BMPs captured by anti-BMP-2 mAb, in turn mediating bone repair.

  6. Species diversity and relative abundance of lactic acid bacteria in the milk of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, L; Hinde, K; Tao, L

    2011-02-01

    Mother's milk is a source of bacteria that influences the development of the infant commensal gut microbiota. To date, the species diversity and relative abundance of lactic acid bacteria in the milk of non-human primates have not been described. Milk samples were aseptically obtained from 54 female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) at peak lactation. Following GM17 and MRS agar plating, single bacterial colonies were isolated based on difference in morphotypes, then grouped based on whole-cell protein profiles on SDS-PAGE. Bacterial DNA was isolated and the sequence the 16S rRNA gene was analyzed. A total of 106 strains of 19 distinct bacterial species, belonging to five genera, Bacillus, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, and Streptococcus, were identified. Maternal gut and oral commensal bacteria may be translocated to the mammary gland during lactation and present in milk. This pathway can be an important source of commensal bacteria to the infant gut and oral cavity. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Genetic variation between two Tibetan macaque (Macaca thibetana) populations in the eastern China based on mitochondrial DNA control region sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yongfang; Zhong, Lijing; Liu, Bofeng; Li, Jiayi; Ni, Qingyong; Xu, Huailiang

    2013-06-01

    Tibetan macaque (Macaca thibetana) is a threatened primate species endemic to China. Population genetic and phylogenetic analyses were conducted in 66 Tibetan individuals from Sichuan (SC), Huangshan (HS), and Fujian (FJ) based on a 477-bp fragment of mitochondrial DNA control region. Four new haplotypes were defined, and a relatively high level of genetic diversity was first observed in FJ populations (Hd = 0.7661). Notably, a continuous approximately 10 bp-fragment deletion was observed near the 5' end of the mtDNA control region of both HS and FJ populations when compared with that of SC population, and a sharing haplotype was found between the two populations, revealing a closer genetic relationship. However, significant genetic differentiation (FST = 0.8700) and more poor gene exchange (Nm < 1) had occurred among three populations. This study mainly provide a further insight into the genetic relationship between HS and FJ Tibetan macaque populations, but it may be necessary to carry out further study with extra samples from other locations in the geographic coverage of the two subspecies (M. thibetana pullus and M. thibetana huangshanensis).

  8. Bilateral neurotoxic amygdala lesions in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta): Consistent pattern of behavior across different social contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Christopher J.; Emery, Nathan J.; Capitanio, John P.; Mason, William A.; Mendoza, Sally P.; Amaral, David G.

    2010-01-01

    Although the amygdala has been repeatedly implicated in normal primate social behavior, great variability exists in the specific social and nonsocial behavioral changes observed after bilateral amygdala lesions in nonhuman primates. One plausible explanation pertains to differences in social context. To investigate this idea, we measured the social behavior of amygdala-lesioned and unoperated rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in two contexts. Animals interacted in four-member social groups over 32 test days. These animals were previously assessed in pairs (Emery et al., 2001), and were, therefore, familiar with each other at the beginning of this study. Across the two contexts, amygdala lesions produced a highly consistent pattern of social behavior. Operated animals engaged in more affiliative social interactions with control group partners than did control animals. In the course of their interactions, amygdala-lesioned animals also displayed an earlier decrease in nervous and fearful personality qualities than controls. The increased exploration and sexual behavior recorded for amygdala-lesioned animals in pairs was not found in the four-member groups. We conclude that the amygdala contributes to social inhibition and this function transcends various social contexts. PMID:18410164

  9. MaqFACS (Macaque Facial Action Coding System can be used to document facial movements in Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Églantine Julle-Danière

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Human and non-human primates exhibit facial movements or displays to communicate with one another. The evolution of form and function of those displays could be better understood through multispecies comparisons. Anatomically based coding systems (Facial Action Coding Systems: FACS are developed to enable such comparisons because they are standardized and systematic and aid identification of homologous expressions underpinned by similar muscle contractions. To date, FACS has been developed for humans, and subsequently modified for chimpanzees, rhesus macaques, orangutans, hylobatids, dogs, and cats. Here, we wanted to test whether the MaqFACS system developed in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta could be used to code facial movements in Barbary macaques (M. sylvanus, a species phylogenetically close to the rhesus macaques. The findings show that the facial movement capacity of Barbary macaques can be reliably coded using the MaqFACS. We found differences in use and form of some movements, most likely due to specializations in the communicative repertoire of each species, rather than morphological differences.

  10. Do Tonkean macaques (Macaca tonkeana) tailor their gestural and visual signals to fit the attentional states of a human partner?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canteloup, Charlotte; Bovet, Dalila; Meunier, Hélène

    2015-03-01

    We tested here whether Tonkean macaques (Macaca tonkeana), trained to produce a pointing gesture, modify their behaviour in response to different human's attentional states. More specifically, we investigated the macaque's ability to communicate intentionally about the location of an unreachable hidden food reward in several contexts which differ by the human partner's attentional state. The experimenter displayed seven attentional states differing on the basis of body, head and gaze orientation. Our study validates several criteria of an intentional communication. We showed that macaques produce more pointing gestures when an audience, i.e. the human partner, is present than absent. We also revealed an adjustment of gaze alternation between the face of the experimenter and the hidden food reward according to several experimental conditions. However, in our study, macaques did not produce auditory attention-getting behaviours when the human partner was inattentive. Finally, only rough cues, i.e. presence, body and face orientation of the observer, seem to be taken into account by macaques. However, our results also supposed the importance of joint attention for macaques since they display more gaze alternation when the head and/or eyes of the human partner are mobile.

  11. Evaluation of a therapy for Idiopathic Chronic Enterocolitis in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta and linked microbial community correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua M. Taylor

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic chronic enterocolitis (ICE is one of the most commonly encountered and difficult to manage diseases of captive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta. The etiology is not well understood, but perturbations in gut microbial communities have been implicated. Here we evaluated the effects of a 14-day course of vancomycin, neomycin, and fluconazole on animals affected with ICE, comparing treated, untreated, and healthy animals. We performed microbiome analysis on duodenal and colonic mucosal samples and feces in order to probe bacterial and/or fungal taxa potentially associated with ICE. All treated animals showed a significant and long-lasting improvement in stool consistency over time when compared to untreated and healthy controls. Microbiome analysis revealed trends associating bacterial community composition with ICE, particularly lineages of the Lactobacillaceae family. Sequencing of DNA from macaque food biscuits revealed that fungal sequences recovered from stool were dominated by yeast-derived food additives; in contrast, bacteria in stool appeared to be authentic gut residents. In conclusion, while validation in larger cohorts is needed, the treatment described here was associated with significantly improved clinical signs; results suggested possible correlates of microbiome structure with disease, though no strong associations were detected between single microbes and ICE.

  12. Individual differences in scanpaths correspond with serotonin transporter genotype and behavioral phenotype in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert R Gibboni

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Scanpaths (the succession of fixations and saccades during spontaneous viewing contain information about the image but also about the viewer. To determine the viewer-dependent factors in the scanpaths of monkeys, we trained three adult males (Macaca mulatta to look for 3 s at images of conspecific facial expressions with either direct or averted gaze. The subjects showed significant differences on four basic scanpath parameters (number of fixations, fixation duration, saccade length, and total scanpath length when viewing the same facial expression/gaze direction combinations. Furthermore, we found differences between monkeys in feature preference and in the temporal order in which features were visited on different facial expressions. Overall, the between-subject variability was larger than the within- subject variability, suggesting that scanpaths reflect individual preferences in allocating visual attention to various features in aggressive, neutral, and appeasing facial expressions. Individual scanpath characteristics were brought into register with the genotype for the serotonin transporter regulatory gene (5-HTTLPR and with behavioral characteristics such as expression of anticipatory anxiety and impulsiveness/hesitation in approaching food in the presence of a potentially dangerous object.

  13. Intergroup variation in stable isotope ratios reflects anthropogenic impact on the Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) of Gibraltar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurr, Mark R; Fuentes, Agustín; Luecke, Ellen; Cortes, John; Shaw, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Interactions with humans impact many aspects of behavior and ecology in nonhuman primates. Because of the complexities of the human-nonhuman primate interface, methods are needed to quantify the effects of anthropogenic interactions, including their intensity and differential impacts between nonhuman primate groups. Stable isotopes can be used to quickly and economically assess intergroup dietary variation, and provide a framework for the development of specific hypotheses about anthropogenic impact. This study uses stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis to examine intraspecific variation in diet between five groups of Barbary macaques, Macaca sylvanus, in the Upper Rock Nature Reserve, Gibraltar. Analysis of hair from 135 macaques showed significant differences in δ(13)C and δ(15)N values between a group with minimal tourist contact and groups that were main tourist attractions. Because we observed no overt physiological or substantial behavioral differences between the groups, feeding ecology is the most likely cause of any differences in stable isotope ratios. Haphazard provisioning by tourists and Gibraltarians is a likely source of dietary variation between groups. Stable isotope analysis and observational data facilitate a deeper understanding of the feeding ecology of the Barbary macaques relevant to the role of an anthropogenic ecology for the species.

  14. Phylogenetic position of the white-cheeked macaque (Macaca leucogenys), a newly described primate from southeastern Tibet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Pengfei; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Zhechun; Zhao, Chao; Li, Cheng; Liu, Wulin; Liu, Zhijin; Li, Ming

    2017-02-01

    The white-cheeked macaque Macaca leucogenys is a recently described species that was only diagnosed based on photos, without any specimen measurements or molecular genetic diagnosis. Using DNA extracted from four newly collected skin specimens, we studied the genetic diversity and phylogenetic position of M. leucogenys using multilocus sequence data, including mitochondrial and Y chromosomal genes. Skin measurements of four individuals showed that the white-cheeked macaque is robust and larger than M. assamensis but is similar in body size to M. thibetana. Although the holotype male of M. leucogenys was observed to have a round glans penis in three photos and a 15-s video, the current phylogenetic analysis placed this species in the sinica group, which has a sagittate glans penis. Our results confirm full species status of M. leucogenys and indicate that this species might have diverged from its closest relatives c. 2.5million years ago. The mitochondrial gene tree showed that M. leucogenys is phylogenetically close to M. munzala and M. radiata within the sinica group; however, their relationships were unresolved by Y chromosomal phylogenies, which indicates possible historical episode of male introgression. Further studies using an integrative approach that combines morphological and ecological characterizations and population-based genome-wide analysis are needed to investigate divergence and reproductive isolation, which are very likely to elucidate mechanisms underlying these Asian macaque radiations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Grooming-related feeding motivates macaques to groom and affects grooming reciprocity and episode duration in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Kenji; Yamada, Kazunori; Nakamichi, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    Allogrooming is considered as an altruistic behavior wherein primates exchange grooming as a tradable commodity for reciprocal grooming or other commodities such as support during aggression and tolerance during co-feeding. First, we report a case of the grooming relationships of the lowest-ranking adult female in a group of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). The female (Lp) had lost a portion of the fur and was groomed by higher-ranking individuals without providing reciprocal grooming or other commodities. The groomers probably fed on lice eggs from the fur of Lp more frequently than from that of other adult groomees. This suggests that grooming-related feeding (GRF) motivated many individuals to groom Lp and influenced grooming reciprocity in dyads. Second, we investigated quantitative grooming data for adult females. A high GRF rate was found to lengthen the duration of grooming, suggesting that GRF motivates groomers to groom. From these results, we proposed 2 possible reasons for groomers' sensitivity to GRF rate: (1) the nutritional benefit from GRF compensates for part of the cost of giving grooming and facilitates giving grooming and (2) groomer's sensitivity to the GRF rate maintains the efficiency of removing lice eggs and ensures the groomee's hygienic benefit in receiving grooming. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Redescription of Enterobius (Enterobius) macaci Yen, 1973 (Nematoda: Oxyuridae: Enterobiinae) based on material collected from wild Japanese macaque, Macaca fuscata (Primates: Cercopithecidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Hideo; Sato, Hiroshi; Torii, Harumi

    2012-02-01

    Enterobius (Enterobius) macaci Yen, 1973 (Nematoda: Oxyuridae: Enterobiinae) was collected from a Japanese macaque, Macaca fuscata, in Nara and Yamaguchi Prefectures, Honshu Island, Japan, for the first time. A redescription is presented along with DNA sequence data. This pinworm is a typical member of the subgenus Enterobius and is characteristic in the spicule morphology, being readily distinguished from other congeners. Phylogenetic analyses based on 18S ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) Cox1 gene assign its position in the pinworm lineage adapted to the Old World primates, showing divergence before the splitting of the chimpanzee and human pinworms.

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OGAR-01-1046 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OGAR-01-1046 ref|NP_001036238.2| chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 [Macaca mula...(CCR5) (CD195 antigen) gb|AAK25740.1|AF291669_1 chemokine receptor CCR5 [Macaca fascicularis] gb|AAK43371.1|...AF177888_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca sinica] gb|AAK43372.1|AF177889_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Macac...a tonkeana] gb|AAK43373.1|AF177890_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca nigra] gb|A...AC51158.1| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca mulatta] gb|AAC51109.1| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca mulatta

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CPOR-01-1648 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CPOR-01-1648 ref|NP_001036238.2| chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 [Macaca mula...(CCR5) (CD195 antigen) gb|AAK25740.1|AF291669_1 chemokine receptor CCR5 [Macaca fascicularis] gb|AAK43371.1|...AF177888_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca sinica] gb|AAK43372.1|AF177889_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Macac...a tonkeana] gb|AAK43373.1|AF177890_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca nigra] gb|A...AC51158.1| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca mulatta] gb|AAC51109.1| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca mulatta

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-RMAC-02-0028 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-RMAC-02-0028 ref|NP_001036238.2| chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 [Macaca mula...(CCR5) (CD195 antigen) gb|AAK25740.1|AF291669_1 chemokine receptor CCR5 [Macaca fascicularis] gb|AAK43371.1|...AF177888_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca sinica] gb|AAK43372.1|AF177889_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Macac...a tonkeana] gb|AAK43373.1|AF177890_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca nigra] gb|A...AC51158.1| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca mulatta] gb|AAC51109.1| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca mulatta

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CFAM-20-0020 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CFAM-20-0020 ref|NP_001036238.2| chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 [Macaca mula...(CCR5) (CD195 antigen) gb|AAK25740.1|AF291669_1 chemokine receptor CCR5 [Macaca fascicularis] gb|AAK43371.1|...AF177888_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca sinica] gb|AAK43372.1|AF177889_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Macac...a tonkeana] gb|AAK43373.1|AF177890_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca nigra] gb|A...AC51158.1| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca mulatta] gb|AAC51109.1| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca mulatta

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OCUN-01-1676 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OCUN-01-1676 ref|NP_001036238.2| chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 [Macaca mula...(CCR5) (CD195 antigen) gb|AAK25740.1|AF291669_1 chemokine receptor CCR5 [Macaca fascicularis] gb|AAK43371.1|...AF177888_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca sinica] gb|AAK43372.1|AF177889_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Macac...a tonkeana] gb|AAK43373.1|AF177890_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca nigra] gb|A...AC51158.1| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca mulatta] gb|AAC51109.1| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca mulatta

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ETEL-01-0875 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ETEL-01-0875 ref|NP_001036238.2| chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 [Macaca mula...(CCR5) (CD195 antigen) gb|AAK25740.1|AF291669_1 chemokine receptor CCR5 [Macaca fascicularis] gb|AAK43371.1|...AF177888_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca sinica] gb|AAK43372.1|AF177889_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Macac...a tonkeana] gb|AAK43373.1|AF177890_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca nigra] gb|A...AC51158.1| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca mulatta] gb|AAC51109.1| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca mulatta

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DRER-26-0305 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DRER-26-0305 ref|NP_001036238.2| chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 [Macaca mula...(CCR5) (CD195 antigen) gb|AAK25740.1|AF291669_1 chemokine receptor CCR5 [Macaca fascicularis] gb|AAK43371.1|...AF177888_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca sinica] gb|AAK43372.1|AF177889_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Macac...a tonkeana] gb|AAK43373.1|AF177890_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca nigra] gb|A...AC51158.1| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca mulatta] gb|AAC51109.1| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca mulatta

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TBEL-01-2360 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TBEL-01-2360 ref|NP_001036238.2| chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 [Macaca mula...(CCR5) (CD195 antigen) gb|AAK25740.1|AF291669_1 chemokine receptor CCR5 [Macaca fascicularis] gb|AAK43371.1|...AF177888_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca sinica] gb|AAK43372.1|AF177889_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Macac...a tonkeana] gb|AAK43373.1|AF177890_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca nigra] gb|A...AC51158.1| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca mulatta] gb|AAC51109.1| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca mulatta

  5. Gene : CBRC-RMAC-02-0028 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 00% ref|NP_001036238.2| chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 [Macaca mulatta] sp|P61813|CCR5_MACMU C-C chemokine...291669_1 chemokine receptor CCR5 [Macaca fascicularis] gb|AAK43371.1|AF177888_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Maca...ca sinica] gb|AAK43372.1|AF177889_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca tonkeana] ...gb|AAK43373.1|AF177890_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca nigra] gb|AAC51158.1| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Maca...ca mulatta] gb|AAC51109.1| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca mulatta] gb|AAB62554.1| CC chemokine receptor-5 [Maca

  6. Fasting induced kisspeptin signaling suppression is regulated by glutamate mediated cues in adult male rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamas, Shazia; Khan, Saeed-Ul-Hassan; Khan, Muhammad Yousaf; Shabbir, Nadia; Zubair, Hira; Shafqat, Saira; Wahab, Fazal; Shahab, Muhammad

    2015-08-01

    Kisspeptin signaling is suppressed by short term fasting. It has been reported that hypothalamic Kiss1 and Kiss1r mRNA expression decreased after 48h of fasting in male rhesus monkey. But the mechanism involved in the reduction of kisspeptin signaling after 48h of fasting is unknown. Recent studies have suggested the role of afferent excitatory and inhibitory pathways in the regulation of kisspeptin neurons. Therefore, this study was designed to observe the changes in the glutamate and GABA signaling during fed and 48h fasting states by performing immunofluorescence to examine the interaction of kisspeptin neurons with NR1 subunit of NMDA receptors and by performing SYBR green qRT-PCR to measure and quantify the levels of Kiss1, Kiss1r, NR1 and GAD67 mRNA in the POA and MBH of adult male rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) during 48h of fasting (n=2) and fed ad libitum (n=2). Plasma testosterone (pfasting. Our results clearly showed that expression of hypothalamic Kiss1, Kiss1r and NR1 mRNA was significantly (pfasted for 48h as compared to those which were fed ad libitum. There was no clear difference in the GAD67 mRNA contents between the two groups. Number of kisspeptin neurons and the interactions of kisspeptin neurons with NR1 were significantly (pfasting. These observations suggest that decreased kisspeptin signaling during fasting may occur due to reduction in glutamatergic inputs to kisspeptin neurons. Our results also suggest that fasting induced suppression of kisspeptin signaling is not mediated through GABAergic neurons. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Age at reproductive debut: Developmental predictors and consequences for lactation, infant mass, and subsequent reproduction in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittet, Florent; Johnson, Crystal; Hinde, Katie

    2017-11-01

    The age at which females initiate their reproductive career is a critical life-history parameter with potential consequences on their residual reproductive value and lifetime fitness. The age at reproductive debut may be intimately tied to the somatic capacity of the mother to rear her young, but relatively little is known about the influence of age of first birth on milk synthesis within a broader framework of reproductive scheduling, infant outcomes, and other life-history tradeoffs. Our study investigated the predictors of age at first reproduction among 108 captive rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) females, and associations with their milk synthesis at peak lactation, infant mass, and ability to subsequently conceive and reproduce. The majority of females reproduced in their fourth year (typical breeders); far fewer initiated their reproductive career one year earlier or one year later (respectively early and late breeders). Early breeders (3-year-old) benefited from highly favorable early life development (better juvenile growth, high dominance rank) to accelerate reproduction, but were impaired in milk synthesis due to lower somatic resources and their own continued growth. Comparatively, late breeders suffered from poor developmental conditions, only partially compensated by their delayed reproduction, and evinced compromised milk synthesis. Typical breeders not only produced higher available milk energy but also had best reproductive performance during the breeding and birth seasons following primiparity. Here, we refine and extend our understanding of how life-history tradeoffs manifest in the magnitude, sources, and consequences of variation in age of reproductive debut. These findings provide insight into primate reproductive flexibility in the context of constraints and opportunities. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Differential Responding by Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta and Humans (Homo sapiens to Variable Outcomes in the Assurance Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey E. Parrish

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral flexibility in how one responds to variable partner play can be examined using economic coordination games in which subjects play against a variety of partners and therefore may need to alter their behavior to produce the highest payoff. But how do we study this behavioral flexibility once players have settled on a response? Here, we investigated how responding by rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta and humans (Homo sapiens playing a computerized single-player version of a coordination game, the Assurance game, changed as a function of the variable responses (Stag/Hare generated by multiple simulations (SIMs. We were interested in whether individuals could track and differentially respond to changing frequencies of Stag and Hare play by the SIMs, especially with regard to the payoff dominant (Stag-Stag outcome, something that could not be done with real partners as they quickly settled on the Stag response. For both monkeys and humans, there was a linear relationship between proportion of Stag play by the subject and the likelihood of the Stag choice by the SIM such that both species increased their use of Stag as the SIM increased its use of the Stag response. However, humans more closely matched their proportion of Stag responses to that of the SIM, whereas monkeys adopted a different, but equally effective, strategy of exploiting the higher-paying Stag alternative. These results suggest that monkeys and humans demonstrate sensitivity to a dynamic game environment in which they encounter variable contingencies for the same response options, although they may employ different strategies to maximize reward.

  9. Mixed Fortunes: Ancient Expansion and Recent Decline in Population Size of a Subtropical Montane Primate, the Arunachal Macaque Macaca munzala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Debapriyo; Sinha, Anindya; Ramakrishnan, Uma

    2014-01-01

    Quaternary glacial oscillations are known to have caused population size fluctuations in many temperate species. Species from subtropical and tropical regions are, however, considerably less studied, despite representing most of the biodiversity hotspots in the world including many highly threatened by anthropogenic activities such as hunting. These regions, consequently, pose a significant knowledge gap in terms of how their fauna have typically responded to past climatic changes. We studied an endangered primate, the Arunachal macaque Macaca munzala, from the subtropical southern edge of the Tibetan plateau, a part of the Eastern Himalaya biodiversity hotspot, also known to be highly threatened due to rampant hunting. We employed a 534 bp-long mitochondrial DNA sequence and 22 autosomal microsatellite loci to investigate the factors that have potentially shaped the demographic history of the species. Analysing the genetic data with traditional statistical methods and advance Bayesian inferential approaches, we demonstrate a limited effect of past glacial fluctuations on the demographic history of the species before the last glacial maximum, approximately 20,000 years ago. This was, however, immediately followed by a significant population expansion possibly due to warmer climatic conditions, approximately 15,000 years ago. These changes may thus represent an apparent balance between that displayed by the relatively climatically stable tropics and those of the more severe, temperate environments of the past. This study also draws attention to the possibility that a cold-tolerant species like the Arunachal macaque, which could withstand historical climate fluctuations and grow once the climate became conducive, may actually be extremely vulnerable to anthropogenic exploitation, as is perhaps indicated by its Holocene ca. 30-fold population decline, approximately 3,500 years ago. Our study thus provides a quantitative appraisal of these demographically important

  10. Response of Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) to the Body of a Group Member That Died from a Fatal Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhl, Jacqueline S.; Aure, Bonn; Ruiz-Lambides, Angelina; Gonzalez-Martinez, Janis; Platt, Michael L.; Brent, Lauren J. N.

    2013-01-01

    Among animals that form social bonds, the death of a conspecific may be a significant social event, representing the loss of an ally and resulting in disruptions to the dominance hierarchy. Despite this potential biological importance, we have only limited knowledge of animals' reactions to the death of a group member. This is particularly true of responses to dead adults, as most reports describe the responses of mothers to dead infants. Here, we describe in detail and provide video evidence of the behavioral responses of a group of free-ranging rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) immediately after the death of a mid-ranking adult male as a result of a fatal attack. High-ranking male members of the group, suspected to have carried out the attack, dragged and bit the dead body, exhibiting a rate of aggression 20 times greater than baseline levels. Lower-ranking individuals approached and inspected the body by looking closely, smelling, and grooming the fur. There was inconclusive evidence that these rhesus macaques found the death of a conspecific stressful: Levels of grooming between group members after the fatal attack were significantly higher than baseline levels, and higher than levels of grooming after nonfatal attacks. However, when grooming levels were adjusted based on the assumption that individuals positioned close to the body, i.e., those visible to researchers, were more likely to be engaged in grooming than those positioned farther away, this difference from baseline was no longer significant. The rate of self-directed behaviors after the fatal attack was also not different from baseline. Many of the behaviors we observed directed toward the body (aggression, inspection) have been previously reported in chimpanzees and geladas, and are similar to reactions sometimes displayed by humans. As such, this report represents a potentially valuable contribution the nascent field of nonhuman primate thanatology. PMID:23459587

  11. Social network community structure and the contact-mediated sharing of commensal E. coli among captive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, Krishna; Beisner, Brianne; Guan, Jiahui; Vandeleest, Jessica; Fushing, Hsieh; Atwill, Edward; McCowan, Brenda

    2018-01-01

    In group-living animals, heterogeneity in individuals' social connections may mediate the sharing of microbial infectious agents. In this regard, the genetic relatedness of individuals' commensal gut bacterium Escherichia coli may be ideal to assess the potential for pathogen transmission through animal social networks. Here we use microbial phylogenetics and population genetics approaches, as well as host social network reconstruction, to assess evidence for the contact-mediated sharing of E. coli among three groups of captively housed rhesus macaques ( Macaca mulatta ), at multiple organizational scales. For each group, behavioral data on grooming, huddling, and aggressive interactions collected for a six-week period were used to reconstruct social network communities via the Data Cloud Geometry (DCG) clustering algorithm. Further, an E. coli isolate was biochemically confirmed and genotypically fingerprinted from fecal swabs collected from each macaque. Population genetics approaches revealed that Group Membership, in comparison to intrinsic attributes like age, sex, and/or matriline membership of individuals, accounted for the highest proportion of variance in E. coli genotypic similarity. Social network approaches revealed that such sharing was evident at the community-level rather than the dyadic level. Specifically, although we found no links between dyadic E. coli similarity and social contact frequencies, similarity was significantly greater among macaques within the same social network communities compared to those across different communities. Moreover, tests for one of our study-groups confirmed that E. coli isolated from macaque rectal swabs were more genotypically similar to each other than they were to isolates from environmentally deposited feces. In summary, our results suggest that among frequently interacting, spatially constrained macaques with complex social relationships, microbial sharing via fecal-oral, social contact-mediated routes may

  12. Experimental Infection of Pig-Tailed Macaques (Macaca nemestrina) with Mycoplasma genitalium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Gwendolyn E.; Patton, Dorothy L.; Cummings, Peter K.; Iverson-Cabral, Stefanie L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mycoplasma genitalium is an underappreciated cause of human reproductive tract disease, characterized by persistent, often asymptomatic, infection. Building on our previous experiments using a single female pig-tailed macaque as a model for M. genitalium infection (G. E. Wood, S. L. Iverson-Cabral, D. L. Patton, P. K. Cummings, Y. T. Cosgrove Sweeney, and P. A. Totten, Infect Immun 81:2938–2951, 2013, https://doi.org/10.1128/IAI.01322-12), we cervically inoculated eight additional animals, two of which were simultaneously inoculated in salpingeal tissue autotransplanted into abdominal pockets. Viable M. genitalium persisted in the lower genital tract for 8 weeks in three animals, 4 weeks in two, and 1 week in one; two primates resisted infection. In both animals inoculated in salpingeal pockets, viable M. genitalium was recovered for 2 weeks. Recovery of viable M. genitalium from lower genital tract specimens was improved by diluting the specimen in broth and by Vero cell coculture. Ascension to upper reproductive tract tissues was not detected, even among three persistently infected animals. M. genitalium-specific serum antibodies targeting the immunodominant MgpB and MgpC proteins appeared within 1 week in three animals inoculated both cervically and in salpingeal pockets and in one of three persistently infected animals inoculated only in the cervix. M. genitalium-specific IgG, but not IgA, was detected in cervical secretions of serum antibody-positive animals, predominantly against MgpB and MgpC, but was insufficient to clear M. genitalium lower tract infection. Our findings further support female pig-tailed macaques as a model of M. genitalium infection, persistence, and immune evasion. PMID:27872239

  13. Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta are natural hosts of specific Staphylococcus aureus lineages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne van den Berg

    Full Text Available Currently, there is no animal model known that mimics natural nasal colonization by Staphylococcus aureus in humans. We investigated whether rhesus macaques are natural nasal carriers of S. aureus. Nasal swabs were taken from 731 macaques. S. aureus isolates were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, spa repeat sequencing and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST, and compared with human strains. Furthermore, the isolates were characterized by several PCRs. Thirty-nine percent of 731 macaques were positive for S. aureus. In general, the macaque S. aureus isolates differed from human strains as they formed separate PFGE clusters, 50% of the isolates were untypeable by agr genotyping, 17 new spa types were identified, which all belonged to new sequence types (STs. Furthermore, 66% of macaque isolates were negative for all superantigen genes. To determine S. aureus nasal colonization, three nasal swabs from 48 duo-housed macaques were taken during a 5 month period. In addition, sera were analyzed for immunoglobulin G and A levels directed against 40 staphylococcal proteins using a bead-based flow cytometry technique. Nineteen percent of the animals were negative for S. aureus, and 17% were three times positive. S. aureus strains were easily exchanged between macaques. The antibody response was less pronounced in macaques compared to humans, and nasal carrier status was not associated with differences in serum anti-staphylococcal antibody levels. In conclusion, rhesus macaques are natural hosts of S. aureus, carrying host-specific lineages. Our data indicate that rhesus macaques are useful as an autologous model for studying S. aureus nasal colonization and infection prevention.

  14. Transcription start site profiling of 15 anatomical regions of the Macaca mulatta central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francescatto, Margherita; Lizio, Marina; Philippens, Ingrid; Bontrop, Ronald; Sakai, Mizuho; Watanabe, Shoko; Itoh, Masayoshi; Hasegawa, Akira; Lassmann, Timo; Severin, Jessica; Harshbarger, Jayson; Abugessaisa, Imad; Kasukawa, Takeya; Carninci, Piero; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Forrest, Alistair R R; Kawaji, Hideya; Rizzu, Patrizia; Heutink, Peter

    2017-10-31

    Rhesus macaque was the second non-human primate whose genome has been fully sequenced and is one of the most used model organisms to study human biology and disease, thanks to the close evolutionary relationship between the two species. But compared to human, where several previously unknown RNAs have been uncovered, the macaque transcriptome is less studied. Publicly available RNA expression resources for macaque are limited, even for brain, which is highly relevant to study human cognitive abilities. In an effort to complement those resources, FANTOM5 profiled 15 distinct anatomical regions of the aged macaque central nervous system using Cap Analysis of Gene Expression, a high-resolution, annotation-independent technology that allows monitoring of transcription initiation events with high accuracy. We identified 25,869 CAGE peaks, representing bona fide promoters. For each peak we provide detailed annotation, expanding the landscape of 'known' macaque genes, and we show concrete examples on how to use the resulting data. We believe this data represents a useful resource to understand the central nervous system in macaque.

  15. Inhaled oxytocin amplifies both vicarious reinforcement and self reinforcement in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Steve W C; Barter, Joseph W; Ebitz, R Becket; Watson, Karli K; Platt, Michael L

    2012-01-17

    People attend not only to their own experiences, but also to the experiences of those around them. Such social awareness profoundly influences human behavior by enabling observational learning, as well as by motivating cooperation, charity, empathy, and spite. Oxytocin (OT), a neurosecretory hormone synthesized by hypothalamic neurons in the mammalian brain, can enhance affiliation or boost exclusion in different species in distinct contexts, belying any simple mechanistic neural model. Here we show that inhaled OT penetrates the CNS and subsequently enhances the sensitivity of rhesus macaques to rewards occurring to others as well as themselves. Roughly 2 h after inhaling OT, monkeys increased the frequency of prosocial choices associated with reward to another monkey when the alternative was to reward no one. OT also increased attention to the recipient monkey as well as the time it took to render such a decision. In contrast, within the first 2 h following inhalation, OT increased selfish choices associated with delivery of reward to self over a reward to the other monkey, without affecting attention or decision latency. Despite the differences in species typical social behavior, exogenous, inhaled OT causally promotes social donation behavior in rhesus monkeys, as it does in more egalitarian and monogamous ones, like prairie voles and humans, when there is no perceived cost to self. These findings potentially implicate shared neural mechanisms.

  16. Alveolar ridge dimensional changes following ridge preservation procedure: part-2 - CBCT 3D analysis in non-human primate model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omran, Mostafa; Min, Seiko; Abdelhamid, Alaa; Liu, Yi; Zadeh, Homayoun H

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of ridge preservation involving novel devices used for obturation of socket orifice (Socket cap; SocketKAP(™) ) and resorbable cage used for space maintenance in sites with facial wall dehiscence (Socket cage; SocketKAGE(™) ). Eight teeth were extracted in each of six Macaca fascicularis non-human primates. Six intervention groups consisted of the following: Group A: intact socket negative control. Group B: intact socket: socket cap. Group C: intact socket filled with anorganic bovine bone mineral (ABBM) + socket cap. Group D: dehiscence: negative control. Group E: dehiscence: socket cap + socket cage. Group F: dehiscence: filled with ABBM + socket cap + socket cage. CBCT scans were obtained preoperatively and at 6 and 12 weeks following intervention. The pre- and postoperative scans were superimposed, to quantify 3D volumetric alveolar bone changes. Volumetric bone loss occurred in all sockets, not only within the cretal zone (0-3 mm) to the ridge crest, as has been commonly reported by other investigators, but significant bone loss was also detected in the zone which was 3-6 mm apical to the alveolar crest. For intact sockets, socket cap + ABBM led to significantly greater percentages of remaining bone volume when compared to groups A and B. A significant difference favoring socket cap + socket cage + ABBM treatment was observed for sockets with facial dehiscence defects compared to groups D and E. Socket cap in conjunction with ABBM appears effective in limiting post-extraction volumetric bone loss in intact sockets, while socket cap + socket cage + ABBM appears effective in limiting post-extraction bone loss in sockets with dehiscence defects. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Comparison of energy balance between two different-sized groups of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata yakui).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, Yosuke; Hanya, Goro

    2017-07-01

    Quantifying the energy balance is essential for testing socio-ecological models. To reveal costs and benefits of group living in Japanese macaques from the perspective of feeding competition, Kurihara and Hanya (Am J Primatol 77:986-1000, 2015) previously compared feeding behavior between two different-sized groups of macaques (larger group 30-35 individuals; smaller group 13-15 individuals) in the coastal forest of Yakushima, Japan. The results suggested that the larger group exhibited greater feeding effort because of intragroup scramble competition and that the smaller group suffered from higher travel costs, possibly owing to intergroup contest competition. However, it remained unclear whether the behavioral differences affected their energy budgets. The present study examined energetic consequences of the different feeding behaviors in the two groups. Using behavioral data from 10 to 13 adult females and nutritional composition of food items, we compared ingestion rates, energetic/nutritional content of diet, and energy budgets between the two groups. Ingestion rates and energetic/nutritional content of diet did not differ between the two groups. Despite the higher feeding effort of the larger group, energy intake did not differ between the two groups. Energy expenditure did not differ between the two groups because higher travel costs were negated by lower feeding effort in the smaller group. Consequently, the energy balance did not differ between the two groups. We demonstrated that the behavioral measures of feeding competition were not translated into their energetic condition; moreover, our findings re-emphasize the importance of quantifying behavioral and fitness measures for interpreting variation in feeding behavior properly.

  18. [Construction of a cDNA library from liver tissue of rhesus monkey, Macaca mulatta].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Sheng-fang; Tan, Wei-dong; Chen, You-nan; Ding, Yang; Li, Sheng-fu; Li, Hong-xia; Wang, Li; Yang, Rong; Lu, Yan-rong

    2007-06-01

    To screen the target rhesus genes and give some basic genetic evidences to its value as one of the most important animal model in biomedical study, we constructed a cDNA expression library from liver tissue of a healthy rhesus monkey. With Trizol reagent, the total RNA was extracted from healthy rhesus liver tissue. By mutant Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus Reverse Transcriptase (MMLV-RT), the first-strand cDNA was synthesized from purified mRNA, and subsequently the second-strand cDNA was generated via E. coli DNA polymerase I . Then, the EcoR I adapter was added to the synthesized double-strand cDNA, which was subsequently digested by Xho I restriction enzyme and fractionated with CHROMA APIN-400 column. The fractionated cDNA fragments to be longer than 0. 5 kb were ligated into lambda ZAP express vector to form the phagemid cDNA recombinants, which were further packaged into the lambda ZAP cDNA library according to the standard protocol with phage lambda Gold packaging extract. In order to get more stable clones with larger quantity, the primary library was amplified through infecting the host strain XL1-Blue MRF'. Then, the library titre, recombinant rate and length of inserted cDNA were measured, respectively. The capacity of the primary stand or unamplified library was 1. 2X 10(6) pfu. The titers of the unamplified library or the amplified library was 1.1 X 10(6) mixture, pfu/mL or 7. 7 X 10(9) pfu/mL respectively, the percentages of recombinants were 99. 3% and 98. 2%, and the average lengths of the inserts were 2.0 kb and 2. 3 kb, respectively. An excellent cDNA expression library has been constructed successfully, which would lay solid foundation for transplantation study and pre-clinic evaluation of related drugs.

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MMUR-01-1280 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MMUR-01-1280 ref|NP_001036238.2| chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 [Macaca mula...hort=CCR-5; Short=CCR5; AltName: CD_antigen=CD195 gb|AAK25740.1|AF291669_1 chemokine receptor CCR5 [Macaca f...ascicularis] gb|AAK43371.1|AF177888_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca sinica] gb...|AAK43372.1|AF177889_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca tonkeana] gb|AAK43373.1|AF177890_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Maca...ca nigra] gb|AAC51158.1| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca mulatta] gb|AAC51109.1| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Maca

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PVAM-01-0927 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PVAM-01-0927 ref|NP_001036238.2| chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 [Macaca mula...hort=CCR-5; Short=CCR5; AltName: CD_antigen=CD195 gb|AAK25740.1|AF291669_1 chemokine receptor CCR5 [Macaca f...ascicularis] gb|AAK43371.1|AF177888_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca sinica] gb...|AAK43372.1|AF177889_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca tonkeana] gb|AAK43373.1|AF177890_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Maca...ca nigra] gb|AAC51158.1| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca mulatta] gb|AAC51109.1| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Maca

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-STRI-01-1265 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-STRI-01-1265 ref|NP_001036238.2| chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 [Macaca mula...hort=CCR-5; Short=CCR5; AltName: CD_antigen=CD195 gb|AAK25740.1|AF291669_1 chemokine receptor CCR5 [Macaca f...ascicularis] gb|AAK43371.1|AF177888_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca sinica] gb...|AAK43372.1|AF177889_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca tonkeana] gb|AAK43373.1|AF177890_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Maca...ca nigra] gb|AAC51158.1| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca mulatta] gb|AAC51109.1| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Maca

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PHAM-01-0934 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PHAM-01-0934 ref|NP_001036238.2| chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 [Macaca mula...hort=CCR-5; Short=CCR5; AltName: CD_antigen=CD195 gb|AAK25740.1|AF291669_1 chemokine receptor CCR5 [Macaca f...ascicularis] gb|AAK43371.1|AF177888_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca sinica] gb...|AAK43372.1|AF177889_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca tonkeana] gb|AAK43373.1|AF177890_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Maca...ca nigra] gb|AAC51158.1| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca mulatta] gb|AAC51109.1| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Maca

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OPRI-01-1118 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OPRI-01-1118 ref|NP_001036238.2| chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 [Macaca mula...hort=CCR-5; Short=CCR5; AltName: CD_antigen=CD195 gb|AAK25740.1|AF291669_1 chemokine receptor CCR5 [Macaca f...ascicularis] gb|AAK43371.1|AF177888_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca sinica] gb...|AAK43372.1|AF177889_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca tonkeana] gb|AAK43373.1|AF177890_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Maca...ca nigra] gb|AAC51158.1| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca mulatta] gb|AAC51109.1| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Maca

  4. Serologic host response to Helicobacter pylori and Campylobacter jejuni in socially housed Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kienesberger Sabine

    2012-08-01

    conditions and implying that Rhesus macaques might provide a model to study effects of these two important human mucosal bacteria on a population.

  5. Alveolar ridge dimensional changes following ridge preservation procedure with novel devices: Part 1--CBCT linear analysis in non-human primate model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Seiko; Liu, Yi; Tang, Jianxia; Xie, Yilin; Xiong, Jimin; You, Hyung-Keun; Zadeh, Homayoun H

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to investigate dimensional changes to the alveolar bone following extraction and application of novel devices used for obturation of socket orifice (socket cap) and space maintenance in sockets with facial dehiscence (socket cage). Six Macaca fascicularis had six teeth each removed according to the following intervention groups (groups A-C intact alveolar bone; D-E facial dehiscence): negative control (A); socket obturated with cap (B); filled with anorganic bovine bone mineral (ABBM) + socket cap (C); dehiscence negative control (D); socket cap + socket cage (E); ABBM + socket cap + socket cage (F). Serial CBCT scans at preoperatively, 6 and 12 weeks following intervention were compared to quantify linear alveolar bone alterations. Without therapeutic intervention, intact sockets exhibited significant reduction in width at the crestal 2 mm of the ridge crest within 6 weeks. Compared with the negative control sites which lost up to 52% of crestal bone width, sites treated with socket cap + ABBM lost at most 4% of bone width at the crestal 2 mm. Similar results were seen in the dehiscence groups, with the combination of socket cap + socket cage + ABBM maintaining the greatest socket width and height dimensions. Results from the current non-human primate study suggest that the socket cap and socket cage devices, when used in conjunction with xenograft proved effective in minimizing post-extraction socket width loss and height seen in both intact sockets and sockets with facial dehiscence defects. © 2015 The Authors. Clinical Oral Implants Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. cDNA, genomic sequence cloning and overexpression of ribosomal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alignment analysis indicated that the nucleotide sequence of the coding sequence shows a high homology to those of Homo sapiens, Pongo abelii, Macaca fascicularis, Mus musculus, Bos taurus and Rattus norvegicus are 93.1, 92.5, 92.2, 91.1, 90.6 and 90.0% respectively. The amino acid sequence encoded by RPS20 ...

  7. GenBank blastx search result: AK105069 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK105069 001-045-C01 AB169286.1 Macaca fascicularis testis cDNA, clone: QtsA-18648, similar to human mortali...ty factor 4 like 2 (MORF4L2), mRNA, RefSeq: NM_012286.1.|PRI PRI 3e-20 +3 ...

  8. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF ADEWUNMI

    (transmitted by Macaca fascicularis from Philippines, identified in 1989 in Reston USA, and in Sienna Italy in 1992, now renamed ..... drug as a basis for a rapid field diagnostic assay (Kondratowicz et al., 2011). .... thousands of refugees fleeing regional war and conflicts, adding to both the ecologic and economic burden.

  9. GenBank blastx search result: AK059494 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK059494 001-028-H05 AB179082.1 Macaca fascicularis testis cDNA clone: QtsA-12630, similar to human oculocer...ebrorenal syndrome of Lowe (OCRL), transcriptvariant a, mRNA, RefSeq: NM_000276.3.|PRI PRI 7e-40 +2 ...

  10. GenBank blastx search result: AK106998 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK106998 002-120-B12 AB179082.1 Macaca fascicularis testis cDNA clone: QtsA-12630, similar to human oculocer...ebrorenal syndrome of Lowe (OCRL), transcriptvariant a, mRNA, RefSeq: NM_000276.3.|PRI PRI 1e-29 +3 ...

  11. Viral replication and development of specific immunity in macaques after infection with different measles virus strains.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.S. van Binnendijk (Rob); R.W.J. van der Heijden (Roger); G. van Amerongen (Geert); F.G.C.M. Uytdehaag (Fons); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractCynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were experimentally infected with a wild type measles virus (MV) strain (MV-BIL). Following intratracheal inoculation with different infectious doses, the virus could be isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), lung lavage cells,

  12. Measurement of rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) apolipoprotein B in serum by radioimmunoassay: comparison of immunoreactivities of rhesus and human low density lipoproteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlin, J.B.; Juhn, D.J.; Fless, G.; Scanu, A.M.; Rubenstein, A.H.

    1978-02-01

    A sensitive and specific double antibody radioimmunoassay for the major apolipoprotein (apoB) of rhesus (Macaca mulatta) serum very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) is described. The antiserum was raised to LDL (d 1.030 to 1.040 g/ml) and the LDL/sub 2/ (d 1.020 to 1.050 g/ml) was labeled with /sup 125/I by the chloramine-T or iodine monochloride method. The assay, which was sensitive to 0.02 to 0.5 ..mu..g of LDL/sub 2/, had an interassay coefficient of variation of 4.5%. This assay was successfully used to measure apoB in the whole serum and low density lipoproteins of control monkeys maintained on a standard Purina monkey chow (PMC) diet and of three groups of monkeys fed atherogenic diets: an average American diet, a 25% peanut oil and 2% cholesterol-supplemented PMC diet, and a 25% coconut oil and 2% cholesterol-supplemented PMC diet.

  13. The Lion-tailed Macaque Macaca silenus (Primates: Cercopithecidae: conservation history and status of a flagship species of the tropical rainforests of the Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Singh

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The Lion-tailed Macaque (Macaca silenus is a threatened species inhabiting the rainforests of the Western Ghats mountain range in southern India. Once assessed to be less than a thousand individuals remaining in the wild habitats, the population is now estimated to be between 3000 and 3500 individuals. However, the rainforest habitats of the species are highly fragmented. During the past three decades or less, the population of this species has severely declined due to habitat degradation and illegal hunting in several areas of its occurrence. In situ conservation programs included notification of certain areas as Lion-tailed Macaque conservation regions. Several captive breeding programs have been initiated in order to have a viable captive population of the species. However, the analysis reveals that both in situ and ex situ conservation programs have not achieved the desired success and the species is even more endangered than it was a few decades ago. In this article, we discuss these conservation programs and suggest further measures for effective conservation of Lion-tailed Macaques.

  14. Structural architecture of the social network of a non-human primate (Macaca sylvanus): a study of its topology in La Forêt des Singes, Rocamadour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    For a decade, technological or natural networks have appeared to have a common mathematical architecture. This type of architecture has a node connectivity which follows a power law distribution. This architecture confers to these networks a resistance property to the loss of nodes. Such properties are advantageous for evolutional networks through time. Thus, this architecture can be expected in animal social networks. Another characteristic commonly met concerns the structuration of the network into communities by the mechanism of assortative mixing by vertex degree (i.e. by the number of ties individuals have). Such a structure is a reflection of evolutional mechanisms: the preferential attachment and the triadic closure processes. Using recent analytical techniques on an affiliative social network in a non-human primate species (Macaca sylvanus), we analysed the mathematical architecture and its properties. We demonstrate that in spite of the use of a recent protocol supposed to permit this type of analysis, the type of distribution cannot be clearly determined, encouraging us to carefully interpret the results obtained until then. Nevertheless, we observed interesting properties of the network at an ecological and evolutional level with network resilience that allows a cohesive society to be maintained even when faced with a catastrophe (high predation, epidemic).

  15. Measurement of rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) apolipoprotein B in serum by radioimmunoassay: comparison of immunoreactivities of rhesus and human low density lipoproteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlin, J.B.; Juhn, D.J.; Fless, G.; Scanu, A.M.; Rubenstein, A.H.

    1978-01-01

    A sensitive and specific double antibody radioimmunoassay for the major apolipoprotein (apoB) of rhesus (Macaca mulatta) serum very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) is described. The antiserum was raised to LDL (d 1.030 to 1.040 g/ml) and the LDL 2 (d 1.020 to 1.050 g/ml) was labeled with 125 I by the chloramine-T or iodine monochloride method. The assay, which was sensitive to 0.02 to 0.5 μg of LDL 2 , had an interassay coefficient of variation of 4.5%. This assay was successfully used to measure apoB in the whole serum and low density lipoproteins of control monkeys maintained on a standard Purina monkey chow (PMC) diet and of three groups of monkeys fed atherogenic diets: an average American diet, a 25% peanut oil and 2% cholesterol-supplemented PMC diet, and a 25% coconut oil and 2% cholesterol-supplemented PMC diet

  16. Do you see what I see? A comparative investigation of the Delboeuf illusion in humans (Homo sapiens), rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), and capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Audrey E; Brosnan, Sarah F; Beran, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    Studying visual illusions is critical to understanding typical visual perception. We investigated whether rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) perceived the Delboeuf illusion in a similar manner as human adults (Homo sapiens). To test this, in Experiment 1, we presented monkeys and humans with a relative discrimination task that required subjects to choose the larger of 2 central dots that were sometimes encircled by concentric rings. As predicted, humans demonstrated evidence of the Delboeuf illusion, overestimating central dots when small rings surrounded them and underestimating the size of central dots when large rings surrounded them. However, monkeys did not show evidence of the illusion. To rule out an alternate explanation, in Experiment 2, we presented all species with an absolute classification task that required them to classify a central dot as "small" or "large." We presented a range of ring sizes to determine whether the Delboeuf illusion would occur for any dot-to-ring ratios. Here, we found evidence of the Delboeuf illusion in all 3 species. Humans and monkeys underestimated central dot size to a progressively greater degree with progressively larger rings. The Delboeuf illusion now has been extended to include capuchin monkeys and rhesus monkeys, and through such comparative investigations we can better evaluate hypotheses regarding illusion perception among nonhuman animals. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. What meaning means for same and different: Analogical reasoning in humans (Homo sapiens), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), and rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemming, Timothy M; Beran, Michael J; Thompson, Roger K R; Kleider, Heather M; Washburn, David A

    2008-05-01

    Thus far, language- and token-trained apes (e.g., D. Premack, 1976; R. K. R. Thompson, D. L. Oden, & S. T. Boysen, 1997) have provided the best evidence that nonhuman animals can solve, complete, and construct analogies, thus implicating symbolic representation as the mechanism enabling the phenomenon. In this study, the authors examined the role of stimulus meaning in the analogical reasoning abilities of three different primate species. Humans (Homo sapiens), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), and rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) completed the same relational matching-to-sample (RMTS) tasks with both meaningful and nonmeaningful stimuli. This discrimination of relations-between-relations serves as the basis for analogical reasoning. Meaningfulness facilitated the acquisition of analogical matching for human participants, whereas individual differences among the chimpanzees suggest that meaning can either enable or hinder their ability to complete analogies. Rhesus monkeys did not succeed in the RMTS task regardless of stimulus meaning, suggesting that their ability to reason analogically, if present at all, may be dependent on a dimension other than the representational value of stimuli. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Echography of the Cervix and Uterus during the Proliferative and Secretory Phases of the Menstrual Cycle in Bonnet Monkeys (Macaca radiata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Uddhav K; Metkari, Siddnath M; Manjaramkar, Dhyananjay D; Sachdeva, Geetanjali; Katkam, Rajendra; Bandivdekar, Atmaram H; Mahajan, Abhishek; Thakur, Meenakshi H; Kholkute, Sanjiv D

    2014-01-01

    We undertook the present study to investigate the echographic characteristics of the uterus and cervix of female bonnet monkeys (Macaca radiata) during the proliferative and secretory phases of the menstrual cycle. The cervix was tortuous in shape and measured 2.74 ± 0.30 cm (mean ± SD) in width by 3.10 ± 0.32 cm in length. The cervical lumen contained 2 or 3 colliculi, which projected from the cervical canal. The echogenicity of cervix varied during proliferative and secretory phases. The uterus was pyriform in shape (2.46 ± 0.28 cm × 1.45 ± 0.19 cm) and consisted of serosa, myometrium, and endometrium. The endometrium generated a triple-line pattern; the outer and central lines were hyperechogenic, whereas the inner line was hypoechogenic. The endometrium was significantly thicker during the secretory phase (0.69 ± 0.12 cm) than during the proliferative phase (0.43 ± 0.15 cm). Knowledge of the echogenic changes in the female reproductive organs of bonnet monkeys during a regular menstrual cycle may facilitate understanding of other physiologic and pathophysiologic changes. PMID:24411775

  19. Testes biopsy analysis and hormonal reproduction levels of pig tail macaque (Macaca nemestrina injected with testosterone enanthate (TE and depot medroxy progesterone acetate (DMPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dadang Kusmana

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to analyse the testes biopsy and to know the lnrmone level reproduction of pig tail macaque (Macaca nemestrina injected with testosterone enanthate (TE and depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA. Six pig tail male macaques, age 6 - 8 years old were used as sanrple. Three months after adaptation period, each animal was injected intra muscularly with 32 mg TE each week starting at week zero up to the sixth week. The treatment was continued every 3 weeks after the sixth week up to the 24th week. 40 mg of DMPA was injected intramuscularly at week zero, and continued every week up to week 18. Volume of the testes was taken every three weeks and blood samples for examination of gonadotropin hormone and steroid hormone were taken at 6 week intervals. Testes biopsy was perfomed at week 30 and week 48. Preparation of testes histological slides were made using the paraffin method and stained with hematoxylin-Eosin (HE. The results of this study showed that both testes volume decreased i.e. 18.35 cm3 ± 9.35 and 19.02cm3 ± 10.88 (at week zero to 6.70 cm3 ± 3.80 and 7.02 cm3 ± 4.61 (lowest volume at week 21. In recovery period, the testes volume increased to 20.34 cmr ± 7.87 and 21.75 cm3 ± 7.09. The diameter of the seminiferous tubules and the score of spermatogenesis (right and left testes at week 30 were 0.13 mm ± 0.027 and 0.13 mm ± 0.026 and score were 5.08 ± 2.67 and 5.41 ± 2.51. At week 48, both diameter of seminiferous tubules and spermatogenesis score increased to become 0.18 mm ± 0.029 and 0.18 mm ± 0.026, and score were 7.51 ± 2.14 and 7.57 ± 1.59, During this period, hyalinization and fibrosis of seminiferous tubule occurred. By week 6, the total testosterone, free testosterone, and estrogen hormone levels increased quite sharply and then decreased but still higher than base levels of hormone. In the recovery period, estrogen hormone increased significantly until the

  20. Allelic variation of the COMT gene in a despotic primate society: A haplotype is related to cortisol excretion in Macaca fuscata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflüger, Lena S; Gutleb, Daria R; Hofer, Martin; Fieder, Martin; Wallner, Bernard; Steinborn, Ralf

    2016-02-01

    Sequence variations in genes of the monoamine neurotransmitter system and their common function in human and non-human primate species are an ongoing issue of investigation. However, the COMT gene, coding for the catechol-O-methyltransferase, has not yet attracted much scientific attention regarding its functional role in non-human primates. Considering that a polymorphism of the human COMT gene affects the enzyme activity and cortisol level in response to a social stressor, this study investigated the impact of COMT on endocrine stress and behavioural parameters in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). The species exemplifies a despotic hierarchy in which males' social rank positions require an adaptation of behaviour strategies. During the mating period steroid secretion and the frequency of aggressive encounters between males increase. We addressed i) whether this species exhibits potential functional COMT variants, ii) whether these variants are associated with faecal cortisol excretion of males, iii) how they are distributed among different social rank positions and iv) whether they are associated with behavioural strategies during times of mate competition. By genotyping 26 males we identified three COMT haplotypes (HT), including a putative splice mutant (HT3). This variant was associated with increased cortisol excretion. Given the observed inverse correlation between cortisol and physical aggression, we assume that different COMT haplotypes may predispose individuals to pursue more or less aggressive strategies. How these gene-stress effects might favour a specific social role is discussed. Our study of non-invasive genotyping in combination with behavioural and endocrine parameters represents an important step towards the understanding of gene-stress effects in a hierarchically organised primate society. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Occurrence of Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Entamoeba in wild rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta living in urban and semi-rural North-West India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. Debenham

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., and Entamoeba spp. are intestinal protozoa capable of infecting a range of host species, and are important causes of human morbidity and mortality. Understanding their epidemiology is important, both for public health and for the health of the animals they infect. This study investigated the occurrence of these protozoans in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta in India, with the aim of providing preliminary information on the potential for transmission of these pathogens between macaques and humans. Faecal samples (n = 170 were collected from rhesus macaques from four districts of North-West India. Samples were analysed for Giardia/Cryptosporidium using a commercially available direct immunofluorescent antibody test after purification via immunomagnetic separation. Positive samples were characterised by sequencing of PCR products. Occurrence of Entamoeba was investigated first by using a genus-specific PCR, and positive samples further investigated via species-specific PCRs for Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar and Entamoeba moshkovskii. Giardia cysts were found in 31% of macaque samples, with all isolates belonging to Assemblage B. Cryptosporidium oocysts were found in 1 sample, however this sample did not result in amplification by PCR. Entamoeba spp. were found in 79% of samples, 49% of which were positive for E. coli. Multiplex PCR for E. histolytica, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii, did not result in amplification in any of the samples. Thus in 51% of the samples positive at the genus specific PCR, the Entamoeba species was not identified. This study provides baseline information on the potential for transmission of these zoonotic parasites at the wildlife-human interface.

  2. Thyroid hormone fluctuations indicate a thermoregulatory function in both a tropical (Alouatta palliata) and seasonally cold-habitat (Macaca fuscata) primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Cynthia L; Powell, Brianna L; Williams, Susan H; Hanya, Goro; Glander, Kenneth E; Vinyard, Christopher J

    2017-11-01

    Thyroid hormones boost animals' basal metabolic rate and represent an important thermoregulatory pathway for mammals that face cold temperatures. Whereas the cold thermal pressures experienced by primates in seasonal habitats at high latitudes and elevations are often apparent, tropical habitats also display distinct wet and dry seasons with modest changes in thermal environment. We assessed seasonal and temperature-related changes in thyroid hormone levels for two primate species in disparate thermal environments, tropical mantled howlers (Alouatta palliata), and seasonally cold-habitat Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). We collected urine and feces from animals and used ELISA to quantify levels of the thyroid hormone triiodothyronine (fT 3 ). For both species, fT 3 levels were significantly higher during the cooler season (wet/winter), consistent with a thermoregulatory role. Likewise, both species displayed greater temperature deficits (i.e., the degree to which animals warm their body temperature relative to ambient) during the cooler season, indicating greater thermoregulatory pressures during this time. Independently of season, Japanese macaques displayed increasing fT 3 levels with decreasing recently experienced maximum temperatures, but no relationship between fT 3 and recently experienced minimum temperatures. Howlers increased fT 3 levels as recently experienced minimum temperatures decreased, although demonstrated the opposite relationship with maximum temperatures. This may reflect natural thermal variation in howlers' habitat: wet seasons had cooler minimum and mean temperatures than the dry season, but similar maximum temperatures. Overall, our findings support the hypothesis that both tropical howlers and seasonally cold-habitat Japanese macaques utilize thyroid hormones as a mechanism to boost metabolism in response to thermoregulatory pressures. This implies that cool thermal pressures faced by tropical primates are sufficient to invoke an

  3. Behavioral inhibition in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta is related to the airways response, but not immune measures, commonly associated with asthma.

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    Katie Chun

    Full Text Available Behavioral inhibition reflects a disposition to react warily to novel situations, and has been associated with atopic diseases such as asthma. Retrospective work established the relationship between behavioral inhibition in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta and airway hyperresponsiveness, but not atopy, and the suggestion was made that behavioral inhibition might index components of asthma that are not immune-related. In the present study, we prospectively examined the relationship between behavioral inhibition and airway hyperresponsiveness, and whether hormonal and immune measures often associated with asthma were associated with behavioral inhibition and/or airway hyperresponsiveness. In a sample of 49 yearling rhesus monkeys (mean=1.25 years, n=24 behaviorally inhibited animals, we measured in vitro cytokine levels (IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, IFN-γ in response to stimulation, as well as peripheral blood cell percentages, cortisol levels, and percentage of regulatory T-cells (CD3+CD4+CD25+FOXP3+. Airway reactivity was assessed using an inhaled methacholine challenge. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed and the proportion of immune cells was determined. Behaviorally inhibited monkeys had airway hyperresponsiveness as indicated by the methacholine challenge (p=0.031, confirming our earlier retrospective result. Airway hyperresponsiveness was also associated with lower lymphocyte percentages in lavage fluid and marginally lower plasma cortisol concentrations. However, none of the tested measures was significantly related to both behavioral inhibition and airway hyperresponsiveness, and so could not mediate their relationship. Airway hyperresponsiveness is common to atopic and non-atopic asthma and behavioral inhibition has been related to altered autonomic activity in other studies. Our results suggest that behavioral inhibition might index an autonomically mediated reactive airway phenotype, and that a variety of stimuli (including inflammation within

  4. The effect of site (deltoid or gluteus muscle of intramuscular administration of anaesthetic drugs on the course of immobilisation in macaque monkeys (Macaca mulatta

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    Ladislav Hess

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the effect of site of intramuscular administration of anaesthetic drugs on the course of immobilisation in macaque monkeys (Macaca mulatta. Twenty macaque monkeys were given medetomidine (25 µg·kg-1 and ketamine (3 mg·kg-1 intramuscularly to the deltoid (n = 10 animals or gluteus (n = 10 animals muscles. Behavioural changes, loss of aggressiveness, immobilisation time and cardiorespiratory changes were recorded. The effect of drugs was reversed after 20 min by i.m. administration of atipamezole at the dose of 250 µg·kg-1. Highly significant differences (P < 0.001 were found between groups with gluteal or deltoid administration of drugs on the onset of immobilisation effect (71.3 s and 108.3 s, respectively, and immobilisation time (152.7 s and 254.4 s, respectively. In the gluteus muscle group, the grasp reflex was still present at the beginning of immobilisation and slowly wore off in 15–45 s. The same was valid for muscle tone. There were no differences in cardiorespiratory parameters in any of the groups. Animals of both groups recovered in 3–6 min after atipamezole administration. Administration of drugs to the deltoid muscle resulted in a more rapid onset and increased effect of immobilisation than administration to the gluteus muscle. Both in veterinary and human medicine, injection to the deltoid muscle may be more convenient in all cases, when rapid and more prominent effect is desirable as in premedication before surgery or in emergency medicine. The study is the first to compare the effect of administering drugs to different muscles and the results may improve the practice of intramuscular injections in animals and in humans.

  5. Fully automated multidimensional reversed-phase liquid chromatography with tandem anion/cation exchange columns for simultaneous global endogenous tyrosine nitration detection, integral membrane protein characterization, and quantitative proteomics mapping in cerebral infarcts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Quan; Szeto, Samuel S W; Law, Henry C H; Zhang, Zaijun; Wang, Yuqiang; Chu, Ivan K

    2015-10-06

    Protein tyrosine nitration (PTN) is a signature hallmark of radical-induced nitrative stress in a wide range of pathophysiological conditions, with naturally occurring abundances at substoichiometric levels. In this present study, a fully automated four-dimensional platform, consisting of high-/low-pH reversed-phase dimensions with two additional complementary, strong anion (SAX) and cation exchange (SCX), chromatographic separation stages inserted in tandem, was implemented for the simultaneous mapping of endogenous nitrated tyrosine-containing peptides within the global proteomic context of a Macaca fascicularis cerebral ischemic stroke model. This integrated RP-SA(C)X-RP platform was initially benchmarked through proteomic analyses of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, revealing extended proteome and protein coverage. A total of 27 144 unique peptides from 3684 nonredundant proteins [1% global false discovery rate (FDR)] were identified from M. fascicularis cerebral cortex tissue. The inclusion of the S(A/C)X columns contributed to the increased detection of acidic, hydrophilic, and hydrophobic peptide populations; these separation features enabled the concomitant identification of 127 endogenous nitrated peptides and 137 transmembrane domain-containing peptides corresponding to integral membrane proteins, without the need for specific targeted enrichment strategies. The enhanced diversity of the peptide inventory obtained from the RP-SA(C)X-RP platform also improved analytical confidence in isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based proteomic analyses.

  6. Alterations in the endometrium of rats, rabbits, and Macaca mulatta that received an implantation of copper/low-density polyethylene nanocomposite

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    Hu LX

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Li-Xia Hu,1,* Hong Wang,1,* Meng Rao,1,* Xiao-Ling Zhao,1 Jing Yang,1 Shi-Fu Hu,1 Jing He,1,2 Wei Xia,1 Hefang Liu,1 Bo Zhen,1 Haihong Di,1 Changsheng Xie,3 Xianping Xia,3 Changhong Zhu,11Family Planning Research Institute, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, People's Republic of China; 2Central Hospital of Wuhan, Wuhan, People's Republic of China; 3Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: A copper/low-density polyethylene nanocomposite (nano-Cu/LDPE, a potential intrauterine device component material, has been developed from our research. A logical extension of our previous work, this study was conducted to investigate the expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1, substance P (SP, and substance P receptor (SP-R in the endometrium of Sprague Dawley rats, New Zealand White rabbits, and Macaca mulatta implanted with nano-Cu/LDPE composite. The influence of the nano-Cu/LDPE composite on the morphology of the endometrium was also investigated. Animals were randomly divided into five groups: the sham-operated control group (SO group, bulk copper group (Cu group, LDPE group, and nano-Cu/LDPE groups I and II. An expression of PAI-1, SP, and SP-R in the endometrial tissues was examined by immunohistochemistry at day 30, 60, 90, and 180 postimplantation. The significant difference for PAI-1, SP, and SP-R between the nano-Cu/LDPE groups and the SO group (P<0.05 was identified when the observation period was terminated, and the changes of nano-Cu/LDPE on these parameters were less remarkable than those of the Cu group (P<0.05. The damage to the endometrial morphology caused by the nano-Cu/LDPE composite was much less than that caused by bulk copper. The nano-Cu/LDPE composite might be a potential substitute for conventional materials for intrauterine

  7. Necrotizing Scleritis, Conjunctivitis, and Other Pathologic Findings in the Left Eye and Brain of an Ebola Virus-Infected Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta) With Apparent Recovery and a Delayed Time of Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Derron A; Honko, Anna N; Kortepeter, Mark G; Sun, Mei; Johnson, Joshua C; Lugo-Roman, Luis A; Hensley, Lisa E

    2016-01-01

    A 3.5-year-old adult female rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) manifested swelling of the left upper eyelid and conjunctiva and a decline in clinical condition 18 days following intramuscular challenge with Ebola virus (EBOV; Kikwit-1995), after apparent clinical recovery. Histologic lesions with strong EBOV antigen staining were noted in the left eye (scleritis, conjunctivitis, and peri-optic neuritis), brain (choriomeningoencephalitis), stomach, proximal duodenum, and pancreas. Spleen, liver, and adrenal glands, common targets for acute infection, appeared histologically normal with no evidence of EBOV immunoreactivity. These findings may provide important insight for understanding sequelae seen in West African survivors of Ebola virus disease. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  8. Sex-specific heritability of spontaneous lipid levels in an extended pedigree of Indian-origin rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta.

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    Amanda Vinson

    Full Text Available The rhesus macaque is an important model for human atherosclerosis but genetic determinants of relevant phenotypes have not yet been investigated in this species. Because lipid levels are well-established and heritable risk factors for human atherosclerosis, our goal was to assess the heritability of lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels in a single, extended pedigree of 1,289 Indian-origin rhesus macaques. Additionally, because increasing evidence supports sex differences in the genetic architecture of lipid levels and lipid metabolism in humans and macaques, we also explored sex-specific heritability for all lipid measures investigated in this study. Using standard methods, we measured lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels from fasted plasma in a sample of 193 pedigreed rhesus macaques selected for membership in large, paternal half-sib cohorts, and maintained on a low-fat, low cholesterol chow diet. Employing a variance components approach, we found moderate heritability for total cholesterol (h²=0.257, P=0.032, LDL cholesterol (h²=0.252, P=0.030, and triglyceride levels (h²=0.197, P=0.034 in the full sample. However, stratification by sex (N=68 males, N=125 females revealed substantial sex-specific heritability for total cholesterol (0.644, P=0.004, females only, HDL cholesterol (0.843, P=0.0008, females only, VLDL cholesterol (0.482, P=0.018, males only, and triglyceride levels (0.705, P=0.001, males only that was obscured or absent when sexes were combined in the full sample. We conclude that genes contribute to spontaneous variation in circulating lipid levels in the Indian-origin rhesus macaque in a sex-specific manner, and that the rhesus macaque is likely to be a valuable model for sex-specific genetic effects on lipid risk factors for human atherosclerosis. These findings are a first-ever report of heritability for cholesterol levels in this species, and support the need for expanded analysis of these traits in

  9. Induced Neurocysticercosis in Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta Produces Clinical Signs and Lesions Similar to Natural Disease in Man

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    N. Chowdhury

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis is a serious endemic zoonosis resulting in increased cases of seizure and epilepsy in humans. The genesis of clinical manifestations of the disease through experimental animal models is poorly exploited. The monkeys may prove useful for the purpose due to their behavior and cognitive responses mimicking man. In this study, neurocysticercosis was induced in two rhesus monkeys each with 12,000 and 6,000 eggs, whereas three monkeys were given placebo. The monkeys given higher dose developed hyperexcitability, epileptic seizures, muscular tremors, digital cramps at 10 DPI, and finally paralysis of limbs, followed by death on 67 DPI, whereas the monkeys given lower dose showed delayed and milder clinical signs. On necropsy, all the infected monkeys showed numerous cysticerci in the brain. Histopathologically, heavily infected monkeys revealed liquefactive necrosis and formation of irregular cystic cavities lined by atrophied parenchymal septa with remnants of neuropil of the cerebrum. In contrast, the monkeys infected with lower dose showed formation of typical foreign body granulomas characterized by central liquefaction surrounded by chronic inflammatory response. It was concluded that the inflammatory and immune response exerted by the host against cysticerci, in turn, led to histopathological lesions and the resultant clinical signs thereof.

  10. Transitive inference in humans (Homo sapiens) and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) after massed training of the last two list items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Greg; Alkan, Yelda; Muñoz, Fabian; Ferrera, Vincent P; Terrace, Herbert S

    2017-08-01

    Transitive inference (TI) is a classic learning paradigm for which the relative contributions of experienced rewards and representation-based inference have been debated vigorously, particularly regarding the notion that animals are capable of logic and reasoning. Rhesus macaque subjects and human participants performed a TI task in which, prior to learning a 7-item list (ABCDEFG), a block of trials presented exclusively the pair FG. Contrary to the expectation of associative models, the high prior rate of reward for F did not disrupt subsequent learning of the entire list. Monkeys (who each completed many sessions with novel stimuli) learned to anticipate that novel stimuli should be preferred over F. We interpret this as evidence of a task representation of TI that generalizes beyond learning about specific stimuli. Humans (who were task-naïve) showed a transitory bias to F when it was paired with novel stimuli, but very rapidly unlearned that bias. Performance with respect to the remaining stimuli was consistent with past reports of TI in both species. These results are difficult to reconcile with any account that assigns the strength of association between individual stimuli and rewards. Instead, they support sophisticated cognitive processes in both species, albeit with some species differences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Characterization of Multi-Drug Resistant Enterococcus faecalis Isolated from Cephalic Recording Chambers in Research Macaques (Macaca spp..

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    Stephanie E Woods

    Full Text Available Nonhuman primates are commonly used for cognitive neuroscience research and often surgically implanted with cephalic recording chambers for electrophysiological recording. Aerobic bacterial cultures from 25 macaques identified 72 bacterial isolates, including 15 Enterococcus faecalis isolates. The E. faecalis isolates displayed multi-drug resistant phenotypes, with resistance to ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, bacitracin, and erythromycin, as well as high-level aminoglycoside resistance. Multi-locus sequence typing showed that most belonged to two E. faecalis sequence types (ST: ST 4 and ST 55. The genomes of three representative isolates were sequenced to identify genes encoding antimicrobial resistances and other traits. Antimicrobial resistance genes identified included aac(6'-aph(2", aph(3'-III, str, ant(6-Ia, tetM, tetS, tetL, ermB, bcrABR, cat, and dfrG, and polymorphisms in parC (S80I and gyrA (S83I were observed. These isolates also harbored virulence factors including the cytolysin toxin genes in ST 4 isolates, as well as multiple biofilm-associated genes (esp, agg, ace, SrtA, gelE, ebpABC, hyaluronidases (hylA, hylB, and other survival genes (ElrA, tpx. Crystal violet biofilm assays confirmed that ST 4 isolates produced more biofilm than ST 55 isolates. The abundance of antimicrobial resistance and virulence factor genes in the ST 4 isolates likely relates to the loss of CRISPR-cas. This macaque colony represents a unique model for studying E. faecalis infection associated with indwelling devices, and provides an opportunity to understand the basis of persistence of this pathogen in a healthcare setting.

  12. Risk Factor Analysis May Provide Clues to Diarrhea Prevention in Outdoor-Housed Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    PRONGAY, KAMM; PARK, BYUNG; MURPHY, STEPHANIE J.

    2014-01-01

    Seventy-five percent of rhesus macaques at national primate research centers are housed outside. Annually, 15–39% of these animals experience diarrhea and require veterinary treatment for dehydration, electrolyte imbalance, or weight loss. An estimated 21–33% of these patients will die or be euthanized. Many studies have explored the various infectious etiologies of non-human primate diarrhea. However, there is little published information on diarrhea incidence rates and risk factors in outdoor-housed rhesus macaques. Without this information, it is challenging to determine endemic and epidemic diarrhea levels, or to develop and evaluate mitigation strategies. Using electronic medical records, we conducted a retrospective cohort study to calculate diarrhea incidence rates for rhesus macaques (N = 3,181) housed in three different outdoor housing types (corrals, shelters, and temporary housing) at the Oregon National Primate Research Center between November 1, 2009 and October 31, 2010. With multiple logistic regression analysis, we determined the relative risk of housing type, sex, and age on development of diarrhea. Diarrhea incidence and mortality in our population was lower than many published ranges. Type of outdoor housing, age, and previous diarrhea episode were positively correlated with diarrhea risk. Younger animals in smaller shelters and temporary housing had a greater risk of acquiring diarrhea, with juvenile animals (0.7–3.9 years) having the highest mortality rate. Sex was not a risk factor, but adult females with diarrhea were more likely to develop life-threatening complications than adult males. We also constructed a predictive model for diarrhea-associated mortality using Classification and Regression Tree. Findings from this study will be used to develop and evaluate mitigation strategies in our outdoor-housed population and to provide a foundation for genetic susceptibility and immune function testing. PMID:23568382

  13. Pre-clinical toxicity & immunobiological evaluation of DNA rabies vaccine & combination rabies vaccine in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, B Dinesh; Kumar, P Uday; Krishna, T Prasanna; Kalyanasundaram, S; Suresh, P; Jagadeesan, V; Hariharan, S; Naidu, A Nadamuni; Krishnaswamy, Kamala; Rangarajan, P N; Srinivasan, V A; Reddy, G S; Sesikeran, B

    2013-06-01

    Pre-clinical toxicology evaluation of biotechnology products is a challenge to the toxicologist. The present investigation is an attempt to evaluate the safety profile of the first indigenously developed recombinant DNA anti-rabies vaccine [DRV (100 μg)] and combination rabies vaccine [CRV (100 μg DRV and 1.25 IU of cell culture-derived inactivated rabies virus vaccine)], which are intended for clinical use by intramuscular route in Rhesus monkeys. As per the regulatory requirements, the study was designed for acute (single dose - 14 days), sub-chronic (repeat dose - 28 days) and chronic (intended clinical dose - 120 days) toxicity tests using three dose levels, viz. therapeutic, average (2x therapeutic dose) and highest dose (10 x therapeutic dose) exposure in monkeys. The selection of the model i.e. monkey was based on affinity and rapid higher antibody response during the efficacy studies. An attempt was made to evaluate all parameters which included physical, physiological, clinical, haematological and histopathological profiles of all target organs, as well as Tiers I, II, III immunotoxicity parameters. In acute toxicity there was no mortality in spite of exposing the monkeys to 10XDRV. In sub chronic and chronic toxicity studies there were no abnormalities in physical, physiological, neurological, clinical parameters, after administration of test compound in intended and 10 times of clinical dosage schedule of DRV and CRV under the experimental conditions. Clinical chemistry, haematology, organ weights and histopathology studies were essentially unremarkable except the presence of residual DNA in femtogram level at site of injection in animal which received 10X DRV in chronic toxicity study. No Observational Adverse Effects Level (NOAEL) of DRV is 1000 ug/dose (10 times of therapeutic dose) if administered on 0, 4, 7, 14, 28 th day. The information generated by this study not only draws attention to the need for national and international regulatory

  14. Stickland reactions of dental plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, M A; Kemp, C W; Robrish, S A; Bowen, W H

    1983-01-01

    Dental plaque samples from monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were shown to contain proline reduction activity in coupled Stickland reactions with other amino acids and also with certain end products of bacterial glucose metabolism. The unusually high concentration of bound and free proline in the oral environment may be of importance in both the production of base and in the removal of acid from the tooth surface after dietary carbohydrate ingestion. PMID:6618673

  15. Different macaque models of cognitive aging exhibit task-dependent behavioral disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comrie, Alison E; Gray, Daniel T; Smith, Anne C; Barnes, Carol A

    2018-05-15

    Deficits in cognitive functions that rely on the integrity of the frontal and temporal lobes are characteristic of normative human aging. Due to similar aging phenotypes and homologous cortical organization between nonhuman primates and humans, several species of macaque monkeys are used as models to explore brain senescence. These macaque species are typically regarded as equivalent models of cognitive aging, yet no direct comparisons have been made to support this assumption. Here we used adult and aged rhesus and bonnet macaques (Macaca mulatta and Macaca radiata) to characterize the effect of age on acquisition and retention of information across delays in a battery of behavioral tasks that rely on prefrontal cortex and medial temporal lobe networks. The cognitive functions that were tested include visuospatial short-term memory, object recognition memory, and object-reward association memory. In general, bonnet macaques at all ages outperformed rhesus macaques on tasks thought to rely primarily on the prefrontal cortex, and were more resilient to age-related deficits in these behaviors. On the other hand, both species were comparably impaired by age on tasks thought to preferentially engage the medial temporal lobe. Together, these results suggest that rhesus and bonnet macaques are not equivalent models of cognitive aging and highlight the value of cross-species comparisons. These observations should enable improved design and interpretation of future experiments aimed at understanding changes in cognition across the lifespan. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Genetic polymorphisms of drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 enzymes in cynomolgus and rhesus monkeys and common marmosets in preclinical studies for humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Yasuhiro; Uehara, Shotaro; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2017-12-23

    Cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis, Old World Monkeys) and common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus, New World Monkeys) have been widely, and expectedly, used as non-human primate models in drug development studies. Major drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes information is now available that supports these primate species as animal models, and it is established that multiple forms of cynomolgus monkey and common marmoset P450 enzymes have generally similar substrate recognition functionality to human P450 enzymes. This research update provides information on genetic polymorphisms of P450 enzymes in cynomolgus monkey and common marmoset like human P450 enzymes. Information on rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), another macaque species used in drug metabolism studies, is also included for comparison. Among a variety of cynomolgus monkey P450 variants investigated, typical examples include individual pharmacokinetic data for efavirenz and R-warfarin associated with cynomolgus monkey P450 2C9 (formerly 2C43) and 2C19 (2C75) variants, respectively, and for R-omeprazole and S-warfarin associated with marmoset P450 2C19 variants. These findings provide a foundation for understanding the individual pharmacokinetic and toxicological results in non-human primates as preclinical models and will help to further support understanding of molecular mechanisms of human P450 function. In addition to these polymorphic P450 enzymes, effects of aging on some drug clearances mediated by cynomolgus monkey and common marmoset P450 enzymes were found in elder animals or animals pretreated with rifampicin. This review describes genetic and acquired individual differences in cynomolgus monkey and common marmoset P450 enzymes involved in drug oxidation associated with pharmacological and/or toxicological effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Postsacral vertebral morphology in relation to tail length among primates and other mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Gabrielle A

    2015-02-01

    Tail reduction/loss independently evolved in a number of mammalian lineages, including hominoid primates. One prerequisite to appropriately contextualizing its occurrence and understanding its significance is the ability to track evolutionary changes in tail length throughout the fossil record. However, to date, the bony correlates of tail length variation among living taxa have not been comprehensively examined. This study quantifies postsacral vertebral morphology among living primates and other mammals known to differ in relative tail length (RTL). Linear and angular measurements with known biomechanical significance were collected on the first, mid-, and transition proximal postsacral vertebrae, and their relationship with RTL was assessed using phylogenetic generalized least-squares regression methods. Compared to shorter-tailed primates, longer-tailed primates possess a greater number of postsacral vertebral features associated with increased proximal tail flexibility (e.g., craniocaudally longer vertebral bodies), increased intervertebral body joint range of motion (e.g., more circularly shaped cranial articular surfaces), and increased leverage of tail musculature (e.g., longer spinous processes). These observations are corroborated by the comparative mammalian sample, which shows that distantly related short-tailed (e.g., Phascolarctos, Lynx) and long-tailed (e.g., Dendrolagus, Acinonyx) nonprimate mammals morphologically converge with short-tailed (e.g., Macaca tonkeana) and long-tailed (e.g., Macaca fascicularis) primates, respectively. Multivariate models demonstrate that the variables examined account for 70% (all mammals) to 94% (only primates) of the variance in RTL. Results of this study may be used to infer the tail lengths of extinct primates and other mammals, thereby improving our understanding about the evolution of tail reduction/loss. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. A wireless transmission neural interface system for unconstrained non-human primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Leon, Jose A.; Parajuli, Arun; Franklin, Robert; Sorenson, Michael; Felleman, Daniel J.; Hansen, Bryan J.; Hu, Ming; Dragoi, Valentin

    2015-10-01

    Objective. Studying the brain in large animal models in a restrained laboratory rig severely limits our capacity to examine brain circuits in experimental and clinical applications. Approach. To overcome these limitations, we developed a high-fidelity 96-channel wireless system to record extracellular spikes and local field potentials from the neocortex. A removable, external case of the wireless device is attached to a titanium pedestal placed in the animal skull. Broadband neural signals are amplified, multiplexed, and continuously transmitted as TCP/IP data at a sustained rate of 24 Mbps. A Xilinx Spartan 6 FPGA assembles the digital signals into serial data frames for transmission at 20 kHz though an 802.11n wireless data link on a frequency-shift key-modulated signal at 5.7-5.8 GHz to a receiver up to 10 m away. The system is powered by two CR123A, 3 V batteries for 2 h of operation. Main results. We implanted a multi-electrode array in visual area V4 of one anesthetized monkey (Macaca fascicularis) and in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) of a freely moving monkey (Macaca mulatta). The implanted recording arrays were electrically stable and delivered broadband neural data over a year of testing. For the first time, we compared dlPFC neuronal responses to the same set of stimuli (food reward) in restrained and freely moving conditions. Although we did not find differences in neuronal responses as a function of reward type in the restrained and unrestrained conditions, there were significant differences in correlated activity. This demonstrates that measuring neural responses in freely moving animals can capture phenomena that are absent in the traditional head-fixed paradigm. Significance. We implemented a wireless neural interface for multi-electrode recordings in freely moving non-human primates, which can potentially move systems neuroscience to a new direction by allowing one to record neural signals while animals interact with their environment.

  19. Haplessly hoping: macaque major histocompatibility complex made easy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Roger W; Karl, Julie A; Bohn, Patrick S; Nimityongskul, Francesca A; Starrett, Gabriel J; O'Connor, David H

    2013-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) gene products control the repertoire of T cell responses that an individual may create against pathogens and foreign tissues. This text will review the current understanding of MHC genetics in nonhuman primates, with a focus on Mauritian-origin cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) and Indian-origin rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). These closely related macaque species provide important experimental models for studies of infectious disease pathogenesis, vaccine development, and transplantation research. Recent advances resulting from the application of several cost effective, high-throughput approaches, with deep sequencing technologies have revolutionized our ability to perform MHC genotyping of large macaque cohorts. Pyrosequencing of cDNA amplicons with a Roche/454 GS Junior instrument, provides excellent resolution of MHC class I allelic variants with semi-quantitative estimates of relative levels of transcript abundance. Introduction of the Illumina MiSeq platform significantly increased the sample throughput, since the sample loading workflow is considerably less labor intensive, and each instrument run yields approximately 100-fold more sequence data. Extension of these sequencing methods from cDNA to genomic DNA amplicons further streamlines the experimental workflow and opened opportunities for retrospective MHC genotyping of banked DNA samples. To facilitate the reporting of MHC genotypes, and comparisons between groups of macaques, this text also introduces an intuitive series of abbreviated rhesus MHC haplotype designations based on a major Mamu-A or Mamu-B transcript characteristic for ancestral allele combinations. The authors believe that the use of MHC-defined macaques promises to improve the reproducibility, and predictability of results from pre-clinical studies for translation to humans.

  20. The November 2011 irruption of buoy barnacles Dosima fascicularis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dissection failed to reveal foreign attachment sites in 40 floats, but digesting 70 floats in potassium hydroxide revealed small plastic fragments in eight floats, one tar ball and one Velella skeleton. The 100 study colonies were comprised solely of buoy barnacles, but a Janthina shell had one buoy barnacle and 18 Lepas ...

  1. Hydrogel-delivered brain-derived neurotrophic factor promotes tissue repair and recovery after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Douglas J; Nguyen, Cynthia; Chun, Hyun N; L Llorente, Irene; Chiu, Abraham S; Machnicki, Michal; Zarembinski, Thomas I; Carmichael, S Thomas

    2017-03-01

    Stroke is the leading cause of adult disability. Systemic delivery of candidate neural repair therapies is limited by the blood-brain barrier and off-target effects. We tested a bioengineering approach for local depot release of BDNF from the infarct cavity for neural repair in chronic periods after stroke. The brain release levels of a hyaluronic acid hydrogel + BDNF were tested in several stroke models in mouse (strains C57Bl/6, DBA) and non-human primate ( Macaca fascicularis) and tracked with MRI. The behavioral recovery effects of hydrogel + BDNF and the effects on tissue repair outcomes were determined. Hydrogel-delivered BDNF diffuses from the stroke cavity into peri-infarct tissue over 3 weeks in two mouse stroke models, compared with 1 week for direct BDNF injection. Hydrogel delivery of BDNF promotes recovery of motor function. Mapping of motor system connections indicates that hydrogel-BDNF induces axonal sprouting within existing cortical and cortico-striatal systems. Pharmacogenetic studies show that hydrogel-BDNF induces the initial migration of immature neurons into the peri-infarct cortex and their long-term survival. In chronic stroke in the non-human primate, hydrogel-released BDNF can be detected up to 2 cm from the infarct, a distance relevant to human functional recovery in stroke. The hydrogel can be tracked by MRI in mouse and primate.

  2. Radiation-induced chromosome aberrations in lymphocytes from man and crab-eating monkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, E.; Hirai, M.; Tobari, I.; Utsugi, T.; Nakai, S.

    1982-01-01

    To obtain information on the relation between yield of chromosome aberrations and dose at low-dose levels, experiments were conducted with 5, 10, 20, 30 and 50 rad of 137 Cs γ-rays, on lymphocytes from man and crab-eating monkey (Macaca fascicularis). The dose-response relationship for dicentrics was obtained from the combined data of these low-dose experiments with those of our previous ones at high doses (100-400 rad). When the difference between observed yields and those expected from the linear-quadratic model were computed, the dose-response curve had a good fit for man, but not for the monkey. The linear regression lines between 0 and 30 rad were calculated, because the expected values of α/β for man and monkey would be about 100 and 60 rad. The human data gave a satisfactory fit to a linear model, i.e., a linear increase in aberration frequency with dose, whereas this was not so for those of the monkey. Furthermore, there was some suggestive evidence for the existence of a plateau in dicentric yields between 10 and 30 rad for the monkey and between 20 and 30 rad for human lymphocytes, but more data would be needed to verify this suggestion, particularly for human lymphocytes. (orig.)

  3. Dose-response relations for dicentric yields in G0 lymphocytes of man and crab-eating monkey following acute and chronic γ-irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, E.; Hirai, M.; Tobari, I.; Nakai, S.A.

    1979-01-01

    A comparison has been made of dicentric yields in G 0 lymphocytes between man and crab-eating monkey, Macaca fascicularis, after acute and chronic γ-irradiations. With acute irradiation (49.6 rad/min) there was no significant difference between them, but for the chronic irradiation (17.1 rad/h) a significant difference was observed between the species. When the dose-response relations were fitted to the linear-quadratic model (Y = αD + βD 2 ), the species-difference observed for chronic irradiation was almost entirely due to change in the value of β. In addition, after chronic irradiation the β-value for monkey was almost negligible, but that for man was significant. Post-irradiation incubation experiment showed that cells with dicentrics were partly eliminated during the course of chronic irradiation, because there were appreciable reductions of dicentric yields (ca. 25% for both man and monkey at 400 rad) together with mitotic indices (ca. 30% and 60% for man and monkey, respectively, at 400 rad). Accordingly, it would be reasonable to postulate that G 0 repair for dicentrics other than selection mechanism must play a major role in the effects of low dose rate. It can be further suggested that G 0 -repair capacity for chromosal damages leading to dicentrics may be different among different primate species. (Auth.)

  4. Convergence of inhibitory neural inputs regulate motor activity in the murine and monkey stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaylor, Lara A; Hwang, Sung Jin; Sanders, Kenton M; Ward, Sean M

    2016-11-01

    Inhibitory motor neurons regulate several gastric motility patterns including receptive relaxation, gastric peristaltic motor patterns, and pyloric sphincter opening. Nitric oxide (NO) and purines have been identified as likely candidates that mediate inhibitory neural responses. However, the contribution from each neurotransmitter has received little attention in the distal stomach. The aims of this study were to identify the roles played by NO and purines in inhibitory motor responses in the antrums of mice and monkeys. By using wild-type mice and mutants with genetically deleted neural nitric oxide synthase (Nos1 -/- ) and P2Y1 receptors (P2ry1 -/- ) we examined the roles of NO and purines in postjunctional inhibitory responses in the distal stomach and compared these responses to those in primate stomach. Activation of inhibitory motor nerves using electrical field stimulation (EFS) produced frequency-dependent inhibitory junction potentials (IJPs) that produced muscle relaxations in both species. Stimulation of inhibitory nerves during slow waves terminated pacemaker events and associated contractions. In Nos1 -/- mice IJPs and relaxations persisted whereas in P2ry1 -/- mice IJPs were absent but relaxations persisted. In the gastric antrum of the non-human primate model Macaca fascicularis, similar NO and purine neural components contributed to inhibition of gastric motor activity. These data support a role of convergent inhibitory neural responses in the regulation of gastric motor activity across diverse species. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Human presence increases parasitic load in endangered lion-tailed macaques (Macaca silenus in its fragmented rainforest habitats in Southern India.

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    Shaik Hussain

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Understanding changes in the host-parasite relationship due to habitat fragmentation is necessary for better management and conservation of endangered species in fragmented landscapes. Pathogens and parasites can pose severe threat to species in restricted environments such as forest fragments where there is increased contact of wildlife with human and livestock populations. Environmental stress and reduced nutritional level in forest fragments can influence parasite infection and intensity on the native species. In this study, we examine the impact of habitat fragmentation on the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in lion-tailed macaques in a fragmented rainforest in Western Ghats. METHODS: The prevalence of different gastrointestinal parasites was estimated from 91 fecal samples collected from 9 lion-tailed macaque groups in nine forest fragments. The parasites were identified up to genus level on the basis of the morphology and coloration of the egg, larva and cyst. The covariates included forest fragment area, group size and the presence/absence of human settlements and livestock in proximity. We used a linear regression model to identify the covariates that significantly influenced the prevalence of different parasite taxa. RESULTS: Nine gastrointestinal parasite taxa were detected in lion-tailed macaque groups. The groups near human settlements had greater prevalence and number of taxa, and these variables also had significant positive correlations with group size. We found that these parameters were also greater in groups near human settlements after controlling for group size. Livestock were present in all five fragments that had human settlements in proximity. CONCLUSION: The present study suggests that high prevalence and species richness of gastrointestinal parasites in lion-tailed macaque groups are directly related to habitat fragmentation, high anthropogenic activities and high host density. The parasite load

  6. Copy number variation of CCL3-like genes affects rate of progression to simian-AIDS in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta.

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    Jeremiah D Degenhardt

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Variation in genes underlying host immunity can lead to marked differences in susceptibility to HIV infection among humans. Despite heavy reliance on non-human primates as models for HIV/AIDS, little is known about which host factors are shared and which are unique to a given primate lineage. Here, we investigate whether copy number variation (CNV at CCL3-like genes (CCL3L, a key genetic host factor for HIV/AIDS susceptibility and cell-mediated immune response in humans, is also a determinant of time until onset of simian-AIDS in rhesus macaques. Using a retrospective study of 57 rhesus macaques experimentally infected with SIVmac, we find that CCL3L CNV explains approximately 18% of the variance in time to simian-AIDS (p<0.001 with lower CCL3L copy number associating with more rapid disease course. We also find that CCL3L copy number varies significantly (p<10(-6 among rhesus subpopulations, with Indian-origin macaques having, on average, half as many CCL3L gene copies as Chinese-origin macaques. Lastly, we confirm that CCL3L shows variable copy number in humans and chimpanzees and report on CCL3L CNV within and among three additional primate species. On the basis of our findings we suggest that (1 the difference in population level copy number may explain previously reported observations of longer post-infection survivorship of Chinese-origin rhesus macaques, (2 stratification by CCL3L copy number in rhesus SIV vaccine trials will increase power and reduce noise due to non-vaccine-related differences in survival, and (3 CCL3L CNV is an ancestral component of the primate immune response and, therefore, copy number variation has not been driven by HIV or SIV per se.

  7. Radiation-induced endometriosis in Macaca mulatta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanton, J.W.; Golden, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    Female rhesus monkeys received whole-body doses of ionizing radiation in the form of single-energy protons, mixed-energy protons, X rays, and electrons. Endometriosis developed in 53% of the monkeys during a 17-year period after exposure. Incidence rates for endometriosis related to radiation type were: single-energy protons, 54%; mixed-energy protons, 73%; X rays, 71%; and electrons, 57%. The incidence of endometriosis in nonirradiated control monkeys was 26%. Monkeys exposed to single-energy protons, mixed-energy protons, and X rays developed endometriosis at a significantly higher rate than control monkeys (chi 2, P less than 0.05). Severity of endometriosis was staged as massive, moderate, and minimal. The incidence of these stages were 65, 16, and 19%, respectively. Observations of clinical disease included weight loss in 43% of the monkeys, anorexia in 35%, space-occupying masses detected by abdominal palpation in 55%, abnormal ovarian/uterine anatomy on rectal examination in 89%, and radiographic evidence of abdominal masses in 38%. Pathological lesions were endometrial cyst formation in 69% of the monkeys, adhesions of the colon in 66%, urinary bladder in 50%, ovaries in 86%, and ureters in 44%, focal nodules of endometrial tissue throughout the omentum in 59%, and metastasis in 9%. Clinical management of endometriosis consisted of debulking surgery and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy combined in some cases with total abdominal hysterectomy. Postoperative survival rates at 1 and 5 years for monkeys recovering from surgery were 48 and 36%, respectively

  8. Vicarious Reinforcement In Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta

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    Steve W. C. Chang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available What happens to others profoundly influences our own behavior. Such other-regarding outcomes can drive observational learning, as well as motivate cooperation, charity, empathy, and even spite. Vicarious reinforcement may serve as one of the critical mechanisms mediating the influence of other-regarding outcomes on behavior and decision-making in groups. Here we show that rhesus macaques spontaneously derive vicarious reinforcement from observing rewards given to another monkey, and that this reinforcement can motivate them to subsequently deliver or withhold rewards from the other animal. We exploited Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning to associate rewards to self (M1 and/or rewards to another monkey (M2 with visual cues. M1s made more errors in the instrumental trials when cues predicted reward to M2 compared to when cues predicted reward to M1, but made even more errors when cues predicted reward to no one. In subsequent preference tests between pairs of conditioned cues, M1s preferred cues paired with reward to M2 over cues paired with reward to no one. By contrast, M1s preferred cues paired with reward to self over cues paired with reward to both monkeys simultaneously. Rates of attention to M2 strongly predicted the strength and valence of vicarious reinforcement. These patterns of behavior, which were absent in nonsocial control trials, are consistent with vicarious reinforcement based upon sensitivity to observed, or counterfactual, outcomes with respect to another individual. Vicarious reward may play a critical role in shaping cooperation and competition, as well as motivating observational learning and group coordination in rhesus macaques, much as it does in humans. We propose that vicarious reinforcement signals mediate these behaviors via homologous neural circuits involved in reinforcement learning and decision-making.

  9. Vicarious reinforcement in rhesus macaques (macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Steve W C; Winecoff, Amy A; Platt, Michael L

    2011-01-01

    What happens to others profoundly influences our own behavior. Such other-regarding outcomes can drive observational learning, as well as motivate cooperation, charity, empathy, and even spite. Vicarious reinforcement may serve as one of the critical mechanisms mediating the influence of other-regarding outcomes on behavior and decision-making in groups. Here we show that rhesus macaques spontaneously derive vicarious reinforcement from observing rewards given to another monkey, and that this reinforcement can motivate them to subsequently deliver or withhold rewards from the other animal. We exploited Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning to associate rewards to self (M1) and/or rewards to another monkey (M2) with visual cues. M1s made more errors in the instrumental trials when cues predicted reward to M2 compared to when cues predicted reward to M1, but made even more errors when cues predicted reward to no one. In subsequent preference tests between pairs of conditioned cues, M1s preferred cues paired with reward to M2 over cues paired with reward to no one. By contrast, M1s preferred cues paired with reward to self over cues paired with reward to both monkeys simultaneously. Rates of attention to M2 strongly predicted the strength and valence of vicarious reinforcement. These patterns of behavior, which were absent in non-social control trials, are consistent with vicarious reinforcement based upon sensitivity to observed, or counterfactual, outcomes with respect to another individual. Vicarious reward may play a critical role in shaping cooperation and competition, as well as motivating observational learning and group coordination in rhesus macaques, much as it does in humans. We propose that vicarious reinforcement signals mediate these behaviors via homologous neural circuits involved in reinforcement learning and decision-making.

  10. The colonization of carrion by soldier fly, Ptecticus melanurus (Walker) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) in a tropical forest in Malaysia: a new potential species for minimum PMI estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azwandi, A; Omar, B

    2012-12-01

    This paper discusses the colonization of the stratiomyid species Ptecticus melanurus (Walker) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) in monkey carrion and its potential for the determination of the minimum time since death (PMI). A study was conducted in a tropical forest at Bangi, Malaysia from 13 November 2009 to 8 June 2011. Twelve monkey carcasses (Macaca fascicularis Raffles) were used and divided in equal number into three different field trials. Adults of P. melanurus were first observed on monkey carrions on the second day the carcasses were placed in the field while their penultimate instar larvae were found in the wet soil under and beside carcass from day 8 to 31 days postmortem.

  11. Therapeutic Vaccine Against Primate Papillomavirus Infections of the Cervix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ragonnaud, Emeline; Andersson, Anne-Marie C; Mariya, Silmi

    2017-01-01

    oncogenic HPV strains. This antigen was found to be as related to circulating oncogenic Macaca fascicularis papillomaviruses (MfPVs) as to oncogenic HPVs. The CDSE1E2 antigen was fused to a T-cell adjuvant and encoded in chimpanzee 3 and 63 adenoviral vectors. We first showed that the combination of these 2....... Preexisting MfPV infections did not prime vaccine inducible immune responses. Importantly, immunized oncogenic MfPV type 3 (MfPV3) infected animals that responded toward MfPV3 were able to diminish cervical MfPV3 DNA content. Although insufficient breadth was achieved, our results suggest that a relevant...

  12. Radioimmunoassay of class-specific antibodies to Streptococcus mutans in monkey serum and saliva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, J.; Colman, G.; Huges, M.

    1979-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay (RIA) has been developed to measure class-specific antibodies to Streptococcus mutans in the serum and saliva of monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). Antihuman immunoglobulin antibodies purified by affinity chromatography on immobilised monkey immoglobulins and labelled with 125 I were employed. Formalised cells of S. mutans and an extract of culture supernatant adsorbed to polystyrene wells were used as solid-phase antigens. The coefficients of variation of IgG, IgA, and IgM assays were less than or equal to 10% for both antigen systems. It is shown that this RIA is a sensitive, reproducible and quantitative method. (Auth.)

  13. Modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Spädtke, P

    2013-01-01

    Modeling of technical machines became a standard technique since computer became powerful enough to handle the amount of data relevant to the specific system. Simulation of an existing physical device requires the knowledge of all relevant quantities. Electric fields given by the surrounding boundary as well as magnetic fields caused by coils or permanent magnets have to be known. Internal sources for both fields are sometimes taken into account, such as space charge forces or the internal magnetic field of a moving bunch of charged particles. Used solver routines are briefly described and some bench-marking is shown to estimate necessary computing times for different problems. Different types of charged particle sources will be shown together with a suitable model to describe the physical model. Electron guns are covered as well as different ion sources (volume ion sources, laser ion sources, Penning ion sources, electron resonance ion sources, and H$^-$-sources) together with some remarks on beam transport.

  14. JENIS-JENIS MAMALIA YANG MENGUNJUNGI KUBANGAN BABI HUTAN DI KAWASAN HUTAN KONSERVASI PT TIDAR KERINCI AGUNG DAN PT KENCANA SAWIT INDONESIA, SOLOK SELATAN, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Insani

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian mengenai jenis-jenis mamalia yang mengunjungi kubangan babi hutan di hutan konservasi PT Tidar Kerinci Agung dan PT Kencana Sawit Indonesia, Solok Selatan, Sumatera Barat telah dilaksanakan dari 15 Juni sampai dengan 8 Desember 2015. Penelitian dilakukan dengan pemasangan tujuh buah perangkap kamera di sekitar kubangan babi hutan. Selama penelitian didapatkan 18 jenis hewan mamalia dari 12 famili dan 5 ordo. Hewan mamalia yang sering mengunjungi kubangan babi hutan yaitu Sus scrofa (481 foto, Macaca nemestrina (476 foto, Sus barbatus (269 foto, Macaca fascicularis (38 foto dan Muntiacus muntjak (33 foto. Penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa kubangan babi hutan menarik bermacam-macam jenis mamalia dengan frekuensi kunjungan yang berbeda-beda.

  15. Modeling hippocampal neurogenesis across the lifespan in seven species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazic, Stanley E

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the number of new cells and neurons added to the dentate gyrus across the lifespan, and to compare the rate of age-associated decline in neurogenesis across species. Data from mice (Mus musculus), rats (Rattus norvegicus), lesser hedgehog tenrecs (Echinops telfairi), macaques (Macaca mulatta), marmosets (Callithrix jacchus), tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri), and humans (Homo sapiens) were extracted from 21 data sets published in 14 different reports. Analysis of variance (ANOVA), exponential, Weibull, and power models were fit to the data to determine which best described the relationship between age and neurogenesis. Exponential models provided a suitable fit and were used to estimate the relevant parameters. The rate of decrease of neurogenesis correlated with species longevity (r = 0.769, p = 0.043), but not body mass or basal metabolic rate. Of all the cells added postnatally to the mouse dentate gyrus, only 8.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0% to 14.7%) of these will be added after middle age. In addition, only 5.7% (95% CI 0.7% to 9.9%) of the existing cell population turns over from middle age and onward. Thus, relatively few new cells are added for much of an animal's life, and only a proportion of these will mature into functional neurons. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Bonnet monkey model for pancreatic changes in induced malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhyamani, S; Vijayakumari, A; Balaraman Nair, M

    1999-01-01

    Pancreatic degenerative lesions of identical nature could be induced in bonnet monkeys (Macaca radiata) fed protein-deficient tapioca or cassava starch-based and corn-starch-based diets for 3 or 5 months. Marked to severe lobular and acinar cell atrophy in animals fed low-protein diets resembled human pancreatic atrophy resulting from protein deficiency. Animals fed low-protein, high-carbohydrate diets showed lesions akin to tropical chronic calculus pancreatopathy with diabetes mellitus. The pancreatic lesions comprised moderate to marked acinar cell atrophy, marked islet hyperplasia or nesidioblastosis with hypertrophy and mucoid metaplasia of the duct epithelium. Mucoid vasculopathy of the pancreatic artery and arterioles was observed in all animals given protein-deficient diets. It was enhanced in those given additional carbohydrate. Identical lesions were observed after using either source of carbohydrate. This excluded the role of toxic factors such as cyanoglycosides or heavy metals from a tapioca source in initiating the lesions. The study establishes monkey models for the spectrum of human pancreatic changes associated with malnutrition owing to protein deficiency and nutritional imbalance with low-protein, high-starch diets. The experiments demonstrate the dual effects of similar diets on the parenchyma and vasculature of the pancreas.

  17. Effects of amphetamine, diazepam and caffeine on polysomnography (EEG, EMG, EOG)-derived variables measured using telemetry in Cynomolgus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Authier, Simon; Bassett, Leanne; Pouliot, Mylene; Rachalski, Adeline; Troncy, Eric; Paquette, Dominique; Mongrain, Valérie

    2014-01-01

    Medication-induced sleep disturbances are a major concern in drug development as a multitude of prescription drugs alter sleep patterns, often negatively. Polysomnography is used in clinical diagnostics but is also applicable to animal models. Rodent sleep architecture (nocturnal) differs from larger diurnal mammals, including humans, increasing the translational potential of non-rodent species to the clinic. This study aimed to characterize the response to pharmacological agents known to affect sleep structure and EEG activity in a non-human primate (Macaca fascicularis) using telemetry-based polysomnography. Animals were instrumented with telemetry transmitters for continuous electroencephalogram (EEG), electro-oculogram (EOG) and electromyogram (EMG) monitoring combined with video. EEG, EMG and EOG were monitored for 12 to 24h to establish baseline values, followed by administration of pharmacological agents (saline, d-amphetamine, diazepam or caffeine). Amphetamine (0.3 and 1mg/kg, by oral administration (PO)) significantly reduced total sleep time, including the duration of both non-rapid eye movement [NREM] sleep and REM sleep. It also decreased EEG activity in low frequencies (i.e., 4-6Hz) during wakefulness. Diazepam (2mg/kg, PO) did not significantly alter sleep duration, but importantly reduced EEG activity in low frequencies (approximately 2-12Hz) during wakefulness, NREM and REM sleep. Finally, caffeine (10 and 30mg/kg, PO) decreased both NREM and REM sleep duration. In addition, spectral analysis revealed important decreases in low frequency activity (i.e., 1-8Hz) during wakefulness with a parallel increase in high frequency activity (i.e., 20-50Hz) during NREM sleep. As these observations are similar to previously reported pharmacological effects in humans, results support that EEG, EOG and EMG monitoring by telemetry in Cynomolgus monkeys represents a useful non-clinical model to investigate and quantify drug-induced sleep disturbances. Copyright

  18. Advances in nonhuman primate models of autism: Integrating neuroscience and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, M D; Schumann, C M

    2018-01-01

    Given the prevalence and societal impact of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), there is an urgent need to develop innovative preventative strategies and treatments to reduce the alarming number of cases and improve core symptoms for afflicted individuals. Translational efforts between clinical and preclinical research are needed to (i) identify and evaluate putative causes of ASD, (ii) determine the underlying neurobiological mechanisms, (iii) develop and test novel therapeutic approaches and (iv) ultimately translate basic research into safe and effective clinical practices. However, modeling a uniquely human brain disorder, such as ASD, will require sophisticated animal models that capitalize on unique advantages of diverse species including drosophila, zebra fish, mice, rats, and ultimately, species more closely related to humans, such as the nonhuman primate. Here we discuss the unique contributions of the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) model to ongoing efforts to understand the neurobiology of the disorder, focusing on the convergence of brain and behavior outcome measures that parallel features of human ASD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Social inequalities in health in nonhuman primates

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    Carol A. Shively

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Overall health has been linked to socioeconomic status, with the gap between social strata increasing each year. Studying the impact of social position on health and biological functioning in nonhuman primates has allowed researchers to model the human condition while avoiding ethical complexities or other difficulties characteristic of human studies. Using female cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis, our lab has examined the link between social status and stress for 30 years. Female nonhuman primates are especially sensitive to social stressors which can deleteriously affect reproductive health, leading to harmful consequences to their overall health. Subordinates have lower progesterone concentrations during the luteal phase of menstrual cycle, which is indicative of absence or impairment of ovulation. Subordinate animals receive more aggression, less affiliative attention, and are more likely to exhibit depressive behaviors. They also express higher stress-related biomarkers such as increased heart rates and lower mean cortisol. While no differences in body weight between dominant and subordinate animals are observed, subordinates have lower bone density and more visceral fat than their dominant counterparts. The latter increases risk for developing inflammatory diseases. Differences are also observed in neurological and autonomic function. A growing body of data suggests that diet composition may amplify or diminish physiological stress responses which have deleterious effects on health. More experimental investigation of the health effects of diet pattern is needed to further elucidate these differences in an ongoing search to find realistic and long-term solutions to the declining health of individuals living across the ever widening socioeconomic spectrum.

  20. Phenotypic Features of Circulating Leukocytes from Non-human Primates Naturally Infected with Trypanosoma cruzi Resemble the Major Immunological Findings Observed in Human Chagas Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattoso-Barbosa, Armanda Moreira; Perdigão-de-Oliveira, Marcelo; Costa, Ronaldo Peres; Elói-Santos, Silvana Maria; Gomes, Matheus de Souza; do Amaral, Laurence Rodrigues; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Dick, Edward J.; Hubbard, Gene B.; VandeBerg, Jane F.; VandeBerg, John L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) represent a feasible model for research on Chagas disease since natural T. cruzi infection in these primates leads to clinical outcomes similar to those observed in humans. However, it is still unknown whether these clinical similarities are accompanied by equivalent immunological characteristics in the two species. We have performed a detailed immunophenotypic analysis of circulating leukocytes together with systems biology approaches from 15 cynomolgus macaques naturally infected with T. cruzi (CH) presenting the chronic phase of Chagas disease to identify biomarkers that might be useful for clinical investigations. Methods and Findings Our data established that CH displayed increased expression of CD32+ and CD56+ in monocytes and enhanced frequency of NK Granzyme A+ cells as compared to non-infected controls (NI). Moreover, higher expression of CD54 and HLA-DR by T-cells, especially within the CD8+ subset, was the hallmark of CH. A high level of expression of Granzyme A and Perforin underscored the enhanced cytotoxicity-linked pattern of CD8+ T-lymphocytes from CH. Increased frequency of B-cells with up-regulated expression of Fc-γRII was also observed in CH. Complex and imbricate biomarker networks demonstrated that CH showed a shift towards cross-talk among cells of the adaptive immune system. Systems biology analysis further established monocytes and NK-cell phenotypes and the T-cell activation status, along with the Granzyme A expression by CD8+ T-cells, as the most reliable biomarkers of potential use for clinical applications. Conclusions Altogether, these findings demonstrated that the similarities in phenotypic features of circulating leukocytes observed in cynomolgus macaques and humans infected with T. cruzi further supports the use of these monkeys in preclinical toxicology and pharmacology studies applied to development and testing of new drugs for Chagas disease. PMID:26808481

  1. Phenotypic Features of Circulating Leukocytes from Non-human Primates Naturally Infected with Trypanosoma cruzi Resemble the Major Immunological Findings Observed in Human Chagas Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Sathler-Avelar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis represent a feasible model for research on Chagas disease since natural T. cruzi infection in these primates leads to clinical outcomes similar to those observed in humans. However, it is still unknown whether these clinical similarities are accompanied by equivalent immunological characteristics in the two species. We have performed a detailed immunophenotypic analysis of circulating leukocytes together with systems biology approaches from 15 cynomolgus macaques naturally infected with T. cruzi (CH presenting the chronic phase of Chagas disease to identify biomarkers that might be useful for clinical investigations.Our data established that CH displayed increased expression of CD32+ and CD56+ in monocytes and enhanced frequency of NK Granzyme A+ cells as compared to non-infected controls (NI. Moreover, higher expression of CD54 and HLA-DR by T-cells, especially within the CD8+ subset, was the hallmark of CH. A high level of expression of Granzyme A and Perforin underscored the enhanced cytotoxicity-linked pattern of CD8+ T-lymphocytes from CH. Increased frequency of B-cells with up-regulated expression of Fc-γRII was also observed in CH. Complex and imbricate biomarker networks demonstrated that CH showed a shift towards cross-talk among cells of the adaptive immune system. Systems biology analysis further established monocytes and NK-cell phenotypes and the T-cell activation status, along with the Granzyme A expression by CD8+ T-cells, as the most reliable biomarkers of potential use for clinical applications.Altogether, these findings demonstrated that the similarities in phenotypic features of circulating leukocytes observed in cynomolgus macaques and humans infected with T. cruzi further supports the use of these monkeys in preclinical toxicology and pharmacology studies applied to development and testing of new drugs for Chagas disease.

  2. Application of Multivariate Modeling for Radiation Injury Assessment: A Proof of Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Bolduc

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multivariate radiation injury estimation algorithms were formulated for estimating severe hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome (H-ARS injury (i.e., response category three or RC3 in a rhesus monkey total-body irradiation (TBI model. Classical CBC and serum chemistry blood parameters were examined prior to irradiation (d 0 and on d 7, 10, 14, 21, and 25 after irradiation involving 24 nonhuman primates (NHP (Macaca mulatta given 6.5-Gy 60Co Υ-rays (0.4 Gy min−1 TBI. A correlation matrix was formulated with the RC3 severity level designated as the “dependent variable” and independent variables down selected based on their radioresponsiveness and relatively low multicollinearity using stepwise-linear regression analyses. Final candidate independent variables included CBC counts (absolute number of neutrophils, lymphocytes, and platelets in formulating the “CBC” RC3 estimation algorithm. Additionally, the formulation of a diagnostic CBC and serum chemistry “CBC-SCHEM” RC3 algorithm expanded upon the CBC algorithm model with the addition of hematocrit and the serum enzyme levels of aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, and lactate dehydrogenase. Both algorithms estimated RC3 with over 90% predictive power. Only the CBC-SCHEM RC3 algorithm, however, met the critical three assumptions of linear least squares demonstrating slightly greater precision for radiation injury estimation, but with significantly decreased prediction error indicating increased statistical robustness.

  3. Molecular detection of Yaba monkey tumour virus from a vervet monkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Brettschneider

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Yaba monkey tumour virus (YMTV was first diagnosed in a colony of captive rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta in Yaba, Nigeria. It has been implicated as the cause of cutaneous nodules in wild baboons (Papio species, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta and cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis. This article reports a case of cutaneous pox lesions caused by YMTV in a  free-ranging  adult  female  vervet  monkey  (Chlorocebus  pygerythrus  from  the  Umkomaas coastal area in South Africa. The virus was identified by molecular sequencing from fragments of the insulin metalloprotease-like protein and intracellular mature virion membrane protein as well as the DNA polymerase genes. Phylogenetic analyses of these gene regions revealed a 99% similarity of the sample to YMTV. Although human disease caused by YMTV is normally mild,  it  is  recommended  that  persons  in  contact  with  non-human  primates  in  the  area  of Umkomaas who develop cutaneous lesions should inform their doctors of the possibility of this infection. The extent and significance of the virus to human and non-human primates in South Africa are not known. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first diagnosis of YMTV in South Africa and in vervet monkeys.

  4. Charcot-Leyden crystals: do they exist in veterinary species? A case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eunju; Miller, Andrew D; Devenish, Elizabeth; Asakawa, Makoto; McConkey, Marina; Peters-Kennedy, Jeanine

    2017-11-01

    The Charcot-Leyden crystal (CLC) is a major human eosinophil protein that readily crystallizes; these crystals are common in eosinophilic diseases. Although anecdotal existence of these crystals is known in veterinary pathology, definitive reports do not exist, to our knowledge. We identified eosinophilic crystals in a laryngeal myxosarcoma from a 2-y-old, spayed female, Labrador Retriever dog that were tentatively interpreted as CLCs. However, Ziehl-Neelsen acid-fast stain was negative, arguing against CLCs. The crystals stained red with Masson trichrome, precluding collagen. Periodic acid-Schiff and alcian blue were negative. The crystals stained positively with Okajima, and no myoglobin immunoreactivity was detected, supporting their identity as hemoglobin crystals. In the absence of a hematologic abnormality, these crystals were interpreted to be abnormal hemoglobin breakdown products. Protein sequence comparison was pursued to determine whether a protein similar to CLC exists in mammals. Only 3 nonhuman primate species, the Sumatran orangutan ( Pongo abelii), rhesus macaque ( Macaca mulatta), and cynomolgus monkey ( Macaca fascicularis), had a sequence similarity of >80%. Of the crystal-forming residues, 12 of 54 (22%) were different in the Sumatran orangutan and 15 of 54 (28%) were different in the Macaca spp., which may affect the crystallization process. The lack of reports of CLCs in nonhuman species and our results collectively suggest that CLCs are human-specific.

  5. Effect of age on electrical nerve conduction in the somatosensory pathway and its correlation with somatometry and plasma concentrations of musculoskeletal enzymes in male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) held in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Godínez, Braulio; Poblano, Adrián; Bonilla-Jaime, Herlinda; Artega-Silva, Marcela; Sánchez-Torres, Stephanie; Mondragón-Lozano, Rodrigo; Ibáñez-Contreras, Alejandra

    2018-03-13

    Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) make it possible to obtain functional data on the activity of somatosensory pathway. To evaluate the ontogeny of electrical nerve conduction in male rhesus monkeys using SEPs in correlation with the development of the musculoskeletal system based on somatometry and musculoskeletal enzymes. Somatosensory evoked potentials of the medial and tibial nerves were performed, and somatometric measurements were obtained: total length, arm and forearm length, and thigh and calf length. Analysis of the musculoskeletal enzymes, lactic dehydrogenase, and creatininase was conducted using blood samples in 20 rhesus monkeys divided into 5 groups. Statistical analysis manifested a delay in the appearance of latencies as age increased. Also evident was a strong, direct relation between the lengths and the value of the latencies of the SEP, together with an inverse relation between the musculoskeletal enzymes. These findings contribute to standardizing this animal model in the neurophysiological sciences. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Heterotrophic feeding, growth and nutrient budget in the scleractinian coral Galaxea fascicularis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijgerde, T.H.M.

    2013-01-01

    Coral reefs are of tremendous ecological and economic importance, and are currently in global decline due to climate change and anthropogenic disturbances. Overfishing is a threat to reefs in Asia, where corals are collected for the aquarium trade. This trade appears unsustainable, as wild

  7. Extracoelenteric zooplankton feeding is a key mechanism of nutrient acquisition for the scleractinian coral Galaxea fascicularis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijgerde, T.H.M.; Diantari, R.; Lewaru, M.W.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Osinga, R.

    2011-01-01

    Internal and external feeding on zooplankton may provide scleractinian corals with important nutrients. However, the latter process has never been properly quantified. To quantify the dynamics of zooplankton capture, digestion and release for a scleractinian coral, we performed detailed video

  8. Executive-Attentional Uncertainty Responses by Rhesus Macaques ("Macaca mulatta")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. David; Coutinho, Mariana V. C.; Church, Barbara A.; Beran, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The uncertainty response has been influential in studies of human perception, and it is crucial in the growing research literature that explores animal metacognition. However, the uncertainty response's interpretation is still sharply debated. The authors sought to clarify this interpretation using the dissociative technique of cognitive loads…

  9. Circadian rhythms in Macaca mulatta monkeys during Bion 11 flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpatov, A. M.; Hoban-Higgins, T. M.; Klimovitsky, V. Y.; Tumurova, E. G.; Fuller, C. A.

    2000-01-01

    Circadian rhythms of primate brain temperature, head and ankle skin temperature, motor activity, and heart rate were studied during spaceflight and on the ground. In space, the circadian rhythms of all the parameters were synchronized with diurnal Zeitgebers. However, in space the brain temperature rhythm showed a significantly more delayed phase angle, which may be ascribed to an increase of the endogenous circadian period.

  10. VASEKTOMI PADA MONYET EKOR PANJANG (MACACA FASCICULARISDI LOKASI WISATA SANGEH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANDIA. I .N

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Growth population control on the animal population dwelling a restricted habitat is very important to decrease, especially the negative impact on its surrounding environment. This Community Service was conducted as an application of vasectomy on an adult male of long tailed macaque occupying the tourist destination of Sangeh. This was the choosen method to overcome the overcrowded population. Vasectomy is surgical division of all or part of the vas deferens to induce sterility. One selected adult male monkey was anesthetized successfully using blowpipe. Surgical resection of part of vas deferens used a bilateral slicing method. Vasectomy was fully done nearly in one hour, and the monkey was released to habitat in the following three days of captivity.

  11. Geslachtshormonen en gedrag bij de Beermakaak (Macaca arctoides)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Nieuwenhuijsen (Kees)

    1985-01-01

    textabstractBij lagere zoogdieren :is het optreden van copulaties beperkt tot een kort deel van de ovariumcyclus: rondom het moment van de ovulatie of in die periode, die enkele uren of dagen duurt de soort) initieert een vrouwtje sexuele interacties met eisprong. Alleen (afhankelijk van mannelijke

  12. Picture recognition of food by macaques (Macaca silenus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Peter G; Kurdziel, Laura B; Wright, Risa M; Bohrman, Jennifer A

    2012-05-01

    Pictorial representations of three-dimensional objects are often used to investigate animal cognitive abilities; however, investigators rarely evaluate whether the animals conceptualize the two-dimensional image as the object it is intended to represent. We tested for picture recognition in lion-tailed macaques by presenting five monkeys with digitized images of familiar foods on a touch screen. Monkeys viewed images of two different foods and learned that they would receive a piece of the one they touched first. After demonstrating that they would reliably select images of their preferred foods on one set of foods, animals were transferred to images of a second set of familiar foods. We assumed that if the monkeys recognized the images, they would spontaneously select images of their preferred foods on the second set of foods. Three monkeys selected images of their preferred foods significantly more often than chance on their first transfer session. In an additional test of the monkeys' picture recognition abilities, animals were presented with pairs of food images containing a medium-preference food paired with either a high-preference food or a low-preference food. The same three monkeys selected the medium-preference foods significantly more often when they were paired with low-preference foods and significantly less often when those same foods were paired with high-preference foods. Our novel design provided convincing evidence that macaques recognized the content of two-dimensional images on a touch screen. Results also suggested that the animals understood the connection between the two-dimensional images and the three-dimensional objects they represented.

  13. Disseminated Hemangiosarcoma in a Juvenile Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta)

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, Amanda P; Gray, Stanton B; Chaffee, Beth K

    2016-01-01

    Hemangiosarcoma is a malignant tumor of vascular endothelial origin that is sporadically reported in rhesus macaques. This report describes the clinicopathologic features of a 1-y-old rhesus macaque with spontaneous disseminated hemangiosarcoma that originally presented as a focal cutaneous mass. Histopathologic examination of multiple tumor foci revealed regions in which the neoplastic cells formed diffuse sheets, as well as the well-defined vascular channels typically associated with hemang...

  14. Spontaneous epithelioid hemangiosarcoma in a rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Takayuki; Gray, Tasha L; Gatto, Nicholas T; Forest, Thomas; Machotka, Sam V; Troth, Sean P; Prahalada, Srinivasa

    2014-08-01

    Epithelioid hemangiosarcoma is a rare malignant endothelial neoplasia with a unique, predominantly epithelioid morphology. A 4-y-old rhesus monkey from our laboratory had multiple neoplastic nodules in a digit, limb skin, hindlimb muscle, and visceral organs including lung, heart, and brain. The nodules were composed of pleomorphic, polygonal, epithelioid, neoplastic cells that were arranged in sheets, nests, and cords and supported by variably dense fibrovascular connective tissue. The morphologic features of this tumor were predominantly epithelioid. However, some regions contained cystic spaces, clefts, and channel-like structures, all of which were lined with morphologically distinct neoplastic endothelial cells. These neoplastic cells, with or without epithelioid morphology, were positive immunohistochemically for CD31, factor VIII-related antigen, and vimentin. The presence of multiple metastatic nodules, high mitotic rate, and extensive Ki67-positive staining were consistent with malignancy. This report is the first description of epithelioid hemangiosarcoma in a rhesus monkey.

  15. Disseminated Hemangiosarcoma in a Juvenile Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Amanda P; Gray, Stanton B; Chaffee, Beth K

    2016-01-01

    Hemangiosarcoma is a malignant tumor of vascular endothelial origin that is sporadically reported in rhesus macaques. This report describes the clinicopathologic features of a 1-y-old rhesus macaque with spontaneous disseminated hemangiosarcoma that originally presented as a focal cutaneous mass. Histopathologic examination of multiple tumor foci revealed regions in which the neoplastic cells formed diffuse sheets, as well as the well-defined vascular channels typically associated with hemangiosarcoma. Multiple endothelial cell immunomarkers were used to confirm the diagnosis in this rhesus macaque. The tumor exhibited staining properties consistent with those seen in domestic animals and humans. In addition, to our knowledge, this animal represents the youngest case of any form of spontaneous hemangiosarcoma reported in the rhesus macaque to date.

  16. Pediatric hepatic hemangiosarcoma in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía, A.F.; Gierbolini, L.; Jacob, B.; Westmoreland, S.V.

    2009-01-01

    Background Pediatric hepatic angiosarcoma is a rare condition in children with poor prognosis. Microscopically this neoplasm has a particular ‘Kaposi-form’ arrangement. Hemangiosarcoma in non-human primates is a rare finding. Methods Gross and microscopic examination of a 3-year-old rhesus were performed. Immunohistochemistry was used to characterize the hepatic hemangiosarcoma. Results The gross necropsy revealed hemoabdomen and a 4 × 3 × 3 cm mass in the liver with multiple smaller masses throughout the hepatic parenchyma. Histopathology confirmed a poorly differentiated hemangiosarcoma. Other organs submitted were free of metastases. Conclusions Hemangiosarcoma in non-human primates has been rarely reported. Diagnosis was confirmed by expression of endothelial-specific markers CD31 and vWF by immunohistochemistry. Due to the young age of this monkey and the particular solid pattern throughout the mass this neoplasm resembles pediatric hepatic angiosarcoma in humans. PMID:18671765

  17. The rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) as a flight candidate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debourne, M. N. G.; Bourne, G. H.; Mcclure, H. M.

    1977-01-01

    The intelligence and ruggedness of rhesus monkeys, as well as the abundance of normative data on their anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry, and the availability of captive bred animals qualify them for selection as candidates for orbital flight and weightlessness studies. Baseline data discussed include: physical characteristics, auditory thresholds, visual accuity, blood, serological taxomony, immunogenetics, cytogenics, circadian rhythms, respiration, cardiovascular values, corticosteroid response to charr restraint, microscopy of tissues, pathology, nutrition, and learning skills. Results from various tests used to establish the baseline data are presented in tables.

  18. Naturally occurring menopause in cynomolgus monkeys: changes in hormone, lipid, and carbohydrate measures with hormonal status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Kylie; Koudy Williams, J; Wagner, Janice D

    2005-08-01

    Naturally occurring post-menopausal (PM) female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were identified. Their sex hormone profile was characterized and compared with younger pre-menopausal females before and after ovariectomy (OVX). PM females had lower estrogens and increased follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) concentrations. Two PM females had diabetes mellitus and elevated androgens (androstenodione and dihydroepiandrosterone sulfate). Non-diabetic PM females were given parenteral E(2) which normalized FSH, and caused improvements in body weight, plasma lipids and lipoprotein cholesterol. Androgens remained lower with E(2) treatment. OVX induced comparable increases in FSH seen with the PM monkeys, however they had lower body weights, and had higher estrone and androstenodione concentrations. Natural menopause occurs in cynomolgus monkeys and hormone changes with OVX are similar however, differences in sex hormones that can relate to body mass and age may be important. E(2) treatment restored estrogen levels and induced improvements in the lipid profile of PM females.

  19. Resolution of the African hominoid trichotomy by use of a mitochondrial gene sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruvolo, M.; Disotell, T.R.; Allard, M.W. (Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)); Brown, W.M. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor (United States)); Honeycutt, R.L. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station (United States))

    1991-02-15

    Mitochondrial DNA sequences encoding the cytochrome oxidase subunit II gene have been determined for five primate species, siamang (Hylobates syndactylus), lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla), pygmy chimpanzee (Pan paniscus), crab-eating macaque (Macaca fascicularis), and green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops), and compared with published sequences of other primate and nonprimate species. Comparisons of cytochrome oxidase subunit II gene sequences provide clear-cut evidence from the mitochondrial genome for the separation of the African ape trichotomy into two evolutionary lineages, one leading to gorillas and the other to humans and chimpanzees. Several different tree-building methods support this same phylogenetic tree topology. The comparisons also yield trees in which a substantial length separates the divergence point of gorillas from that of humans and chimpanzees, suggesting that the lineage most immediately ancestral to humans and chimpanzees may have been in existence for a relatively long time.

  20. Resolution of the African hominoid trichotomy by use of a mitochondrial gene sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruvolo, M.; Disotell, T.R.; Allard, M.W.; Brown, W.M.; Honeycutt, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA sequences encoding the cytochrome oxidase subunit II gene have been determined for five primate species, siamang (Hylobates syndactylus), lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla), pygmy chimpanzee (Pan paniscus), crab-eating macaque (Macaca fascicularis), and green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops), and compared with published sequences of other primate and nonprimate species. Comparisons of cytochrome oxidase subunit II gene sequences provide clear-cut evidence from the mitochondrial genome for the separation of the African ape trichotomy into two evolutionary lineages, one leading to gorillas and the other to humans and chimpanzees. Several different tree-building methods support this same phylogenetic tree topology. The comparisons also yield trees in which a substantial length separates the divergence point of gorillas from that of humans and chimpanzees, suggesting that the lineage most immediately ancestral to humans and chimpanzees may have been in existence for a relatively long time

  1. Predation on pupa of Chrysomya rufifacies (Marquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) by parasitoid, Exoristobia philippinensis Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) and Ophyra spinigera larva (Diptera: Muscidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Heo Chong; Ahmad, Nazni Wasi; Lim, Lee Han; Jeffery, John; Omar, Baharudin; Dhang, Chen Chee; Weng, Lau Koon; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd

    2009-12-01

    A forensic entomological study was conducted using monkey carcasses (Macaca fascicularis Raffles) that were placed in either an outdoor or indoor environment at a coastal area in Tanjung Sepat, Selangor, Malaysia during May until August 2008. We collected pupae of Chrysomya rufifacies (Marquart) from the carcasses and kept them individually. The emergence of 13 parasitic microhymenopteran, from one of the pupae occurring within a week were identified as Exoristobia philippinensis Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). Another observation was made whereby a pupa of C. rufifacies was predated by a muscid larva, Ophyra spinigera (Stein). The larva squeezed into the pupa and consumed the contents. This paper report C. rufifacies as a new host record for E. philippinensis in Malaysia and highlighted the predatory behavior of O. spinigera larva in natural environment.

  2. AcEST: DK960483 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e sp|Q13428|TCOF_HUMAN Treacle protein OS=Homo sapiens GN=TCOF1 PE... 40 0.010 sp...46, highly similar to Homo sap... 40 0.12 tr|A0JLU0|A0JLU0_HUMAN TCOF1 protein (Fragment) OS=Homo sapiens .....tein OS=Homo sapiens GN=TCOF1 PE=1 SV=2 Length = 1488 Score = 40.0 bits (92), Expect = 0.010 Identities = 47...sp|Q95K78|NEUM_MACFA Neuromodulin OS=Macaca fascicularis GN=GAP4... 32 3.7 >sp|Q13428|TCOF_HUMAN Treacle pro

  3. Where is my arm? The relative role of vision and proprioception in the neuronal representation of limb position

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziano, Michael S. A.

    1999-01-01

    A central problem in motor control, in the representation of space, and in the perception of body schema is how the brain encodes the relative positions of body parts. According to psychophysical studies, this sense of limb position depends heavily on vision. However, almost nothing is currently known about how the brain uses vision to determine or represent the location of the arm or any other body part. The present experiment shows that the position of the arm is represented in the premotor cortex of the monkey (Macaca fascicularis) brain by means of a convergence of visual cues and proprioceptive cues onto the same neurons. These neurons respond to the felt position of the arm when the arm is covered from view. They also respond in a similar fashion to the seen position of a false arm. PMID:10468623

  4. ASPEK ZOONOTIK PARASIT NEMATODA PADA KERA DAN BINATANG MENGERAT DI BENGKULU, SUMATERA. INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Untung S.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Twentyfive monkeys and 481 rats were examined for parasitic nematodes in Bengkulu, nine species of nematode were found infecting these animals. Five of filarían nematodes, i.e. Brugia malayi, Brugia pahangi, Dirofilaria magnilarvatum and Edesonfilaria malayensis were infecting monkeys and one speciesTBreinlia booliati, was found infecting rats. Three species of gastrointestinal helminths, i.e. Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis and Oestophagomomum spp were found in monkeys; a lung worm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis, was found in rats. The most important nematode species is B. malayi, which was found in Presbytis cristatus (36.8 % and in Macaca fascicularis (20.0 %. T. trichiura was found in R. cristatus (47.9 % and A. cantonensis in Rattus argentiventer (4.0 % and Rattus tiomanicus (2.9%.

  5. Molecular phylogeny of the hominoid primates as indicated by two-dimensional protein electrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, D.; Giri, P.R.; O' Brien, J.O.

    1987-05-01

    A molecular phylogeny for the hominoid primates was constructed by using genetic distances from a survey of 383 radiolabeled fibroblast polypeptides resolved by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE). An internally consistent matrix of Nei genetic distances was generated on the basis of variants in electrophoretic position. The derived phylogenetic tree indicated a branching sequence, from oldest to most recent, of cercopithecoids (Macaca fascicularis), gibbon-siamang, orangutan, gorilla, and human-chimpanzee. A cladistic analysis of 240 electrophoretic characters that varied between ape species produced an identical tree. Genetic distance measures obtained by 2DE are largely consistent with those generated by other molecular procedures. In addition, the 2DE data set appears to resolve the human-chimpanzee-gorilla trichotomy in favor of a more recent association of chimpanzees and humans.

  6. The genome of the simian and human malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pain, A; Böhme, U; Berry, A E

    2008-01-01

    Plasmodium knowlesi is an intracellular malaria parasite whose natural vertebrate host is Macaca fascicularis (the 'kra' monkey); however, it is now increasingly recognized as a significant cause of human malaria, particularly in southeast Asia. Plasmodium knowlesi was the first malaria parasite...... species in which antigenic variation was demonstrated, and it has a close phylogenetic relationship to Plasmodium vivax, the second most important species of human malaria parasite (reviewed in ref. 4). Despite their relatedness, there are important phenotypic differences between them, such as host blood...... cell preference, absence of a dormant liver stage or 'hypnozoite' in P. knowlesi, and length of the asexual cycle (reviewed in ref. 4). Here we present an analysis of the P. knowlesi (H strain, Pk1(A+) clone) nuclear genome sequence. This is the first monkey malaria parasite genome to be described...

  7. Differential regulation of amyloid-β-protein mRNA expression within hippocampal neuronal subpopulations in Alzheimer disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, G.A.; Lewis, D.A.; Bahmanyar, S.; Goldgaber, D.; Gajdusek, D.C.; Young, W.G.; Morrison, J.H.; Wilson, M.C.

    1988-01-01

    The authors have mapped the neuroanatomical distribution of amyloid-β-protein mRNA within neuronal subpopulations of the hippocampal formation in the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis), normal aged human, and patients with Alzheimer disease. Amyloid-β-protein mRNA appears to be expressed in all hippocampal neurons, but at different levels of abundance. In the central nervous system of monkey and normal aged human, image analysis shows that neurons of the dentate gyrus and cornu Ammonis fields contain a 2.5-times-greater hybridization signal than is present in neurons of the subiculum and entorhinal cortex. In contrast, in the Alzheimer disease hippocampal formation, the levels of amyloid-β-protein mRNA in the cornu Ammonis field 3 and parasubiculum are equivalent. These findings suggest that within certain neuronal subpopulations cell type-specific regulation of amyloid-β-protein gene expression may be altered in Alzheimer disease

  8. Particle-to-PFU ratio of Ebola virus influences disease course and survival in cynomolgus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfson, Kendra J; Avena, Laura E; Beadles, Michael W; Staples, Hilary; Nunneley, Jerritt W; Ticer, Anysha; Dick, Edward J; Owston, Michael A; Reed, Christopher; Patterson, Jean L; Carrion, Ricardo; Griffiths, Anthony

    2015-07-01

    This study addresses the role of Ebola virus (EBOV) specific infectivity in virulence. Filoviruses are highly lethal, enveloped, single-stranded negative-sense RNA viruses that can cause hemorrhagic fever. No approved vaccines or therapies exist for filovirus infections, and infectious virus must be handled in maximum containment. Efficacy testing of countermeasures, in addition to investigations of pathogenicity and immune response, often requires a well-characterized animal model. For EBOV, an obstacle in performing accurate disease modeling is a poor understanding of what constitutes an infectious dose in animal models. One well-recognized consequence of viral passage in cell culture is a change in specific infectivity, often measured as a particle-to-PFU ratio. Here, we report that serial passages of EBOV in cell culture resulted in a decrease in particle-to-PFU ratio. Notably, this correlated with decreased potency in a lethal cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis) model of infection; animals were infected with the same viral dose as determined by plaque assay, but animals that received more virus particles exhibited increased disease. This suggests that some particles are unable to form a plaque in a cell culture assay but are able to result in lethal disease in vivo. These results have a significant impact on how future studies are designed to model EBOV disease and test countermeasures. Ebola virus (EBOV) can cause severe hemorrhagic disease with a high case-fatality rate, and there are no approved vaccines or therapies. Specific infectivity can be considered the total number of viral particles per PFU, and its impact on disease is poorly understood. In stocks of most mammalian viruses, there are particles that are unable to complete an infectious cycle or unable to cause cell pathology in cultured cells. We asked if these particles cause disease in nonhuman primates by infecting monkeys with equal infectious doses of genetically identical stocks

  9. A genetic comparison of two alleged subspecies of Philippine cynomolgus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David Glenn; Ng, Jillian; George, Debra; Trask, Jessica Satkoski; Houghton, Paul; Singh, Balbir; Villano, Jason; Kanthaswamy, Sreetharan

    2014-09-01

    Two subspecies of cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) are alleged to co-exist in the Philippines, M. f. philippensis in the north and M. f. fascicularis in the south. However, genetic differences between the cynomolgus macaques in the two regions have never been studied to document the propriety of their subspecies status. We genotyped samples of cynomolgus macaques from Batangas in southwestern Luzon and Zamboanga in southwestern Mindanao for 15 short tandem repeat (STR) loci and sequenced an 835 bp fragment of the mtDNA of these animals. The STR genotypes were compared with those of cynomolgus macaques from southern Sumatra, Singapore, Mauritius and Cambodia, and the mtDNA sequences of both Philippine populations were compared with those of cynomolgus macaques from southern Sumatra, Indonesia and Sarawak, Malaysia. We conducted STRUCTURE and PCA analyses based on the STRs and constructed a median joining network based on the mtDNA sequences. The Philippine population from Batangas exhibited much less genetic diversity and greater genetic divergence from all other populations, including the Philippine population from Zamboanga. Sequences from both Batangas and Zamboanga were most closely related to two different mtDNA haplotypes from Sarawak from which they are apparently derived. Those from Zamboanga were more recently derived than those from Batangas, consistent with their later arrival in the Philippines. However, clustering analyses do not support a sufficient genetic distinction of cynomolgus macaques from Batangas from other regional populations assigned to subspecies M. f. fascicularis to warrant the subspecies distinction M. f. philippensis. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Alopecia in three macaque species housed in a laboratory environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeker, R.; Bellanca, R. U.; Lee, G. H.; Thom, J. P.; Worlein, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Alopecia is a persistent problem in captive macaque populations and despite recent interest, no factors have been identified that can unequivocally explain the presence of alopecia in a majority of cases. Seasonal, demographic and environmental factors have been identified as affecting alopecia presentation in rhesus macaques, the most widely studied macaque species. However, few studies have investigated alopecia rates in other macaque species. We report alopecia scores over a period of 12 months for three macaque species (Macaca nemestrina, M. mulatta, and M. fascicularis) housed at three indoor facilities within the Washington National Primate Research Center (WaNPRC) in Seattle. Clear species differences emerged with cynomolgus (M. fascicularis) showing the lowest alopecia rates and pigtails (M. nemestrina) the highest rates. Further analysis of pigtail and rhesus (M. mulatta) macaques revealed that sex effects were apparent for rhesus but not pigtails. Age and seasonal effects were evident for both species. In contrast to previous reports, we found that older animals (over 10 years of age) had improved alopecia scores in comparison to younger adults. This is the first report on alopecia rates in pigtail macaques and the first comparison of alopecia scores in pigtail, cynomolgus, and rhesus macaques housed under similar conditions. PMID:24243351

  11. Biodistribution of Yttrium-90-Labeled Anti-CD45 Antibody in a Nonhuman Primate Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemecek, Eneida; Hamlin, Donald K.; Fisher, Darrell R.; Krohn, Kenneth A.; Pagel, John M.; Applebaum, F. R.; Press, Oliver W.; Matthews, Dana C.

    2005-01-15

    Radioimmunotherapy may improve the outcome of hematopoietic cell transplantation for hematologic malignancies by delivering targeted radiation to hematopoietic organs while relatively sparing nontarget organs. We evaluated the organ localization of yttrium-90-labeled anti-CD45 (90Y-anti-CD45) antibody in macaques, a model that had previously predicted iodine-131-labeled anti-CD-45 (131I-anti-CD45) antibody biodistribution in humans. Experimental Design: Twelve Macaca nemestrina primates received anti-CD45 antibody labeled with 1 to 2 mCi of 90Y followed by serial blood sampling and marrow and lymph node biopsies, and necropsy. The content of 90Y per gram of tissue was determined by liquid scintillation spectrometry. Time-activity curves were constructed using average isotope concentrations in each tissue at measured time points to yield the fractional residence time and estimate radiation absorbed doses for each organ per unit of administered activity. The biodistribution of 90Y-anti-CD45 antibody was then compared with that previously obtained with 131I-anti-CD45 antibody in macaques. Results: The spleen received 2,120, marrow 1,060, and lymph nodes 315 cGy/mCi of 90Y injected. The liver and lungs were the nontarget organs receiving the highest radiation absorbed doses (440 and 285 cGy/mCi, respectively). Ytrrium-90-labeled anti-CD45 antibody delivered 2.5- and 3.7-fold more radiation to marrow than to liver and lungs, respectively. The ratios previously observed with 131I-antiCD45 antibody were 2.5-and 2.2-fold more radiation to marrow than to liver and lungs, respectively. Conclusions: This study shows that 90Y-anti-CD45 antibody can deliver relatively selective radiation to hematopoietic tissues, with similar ratios of radiation delivered to target versus nontarget organs, as compared with the 131I immunoconjugate in the same animal model.

  12. Modelling hippocampal neurogenesis across the lifespan in seven species

    OpenAIRE

    Lazic, Stanley E.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the number of new cells and neurons added to the dentate gyrus across the lifespan, and to compare the rate of age-associated decline in neurogenesis across species. Data from mice (Mus musculus), rats (Rattus norvegicus), lesser hedgehog tenrecs (Echinops telfairi), macaques (Macaca mulatta), marmosets (Callithrix jacchus), tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri), and humans (Homo sapiens) were extracted from twenty one data sets published in fourteen different p...

  13. Complementary Patterns of Direct Amygdala and Hippocampal Projections to the Macaque Prefrontal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggleton, John P; Wright, Nicholas F; Rosene, Douglas L; Saunders, Richard C

    2015-11-01

    The projections from the amygdala and hippocampus (including subiculum and presubiculum) to prefrontal cortex were compared using anterograde tracers injected into macaque monkeys (Macaca fascicularis, Macaca mulatta). Almost all prefrontal areas were found to receive some amygdala inputs. These connections, which predominantly arose from the intermediate and magnocellular basal nucleus, were particularly dense in parts of the medial and orbital prefrontal cortex. Contralateral inputs were not, however, observed. The hippocampal projections to prefrontal areas were far more restricted, being confined to the ipsilateral medial and orbital prefrontal cortex (within areas 11, 13, 14, 24a, 32, and 25). These hippocampal projections principally arose from the subiculum, with the fornix providing the sole route. Thus, while the lateral prefrontal cortex essentially receives only amygdala inputs, the orbital prefrontal cortex receives both amygdala and hippocampal inputs, though these typically target different areas. Only in medial prefrontal cortex do direct inputs from both structures terminate in common sites. But, even when convergence occurs within an area, the projections predominantly terminate in different lamina (hippocampal inputs to layer III and amygdala inputs to layers I, II, and VI). The resulting segregation of prefrontal inputs could enable the parallel processing of different information types in prefrontal cortex. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  14. Pair housing for female longtailed and rhesus macaques in the laboratory: behavior in protected contact versus full contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Kate C; Crockett, Carolyn M; Lee, Grace H; Oettinger, Brooke C; Schoof, Valérie; Thom, Jinhee P

    2012-01-01

    Pair housing for caged macaques in the laboratory generally allows unrestricted tactile contact but, less commonly, may involve limited contact via grooming-contact bars or perforated panels. The purpose of using this protected contact housing, which prevents entry into pair-mates' cages, typically is to accommodate research and management requirements. The study used behavioral data collected on 12 pairs of female longtailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) at the Washington National Primate Research Center and 7 pairs of female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) housed at the Tulane National Primate Research Center to assess the relative benefits of protected versus full protected contact. The study collected data in stable pairs housed first in protected contact followed by full contact. Species combined, the study found the presence of the panel was associated with lower levels of social grooming and higher levels of self-grooming, abnormal behavior, and tension-related behavior. Within species, only the protected- versus full-contact contrasts for abnormal and tension were statistically significant-and only for rhesus macaques. Results suggest that for female rhesus macaques, potential disadvantages or inconveniences of full contact should be balanced against the improved behavioral profile in comparison to protected contact. The use of protected contact among female longtailed macaques does not appear to require the same cost-benefit analysis. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  15. Analysis of nuclear and organellar genomes of Plasmodium knowlesi in humans reveals ancient population structure and recent recombination among host-specific subpopulations

    KAUST Repository

    Diez Benavente, Ernest

    2017-09-18

    The macaque parasite Plasmodium knowlesi is a significant concern in Malaysia where cases of human infection are increasing. Parasites infecting humans originate from genetically distinct subpopulations associated with the long-tailed (Macaca fascicularis (Mf)) or pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina (Mn)). We used a new high-quality reference genome to re-evaluate previously described subpopulations among human and macaque isolates from Malaysian-Borneo and Peninsular-Malaysia. Nuclear genomes were dimorphic, as expected, but new evidence of chromosomal-segment exchanges between subpopulations was found. A large segment on chromosome 8 originating from the Mn subpopulation and containing genes encoding proteins expressed in mosquito-borne parasite stages, was found in Mf genotypes. By contrast, non-recombining organelle genomes partitioned into 3 deeply branched lineages, unlinked with nuclear genomic dimorphism. Subpopulations which diverged in isolation have re-connected, possibly due to deforestation and disruption of wild macaque habitats. The resulting genomic mosaics reveal traits selected by host-vector-parasite interactions in a setting of ecological transition.

  16. Mechanical Design and Analysis of a Unilateral Cervical Spinal Cord Contusion Injury Model in Non-Human Primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrey, Carolyn J; Salegio, Ernesto A; Camisa, William; Tam, Horace; Beattie, Michael S; Bresnahan, Jacqueline C

    2016-06-15

    Non-human primate (NHP) models of spinal cord injury better reflect human injury and provide a better foundation to evaluate potential treatments and functional outcomes. We combined finite element (FE) and surrogate models with impact data derived from in vivo experiments to define the impact mechanics needed to generate a moderate severity unilateral cervical contusion injury in NHPs (Macaca mulatta). Three independent variables (impactor displacement, alignment, and pre-load) were examined to determine their effects on tissue level stresses and strains. Mechanical measures of peak force, peak displacement, peak energy, and tissue stiffness were analyzed as potential determinants of injury severity. Data generated from FE simulations predicted a lateral shift of the spinal cord at high levels of compression (>64%) during impact. Submillimeter changes in mediolateral impactor position over the midline increased peak impact forces (>50%). Surrogate cords established a 0.5 N pre-load protocol for positioning the impactor tip onto the dural surface to define a consistent dorsoventral baseline position before impact, which corresponded with cerebrospinal fluid displacement and entrapment of the spinal cord against the vertebral canal. Based on our simulations, impactor alignment and pre-load were strong contributors to the variable mechanical and functional outcomes observed in in vivo experiments. Peak displacement of 4 mm after a 0.5N pre-load aligned 0.5-1.0 mm over the midline should result in a moderate severity injury; however, the observed peak force and calculated peak energy and tissue stiffness are required to properly characterize the severity and variability of in vivo NHP contusion injuries.

  17. Modelling Niche Differentiation of Co-Existing, Elusive and Morphologically Similar Species: A Case Study of Four Macaque Species in Nakai-Nam Theun National Protected Area, Laos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille N. Z. Coudrat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Species misidentification often occurs when dealing with co-existing and morphologically similar species such as macaques, making the study of their ecology challenging. To overcome this issue, we use reliable occurrence data from camera-trap images and transect survey data to model their respective ecological niche and potential distribution locally in Nakai-Nam Theun National Protected Area (NNT NPA, central-Eastern Laos. We investigate niche differentiation of morphologically similar species using four sympatric macaque species in NNT NPA, as our model species: rhesus Macaca mulatta (Taxonomic Serial Number, TSN 180099, Northern pig-tailed M. leonina (TSN not listed; Assamese M. assamensis (TSN 573018 and stump-tailed M. arctoides (TSN 573017. We examine the implications for their conservation. We obtained occurrence data of macaque species from systematic 2006–2011 camera-trapping surveys and 2011–2012 transect surveys and model their niche and potential distribution with MaxEnt software using 25 environmental and topographic variables. The respective suitable habitat predicted for each species reveals niche segregation between the four species with a gradual geographical distribution following an environmental gradient within the study area. Camera-trapping positioned at many locations can increase elusive-species records with a relatively reduced and more systematic sampling effort and provide reliable species occurrence data. These can be used for environmental niche modelling to study niche segregation of morphologically similar species in areas where their distribution remains uncertain. Examining unresolved species' niches and potential distributions can have crucial implications for future research and species' management and conservation even in the most remote regions and for the least-known species.

  18. Transient and intensive pharmacological immunosuppression fails to improve AAV-based liver gene transfer in non-human primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unzu Carmen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adeno-associated vectors (rAAV have been used to attain long-term liver gene expression. In humans, the cellular immune response poses a serious obstacle for transgene persistence while neutralizing humoral immunity curtails re-administration. Porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD haploinsufficiency (acute intermittent porphyria benefits from liver gene transfer in mouse models and clinical trials are about to begin. In this work, we sought to study in non-human primates the feasibility of repeated gene-transfer with intravenous administration of rAAV5 vectors under the effects of an intensive immunosuppressive regimen and to analyze its ability to circumvent T-cell immunity and thereby prolong transgene expression. Methods Three female Macaca fascicularis were intravenously injected with 1x1013 genome copies/kg of rAAV5 encoding the human PBGD. Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF, anti-thymocyte immunoglobulin, methylprednisolone, tacrolimus and rituximab were given in combination during 12 weeks to block T- and B-cell mediated adaptive immune responses in two macaques. Immunodeficient and immunocompetent mice were intravenously injected with 5x1012 genome copies/kg of rAAV5-encoding luciferase protein. Forty days later MMF, tacrolimus and rituximab were daily administrated to ascertain whether the immunosuppressants or their metabolites could interfere with transgene expression. Results Macaques given a rAAV5 vector encoding human PBGD developed cellular and humoral immunity against viral capsids but not towards the transgene. Anti-AAV humoral responses were attenuated during 12 weeks but intensely rebounded following cessation of the immunosuppressants. Accordingly, subsequent gene transfer with a rAAV5 vector encoding green fluorescent protein was impossible. One macaque showed enhanced PBGD expression 25 weeks after rAAV5-pbgd administration but overexpression had not been detected while the animal was under immunosuppression. As

  19. Autism-like behaviours and germline transmission in transgenic monkeys overexpressing MeCP2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Li, Xiao; Zhang, Jun-Tao; Cai, Yi-Jun; Cheng, Tian-Lin; Cheng, Cheng; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Chen-Chen; Nie, Yan-Hong; Chen, Zhi-Fang; Bian, Wen-Jie; Zhang, Ling; Xiao, Jianqiu; Lu, Bin; Zhang, Yue-Fang; Zhang, Xiao-Di; Sang, Xiao; Wu, Jia-Jia; Xu, Xiu; Xiong, Zhi-Qi; Zhang, Feng; Yu, Xiang; Gong, Neng; Zhou, Wen-Hao; Sun, Qiang; Qiu, Zilong

    2016-02-04

    Methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) has crucial roles in transcriptional regulation and microRNA processing. Mutations in the MECP2 gene are found in 90% of patients with Rett syndrome, a severe developmental disorder with autistic phenotypes. Duplications of MECP2-containing genomic segments cause the MECP2 duplication syndrome, which shares core symptoms with autism spectrum disorders. Although Mecp2-null mice recapitulate most developmental and behavioural defects seen in patients with Rett syndrome, it has been difficult to identify autism-like behaviours in the mouse model of MeCP2 overexpression. Here we report that lentivirus-based transgenic cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) expressing human MeCP2 in the brain exhibit autism-like behaviours and show germline transmission of the transgene. Expression of the MECP2 transgene was confirmed by western blotting and immunostaining of brain tissues of transgenic monkeys. Genomic integration sites of the transgenes were characterized by a deep-sequencing-based method. As compared to wild-type monkeys, MECP2 transgenic monkeys exhibited a higher frequency of repetitive circular locomotion and increased stress responses, as measured by the threat-related anxiety and defensive test. The transgenic monkeys showed less interaction with wild-type monkeys within the same group, and also a reduced interaction time when paired with other transgenic monkeys in social interaction tests. The cognitive functions of the transgenic monkeys were largely normal in the Wisconsin general test apparatus, although some showed signs of stereotypic cognitive behaviours. Notably, we succeeded in generating five F1 offspring of MECP2 transgenic monkeys by intracytoplasmic sperm injection with sperm from one F0 transgenic monkey, showing germline transmission and Mendelian segregation of several MECP2 transgenes in the F1 progeny. Moreover, F1 transgenic monkeys also showed reduced social interactions when tested in pairs, as

  20. Life stage differences in mammary gland gene expression profile in non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stute, Petra; Sielker, Sonja; Wood, Charles E; Register, Thomas C; Lees, Cynthia J; Dewi, Fitriya N; Williams, J Koudy; Wagner, Janice D; Stefenelli, Ulrich; Cline, J Mark

    2012-06-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is the most common malignancy of women in the developed world. To better understand its pathogenesis, knowledge of normal breast development is crucial, as BC is the result of disregulation of physiologic processes. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of reproductive life stages on the transcriptional profile of the mammary gland in a primate model. Comparative transcriptomic analyses were carried out using breast tissues from 28 female cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) at the following life stages: prepubertal (n = 5), adolescent (n = 4), adult luteal (n = 5), pregnant (n = 6), lactating (n = 3), and postmenopausal (n = 5). Mammary gland RNA was hybridized to Affymetrix GeneChip(®) Rhesus Macaque Genome Arrays. Differential gene expression was analyzed using ANOVA and cluster analysis. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed distinct separation of life stage groups. More than 2,225 differentially expressed mRNAs were identified. Gene families or pathways that changed across life stages included those related to estrogen and androgen (ESR1, PGR, TFF1, GREB1, AR, 17HSDB2, 17HSDB7, STS, HSD11B1, AKR1C4), prolactin (PRLR, ELF5, STAT5, CSN1S1), insulin-like growth factor signaling (IGF1, IGFBP1, IGFBP5), extracellular matrix (POSTN, TGFB1, COL5A2, COL12A1, FOXC1, LAMC1, PDGFRA, TGFB2), and differentiation (CD24, CD29, CD44, CD61, ALDH1, BRCA1, FOXA1, POSTN, DICER1, LIG4, KLF4, NOTCH2, RIF1, BMPR1A, TGFB2). Pregnancy and lactation displayed distinct patterns of gene expression. ESR1 and IGF1 were significantly higher in the adolescent compared to the adult animals, whereas differentiation pathways were overrepresented in adult animals and pregnancy-associated life stages. Few individual genes were distinctly different in postmenopausal animals. Our data demonstrate characteristic patterns of gene expression during breast development. Several of the pathways activated during pubertal development have been implicated in cancer

  1. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) regulatory region variation in non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roodgar, Morteza; Ross, Cody T; Kenyon, Nicholas J; Marcelino, Gretchen; Smith, David Glenn

    2015-04-01

    Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is an enzyme that plays a key role in intracellular immune response against respiratory infections. Since various species of nonhuman primates exhibit different levels of susceptibility to infectious respiratory diseases, and since variation in regulatory regions of genes is thought to play a key role in expression levels of genes, two candidate regulatory regions of iNOS were mapped, sequenced, and compared across five species of nonhuman primates: African green monkeys (Chlorocebus sabaeus), pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina), cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis), Indian rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), and Chinese rhesus macaques (M. mulatta). In addition, we conducted an in silico analysis of the transcription factor binding sites associated with genetic variation in these two candidate regulatory regions across species. We found that only one of the two candidate regions showed strong evidence of involvement in iNOS regulation. Specifically, we found evidence of 13 conserved binding site candidates linked to iNOS regulation: AP-1, C/EBPB, CREB, GATA-1, GATA-3, NF-AT, NF-AT5, NF-κB, KLF4, Oct-1, PEA3, SMAD3, and TCF11. Additionally, we found evidence of interspecies variation in binding sites for several regulatory elements linked to iNOS (GATA-3, GATA-4, KLF6, SRF, STAT-1, STAT-3, OLF-1 and HIF-1) across species, especially in African green monkeys relative to other species. Given the key role of iNOS in respiratory immune response, the findings of this study might help guide the direction of future studies aimed to uncover the molecular mechanisms underlying the increased susceptibility of African green monkeys to several viral and bacterial respiratory infections. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The influence of light and water flow on the growth and physiology of the scleractinian coral Galaxea fascicularis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutter, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Zooxanthellate scleractinian corals are sessile colonial animals that live in symbiosis with photosynthetic algae, the zooxanthellae. They can feed both phototrophically and heterotrophically and produce an external skeleton of calcium carbonate, which process is enhanced by light. They

  3. Model(ing) Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Kerstin

    The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) was the first and most celebrated of a wave of international criminal tribunals (ICTs) built in the 1990s designed to advance liberalism through international criminal law. Model(ing) Justice examines the case law of the ICTY...

  4. Models and role models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Cate, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Developing experimental models to understand dental caries has been the theme in our research group. Our first, the pH-cycling model, was developed to investigate the chemical reactions in enamel or dentine, which lead to dental caries. It aimed to leverage our understanding of the fluoride mode of

  5. A tree-like Bayesian structure learning algorithm for small-sample datasets from complex biological model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Weiwei; Garimalla, Swetha; Moreno, Alberto; Galinski, Mary R; Styczynski, Mark P

    2015-08-28

    There are increasing efforts to bring high-throughput systems biology techniques to bear on complex animal model systems, often with a goal of learning about underlying regulatory network structures (e.g., gene regulatory networks). However, complex animal model systems typically have significant limitations on cohort sizes, number of samples, and the ability to perform follow-up and validation experiments. These constraints are particularly problematic for many current network learning approaches, which require large numbers of samples and may predict many more regulatory relationships than actually exist. Here, we test the idea that by leveraging the accuracy and efficiency of classifiers, we can construct high-quality networks that capture important interactions between variables in datasets with few samples. We start from a previously-developed tree-like Bayesian classifier and generalize its network learning approach to allow for arbitrary depth and complexity of tree-like networks. Using four diverse sample networks, we demonstrate that this approach performs consistently better at low sample sizes than the Sparse Candidate Algorithm, a representative approach for comparison because it is known to generate Bayesian networks with high positive predictive value. We develop and demonstrate a resampling-based approach to enable the identification of a viable root for the learned tree-like network, important for cases where the root of a network is not known a priori. We also develop and demonstrate an integrated resampling-based approach to the reduction of variable space for the learning of the network. Finally, we demonstrate the utility of this approach via the analysis of a transcriptional dataset of a malaria challenge in a non-human primate model system, Macaca mulatta, suggesting the potential to capture indicators of the earliest stages of cellular differentiation during leukopoiesis. We demonstrate that by starting from effective and efficient approaches

  6. The Duffy binding protein (PkDBPαII) of Plasmodium knowlesi from Peninsular Malaysia and Malaysian Borneo show different binding activity level to human erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Khai Lone; Amir, Amirah; Lau, Yee Ling; Fong, Mun Yik

    2017-08-11

    The zoonotic Plasmodium knowlesi is a major cause of human malaria in Malaysia. This parasite uses the Duffy binding protein (PkDBPαII) to interact with the Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC) receptor on human and macaque erythrocytes to initiate invasion. Previous studies on P. knowlesi have reported distinct Peninsular Malaysia and Malaysian Borneo PkDBPαII haplotypes. In the present study, the differential binding activity of these haplotypes with human and macaque (Macaca fascicularis) erythrocytes was investigated. The PkDBPαII of Peninsular Malaysia and Malaysian Borneo were expressed on the surface of COS-7 cells and tested with human and monkey erythrocytes, with and without anti-Fy6 (anti-Duffy) monoclonal antibody treatment. Binding activity level was determined by counting the number of rosettes formed between the transfected COS-7 cells and the erythrocytes. Anti-Fy6 treatment was shown to completely block the binding of human erythrocytes with the transfected COS-7 cells, thus verifying the specific binding of human DARC with PkDBPαII. Interestingly, the PkDBPαII of Peninsular Malaysia displayed a higher binding activity with human erythrocytes when compared with the Malaysian Borneo PkDBPαII haplotype (mean number of rosettes formed = 156.89 ± 6.62 and 46.00 ± 3.57, respectively; P < 0.0001). However, no difference in binding activity level was seen in the binding assay using M. fascicularis erythrocytes. This study is the first report of phenotypic difference between PkDBPαII haplotypes. The biological implication of this finding is yet to be determined. Therefore, further studies need to be carried out to determine whether this differential binding level can be associated with severity of knowlesi malaria in human.

  7. Cognitive modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Zandbelt, Bram

    2017-01-01

    Introductory presentation on cognitive modeling for the course ‘Cognitive control’ of the MSc program Cognitive Neuroscience at Radboud University. It addresses basic questions, such as 'What is a model?', 'Why use models?', and 'How to use models?'

  8. Modelling the models

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    By analysing the production of mesons in the forward region of LHC proton-proton collisions, the LHCf collaboration has provided key information needed to calibrate extremely high-energy cosmic ray models.   Average transverse momentum (pT) as a function of rapidity loss ∆y. Black dots represent LHCf data and the red diamonds represent SPS experiment UA7 results. The predictions of hadronic interaction models are shown by open boxes (sibyll 2.1), open circles (qgsjet II-03) and open triangles (epos 1.99). Among these models, epos 1.99 shows the best overall agreement with the LHCf data. LHCf is dedicated to the measurement of neutral particles emitted at extremely small angles in the very forward region of LHC collisions. Two imaging calorimeters – Arm1 and Arm2 – take data 140 m either side of the ATLAS interaction point. “The physics goal of this type of analysis is to provide data for calibrating the hadron interaction models – the well-known &...

  9. Modelling Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cameron, Ian; Gani, Rafiqul

    2011-01-01

    This chapter deals with the practicalities of building, testing, deploying and maintaining models. It gives specific advice for each phase of the modelling cycle. To do this, a modelling framework is introduced which covers: problem and model definition; model conceptualization; model data...... requirements; model construction; model solution; model verification; model validation and finally model deployment and maintenance. Within the adopted methodology, each step is discussedthrough the consideration of key issues and questions relevant to the modelling activity. Practical advice, based on many...... years of experience is providing in directing the reader in their activities.Traps and pitfalls are discussed and strategies also given to improve model development towards “fit-for-purpose” models. The emphasis in this chapter is the adoption and exercise of a modelling methodology that has proven very...

  10. STRUCTURAL MODELLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tea Ya. Danelyan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article states the general principles of structural modeling in aspect of the theory of systems and gives the interrelation with other types of modeling to adjust them to the main directions of modeling. Mathematical methods of structural modeling, in particular method of expert evaluations are considered.

  11. (HEV) Model

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moatez Billah HARIDA

    The use of the simulator “Hybrid Electrical Vehicle Model Balances Fidelity and. Speed (HEVMBFS)” and the global control strategy make it possible to achieve encouraging results. Key words: Series parallel hybrid vehicle - nonlinear model - linear model - Diesel engine - Engine modelling -. HEV simulator - Predictive ...

  12. Congenital foot deformation alters the topographic organization in the primate somatosensory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chia-Chi; Qi, Hui-Xin; Reed, Jamie L; Miller, Daniel J; Kaas, Jon H

    2016-01-01

    Limbs may fail to grow properly during fetal development, but the extent to which such growth alters the nervous system has not been extensively explored. Here we describe the organization of the somatosensory system in a 6-year-old monkey (Macaca radiata) born with a deformed left foot in comparison to the results from a normal monkey (Macaca fascicularis). Toes 1, 3, and 5 were missing, but the proximal parts of toes 2 and 4 were present. We used anatomical tracers to characterize the patterns of peripheral input to the spinal cord and brainstem, as well as between thalamus and cortex. We also determined the somatotopic organization of primary somatosensory area 3b of both hemispheres using multiunit electrophysiological recording. Tracers were subcutaneously injected into matching locations of each foot to reveal their representations within the lumbar spinal cord, and the gracile nucleus (GrN) of the brainstem. Tracers injected into the representations of the toes and plantar pads of cortical area 3b labeled neurons in the ventroposterior lateral nucleus (VPL) of the thalamus. Contrary to the orderly arrangement of the foot representation throughout the lemniscal pathway in the normal monkey, the plantar representation of the deformed foot was significantly expanded and intruded into the expected representations of toes in the spinal cord, GrN, VPL, and area 3b. We also observed abnormal representation of the intact foot in the ipsilateral spinal cord and contralateral area 3b. Thus, congenital malformation influences the somatotopic representation of the deformed as well as the intact foot.

  13. Constitutive Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Piccolo, Chiara; Heitzig, Martina

    2011-01-01

    This chapter presents various types of constitutive models and their applications. There are 3 aspects dealt with in this chapter, namely: creation and solution of property models, the application of parameter estimation and finally application examples of constitutive models. A systematic...... procedure is introduced for the analysis and solution of property models. Models that capture and represent the temperature dependent behaviour of physical properties are introduced, as well as equation of state models (EOS) such as the SRK EOS. Modelling of liquid phase activity coefficients are also...

  14. Model theory

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, CC

    2012-01-01

    Model theory deals with a branch of mathematical logic showing connections between a formal language and its interpretations or models. This is the first and most successful textbook in logical model theory. Extensively updated and corrected in 1990 to accommodate developments in model theoretic methods - including classification theory and nonstandard analysis - the third edition added entirely new sections, exercises, and references. Each chapter introduces an individual method and discusses specific applications. Basic methods of constructing models include constants, elementary chains, Sko

  15. Galactic models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchler, J.R.; Gottesman, S.T.; Hunter, J.H. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Various papers on galactic models are presented. Individual topics addressed include: observations relating to galactic mass distributions; the structure of the Galaxy; mass distribution in spiral galaxies; rotation curves of spiral galaxies in clusters; grand design, multiple arm, and flocculent spiral galaxies; observations of barred spirals; ringed galaxies; elliptical galaxies; the modal approach to models of galaxies; self-consistent models of spiral galaxies; dynamical models of spiral galaxies; N-body models. Also discussed are: two-component models of galaxies; simulations of cloudy, gaseous galactic disks; numerical experiments on the stability of hot stellar systems; instabilities of slowly rotating galaxies; spiral structure as a recurrent instability; model gas flows in selected barred spiral galaxies; bar shapes and orbital stochasticity; three-dimensional models; polar ring galaxies; dynamical models of polar rings

  16. Interface models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Anders P.; Staunstrup, Jørgen

    1994-01-01

    This paper proposes a model for specifying interfaces between concurrently executing modules of a computing system. The model does not prescribe a particular type of communication protocol and is aimed at describing interfaces between both software and hardware modules or a combination of the two....... The model describes both functional and timing properties of an interface...

  17. Hydrological models are mediating models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babel, L. V.; Karssenberg, D.

    2013-08-01

    Despite the increasing role of models in hydrological research and decision-making processes, only few accounts of the nature and function of models exist in hydrology. Earlier considerations have traditionally been conducted while making a clear distinction between physically-based and conceptual models. A new philosophical account, primarily based on the fields of physics and economics, transcends classes of models and scientific disciplines by considering models as "mediators" between theory and observations. The core of this approach lies in identifying models as (1) being only partially dependent on theory and observations, (2) integrating non-deductive elements in their construction, and (3) carrying the role of instruments of scientific enquiry about both theory and the world. The applicability of this approach to hydrology is evaluated in the present article. Three widely used hydrological models, each showing a different degree of apparent physicality, are confronted to the main characteristics of the "mediating models" concept. We argue that irrespective of their kind, hydrological models depend on both theory and observations, rather than merely on one of these two domains. Their construction is additionally involving a large number of miscellaneous, external ingredients, such as past experiences, model objectives, knowledge and preferences of the modeller, as well as hardware and software resources. We show that hydrological models convey the role of instruments in scientific practice by mediating between theory and the world. It results from these considerations that the traditional distinction between physically-based and conceptual models is necessarily too simplistic and refers at best to the stage at which theory and observations are steering model construction. The large variety of ingredients involved in model construction would deserve closer attention, for being rarely explicitly presented in peer-reviewed literature. We believe that devoting

  18. Comparison of feeding behavior between two different-sized groups of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata yakui).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, Yosuke; Hanya, Goro

    2015-05-13

    Group-living animals face intragroup scramble and intergroup contest competitions. Many studies have shown that larger groups bear the costs of intragroup scramble competition, which negatively affects the reproductive success of females. Unlike most primate species, Japanese macaques in the Yakushima coastal forest show increased reproductive success with group size. However, it remains unclear how group size affects the behavior of macaques. The present study examined the effects of group size on the feeding behavior of Japanese macaques in the Yakushima coastal forest. We investigated 9-13 adult females from two different-sized groups via focal animal sampling during October 2012-August 2013. We compared the feeding behavior, including patch use, between the two groups. The larger group had a larger home range and spent more time feeding, especially on mature leaves. This suggests that intragroup feeding competition should be more intense in the larger group than in the smaller group. The feeding of mature leaves might enable the larger group to increase the number of co-feeding individuals. Contrary to the predictions that the larger group travels longer distances and spends more time moving, the smaller group traveled longer distances, and spent more time moving, although the number of visited patches did not differ between the two groups. The immediate consequences of the loss of inter-group encounters could accumulate as daily travel costs, considering that group size is associated with inter-group dominance and that intergroup aggressive encounters occur frequently in the Yakushima coastal forest. This suggests that the smaller group has increased travel costs as a result of intergroup contest competition, which leads to decline in reproductive success. Am. J. Primatol. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Feeding Behavior of Tonkean Macaques (Macaca tonkeana in Schmutzer Primates Center and Ragunan Zoo, Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fery Dwi Riptianingsih

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Tonkean macaques are one of seven endemic macaque species on Sulawesi Island. Feeding management in captivity should pay attention to the quality, palatability, and feeding behavior patterns of animals. The goal of this study was to compare the feeding behavior of two social groups of Tonkean macaques at Schmutzer Primates Center (SPC and Ragunan Zoo (RZ with different captive management, which was expected to affect feeding behavior. Ad libitum sampling was used to observe daily behavior and hierarchy, while focal animal sampling was used to observe feeding behavior and feed preference. Data were collected from September 2013 until March 2014 with a total of 495 hours of observations. There were significant differences between the daily behavior of two groups of Tonkean macaques. Resting behavior was dominant in RZ group with non-enrichment feed cage, while feeding behavior was more common in the SPC group with an enrichment feed cage. The SPC group spent most of their feeding time in searching for feed, while choosing, carrying and refusing were greater in the RZ group. Both Tonkean macaque groups showed individual dominance in their feeding behavior. Provisioned feed in both locations had different diversity and preference values. The selection of feed required was based on preference values with attention to Tonkean macaques’ feed in nature. Cage construction, such as the SPC cage, was able to reduce abnormal behavior exhibited by individuals.

  20. Social segregation in male, but not female yearling rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassett, Janice M; Rupp, Heather A; Wallen, Kim

    2010-02-01

    Males and females of many species sex-segregate, ranging from complete separation of habitats to social segregation within the same space, sometimes varying across seasons and lifespan development. Mechanisms for such segregation are not well understood, though some have suggested that sex differences in preferred juvenile behaviors lead to greater behavioral compatibility within than between sexes. This within-sex behavioral compatibility may be the source of sex-segregation. As juvenile behavioral sex differences are well-documented in rhesus monkeys, we examined sex-segregation patterns of yearling rhesus monkeys engaged in three different types of behavior: rough play, parallel play, and grooming. We observed male and female rhesus yearlings from five stable long-term age-graded social groups of 67-183 animals. Behavioral observations were designed to collect equal numbers of rough play, grooming, and parallel play bouts. In addition, sex composition and proximity to adults was recorded for each bout. Across all behaviors, more all-male groups and fewer mixed sex-groups were observed than expected by chance. All-female groups occurred at the level expected by chance. Thus, males sex-segregated regardless of type of behavior, while females did not sex-segregate. Female groups were observed in proximity to adults more often than expected by chance. These results suggest that behavioral compatibility may produce sex-segregation in male yearling rhesus monkeys, possibly preparing males and females for different social roles and segregation as adults. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Assessing significant (> 30%) alopecia as a possible biomarker for stress in captive rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Melinda A.; Menard, Mark T.; El-Mallah, Saif N.; Rosenberg, Kendra; Lutz, Corrine K.; Worlein, Julie; Coleman, Kris; Meyer, Jerrold S.

    2016-01-01

    Hair loss is common in macaque colonies. Very little is known about the relationship between psychological stress and hair loss. We initially examined alopecia and hair cortisol concentrations in 198 (89 male) rhesus macaques from three primate centers and demonstrated replicability of our previous finding that extensive alopecia (> 30% hair loss) is associated with increased chronic cortisol concentrations and significantly affected by facility. A subset of these monkeys (142 of which 67 were males) were sampled twice approximately 8 months apart allowing us to examine the hypotheses that gaining hair should be associated with decreases in cortisol concentrations and vice versa. Hair loss was digitally scored using ImageJ software for the first sample. Then visual assessment was used to examine the second sample, resulting in 3 categories of coat condition: 1) monkeys that remained fully haired, 2) monkeys that remained alopecic (with more than 30% hair loss), or 3) monkeys that showed more than a 15% increase in hair. The sample size for the group that lost hair was too small to be analyzed. Consistent with our hypothesis, monkeys that gained hair showed a significant reduction in hair cortisol concentrations but this effect only held for females. Coat condition changed little across sampling periods with only 25 (11 male) monkeys showing a greater than 15% gain of hair. Twenty (7 male) monkeys remained alopecic, whereas 97 (49 males) remained fully haired. Hair cortisol was highly correlated across samples for the monkeys that retained their status (remained alopecic or retained their hair). PMID:27008590

  2. Effects of the macrolide drug tylosin on chronic diarrhea in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwood, Rebecca S; Tarara, Ross P; Christe, Kari L; Spinner, Abigail; Lerche, Nicholas W

    2008-02-01

    Diarrhea is the gastrointestinal disease most frequently encountered in captive rhesus macaques. The precise pathogenic mechanisms underlying chronic diarrhea in nonhuman primates are not well understood, but a persistent inflammatory component has been implicated strongly. This study evaluated the inflammatory changes in the colon of macaques with diarrhea and assessed the efficacy of a 10-d course of tylosin in a cohort of 21 animals with chronic diarrhea. Stool quality was evaluated daily, and fecal consistency was scored. Colonoscopies were performed; biopsy samples were characterized histologically and assayed for expression of TNFalpha mRNA. Blood samples collected pre-, mid-, and post-treatment were assayed for C-reactive protein (CRP). The results indicated that 63% of the animals receiving tylosin showed improvement in stool quality, compared with 10% in the sham-treated group. Histologically, 82% of animals in the tylosin-treated group had a reduction in the severity of colonic lesions post-treatment, compared with 40% of animals in the sham group. The amount of TNFalpha mRNA before treatment did not differ from that afterward in either tylosin- or sham-treated animals. CRP levels serially decreased in tylosin-treated monkeys; the average post-treatment CRP value for tylosin-treated animals was 11.96 +/- 3.86 microg/ml compared with 26.48 +/- 4.86 microg/ml for sham-treated controls. In conclusion, tylosin significantly improved the fecal consistency score, significantly decreased colonic inflammation, and significantly decreased serum CRP levels post-treatment in rhesus macaques with chronic diarrhea.

  3. Physiological aspects of puberty in group-living stumptail monkeys (Macaca arctoides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuijsen, K; Bonke-Jansen, M; de Neef, K J; Van der Werff ten Bosch, J J; Slob, A K

    1987-01-01

    Physiological changes around the time of puberty were studied in a longitudinal manner in male and female stumptail macaques. In the male, testicular descent (mean age 3.3 years) is an early sign of puberty, which coincides with onset of the pubertal spurt in body weight and testis growth and precedes the pubertal rise in plasma testosterone. In the female no clear external signs of puberty have been found. Measurements of plasma progesterone yielded proof of first ovulation (mean age 3.7 years), a late sign of puberty in primates. This event coincided with a fall in the rate of body weight growth at the end of the pubertal growth spurt. Reproductive capacity of both males (first ejaculation) and females (first conception) appears to be reached around the 4th birthday.

  4. Information Seeking by Rhesus Monkeys ("Macaca mulatta") and Capuchin Monkeys ("Cebus apella")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Michael J.; Smith, J. David

    2011-01-01

    Animal metacognition is an active, growing research area, and one part of metacognition is flexible information-seeking behavior. In Roberts et al. (2009), pigeons failed an intuitive information-seeking task. They basically refused, despite multiple fostering experiments, to view a sample image before attempting to find its match. Roberts et al.…

  5. Delayed effects of proton irradiation in Macaca Mulatta (22-year summary)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, D.H.; Hardy, K.A.; Cox, A.B.; Salmon, Y.L.; Yochmowitz, M.G.; Cordts, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    Lifetime observations on a group of rhesus monkeys indicate that life expectancy loss from exposure to protons in the energy range encountered in the Van Allen belts and solar proton events can be correlated with the dose and energy of radiation. The primary cause of life shortening is nonleukemic cancers. Radiation also increased the rise of endometriosis (an abnormal proliferation of the lining of the uterus in females). Other effects associated with radiation exposures are lowered glucose tolerance and increased incidence of cataracts. Calculations of the relative risk of fatal cancers in the irradiated subjects reveal that the total body surface dose required to double the risk of death from cancer over a 20-year post exposure period varies with the linear energy transfer (LET) of the radiation. The ability to determine the integrated dose and LET spectrum in space radiation exposures of humans is, therefore, critical to the assessment of lifetime cancer risk

  6. Radical curative efficacy of tafenoquine combination regimens in Plasmodium cynomolgi-infected Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenworthy David

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tafenoquine is an 8-aminoquinoline being developed for radical cure (blood and liver stage elimination of Plasmodium vivax. During monotherapy treatment, the compound exhibits slow parasite and fever clearance times, and toxicity in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency is a concern. Combination with other antimalarials may mitigate these concerns. Methods In 2005, the radical curative efficacy of tafenoquine combinations was investigated in Plasmodium cynomolgi-infected naïve Indian-origin Rhesus monkeys. In the first cohort, groups of two monkeys were treated with a three-day regimen of tafenoquine at different doses alone and in combination with a three-day chloroquine regimen to determine the minimum curative dose (MCD. In the second cohort, the radical curative efficacy of a single-day regimen of tafenoquine-mefloquine was compared to that of two three-day regimens comprising tafenoquine at its MCD with chloroquine or artemether-lumefantrine in groups of six monkeys. In a final cohort, the efficacy of the MCD of tafenoquine against hypnozoites alone and in combination with chloroquine was investigated in groups of six monkeys after quinine pre-treatment to eliminate asexual parasites. Plasma tafenoquine, chloroquine and desethylchloroquine concentrations were determined by LC-MS in order to compare doses of the drugs to those used clinically in humans. Results The total MCD of tafenoquine required in combination regimens for radical cure was ten-fold lower (1.8 mg/kg versus 18 mg/kg than for monotherapy. This regimen (1.8 mg/kg was equally efficacious as monotherapy or in combination with chloroquine after quinine pre-treatment to eliminate asexual stages. The same dose of (1.8 mg/kg was radically curative in combination with artemether-lumefantrine. Tafenoquine was also radically curative when combined with mefloquine. The MCD of tafenoquine monotherapy for radical cure (18 mg/kg appears to be biologically equivalent to a 600-1200 mg dose in humans. At its MCD in combination with blood schizonticidal drugs (1.8 mg/kg, the maximum observed plasma concentrations were substantially lower than (20-84 versus 550-1,100 ng/ml after administration of 1, 200 mg in clinical studies. Conclusions Ten-fold lower clinical doses of tafenoquine than used in prior studies may be effective against P. vivax hypnozoites if the drug is deployed in combination with effective blood-schizonticidal drugs.

  7. Immunoneutralization of vascular endothelial growth factor inhibits pregnancy establishment in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, J; Lalitkumar, P G L; Najwa, A R; Charnock-Jones, D S; Evans, A L; Sharkey, A M; Smith, S K; Ghosh, D

    2007-06-01

    Maternal endometrial vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is considered important in blastocyst implantation. However, there is no direct evidence to support this conjecture in the primate. In the present study, we have examined this hypothesis by testing whether immunoneutralization of VEGF during the peri-implantation stage of gestation affects embryo implantation in the rhesus monkey. Adult female animals (n = 36) during mated ovulatory cycles were randomly assigned to one of the experimental groups treated subcutaneously with either isotype-matched mouse immunoglobulin (group 1: control, n = 8) or monoclonal mouse antibody against VEGF-A (anti-VEGF Mab; group 2: 10 mg on day 5 after ovulation, n = 8; group 3: 20 mg on day 5 after ovulation, n = 8; group 4: 10 mg on day 10 after ovulation, n = 4; group 5: 10 mg on days 5 and 10 after ovulation, n = 8). Anti-VEGF Mab-treated animals in groups 2-4 did not show any marked inhibition in pregnancy establishment. On pooled analysis, however, anti-VEGF Mab administration in groups 2-5 (n = 28) resulted in a significant (P establishment significantly (P gestation when compared with samples from control group animals (n = 8). Thus, VEGF action is required for successful blastocyst implantation in the rhesus monkey.

  8. Noninvasive temporal artery thermometry as an alternative to rectal thermometry in research macaques ( Macaca spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Stephanie E; Marini, Robert P; Patterson, Mary M

    2013-01-01

    Obtaining an animal's body temperature is essential for the assessment of its clinical status. For many species, rectal thermometry is the technique used most often; however, this method in macaques typically requires sedation or considerable physical restraint. A noninvasive and inexpensive temporal artery (TA) thermometer was evaluated as an alternative method for collecting body temperature measurements from macaques used in neuroscience research. Rectal and arterial temperatures were obtained from 86 macaques (mean age, 10.2 y) that had received ketamine (10 mg/kg IM) or Telazol (5 mg/kg IM); the arterial measurements were taken from behind the right ear. In addition, arterial temperatures were measured behind both ears in a cohort of awake, chaired macaques with cephalic restraint pedestals only (n = 8) or with cephalic restraint pedestals and recording chambers (n = 14). Within-subject repeatability for TA thermometry and agreement between rectal and arterial temperature measurements were assessed by using the Bland-Altman method. Temperature measurements indicated that values from TA thermometry were lower than those from rectal thermometry by 1.57 °C with a 95% agreement limit of ± 1.27 °C. Results show satisfactory repeatability with TA thermometry and agreement between arterial and rectal temperatures, demonstrating that TA thermometry can be a valuable tool in conscious, chaired macaques with restrained heads.

  9. Captive propagation of threatened primates - the example of the Lion-tailed Macaque Macaca silenus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Kaumanns

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Many conservation-oriented breeding programs are not likely to reach their goal of establishing self-sustaining populations. Some zoo biologists propagate to reconsider zoo-based conservation policies and strategies. The Lion-tailed Macaque is a flagship species for in situ conservation and a high priority species in captive propagation. This article reviews the captive management history of the Lion-tailed Macaque, identifies management patterns that might have negatively influenced the development of the programs, and proposes to use this analysis to initiate a new management perspective. In the North American captive Lion-tailed Macaque population under the Species Survival Plan (SSP, the strong reduction in population size and group sizes due to space problems might have contributed to a decrease in population viability. The population over two decades has declined from almost 300 to less than 100 individuals. In the European population under the European Endangered Species Program (EEP, population size was not limited and larger groups were advocated. The population grew slowly but steadily to a present size of more than 350 individuals over about 23 years. The effective population size has remained low in both SSP and EEP populations. A general conceptual framework that focuses on individuals and their phenotypes for in situ and ex situ conservation recently developed by field conservationists is briefly introduced. It is used to suggest improvements in the management of the Lion-tailed Macaque. It is concluded that the size and structure of a breeding population is to be decided so as to provide conditions and materials for successful reproduction rather than by the available zoo space only. For this, large groups and populations with representation of all age-sex classes are advocated. This would result in a further reduction in the number of species kept in zoos. It is indicated that zoo biology needs to develop new concepts that include a large spectrum of concepts of biology and knowledge about the adaptive potential of animal species under altered and fragmented conditions.

  10. Interactions among motility, fertilizing ability, and testosterone binding on spermatozoa of bonnet monkey (Macaca radiata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warikoo, P K; Majumdar, S S; Allag, I S; Das, R P; Roy, S

    1986-01-01

    Fresh ejaculates of bonnet monkeys were separated into fractions rich with highly motile and sluggishly motile spermatozoa. The motility, ability to fertilize zona-free hamster eggs, and distribution of testosterone-binding sites on spermatozoa were assessed to determine the relation between these sperm functions. Two parameters of objective assessment of motility--velocity and degree of flagellar bending--were significantly correlated with the ability to form pronuclei in zona-free hamster eggs. Only spermatozoa with good motility could form pronuclei, which might be important for assessment of the fertilizing ability. The motility was directly related to the distribution of testosterone-binding sites; the fraction having mostly motile spermatozoa was distributed over the sperm surface. The technique is simple and may be used to evaluate semen of nonhuman primates.

  11. Multimodal Advertisement of Pregnancy in Free-Ranging Female Japanese Macaques (Macaca fuscata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Rigaill

    Full Text Available The role of multiple sexual signals in indicating the timing of female ovulation, and discrimination of this timing by males, has been particularly well studied among primates. However the exhibition of pregnancy signals, and how such signals might modulate male post-conception mating decisions, is still poorly understood. Here we aimed to determine if Japanese macaque males use changes in female sexual signals (behavioral, visual and auditory to discriminate pregnancy and adjust their socio-sexual behaviors. We combined behavioral observations, digital photography and endocrinological (progestogen and estrogen data, collected systematically during three one-month periods: the pre-conceptive period, the 1st month of pregnancy and the 2nd month of pregnancy. We analyzed variation in the probability of detecting male and female socio-sexual behaviors and estrus calls, as well as changes in female face color parameters, in relation to female reproductive state. Based on our focal observations, we found that males did not copulate during the pregnancy period, and that female socio-sexual behaviors generally decreased from the pre-conceptive to post-conceptive periods. Female face luminance decreased from the pre-conceptive month to the pregnancy period whereas face color only varied between the 1st and 2nd month of gestation. Our results suggest that Japanese macaque females display sexual cues of pregnancy that males might use to reduce energy wasted on non-reproductive copulations with pregnant females. We hypothesize that females advertize their pregnancy through changes in behavioral, visual and potential auditory signals that males can use to adjust their mating behaviors. We finish by discussing implications for male and female post-conception strategies.

  12. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) detect rhythmic groups in music, but not the beat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honing, H.; Merchant, H.; Háden, G.P.; Prado, L.; Bartolo, R.

    2012-01-01

    It was recently shown that rhythmic entrainment, long considered a human-specific mechanism, can be demonstrated in a selected group of bird species, and, somewhat surprisingly, not in more closely related species such as nonhuman primates. This observation supports the vocal learning hypothesis

  13. Assessing significant (>30%) alopecia as a possible biomarker for stress in captive rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Melinda A; Menard, Mark T; El-Mallah, Saif N; Rosenberg, Kendra; Lutz, Corrine K; Worlein, Julie; Coleman, Kris; Meyer, Jerrold S

    2017-01-01

    Hair loss is common in macaque colonies. Very little is known about the relationship between psychological stress and hair loss. We initially examined alopecia and hair cortisol concentrations in 198 (89 male) rhesus macaques from three primate centers and demonstrated replicability of our previous finding that extensive alopecia (>30% hair loss) is associated with increased chronic cortisol concentrations and significantly affected by facility. A subset of these monkeys (142 of which 67 were males) were sampled twice approximately 8 months apart allowing us to examine the hypotheses that gaining hair should be associated with decreases in cortisol concentrations and vice versa. Hair loss was digitally scored using ImageJ software for the first sample. Then visual assessment was used to examine the second sample, resulting in three categories of coat condition: (i) monkeys that remained fully haired; (ii) monkeys that remained alopecic (with more than 30% hair loss); or (iii) monkeys that showed more than a 15% increase in hair. The sample size for the group that lost hair was too small to be analyzed. Consistent with our hypothesis, monkeys that gained hair showed a significant reduction in hair cortisol concentrations but this effect only held for females. Coat condition changed little across sampling periods with only 25 (11 male) monkeys showing a greater than 15% gain of hair. Twenty (7 male) monkeys remained alopecic, whereas 97 (49 males) remained fully haired. Hair cortisol was highly correlated across samples for the monkeys that retained their status (remained alopecic or retained their hair). Am. J. Primatol. 79:e22547, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Localization of orofacial representation in the corona radiata, internal capsule and cerebral peduncle in Macaca mulatta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morecraft, R J; Binneboese, A; Stilwell-Morecraft, K S; Ge, J

    2017-11-01

    Subcortical white matter injury is often accompanied by orofacial motor dysfunction, but little is known about the structural substrates accounting for these common neurological deficits. We studied the trajectory of the corticobulbar projection from the orofacial region of the primary (M1), ventrolateral (LPMCv), supplementary (M2), rostral cingulate (M3) and caudal cingulate (M4) motor regions through the corona radiata (CR), internal capsule (IC) and crus cerebri of the cerebral peduncle (ccCP). In the CR each pathway was segregated. Medial motor area fibers (M2/M3/M4) arched over the caudate and lateral motor area fibers (M1/LPMCv) curved over the putamen. At superior IC levels, the pathways were widespread, involving the anterior limb, genu and posterior limb with the M3 projection located anteriorly, followed posteriorly by projections from M2, LPMCv, M4 and M1, respectively. Inferiorly, all pathways maintained this orientation but shifted posteriorly, with adjacent fiber bundles overlapping minimally. In the ccCP, M3 fibers were located medially and M1 fibers centromedially, with M2, LPMCv, and M4 pathways overlapping in between. Finally, at inferior ccCP levels, all pathways overlapped. Following CR and superior IC lesions, the dispersed pathway distribution may correlate with acute orofacial dysfunction with spared pathways contributing to orofacial motor recovery. In contrast, the gradually commixed nature of pathway representation inferiorly may enhance fiber vulnerability and correlate with severe, prolonged deficits following lower subcortical and midbrain injury. Additionally, in humans these findings may assist in interpreting orofacial movements evoked during deep brain stimulation, and neuroimaging tractography efforts to localize descending orofacial motor pathways. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Cortical innervation of the hypoglossal nucleus in the non-human primate (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morecraft, Robert J; Stilwell-Morecraft, Kimberly S; Solon-Cline, Kathryn M; Ge, Jizhi; Darling, Warren G

    2014-10-15

    The corticobulbar projection to the hypoglossal nucleus was studied from the frontal, parietal, cingulate, and insular cortices in the rhesus monkey by using high-resolution anterograde tracers and stereology. The hypoglossal nucleus received bilateral input from the face/head region of the primary (M1), ventrolateral pre- (LPMCv), supplementary (M2), rostral cingulate (M3), and caudal cingulate (M4) motor cortices. Additional bilateral corticohypoglossal projections were found from the dorsolateral premotor cortex (LPMCd), ventrolateral proisocortical motor area (ProM), ventrolateral primary somatosensory cortex (S1), rostral insula, and pregenual region of the anterior cingulate gyrus (areas 24/32). Dense terminal projections arose from the ventral region of M1, and moderate projections from LPMCv and rostral part of M2, with considerably fewer hypoglossal projections arising from the other cortical regions. These findings demonstrate that extensive regions of the non-human primate cerebral cortex innervate the hypoglossal nucleus. The widespread and bilateral nature of this corticobulbar connection suggests recovery of tongue movement after cortical injury that compromises a subset of these areas, may occur from spared corticohypoglossal projection areas located on the lateral, as well as medial surfaces of both hemispheres. Since functional imaging studies have shown that homologous cortical areas are activated in humans during tongue movement tasks, these corticobulbar projections may exist in the human brain. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Mycobacterium kansasii Isolated from Tuberculinpositive Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) in the Absence of Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipley, Steven T; Johnson, David K; Roodgar, Morteza; Smith, David Glenn; Montgomery, Charles A; Lloyd, Steven M; Higgins, James A; Kriel, Edwin H; Klein, Hilton J; Porter, William P; Nazareno, Jerome B; Houghton, Paul W; Panda, Aruna; DeTolla, Louis J

    2017-08-01

    Mycobacterial infections are of primary health concern in NHP colonies in biomedical research. NHP are constantly monitored and screened for Mycobacterium spp. We report 6 Chinese-origin rhesus macaques infected with Mycobacterium kansasii that exhibited positive tuberculin skin tests in the absence of disease. Two of these macaques were being used for research purposes; the remaining 4 macaques were residing at the contract quarantine company. Histopathology and acid-fast staining of fixed tissues from all macaques showed that all were free of disease. Thoracic radiographs were negative for any signs of disease or infection. Samples from bronchial lavage and tissues including lung, spleen, hilar and mesenteric lymph nodes tested negative by PCR assay for Mycobacterium spp. One of the research macaques tested culture-positive for M. kansasii and a poorly characterized M. avium complex organism. One macaque from the contract quarantine facility tested culture positive for M. kansasii. Genomic testing and target gene RNA expression analysis of the 2 M. kansasii isolates were performed to evaluate possible kinship and affected genes that might contribute to susceptibility to mycobacterial infection. Genotyping of the 2 isolates revealed 2 genetically distinct strains (strains 1 and 4). The presence of positive tuberculin skin tests in the absence of disease raises serious concerns regarding diagnostic methods used for infected NHP.

  17. Absorption of cholesterol and β-sitosterol from cigarette smoke in Macaca mulatta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinow, M.R.; McLaughlin, Phyllis; Aigner-Held, Rosemarie; Upson, Barbara; Isabelle, L.M.; Connor, W.E.; Lin, Don

    1986-01-01

    When smoke from single cigarettes containing (4- 14 C) chloresterol or β-(4- 14 C) sitosterol was delivered to the lungs of Rhesus macaques, plasma contained radiolabeled sterols up to 50 days later. Since chloresterol, as well as plant sterols (campesterol, stigmasterol and β-sitosterol), are normally present in cigarette smoke, our observations suggest that protracted absorption of sterols occurs after cigarette smoking. (author)

  18. Left versus right nipple preference in free-ranging infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Benjamin D; Evans, Theodore A; Howell, Sue; Westergaard, Gregory C; Snoy, Philip J; Higley, J Dee

    2006-04-01

    The examination of nonhuman primate (NHP) lateralized behaviors may provide insight into the evolution of hemispheric specialization. This study examined nipple preference in 64 infant macaques in order to consider the ontogeny of lateralized behavior. We used a focal animal sampling method to record nipple contact during 15, 30-min observation sessions collected across each infant's first year of life. Using a lateralized behavior index (LBI) we calculated individual and population preferences (LBI=(R-L)/(R+L); "R"=mean right nipple contact, "L"=mean left nipple contact). Strength of preference was calculated as the absolute value of this score. Infants exhibited no population preference for a particular nipple, but showed a significant strength of preference that developed after 48 hr. Interestingly, successive siblings preferred the nipple not used by the previous infant. These findings suggest that nipple preference is guided by external stimuli, and that nipple preference during infancy may not be a behavioral representation of hemispheric specialization. Copyright (c) 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. The transfer of category knowledge by macaques (Macaca mulatta) and humans (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrzewski, Alexandria C; Church, Barbara A; Smith, J David

    2018-02-01

    Cognitive psychologists distinguish implicit, procedural category learning (stimulus-response associations learned outside declarative cognition) from explicit-declarative category learning (conscious category rules). These systems are dissociated by category learning tasks with either a multidimensional, information-integration (II) solution or a unidimensional, rule-based (RB) solution. In the present experiments, humans and two monkeys learned II and RB category tasks fostering implicit and explicit learning, respectively. Then they received occasional transfer trials-never directly reinforced-drawn from untrained regions of the stimulus space. We hypothesized that implicit-procedural category learning-allied to associative learning-would transfer weakly because it is yoked to the training stimuli. This result was confirmed for humans and monkeys. We hypothesized that explicit category learning-allied to abstract category rules-would transfer robustly. This result was confirmed only for humans. That is, humans displayed explicit category knowledge that transferred flawlessly. Monkeys did not. This result illuminates the distinctive abstractness, stimulus independence, and representational portability of humans' explicit category rules. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. The effect of prostaglandins on experimental tooth movement in monkeys (Macaca fuscata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, K; Shibata, Y; Fukuhara, T

    1982-12-01

    Local administrations of prostaglandins E1 or E2 combined with orthodontic tooth movement can approximately double the rate of tooth movement in monkeys compared to that of the control. Macroscopically, no side-effect was observed in the gingiva and associated structures.

  1. Metabolism of 14C-labeled doxylamine succinate (Bendectin) in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slikker, W. Jr.; Holder, C.L.; Lipe, G.W.; Korfmacher, W.A.; Thompson, H.C. Jr.; Bailey, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    The time-course of the metabolic fate of [ 14 C]doxylamine was determined after the p.o. administration of 13 mg/kg doxylamine succinate as Bendectin plus [ 14 C]doxylamine succinate to the rhesus monkey. Urine and plasma samples were analyzed by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), chemical derivatization, and mass spectrometry. The cumulative 48-hr urinary metabolic profile contained 81% of the administered radiolabeled dose and consisted of at least six radiolabeled peaks. They were peak 1: unknown polar metabolites (8% of dose); peak 2: 2-[1-phenyl-1-(2-pyridinyl)ethoxy] acetic acid, 1-[1-phenyl-1(2-pyridinyl)ethoxy] methanol, and another minor metabolite(s) (31%); peak 3: doxylamine-N-oxide (1%); peak 4a: N,N-didesmethyldoxylamine (17%); peak 4b: doxylamine (4%); and peak 5: N-desmethyldoxylamine (20%). The plasma metabolic profile was the same as the urinary profile except for the absence of doxylamine-N-oxide. The maximum plasma concentrations and elapsed time to attain these concentrations were as follows. Peak 1: 540 ng/mL, 4 hr; peak 2: 1700 ng/mL, 1 hr; peak 4a: 430 ng/mL, 4 hr; peak 4b: 930 ng/mL, 2 hr; and peak 5: 790 ng/mL, 2 hr. These data suggest that in the monkey, doxylamine metabolism follows at least four pathways: a minor pathway to the N-oxide; a minor pathway to unknown polar metabolites; a major pathway to mono- and didesmethyldoxylamine via successive N-demethylation; and a major pathway to side-chain cleavage products (peak 2) via direct side-chain oxidation and/or deamination

  2. Fading Perceptual Resemblance: A Path for Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) to Conceptual Matching?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. David; Flemming, Timothy M.; Boomer, Joseph; Beran, Michael J.; Church, Barbara A.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive, comparative, and developmental psychologists have long been intrigued by humans’ and animals’ capacity to respond to abstract relations like sameness and difference, because this capacity may underlie crucial aspects of cognition like analogical reasoning. Recently, this capacity has been explored in higher-order, relational matching-to-sample (RMTS) tasks in which humans and animals try to complete analogies of sameness and difference between disparate groups of items. The authors introduced a new paradigm to this area, by yoking the relational-matching cue to a perceptual-matching cue. Then, using established algorithms for shape distortion, the perceptual cue was weakened and eliminated. Humans’ RMTS performance easily transcended the elimination of perceptual support. In contrast, RMTS performance by six macaques faltered as they were weaned from perceptual support. No macaque showed evidence of mature RMTS performance, even given more than 260,000 training trials during which we tried to coax a relational-matching performance from them. It is an important species difference that macaques show so hesitant a response to conceptual relations when humans respond to them so effortlessly. It raises theoretical questions about the emergence of this crucial capacity during humans’ cognitive evolution and during humans’ cognitive development. PMID:24076537

  3. Renal pigmentation due to chronic bismuth administration in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, A L; Blaine, E T; Lewis, A D

    2015-05-01

    Renal pigmentation due to the administration of exogenous compounds is an uncommon finding in most species. This report describes renal pigmentation and intranuclear inclusions of the proximal convoluted tubules due to chronic bismuth administration in a rhesus macaque. An 11-year-old Indian-origin rhesus macaque with a medical history of chronic intermittent vomiting had been treated with bismuth subsalicylate, famotidine, and omeprazole singly or in combination over the course of 8 years. At necropsy, the renal cortices were diffusely dark green to black. Light and electron microscopy revealed intranuclear inclusions within the majority of renal proximal tubular epithelial cells. These inclusions appeared magenta to brown when stained with hematoxylin and eosin and were negative by the Ziehl-Neelsen acid-fast stain. Elemental analysis performed on frozen kidney measured bismuth levels to be markedly elevated at 110.6 ppm, approximately 500 to 1000 times acceptable limits. To our knowledge, this is the first report of renal bismuth deposition in a rhesus macaque resulting in renal pigmentation and intranuclear inclusions. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Prepulse Inhibition of Auditory Cortical Responses in the Caudolateral Superior Temporal Gyrus in Macaca mulatta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zuyue; Parkkonen, Lauri; Wei, Jingkuan; Dong, Jin-Run; Ma, Yuanye; Carlson, Synnöve

    2018-04-01

    Prepulse inhibition (PPI) refers to a decreased response to a startling stimulus when another weaker stimulus precedes it. Most PPI studies have focused on the physiological startle reflex and fewer have reported the PPI of cortical responses. We recorded local field potentials (LFPs) in four monkeys and investigated whether the PPI of auditory cortical responses (alpha, beta, and gamma oscillations and evoked potentials) can be demonstrated in the caudolateral belt of the superior temporal gyrus (STGcb). We also investigated whether the presence of a conspecific, which draws attention away from the auditory stimuli, affects the PPI of auditory cortical responses. The PPI paradigm consisted of Pulse-only and Prepulse + Pulse trials that were presented randomly while the monkey was alone (ALONE) and while another monkey was present in the same room (ACCOMP). The LFPs to the Pulse were significantly suppressed by the Prepulse thus, demonstrating PPI of cortical responses in the STGcb. The PPI-related inhibition of the N1 amplitude of the evoked responses and cortical oscillations to the Pulse were not affected by the presence of a conspecific. In contrast, gamma oscillations and the amplitude of the N1 response to Pulse-only were suppressed in the ACCOMP condition compared to the ALONE condition. These findings demonstrate PPI in the monkey STGcb and suggest that the PPI of auditory cortical responses in the monkey STGcb is a pre-attentive inhibitory process that is independent of attentional modulation.

  5. Measuring infant attachment security in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta): adaptation of the attachment Q-set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warfield, James J; Kondo-Ikemura, Kiyomi; Waters, Everett

    2011-02-01

    John Bowlby defined offspring-parent attachment as a relationship in which an infant or child uses one or a few preferred adults as a secure base from which to explore and as a haven of safety. He defined attachment security in terms of confidence in the adult's availability and responsiveness and the smooth organization of exploration and proximity seeking. Developmental psychologists have found this perspective productive in both observational and laboratory research. At the same time, they emphasize that such a construct cannot be operationalized in terms of one or a few behaviors. Instead, naturalistic observations of human infant attachment typically employ the Q-sort method to develop the Attachment q-set (AQS), 90 behaviorally descriptive items sorted in terms of how characteristic each item is of the infant's typical behavior. Meta-analyses of research using the AQS attest to its reliability and validity. This article reports an adaptation of the AQS to the task of assessing infant attachment security in nonhuman primates and illustrates its use. The availability of comparable measures of attachment security will contribute to an expanded understanding of patterns of attachment behavior in nonhuman primate societies and will facilitate interaction between comparative and developmental psychologists. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Hypocholesterolemic effect of dietary soy protein versus casein in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terpstra, A H; West, C E; Fennis, J T; Schouten, J A; van der Veen, E A

    1984-01-01

    Ten mature female rhesus monkeys were alternately fed semipurified diets containing casein or soy protein for periods of 13 to 17 wk. Each diet was fed for two periods. When the animals were changed from the commercial diet to the semipurified diet containing soy protein, a significant elevation in serum cholesterol occurred. The serum cholesterol levels gradually increased further, when the soy protein in the diet was replaced by casein. However, when subsequently the casein in the diet was replaced by soy protein, a significant decrease in serum cholesterol levels was observed. Finally, when the animals were changed back to the casein diet, a significant increase in serum cholesterol again occurred. Changes in serum cholesterol due to modulations in the type of protein in the diet were reflected mainly by changes in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Thus, the results of this study clearly show that the type of protein in the diet markedly affects serum cholesterol levels not only in experimental animals such as the rabbit, as is well known, but also in the rhesus monkey, which is more akin to man.

  7. Platelet Aggregation in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) in Response to Short-Term Meloxicam Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Keith E; Austin, Jamie; Escobar, Evelyn P; Carbone, Larry

    2013-01-01

    NSAID administration is often chosen as a method of minimizing pain and discomfort for nonhuman primates. Of concern when using NSAID is the potential for decreased platelet aggregation due to the inhibition of cyclooxygenases 1 and 2. In both dogs and humans, the use of NSAID that are selective for cyclooxygenase 2, like meloxicam, minimizes the inhibition of platelet aggregation in comparison to nonselective NSAID, like aspirin, that inhibit both isoforms of cyclooxygenase. In this study, we measured platelet aggregation in rhesus macaques (n = 6) by using the impedance method on a multiple-electrode aggregometer at baseline, at 1 and 4 d after initiating treatment with aspirin or meloxicam, and after a washout period. There was no statistical difference between aggregation at baseline and after 1 or 4 d of meloxicam treatment, but platelet aggregation decreased after both 1 and 4 d of aspirin therapy. Our data suggest that clinically significant postoperative hemorrhage is unlikely in rhesus macaques briefly treated with meloxicam. PMID:24041216

  8. Prevalence of Balantidium coli Infection in Bred Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta in Guangxi, southern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Long Li

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Balantidium coli infects humans, primates and pigs, causing serious diarrhea and dysentery. Little information on the prevalence of B. coli in primates is available in China. This investigation was conducted to determine the prevalence of B. coli infection in bred rhesus monkeys in Guangxi Zhuang Nationality Autonomous Region (GZNAR, southern China.A total of 120 fecal samples were collected from rhesus monkeys bred in cages in GZNAR and B. coli cysts and/or trophozoites were examined microscopically after sedimentation with water in May 2013.(64.2% samples were tested positive. The prevalence was 65% (39/60 and 63.3% (38/60 in female and male monkeys, respectively. 80% (48/60 cages in this nonhuman primate center were positive for B. coli.The present survey revealed high circulation of B. coli in bred rhesus monkeys in GZNAR, which poses potential threats to animal and human health.

  9. Behavioral responses to injury and death in wild Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Liz A D; Tkaczynski, Patrick J; Mouna, Mohamed; Qarro, Mohamed; Waterman, James; Majolo, Bonaventura

    2016-07-01

    The wounding or death of a conspecific has been shown to elicit varied behavioral responses throughout thanatology. Recently, a number of reports have presented contentious evidence of epimeletic behavior towards the dying and dead among non-human animals, a behavioral trait previously considered uniquely human. Here, we report on the behavioral responses of Barbary macaques, a social, non-human primate, to the deaths of four group members (one high-ranking adult female, one high-ranking adult male, one juvenile male, and one female infant), all caused by road traffic accidents. Responses appeared to vary based on the nature of the death (protracted or instant) and the age class of the deceased. Responses included several behaviors with potential adaptive explanations or consequences. These included exploration, caretaking (guarding, carrying, and grooming), and proximity to wounded individuals or corpses, and immediate as well as longer-lasting distress behaviors from other group members following death, all of which have been reported in other non-human primate species. These observations add to a growing body of comparative evolutionary analysis of primate thanatology and help to highlight the multifaceted impacts of human-induced fatalities on an endangered and socially complex primate.

  10. Parasites may exit immunocompromised northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina) infected with SIVmac239.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Tian-Zhang; Zhang, Ming-Xu; Xia, Yu-Jie; Xiao, Yu; Pang, Wei; Zheng, Yong-Tang

    2018-01-18

    Parasites can increase infection rates and pathogenicity in immunocompromised human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients. However, in vitro studies and epidemiological investigations also suggest that parasites might escape immunocompromised hosts during HIV infection. Due to the lack of direct evidence from animal experiments, the effects of parasitic infections on immunocompromised hosts remain unclear. Here, we detected 14 different parasites in six northern pig-tailed macaques (NPMs) before or at the 50th week of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection by ELISA. The NPMs all carried parasites before viral injection. At the 50th week after viral injection, the individuals with negative results in parasitic detection (i.e., 08247 and 08287) were characterized as the Parasites Exit (PE) group, with the other individuals (i.e., 09203, 09211, 10205, and 10225) characterized as the Parasites Remain (PR) group. Compared with the PR group, the NPMs in the PE group showed higher viral loads, lower CD4 + T cells counts, and lower CD4/CD8 rates. Additionally, the PE group had higher immune activation and immune exhaustion of both CD4 + and CD8 + T cells. Pathological observation showed greater injury to the liver, cecum, colon, spleen, and mesenteric lymph nodes in the PE group. This study showed more seriously compromised immunity in the PE group, strongly indicating that parasites might exit an immunocompromised host.

  11. Parasites may exit immunocompromised northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina infected with SIVmac239

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-Zhang Song

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Parasites can increase infection rates andpathogenicity in immunocompromised humanimmunodeficiency virus (HIV patients. However, invitro studies and epidemiological investigationsalso suggest that parasites might escapeimmunocompromised hosts during HIV infection.Due to the lack of direct evidence from animalexperiments, the effects of parasitic infections onimmunocompromised hosts remain unclear. Here,we detected 14 different parasites in six northernpig-tailed macaques (NPMs before or during the50th week of post-simian immunodeficiency virus(SIV infection by ELISA. The NPMs all carriedparasites before viral injection. At the 50th week afterviral injection, the individuals with negative resultsin parasitic detection (i.e., 08247 and 08287 werecharacterized as the Parasites Exit (PE group, withthe other individuals (i.e., 09203, 09211, 10205, and10225 characterized as the Parasites Remain (PRgroup. Compared with the PR group, the NPMs in thePE group showed higher viral loads, lower CD4+ Tcells counts, and lower CD4/CD8 rates. Additionally,the PE group had higher immune activation andimmune exhaustion of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells.Pathological observation showed greater injury tothe liver, cecum, colon, spleen, and mesentericlymph nodes in the PE group. This study showedmore seriously compromised immunity in the PEgroup, strongly indicating that parasites might exit animmunocompromised host.

  12. Interactions between visitors and Formosan macaques (Macaca cyclopis) at Shou-Shan Nature Park, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Minna J; Kao, Chien-Ching; Agoramoorthy, Govindasamy

    2009-03-01

    Ecotourism involving feeding wildlife has raised public attention and is a controversial issue, especially concerning nonhuman primates. Between July 2002 and April 2005, the behavior of monkeys and tourists was collected through scan samplings, focal samplings and behavior samplings at the Shou-Shan Nature Park located in Taiwan's second largest city--Kaohsiung. In addition, the number of tourists and monkeys was counted in different hours and places within the park. Four hundred visitors were interviewed using a questionnaire to gather data on sex, age, purpose and frequency of visit to the park. The number of tourists was significantly higher during weekends than in weekdays in all locations. Humans dominated in the initiation of interspecies interactions--the overall ratio of human-initiated and monkey-initiated interactions was 2.44:1. Human-monkey conflicts accounted for only 16.4% of the total interactions (n=2,166), and adult human males and adult male macaques participated in higher rates than other age/sex groups in these conflicts. Visitors showed more affiliative behavior (15.9%) than agonistic behavior (8%) toward the macaques. In response to visitors' threat or attack, the Formosan macaques mostly showed submissive behavior with bared teeth, squealed or ran away to avoid confrontation (69.1%)--only few responded with counteraggression (18.7%). This study for the first time provided evidence that food provisioning increased both the frequency and duration of aggression among Formosan macaques (Ptourists was 0.73 times/hr--more than twice the incident that monkeys grabbed the food from tourists (0.34 times/hr). If people refrain from feeding monkeys and destroying the city park's natural vegetation, monkeys can be used to educate public about nature conservation in an urban setting. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Testing the anxiety reduction function of grooming interactions in wild Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus)

    OpenAIRE

    Molesti, Sandra; Majolo, Bonaventura

    2012-01-01

    Together with its hygienic and social function, grooming is thought to reduce anxiety. However, empirical evidence on the anxiety-reduction function of grooming is scarce. We collected 10-minute focal data on the donor and recipient of grooming using the post-grooming / matchedcontrol (PG-MC) method. In these PGs and MCs sessions, we recorded the occurrence of selfdirected behaviours (i.e. scratching and self-grooming), which are behavioural indicators of anxiety. We found mixed evidenc...

  14. Perceptual category learning of photographic and painterly stimuli in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altschul, Drew; Jensen, Greg; Terrace, Herbert

    2017-01-01

    Humans are highly adept at categorizing visual stimuli, but studies of human categorization are typically validated by verbal reports. This makes it difficult to perform comparative studies of categorization using non-human animals. Interpretation of comparative studies is further complicated by the possibility that animal performance may merely reflect reinforcement learning, whereby discrete features act as discriminative cues for categorization. To assess and compare how humans and monkeys classified visual stimuli, we trained 7 rhesus macaques and 41 human volunteers to respond, in a specific order, to four simultaneously presented stimuli at a time, each belonging to a different perceptual category. These exemplars were drawn at random from large banks of images, such that the stimuli presented changed on every trial. Subjects nevertheless identified and ordered these changing stimuli correctly. Three monkeys learned to order naturalistic photographs; four others, close-up sections of paintings with distinctive styles. Humans learned to order both types of stimuli. All subjects classified stimuli at levels substantially greater than that predicted by chance or by feature-driven learning alone, even when stimuli changed on every trial. However, humans more closely resembled monkeys when classifying the more abstract painting stimuli than the photographic stimuli. This points to a common classification strategy in both species, one that humans can rely on in the absence of linguistic labels for categories.

  15. ICRF modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, C.K.

    1985-12-01

    This lecture provides a survey of the methods used to model fast magnetosonic wave coupling, propagation, and absorption in tokamaks. The validity and limitations of three distinct types of modelling codes, which will be contrasted, include discrete models which utilize ray tracing techniques, approximate continuous field models based on a parabolic approximation of the wave equation, and full field models derived using finite difference techniques. Inclusion of mode conversion effects in these models and modification of the minority distribution function will also be discussed. The lecture will conclude with a presentation of time-dependent global transport simulations of ICRF-heated tokamak discharges obtained in conjunction with the ICRF modelling codes. 52 refs., 15 figs

  16. Modelling in Business Model design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simonse, W.L.

    2013-01-01

    It appears that business model design might not always produce a design or model as the expected result. However when designers are involved, a visual model or artefact is produced. To assist strategic managers in thinking about how they can act, the designers challenge is to combine strategy and

  17. Ventilation Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, H.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis and model report (AMR) for the Ventilation Model is to analyze the effects of pre-closure continuous ventilation in the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) emplacement drifts and provide heat removal data to support EBS design. It will also provide input data (initial conditions, and time varying boundary conditions) for the EBS post-closure performance assessment and the EBS Water Distribution and Removal Process Model. The objective of the analysis is to develop, describe, and apply calculation methods and models that can be used to predict thermal conditions within emplacement drifts under forced ventilation during the pre-closure period. The scope of this analysis includes: (1) Provide a general description of effects and heat transfer process of emplacement drift ventilation. (2) Develop a modeling approach to simulate the impacts of pre-closure ventilation on the thermal conditions in emplacement drifts. (3) Identify and document inputs to be used for modeling emplacement ventilation. (4) Perform calculations of temperatures and heat removal in the emplacement drift. (5) Address general considerations of the effect of water/moisture removal by ventilation on the repository thermal conditions. The numerical modeling in this document will be limited to heat-only modeling and calculations. Only a preliminary assessment of the heat/moisture ventilation effects and modeling method will be performed in this revision. Modeling of moisture effects on heat removal and emplacement drift temperature may be performed in the future

  18. Correlation between the concentration of serum polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in pregnant cynomolgus monkeys and their offspring's behavioral scores in eye-contact test and finger maze learning test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negishi, T. [Aoyama Gakuin Univ., Kanagawa (Japan); Takasuga, T. [Shimadzu Techno-Research Inc., Kyoto (Japan); Kawasaki, K. [Hoshi Univ., Tokyo (Japan); Kuroda, Y. [CREST Japan Science and Technology Corp., Saitama (Japan); Yoshikawa, Y. [The Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    A recent review suggested that pre- or perinatal exposure of developing fetuses to dioxins, the widespread environmental contaminants, such as polychrorinated biphenlys (PCBs), induce the irreversible abnormalities in the functions of central nervous system (CNS) in human. These chemicals can be transferred to each fetus and naonate transplacentally and lactationally in rhesus monkey. Several studies also reported the adverse effect of PCB on CNS development in rodents and monkeys as well as on behavior in rodents and monkeys. In the present study, we show a preliminary data about the correlation between the serum concentrations of PCBs in pregnant cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) and the scores of two behavioral tests, eye-contact test and four-step finger maze test, which evaluate consciousness against human observer and learning ability, respectively, in their offspring. This experimental surveillance system using non-human primates would be useful to predict the risk of PCBs exposure in human fetuses because of the similarities of cynomolgus monkey to human with regard to reproduction, developmental parameter, and others.

  19. An observation on the decomposition process of gasoline-ingested monkey carcasses in a secondary forest in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumiza, A R; Khairul, O; Zuha, R M; Heo, C C

    2010-12-01

    This study was designed to mimic homicide or suicide cases using gasoline. Six adult long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis), weighing between 2.5 to 4.0 kg, were equally divided into control and test groups. The control group was sacrificed by a lethal dose of phenobarbital intracardiac while test group was force fed with two doses of gasoline LD50 (37.7 ml/kg) after sedation with phenobarbital. All carcasses were then placed in a decomposition site to observe the decomposition and invasion process of cadaveric fauna on the carcasses. A total of five decomposition stages were recognized during this study. This study was performed during July 2007. Fresh stage of control and test carcasses occurred between 0 to 15 and 0 to 39 hours of exposure, respectively. The subsequent decomposition stages also exhibited the similar pattern whereby the decomposition process of control carcasses were faster than tested one. The first larvae were found on control carcasses after 9 hours of death while the test group carcasses had only their first blowfly eggs after 15 hours of exposure. Blow flies, Achoetandrus rufifacies and Chrysomya megacephala were the most dominant invader of both carcasses throughout the decaying process. Diptera collected from control carcasses comprised of scuttle fly, Megaselia scalaris and flesh fly, sarcophagid. We concluded that the presence of gasoline and its odor on the carcass had delayed the arrival of insect to the carcasses, thereby slowing down the decomposition process in the carcass by 6 hours.

  20. Induction and inhibition of cytochrome P450 1A1 and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylation activity by polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in cynomolgus monkey primary hepatocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, L.; Sanderson, J.T.; Berg, M. van den [Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands). Inst. for Risk Assessment Sciences; Bergman, A. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry

    2004-09-15

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) make up for 39% of the worldwide flame-retardants market. One groups of BFR, Polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) are used as additive flameretardants in plastic materials, paints, and textile fabrics. Some PBDEs have been found to be lipophilic and persistent, and consequently bioaccumulate. Recently, levels of some PBDEs have been increasing in fish, wildlife, and in human tissue. The structural similarity of certain PBDE congeners to other polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has raised concerns that these compounds might act as agonists for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). If some of these PBDEs were to act as Ah receptor agonists, they would warrant inclusion in the toxic equivalence factor (TEF) concept. CYP1A1 is a cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme that is involved in phase 1 biotransformation of xenobiotics and endogenous compounds such as estrogens. Many CYP enzymes detoxify xenobiotics or bioactivate xenobiotics to reactive intermediates. Although CYP1A1 is expressed in all mammals, there are differences in expression levels among species and tissues. To study the possible dioxin-like effects of environmentally most relevant PBDEs (BDE47, 77, 99, 100, 153, 154, 183, 209), the Ah receptor-mediated induction CYP1A1 was studied in cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) primary hepatocytes. CYP 1A1 is the major enzyme that catalyses the deethylation of 7-ethoxyresorufin to resorufin. This ethoxyresorufin-Odeethylation (EROD) activity was used as a marker for CYP1A1 activity.

  1. Hearing in action; auditory properties of neurones in the red nucleus of alert primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Murray Lovell

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The response of neurones in the Red Nucleus pars magnocellularis (RNm to both tone bursts and electrical stimulation were observed in three cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis, in a series of studies primarily designed to characterise the influence of the dopaminergic ventral midbrain on auditory processing. Compared to its role in motor behaviour, little is known about the sensory response properties of neurons in the red nucleus; particularly those concerning the auditory modality. Sites in the RN were recognised by observing electrically evoked body movements characteristic for this deep brain structure. In this study we applied brief monopolar electrical stimulation to 118 deep brain sites at a maximum intensity of 200 µA, thus evoking minimal body movements. Auditory sensitivity of RN neurons was analysed more thoroughly at 15 sites, with the majority exhibiting broad tuning curves and phase locking up to 1.03 kHz. Since the RN appears to receive inputs from a very early stage of the ascending auditory system, our results suggest that sounds can modify the motor control exerted by this brain nucleus. At selected locations, we also tested for the presence of functional connections between the RN and the auditory cortex by inserting additional microelectrodes into the auditory cortex and investigating how action potentials and local field potentials were affected by electrical stimulation of the RN.

  2. Vitamins in the monkey brain: An immunocytochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangas, A; Coveñas, R; Bodet, D; Duleu, S; Marcos, P; Geffard, M

    2009-09-01

    Using highly specific antisera directed against vitamins, the distribution of pyridoxal-, pyridoxine-, vitamin C- and nicotinamide-immunoreactive structures in the monkey (Macaca fascicularis) brain was studied. Neither immunoreactive structures containing pyridoxine or nicotinamide, nor immunoreactive fibers containing vitamin C were found in the monkey brain. However, this work reports the first visualization and the morphological characteristics of pyridoxal- and vitamin C-immunoreactive cell bodies in the mammalian central nervous system using an indirect immunoperoxidase technique. A high density of pyridoxal-immunoreactive cell bodies was found in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus and in the supraoptic nucleus and a low density of the same was observed in the periventricular hypothalamic region, whereas a moderate density of vitamin C-immunoreactive cell bodies was observed in the somatosensorial cortex (precentral gyrus). Immunoreactive fibers containing pyridoxal were only visualized in the anterior commissure. The restricted distribution of pyridoxal and vitamin C in the monkey brain suggests that both vitamins could be involved in very specific physiological mechanisms.

  3. Human behavior and opportunities for parasite transmission in communities surrounding long-tailed macaque populations in Bali, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane-DeGraaf, Kelly E; Putra, I G A Arta; Wandia, I Nengah; Rompis, Aida; Hollocher, Hope; Fuentes, Agustin

    2014-02-01

    Spatial overlap and shared resources between humans and wildlife can exacerbate parasite transmission dynamics. In Bali, Indonesia, an agricultural-religious temple system provides sanctuaries for long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis), concentrating them in areas in close proximity to humans. In this study, we interviewed individuals in communities surrounding 13 macaque populations about their willingness to participate in behaviors that would put them at risk of exposure to gastrointestinal parasites to understand if age, education level, or occupation are significant determinants of exposure behaviors. These exposure risk behaviors and attitudes include fear of macaques, direct contact with macaques, owning pet macaques, hunting and eating macaques, and overlapping water uses. We find that willingness to participate in exposure risk behaviors are correlated with an individual's occupation, age, and/or education level. We also found that because the actual risk of infection varies across populations, activities such as direct macaque contact and pet ownership, could be putting individuals at real risk in certain contexts. Thus, we show that human demographics and social structure can influence willingness to participate in behaviors putting them at increased risk for exposure to parasites. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Ocular toxoplasmosis in immunosuppressed nonhuman primates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, G.N.; O' Connor, G.R.; Diaz, R.F.; Minasi, P.; Wara, W.M.

    1988-06-01

    To investigate the role of cellular immunodeficiency in recurrent toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis, six Cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) with healed toxoplasmic lesions of the retina were immunosuppressed by total lymphoid irradiation. Three months prior to irradiation 30,000 Toxoplasma gondii organisms of the Beverley strain had been inoculated onto the macula of eye in each monkey via a pars plana approach. Toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis developed in each animal, and lesions were allowed to heal without treatment. During total lymphoid irradiation animals received 2000 centigrays (cGy) over a 7-week period. Irradiation resulted in an immediate drop in total lymphocyte counts and decreased ability to stimulate lymphocytes by phytohemagglutinin. Weekly ophthalmoscopic examinations following irradiation failed to show evidence of recurrent ocular disease despite persistent immunodeficiency. Four months after irradiation live organisms were reinoculated onto the nasal retina of the same eye in each animal. Retinochoroidal lesions identical to those seen in primary disease developed in five of six animals. Toxoplasma organisms therefore were able to proliferate in ocular tissue following the administration of immunosuppressive therapy. This study fails to support the hypothesis that cellular immunodeficiency alone will initiate recurrent toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis. Results suggest that reactivation of disease from encysted organisms involves factors other than suppression of Toxoplasma proliferation. If reactivation occurs by other mechanisms, however, cellular immunodeficiency then may allow development of extensive disease.

  5. Ocular toxoplasmosis in immunosuppressed nonhuman primates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, G.N.; O'Connor, G.R.; Diaz, R.F.; Minasi, P.; Wara, W.M.

    1988-01-01

    To investigate the role of cellular immunodeficiency in recurrent toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis, six Cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) with healed toxoplasmic lesions of the retina were immunosuppressed by total lymphoid irradiation. Three months prior to irradiation 30,000 Toxoplasma gondii organisms of the Beverley strain had been inoculated onto the macula of eye in each monkey via a pars plana approach. Toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis developed in each animal, and lesions were allowed to heal without treatment. During total lymphoid irradiation animals received 2000 centigrays (cGy) over a 7-week period. Irradiation resulted in an immediate drop in total lymphocyte counts and decreased ability to stimulate lymphocytes by phytohemagglutinin. Weekly ophthalmoscopic examinations following irradiation failed to show evidence of recurrent ocular disease despite persistent immunodeficiency. Four months after irradiation live organisms were reinoculated onto the nasal retina of the same eye in each animal. Retinochoroidal lesions identical to those seen in primary disease developed in five of six animals. Toxoplasma organisms therefore were able to proliferate in ocular tissue following the administration of immunosuppressive therapy. This study fails to support the hypothesis that cellular immunodeficiency alone will initiate recurrent toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis. Results suggest that reactivation of disease from encysted organisms involves factors other than suppression of Toxoplasma proliferation. If reactivation occurs by other mechanisms, however, cellular immunodeficiency then may allow development of extensive disease

  6. The efficacy of inactivated West Nile vaccine (WN-VAX) in mice and monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraki, Yuko; Fujita, Takeshi; Matsuura, Masaaki; Fuke, Isao; Manabe, Sadao; Ishikawa, Toyokazu; Okuno, Yoshinobu; Morita, Kouichi

    2015-04-09

    West Nile virus (WNV) belonging to the genus Flavivirus of the family Flaviviridae causes nervous system disorder in humans, horses and birds. Licensed WNV vaccines are available for use in horses but not for humans. We previously developed an inactivated West Nile virus vaccine (WN-VAX) using a seed virus from West Nile virus (WNV NY99) that was originally isolated in New York City in 1999. In this study, we report the immunogenicity of WN-VAX in both mice and non-human primates. The WN-VAX immunized mice showed protection against lethal infection with WNV NY99. The challenge test performed on mice passively immunized with serum from other mice that were previously immunized with WN-VAX confirmed that the neutralizing antibody titers of more than 1log10 protected the passively immunized mice from WNV lethal infection. Furthermore, monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) immunized three times with 2.5 μg, 5 μg or 10 μg/dose of WN-VAX exhibited neutralizing antibodies in their sera with titers of more than 2log10 after the second immunization. The WN-VAX was protective in mice both by active and passive immunizations and was immunogenic in monkeys. These results suggest that the vaccine developed in this study may be a potential WNV vaccine candidate for human use.

  7. Review of sarcocystosis in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, S P; Pathmanathan, R

    1991-12-01

    Sarcocystis is a tissue coccidian with an obligatory two-host life cycle. The sexual generations of gametogony and sporogony occur in the lamina propria of the small intestine of definitive hosts which shed infective sporocysts in their stools and present with intestinal sarcocystosis. Asexual multiplication occurs in the skeletal and cardiac muscles of intermediate hosts which harbor Sarcocystis cysts in their muscles and present with muscular sarcocystosis. In Malaysia, Sarcocystis cysts have been reported from many domestic and wild animals, including domestic and field rats, moonrats, bandicoots, slow loris, buffalo, and monkey, and man. The known definitive hosts for some species of Sarcocystis are the domestic cat, dog and the reticulated python. Human muscular sarcocystosis in Malaysia is a zoonotic infection acquired by contamination of food or drink with sporocysts shed by definitive hosts. The cysts reported in human muscle resembled those seen in the moonrat, Echinosorex gymnurus, and the long-tailed monkey, Macaca fascicularis. While human intestinal sarcocystosis has not been reported in Malaysia so far, it can be assumed that such cases may not be infrequent in view of the occurrence of Sarcocystis cysts in meat animals, such as buffalo. The overall seroprevalence of 19.8% reported among the main racial groups in Malaysia indicates that sarcocystosis (both the intestinal and muscular forms) may be emerging as a significant food-borne zoonotic infection in the country.

  8. Analysis of prostate-specific antigen transcripts in chimpanzees, cynomolgus monkeys, baboons, and African green monkeys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James N Mubiru

    Full Text Available The function of prostate-specific antigen (PSA is to liquefy the semen coagulum so that the released sperm can fuse with the ovum. Fifteen spliced variants of the PSA gene have been reported in humans, but little is known about alternative splicing in nonhuman primates. Positive selection has been reported in sex- and reproductive-related genes from sea urchins to Drosophila to humans; however, there are few studies of adaptive evolution of the PSA gene. Here, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR product cloning and sequencing, we study PSA transcript variant heterogeneity in the prostates of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes, cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis, baboons (Papio hamadryas anubis, and African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops. Six PSA variants were identified in the chimpanzee prostate, but only two variants were found in cynomolgus monkeys, baboons, and African green monkeys. In the chimpanzee the full-length transcript is expressed at the same magnitude as the transcripts that retain intron 3. We have found previously unidentified splice variants of the PSA gene, some of which might be linked to disease conditions. Selection on the PSA gene was studied in 11 primate species by computational methods using the sequences reported here for African green monkey, cynomolgus monkey, baboon, and chimpanzee and other sequences available in public databases. A codon-based analysis (dN/dS of the PSA gene identified potential adaptive evolution at five residue sites (Arg45, Lys70, Gln144, Pro189, and Thr203.

  9. Therapeutic effects of arotinolol, a beta-adrenergic blocker, on tremor in MPTP-induced parkinsonian monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuno, S; Mizuta, E; Nishida, J; Takechi, M

    1992-10-01

    The effect of arotinolol, a peripherally acting beta-adrenergic-blocking agent, on postural or kinetic tremor was studied in monkeys with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced parkinsonism. Male cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were treated with three injections of MPTP hydrochloride (0.3 mg/kg, i.v.) at an interval of 3-4 days, followed by several injections of the same dose every 7 days. Four monkeys with persistent parkinsonian symptoms manifested for greater than 1 year were used. The animals developed mild to moderate degrees of postural or kinetic tremor, and their motor activity was reduced. Arotinolol (20-30 mg/kg, s.c.) significantly suppressed postural tremor in a dose-dependent manner. Propranolol (20-30 mg/kg) was also effective in suppressing the tremor. However, the application of propranolol induced emesis, whereas arotinolol had no adverse effects. These results suggest that arotinolol is a useful adjunct to dopaminergic therapy for tremor in Parkinson's disease.

  10. Complex processing of prickly pear cactus (Opuntia sp.) by free-ranging long-tailed macaques: preliminary analysis for hierarchical organisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Amanda W Y; Luncz, Lydia; Haslam, Michael; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda; Gumert, Michael D

    2016-04-01

    Complex food-processing techniques by gorillas, chimpanzees, and orangutans have allowed comparisons of complex hierarchical cognition between great apes and humans. Here, we analyse preliminary observations of free-ranging long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) (n = 3) in Thailand processing Opuntia sp. cactus fruits. From our observations, we suggest that there is potential to extend the analyses of hierarchical cognition to Old World monkeys. We found that the macaques used six behavioural sequences to obtain Opuntia fruits, remove irritant hairs from the skin of the fruits, and break open, and consume the fruits, each a unique combination of 17 action elements. Removing irritant hairs involved abrading fruits on a sand or rock substrate, and washing fruit in water. The behavioural sequences that macaques use to process Opuntia potentially show features of hierarchical organisation described in the leaf-processing behaviours of great apes. Our observations highlight the need for closer study of complex food-processing behaviour in monkeys to better understand the organisational capacities involved.

  11. Functional genomics highlights differential induction of antiviral pathways in the lungs of SARS-CoV-infected macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna de Lang

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV is likely mediated by disproportional immune responses and the ability of the virus to circumvent innate immunity. Using functional genomics, we analyzed early host responses to SARS-CoV infection in the lungs of adolescent cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis that show lung pathology similar to that observed in human adults with SARS. Analysis of gene signatures revealed induction of a strong innate immune response characterized by the stimulation of various cytokine and chemokine genes, including interleukin (IL-6, IL-8, and IP-10, which corresponds to the host response seen in acute respiratory distress syndrome. As opposed to many in vitro experiments, SARS-CoV induced a wide range of type I interferons (IFNs and nuclear translocation of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 in the lungs of macaques. Using immunohistochemistry, we revealed that these antiviral signaling pathways were differentially regulated in distinctive subsets of cells. Our studies emphasize that the induction of early IFN signaling may be critical to confer protection against SARS-CoV infection and highlight the strength of combining functional genomics with immunohistochemistry to further unravel the pathogenesis of SARS.

  12. High prevalence of Entamoeba infections in captive long-tailed macaques in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Meng; Yang, Bin; Yang, Liu; Fu, Yongfeng; Zhuang, Yijun; Liang, Longgan; Xu, Qing; Cheng, Xunjia; Tachibana, Hiroshi

    2011-10-01

    Long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) are bred in China for export and for use in experiments. Entamoeba infections in captive long-tailed macaques were surveyed in one of the biggest colonies located in Guangxi Province, China. One stool sample was obtained from each of the 152 different cages representing >3,000 macaques in the colony. The samples were examined by PCR for five Entamoeba species. The number of detected Entamoeba coli infections comprised 94% of the samples, 93% for Entamoeba chattoni, and 83% for Entamoeba dispar. In contrast, Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba nuttalli were not detected. Six isolates of E. dispar were obtained by culture in Tanabe-Chiba medium. Analysis of serine-rich protein genes in these isolates showed two genotypes, one of which is identical to that of the E. dispar SAW760 strain in humans. This suggests transmission of E. dispar between humans and nonhuman primates. These results demonstrate that Entamoeba infections are common, but virulent Entamoeba species are absent in this colony. This work also confirms the need for monitoring with PCR-based identification of Entamoeba species for captive macaques in breeding colonies to ensure animal health and protection of humans from zoonotic hazards.

  13. Influence of immediate loading on provisional restoration in dental implant stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikbal, M.; Odang, R. W.; Indrasari, M.; Dewi, R. S.

    2017-08-01

    The success of dental implant treatment is determined by the primary stability at placement. One factor that could influence this stability is occlusal loading through provisional restoration. Two types of loading protocols are usually used: immediate and delayed loading. However, some controversies remain about the influence of occlusal loading on implant stability. Therefore, the influence of immediate loading on implant stability must be studied. An animal study was conducted by placing nine dental implants in the mandibular jaw of three Macaca fascicularis. Provisional restorations with various occlusal contacts (no, light, and normal contact) were placed on the implant. The implant stability was measured using the Ostell ISQ three times: immediately (baseline) and at the first and second months after implant placement. The implant stability between implants with no and normal occlusal contact as well as light and normal occlusal contact showed significant differences (p 0.05) in implant stability was seen at the baseline and the first and second months after implant placement for all occlusal contact groups. Immediate loading influenced the implant stability, and provisional restoration of implant without occlusal contact showed the highest implant stability.

  14. Free-ranging macaque mothers exaggerate tool-using behavior when observed by offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuo Masataka

    Full Text Available The population-level use of tools has been reported in various animals. Nonetheless, how tool use might spread throughout a population is still an open question. In order to answer that, we observed the behavior of inserting human hair or human-hair-like material between their teeth as if they were using dental floss in a group of long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis in Thailand. The observation was undertaken by video-recording the tool-use of 7 adult females who were rearing 1-year-old infants, using the focal-animal-sampling method. When the data recorded were analyzed separately according to the presence/absence of the infant of the target animal in the target animal's proximity, the pattern of the tool-using action of long-tailed adult female macaques under our observation changed in the presence of the infant as compared with that in the absence of the infant so that the stream of tool-using action was punctuated by more pauses, repeated more often, and performed for a longer period during each bout in the presence of the infant. We interpret this as evidence for the possibility that they exaggerate their action in tool-using so as to facilitate the learning of the action by their own infants.

  15. Comparison of conventional and synchrotron-radiation-based microtomography of bone around dental implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Paolo M.; Dalstra, Michel; Beckmann, Felix; Donath, Tilman; Melsen, Birte

    2004-10-01

    This study explores the application of conventional micro tomography (μCT) and synchrotron radiation (SR) based μCT to evaluate the bone around titanium dental implants. The SR experiment was performed at beamline W2 of HASYLAB at DESY using a monochromatic X-ray beam of 50 keV. The testing material consisted of undecalcified bone segments harvested from the upper jaw of a macaca fascicularis monkey each containing a titanium dental implant. The results from the two different techniques were qualitatively compared with conventional histological sections examined under light microscopy. The SR-based μCT produced images that, especially at the bone-implant interface, are less noisy and sharper than the ones obtained with conventional μCT. For the proper evaluation of the implant-bone interface, only the SR-based μCT technique is able to display the areas of bony contact and visualize the true 3D structure of bone around dental implants correctly. This investigation shows that both conventional and SR-based μCT scanning techniques are non-destructive methods, which provide detailed images of bone. However with SR-based μCT it is possible to obtain an improved image quality of the bone surrounding dental implants, which display a level of detail comparable to histological sections. Therefore, SR-based μCT scanning could represent a valid, unbiased three-dimensional alternative to evaluate osseointegration of dental implants

  16. Effect of long-term treatment with steroid hormones or tamoxifen on the progesterone receptor and androgen receptor in the endometrium of ovariectomized cynomolgus macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cline J Mark

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The progesterone receptor (PR and androgen receptor (AR belong to the nuclear receptor superfamily. Two isoforms of PR (A and B have been identified with different functions. The expression of AR, each isoform of PR and their involvement in long-term effects on the endometrium after hormonal replacement therapy (HRT or tamoxifen (TAM treatment is not known. The aims of this study were to determine PR(A+B, PRB and AR distribution by immunohistochemistry in the macaque (Macaca fascicularis endometrium. Ovariectomized (OVX animals were orally treated continuously for 35 months with either conjugated equine estrogens (CEE; medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA; the combination of CEE/MPA; or TAM. Treatment with CEE/MPA tended to down-regulate PR in the superficial glands, but increased it in the stroma. TAM treatment increased both the PR and PRB levels in the stroma. Overall, less than 20% of the cells were positive for the PRB isoform and less variation was observed after steroid treatment. AR was found in the stroma, mainly distributed in the basal layer of the endometrium in the OVX and steroid treated groups, but was absent in the TAM treated group. No AR was found in the glandular epithelium. The present data show that long-term hormone treatment affects the PR level, and also the ratio between PRA and PRB in the endometrium.

  17. Turbulence modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurence, D.

    1997-01-01

    This paper is an introduction course in modelling turbulent thermohydraulics, aimed at computational fluid dynamics users. No specific knowledge other than the Navier Stokes equations is required beforehand. Chapter I (which those who are not beginners can skip) provides basic ideas on turbulence physics and is taken up in a textbook prepared by the teaching team of the ENPC (Benque, Viollet). Chapter II describes turbulent viscosity type modelling and the 2k-ε two equations model. It provides details of the channel flow case and the boundary conditions. Chapter III describes the 'standard' (R ij -ε) Reynolds tensions transport model and introduces more recent models called 'feasible'. A second paper deals with heat transfer and the effects of gravity, and returns to the Reynolds stress transport model. (author)

  18. Mathematical modelling

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a thorough introduction to the challenge of applying mathematics in real-world scenarios. Modelling tasks rarely involve well-defined categories, and they often require multidisciplinary input from mathematics, physics, computer sciences, or engineering. In keeping with this spirit of modelling, the book includes a wealth of cross-references between the chapters and frequently points to the real-world context. The book combines classical approaches to modelling with novel areas such as soft computing methods, inverse problems, and model uncertainty. Attention is also paid to the interaction between models, data and the use of mathematical software. The reader will find a broad selection of theoretical tools for practicing industrial mathematics, including the analysis of continuum models, probabilistic and discrete phenomena, and asymptotic and sensitivity analysis.

  19. Modelling Overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Bjørn; Vesterager, Johan

    sharing many of the characteristics of a virtual enterprise. This extended enterprise will have the following characteristics: The extended enterprise is focused on satisfying the current customer requirement so that it has a limited life expectancy, but should be capable of being recreated to deal....... One or more units from beyond the network may complement the extended enterprise. The common reference model for this extended enterprise will utilise GERAM (Generalised Enterprise Reference Architecture and Methodology) to provide an architectural framework for the modelling carried out within......This report provides an overview of the existing models of global manufacturing, describes the required modelling views and associated methods and identifies tools, which can provide support for this modelling activity.The model adopted for global manufacturing is that of an extended enterprise...

  20. Mathematical modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomhøj, Morten

    2004-01-01

    modelling, however, can be seen as a practice of teaching that place the relation between real life and mathematics into the centre of teaching and learning mathematics, and this is relevant at all levels. Modelling activities may motivate the learning process and help the learner to establish cognitive......Developing competences for setting up, analysing and criticising mathematical models are normally seen as relevant only from and above upper secondary level. The general belief among teachers is that modelling activities presuppose conceptual understanding of the mathematics involved. Mathematical...... roots for the construction of important mathematical concepts. In addition competences for setting up, analysing and criticising modelling processes and the possible use of models is a formative aim in this own right for mathematics teaching in general education. The paper presents a theoretical...

  1. Event Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to discuss conceptual event modeling within a context of information modeling. Traditionally, information modeling has been concerned with the modeling of a universe of discourse in terms of information structures. However, most interesting universes of discourse...... are dynamic and we present a modeling approach that can be used to model such dynamics. We characterize events as both information objects and change agents (Bækgaard 1997). When viewed as information objects events are phenomena that can be observed and described. For example, borrow events in a library can...... be characterized by their occurrence times and the participating books and borrowers. When we characterize events as information objects we focus on concepts like information structures. When viewed as change agents events are phenomena that trigger change. For example, when borrow event occurs books are moved...

  2. Model : making

    OpenAIRE

    Bottle, Neil

    2013-01-01

    The Model : making exhibition was curated by Brian Kennedy in collaboration with Allies & Morrison in September 2013. For the London Design Festival, the Model : making exhibition looked at the increased use of new technologies by both craft-makers and architectural model makers. In both practices traditional ways of making by hand are increasingly being combined with the latest technologies of digital imaging, laser cutting, CNC machining and 3D printing. This exhibition focussed on ...

  3. Spherical models

    CERN Document Server

    Wenninger, Magnus J

    2012-01-01

    Well-illustrated, practical approach to creating star-faced spherical forms that can serve as basic structures for geodesic domes. Complete instructions for making models from circular bands of paper with just a ruler and compass. Discusses tessellation, or tiling, and how to make spherical models of the semiregular solids and concludes with a discussion of the relationship of polyhedra to geodesic domes and directions for building models of domes. "". . . very pleasant reading."" - Science. 1979 edition.

  4. Functional analysis of frequently expressed Chinese rhesus macaque MHC class I molecules Mamu-A1*02601 and Mamu-B*08301 reveals HLA-A2 and HLA-A3 supertypic specificities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Southwood, Scott; Solomon, Christopher; Hoof, Ilka

    2011-01-01

    The Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected Indian rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) is the most established model of HIV infection and AIDS-related research, despite the potential that macaques of Chinese origin is a more relevant model. Ongoing efforts to further characterize the Chinese rhe...

  5. Modeling Documents with Event Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longhui Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently deep learning has made great breakthroughs in visual and speech processing, mainly because it draws lessons from the hierarchical mode that brain deals with images and speech. In the field of NLP, a topic model is one of the important ways for modeling documents. Topic models are built on a generative model that clearly does not match the way humans write. In this paper, we propose Event Model, which is unsupervised and based on the language processing mechanism of neurolinguistics, to model documents. In Event Model, documents are descriptions of concrete or abstract events seen, heard, or sensed by people and words are objects in the events. Event Model has two stages: word learning and dimensionality reduction. Word learning is to learn semantics of words based on deep learning. Dimensionality reduction is the process that representing a document as a low dimensional vector by a linear mode that is completely different from topic models. Event Model achieves state-of-the-art results on document retrieval tasks.

  6. Didactical modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, Tomas; Hansen, Rune

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce Didactical Modelling as a research methodology in mathematics education. We compare the methodology with other approaches and argue that Didactical Modelling has its own specificity. We discuss the methodological “why” and explain why we find it useful...... to construct this approach in mathematics education research....

  7. Virtual modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flores, J.; Kiss, S.; Cano, P.; Nijholt, Antinus; Zwiers, Jakob

    2003-01-01

    We concentrate our efforts on building virtual modelling environments where the content creator uses controls (widgets) as an interactive adjustment modality for the properties of the edited objects. Besides the advantage of being an on-line modelling approach (visualised just like any other on-line

  8. Animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtze, Jens Peter; Krentz, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In this issue of Cardiovascular Endocrinology, we are proud to present a broad and dedicated spectrum of reviews on animal models in cardiovascular disease. The reviews cover most aspects of animal models in science from basic differences and similarities between small animals and the human...

  9. Education models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poortman, Sybilla; Sloep, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Educational models describes a case study on a complex learning object. Possibilities are investigated for using this learning object, which is based on a particular educational model, outside of its original context. Furthermore, this study provides advice that might lead to an increase in

  10. Modeling Sunspots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Phil Seok; Oh, Sung Jin

    2013-01-01

    Modeling in science has been studied by education researchers for decades and is now being applied broadly in school. It is among the scientific practices featured in the "Next Generation Science Standards" ("NGSS") (Achieve Inc. 2013). This article describes modeling activities in an extracurricular science club in a high…

  11. Battery Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the capacity of the employed batteries. The battery lifetime determines how long one can use a device. Battery modeling can help to predict, and possibly extend this lifetime. Many different battery models have been developed over the years. However,

  12. VENTILATION MODEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    V. Chipman

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the Ventilation Model is to simulate the heat transfer processes in and around waste emplacement drifts during periods of forced ventilation. The model evaluates the effects of emplacement drift ventilation on the thermal conditions in the emplacement drifts and surrounding rock mass, and calculates the heat removal by ventilation as a measure of the viability of ventilation to delay the onset of peak repository temperature and reduce its magnitude. The heat removal by ventilation is temporally and spatially dependent, and is expressed as the fraction of heat carried away by the ventilation air compared to the fraction of heat produced by radionuclide decay. One minus the heat removal is called the wall heat fraction, or the remaining amount of heat that is transferred via conduction to the surrounding rock mass. Downstream models, such as the ''Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model'' (BSC 2001), use the wall heat fractions as outputted from the Ventilation Model to initialize their postclosure analyses

  13. Modelling Constructs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindler, Ekkart

    2009-01-01

    , these notations have been extended in order to increase expressiveness and to be more competitive. This resulted in an increasing number of notations and formalisms for modelling business processes and in an increase of the different modelling constructs provided by modelling notations, which makes it difficult......There are many different notations and formalisms for modelling business processes and workflows. These notations and formalisms have been introduced with different purposes and objectives. Later, influenced by other notations, comparisons with other tools, or by standardization efforts...... to compare modelling notations and to make transformations between them. One of the reasons is that, in each notation, the new concepts are introduced in a different way by extending the already existing constructs. In this chapter, we go the opposite direction: We show that it is possible to add most...

  14. OSPREY Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veronica J. Rutledge

    2013-01-01

    The absence of industrial scale nuclear fuel reprocessing in the U.S. has precluded the necessary driver for developing the advanced simulation capability now prevalent in so many other countries. Thus, it is essential to model complex series of unit operations to simulate, understand, and predict inherent transient behavior and feedback loops. A capability of accurately simulating the dynamic behavior of advanced fuel cycle separation processes will provide substantial cost savings and many technical benefits. The specific fuel cycle separation process discussed in this report is the off-gas treatment system. The off-gas separation consists of a series of scrubbers and adsorption beds to capture constituents of interest. Dynamic models are being developed to simulate each unit operation involved so each unit operation can be used as a stand-alone model and in series with multiple others. Currently, an adsorption model has been developed within Multi-physics Object Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Off-gas Separation and REcoverY (OSPREY) models the adsorption of off-gas constituents for dispersed plug flow in a packed bed under non-isothermal and non-isobaric conditions. Inputs to the model include gas, sorbent, and column properties, equilibrium and kinetic data, and inlet conditions. The simulation outputs component concentrations along the column length as a function of time from which breakthrough data is obtained. The breakthrough data can be used to determine bed capacity, which in turn can be used to size columns. It also outputs temperature along the column length as a function of time and pressure drop along the column length. Experimental data and parameters were input into the adsorption model to develop models specific for krypton adsorption. The same can be done for iodine, xenon, and tritium. The model will be validated with experimental breakthrough curves. Customers will be given access to

  15. Cercosporoid leaf pathogens from whorled milkweed and spineless safflower in California

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koike, S.K.; Baameur, A.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2011-01-01

    Two cercosporoid species are respectively described from Mexican whorled milkweed (Asclepias fascicularis), and spineless safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) from California. Passalora californica represents a new pathogen on Asclepias fascicularis, while Ramularia cynarae is confirmed on Carthamus

  16. Modeling Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMEEKIN, Thomas A; Ross, Thomas

    1996-12-01

    The concept of predictive microbiology has developed rapidly through the initial phases of experimental design and model development and the subsequent phase of model validation. A fully validated model represents a general rule which may be brought to bear on particular cases. For some microorganism/food combinations, sufficient confidence now exists to indicate substantial benefits to the food industry from use of predictive models. Several types of devices are available to monitor and record environmental conditions (particularly temperature). These "environmental histories" can be interpreted, using predictive models, in terms of microbial proliferation. The current challenge is to provide systems for the collection and interpretation of environmental information which combine ease of use, reliability, and security, providing the industrial user with the ability to make informed and precise decisions regarding the quality and safety of foods. Many specific applications for predictive modeling can be developed from a basis of understanding the inherent qualities of a fully validated model. These include increased precision and confidence in predictions based on accumulation of quantitative data, objective and rapid assessment of the effect of environmental conditions on microbial proliferation, and flexibility in monitoring the relative contribution of component parts of processing, distribution, and storage systems for assurance of shelf life and safety.

  17. A Model for Math Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tony; Erfan, Sasan

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical modeling is an open-ended research subject where no definite answers exist for any problem. Math modeling enables thinking outside the box to connect different fields of studies together including statistics, algebra, calculus, matrices, programming and scientific writing. As an integral part of society, it is the foundation for many…

  18. Modeling complexes of modeled proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anishchenko, Ivan; Kundrotas, Petras J; Vakser, Ilya A

    2017-03-01

    Structural characterization of proteins is essential for understanding life processes at the molecular level. However, only a fraction of known proteins have experimentally determined structures. This fraction is even smaller for protein-protein complexes. Thus, structural modeling of protein-protein interactions (docking) primarily has to rely on modeled structures of the individual proteins, which typically are less accurate than the experimentally determined ones. Such "double" modeling is the Grand Challenge of structural reconstruction of the interactome. Yet it remains so far largely untested in a systematic way. We present a comprehensive validation of template-based and free docking on a set of 165 complexes, where each protein model has six levels of structural accuracy, from 1 to 6 Å C α RMSD. Many template-based docking predictions fall into acceptable quality category, according to the CAPRI criteria, even for highly inaccurate proteins (5-6 Å RMSD), although the number of such models (and, consequently, the docking success rate) drops significantly for models with RMSD > 4 Å. The results show that the existing docking methodologies can be successfully applied to protein models with a broad range of structural accuracy, and the template-based docking is much less sensitive to inaccuracies of protein models than the free docking. Proteins 2017; 85:470-478. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. RNICE Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mogens Jin; Stritch, Justin Michael

    2018-01-01

    contributes knowledge about a social phenomenon and advances knowledge in the public administration and management literatures. The RNICE model provides a vehicle for researchers who seek to evaluate or demonstrate the value of a replication study systematically. We illustrate the practical application...... research. Recently, scholars have issued calls for more replication, but academic reflections on when replication adds substantive value to public administration and management research are needed. This concise article presents a conceptual model, RNICE, for assessing when and how a replication study...... of the model using two previously published replication studies as examples....

  20. Correct Models

    OpenAIRE

    Blacher, René

    2010-01-01

    Ce rapport complete les deux rapports précédents et apporte une explication plus simple aux résultats précédents : à savoir la preuve que les suites obtenues sont aléatoires.; In previous reports, we have show how to transform a text $y_n$ in a random sequence by using functions of Fibonacci $T_q$. Now, in this report, we obtain a clearer result by proving that $T_q(y_n)$ has the IID model as correct model. But, it is necessary to define correctly a correct model. Then, we study also this pro...

  1. Paleoclimate Modeling

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Computer simulations of past climate. Variables provided as model output are described by parameter keyword. In some cases the parameter keywords are a subset of all...

  2. Anchor Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regardt, Olle; Rönnbäck, Lars; Bergholtz, Maria; Johannesson, Paul; Wohed, Petia

    Maintaining and evolving data warehouses is a complex, error prone, and time consuming activity. The main reason for this state of affairs is that the environment of a data warehouse is in constant change, while the warehouse itself needs to provide a stable and consistent interface to information spanning extended periods of time. In this paper, we propose a modeling technique for data warehousing, called anchor modeling, that offers non-destructive extensibility mechanisms, thereby enabling robust and flexible management of changes in source systems. A key benefit of anchor modeling is that changes in a data warehouse environment only require extensions, not modifications, to the data warehouse. This ensures that existing data warehouse applications will remain unaffected by the evolution of the data warehouse, i.e. existing views and functions will not have to be modified as a result of changes in the warehouse model.

  3. Linear Models

    CERN Document Server

    Searle, Shayle R

    2012-01-01

    This 1971 classic on linear models is once again available--as a Wiley Classics Library Edition. It features material that can be understood by any statistician who understands matrix algebra and basic statistical methods.

  4. Environmental Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's modeling community is working to gain insights into certain parts of a physical, biological, economic, or social system by conducting environmental assessments for Agency decision making to complex environmental issues.

  5. Quark models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosner, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    This paper invites experimenters to consider the wide variety of tests suggested by the new aspects of quark models since the discovery of charm and beauty, and nonrelativistic models. Colors and flavours are counted and combined into hadrons. The current quark zoo is summarized. Models and theoretical background are studied under: qualitative QCD: strings and bags, potential models, relativistic effects, electromagnetic transitions, gluon emissions, and single quark transition descriptions. Hadrons containing quarks known before 1974 (i.e. that can be made of ''light'' quarks u, d, and s) are treated in Section III, while those containing charmed quarks and beauty (b) quarks are discussed in Section IV. Unfolding the properties of the sixth quark from information on its hadrons is seen as a future application of the methods used in this study

  6. Model theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hodges, Wilfrid

    1993-01-01

    An up-to-date and integrated introduction to model theory, designed to be used for graduate courses (for students who are familiar with first-order logic), and as a reference for more experienced logicians and mathematicians.

  7. Numerical models

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Unnikrishnan, A.S.; Manoj, N.T.

    developed most of the above models. This is a good approximation to simulate horizontal distribution of active and passive variables. The future challenge lies in developing capability to simulate the distribution in the vertical....

  8. Composite models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peccei, R.D.

    If quarks and leptons are composite, it should be possible eventually to calculate their mass spectrum and understand the reasons for the observed family replications, questions which lie beyond the standard model. Alas, all experimental evidence to date points towards quark and lepton elemenarity with the typical momentum scale Λsub(comp), beyond which effects of inner structure may be seen, probably being greater than ITeV. One supersymmetric preon model explained provides a new dynamical alternative for obtaining light fermions which is that these states are quasi Goldstone fermions. This, and similar models are discussed. Although quasi Goldstone fermions provide an answer to the 0sup(th)-order question of composite models the questions of how masses and families are generated remain unanswered. (U.K.)

  9. Ventilation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaaret, Eimund

    Calculation procedures, used in the design of ventilating systems, which are especially suited for displacement ventilation in addition to linking it to mixing ventilation, are addressed. The two zone flow model is considered and the steady state and transient solutions are addressed. Different methods of supplying air are discussed, and different types of air flow are considered: piston flow, plane flow and radial flow. An evaluation model for ventilation systems is presented.

  10. Maturity Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasrado, Lester Allan; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    effects, unicausal reduction, and case specificity. Based on the developments in set theoretical thinking in social sciences and employing methods like Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA), Necessary Condition Analysis (NCA), and set visualization techniques, in this position paper, we propose...... and demonstrate a new approach to maturity models in the domain of Information Systems. This position paper describes the set-theoretical approach to maturity models, presents current results and outlines future research work....

  11. Accelerated life models modeling and statistical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bagdonavicius, Vilijandas

    2001-01-01

    Failure Time DistributionsIntroductionParametric Classes of Failure Time DistributionsAccelerated Life ModelsIntroductionGeneralized Sedyakin's ModelAccelerated Failure Time ModelProportional Hazards ModelGeneralized Proportional Hazards ModelsGeneralized Additive and Additive-Multiplicative Hazards ModelsChanging Shape and Scale ModelsGeneralizationsModels Including Switch-Up and Cycling EffectsHeredity HypothesisSummaryAccelerated Degradation ModelsIntroductionDegradation ModelsModeling the Influence of Explanatory Varia

  12. Model uncertainty: Probabilities for models?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    Like any other type of uncertainty, model uncertainty should be treated in terms of probabilities. The question is how to do this. The most commonly-used approach has a drawback related to the interpretation of the probabilities assigned to the models. If we step back and look at the big picture, asking what the appropriate focus of the model uncertainty question should be in the context of risk and decision analysis, we see that a different probabilistic approach makes more sense, although it raise some implementation questions. Current work that is underway to address these questions looks very promising

  13. Mechanistic models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, S.B.

    1990-09-01

    Several models and theories are reviewed that incorporate the idea of radiation-induced lesions (repairable and/or irreparable) that can be related to molecular lesions in the DNA molecule. Usually the DNA double-strand or chromatin break is suggested as the critical lesion. In the models, the shoulder on the low-LET survival curve is hypothesized as being due to one (or more) of the following three mechanisms: (1) ``interaction`` of lesions produced by statistically independent particle tracks; (2) nonlinear (i.e., linear-quadratic) increase in the yield of initial lesions, and (3) saturation of repair processes at high dose. Comparisons are made between the various approaches. Several significant advances in model development are discussed; in particular, a description of the matrix formulation of the Markov versions of the RMR and LPL models is given. The more advanced theories have incorporated statistical fluctuations in various aspects of the energy-loss and lesion-formation process. An important direction is the inclusion of physical and chemical processes into the formulations by incorporating relevant track structure theory (Monte Carlo track simulations) and chemical reactions of radiation-induced radicals. At the biological end, identification of repair genes and how they operate as well as a better understanding of how DNA misjoinings lead to lethal chromosome aberrations are needed for appropriate inclusion into the theories. More effort is necessary to model the complex end point of radiation-induced carcinogenesis.

  14. Mechanistic models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, S.B.

    1990-09-01

    Several models and theories are reviewed that incorporate the idea of radiation-induced lesions (repairable and/or irreparable) that can be related to molecular lesions in the DNA molecule. Usually the DNA double-strand or chromatin break is suggested as the critical lesion. In the models, the shoulder on the low-LET survival curve is hypothesized as being due to one (or more) of the following three mechanisms: (1) interaction'' of lesions produced by statistically independent particle tracks; (2) nonlinear (i.e., linear-quadratic) increase in the yield of initial lesions, and (3) saturation of repair processes at high dose. Comparisons are made between the various approaches. Several significant advances in model development are discussed; in particular, a description of the matrix formulation of the Markov versions of the RMR and LPL models is given. The more advanced theories have incorporated statistical fluctuations in various aspects of the energy-loss and lesion-formation process. An important direction is the inclusion of physical and chemical processes into the formulations by incorporating relevant track structure theory (Monte Carlo track simulations) and chemical reactions of radiation-induced radicals. At the biological end, identification of repair genes and how they operate as well as a better understanding of how DNA misjoinings lead to lethal chromosome aberrations are needed for appropriate inclusion into the theories. More effort is necessary to model the complex end point of radiation-induced carcinogenesis.

  15. Reflectance Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. A.; Cooper, K.; Randolph, M.

    1984-01-01

    A classical description of the one dimensional radiative transfer treatment of vegetation canopies was completed and the results were tested against measured prairie (blue grama) and agricultural canopies (soybean). Phase functions are calculated in terms of directly measurable biophysical characteristics of the canopy medium. While the phase functions tend to exhibit backscattering anisotropy, their exact behavior is somewhat more complex and wavelength dependent. A Monte Carlo model was developed that treats soil surfaces with large periodic variations in three dimensions. A photon-ray tracing technology is used. Currently, the rough soil surface is described by analytic functions and appropriate geometric calculations performed. A bidirectional reflectance distribution function is calculated and, hence, available for other atmospheric or canopy reflectance models as a lower boundary condition. This technique is used together with an adding model to calculate several cases where Lambertian leaves possessing anisotropic leaf angle distributions yield non-Lambertian reflectance; similar behavior is exhibited for simulated soil surfaces.

  16. Mathematical modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Eck, Christof; Knabner, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Mathematical models are the decisive tool to explain and predict phenomena in the natural and engineering sciences. With this book readers will learn to derive mathematical models which help to understand real world phenomena. At the same time a wealth of important examples for the abstract concepts treated in the curriculum of mathematics degrees are given. An essential feature of this book is that mathematical structures are used as an ordering principle and not the fields of application. Methods from linear algebra, analysis and the theory of ordinary and partial differential equations are thoroughly introduced and applied in the modeling process. Examples of applications in the fields electrical networks, chemical reaction dynamics, population dynamics, fluid dynamics, elasticity theory and crystal growth are treated comprehensively.

  17. Modelling language

    CERN Document Server

    Cardey, Sylviane

    2013-01-01

    In response to the need for reliable results from natural language processing, this book presents an original way of decomposing a language(s) in a microscopic manner by means of intra/inter‑language norms and divergences, going progressively from languages as systems to the linguistic, mathematical and computational models, which being based on a constructive approach are inherently traceable. Languages are described with their elements aggregating or repelling each other to form viable interrelated micro‑systems. The abstract model, which contrary to the current state of the art works in int

  18. Molecular modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarti Sharma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of computational chemistry in the development of novel pharmaceuticals is becoming an increasingly important tool. In the past, drugs were simply screened for effectiveness. The recent advances in computing power and the exponential growth of the knowledge of protein structures have made it possible for organic compounds to be tailored to decrease the harmful side effects and increase the potency. This article provides a detailed description of the techniques employed in molecular modeling. Molecular modeling is a rapidly developing discipline, and has been supported by the dramatic improvements in computer hardware and software in recent years.

  19. Supernova models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woosley, S.E.; Weaver, T.A.

    1980-01-01

    Recent progress in understanding the observed properties of Type I supernovae as a consequence of the thermonuclear detonation of white dwarf stars and the ensuing decay of the 56 Ni produced therein is reviewed. Within the context of this model for Type I explosions and the 1978 model for Type II explosions, the expected nucleosynthesis and gamma-line spectra from both kinds of supernovae are presented. Finally, a qualitatively new approach to the problem of massive star death and Type II supernovae based upon a combination of rotation and thermonuclear burning is discussed

  20. Cadastral Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkjær, Erik

    2005-01-01

    to the modeling of an industrial sector, as it aims at rendering the basic concepts that relate to the domain of real estate and the pertinent human activities. The palpable objects are pieces of land and buildings, documents, data stores and archives, as well as persons in their diverse roles as owners, holders...... to land. The paper advances the position that cadastral modeling has to include not only the physical objects, agents, and information sets of the domain, but also the objectives or requirements of cadastral systems....

  1. (SSE) model

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Simple analytic polynomials have been proposed for estimating solar radiation in the traditional Northern, Central and Southern regions of Malawi. There is a strong agreement between the polynomials and the SSE model with R2 values of 0.988, 0.989 and 0.989 and root mean square errors of 0.061, 0.057 and 0.062 ...

  2. Lens Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nash, Ulrik William

    2014-01-01

    Firms consist of people who make decisions to achieve goals. How do these people develop the expectations which underpin the choices they make? The lens model provides one answer to this question. It was developed by cognitive psychologist Egon Brunswik (1952) to illustrate his theory...

  3. Markov model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    pattern of the watershed LULC, leading to an accretive linear growth of agricultural and settlement areas. The annual rate of ... thereby advocates for better agricultural practices with additional energy subsidy to arrest further forest loss and LULC ...... automaton model and GIS: Long-term urban growth pre- diction for San ...

  4. Cheating models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnoldi, Jakob

    The article discusses the use of algorithmic models for so-called High Frequency Trading (HFT) in finance. HFT is controversial yet widespread in modern financial markets. It is a form of automated trading technology which critics among other things claim can lead to market manipulation. Drawing ...

  5. Entrepreneurship Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger Lakes Regional Education Center for Economic Development, Mount Morris, NY.

    This guide describes seven model programs that were developed by the Finger Lakes Regional Center for Economic Development (New York) to meet the training needs of female and minority entrepreneurs to help their businesses survive and grow and to assist disabled and dislocated workers and youth in beginning small businesses. The first three models…

  6. The Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    About the reconstruction of Palle Nielsen's (f. 1942) work The Model from 1968: a gigantic playground for children in the museum, where they can freely romp about, climb in ropes, crawl on wooden structures, work with tools, jump in foam rubber, paint with finger paints and dress up in costumes....

  7. Model Checking

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 7. Model Checking - Automated Verification of Computational Systems. Madhavan Mukund. General Article Volume 14 Issue 7 July 2009 pp 667-681. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  8. Successful modeling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomnitz, Cinna

    Tichelaar and Ruff [1989] propose to “estimate model variance in complicated geophysical problems,” including the determination of focal depth in earthquakes, by means of unconventional statistical methods such as bootstrapping. They are successful insofar as they are able to duplicate the results from more conventional procedures.

  9. Molecular Modeling

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 9; Issue 5. Molecular Modeling: A Powerful Tool for Drug Design and Molecular Docking. Rama Rao Nadendla. General Article Volume 9 Issue 5 May 2004 pp 51-60. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  10. Turbulence Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens Peter; Shui, Wan; Johansson, Jens

    2011-01-01

    term with stresses depending linearly on the strain rates. This term takes into account the transfer of linear momentum from one part of the fluid to another. Besides there is another term, which takes into account the transfer of angular momentum. Thus the model implies a new definition of turbulence...

  11. Light intensity, photoperiod duration, daily light flux and coral growth of Galaxea fascicularis in an aquarium setting: a matter of photons?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutter, M.; Ven, R.M.; Janse, M.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Wijffels, R.H.; Osinga, R.

    2012-01-01

    Light is one of the most important abiotic factors influencing the (skeletal) growth of scleractinian corals. Light stimulates coral growth by the process of light-enhanced calcification, which is mediated by zooxanthellar photosynthesis. However, the quantity of light that is available for daily

  12. Model-reduced inverse modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, P.T.M.

    2006-01-01

    Although faster computers have been developed in recent years, they tend to be used to solve even more detailed problems. In many cases this will yield enormous models that can not be solved within acceptable time constraints. Therefore, there is a need for alternative methods that simulate such

  13. Building Models and Building Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj; Skauge, Jørn

    2008-01-01

    I rapportens indledende kapitel beskrives de primære begreber vedrørende bygningsmodeller og nogle fundamentale forhold vedrørende computerbaseret modulering bliver opstillet. Desuden bliver forskellen mellem tegneprogrammer og bygnings­model­lerings­programmer beskrevet. Vigtige aspekter om comp...

  14. Molecular Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarti Sharma

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The use of computational chemistry in the development of novel pharmaceuticals is becoming an increasingly important
    tool. In the past, drugs were simply screened for effectiveness. The recent advances in computing power and
    the exponential growth of the knowledge of protein structures have made it possible for organic compounds to tailored to
    decrease harmful side effects and increase the potency. This article provides a detailed description of the techniques
    employed in molecular modeling. Molecular modelling is a rapidly developing discipline, and has been supported from
    the dramatic improvements in computer hardware and software in recent years.

  15. Acyclic models

    CERN Document Server

    Barr, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Acyclic models is a method heavily used to analyze and compare various homology and cohomology theories appearing in topology and algebra. This book is the first attempt to put together in a concise form this important technique and to include all the necessary background. It presents a brief introduction to category theory and homological algebra. The author then gives the background of the theory of differential modules and chain complexes over an abelian category to state the main acyclic models theorem, generalizing and systemizing the earlier material. This is then applied to various cohomology theories in algebra and topology. The volume could be used as a text for a course that combines homological algebra and algebraic topology. Required background includes a standard course in abstract algebra and some knowledge of topology. The volume contains many exercises. It is also suitable as a reference work for researchers.

  16. RNICE Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mogens Jin; Stritch, Justin Michael

    2018-01-01

    Replication studies relate to the scientific principle of replicability and serve the significant purpose of providing supporting (or contradicting) evidence regarding the existence of a phenomenon. However, replication has never been an integral part of public administration and management...... research. Recently, scholars have issued calls for more replication, but academic reflections on when replication adds substantive value to public administration and management research are needed. This concise article presents a conceptual model, RNICE, for assessing when and how a replication study...... contributes knowledge about a social phenomenon and advances knowledge in the public administration and management literatures. The RNICE model provides a vehicle for researchers who seek to evaluate or demonstrate the value of a replication study systematically. We illustrate the practical application...

  17. Persistent Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    on this subject, this book makes essential reading for anyone considering new ways of thinking about architecture. In drawing upon both historical and contemporary perspectives this book provides evidence of the ways in which relations between representation and the represented continue to be reconsidered......The relationship between representation and the represented is examined here through the notion of persistent modelling. This notion is not novel to the activity of architectural design if it is considered as describing a continued active and iterative engagement with design concerns – an evident...... characteristic of architectural practice. But the persistence in persistent modelling can also be understood to apply in other ways, reflecting and anticipating extended roles for representation. This book identifies three principle areas in which these extensions are becoming apparent within contemporary...

  18. Persistent Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    on this subject, this book makes essential reading for anyone considering new ways of thinking about architecture. In drawing upon both historical and contemporary perspectives this book provides evidence of the ways in which relations between representation and the represented continue to be reconsidered......The relationship between representation and the represented is examined here through the notion of persistent modelling. This notion is not novel to the activity of architectural design if it is considered as describing a continued active and iterative engagement with design concerns – an evident...... characteristic of architectural practice. But the persistence in persistent modelling can also be understood to apply in other ways, reflecting and anticipating extended roles for representation. This book identifies three principle areas in which these extensions are becoming apparent within contemporary...

  19. Modeling Minds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michael, John

    others' minds. Then (2), in order to bring to light some possible justifications, as well as hazards and criticisms of the methodology of looking time tests, I will take a closer look at the concept of folk psychology and will focus on the idea that folk psychology involves using oneself as a model...... of other people in order to predict and understand their behavior. Finally (3), I will discuss the historical location and significance of the emergence of looking time tests...

  20. Hydroballistics Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    detailed rendered visible in his photographs by streams of photographs of spheres entering the water small bubbles from electrolysis . So far as is...of the cavity is opaque or, brined wihile the sphere wats still in the oil. At if translucent, the contrast between thle jet and about the time the...and brass, for example) should be so model velocity scale according to Equation 1.18, selected that electrolysis is not a problem. the addition of