WorldWideScience

Sample records for model lpdm running

  1. LAGRANGIAN PARTICLE DISPERSION MODEL (LPDM) TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K

    2006-01-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) uses the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model (LPDM) in conjunction with the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System as an operational tool for emergency response consequence assessments for the Savannah River Site (SRS). The LPDM is an advanced stochastic atmospheric transport model used to transport and disperse passive tracers subject to the meteorological field generated by RAMS from sources of varying number and shape. The Atmospheric Technologies Group (ATG) of the SRNL is undertaking the task of reviewing documentation and code for LPDM Quality Assurance (QA). The LPDM QA task will include a model technical description, computer coding descriptions, model applications, and configuration control. This report provides a comprehensive technical description of the LPDM model

  2. Numerical Modelling of Wave Run-Up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramirez, Jorge Robert Rodriguez; Frigaard, Peter; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    2011-01-01

    Wave loads are important in problems related to offshore structure, such as wave run-up, slamming. The computation of such wave problems are carried out by CFD models. This paper presents one model, NS3, which solve 3D Navier-Stokes equations and use Volume of Fluid (VOF) method to treat the free...

  3. Running-mass inflation model and WMAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Covi, Laura; Lyth, David H.; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Odman, Carolina J.

    2004-01-01

    We consider the observational constraints on the running-mass inflationary model, and, in particular, on the scale dependence of the spectral index, from the new cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy measurements performed by WMAP and from new clustering data from the SLOAN survey. We find that the data strongly constraints a significant positive scale dependence of n, and we translate the analysis into bounds on the physical parameters of the inflaton potential. Looking deeper into specific types of interaction (gauge and Yukawa) we find that the parameter space is significantly constrained by the new data, but that the running-mass model remains viable

  4. Running vacuum cosmological models: linear scalar perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perico, E.L.D. [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão 1371, CEP 05508-090, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Tamayo, D.A., E-mail: elduartep@usp.br, E-mail: tamayo@if.usp.br [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão 1226, CEP 05508-900, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-08-01

    In cosmology, phenomenologically motivated expressions for running vacuum are commonly parameterized as linear functions typically denoted by Λ( H {sup 2}) or Λ( R ). Such models assume an equation of state for the vacuum given by P-bar {sub Λ} = - ρ-bar {sub Λ}, relating its background pressure P-bar {sub Λ} with its mean energy density ρ-bar {sub Λ} ≡ Λ/8π G . This equation of state suggests that the vacuum dynamics is due to an interaction with the matter content of the universe. Most of the approaches studying the observational impact of these models only consider the interaction between the vacuum and the transient dominant matter component of the universe. We extend such models by assuming that the running vacuum is the sum of independent contributions, namely ρ-bar {sub Λ} = Σ {sub i} ρ-bar {sub Λ} {sub i} . Each Λ i vacuum component is associated and interacting with one of the i matter components in both the background and perturbation levels. We derive the evolution equations for the linear scalar vacuum and matter perturbations in those two scenarios, and identify the running vacuum imprints on the cosmic microwave background anisotropies as well as on the matter power spectrum. In the Λ( H {sup 2}) scenario the vacuum is coupled with every matter component, whereas the Λ( R ) description only leads to a coupling between vacuum and non-relativistic matter, producing different effects on the matter power spectrum.

  5. Thermodynamical aspects of running vacuum models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, J.A.S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Departamento de Astronomia, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Basilakos, Spyros [Academy of Athens, Research Center for Astronomy and Applied Mathematics, Athens (Greece); Sola, Joan [Univ. de Barcelona, High Energy Physics Group, Dept. d' Estructura i Constituents de la Materia, Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos (ICC), Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)

    2016-04-15

    The thermal history of a large class of running vacuum models in which the effective cosmological term is described by a truncated power series of the Hubble rate, whose dominant term is Λ(H) ∝ H{sup n+2}, is discussed in detail. Specifically, by assuming that the ultrarelativistic particles produced by the vacuum decay emerge into space-time in such a way that its energy density ρ{sub r} ∝ T{sup 4}, the temperature evolution law and the increasing entropy function are analytically calculated. For the whole class of vacuum models explored here we find that the primeval value of the comoving radiation entropy density (associated to effectively massless particles) starts from zero and evolves extremely fast until reaching a maximum near the end of the vacuum decay phase, where it saturates. The late-time conservation of the radiation entropy during the adiabatic FRW phase also guarantees that the whole class of running vacuum models predicts the same correct value of the present day entropy, S{sub 0} ∝ 10{sup 87}-10{sup 88} (in natural units), independently of the initial conditions. In addition, by assuming Gibbons¨CHawking temperature as an initial condition, we find that the ratio between the late-time and primordial vacuum energy densities is in agreement with naive estimates from quantum field theory, namely, ρ{sub Λ0}/ρ{sub ΛI} 10{sup -123}. Such results are independent on the power n and suggests that the observed Universe may evolve smoothly between two extreme, unstable, non-singular de Sitter phases. (orig.)

  6. Model for radionuclide transport in running waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, Karin; Elert, Mark [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-11-15

    Two sites in Sweden are currently under investigation by SKB for their suitability as places for deep repository of radioactive waste, the Forsmark and Simpevarp/Laxemar area. As a part of the safety assessment, SKB has formulated a biosphere model with different sub-models for different parts of the ecosystem in order to be able to predict the dose to humans following a possible radionuclide discharge from a future deep repository. In this report, a new model concept describing radionuclide transport in streams is presented. The main difference from the previous model for running water used by SKB, where only dilution of the inflow of radionuclides was considered, is that the new model includes parameterizations also of the exchange processes present along the stream. This is done in order to be able to investigate the effect of the retention on the transport and to be able to estimate the resulting concentrations in the different parts of the system. The concentrations determined with this new model could later be used for order of magnitude predictions of the dose to humans. The presented model concept is divided in two parts, one hydraulic and one radionuclide transport model. The hydraulic model is used to determine the flow conditions in the stream channel and is based on the assumption of uniform flow and quasi-stationary conditions. The results from the hydraulic model are used in the radionuclide transport model where the concentration is determined in the different parts of the stream ecosystem. The exchange processes considered are exchange with the sediments due to diffusion, advective transport and sedimentation/resuspension and uptake of radionuclides in biota. Transport of both dissolved radionuclides and sorbed onto particulates is considered. Sorption kinetics in the stream water phase is implemented as the time scale of the residence time in the stream water probably is short in comparison to the time scale of the kinetic sorption. In the sediment

  7. Long-run properties of some Danish macroeconometric models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harck, Søren H.

    This paper provides an analytical treatment of various long-run aspects of the MONA model as well as the SMEC model of the Danish economy. More specifically, the analysis lays bare the long-run and steady-state nexus between unemployment and, respectively, inflation and the wage share implied by ...

  8. Modelling surface run-off and trends analysis over India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    responsible for run-off generation plays a major role in run-off modelling at region scales. Remote sensing, GIS and advancement of the computer technology based evaluation of land surface prop- erties at spatial and temporal scales are very useful input data for hydrological models. Using remote sensing data is not only ...

  9. The Performance Improvement of the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model (LPDM) Using Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    no_pt) !$ acc routine (random_cuda) seq integer:: seed = 1234 real, dimension(:), allocatable :: r integer :: n = 1000000 allocate(r(n)) !$ acc ...kernels copyout (r) !$ acc loop do i = 1, n call random_cuda(seed, n, r) enddo !$ acc end kernels aa=r integer,parameter::no_pt=1000000...real::aa(no_pt) do i=1,no_pt aa(i)=gaussdev() enddo pgfortran - acc -Mcuda -Minfo=accel -ta=nvidia:cuda7.5,cc30 -c lagmod.f90 -o

  10. Computing Models of CDF and D0 in Run II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lammel, S.

    1997-05-01

    The next collider run of the Fermilab Tevatron, Run II, is scheduled for autumn of 1999. Both experiments, the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) and the D0 experiment are being modified to cope with the higher luminosity and shorter bunchspacing of the Tevatron. New detector components, higher event complexity, and an increased data volume require changes from the data acquisition systems up to the analysis systems. In this paper we present a summary of the computing models of the two experiments for Run II

  11. Source-receptor matrix calculation for deposited mass with a Lagrangian particle dispersion model in backward mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhardt, Sabine; Cassiani, Massimo; Sollum, Espen; Evangeliou, Nikolaos; Stohl, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Lagrangian particle dispersion models (LPDM) are popular tools to simulate the dispersion of trace gases, aerosols or radionuclides in the atmosphere LPDMs typically consider only linear processes, i.e., processes that do not depend on the concentration of the simulated tracer such as non-linear chemical reactions. This linearity means that they are self-adjoint, i.e., they can be run forward and backward in time without changes to the source code. The only difference between such simulations is the sign of the wind components used for transporting the particles. In the case where the number of (potential) source elements is larger than the number of receptors, running the model backward from the receptors is computationally more efficient than running it forward from the sources (if the number of receptors is smaller than the number of sources). To interpret the wet deposition of acidifying compounds or the contamination of snow by the albedo reducing BC, the s-r relationship of the deposited material would be very important to understand. To date, backward calculations for deposition quantities have not been possible. We present an extension of the LPDM FLEXPART that allows such calculations and test its performance for both dry and wet deposition. We show a comparison between model results in forward and backward mode as well as modeled vs. measured concentration of black carbon at high latitudes. Both analysis prove that the model approach is working well in backward mode and also gives a very good agreement with deposition measurements.

  12. Running of the Scalar Spectral Index from Inflationary Models

    CERN Document Server

    Chung, D J H; Trodden, M; Chung, Daniel J.H.; Shiu, Gary; Trodden, Mark

    2003-01-01

    The scalar spectral index n is an important parameter describing the nature of primordial density perturbations. Recent data, including that from the WMAP satellite, shows some evidence that the index runs (changes as a function of the scale k at which it is measured) from n>1 (blue) on long scales to n<1 (red) on short scales. We investigate the extent to which inflationary models can accomodate such significant running of n. We present several methods for constructing large classes of potentials which yield a running spectral index. We show that within the slow-roll approximation, the fact that n-1 changes sign from blue to red forces the slope of the potential to reach a minimum at a similar field location. We also briefly survey the running of the index in a wider class of inflationary models, including a subset of those with non-minimial kinetic terms.

  13. Numerical Modelling of Wave Run-Up: Regular Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramirez, Jorge; Frigaard, Peter; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    2011-01-01

    Wave loads are important in problems related to offshore structure, such as wave run-up, slamming. The computation of such wave problems are carried out by CFD models. This paper presents one model, NS3, which solve 3D Navier-Stokes equations and use Volume of Fluid (VOF) method to treat the free...

  14. Long-Run Properties of Large-Scale Macroeconometric Models

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth F. WALLIS-; John D. WHITLEY

    1987-01-01

    We consider alternative approaches to the evaluation of the long-run properties of dynamic nonlinear macroeconometric models, namely dynamic simulation over an extended database, or the construction and direct solution of the steady-state version of the model. An application to a small model of the UK economy is presented. The model is found to be unstable, but a stable form can be produced by simple alterations to the structure.

  15. Short Trail Running Race: Beyond the Classic Model for Endurance Running Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrström, Sabine; Tartaruga, Marcus P; Easthope, Christopher S; Brisswalter, Jeanick; Morin, Jean-Benoit; Vercruyssen, Fabrice

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to examine the extent to which the classical physiological variables of endurance running performance (maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max), %V˙O2max at ventilatory threshold (VT), and running economy (RE)) but also muscle strength factors contribute to short trail running (TR) performance. A homogeneous group of nine highly trained trail runners performed an official TR race (27 km) and laboratory-based sessions to determine V˙O2max, %V˙O2max at VT, level RE (RE0%) and RE on a +10% slope, maximal voluntary concentric and eccentric knee extension torques, local endurance assessed by a fatigue index (FI), and a time to exhaustion at 87.5% of the velocity associated with V˙O2max. A simple regression method and commonality analysis identifying unique and common coefficients of each independent variable were used to determine the best predictors for the TR race time (dependent variable). Pearson correlations showed that FI and V˙O2max had the highest correlations (r = 0.91 and r = -0.76, respectively) with TR performance. The other selected variables were not significantly correlated with TR performance. The analysis of unique and common coefficients of relative V˙O2max, %V˙O2max at VT, and RE0% provides a low prediction of TR performance (R = 0.48). However, adding FI and RE on a +10% slope (instead of RE0%) markedly improved the predictive power of the model (R = 0.98). FI and V˙O2max showed the highest unique (49.8% and 20.4% of total effect, respectively) and common (26.9% of total effect) contributions to the regression equation. The classic endurance running model does not allow for meaningful prediction of short TR performance. Incorporating more specific factors into TR such as local endurance and gradient-specific RE testing procedures should be considered to better characterize short TR performance.

  16. Arbitrary Symmetric Running Gait Generation for an Underactuated Biped Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam Dadashzadeh

    Full Text Available This paper investigates generating symmetric trajectories for an underactuated biped during the stance phase of running. We use a point mass biped (PMB model for gait analysis that consists of a prismatic force actuator on a massless leg. The significance of this model is its ability to generate more general and versatile running gaits than the spring-loaded inverted pendulum (SLIP model, making it more suitable as a template for real robots. The algorithm plans the necessary leg actuator force to cause the robot center of mass to undergo arbitrary trajectories in stance with any arbitrary attack angle and velocity angle. The necessary actuator forces follow from the inverse kinematics and dynamics. Then these calculated forces become the control input to the dynamic model. We compare various center-of-mass trajectories, including a circular arc and polynomials of the degrees 2, 4 and 6. The cost of transport and maximum leg force are calculated for various attack angles and velocity angles. The results show that choosing the velocity angle as small as possible is beneficial, but the angle of attack has an optimum value. We also find a new result: there exist biped running gaits with double-hump ground reaction force profiles which result in less maximum leg force than single-hump profiles.

  17. Arbitrary Symmetric Running Gait Generation for an Underactuated Biped Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadashzadeh, Behnam; Esmaeili, Mohammad; Macnab, Chris

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates generating symmetric trajectories for an underactuated biped during the stance phase of running. We use a point mass biped (PMB) model for gait analysis that consists of a prismatic force actuator on a massless leg. The significance of this model is its ability to generate more general and versatile running gaits than the spring-loaded inverted pendulum (SLIP) model, making it more suitable as a template for real robots. The algorithm plans the necessary leg actuator force to cause the robot center of mass to undergo arbitrary trajectories in stance with any arbitrary attack angle and velocity angle. The necessary actuator forces follow from the inverse kinematics and dynamics. Then these calculated forces become the control input to the dynamic model. We compare various center-of-mass trajectories, including a circular arc and polynomials of the degrees 2, 4 and 6. The cost of transport and maximum leg force are calculated for various attack angles and velocity angles. The results show that choosing the velocity angle as small as possible is beneficial, but the angle of attack has an optimum value. We also find a new result: there exist biped running gaits with double-hump ground reaction force profiles which result in less maximum leg force than single-hump profiles.

  18. New Constraints on the running-mass inflation model

    OpenAIRE

    Covi, Laura; Lyth, David H.; Melchiorri, Alessandro

    2002-01-01

    We evaluate new observational constraints on the two-parameter scale-dependent spectral index predicted by the running-mass inflation model by combining the latest Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropy measurements with the recent 2dFGRS data on the matter power spectrum, with Lyman $\\alpha $ forest data and finally with theoretical constraints on the reionization redshift. We find that present data still allow significant scale-dependence of $n$, which occurs in a physically reasonabl...

  19. Black hole constraints on the running-mass inflation model

    OpenAIRE

    Leach, Samuel M; Grivell, Ian J; Liddle, Andrew R

    2000-01-01

    The running-mass inflation model, which has strong motivation from particle physics, predicts density perturbations whose spectral index is strongly scale-dependent. For a large part of parameter space the spectrum rises sharply to short scales. In this paper we compute the production of primordial black holes, using both analytic and numerical calculation of the density perturbation spectra. Observational constraints from black hole production are shown to exclude a large region of otherwise...

  20. The running-mass inflation model and WMAP

    OpenAIRE

    Covi, Laura; Lyth, David H.; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Odman, Carolina J.

    2004-01-01

    We consider the observational constraints on the running-mass inflationary model, and in particular on the scale-dependence of the spectral index, from the new Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropy measurements performed by WMAP and from new clustering data from the SLOAN survey. We find that the data strongly constraints a significant positive scale-dependence of $n$, and we translate the analysis into bounds on the physical parameters of the inflaton potential. Looking deeper into sp...

  1. The Effective Standard Model after LHC Run I

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John; You, Tevong

    2015-01-01

    We treat the Standard Model as the low-energy limit of an effective field theory that incorporates higher-dimensional operators to capture the effects of decoupled new physics. We consider the constraints imposed on the coefficients of dimension-6 operators by electroweak precision tests (EWPTs), applying a framework for the effects of dimension-6 operators on electroweak precision tests that is more general than the standard $S,T$ formalism, and use measurements of Higgs couplings and the kinematics of associated Higgs production at the Tevatron and LHC, as well as triple-gauge couplings at the LHC. We highlight the complementarity between EWPTs, Tevatron and LHC measurements in obtaining model-independent limits on the effective Standard Model after LHC Run~1. We illustrate the combined constraints with the example of the two-Higgs doublet model.

  2. The effective Standard Model after LHC Run I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, John; Sanz, Verónica; You, Tevong

    2015-01-01

    We treat the Standard Model as the low-energy limit of an effective field theory that incorporates higher-dimensional operators to capture the effects of decoupled new physics. We consider the constraints imposed on the coefficients of dimension-6 operators by electroweak precision tests (EWPTs), applying a framework for the effects of dimension-6 operators on electroweak precision tests that is more general than the standard S,T formalism, and use measurements of Higgs couplings and the kinematics of associated Higgs production at the Tevatron and LHC, as well as triple-gauge couplings at the LHC. We highlight the complementarity between EWPTs, Tevatron and LHC measurements in obtaining model-independent limits on the effective Standard Model after LHC Run 1. We illustrate the combined constraints with the example of the two-Higgs doublet model.

  3. 1-D blood flow modelling in a running human body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Viktor; Halász, Gábor

    2017-07-01

    In this paper an attempt was made to simulate blood flow in a mobile human arterial network, specifically, in a running human subject. In order to simulate the effect of motion, a previously published immobile 1-D model was modified by including an inertial force term into the momentum equation. To calculate inertial force, gait analysis was performed at different levels of speed. Our results show that motion has a significant effect on the amplitudes of the blood pressure and flow rate but the average values are not effected significantly.

  4. New constraints on the running-mass inflation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Covi, L.; Lyth, D.H.; Melchiorri, A.

    2002-10-01

    We evaluate new observational constraints on the two-parameter scale-dependent spectral index predicted by the running-mass inflation model by combining the latest cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy measurements with the recent 2dFGRS data on the matter power spectrum, with Lyman α forest data and finally with theoretical constraints on the reionization redshift. We find that present data still allow significant scale-dependence of n, which occurs in a physically reasonable regime of parameter space. (orig.)

  5. Modelling the long-run supply of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steenblik, R.P.

    1992-01-01

    There are many issues facing policy-makers in the fields of energy and the environment that require knowledge of coal supply and cost. Such questions arise in relation to decisions concerning, for example, the discontinuation of subsidies, or the effects of new environmental laws. The very complexity of these questions makes them suitable for analysis by models. Indeed, models have been used for analysing the behaviour of coal markets and the effects of public policies on them for many years. For estimating short-term responses econometric models are the most suitable. For estimating the supply of coal over the longer term, however - i.e., coal that would come from mines as yet not developed - depletion has to be taken into account. Underlying the normal supply curve relating cost to the rate of production is a curve that increases with cumulative production - what mineral economists refer to as the potential supply curve. To derive such a curve requires at some point in the analysis using process-oriented modelling techniques. Because coal supply curves can convey so succinctly information about the resource's long-run supply potential and costs, they have been influential in several major public debates on energy policy. And, within the coal industry itself, they have proved to be powerful tools for undertaking market research and long-range planning. The purpose of this paper is to describe in brief the various approaches that have been used to model long-run coal supply, to highlight their strengths, and to identify areas in which further progress is needed. (author)

  6. Integrating spatio-temporal environmental models for planning ski runs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfeffer, Karin

    2003-01-01

    The establishment of ski runs and ski lifts, the action of skiing and maintenance of ski runs may cause considerable environmental impact. Clearly, for improvements to be made in the planning of ski runs in alpine terrain a good understanding of the environmental system and the response of

  7. 2013 CEF RUN - PHASE 1 DATA ANALYSIS AND MODEL VALIDATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, A.

    2014-05-08

    Phase 1 of the 2013 Cold cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF) test was completed on June 3, 2013 after a 5-day round-the-clock feeding and pouring operation. The main goal of the test was to characterize the CEF off-gas produced from a nitric-formic acid flowsheet feed and confirm whether the CEF platform is capable of producing scalable off-gas data necessary for the revision of the DWPF melter off-gas flammability model; the revised model will be used to define new safety controls on the key operating parameters for the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet feeds including total organic carbon (TOC). Whether the CEF off-gas data were scalable for the purpose of predicting the potential flammability of the DWPF melter exhaust was determined by comparing the predicted H{sub 2} and CO concentrations using the current DWPF melter off-gas flammability model to those measured during Phase 1; data were deemed scalable if the calculated fractional conversions of TOC-to-H{sub 2} and TOC-to-CO at varying melter vapor space temperatures were found to trend and further bound the respective measured data with some margin of safety. Being scalable thus means that for a given feed chemistry the instantaneous flow rates of H{sub 2} and CO in the DWPF melter exhaust can be estimated with some degree of conservatism by multiplying those of the respective gases from a pilot-scale melter by the feed rate ratio. This report documents the results of the Phase 1 data analysis and the necessary calculations performed to determine the scalability of the CEF off-gas data. A total of six steady state runs were made during Phase 1 under non-bubbled conditions by varying the CEF vapor space temperature from near 700 to below 300°C, as measured in a thermowell (T{sub tw}). At each steady state temperature, the off-gas composition was monitored continuously for two hours using MS, GC, and FTIR in order to track mainly H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and organic gases such as CH{sub 4}. The standard

  8. Dynamical system approach to running Λ cosmological models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stachowski, Aleksander; Szydlowski, Marek

    2016-01-01

    We study the dynamics of cosmological models with a time dependent cosmological term. We consider five classes of models; two with the non-covariant parametrization of the cosmological term Λ: Λ(H)CDM cosmologies, Λ(a)CDM cosmologies, and three with the covariant parametrization of Λ: Λ(R)CDM cosmologies, where R(t) is the Ricci scalar, Λ(φ)-cosmologies with diffusion, Λ(X)-cosmologies, where X = (1)/(2)g αβ ∇ α ∇ β φ is a kinetic part of the density of the scalar field. We also consider the case of an emergent Λ(a) relation obtained from the behaviour of trajectories in a neighbourhood of an invariant submanifold. In the study of the dynamics we used dynamical system methods for investigating how an evolutionary scenario can depend on the choice of special initial conditions. We show that the methods of dynamical systems allow one to investigate all admissible solutions of a running Λ cosmology for all initial conditions. We interpret Alcaniz and Lima's approach as a scaling cosmology. We formulate the idea of an emergent cosmological term derived directly from an approximation of the exact dynamics. We show that some non-covariant parametrization of the cosmological term like Λ(a), Λ(H) gives rise to the non-physical behaviour of trajectories in the phase space. This behaviour disappears if the term Λ(a) is emergent from the covariant parametrization. (orig.)

  9. The Run 2 ATLAS Analysis Event Data Model

    CERN Document Server

    SNYDER, S; The ATLAS collaboration; NOWAK, M; EIFERT, T; BUCKLEY, A; ELSING, M; GILLBERG, D; MOYSE, E; KOENEKE, K; KRASZNAHORKAY, A

    2014-01-01

    During the LHC's first Long Shutdown (LS1) ATLAS set out to establish a new analysis model, based on the experience gained during Run 1. A key component of this is a new Event Data Model (EDM), called the xAOD. This format, which is now in production, provides the following features: A separation of the EDM into interface classes that the user code directly interacts with, and data storage classes that hold the payload data. The user sees an Array of Structs (AoS) interface, while the data is stored in a Struct of Arrays (SoA) format in memory, thus making it possible to efficiently auto-vectorise reconstruction code. A simple way of augmenting and reducing the information saved for different data objects. This makes it possible to easily decorate objects with new properties during data analysis, and to remove properties that the analysis does not need. A persistent file format that can be explored directly with ROOT, either with or without loading any additional libraries. This allows fast interactive naviga...

  10. Modelling of Muscle Force Distributions During Barefoot and Shod Running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinclair Jonathan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Research interest in barefoot running has expanded considerably in recent years, based around the notion that running without shoes is associated with a reduced incidence of chronic injuries. The aim of the current investigation was to examine the differences in the forces produced by different skeletal muscles during barefoot and shod running. Fifteen male participants ran at 4.0 m·s-1 (± 5%. Kinematics were measured using an eight camera motion analysis system alongside ground reaction force parameters. Differences in sagittal plane kinematics and muscle forces between footwear conditions were examined using repeated measures or Freidman’s ANOVA. The kinematic analysis showed that the shod condition was associated with significantly more hip flexion, whilst barefoot running was linked with significantly more flexion at the knee and plantarflexion at the ankle. The examination of muscle kinetics indicated that peak forces from Rectus femoris, Vastus medialis, Vastus lateralis, Tibialis anterior were significantly larger in the shod condition whereas Gastrocnemius forces were significantly larger during barefoot running. These observations provide further insight into the mechanical alterations that runners make when running without shoes. Such findings may also deliver important information to runners regarding their susceptibility to chronic injuries in different footwear conditions.

  11. Approaches in highly parameterized inversion - GENIE, a general model-independent TCP/IP run manager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muffels, Christopher T.; Schreuder, Willem A.; Doherty, John E.; Karanovic, Marinko; Tonkin, Matthew J.; Hunt, Randall J.; Welter, David E.

    2012-01-01

    GENIE is a model-independent suite of programs that can be used to generally distribute, manage, and execute multiple model runs via the TCP/IP infrastructure. The suite consists of a file distribution interface, a run manage, a run executer, and a routine that can be compiled as part of a program and used to exchange model runs with the run manager. Because communication is via a standard protocol (TCP/IP), any computer connected to the Internet can serve in any of the capacities offered by this suite. Model independence is consistent with the existing template and instruction file protocols of the widely used PEST parameter estimation program. This report describes (1) the problem addressed; (2) the approach used by GENIE to queue, distribute, and retrieve model runs; and (3) user instructions, classes, and functions developed. It also includes (4) an example to illustrate the linking of GENIE with Parallel PEST using the interface routine.

  12. Short-run and Current Analysis Model in Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Anghelache

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the short-run statistic indicators is a compulsory requirement implied in the current analysis. Therefore, there is a system of EUROSTAT indicators on short run which has been set up in this respect, being recommended for utilization by the member-countries. On the basis of these indicators, there are regular, usually monthly, analysis being achieved in respect of: the production dynamic determination; the evaluation of the short-run investment volume; the development of the turnover; the wage evolution: the employment; the price indexes and the consumer price index (inflation; the volume of exports and imports and the extent to which the imports are covered by the exports and the sold of trade balance. The EUROSTAT system of indicators of conjuncture is conceived as an open system, so that it can be, at any moment extended or restricted, allowing indicators to be amended or even removed, depending on the domestic users requirements as well as on the specific requirements of the harmonization and integration. For the short-run analysis, there is also the World Bank system of indicators of conjuncture, which is utilized, relying on the data sources offered by the World Bank, The World Institute for Resources or other international organizations statistics. The system comprises indicators of the social and economic development and focuses on the indicators for the following three fields: human resources, environment and economic performances. At the end of the paper, there is a case study on the situation of Romania, for which we used all these indicators.

  13. 10 km running performance predicted by a multiple linear regression model with allometrically adjusted variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, Cesar C C; Barros, Ronaldo V; Bertuzzi, Romulo; Gagliardi, João F L; Lima-Silva, Adriano E; Lambert, Mike I; Pires, Flavio O

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the power of VO 2max , peak treadmill running velocity (PTV), and running economy (RE), unadjusted or allometrically adjusted, in predicting 10 km running performance. Eighteen male endurance runners performed: 1) an incremental test to exhaustion to determine VO 2max and PTV; 2) a constant submaximal run at 12 km·h -1 on an outdoor track for RE determination; and 3) a 10 km running race. Unadjusted (VO 2max , PTV and RE) and adjusted variables (VO 2max 0.72 , PTV 0.72 and RE 0.60 ) were investigated through independent multiple regression models to predict 10 km running race time. There were no significant correlations between 10 km running time and either the adjusted or unadjusted VO 2max . Significant correlations (p 0.84 and power > 0.88. The allometrically adjusted predictive model was composed of PTV 0.72 and RE 0.60 and explained 83% of the variance in 10 km running time with a standard error of the estimate (SEE) of 1.5 min. The unadjusted model composed of a single PVT accounted for 72% of the variance in 10 km running time (SEE of 1.9 min). Both regression models provided powerful estimates of 10 km running time; however, the unadjusted PTV may provide an uncomplicated estimation.

  14. Systems-level computational modeling demonstrates fuel selection switching in high capacity running and low capacity running rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Nathan R.

    2018-01-01

    High capacity and low capacity running rats, HCR and LCR respectively, have been bred to represent two extremes of running endurance and have recently demonstrated disparities in fuel usage during transient aerobic exercise. HCR rats can maintain fatty acid (FA) utilization throughout the course of transient aerobic exercise whereas LCR rats rely predominantly on glucose utilization. We hypothesized that the difference between HCR and LCR fuel utilization could be explained by a difference in mitochondrial density. To test this hypothesis and to investigate mechanisms of fuel selection, we used a constraint-based kinetic analysis of whole-body metabolism to analyze transient exercise data from these rats. Our model analysis used a thermodynamically constrained kinetic framework that accounts for glycolysis, the TCA cycle, and mitochondrial FA transport and oxidation. The model can effectively match the observed relative rates of oxidation of glucose versus FA, as a function of ATP demand. In searching for the minimal differences required to explain metabolic function in HCR versus LCR rats, it was determined that the whole-body metabolic phenotype of LCR, compared to the HCR, could be explained by a ~50% reduction in total mitochondrial activity with an additional 5-fold reduction in mitochondrial FA transport activity. Finally, we postulate that over sustained periods of exercise that LCR can partly overcome the initial deficit in FA catabolic activity by upregulating FA transport and/or oxidation processes. PMID:29474500

  15. Impaired voluntary wheel running behavior in the unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Qi; Zhang, Wangming; Wang, Jinyan; Luo, Fei; Chang, Jingyu; Xu, Ruxiang

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate voluntary wheel running behavior in the unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) rat model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to 2 groups : 6-OHDA group (n=17) and control group (n=8). The unilateral 6-OHDA rat model was induced by injection of 6-OHDA into unilateral medial forebrain bundle using a stereotaxic instrument. Voluntary wheel running activity was assessed per day in successfully lesioned rats (n=10) and control rats. Each behavioral test lasted an hour. The following parameters were investigated during behavioral tests : the number of running bouts, the distance moved in the wheel, average peak speed in running bouts and average duration from the running start to the peak speed. The number of running bouts and the distance moved in the wheel were significantly decreased in successfully lesioned rats compared with control rats. In addition, average peak speed in running bouts was decreased, and average duration from the running start to the peak speed was increased in lesioned animals, which might indicate motor deficits in these rats. These behavioral changes were still observed 42 days after lesion. Voluntary wheel running behavior is impaired in the unilateral 6-OHDA rat model and may represent a useful tool to quantify motor deficits in this model.

  16. Fast Running Urban Dispersion Model for Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD) Releases: Model Description and Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gowardhan, Akshay [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC); Neuscamman, Stephanie [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC); Donetti, John [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC); Walker, Hoyt [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC); Belles, Rich [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC); Eme, Bill [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC); Homann, Steven [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC); Simpson, Matthew [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC); Nasstrom, John [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC)

    2017-05-24

    Aeolus is an efficient three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics code based on finite volume method developed for predicting transport and dispersion of contaminants in a complex urban area. It solves the time dependent incompressible Navier-Stokes equation on a regular Cartesian staggered grid using a fractional step method. It also solves a scalar transport equation for temperature and using the Boussinesq approximation. The model also includes a Lagrangian dispersion model for predicting the transport and dispersion of atmospheric contaminants. The model can be run in an efficient Reynolds Average Navier-Stokes (RANS) mode with a run time of several minutes, or a more detailed Large Eddy Simulation (LES) mode with run time of hours for a typical simulation. This report describes the model components, including details on the physics models used in the code, as well as several model validation efforts. Aeolus wind and dispersion predictions are compared to field data from the Joint Urban Field Trials 2003 conducted in Oklahoma City (Allwine et al 2004) including both continuous and instantaneous releases. Newly implemented Aeolus capabilities include a decay chain model and an explosive Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD) source term; these capabilities are described. Aeolus predictions using the buoyant explosive RDD source are validated against two experimental data sets: the Green Field explosive cloud rise experiments conducted in Israel (Sharon et al 2012) and the Full-Scale RDD Field Trials conducted in Canada (Green et al 2016).

  17. Modeling the Frequency of Cyclists’ Red-Light Running Behavior Using Bayesian PG Model and PLN Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Red-light running behaviors of bicycles at signalized intersection lead to a large number of traffic conflicts and high collision potentials. The primary objective of this study is to model the cyclists’ red-light running frequency within the framework of Bayesian statistics. Data was collected at twenty-five approaches at seventeen signalized intersections. The Poisson-gamma (PG and Poisson-lognormal (PLN model were developed and compared. The models were validated using Bayesian p values based on posterior predictive checking indicators. It was found that the two models have a good fit of the observed cyclists’ red-light running frequency. Furthermore, the PLN model outperformed the PG model. The model estimated results showed that the amount of cyclists’ red-light running is significantly influenced by bicycle flow, conflict traffic flow, pedestrian signal type, vehicle speed, and e-bike rate. The validation result demonstrated the reliability of the PLN model. The research results can help transportation professionals to predict the expected amount of the cyclists’ red-light running and develop effective guidelines or policies to reduce red-light running frequency of bicycles at signalized intersections.

  18. Two-Higgs-doublet model of type II confronted with the LHC run I and run II data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Zhang, Feng; Han, Xiao-Fang

    2017-06-01

    We examine the parameter space of the two-Higgs-doublet model of type II after imposing the relevant theoretical and experimental constraints from the precision electroweak data, B -meson decays, and the LHC run I and run II data. We find that the searches for Higgs bosons via the τ+τ- , W W , Z Z , γ γ , h h , h Z , H Z , and A Z channels can give strong constraints on the C P -odd Higgs A and heavy C P -even Higgs H , and the parameter space excluded by each channel is respectively carved out in detail assuming that either mA or mH are fixed to 600 or 700 GeV in the scans. The surviving samples are discussed in two different regions. (i) In the standard model-like coupling region of the 125 GeV Higgs, mA is allowed to be as low as 350 GeV, and a strong upper limit is imposed on tan β . mH is allowed to be as low as 200 GeV for the appropriate values of tan β , sin (β -α ), and mA, but is required to be larger than 300 GeV for mA=700 GeV . (ii) In the wrong-sign Yukawa coupling region of the 125 GeV Higgs, the b b ¯→A /H →τ+τ- channel can impose the upper limits on tan β and sin (β -α ), and the A →h Z channel can give the lower limits on tan β and sin (β -α ). mA and mH are allowed to be as low as 60 and 200 GeV, respectively, but 320 GeV

  19. Model based control for run-of-river system. Part 1: Model implementation and tuning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liubomyr Vytvytskyi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Optimal operation and control of a run-of-river hydro power plant depends on good knowledge of the elements of the plant in the form of models. River reaches are often considered shallow channels with free surfaces. A typical model for such reaches use the Saint Venant model, which is a 1D distributed model based on the mass and momentum balances. This combination of free surface and momentum balance makes the problem numerically challenging to solve. The finite volume method with staggered grid was compared with the Kurganov-Petrova central upwind scheme, and was used to illustrate the dynamics of the river upstream from the Grønvollfoss run-of-river power plant in Telemark, Norway, operated by Skagerak Energi AS. In an experiment on the Grønvollfoss run-of-river power plant, a step was injected in the upstream inlet flow at Årlifoss, and the resulting change in level in front of the dam at the Grønvollfoss plant was logged. The results from the theoretical Saint Venant model was then compared to the experimental results. Because of uncertainties in the geometry of the river reach (river bed slope, etc., the slope and length of the varying slope parts were tuned manually to improve the fit. Then, friction factor, river width and height drop of the river was tuned by minimizing a least squares criterion. The results of the improved model (numerically, tuned to experiments, is a model that can be further used for control synthesis and analysis.

  20. Flood Peak Estimation Using Rainfall Run off Models | Matondo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The design of hydraulic structures such as road culverts, road bridges and dam spillways requires the determination of the design food peak. Two approaches are available in the determination of the design flood peak and these are: flood frequency analysis and rainfall runoff models. Flood frequency analysis requires a ...

  1. A long run intertemporal model of the oil market with uncertainty and strategic interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lensberg, T.; Rasmussen, H.

    1991-06-01

    This paper describes a model of the long run price uncertainty in the oil market. The main feature of the model is that the uncertainty about OPEC's price strategy is assumed to be generated not by irrational behavior on the part of OPEC, but by uncertainty about OPEC's size and time preference. The control of OPEC's pricing decision is assumed to shift among a set of OPEC-types over time according to a stochastic process, with each type implementing that price strategy which best fits the interests of its supporters. The model is fully dynamic on the supply side in the sense that all oil producers are assumed to understand the working of OPEC and the oil market, in particular, the non-OPEC producers base their investment decisions on rational price expectations. On the demand side, we assume that the market insight is less developed on the average, and model it by means of a long run demand curve on current prices and a simple lag structure. The long run demand curve for crude oil is generated by a fairly detailed static long-run equilibrium model of the product markets. Preliminary experience with the model indicate that prices are likely to stay below 20 dollars in the foreseeable future, but that prices around 30 dollars may occur if the present long run time perspective of OPEC is abandoned in favor of a more short run one. 26 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs

  2. Implementation of the ATLAS Run 2 event data model

    CERN Document Server

    Buckley, Andrew; Elsing, Markus; Gillberg, Dag Ingemar; Koeneke, Karsten; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Moyse, Edward; Nowak, Marcin; Snyder, Scott; van Gemmeren, Peter

    2015-01-01

    During the 2013--2014 shutdown of the Large Hadron Collider, ATLAS switched to a new event data model for analysis, called the xAOD. A key feature of this model is the separation of the object data from the objects themselves (the `auxiliary store'). Rather being stored as member variables of the analysis classes, all object data are stored separately, as vectors of simple values. Thus, the data are stored in a `structure of arrays' format, while the user still can access it as an `array of structures'. This organization allows for on-demand partial reading of objects, the selective removal of object properties, and the addition of arbitrary user-defined properties in a uniform manner. It also improves performance by increasing the locality of memory references in typical analysis code. The resulting data structures can be written to ROOT files with data properties represented as simple ROOT tree branches. This talk will focus on the design and implementation of the auxiliary store and its interaction with RO...

  3. Implementation of the ATLAS Run 2 event data model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, A.; Eifert, T.; Elsing, M.; Gillberg, D.; Koeneke, K.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Moyse, E.; Nowak, M.; Snyder, S.; van Gemmeren, P.

    2015-12-01

    During the 2013-2014 shutdown of the Large Hadron Collider, ATLAS switched to a new event data model for analysis, called the xAOD. A key feature of this model is the separation of the object data from the objects themselves (the ‘auxiliary store’). Rather than being stored as member variables of the analysis classes, all object data are stored separately, as vectors of simple values. Thus, the data are stored in a ‘structure of arrays’ format, while the user still can access it as an ‘array of structures’. This organization allows for on-demand partial reading of objects, the selective removal of object properties, and the addition of arbitrary user- defined properties in a uniform manner. It also improves performance by increasing the locality of memory references in typical analysis code. The resulting data structures can be written to ROOT files with data properties represented as simple ROOT tree branches. This paper focuses on the design and implementation of the auxiliary store and its interaction with ROOT.

  4. mr. A C++ library for the matching and running of the Standard Model parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kniehl, Bernd A.; Veretin, Oleg L.; Pikelner, Andrey F.; Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna

    2016-01-01

    We present the C++ program library mr that allows us to reliably calculate the values of the running parameters in the Standard Model at high energy scales. The initial conditions are obtained by relating the running parameters in the MS renormalization scheme to observables at lower energies with full two-loop precision. The evolution is then performed in accordance with the renormalization group equations with full three-loop precision. Pure QCD corrections to the matching and running are included through four loops. We also provide a Mathematica interface for this program library.

  5. Dynamic sensitivity analysis of long running landslide models through basis set expansion and meta-modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohmer, Jeremy

    2016-04-01

    Predicting the temporal evolution of landslides is typically supported by numerical modelling. Dynamic sensitivity analysis aims at assessing the influence of the landslide properties on the time-dependent predictions (e.g., time series of landslide displacements). Yet two major difficulties arise: 1. Global sensitivity analysis require running the landslide model a high number of times (> 1000), which may become impracticable when the landslide model has a high computation time cost (> several hours); 2. Landslide model outputs are not scalar, but function of time, i.e. they are n-dimensional vectors with n usually ranging from 100 to 1000. In this article, I explore the use of a basis set expansion, such as principal component analysis, to reduce the output dimensionality to a few components, each of them being interpreted as a dominant mode of variation in the overall structure of the temporal evolution. The computationally intensive calculation of the Sobol' indices for each of these components are then achieved through meta-modelling, i.e. by replacing the landslide model by a "costless-to-evaluate" approximation (e.g., a projection pursuit regression model). The methodology combining "basis set expansion - meta-model - Sobol' indices" is then applied to the La Frasse landslide to investigate the dynamic sensitivity analysis of the surface horizontal displacements to the slip surface properties during the pore pressure changes. I show how to extract information on the sensitivity of each main modes of temporal behaviour using a limited number (a few tens) of long running simulations. In particular, I identify the parameters, which trigger the occurrence of a turning point marking a shift between a regime of low values of landslide displacements and one of high values.

  6. Influence of running velocity on vertical, leg and joint stiffness : modelling and recommendations for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brughelli, Matt; Cronin, John

    2008-01-01

    Human running can be modelled as either a spring-mass model or multiple springs in series. A force is required to stretch or compress the spring, and thus stiffness, the variable of interest in this paper, can be calculated from the ratio of this force to the change in spring length. Given the link between force and length change, muscle stiffness and mechanical stiffness have been areas of interest to researchers, clinicians, and strength and conditioning practitioners for many years. This review focuses on mechanical stiffness, and in particular, vertical, leg and joint stiffness, since these are the only stiffness types that have been directly calculated during human running. It has been established that as running velocity increases from slow-to-moderate values, leg stiffness remains constant while both vertical stiffness and joint stiffness increase. However, no studies have calculated vertical, leg or joint stiffness over a range of slow-to-moderate values to maximum values in an athletic population. Therefore, the effects of faster running velocities on stiffness are relatively unexplored. Furthermore, no experimental research has examined the effects of training on vertical, leg or joint stiffness and the subsequent effects on running performance. Various methods of training (Olympic style weightlifting, heavy resistance training, plyometrics, eccentric strength training) have shown to be effective at improving running performance. However, the effects of these training methods on vertical, leg and joint stiffness are unknown. As a result, the true importance of stiffness to running performance remains unexplored, and the best practice for changing stiffness to optimize running performance is speculative at best. It is our hope that a better understanding of stiffness, and the influence of running speed on stiffness, will lead to greater interest and an increase in experimental research in this area.

  7. Characterisation of the responsive properties of two running-specific prosthetic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobler, Lara; Ferreira, Suzanne; Vanwanseele, Benedicte; Terblanche, Elmarie E

    2017-04-01

    The need for information regarding running-specific prosthetic properties has previously been voiced. Such information is necessary to assist in athletes' prostheses selection. This study aimed to describe the characteristics of two commercially available running-specific prostheses. The running-specific prostheses were tested (in an experimental setup) without the external interference of athlete performance variations. Four stiffness categories of each running-specific prosthetic model (Xtend ™ and Xtreme ™ ) were tested at seven alignment setups and three drop masses (28, 38 and 48 kg). Results for peak ground reaction force (GRF peak ), contact time ( t c ), flight time ( t f ), reactive strength index (RSI) and maximal compression (Δ L) were determined during controlled dropping of running-specific prostheses onto a force platform with different masses attached to the experimental setup. No statistically significant differences were found between the different setups of the running-specific prostheses. Statistically significant differences were found between the two models for all outcome variables (GRF peak , Xtend > Xtreme; t c , Xtreme > Xtend; t f , Xtreme > Xtend; RSI, Xtend > Xtreme; Δ L, Xtreme > Xtend; p prosthetic choice. Physiologically and metabolically, a short sprint event (i.e. 100 m) places different demands on the athlete than a long sprint event (i.e. 400 m), and the RSP should match these performance demands.

  8. Introducing MOZLEAP: an integrated long-run scenario model of the emerging energy sector of Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahumane, G; Mulder, P.

    2016-01-01

    Since recently Mozambique is actively developing its large reserves of coal, natural gas and hydropower. Against this background, we present the first integrated long-run scenario model of the Mozambican energy sector. Our model, which we name MOZLEAP, is calibrated on the basis of recently

  9. Higher-order effects in asset-pricing models with long-run risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pohl, W.; Schmedders, K.; Wilms, Ole

    This paper shows that the latest generation of asset pricing models with long-run risk exhibits economically significant nonlinearities, and thus the ubiquitous Campbell--Shiller log-linearization can generate large numerical errors. These errors in turn translate to considerable errors in the model

  10. Usefulness of running wheel for detection of congestive heart failure in dilated cardiomyopathy mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masami Sugihara

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Inherited dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM is a progressive disease that often results in death from congestive heart failure (CHF or sudden cardiac death (SCD. Mouse models with human DCM mutation are useful to investigate the developmental mechanisms of CHF and SCD, but knowledge of the severity of CHF in live mice is necessary. We aimed to diagnose CHF in live DCM model mice by measuring voluntary exercise using a running wheel and to determine causes of death in these mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A knock-in mouse with a mutation in cardiac troponin T (ΔK210 (DCM mouse, which results in frequent death with a t(1/2 of 70 to 90 days, was used as a DCM model. Until 2 months of age, average wheel-running activity was similar between wild-type and DCM mice (approximately 7 km/day. At approximately 3 months, some DCM mice demonstrated low running activity (LO: 5 km/day. In the LO group, the lung weight/body weight ratio was much higher than that in the other groups, and the lungs were infiltrated with hemosiderin-loaded alveolar macrophages. Furthermore, echocardiography showed more severe ventricular dilation and a lower ejection fraction, whereas Electrocardiography (ECG revealed QRS widening. There were two patterns in the time courses of running activity before death in DCM mice: deaths with maintained activity and deaths with decreased activity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that DCM mice with low running activity developed severe CHF and that running wheels are useful for detection of CHF in mouse models. We found that approximately half of ΔK210 DCM mice die suddenly before onset of CHF, whereas others develop CHF, deteriorate within 10 to 20 days, and die.

  11. ASCHFLOW - A dynamic landslide run-out model for medium scale hazard analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Quan Luna, B.; Blahůt, Jan; van Asch, T.W.J.; van Westen, C.J.; Kappes, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 3, 12 December (2016), č. článku 29. E-ISSN 2197-8670 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : landslides * run-out models * medium scale hazard analysis * quantitative risk assessment Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  12. Randomly curved runs interrupted by tumbling: A model for bacterial motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condat, C. A.; Jäckle, J.; Menchón, S. A.

    2005-08-01

    Small bacteria are strongly buffeted by Brownian forces that make completely straight runs impossible. A model for bacterial motion is formulated in which the effects of fluctuational forces and torques on the run phase are taken into account by using coupled Langevin equations. An integrated description of the motion, including runs and tumbles, is then obtained by the use of convolution and Laplace transforms. The properties of the velocity-velocity correlation function, of the mean displacement, and of the two relevant diffusion coefficients are examined in terms of the bacterial sizes and of the magnitude of the propelling forces. For bacteria smaller than E. coli, the integrated diffusion coefficient crosses over from a jump-dominated to a rotational-diffusion-dominated form.

  13. Biomechanical modeling and sensitivity analysis of bipedal running ability. II. Extinct taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, John R

    2004-10-01

    Using an inverse dynamics biomechanical analysis that was previously validated for extant bipeds, I calculated the minimum amount of actively contracting hindlimb extensor muscle that would have been needed for rapid bipedal running in several extinct dinosaur taxa. I analyzed models of nine theropod dinosaurs (including birds) covering over five orders of magnitude in size. My results uphold previous findings that large theropods such as Tyrannosaurus could not run very quickly, whereas smaller theropods (including some extinct birds) were adept runners. Furthermore, my results strengthen the contention that many nonavian theropods, especially larger individuals, used fairly upright limb orientations, which would have reduced required muscular force, and hence muscle mass. Additional sensitivity analysis of muscle fascicle lengths, moment arms, and limb orientation supports these conclusions and points out directions for future research on the musculoskeletal limits on running ability. Although ankle extensor muscle support is shown to have been important for all taxa, the ability of hip extensor muscles to support the body appears to be a crucial limit for running capacity in larger taxa. I discuss what speeds were possible for different theropod dinosaurs, and how running ability evolved in an inverse relationship to body size in archosaurs. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Modeling driver stop/run behavior at the onset of a yellow indication considering driver run tendency and roadway surface conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhenawy, Mohammed; Jahangiri, Arash; Rakha, Hesham A; El-Shawarby, Ihab

    2015-10-01

    The ability to model driver stop/run behavior at signalized intersections considering the roadway surface condition is critical in the design of advanced driver assistance systems. Such systems can reduce intersection crashes and fatalities by predicting driver stop/run behavior. The research presented in this paper uses data collected from two controlled field experiments on the Smart Road at the Virginia Tech Transportation Institute (VTTI) to model driver stop/run behavior at the onset of a yellow indication for different roadway surface conditions. The paper offers two contributions. First, it introduces a new predictor related to driver aggressiveness and demonstrates that this measure enhances the modeling of driver stop/run behavior. Second, it applies well-known artificial intelligence techniques including: adaptive boosting (AdaBoost), random forest, and support vector machine (SVM) algorithms as well as traditional logistic regression techniques on the data in order to develop a model that can be used by traffic signal controllers to predict driver stop/run decisions in a connected vehicle environment. The research demonstrates that by adding the proposed driver aggressiveness predictor to the model, there is a statistically significant increase in the model accuracy. Moreover the false alarm rate is significantly reduced but this reduction is not statistically significant. The study demonstrates that, for the subject data, the SVM machine learning algorithm performs the best in terms of optimum classification accuracy and false positive rates. However, the SVM model produces the best performance in terms of the classification accuracy only. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Simulating run-up on steep slopes with operational Boussinesq models; capabilities, spurious effects and instabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Løvholt

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Tsunamis induced by rock slides plunging into fjords constitute a severe threat to local coastal communities. The rock slide impact may give rise to highly non-linear waves in the near field, and because the wave lengths are relatively short, frequency dispersion comes into play. Fjord systems are rugged with steep slopes, and modeling non-linear dispersive waves in this environment with simultaneous run-up is demanding. We have run an operational Boussinesq-type TVD (total variation diminishing model using different run-up formulations. Two different tests are considered, inundation on steep slopes and propagation in a trapezoidal channel. In addition, a set of Lagrangian models serves as reference models. Demanding test cases with solitary waves with amplitudes ranging from 0.1 to 0.5 were applied, and slopes were ranging from 10 to 50°. Different run-up formulations yielded clearly different accuracy and stability, and only some provided similar accuracy as the reference models. The test cases revealed that the model was prone to instabilities for large non-linearity and fine resolution. Some of the instabilities were linked with false breaking during the first positive inundation, which was not observed for the reference models. None of the models were able to handle the bore forming during drawdown, however. The instabilities are linked to short-crested undulations on the grid scale, and appear on fine resolution during inundation. As a consequence, convergence was not always obtained. It is reason to believe that the instability may be a general problem for Boussinesq models in fjords.

  16. Statistical Emulation of Climate Model Projections Based on Precomputed GCM Runs*

    KAUST Repository

    Castruccio, Stefano

    2014-03-01

    The authors describe a new approach for emulating the output of a fully coupled climate model under arbitrary forcing scenarios that is based on a small set of precomputed runs from the model. Temperature and precipitation are expressed as simple functions of the past trajectory of atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and a statistical model is fit using a limited set of training runs. The approach is demonstrated to be a useful and computationally efficient alternative to pattern scaling and captures the nonlinear evolution of spatial patterns of climate anomalies inherent in transient climates. The approach does as well as pattern scaling in all circumstances and substantially better in many; it is not computationally demanding; and, once the statistical model is fit, it produces emulated climate output effectively instantaneously. It may therefore find wide application in climate impacts assessments and other policy analyses requiring rapid climate projections.

  17. Running the running

    OpenAIRE

    Cabass, Giovanni; Di Valentino, Eleonora; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Pajer, Enrico; Silk, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    We use the recent observations of Cosmic Microwave Background temperature and polarization anisotropies provided by the Planck satellite experiment to place constraints on the running $\\alpha_\\mathrm{s} = \\mathrm{d}n_{\\mathrm{s}} / \\mathrm{d}\\log k$ and the running of the running $\\beta_{\\mathrm{s}} = \\mathrm{d}\\alpha_{\\mathrm{s}} / \\mathrm{d}\\log k$ of the spectral index $n_{\\mathrm{s}}$ of primordial scalar fluctuations. We find $\\alpha_\\mathrm{s}=0.011\\pm0.010$ and $\\beta_\\mathrm{s}=0.027\\...

  18. Nonhydrostatic and surfbeat model predictions of extreme wave run-up in fringing reef environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashley, Christopher H.; Roelvink, Dano; van Dongeren, Ap R.; Buckley, Mark L.; Lowe, Ryan J.

    2018-01-01

    The accurate prediction of extreme wave run-up is important for effective coastal engineering design and coastal hazard management. While run-up processes on open sandy coasts have been reasonably well-studied, very few studies have focused on understanding and predicting wave run-up at coral reef-fronted coastlines. This paper applies the short-wave resolving, Nonhydrostatic (XB-NH) and short-wave averaged, Surfbeat (XB-SB) modes of the XBeach numerical model to validate run-up using data from two 1D (alongshore uniform) fringing-reef profiles without roughness elements, with two objectives: i) to provide insight into the physical processes governing run-up in such environments; and ii) to evaluate the performance of both modes in accurately predicting run-up over a wide range of conditions. XBeach was calibrated by optimizing the maximum wave steepness parameter (maxbrsteep) in XB-NH and the dissipation coefficient (alpha) in XB-SB) using the first dataset; and then applied to the second dataset for validation. XB-NH and XB-SB predictions of extreme wave run-up (Rmax and R2%) and its components, infragravity- and sea-swell band swash (SIG and SSS) and shoreline setup (), were compared to observations. XB-NH more accurately simulated wave transformation but under-predicted shoreline setup due to its exclusion of parameterized wave-roller dynamics. XB-SB under-predicted sea-swell band swash but overestimated shoreline setup due to an over-prediction of wave heights on the reef flat. Run-up (swash) spectra were dominated by infragravity motions, allowing the short-wave (but not wave group) averaged model (XB-SB) to perform comparably well to its more complete, short-wave resolving (XB-NH) counterpart. Despite their respective limitations, both modes were able to accurately predict Rmax and R2%.

  19. NASA SPoRT Initialization Datasets for Local Model Runs in the Environmental Modeling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Jonathan L.; LaFontaine, Frank J.; Molthan, Andrew L.; Carcione, Brian; Wood, Lance; Maloney, Joseph; Estupinan, Jeral; Medlin, Jeffrey M.; Blottman, Peter; Rozumalski, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has developed several products for its National Weather Service (NWS) partners that can be used to initialize local model runs within the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Environmental Modeling System (EMS). These real-time datasets consist of surface-based information updated at least once per day, and produced in a composite or gridded product that is easily incorporated into the WRF EMS. The primary goal for making these NASA datasets available to the WRF EMS community is to provide timely and high-quality information at a spatial resolution comparable to that used in the local model configurations (i.e., convection-allowing scales). The current suite of SPoRT products supported in the WRF EMS include a Sea Surface Temperature (SST) composite, a Great Lakes sea-ice extent, a Greenness Vegetation Fraction (GVF) composite, and Land Information System (LIS) gridded output. The SPoRT SST composite is a blend of primarily the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) infrared and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for Earth Observing System data for non-precipitation coverage over the oceans at 2-km resolution. The composite includes a special lake surface temperature analysis over the Great Lakes using contributions from the Remote Sensing Systems temperature data. The Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory Ice Percentage product is used to create a sea-ice mask in the SPoRT SST composite. The sea-ice mask is produced daily (in-season) at 1.8-km resolution and identifies ice percentage from 0 100% in 10% increments, with values above 90% flagged as ice.

  20. The long-run forecasting of energy prices using the model of shifting trend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radchenko, Stanislav

    2005-01-01

    Developing models for accurate long-term energy price forecasting is an important problem because these forecasts should be useful in determining both supply and demand of energy. On the supply side, long-term forecasts determine investment decisions of energy-related companies. On the demand side, investments in physical capital and durable goods depend on price forecasts of a particular energy type. Forecasting long-run rend movements in energy prices is very important on the macroeconomic level for several developing countries because energy prices have large impacts on their real output, the balance of payments, fiscal policy, etc. Pindyck (1999) argues that the dynamics of real energy prices is mean-reverting to trend lines with slopes and levels that are shifting unpredictably over time. The hypothesis of shifting long-term trend lines was statistically tested by Benard et al. (2004). The authors find statistically significant instabilities for coal and natural gas prices. I continue the research of energy prices in the framework of continuously shifting levels and slopes of trend lines started by Pindyck (1999). The examined model offers both parsimonious approach and perspective on the developments in energy markets. Using the model of depletable resource production, Pindyck (1999) argued that the forecast of energy prices in the model is based on the long-run total marginal cost. Because the model of a shifting trend is based on the competitive behavior, one may examine deviations of oil producers from the competitive behavior by studying the difference between actual prices and long-term forecasts. To construct the long-run forecasts (10-year-ahead and 15-year-ahead) of energy prices, I modify the univariate shifting trends model of Pindyck (1999). I relax some assumptions on model parameters, the assumption of white noise error term, and propose a new Bayesian approach utilizing a Gibbs sampling algorithm to estimate the model with autocorrelation. To

  1. Constraints on running vacuum model with H ( z ) and f σ{sub 8}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geng, Chao-Qiang [Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Chongqing, 400065 (China); Lee, Chung-Chi [DAMTP, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Yin, Lu, E-mail: geng@phys.nthu.edu.tw, E-mail: lee.chungchi16@gmail.com, E-mail: yinlumail@foxmail.com [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, 300 Taiwan (China)

    2017-08-01

    We examine the running vacuum model with Λ ( H ) = 3 ν H {sup 2} + Λ{sub 0}, where ν is the model parameter and Λ{sub 0} is the cosmological constant. From the data of the cosmic microwave background radiation, weak lensing and baryon acoustic oscillation along with the time dependent Hubble parameter H ( z ) and weighted linear growth f ( z )σ{sub 8}( z ) measurements, we find that ν=(1.37{sup +0.72}{sub −0.95})× 10{sup −4} with the best fitted χ{sup 2} value slightly smaller than that in the ΛCDM model.

  2. Effects of Yaw Error on Wind Turbine Running Characteristics Based on the Equivalent Wind Speed Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuting Wan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural wind is stochastic, being characterized by its speed and direction which change randomly and frequently. Because of the certain lag in control systems and the yaw body itself, wind turbines cannot be accurately aligned toward the wind direction when the wind speed and wind direction change frequently. Thus, wind turbines often suffer from a series of engineering issues during operation, including frequent yaw, vibration overruns and downtime. This paper aims to study the effects of yaw error on wind turbine running characteristics at different wind speeds and control stages by establishing a wind turbine model, yaw error model and the equivalent wind speed model that includes the wind shear and tower shadow effects. Formulas for the relevant effect coefficients Tc, Sc and Pc were derived. The simulation results indicate that the effects of the aerodynamic torque, rotor speed and power output due to yaw error at different running stages are different and that the effect rules for each coefficient are not identical when the yaw error varies. These results may provide theoretical support for optimizing the yaw control strategies for each stage to increase the running stability of wind turbines and the utilization rate of wind energy.

  3. Running scenarios using the Waste Tank Safety and Operations Hanford Site model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stahlman, E.J.

    1995-11-01

    Management of the Waste Tank Safety and Operations (WTS ampersand O) at Hanford is a large and complex task encompassing 177 tanks and having a budget of over $500 million per year. To assist managers in this task, a model based on system dynamics was developed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The model simulates the WTS ampersand O at the Hanford Tank Farms by modeling the planning, control, and flow of work conducted by Managers, Engineers, and Crafts. The model is described in Policy Analysis of Hanford Tank Farm Operations with System Dynamics Approach (Kwak 1995b) and Management Simulator for Hanford Tank Farm Operations (Kwak 1995a). This document provides guidance for users of the model in developing, running, and analyzing results of management scenarios. The reader is assumed to have an understanding of the model and its operation. Important parameters and variables in the model are described, and two scenarios are formulated as examples

  4. Greenhouse gas network design using backward Lagrangian particle dispersion modelling – Part 2: Sensitivity analyses and South African test case

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nickless, A

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This is the second part of a two-part paper considering network design based on a Lagrangian stochastic particle dispersion model (LPDM), aimed at reducing the uncertainty of the flux estimates achievable for the region of interest by the continuous...

  5. mr: A C++ library for the matching and running of the Standard Model parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniehl, Bernd A.; Pikelner, Andrey F.; Veretin, Oleg L.

    2016-09-01

    We present the C++ program library mr that allows us to reliably calculate the values of the running parameters in the Standard Model at high energy scales. The initial conditions are obtained by relating the running parameters in the MS bar renormalization scheme to observables at lower energies with full two-loop precision. The evolution is then performed in accordance with the renormalization group equations with full three-loop precision. Pure QCD corrections to the matching and running are included through four loops. We also provide a Mathematica interface for this program library. Catalogue identifier: AFAI_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AFAI_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU General Public License, version 3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 517613 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 2358729 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++. Computer: IBM PC. Operating system: Linux, Mac OS X. RAM: 1 GB Classification: 11.1. External routines: TSIL [1], OdeInt [2], boost [3] Nature of problem: The running parameters of the Standard Model renormalized in the MS bar scheme at some high renormalization scale, which is chosen by the user, are evaluated in perturbation theory as precisely as possible in two steps. First, the initial conditions at the electroweak energy scale are evaluated from the Fermi constant GF and the pole masses of the W, Z, and Higgs bosons and the bottom and top quarks including the full two-loop threshold corrections. Second, the evolution to the high energy scale is performed by numerically solving the renormalization group evolution equations through three loops. Pure QCD corrections to the matching and running are included through four loops. Solution method: Numerical integration of analytic expressions Additional comments: Available for download from URL

  6. Exploiting CMS data popularity to model the evolution of data management for Run-2 and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Bonacorsi, D; Giordano, D; Girone, M; Neri, M; Magini, N; Kuznetsov, V; Wildish, T

    2015-01-01

    During the LHC Run-1 data taking, all experiments collected large data volumes from proton-proton and heavy-ion collisions. The collisions data, together with massive volumes of simulated data, were replicated in multiple copies, transferred among various Tier levels, transformed/slimmed in format/content. These data were then accessed (both locally and remotely) by large groups of distributed analysis communities exploiting the WorldWide LHC Computing Grid infrastructure and services. While efficient data placement strategies - together with optimal data redistribution and deletions on demand - have become the core of static versus dynamic data management projects, little effort has so far been invested in understanding the detailed data-access patterns which surfaced in Run-1. These patterns, if understood, can be used as input to simulation of computing models at the LHC, to optimise existing systems by tuning their behaviour, and to explore next-generation CPU/storage/network co-scheduling solutions. This...

  7. Singlet extensions of the standard model at LHC Run 2: benchmarks and comparison with the NMSSM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Raul [Centro de Física Teórica e Computacional, Faculdade de Ciências,Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, Edifício C8 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Departamento de Física da Universidade de Aveiro,Campus de Santiago, 3810-183 Aveiro (Portugal); Mühlleitner, Margarete [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology,76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Sampaio, Marco O.P. [Departamento de Física da Universidade de Aveiro,Campus de Santiago, 3810-183 Aveiro (Portugal); CIDMA - Center for Research Development in Mathematics and Applications,Campus de Santiago, 3810-183 Aveiro (Portugal); Santos, Rui [Centro de Física Teórica e Computacional, Faculdade de Ciências,Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, Edifício C8 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); ISEL - Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa,Instituto Politécnico de Lisboa, 1959-007 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2016-06-07

    The Complex singlet extension of the Standard Model (CxSM) is the simplest extension that provides scenarios for Higgs pair production with different masses. The model has two interesting phases: the dark matter phase, with a Standard Model-like Higgs boson, a new scalar and a dark matter candidate; and the broken phase, with all three neutral scalars mixing. In the latter phase Higgs decays into a pair of two different Higgs bosons are possible. In this study we analyse Higgs-to-Higgs decays in the framework of singlet extensions of the Standard Model (SM), with focus on the CxSM. After demonstrating that scenarios with large rates for such chain decays are possible we perform a comparison between the NMSSM and the CxSM. We find that, based on Higgs-to-Higgs decays, the only possibility to distinguish the two models at the LHC run 2 is through final states with two different scalars. This conclusion builds a strong case for searches for final states with two different scalars at the LHC run 2. Finally, we propose a set of benchmark points for the real and complex singlet extensions to be tested at the LHC run 2. They have been chosen such that the discovery prospects of the involved scalars are maximised and they fulfil the dark matter constraints. Furthermore, for some of the points the theory is stable up to high energy scales. For the computation of the decay widths and branching ratios we developed the Fortran code sHDECAY, which is based on the implementation of the real and complex singlet extensions of the SM in HDECAY.

  8. The effect of treadmill running on passive avoidance learning in animal model of Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Nasrin; Alaei, Hojjatallah; Reisi, Parham; Radahmadi, Maryam

    2013-02-01

    Alzheimer's disease was known as a progressive neurodegenerative disorder in the elderly and is characterized by dementia and severe neuronal loss in the some regions of brain such as nucleus basalis magnocellularis. It plays an important role in the brain functions such as learning and memory. Loss of cholinergic neurons of nucleus basalis magnocellularis by ibotenic acid can commonly be regarded as a suitable model of Alzheimer's disease. Previous studies reported that exercise training may slow down the onset and progression of memory deficit in neurodegenerative disorders. This research investigates the effects of treadmill running on acquisition and retention time of passive avoidance deficits induced by ibotenic acid nucleus basalis magnocellularis lesion. MALE WISTAR RATS WERE RANDOMLY SELECTED AND DIVIDED INTO FIVE GROUPS AS FOLLOWS: Control, sham, Alzheimer, exercise before Alzheimer, and exercise groups. Treadmill running had a 21 day period and Alzheimer was induced by 5 μg/μl bilateral injection of ibotenic acid in nucleus basalis magnocellularis. Our results showed that ibotenic acid lesions significantly impaired passive avoidance acquisition (P exercise significantly (P < 0.001) improved passive avoidance learning in NBM-lesion rats. Treadmill running has a potential role in the prevention of learning and memory impairments in NBM-lesion rats.

  9. Overall Preference of Running Shoes Can Be Predicted by Suitable Perception Factors Using a Multiple Regression Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Cheryl Sihui; Sterzing, Thorsten; Lim, Chen Yen; Ding, Rui; Kong, Pui Wah

    2017-05-01

    This study examined (a) the strength of four individual footwear perception factors to influence the overall preference of running shoes and (b) whether these perception factors satisfied the nonmulticollinear assumption in a regression model. Running footwear must fulfill multiple functional criteria to satisfy its potential users. Footwear perception factors, such as fit and cushioning, are commonly used to guide shoe design and development, but it is unclear whether running-footwear users are able to differentiate one factor from another. One hundred casual runners assessed four running shoes on a 15-cm visual analogue scale for four footwear perception factors (fit, cushioning, arch support, and stability) as well as for overall preference during a treadmill running protocol. Diagnostic tests showed an absence of multicollinearity between factors, where values for tolerance ranged from .36 to .72, corresponding to variance inflation factors of 2.8 to 1.4. The multiple regression model of these four footwear perception variables accounted for 77.7% to 81.6% of variance in overall preference, with each factor explaining a unique part of the total variance. Casual runners were able to rate each footwear perception factor separately, thus assigning each factor a true potential to improve overall preference for the users. The results also support the use of a multiple regression model of footwear perception factors to predict overall running shoe preference. Regression modeling is a useful tool for running-shoe manufacturers to more precisely evaluate how individual factors contribute to the subjective assessment of running footwear.

  10. Debris flow analysis with a one dimensional dynamic run-out model that incorporates entrained material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Byron Quan; Remaître, Alexandre; van Asch, Theo; Malet, Jean-Philippe; van Westen, Cees

    2010-05-01

    Estimating the magnitude and the intensity of rapid landslides like debris flows is fundamental to evaluate quantitatively the hazard in a specific location. Intensity varies through the travelled course of the flow and can be described by physical features such as deposited volume, velocities, height of the flow, impact forces and pressures. Dynamic run-out models are able to characterize the distribution of the material, its intensity and define the zone where the elements will experience an impact. These models can provide valuable inputs for vulnerability and risk calculations. However, most dynamic run-out models assume a constant volume during the motion of the flow, ignoring the important role of material entrained along its path. Consequently, they neglect that the increase of volume enhances the mobility of the flow and can significantly influence the size of the potential impact area. An appropriate erosion mechanism needs to be established in the analyses of debris flows that will improve the results of dynamic modeling and consequently the quantitative evaluation of risk. The objective is to present and test a simple 1D debris flow model with a material entrainment concept based on limit equilibrium considerations and the generation of excess pore water pressure through undrained loading of the in situ bed material. The debris flow propagation model is based on a one dimensional finite difference solution of a depth-averaged form of the Navier-Stokes equations of fluid motions. The flow is treated as a laminar one phase material, which behavior is controlled by a visco-plastic Coulomb-Bingham rheology. The model parameters are evaluated and the model performance is tested on a debris flow event that occurred in 2003 in the Faucon torrent (Southern French Alps).

  11. Hydrologic and water-quality characterization and modeling of the Chenoweth Run basin, Jefferson County, Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gary R.; Zarriello, Phillip J.; Shipp, Allison A.

    2001-01-01

    Rainfall, streamflow, and water-quality data collected in the Chenoweth Run Basin during February 1996?January 1998, in combination with the available historical sampling data, were used to characterize hydrologic conditions and to develop and calibrate a Hydrological Simulation Program?Fortran (HSPF) model for continuous simulation of rainfall, streamflow, suspended-sediment, and total-orthophosphate (TPO4) transport relations. Study results provide an improved understanding of basin hydrology and a hydrologic-modeling framework with analytical tools for use in comprehensive waterresource planning and management. Chenoweth Run Basin, encompassing 16.5 mi2 in suburban eastern Jefferson County, Kentucky, contains expanding urban development, particularly in the upper third of the basin. Historical water-quality problems have interfered with designated aquatic-life and recreation uses in the stream main channel (approximately 9 mi in length) and have been attributed to organic enrichment, nutrients, metals, and pathogens in urban runoff and wastewater inflows. Hydrologic conditions in Jefferson County are highly varied. In the Chenoweth Run Basin, as in much of the eastern third of the county, relief is moderately sloping to steep. Also, internal drainage in pervious areas is impeded by the shallow, fine-textured subsoils that contain abundant silts and clays. Thus, much of the precipitation here tends to move rapidly as overland flow and (or) shallow subsurface flow (interflow) to the stream channels. Data were collected at two streamflowgaging stations, one rain gage, and four waterquality- sampling sites in the basin. Precipitation, streamflow, and, consequently, constituent loads were above normal during the data-collection period of this study. Nonpoint sources contributed the largest portion of the sediment loads. However, the three wastewatertreatment plants (WWTP?s) were the source of the majority of estimated total phosphorus (TP) and TPO4 transport

  12. Long-Run Effects in Large Heterogeneous Panel Data Models with Cross-Sectionally Correlated Errors

    OpenAIRE

    Chudik, Alexander; Mohaddes, Kamiar; Pesaran, M Hashem; Raissi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    This paper develops a cross-sectionally augmented distributed lag (CS-DL) approach to the estimation of long-run effects in large dynamic heterogeneous panel data models with cross-sectionally dependent errors. The asymptotic distribution of the CS-DL estimator is derived under coefficient heterogeneity in the case where the time dimension (T) and the cross-section dimension (N) are both large. The CS-DL approach is compared with more standard panel data estimators that are based on autoregre...

  13. Long-run effects in large heterogenous panel data models with cross-sectionally correlated errors

    OpenAIRE

    Chudik, Alexander; Mohaddes, Kamiar; Pesaran, M. Hashem; Raissi, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    This paper develops a cross-sectionally augmented distributed lag (CS-DL) approach to the estimation of long-run effects in large dynamic heterogeneous panel data models with cross-sectionally dependent errors. The asymptotic distribution of the CS-DL estimator is derived under coefficient heterogeneity in the case where the time dimension (T) and the cross-section dimension (N) are both large. The CS-DL approach is compared with more standard panel data estimators that are based on autoregre...

  14. Finite element modelling of Plantar Fascia response during running on different surface types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, A. H. A.; Basaruddin, K. S.; Salleh, A. F.; Rusli, W. M. R.; Hashim, M. S. M.; Daud, R.

    2017-10-01

    Plantar fascia is a ligament found in human foot structure located beneath the skin of human foot that functioning to stabilize longitudinal arch of human foot during standing and normal gait. To perform direct experiment on plantar fascia seems very difficult since the structure located underneath the soft tissue. The aim of this study is to develop a finite element (FE) model of foot with plantar fascia and investigate the effect of the surface hardness on biomechanical response of plantar fascia during running. The plantar fascia model was developed using Solidworks 2015 according to the bone structure of foot model that was obtained from Turbosquid database. Boundary conditions were set out based on the data obtained from experiment of ground reaction force response during running on different surface hardness. The finite element analysis was performed using Ansys 14. The results found that the peak of stress and strain distribution were occur on the insertion of plantar fascia to bone especially on calcaneal area. Plantar fascia became stiffer with increment of Young’s modulus value and was able to resist more loads. Strain of plantar fascia was decreased when Young’s modulus increased with the same amount of loading.

  15. Building and Running the Yucca Mountain Total System Performance Model in a Quality Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D.A. Kalinich; K.P. Lee; J.A. McNeish

    2005-01-01

    A Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) model has been developed to support the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) for the Yucca Mountain High-Level Waste Repository. The TSPA model forecasts repository performance over a 20,000-year simulation period. It has a high degree of complexity due to the complexity of its underlying process and abstraction models. This is reflected in the size of the model (a 27,000 element GoldSim file), its use of dynamic-linked libraries (14 DLLs), the number and size of its input files (659 files totaling 4.7 GB), and the number of model input parameters (2541 input database entries). TSPA model development and subsequent simulations with the final version of the model were performed to a set of Quality Assurance (QA) procedures. Due to the complexity of the model, comments on previous TSPAs, and the number of analysts involved (22 analysts in seven cities across four time zones), additional controls for the entire life-cycle of the TSPA model, including management, physical, model change, and input controls were developed and documented. These controls did not replace the QA. procedures, rather they provided guidance for implementing the requirements of the QA procedures with the specific intent of ensuring that the model development process and the simulations performed with the final version of the model had sufficient checking, traceability, and transparency. Management controls were developed to ensure that only management-approved changes were implemented into the TSPA model and that only management-approved model runs were performed. Physical controls were developed to track the use of prototype software and preliminary input files, and to ensure that only qualified software and inputs were used in the final version of the TSPA model. In addition, a system was developed to name, file, and track development versions of the TSPA model as well as simulations performed with the final version of the model

  16. Hydrological Modeling in the Bull Run Watershed in Support of a Piloting Utility Modeling Applications (PUMA) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijssen, B.; Chiao, T. H.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Vano, J. A.

    2016-12-01

    Hydrologic models with varying complexities and structures are commonly used to evaluate the impact of climate change on future hydrology. While the uncertainties in future climate projections are well documented, uncertainties in streamflow projections associated with hydrologic model structure and parameter estimation have received less attention. In this study, we implemented and calibrated three hydrologic models (the Distributed Hydrology Soil Vegetation Model (DHSVM), the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS), and the Variable Infiltration Capacity model (VIC)) for the Bull Run watershed in northern Oregon using consistent data sources and best practice calibration protocols. The project was part of a Piloting Utility Modeling Applications (PUMA) project with the Portland Water Bureau (PWB) under the umbrella of the Water Utility Climate Alliance (WUCA). Ultimately PWB would use the model evaluation to select a model to perform in-house climate change analysis for Bull Run Watershed. This presentation focuses on the experimental design of the comparison project, project findings and the collaboration between the team at the University of Washington and at PWB. After calibration, the three models showed similar capability to reproduce seasonal and inter-annual variations in streamflow, but differed in their ability to capture extreme events. Furthermore, the annual and seasonal hydrologic sensitivities to changes in climate forcings differed among models, potentially attributable to different model representations of snow and vegetation processes.

  17. Exploiting CMS data popularity to model the evolution of data management for Run-2 and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonacorsi, D; Neri, M; Boccali, T; Giordano, D; Girone, M; Magini, N; Kuznetsov, V; Wildish, T

    2015-01-01

    During the LHC Run-1 data taking, all experiments collected large data volumes from proton-proton and heavy-ion collisions. The collisions data, together with massive volumes of simulated data, were replicated in multiple copies, transferred among various Tier levels, transformed/slimmed in format/content. These data were then accessed (both locally and remotely) by large groups of distributed analysis communities exploiting the WorldWide LHC Computing Grid infrastructure and services. While efficient data placement strategies - together with optimal data redistribution and deletions on demand - have become the core of static versus dynamic data management projects, little effort has so far been invested in understanding the detailed data-access patterns which surfaced in Run-1. These patterns, if understood, can be used as input to simulation of computing models at the LHC, to optimise existing systems by tuning their behaviour, and to explore next-generation CPU/storage/network co-scheduling solutions. This is of great importance, given that the scale of the computing problem will increase far faster than the resources available to the experiments, for Run-2 and beyond. Studying data-access patterns involves the validation of the quality of the monitoring data collected on the “popularity of each dataset, the analysis of the frequency and pattern of accesses to different datasets by analysis end-users, the exploration of different views of the popularity data (by physics activity, by region, by data type), the study of the evolution of Run-1 data exploitation over time, the evaluation of the impact of different data placement and distribution choices on the available network and storage resources and their impact on the computing operations. This work presents some insights from studies on the popularity data from the CMS experiment. We present the properties of a range of physics analysis activities as seen by the data popularity, and make recommendations for

  18. Debris flow run-out simulation and analysis using a dynamic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Raquel; van Asch, Theo; Zêzere, José L.

    2018-02-01

    Only two months after a huge forest fire occurred in the upper part of a valley located in central Portugal, several debris flows were triggered by intense rainfall. The event caused infrastructural and economic damage, although no lives were lost. The present research aims to simulate the run-out of two debris flows that occurred during the event as well as to calculate via back-analysis the rheological parameters and the excess rain involved. Thus, a dynamic model was used, which integrates surface runoff, concentrated erosion along the channels, propagation and deposition of flow material. Afterwards, the model was validated using 32 debris flows triggered during the same event that were not considered for calibration. The rheological and entrainment parameters obtained for the most accurate simulation were then used to perform three scenarios of debris flow run-out on the basin scale. The results were confronted with the existing buildings exposed in the study area and the worst-case scenario showed a potential inundation that may affect 345 buildings. In addition, six streams where debris flow occurred in the past and caused material damage and loss of lives were identified.

  19. Tsunami generation, propagation, and run-up with a high-order Boussinesq model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuhrman, David R.; Madsen, Per A.

    2009-01-01

    In this work we extend a high-order Boussinesq-type (finite difference) model, capable of simulating waves out to wavenumber times depth kh tsunamis. The extension is straight forward, requiring only...... show that the long-time (fully nonlinear) evolution of waves resulting from an upthrusted bottom can eventually result in true solitary waves, consistent with theoretical predictions. It is stressed, however, that the nonlinearity used far exceeds that typical of geophysical tsunamis in the open ocean....... The Boussinesq-type model is then used to simulate numerous tsunami-type events generated from submerged landslides, in both one and two horizontal dimensions. The results again compare well against previous experiments and/or numerical simulations. The new extension compliments recently developed run...

  20. The Trick Simulation Toolkit: A NASA/Opensource Framework for Running Time Based Physics Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, John M.

    2016-01-01

    The Trick Simulation Toolkit is a simulation development environment used to create high fidelity training and engineering simulations at the NASA Johnson Space Center and many other NASA facilities. Its purpose is to generate a simulation executable from a collection of user-supplied models and a simulation definition file. For each Trick-based simulation, Trick automatically provides job scheduling, numerical integration, the ability to write and restore human readable checkpoints, data recording, interactive variable manipulation, a run-time interpreter, and many other commonly needed capabilities. This allows simulation developers to concentrate on their domain expertise and the algorithms and equations of their models. Also included in Trick are tools for plotting recorded data and various other supporting utilities and libraries. Trick is written in C/C++ and Java and supports both Linux and MacOSX computer operating systems. This paper describes Trick's design and use at NASA Johnson Space Center.

  1. Minkowski space pion model inspired by lattice QCD running quark mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clayton S. Mello

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The pion structure in Minkowski space is described in terms of an analytic model of the Bethe–Salpeter amplitude combined with Euclidean Lattice QCD results. The model is physically motivated to take into account the running quark mass, which is fitted to Lattice QCD data. The pion pseudoscalar vertex is associated to the quark mass function, as dictated by dynamical chiral symmetry breaking requirements in the limit of vanishing current quark mass. The quark propagator is analyzed in terms of a spectral representation, and it shows a violation of the positivity constraints. The integral representation of the pion Bethe–Salpeter amplitude is also built. The pion space-like electromagnetic form factor is calculated with a quark electromagnetic current, which satisfies the Ward–Takahashi identity to ensure current conservation. The results for the form factor and weak decay constant are found to be consistent with the experimental data.

  2. Modelling of flexi-coil springs with rubber-metal pads in a locomotive running gear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michálek T.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, flexi-coil springs are commonly used in the secondary suspension stage of railway vehicles. Lateral stiffness of these springs is influenced by means of their design parameters (number of coils, height, mean diameter of coils, wire diameter etc. and it is often suitable to modify this stiffness in such way, that the suspension shows various lateral stiffness in different directions (i.e., longitudinally vs. laterally in the vehicle-related coordinate system. Therefore, these springs are often supplemented with some kind of rubber-metal pads. This paper deals with modelling of the flexi-coil springs supplemented with tilting rubber-metal tilting pads applied in running gear of an electric locomotive as well as with consequences of application of that solution of the secondary suspension from the point of view of the vehicle running performance. This analysis is performed by means of multi-body simulations and the description of lateral stiffness characteristics of the springs is based on results of experimental measurements of these characteristics performed in heavy laboratories of the Jan Perner Transport Faculty of the University of Pardubice.

  3. Hippocampal serotonin-1A receptor function in a mouse model of anxiety induced by long-term voluntary wheel running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuss, Johannes; Vogt, Miriam A; Weber, Klaus-Josef; Burke, Teresa F; Gass, Peter; Hensler, Julie G

    2013-10-01

    We have recently demonstrated that, in C57/Bl6 mice, long-term voluntary wheel running is anxiogenic, and focal hippocampal irradiation prevents the increase in anxiety-like behaviors and neurobiological changes in the hippocampus induced by wheel running. Evidence supports a role of hippocampal 5-HT1A receptors in anxiety. Therefore, we investigated hippocampal binding and function of 5-HT1A receptors in this mouse model of anxiety. Four weeks of voluntary wheel running resulted in hippocampal subregion-specific changes in 5-HT1A receptor binding sites and function, as measured by autoradiography of [(3) H] 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin binding and agonist-stimulated binding of [(35) S]GTPγS to G proteins, respectively. In the dorsal CA1 region, 5-HT1A receptor binding and function were not altered by wheel running or irradiation. In the dorsal dentate gyrus and CA2/3 region, 5-HT1A receptor function was decreased by not only running but also irradiation. In the ventral pyramidal layer, wheel running resulted in a decrease of 5-HT1A receptor function, which was prevented by irradiation. Neither irradiation nor wheel running affected 5-HT1A receptors in medial prefrontal cortex or in the dorsal or median raphe nuclei. Our data indicate that downregulation of 5-HT1A receptor function in ventral pyramidal layer may play a role in anxiety-like behavior induced by wheel running. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Towards a numerical run-out model for quick-clay slides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issler, Dieter; L'Heureux, Jean-Sébastien; Cepeda, José M.; Luna, Byron Quan; Gebreslassie, Tesfahunegn A.

    2015-04-01

    Highly sensitive glacio-marine clays occur in many relatively low-lying areas near the coasts of eastern Canada, Scandinavia and northern Russia. If the load exceeds the yield stress of these clays, they quickly liquefy, with a reduction of the yield strength and the viscosity by several orders of magnitude. Leaching, fluvial erosion, earthquakes and man-made overloads, by themselves or combined, are the most frequent triggers of quick-clay slides, which are hard to predict and can attain catastrophic dimensions. The present contribution reports on two preparatory studies that were conducted with a view to creating a run-out model tailored to the characteristics of quick-clay slides. One study analyzed the connections between the morphological and geotechnical properties of more than 30 well-documented Norwegian quick-clay slides and their run-out behavior. The laboratory experiments by Locat and Demers (1988) suggest that the behavior of quick clays can be reasonably described by universal relations involving the liquidity index, plastic index, remolding energy, salinity and sensitivity. However, these tests should be repeated with Norwegian clays and analyzed in terms of a (shear-thinning) Herschel-Bulkley fluid rather than a Bingham fluid because the shear stress appears to grow in a sub-linear fashion with the shear rate. Further study is required to understand the discrepancy between the material parameters obtained in laboratory tests of material from observed slides and in back-calculations of the same slides with the simple model by Edgers & Karlsrud (1982). The second study assessed the capability of existing numerical flow models to capture the most important aspects of quick-clay slides by back-calculating three different, well documented events in Norway: Rissa (1978), Finneidfjord (1996) and Byneset (2012). The numerical codes were (i) BING, a quasi-two-dimensional visco-plastic model, (ii) DAN3D (2009 version), and (iii) MassMov2D. The latter two are

  5. Analysis of the traditional vehicle’s running cost and the electric vehicle’s running cost under car-following model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tie-Qiao; Xu, Ke-Wei; Yang, Shi-Chun; Shang, Hua-Yan

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we use car-following theory to study the traditional vehicle’s running cost and the electric vehicle’s running cost. The numerical results illustrate that the traditional vehicle’s running cost is larger than that of the electric vehicle and that the system’s total running cost drops with the increase of the electric vehicle’s proportion, which shows that the electric vehicle is better than the traditional vehicle from the perspective of the running cost.

  6. Development of a simulation model for compression ignition engine running with ignition improved blend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudeshkumar Ponnusamy Moranahalli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Department of Automobile Engineering, Anna University, Chennai, India. The present work describes the thermodynamic and heat transfer models used in a computer program which simulates the diesel fuel and ignition improver blend to predict the combustion and emission characteristics of a direct injection compression ignition engine fuelled with ignition improver blend using classical two zone approach. One zone consists of pure air called non burning zone and other zone consist of fuel and combustion products called burning zone. First law of thermodynamics and state equations are applied in each of the two zones to yield cylinder temperatures and cylinder pressure histories. Using the two zone combustion model the combustion parameters and the chemical equilibrium composition were determined. To validate the model an experimental investigation has been conducted on a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine fuelled with 12% by volume of 2- ethoxy ethanol blend with diesel fuel. Addition of ignition improver blend to diesel fuel decreases the exhaust smoke and increases the thermal efficiency for the power outputs. It was observed that there is a good agreement between simulated and experimental results and the proposed model requires low computational time for a complete run.

  7. Prosthetic model, but not stiffness or height, affects the metabolic cost of running for athletes with unilateral transtibial amputations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Owen N; Taboga, Paolo; Grabowski, Alena M

    2017-07-01

    Running-specific prostheses enable athletes with lower limb amputations to run by emulating the spring-like function of biological legs. Current prosthetic stiffness and height recommendations aim to mitigate kinematic asymmetries for athletes with unilateral transtibial amputations. However, it is unclear how different prosthetic configurations influence the biomechanics and metabolic cost of running. Consequently, we investigated how prosthetic model, stiffness, and height affect the biomechanics and metabolic cost of running. Ten athletes with unilateral transtibial amputations each performed 15 running trials at 2.5 or 3.0 m/s while we measured ground reaction forces and metabolic rates. Athletes ran using three different prosthetic models with five different stiffness category and height combinations per model. Use of an Ottobock 1E90 Sprinter prosthesis reduced metabolic cost by 4.3 and 3.4% compared with use of Freedom Innovations Catapult [fixed effect (β) = -0.177; P < 0.001] and Össur Flex-Run (β = -0.139; P = 0.002) prostheses, respectively. Neither prosthetic stiffness ( P ≥ 0.180) nor height ( P = 0.062) affected the metabolic cost of running. The metabolic cost of running was related to lower peak (β = 0.649; P = 0.001) and stance average (β = 0.772; P = 0.018) vertical ground reaction forces, prolonged ground contact times (β = -4.349; P = 0.012), and decreased leg stiffness (β = 0.071; P < 0.001) averaged from both legs. Metabolic cost was reduced with more symmetric peak vertical ground reaction forces (β = 0.007; P = 0.003) but was unrelated to stride kinematic symmetry ( P ≥ 0.636). Therefore, prosthetic recommendations based on symmetric stride kinematics do not necessarily minimize the metabolic cost of running. Instead, an optimal prosthetic model, which improves overall biomechanics, minimizes the metabolic cost of running for athletes with unilateral transtibial amputations. NEW & NOTEWORTHY The metabolic cost of running for

  8. Short-run analysis of fiscal policy and the current account in a finite horizon model

    OpenAIRE

    Heng-fu Zou

    1995-01-01

    This paper utilizes a technique developed by Judd to quantify the short-run effects of fiscal policies and income shocks on the current account in a small open economy. It is found that: (1) a future increase in government spending improves the short-run current account; (2) a future tax increase worsens the short-run current account; (3) a present increase in the government spending worsens the short-run current account dollar by dollar, while a present increase in the income improves the cu...

  9. RG running in a minimal UED model in light of recent LHC Higgs mass bounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blennow, Mattias; Melbéus, Henrik; Ohlsson, Tommy; Zhang, He

    2012-01-01

    We study how the recent ATLAS and CMS Higgs mass bounds affect the renormalization group running of the physical parameters in universal extra dimensions. Using the running of the Higgs self-coupling constant, we derive bounds on the cutoff scale of the extra-dimensional theory itself. We show that the running of physical parameters, such as the fermion masses and the CKM mixing matrix, is significantly restricted by these bounds. In particular, we find that the running of the gauge couplings cannot be sufficient to allow gauge unification at the cutoff scale.

  10. Stereological Study on the Positive Effect of Running Exercise on the Capillaries in the Hippocampus in a Depression Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linmu Chen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Running exercise is an effective method to improve depressive symptoms when combined with drugs. However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully clear. Cerebral blood flow perfusion in depressed patients is significantly lower in the hippocampus. Physical activity can achieve cerebrovascular benefits. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impacts of running exercise on capillaries in the hippocampal CA1 and dentate gyrus (DG regions. The chronic unpredictable stress (CUS depression model was used in this study. CUS rats were given 4 weeks of running exercise from the fifth week to the eighth week (20 min every day from Monday to Friday each week. The sucrose consumption test was used to measure anhedonia. Furthermore, stereological methods were used to investigate the capillary changes among the control group, CUS/Standard group and CUS/Running group. Sucrose consumption significantly increased in the CUS/Running group. Running exercise has positive effects on the capillaries parameters in the hippocampal CA1 and DG regions, such as the total volume, total length and total surface area. These results demonstrated that capillaries are protected by running exercise in the hippocampal CA1 and DG might be one of the structural bases for the exercise-induced treatment of depression-like behavior. These results suggest that drugs and behavior influence capillaries and may be considered as a new means for depression treatment in the future.

  11. Recent updates in the aerosol component of the C-IFS model run by ECMWF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remy, Samuel; Boucher, Olivier; Hauglustaine, Didier; Kipling, Zak; Flemming, Johannes

    2017-04-01

    The Composition-Integrated Forecast System (C-IFS) is a global atmospheric composition forecasting tool, run by ECMWF within the framework of the Copernicus Atmospheric Monitoring Service (CAMS). The aerosol model of C-IFS is a simple bulk scheme that forecasts 5 species: dust, sea-salt, black carbon, organic matter and sulfate. Three bins represent the dust and sea-salt, for the super-coarse, coarse and fine mode of these species (Morcrette et al., 2009). This talk will present recent updates of the aerosol model, and also introduce forthcoming developments. It will also present the impact of these changes as measured scores against AERONET Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) and Airbase PM10 observations. The next cycle of C-IFS will include a mass fixer, because the semi-Lagrangian advection scheme used in C-IFS is not mass-conservative. C-IFS now offers the possibility to emit biomass-burning aerosols at an injection height that is provided by a new version of the Global Fire Assimilation System (GFAS). Secondary Organic Aerosols (SOA) production will be scaled on non-biomass burning CO fluxes. This approach allows to represent the anthropogenic contribution to SOA production; it brought a notable improvement in the skill of the model, especially over Europe. Lastly, the emissions of SO2 are now provided by the MACCity inventory instead of and older version of the EDGAR dataset. The seasonal and yearly variability of SO2 emissions are better captured by the MACCity dataset. Upcoming developments of the aerosol model of C-IFS consist mainly in the implementation of a nitrate and ammonium module, with 2 bins (fine and coarse) for nitrate. Nitrate and ammonium sulfate particle formation from gaseous precursors is represented following Hauglustaine et al. (2014); formation of coarse nitrate over pre-existing sea-salt or dust particles is also represented. This extension of the forward model improved scores over heavily populated areas such as Europe, China and Eastern

  12. Run-of-River Impoundments Can Remain Unfilled While Transporting Gravel Bedload: Numerical Modeling Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, A.; Pizzuto, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    Previous work at run-of-river (ROR) dams in northern Delaware has shown that bedload supplied to ROR impoundments can be transported over the dam when impoundments remain unfilled. Transport is facilitated by high levels of sand in the impoundment that lowers the critical shear stresses for particle entrainment, and an inversely sloping sediment ramp connecting the impoundment bed (where the water depth is typically equal to the dam height) with the top of the dam (Pearson and Pizzuto, in press). We demonstrate with one-dimensional bed material transport modeling that bed material can move through impoundments and that equilibrium transport (i.e., a balance between supply to and export from the impoundment, with a constant bed elevation) is possible even when the bed elevation is below the top of the dam. Based on our field work and previous HEC-RAS modeling, we assess bed material transport capacity at the base of the sediment ramp (and ignore detailed processes carrying sediment up and ramp and over the dam). The hydraulics at the base of the ramp are computed using a weir equation, providing estimates of water depth, velocity, and friction, based on the discharge and sediment grain size distribution of the impoundment. Bedload transport rates are computed using the Wilcock-Crowe equation, and changes in the impoundment's bed elevation are determined by sediment continuity. Our results indicate that impoundments pass the gravel supplied from upstream with deep pools when gravel supply rate is low, gravel grain sizes are relatively small, sand supply is high, and discharge is high. Conversely, impoundments will tend to fill their pools when gravel supply rate is high, gravel grain sizes are relatively large, sand supply is low, and discharge is low. The rate of bedload supplied to an impoundment is the primary control on how fast equilibrium transport is reached, with discharge having almost no influence on the timing of equilibrium.

  13. Multiple-step model-experiment matching allows precise definition of dynamical leg parameters in human running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, C; Grimmer, S; Seyfarth, A; Maus, H-M

    2012-09-21

    The spring-loaded inverted pendulum (SLIP) model is a well established model for describing bouncy gaits like human running. The notion of spring-like leg behavior has led many researchers to compute the corresponding parameters, predominantly stiffness, in various experimental setups and in various ways. However, different methods yield different results, making the comparison between studies difficult. Further, a model simulation with experimentally obtained leg parameters typically results in comparatively large differences between model and experimental center of mass trajectories. Here, we pursue the opposite approach which is calculating model parameters that allow reproduction of an experimental sequence of steps. In addition, to capture energy fluctuations, an extension of the SLIP (ESLIP) is required and presented. The excellent match of the models with the experiment validates the description of human running by the SLIP with the obtained parameters which we hence call dynamical leg parameters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A simple running model with rolling contact and its role as a template for dynamic locomotion on a hexapod robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ke-Jung; Huang, Chun-Kai; Lin, Pei-Chun

    2014-10-07

    We report on the development of a robot's dynamic locomotion based on a template which fits the robot's natural dynamics. The developed template is a low degree-of-freedom planar model for running with rolling contact, which we call rolling spring loaded inverted pendulum (R-SLIP). Originating from a reduced-order model of the RHex-style robot with compliant circular legs, the R-SLIP model also acts as the template for general dynamic running. The model has a torsional spring and a large circular arc as the distributed foot, so during locomotion it rolls on the ground with varied equivalent linear stiffness. This differs from the well-known spring loaded inverted pendulum (SLIP) model with fixed stiffness and ground contact points. Through dimensionless steps-to-fall and return map analysis, within a wide range of parameter spaces, the R-SLIP model is revealed to have self-stable gaits and a larger stability region than that of the SLIP model. The R-SLIP model is then embedded as the reduced-order 'template' in a more complex 'anchor', the RHex-style robot, via various mapping definitions between the template and the anchor. Experimental validation confirms that by merely deploying the stable running gaits of the R-SLIP model on the empirical robot with simple open-loop control strategy, the robot can easily initiate its dynamic running behaviors with a flight phase and can move with similar body state profiles to those of the model, in all five testing speeds. The robot, embedded with the SLIP model but performing walking locomotion, further confirms the importance of finding an adequate template of the robot for dynamic locomotion.

  15. A simple running model with rolling contact and its role as a template for dynamic locomotion on a hexapod robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Ke-Jung; Huang, Chun-Kai; Lin, Pei-Chun

    2014-01-01

    We report on the development of a robot’s dynamic locomotion based on a template which fits the robot’s natural dynamics. The developed template is a low degree-of-freedom planar model for running with rolling contact, which we call rolling spring loaded inverted pendulum (R-SLIP). Originating from a reduced-order model of the RHex-style robot with compliant circular legs, the R-SLIP model also acts as the template for general dynamic running. The model has a torsional spring and a large circular arc as the distributed foot, so during locomotion it rolls on the ground with varied equivalent linear stiffness. This differs from the well-known spring loaded inverted pendulum (SLIP) model with fixed stiffness and ground contact points. Through dimensionless steps-to-fall and return map analysis, within a wide range of parameter spaces, the R-SLIP model is revealed to have self-stable gaits and a larger stability region than that of the SLIP model. The R-SLIP model is then embedded as the reduced-order ‘template’ in a more complex ‘anchor’, the RHex-style robot, via various mapping definitions between the template and the anchor. Experimental validation confirms that by merely deploying the stable running gaits of the R-SLIP model on the empirical robot with simple open-loop control strategy, the robot can easily initiate its dynamic running behaviors with a flight phase and can move with similar body state profiles to those of the model, in all five testing speeds. The robot, embedded with the SLIP model but performing walking locomotion, further confirms the importance of finding an adequate template of the robot for dynamic locomotion. (paper)

  16. Dark Matter Benchmark Models for Early LHC Run-2 Searches. Report of the ATLAS/CMS Dark Matter Forum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abercrombie, Daniel [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). et al.

    2015-07-06

    One of the guiding principles of this report is to channel the efforts of the ATLAS and CMS collaborations towards a minimal basis of dark matter models that should influence the design of the early Run-2 searches. At the same time, a thorough survey of realistic collider signals of Dark Matter is a crucial input to the overall design of the search program.

  17. Physically based dynamic run-out modelling for quantitative debris flow risk assessment: a case study in Tresenda, northern Italy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Quan Luna, B.; Blahůt, Jan; Camera, C.; Van Westen, C.; Apuani, T.; Jetten, V.; Sterlacchini, S.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 3 (2014), s. 645-661 ISSN 1866-6280 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : debris flow * FLO-2D * run-out * quantitative hazard and risk assessment * vulnerability * numerical modelling Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.765, year: 2014

  18. On the duality between long-run relations and common trends in the I(1) versus I(2) model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juselius, Katarina

    1994-01-01

    Long-run relations and common trends are discussed in terms of the multivariate cointegration model given in the autoregressive and the moving average form. The basic results needed for the analysis of I(1) and 1(2)processes are reviewed and the results applied to Danish monetary data. The test...

  19. An integrated model to assess critical rain fall thresholds for the critical run-out distances of debris flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Asch, Th.W.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304839558; Tang, C.; Alkema, D.; Zhu, J.; Zhou, W.

    2013-01-01

    A dramatic increase in debris flows occurred in the years after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in SW China due to the deposition of loose co-seismic landslide material. This paper proposes a preliminary integrated model, which describes the relationship between rain input and debris flow run-out in

  20. Modeling grain size adjustments in the downstream reach following run-of-river development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Theodore K.; Venditti, Jeremy G.; Nelson, Peter A.; Palen, Wendy J.

    2016-04-01

    Disruptions to sediment supply continuity caused by run-of-river (RoR) hydropower development have the potential to cause downstream changes in surface sediment grain size which can influence the productivity of salmon habitat. The most common approach to understanding the impacts of RoR hydropower is to study channel changes in the years following project development, but by then, any impacts are manifest and difficult to reverse. Here we use a more proactive approach, focused on predicting impacts in the project planning stage. We use a one-dimensional morphodynamic model to test the hypothesis that the greatest risk of geomorphic change and impact to salmon habitat from a temporary sediment supply disruption exists where predevelopment sediment supply is high and project design creates substantial sediment storage volume. We focus on the potential impacts in the reach downstream of a powerhouse for a range of development scenarios that are typical of projects developed in the Pacific Northwest and British Columbia. Results indicate that increases in the median bed surface size (D50) are minor if development occurs on low sediment supply streams (<1 mm for supply rates 1 × 10-5 m2 s-1 or lower), and substantial for development on high sediment supply streams (8-30 mm for supply rates between 5.5 × 10-4 and 1 × 10-3 m2 s-1). However, high sediment supply streams recover rapidly to the predevelopment surface D50 (˜1 year) if sediment supply can be reestablished.

  1. Search for non-standard model signatures in the WZ/ZZ final state at CDF run II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norman, Matthew [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This thesis discusses a search for non-Standard Model physics in heavy diboson production in the dilepton-dijet final state, using 1.9 fb -1 of data from the CDF Run II detector. New limits are set on the anomalous coupling parameters for ZZ and WZ production based on limiting the production cross-section at high š. Additionally limits are set on the direct decay of new physics to ZZ andWZ diboson pairs. The nature and parameters of the CDF Run II detector are discussed, as are the influences that it has on the methods of our analysis.

  2. Running Away

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the streets in the United States. Why Kids Run Away Remember how you felt the last time you got in ... how to express angry feelings without violence. Know how to calm yourself down after you're upset. Maybe you need to run around outside, listen to music, draw, or write ...

  3. From control to causation: Validating a 'complex systems model' of running-related injury development and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulme, A; Salmon, P M; Nielsen, R O; Read, G J M; Finch, C F

    2017-11-01

    There is a need for an ecological and complex systems approach for better understanding the development and prevention of running-related injury (RRI). In a previous article, we proposed a prototype model of the Australian recreational distance running system which was based on the Systems Theoretic Accident Mapping and Processes (STAMP) method. That model included the influence of political, organisational, managerial, and sociocultural determinants alongside individual-level factors in relation to RRI development. The purpose of this study was to validate that prototype model by drawing on the expertise of both systems thinking and distance running experts. This study used a modified Delphi technique involving a series of online surveys (December 2016- March 2017). The initial survey was divided into four sections containing a total of seven questions pertaining to different features associated with the prototype model. Consensus in opinion about the validity of the prototype model was reached when the number of experts who agreed or disagreed with survey statement was ≥75% of the total number of respondents. A total of two Delphi rounds was needed to validate the prototype model. Out of a total of 51 experts who were initially contacted, 50.9% (n = 26) completed the first round of the Delphi, and 92.3% (n = 24) of those in the first round participated in the second. Most of the 24 full participants considered themselves to be a running expert (66.7%), and approximately a third indicated their expertise as a systems thinker (33.3%). After the second round, 91.7% of the experts agreed that the prototype model was a valid description of the Australian distance running system. This is the first study to formally examine the development and prevention of RRI from an ecological and complex systems perspective. The validated model of the Australian distance running system facilitates theoretical advancement in terms of identifying practical system

  4. Dezenflasyon Sürecinde Türkiye’de Enflasyonun Uzun ve Kısa Dönem Dinamiklerinin Modellenmesi(Modelling The Long Run and The Short Run Dynamics of Inflation In The Disinflation Process In Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macide ÇİÇEK

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it is employed that Expectations-Augmented Philips Curve Model to investigate the link between inflation and unit labor costs, output gap (proxy for demand shocks, real exchange rate (proxy for supply shocks and price expectations for Turkey using monthly data from 2000:01 to 2004:12. The methodology employed in this paper uses unit root test, Johansen Cointegration Test to examine the existence of possible long run relationships among the variables included in the model and a single equation error correction model for the inflation equation estimated by OLS to examine the short run dynamics of inflation, respectively. It is find that in the long run, mark-up behaviour of output prices over unit labor costs is the main cause of inflation, real exchange rate has a rather big impact on reduced inflation and demand shocks don’t led to an increase in prices. The short run dynamics of the inflation equation indicate that supply shocks are the determinant of inflation in the short run. It is also find that exchange rate is the variable that trigger an inflation adjustment the most rapidly in the short run.

  5. Voluntary Running Attenuates Memory Loss, Decreases Neuropathological Changes and Induces Neurogenesis in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia-Rojas, Cheril; Aranguiz, Florencia; Varela-Nallar, Lorena; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by loss of memory and cognitive abilities, and the appearance of amyloid plaques composed of the amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) and neurofibrillary tangles formed of tau protein. It has been suggested that exercise might ameliorate the disease; here, we evaluated the effect of voluntary running on several aspects of AD including amyloid deposition, tau phosphorylation, inflammatory reaction, neurogenesis and spatial memory in the double transgenic APPswe/PS1ΔE9 mouse model of AD. We report that voluntary wheel running for 10 weeks decreased Aβ burden, Thioflavin-S-positive plaques and Aβ oligomers in the hippocampus. In addition, runner APPswe/PS1ΔE9 mice showed fewer phosphorylated tau protein and decreased astrogliosis evidenced by lower staining of GFAP. Further, runner APPswe/PS1ΔE9 mice showed increased number of neurons in the hippocampus and exhibited increased cell proliferation and generation of cells positive for the immature neuronal protein doublecortin, indicating that running increased neurogenesis. Finally, runner APPswe/PS1ΔE9 mice showed improved spatial memory performance in the Morris water maze. Altogether, our findings indicate that in APPswe/PS1ΔE9 mice, voluntary running reduced all the neuropathological hallmarks of AD studied, reduced neuronal loss, increased hippocampal neurogenesis and reduced spatial memory loss. These findings support that voluntary exercise might have therapeutic value on AD. © 2015 International Society of Neuropathology.

  6. Dual-use tools and systematics-aware analysis workflows in the ATLAS Run-2 analysis model

    CERN Document Server

    FARRELL, Steven; The ATLAS collaboration; Calafiura, Paolo; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Elsing, Markus; Koeneke, Karsten; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Krumnack, Nils; Lancon, Eric; Lavrijsen, Wim; Laycock, Paul; Lei, Xiaowen; Strandberg, Sara Kristina; Verkerke, Wouter; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Woudstra, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS analysis model has been overhauled for the upcoming run of data collection in 2015 at 13 TeV. One key component of this upgrade was the Event Data Model (EDM), which now allows for greater flexibility in the choice of analysis software framework and provides powerful new features that can be exploited by analysis software tools. A second key component of the upgrade is the introduction of a dual-use tool technology, which provides abstract interfaces for analysis software tools to run in either the Athena framework or a ROOT-based framework. The tool interfaces, including a new interface for handling systematic uncertainties, have been standardized for the development of improved analysis workflows and consolidation of high-level analysis tools. This paper will cover the details of the dual-use tool functionality, the systematics interface, and how these features fit into a centrally supported analysis environment.

  7. Dual-use tools and systematics-aware analysis workflows in the ATLAS Run-II analysis model

    CERN Document Server

    FARRELL, Steven; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS analysis model has been overhauled for the upcoming run of data collection in 2015 at 13 TeV. One key component of this upgrade was the Event Data Model (EDM), which now allows for greater flexibility in the choice of analysis software framework and provides powerful new features that can be exploited by analysis software tools. A second key component of the upgrade is the introduction of a dual-use tool technology, which provides abstract interfaces for analysis software tools to run in either the Athena framework or a ROOT-based framework. The tool interfaces, including a new interface for handling systematic uncertainties, have been standardized for the development of improved analysis workflows and consolidation of high-level analysis tools. This presentation will cover the details of the dual-use tool functionality, the systematics interface, and how these features fit into a centrally supported analysis environment.

  8. Dark Matter Benchmark Models for Early LHC Run-2 Searches: Report of the ATLAS/CMS Dark Matter Forum

    CERN Document Server

    Abercrombie, Daniel; Akilli, Ece; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Allen, Brandon; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Andrea, Jeremy; Arbey, Alexandre; Azuelos, Georges; Azzi, Patrizia; Backovic, Mihailo; Bai, Yang; Banerjee, Swagato; Beacham, James; Belyaev, Alexander; Boveia, Antonio; Brennan, Amelia Jean; Buchmueller, Oliver; Buckley, Matthew R.; Busoni, Giorgio; Buttignol, Michael; Cacciapaglia, Giacomo; Caputo, Regina; Carpenter, Linda; Filipe Castro, Nuno; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Cheng, Yangyang; Chou, John Paul; Cortes Gonzalez, Arely; Cowden, Chris; D'Eramo, Francesco; De Cosa, Annapaola; De Gruttola, Michele; De Roeck, Albert; De Simone, Andrea; Deandrea, Aldo; Demiragli, Zeynep; DiFranzo, Anthony; Doglioni, Caterina; du Pree, Tristan; Erbacher, Robin; Erdmann, Johannes; Fischer, Cora; Flaecher, Henning; Fox, Patrick J.; Fuks, Benjamin; Genest, Marie-Helene; Gomber, Bhawna; Goudelis, Andreas; Gramling, Johanna; Gunion, John; Hahn, Kristian; Haisch, Ulrich; Harnik, Roni; Harris, Philip C.; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Hoh, Siew Yan; Hsu, Dylan George; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Iiyama, Yutaro; Ippolito, Valerio; Jacques, Thomas; Ju, Xiangyang; Kahlhoefer, Felix; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Kaplan, Laser Seymour; Kashif, Lashkar; Khoze, Valentin V.; Khurana, Raman; Kotov, Khristian; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Kulkarni, Suchita; Kunori, Shuichi; Kutzner, Viktor; Lee, Hyun Min; Lee, Sung-Won; Liew, Seng Pei; Lin, Tongyan; Lowette, Steven; Madar, Romain; Malik, Sarah; Maltoni, Fabio; Martinez Perez, Mario; Mattelaer, Olivier; Mawatari, Kentarou; McCabe, Christopher; Megy, Theo; Morgante, Enrico; Mrenna, Stephen; Narayanan, Siddharth M.; Nelson, Andy; Novaes, Sergio F.; Padeken, Klaas Ole; Pani, Priscilla; Papucci, Michele; Paulini, Manfred; Paus, Christoph; Pazzini, Jacopo; Penning, Bjorn; Peskin, Michael E.; Pinna, Deborah; Procura, Massimiliano; Qazi, Shamona F.; Racco, Davide; Re, Emanuele; Riotto, Antonio; Rizzo, Thomas G.; Roehrig, Rainer; Salek, David; Sanchez Pineda, Arturo; Sarkar, Subir; Schmidt, Alexander; Schramm, Steven Randolph; Shepherd, William; Singh, Gurpreet; Soffi, Livia; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Sung, Kevin; Tait, Tim M.P.; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothee; Thomas, Marc; Tosi, Mia; Trocino, Daniele; Undleeb, Sonaina; Vichi, Alessandro; Wang, Fuquan; Wang, Lian-Tao; Wang, Ren-Jie; Whallon, Nikola; Worm, Steven; Wu, Mengqing; Wu, Sau Lan; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Yong; Yu, Shin-Shan; Zaldivar, Bryan; Zanetti, Marco; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zucchetta, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    This document is the final report of the ATLAS-CMS Dark Matter Forum, a forum organized by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations with the participation of experts on theories of Dark Matter, to select a minimal basis set of dark matter simplified models that should support the design of the early LHC Run-2 searches. A prioritized, compact set of benchmark models is proposed, accompanied by studies of the parameter space of these models and a repository of generator implementations. This report also addresses how to apply the Effective Field Theory formalism for collider searches and present the results of such interpretations.

  9. Up and running with AutoCAD 2014 2D and 3D drawing and modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Gindis, Elliot

    2013-01-01

    Get ""Up and Running"" with AutoCAD using Gindis's combination of step-by-step instruction, examples, and insightful explanations. The emphasis from the beginning is on core concepts and practical application of AutoCAD in architecture, engineering and design. Equally useful in instructor-led classroom training, self-study, or as a professional reference, the book is written with the user in mind by a long-time AutoCAD professional and instructor based on what works in the industry and the classroom. Strips away complexities, both real and perceived, and reduces AutoCAD t

  10. Inverse dynamic modelling of jumping in the red-legged running frog,Kassina maculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porro, Laura B; Collings, Amber J; Eberhard, Enrico A; Chadwick, Kyle P; Richards, Christopher T

    2017-05-15

    Although the red-legged running frog, Kassina maculata , is secondarily a walker/runner, it retains the capacity for multiple locomotor modes, including jumping at a wide range of angles (nearly 70 deg). Using simultaneous hind limb kinematics and single-foot ground reaction forces, we performed inverse dynamics analyses to calculate moment arms and torques about the hind limb joints during jumping at different angles in K. maculata. We show that forward thrust is generated primarily at the hip and ankle, while body elevation is primarily driven by the ankle. Steeper jumps are achieved by increased thrust at the hip and ankle and greater downward rotation of the distal limb segments. Because of its proximity to the GRF vector, knee posture appears to be important in controlling torque directions about this joint and, potentially, torque magnitudes at more distal joints. Other factors correlated with higher jump angles include increased body angle in the preparatory phase, faster joint openings and increased joint excursion, higher ventrally directed force, and greater acceleration and velocity. Finally, we demonstrate that jumping performance in K. maculata does not appear to be compromised by presumed adaptation to walking/running. Our results provide new insights into how frogs engage in a wide range of locomotor behaviours and the multi-functionality of anuran limbs. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. The effect of two training models on the average changes in running speed in 2400m races

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolas Nikolaos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Running at an even pace is, in both physical and tactical aspect, an essential factor when achieving good results in middle and long distance races. The appropriate strategy for running a tactically effective race starts by selecting the optimal running speed. Two models of training lasting for six weeks were applied on the group of subjects (N=43 composed of students from the Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, University of Belgrade. The aim of the study was to determine how the applied models of training would affect the deviations of running speed from the mean values in 2400m races when running for the best result and also, how the applied models of training would affect the improvement of aerobic capacities, showed through maximal oxygen uptake. The analysis of the obtained results showed that no statistically significant differences in the average deviations of running speed from the mean values in 2400m races were recorded in any of the experimental groups either in the initial (G1=2.44±1.74 % and G2=1±0.75 % or the final measurements (G1=3.72±3.69 % and G2=4.57±3.63 %. Although there were no statistically significant differences after training stimulus in either final measurements, the subjects achieved better result, that is, they improved the running speed in the final (G1=4.12±0.48 m/s and G2=4.23±0.31 m/s as compared with the initial measurement (G1=3.7±0.36 m/s and G2=3.84±0.38 m/s. The results of the study showed that in both groups, there was a statistically significant improvement in the final measurement (G1=56.05±6.91 ml/kg/min and G2=59.55±6.95 ml/kg/min as compared to the initial measurement (G1=53.71±7.23 ml/kg/min and G2=54.58±6.49 ml/kg/min regarding the maximal oxygen uptake so that both training models have a significant effect on this variable. The results obtained could have a significant contribution when working with students and school population, assuming that in the lessons of theory and

  12. RUN COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Delaere

    2013-01-01

    Since the LHC ceased operations in February, a lot has been going on at Point 5, and Run Coordination continues to monitor closely the advance of maintenance and upgrade activities. In the last months, the Pixel detector was extracted and is now stored in the pixel lab in SX5; the beam pipe has been removed and ME1/1 removal has started. We regained access to the vactank and some work on the RBX of HB has started. Since mid-June, electricity and cooling are back in S1 and S2, allowing us to turn equipment back on, at least during the day. 24/7 shifts are not foreseen in the next weeks, and safety tours are mandatory to keep equipment on overnight, but re-commissioning activities are slowly being resumed. Given the (slight) delays accumulated in LS1, it was decided to merge the two global runs initially foreseen into a single exercise during the week of 4 November 2013. The aim of the global run is to check that we can run (parts of) CMS after several months switched off, with the new VME PCs installed, th...

  13. REAL STOCK PRICES AND THE LONG-RUN MONEY DEMAND FUNCTION IN MALAYSIA: Evidence from Error Correction Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naziruddin Abdullah

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This study adopts the error correction model to empirically investigate the role of real stock prices in the long run-money demand in the Malaysian financial or money market for the period 1977: Q1-1997: Q2. Specifically, an attempt is made to check whether the real narrow money (M1/P is cointegrated with the selected variables like industrial production index (IPI, one-year T-Bill rates (TB12, and real stock prices (RSP. If a cointegration between the variables, i.e., the dependent and independent variables, is found to be the case, it may imply that there exists a long-run co-movement among these variables in the Malaysian money market. From the empirical results it is found that the cointegration between money demand and real stock prices (RSP is positive, implying that in the long run there is a positive association between real stock prices (RSP and demand for real narrow money (M1/P. The policy implication that can be extracted from this study is that an increase in stock prices is likely to necessitate an expansionary monetary policy to prevent nominal income or inflation target from undershooting.

  14. Running Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Running Club

    2011-01-01

    The cross country running season has started well this autumn with two events: the traditional CERN Road Race organized by the Running Club, which took place on Tuesday 5th October, followed by the ‘Cross Interentreprises’, a team event at the Evaux Sports Center, which took place on Saturday 8th October. The participation at the CERN Road Race was slightly down on last year, with 65 runners, however the participants maintained the tradition of a competitive yet friendly atmosphere. An ample supply of refreshments before the prize giving was appreciated by all after the race. Many thanks to all the runners and volunteers who ensured another successful race. The results can be found here: https://espace.cern.ch/Running-Club/default.aspx CERN participated successfully at the cross interentreprises with very good results. The teams succeeded in obtaining 2nd and 6th place in the Mens category, and 2nd place in the Mixed category. Congratulations to all. See results here: http://www.c...

  15. RUN COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    Christophe Delaere

    2013-01-01

    The focus of Run Coordination during LS1 is to monitor closely the advance of maintenance and upgrade activities, to smooth interactions between subsystems and to ensure that all are ready in time to resume operations in 2015 with a fully calibrated and understood detector. After electricity and cooling were restored to all equipment, at about the time of the last CMS week, recommissioning activities were resumed for all subsystems. On 7 October, DCS shifts began 24/7 to allow subsystems to remain on to facilitate operations. That culminated with the Global Run in November (GriN), which   took place as scheduled during the week of 4 November. The GriN has been the first centrally managed operation since the beginning of LS1, and involved all subdetectors but the Pixel Tracker presently in a lab upstairs. All nights were therefore dedicated to long stable runs with as many subdetectors as possible. Among the many achievements in that week, three items may be highlighted. First, the Strip...

  16. RUN COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Chamizo

    2012-01-01

      On 17th January, as soon as the services were restored after the technical stop, sub-systems started powering on. Since then, we have been running 24/7 with reduced shift crew — Shift Leader and DCS shifter — to allow sub-detectors to perform calibration, noise studies, test software upgrades, etc. On 15th and 16th February, we had the first Mid-Week Global Run (MWGR) with the participation of most sub-systems. The aim was to bring CMS back to operation and to ensure that we could run after the winter shutdown. All sub-systems participated in the readout and the trigger was provided by a fraction of the muon systems (CSC and the central RPC wheel). The calorimeter triggers were not available due to work on the optical link system. Initial checks of different distributions from Pixels, Strips, and CSC confirmed things look all right (signal/noise, number of tracks, phi distribution…). High-rate tests were done to test the new CSC firmware to cure the low efficiency ...

  17. Parallel runs of a large air pollution model on a grid of Sun computers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexandrov, V.N.; Owczarz, W.; Thomsen, Per Grove

    2004-01-01

    Large -scale air pollution models can successfully be used in different environmental studies. These models are described mathematically by systems of partial differential equations. Splitting procedures followed by discretization of the spatial derivatives leads to several large systems of ordin...

  18. Analysis of the Automobile Market : Modeling the Long-Run Determinants of the Demand for Automobiles : Volume 2. Simulation Analysis Using the Wharton EFA Automobile Demand Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    An econometric model is developed which provides long-run policy analysis and forecasting of annual trends, for U.S. auto stock, new sales, and their composition by auto size-class. The concept of "desired" (equilibrium) stock is introduced. "Desired...

  19. Analysis of the Automobile Market : Modeling the Long-Run Determinants of the Demand for Automobiles : Volume 1. The Wharton EFA Automobile Demand Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    An econometric model is developed which provides long-run policy analysis and forecasting of annual trends, for U.S. auto stock, new sales, and their composition by auto size-class. The concept of "desired" (equilibrium) stock is introduced. "Desired...

  20. Analysis of the Automobile Market : Modeling the Long-Run Determinants of the Demand for Automobiles : Volume 3. Appendices to the Wharton EFA Automobile Demand Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    An econometric model is developed which provides long-run policy analysis and forecasting of annual trends, for U.S. auto stock, new sales, and their composition by auto size-class. The concept of "desired" (equilibrium) stock is introduced. "Desired...

  1. Modelling Energy Loss Mechanisms and a Determination of the Electron Energy Scale for the CDF Run II W Mass Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riddick, Thomas [Univ. College London, Bloomsbury (United Kingdom)

    2012-06-15

    The calibration of the calorimeter energy scale is vital to measuring the mass of the W boson at CDF Run II. For the second measurement of the W boson mass at CDF Run II, two independent simulations were developed. This thesis presents a detailed description of the modification and validation of Bremsstrahlung and pair production modelling in one of these simulations, UCL Fast Simulation, comparing to both geant4 and real data where appropriate. The total systematic uncertainty on the measurement of the W boson mass in the W → eve channel from residual inaccuracies in Bremsstrahlung modelling is estimated as 6.2 ±3.2 MeV/c2 and the total systematic uncertainty from residual inaccuracies in pair production modelling is estimated as 2.8± 2.7 MeV=c2. Two independent methods are used to calibrate the calorimeter energy scale in UCL Fast Simulation; the results of these two methods are compared to produce a measurement of the Z boson mass as a cross-check on the accuracy of the simulation.

  2. Running multilevel models in MLwiN from within Stata: runmlwin

    OpenAIRE

    George Leckie; Chris Charlton

    2011-01-01

    Multilevel analysis is the statistical modeling of hierarchical and nonhierarchical clustered data. These data structures are common in social and medical sciences. Stata provides the xtmixed, xtmelogit, and xtmepoisson commands for fitting multilevel models, but these are only relevant for univariate continuous, binary, and count response variables, respectively. A much wider range of multilevel models can be fit using the user-written gllamm command, but gllamm can be computationally slow f...

  3. The short-run dynamics of optimal growyh models with delays

    OpenAIRE

    Collard, Fabrice; Licandro, Omar; Puch, Luis A.

    2003-01-01

    Differential equations with advanced and delayed time arguments may arise in the optimality conditions of simple growth models with delays. Models with investment gestation lags (time-to-build), consumption gestation lags (habit formation) or learning by using lie in this category. In this paper, we propose a shooting method to deal with leads and lags in the Euler system associated to dynamic general equilibrium models in continuous time. We introduce the discussion describing the dynamic...

  4. Fuzzy rule-based macroinvertebrate habitat suitability models for running waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhoven, Van E.; Adriaenssens, V.; Baets, De B.; Verdonschot, P.F.M.

    2006-01-01

    A fuzzy rule-based approach was applied to a macroinvertebrate habitat suitability modelling problem. The model design was based on a knowledge base summarising the preferences and tolerances of 86 macroinvertebrate species for four variables describing river sites in springs up to small rivers in

  5. The Monetary Exchange Rate Model as a Long-Run Phenomenon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J.J. Groen (Jan)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractPure time series-based tests fail to find empirical support for monetary exchange rate models. In this paper we apply pooled time series estimation on a forward-looking monetary model, resulting in parameter estimates which are in compliance with the underlying theory. Based on a panel

  6. RUN COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    G. Rakness.

    2013-01-01

    After three years of running, in February 2013 the era of sub-10-TeV LHC collisions drew to an end. Recall, the 2012 run had been extended by about three months to achieve the full complement of high-energy and heavy-ion physics goals prior to the start of Long Shutdown 1 (LS1), which is now underway. The LHC performance during these exciting years was excellent, delivering a total of 23.3 fb–1 of proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV, 6.2 fb–1 at 7 TeV, and 5.5 pb–1 at 2.76 TeV. They also delivered 170 μb–1 lead-lead collisions at 2.76 TeV/nucleon and 32 nb–1 proton-lead collisions at 5 TeV/nucleon. During these years the CMS operations teams and shift crews made tremendous strides to commission the detector, repeatedly stepping up to meet the challenges at every increase of instantaneous luminosity and energy. Although it does not fully cover the achievements of the teams, a way to quantify their success is the fact that that...

  7. Radionuclide transport in running waters, sensitivity analysis of bed-load, channel geometry and model discretisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonsson, Karin; Elert, Mark

    2006-08-01

    In this report, further investigations of the model concept for radionuclide transport in stream, developed in the SKB report TR-05-03 is presented. Especially three issues have been the focus of the model investigations. The first issue was to investigate the influence of assumed channel geometry on the simulation results. The second issue was to reconsider the applicability of the equation for the bed-load transport in the stream model, and finally the last issue was to investigate how the model discretisation will influence the simulation results. The simulations showed that there were relatively small differences in results when applying different cross-sections in the model. The inclusion of the exact shape of the cross-section in the model is therefore not crucial, however, if cross-sectional data exist, the overall shape of the cross-section should be used in the model formulation. This could e.g. be accomplished by using measured values of the stream width and depth in the middle of the stream and by assuming a triangular shape. The bed-load transport was in this study determined for different sediment characteristics which can be used as an order of magnitude estimation if no exact determinations of the bed-load are available. The difference in the calculated bed-load transport for the different materials was, however, found to be limited. The investigation of model discretisation showed that a fine model discretisation to account for numerical effects is probably not important for the performed simulations. However, it can be necessary for being able to account for different conditions along a stream. For example, the application of mean slopes instead of individual values in the different stream reaches can result in very different predicted concentrations

  8. Damage Propagation Modeling for Aircraft Engine Run-to-Failure Simulation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper describes how damage propagation can be modeled within the modules of aircraft gas turbine engines. To that end, response surfaces of all sensors are...

  9. Sea Ice Trends in Climate Models Only Accurate in Runs with Biased Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Erica; Eisenman, Ian

    2017-08-01

    Observations indicate that the Arctic sea ice cover is rapidly retreating while the Antarctic sea ice cover is steadily expanding. State-of-the-art climate models, by contrast, typically simulate a moderate decrease in both the Arctic and Antarctic sea ice covers. However, in each hemisphere there is a small subset of model simulations that have sea ice trends similar to the observations. Based on this, a number of recent studies have suggested that the models are consistent with the observations in each hemisphere when simulated internal climate variability is taken into account. Here we examine sea ice changes during 1979-2013 in simulations from the most recent Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) as well as the Community Earth System Model Large Ensemble (CESM-LE), drawing on previous work that found a close relationship in climate models between global-mean surface temperature and sea ice extent. We find that all of the simulations with 1979-2013 Arctic sea ice retreat as fast as observed have considerably more global warming than observations during this time period. Using two separate methods to estimate the sea ice retreat that would occur under the observed level of global warming in each simulation in both ensembles, we find that simulated Arctic sea ice retreat as fast as observed would occur less than 1% of the time. This implies that the models are not consistent with the observations. In the Antarctic, we find that simulated sea ice expansion as fast as observed typically corresponds with too little global warming, although these results are more equivocal. We show that because of this, the simulations do not capture the observed asymmetry between Arctic and Antarctic sea ice trends. This suggests that the models may be getting the right sea ice trends for the wrong reasons in both polar regions.

  10. Domain-Level Assessment of the Weather Running Estimate-Nowcast (WREN) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    contaminant concentration fields resulting from atmospheric boundary layer depth uncertainty. J App Meteo Clim. 2014;53:2610–2626. Skamarock WC...Center for Atmospheric Research, which has developed a suite of Model Evaluation Tools (MET) to evaluate the accuracy of WRF forecasts. In this...Weather Impacts Decision Aid. WRF is maintained by the National Center for Atmospheric Research, which has developed a suite of Model Evaluation Tools

  11. Comparing the performance of SIMD computers by running large air pollution models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, J.; Hansen, Per Christian; Wasniewski, J.

    1996-01-01

    To compare the performance and use of three massively parallel SIMD computers, we implemented a large air pollution model on these computers. Using a realistic large-scale model, we gained detailed insight about the performance of the computers involved when used to solve large-scale scientific...... problems that involve several types of numerical computations. The computers used in our study are the Connection Machines CM-200 and CM-5, and the MasPar MP-2216...

  12. Impact of treadmill running and sex on hippocampal neurogenesis in the mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxing Ma

    Full Text Available Hippocampal neurogenesis in the subgranular zone (SGZ of dentate gyrus (DG occurs throughout life and is regulated by pathological and physiological processes. The role of oxidative stress in hippocampal neurogenesis and its response to exercise or neurodegenerative diseases remains controversial. The present study was designed to investigate the impact of oxidative stress, treadmill exercise and sex on hippocampal neurogenesis in a murine model of heightened oxidative stress (G93A mice. G93A and wild type (WT mice were randomized to a treadmill running (EX or a sedentary (SED group for 1 or 4 wk. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU labeled proliferating cells, surviving cells, and their phenotype, as well as for determination of oxidative stress (3-NT; 8-OHdG. BDNF and IGF1 mRNA expression was assessed by in situ hybridization. Results showed that: (1 G93A-SED mice had greater hippocampal neurogenesis, BDNF mRNA, and 3-NT, as compared to WT-SED mice. (2 Treadmill running promoted hippocampal neurogenesis and BDNF mRNA content and lowered DNA oxidative damage (8-OHdG in WT mice. (3 Male G93A mice showed significantly higher cell proliferation but a lower level of survival vs. female G93A mice. We conclude that G93A mice show higher hippocampal neurogenesis, in association with higher BDNF expression, yet running did not further enhance these phenomena in G93A mice, probably due to a 'ceiling effect' of an already heightened basal levels of hippocampal neurogenesis and BDNF expression.

  13. A description of the FAMOUS (version XDBUA climate model and control run

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Osprey

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available FAMOUS is an ocean-atmosphere general circulation model of low resolution, capable of simulating approximately 120 years of model climate per wallclock day using current high performance computing facilities. It uses most of the same code as HadCM3, a widely used climate model of higher resolution and computational cost, and has been tuned to reproduce the same climate reasonably well. FAMOUS is useful for climate simulations where the computational cost makes the application of HadCM3 unfeasible, either because of the length of simulation or the size of the ensemble desired. We document a number of scientific and technical improvements to the original version of FAMOUS. These improvements include changes to the parameterisations of ozone and sea-ice which alleviate a significant cold bias from high northern latitudes and the upper troposphere, and the elimination of volume-averaged drifts in ocean tracers. A simple model of the marine carbon cycle has also been included. A particular goal of FAMOUS is to conduct millennial-scale paleoclimate simulations of Quaternary ice ages; to this end, a number of useful changes to the model infrastructure have been made.

  14. Measuring Short- and Long-run Promotional Effectiveness on Scanner Data Using Persistence Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.G. Dekimpe (Marnik); D.M. Hanssens (Dominique); V.R. Nijs; J-B.E.M. Steenkamp (Jan-Benedict)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe use of price promotions to stimulate brand and firm performance is increasing. We discuss how (i) the availability of longer scanner data time series, and (ii) persistence modeling, have lead to greater insights into the dynamic effects of price promotions, as one can now quantify

  15. Renormalization group running of fermion observables in an extended non-supersymmetric SO(10) model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meloni, Davide [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università di Roma Tre,Via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Rome (Italy); Ohlsson, Tommy; Riad, Stella [Department of Physics, School of Engineering Sciences,KTH Royal Institute of Technology - AlbaNova University Center,Roslagstullsbacken 21, 106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2017-03-08

    We investigate the renormalization group evolution of fermion masses, mixings and quartic scalar Higgs self-couplings in an extended non-supersymmetric SO(10) model, where the Higgs sector contains the 10{sub H}, 120{sub H}, and 126{sub H} representations. The group SO(10) is spontaneously broken at the GUT scale to the Pati-Salam group and subsequently to the Standard Model (SM) at an intermediate scale M{sub I}. We explicitly take into account the effects of the change of gauge groups in the evolution. In particular, we derive the renormalization group equations for the different Yukawa couplings. We find that the computed physical fermion observables can be successfully matched to the experimental measured values at the electroweak scale. Using the same Yukawa couplings at the GUT scale, the measured values of the fermion observables cannot be reproduced with a SM-like evolution, leading to differences in the numerical values up to around 80%. Furthermore, a similar evolution can be performed for a minimal SO(10) model, where the Higgs sector consists of the 10{sub H} and 126{sub H} representations only, showing an equally good potential to describe the low-energy fermion observables. Finally, for both the extended and the minimal SO(10) models, we present predictions for the three Dirac and Majorana CP-violating phases as well as three effective neutrino mass parameters.

  16. Addressing Thermal Model Run Time Concerns of the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope using Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets (WFIRST-AFTA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peabody, Hume; Guerrero, Sergio; Hawk, John; Rodriguez, Juan; McDonald, Carson; Jackson, Cliff

    2016-01-01

    The Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope using Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets (WFIRST-AFTA) utilizes an existing 2.4 m diameter Hubble sized telescope donated from elsewhere in the federal government for near-infrared sky surveys and Exoplanet searches to answer crucial questions about the universe and dark energy. The WFIRST design continues to increase in maturity, detail, and complexity with each design cycle leading to a Mission Concept Review and entrance to the Mission Formulation Phase. Each cycle has required a Structural-Thermal-Optical-Performance (STOP) analysis to ensure the design can meet the stringent pointing and stability requirements. As such, the models have also grown in size and complexity leading to increased model run time. This paper addresses efforts to reduce the run time while still maintaining sufficient accuracy for STOP analyses. A technique was developed to identify slews between observing orientations that were sufficiently different to warrant recalculation of the environmental fluxes to reduce the total number of radiation calculation points. The inclusion of a cryocooler fluid loop in the model also forced smaller time-steps than desired, which greatly increases the overall run time. The analysis of this fluid model required mitigation to drive the run time down by solving portions of the model at different time scales. Lastly, investigations were made into the impact of the removal of small radiation couplings on run time and accuracy. Use of these techniques allowed the models to produce meaningful results within reasonable run times to meet project schedule deadlines.

  17. PENGEMBANGAN MODEL PEMBELAJARAN PERMAINAN COLORFUL BALLS RUN UNTUK REAKSI GERAK PADA ANAK TUNAGARHITA DI SLB NEGERI SEMARANG TAHUN 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahadian Yodha Bhakti

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the products of The Development of Learning Colorful Balls Run for Motion Reaction of mentally disabled children of SLB Negeri Semarang grade V in the academic year of 2015.. This research is the development (research and development / R & D, which consists of 10 steps of research, namely the potential and problems, data collection, product design, design validation, design revisions, test products, product revision, trial use, testing products, mass production Because the average obtained from the experts of physical education teacher 80% (good and from learning experts gained 92% (very good. The results of trial I product of small group on cognitive aspects was 83.53% (good, affective aspects was 82.10% (good, psychomotor aspects was 81.39% (good, the average of trial I was 82.34% (good. The results of trial II, the large group in the cognitive aspects was 85.14% (good affective aspects was 83.76% (good psychomotor aspects was 83.07% (good, the average of trial II was 83.99% (good. It was concluded that the development of colorful balls run game model can be used as an alternative to learn sport especially small ball game for V graders of SLB Negeri Semarang.

  18. Quark flavour observables in the Littlest Higgs model with T-parity after LHC Run 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanke, Monika; Buras, Andrzej J; Recksiegel, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The Littlest Higgs model with T-parity (LHT) belongs to the simplest new physics scenarios with new sources of flavour and CP violation. The latter originate in the interactions of ordinary quarks and leptons with heavy mirror quarks and leptons that are mediated by new heavy gauge bosons. Also a heavy fermionic top partner is present in this model which communicates with the SM fermions by means of standard [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] gauge bosons. We present a new analysis of quark flavour observables in the LHT model in view of the oncoming flavour precision era. We use all available information on the CKM parameters, lattice QCD input and experimental data on quark flavour observables and corresponding theoretical calculations, taking into account new lower bounds on the symmetry breaking scale and the mirror quark masses from the LHC. We investigate by how much the branching ratios for a number of rare K and B decays are still allowed to depart from their SM values. This includes [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text]. Taking into account the constraints from [Formula: see text] processes, significant departures from the SM predictions for [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] are possible, while the effects in B decays are much smaller. In particular, the LHT model favours [Formula: see text], which is not supported by the data, and the present anomalies in [Formula: see text] decays cannot be explained in this model. With the recent lattice and large N input the imposition of the [Formula: see text] constraint implies a significant suppression of the branching ratio for [Formula: see text] with respect to its SM value while allowing only for small modifications of [Formula: see text]. Finally, we investigate how the LHT physics could be distinguished from other models by means of indirect measurements and

  19. Quark flavour observables in the Littlest Higgs model with T-parity after LHC Run 1

    CERN Document Server

    Blanke, Monika; Recksiegel, Stefan

    2016-04-02

    The Littlest Higgs Model with T-parity (LHT) belongs to the simplest new physics scenarios with new sources of flavour and CP violation. We present a new analysis of quark observables in the LHT model in view of the oncoming flavour precision era. We use all available information on the CKM parameters, lattice QCD input and experimental data on quark flavour observables and corresponding theoretical calculations, taking into account new lower bounds on the symmetry breaking scale and the mirror quark masses from the LHC. We investigate by how much the branching ratios for a number of rare $K$ and $B$ decays are still allowed to depart from their SM values. This includes $K^+\\to\\pi^+\

  20. The effect of treadmill running on passive avoidance learning in animal model of Alzheimer disease

    OpenAIRE

    Nasrin Hosseini; Hojjatallah Alaei; Parham Reisi; Maryam Radahmadi

    2013-01-01

    Background : Alzheimer′s disease was known as a progressive neurodegenerative disorder in the elderly and is characterized by dementia and severe neuronal loss in the some regions of brain such as nucleus basalis magnocellularis. It plays an important role in the brain functions such as learning and memory. Loss of cholinergic neurons of nucleus basalis magnocellularis by ibotenic acid can commonly be regarded as a suitable model of Alzheimer′s disease. Previous studies reported that exercise...

  1. Design of ProjectRun21

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsted, Camma; Parner, Erik Thorlund; Sørensen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    training, the runners' running experience and pace abilities can be used as estimates for load capacity. Since no evidence-based knowledge exist of how to plan appropriate half-marathon running schedules considering the level of running experience and running pace, the aim of ProjectRun21 is to investigate...... of three half-marathon running schedules developed for the study. Running data will be collected objectively by GPS. Injury will be based on the consensus-based time loss definition by Yamato et al.: "Running-related (training or competition) musculoskeletal pain in the lower limbs that causes...... the exposure to running is pre-fixed in the running schedules and thereby conditioned by design. Time-to-event models will be used for analytical purposes. DISCUSSION: ProjectRun21 will examine if particular subgroups of runners with certain running experiences and running paces seem to sustain more running...

  2. Influential factors of red-light running at signalized intersection and prediction using a rare events logistic regression model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yilong; Wang, Yunpeng; Wu, Xinkai; Yu, Guizhen; Ding, Chuan

    2016-10-01

    Red light running (RLR) has become a major safety concern at signalized intersection. To prevent RLR related crashes, it is critical to identify the factors that significantly impact the drivers' behaviors of RLR, and to predict potential RLR in real time. In this research, 9-month's RLR events extracted from high-resolution traffic data collected by loop detectors from three signalized intersections were applied to identify the factors that significantly affect RLR behaviors. The data analysis indicated that occupancy time, time gap, used yellow time, time left to yellow start, whether the preceding vehicle runs through the intersection during yellow, and whether there is a vehicle passing through the intersection on the adjacent lane were significantly factors for RLR behaviors. Furthermore, due to the rare events nature of RLR, a modified rare events logistic regression model was developed for RLR prediction. The rare events logistic regression method has been applied in many fields for rare events studies and shows impressive performance, but so far none of previous research has applied this method to study RLR. The results showed that the rare events logistic regression model performed significantly better than the standard logistic regression model. More importantly, the proposed RLR prediction method is purely based on loop detector data collected from a single advance loop detector located 400 feet away from stop-bar. This brings great potential for future field applications of the proposed method since loops have been widely implemented in many intersections and can collect data in real time. This research is expected to contribute to the improvement of intersection safety significantly. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. On the energetics of quadrupedal running: predicting the metabolic cost of transport via a flexible-torso model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qu; Poulakakis, Ioannis

    2015-09-03

    In this paper, the effect of torso flexibility on the energetics of quadrupedal bounding is examined in a template setting. Two reductive sagittal-plane models, one with a rigid, non-deformable torso and one with a flexible, unactuated torso are proposed. Both models feature non-trivial leg mass and inertia to capture the energy associated with repositioning the legs after liftoff as well as the energy lost due to impacts. Bounding motions that minimize the cost of transport are generated for both models via a simple controller that coordinates leg recirculation. Comparisons reveal that torso compliance promotes locomotion efficiency by facilitating leg recirculation in anticipation of touchdown at speeds that are sufficiently high. Furthermore, by considering non-ideal torque generating and compliant elements with biologically reasonable efficiency values, it is shown that the flexible-torso model can predict the metabolic cost of transport for different animals, estimated using measurements of oxygen consumption. This way, the proposed model offers a means for approximating the energetic cost of transport of running quadrupeds in a simple and direct fashion.

  4. Fast Atmosphere-Ocean Model Runs with Large Changes in CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Gary L.; Lacis, Andrew A.; Rind, David H.; Colose, Christopher; Opstbaum, Roger F.

    2013-01-01

    How does climate sensitivity vary with the magnitude of climate forcing? This question was investigated with the use of a modified coupled atmosphere-ocean model, whose stability was improved so that the model would accommodate large radiative forcings yet be fast enough to reach rapid equilibrium. Experiments were performed in which atmospheric CO2 was multiplied by powers of 2, from 1/64 to 256 times the 1950 value. From 8 to 32 times, the 1950 CO2, climate sensitivity for doubling CO2 reaches 8 C due to increases in water vapor absorption and cloud top height and to reductions in low level cloud cover. As CO2 amount increases further, sensitivity drops as cloud cover and planetary albedo stabilize. No water vapor-induced runaway greenhouse caused by increased CO2 was found for the range of CO2 examined. With CO2 at or below 1/8 of the 1950 value, runaway sea ice does occur as the planet cascades to a snowball Earth climate with fully ice covered oceans and global mean surface temperatures near 30 C.

  5. Configuring a Graphical User Interface for Managing Local HYSPLIT Model Runs Through AWIPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, mark M.; Blottman, Peter F.; Sharp, David W.; Hoeth, Brian; VanSpeybroeck, Kurt M.

    2009-01-01

    Responding to incidents involving the release of harmful airborne pollutants is a continual challenge for Weather Forecast Offices in the National Weather Service. When such incidents occur, current protocol recommends forecaster-initiated requests of NOAA's Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model output through the National Centers of Environmental Prediction to obtain critical dispersion guidance. Individual requests are submitted manually through a secured web site, with desired multiple requests submitted in sequence, for the purpose of obtaining useful trajectory and concentration forecasts associated with the significant release of harmful chemical gases, radiation, wildfire smoke, etc., into local the atmosphere. To help manage the local HYSPLIT for both routine and emergency use, a graphical user interface was designed for operational efficiency. The interface allows forecasters to quickly determine the current HYSPLIT configuration for the list of predefined sites (e.g., fixed sites and floating sites), and to make any necessary adjustments to key parameters such as Input Model. Number of Forecast Hours, etc. When using the interface, forecasters will obtain desired output more confidently and without the danger of corrupting essential configuration files.

  6. Search for the Trilepton Signal of the Minimal Supergravity Model in D0 Run II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binder, Meta [Munich Univ. (Germany)

    2005-06-01

    A search for associated chargino neutralino pair production is performed in the trilepton decay channel q$\\bar{q}$ → $\\tilde{Χ}$$±\\atop{1}$ $\\tilde{Χ}$$0\\atop{2}$ → ℓ± v $\\tilde{Χ}$$0\\atop{1}$ μ± μ± $\\tilde{Χ}$$0\\atop{1}$, using data collected with the D0 detector at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of ~300 pb-1. A dedicated event selection is applied to all samples including the data sample and the Monte Carlo simulated samples for the Standard Model background and the Supersymmetry signal. Events with two muons plus an additional isolated track, replacing the requirement of a third charged lepton in the event, are analyzed. Additionally, selected events must have a large amount of missing transverse energy due to the neutrino and the two $\\tilde{Χ}$$0\\atop{1}$. After all selection cuts are applied, 2 data events are found, with an expected number of background events of 1.75 ± 0.34 (stat.) ± 0.46 (syst.). No evidence for Supersymmetry is found and limits on the production cross section times leptonic branching fraction are set. When the presented analysis is considered in combination with three other decay channels, no evidence for Supersymmetry is found. Limits on the production cross section times leptonic branching fraction are set. A lower chargino mass limit of 117 GeV at 95% CL is then derived for the mSUGRA model in a region of parameter space with enhanced leptonic branching fractions.

  7. Running Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Running Club

    2010-01-01

    The 2010 edition of the annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday 29th September at 18h. The 5.5km race takes place over 3 laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site, and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. There are runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 to over 34 minutes, and the race is run on a handicap basis, by staggering the starting times so that (in theory) all runners finish together. Children (< 15 years) have their own race over 1 lap of 1.8km. As usual, there will be a “best family” challenge (judged on best parent + best child). Trophies are awarded in the usual men’s, women’s and veterans’ categories, and there is a challenge for the best age/performance. Every adult will receive a souvenir prize, financed by a registration fee of 10 CHF. Children enter free (each child will receive a medal). More information, and the online entry form, can be found at http://cern.ch/club...

  8. RUN COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    Christophe Delaere

    2012-01-01

      On Wednesday 14 March, the machine group successfully injected beams into LHC for the first time this year. Within 48 hours they managed to ramp the beams to 4 TeV and proceeded to squeeze to β*=0.6m, settings that are used routinely since then. This brought to an end the CMS Cosmic Run at ~Four Tesla (CRAFT), during which we collected 800k cosmic ray events with a track crossing the central Tracker. That sample has been since then topped up to two million, allowing further refinements of the Tracker Alignment. The LHC started delivering the first collisions on 5 April with two bunches colliding in CMS, giving a pile-up of ~27 interactions per crossing at the beginning of the fill. Since then the machine has increased the number of colliding bunches to reach 1380 bunches and peak instantaneous luminosities around 6.5E33 at the beginning of fills. The average bunch charges reached ~1.5E11 protons per bunch which results in an initial pile-up of ~30 interactions per crossing. During the ...

  9. RUN COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Delaere

    2012-01-01

      With the analysis of the first 5 fb–1 culminating in the announcement of the observation of a new particle with mass of around 126 GeV/c2, the CERN directorate decided to extend the LHC run until February 2013. This adds three months to the original schedule. Since then the LHC has continued to perform extremely well, and the total luminosity delivered so far this year is 22 fb–1. CMS also continues to perform excellently, recording data with efficiency higher than 95% for fills with the magnetic field at nominal value. The highest instantaneous luminosity achieved by LHC to date is 7.6x1033 cm–2s–1, which translates into 35 interactions per crossing. On the CMS side there has been a lot of work to handle these extreme conditions, such as a new DAQ computer farm and trigger menus to handle the pile-up, automation of recovery procedures to minimise the lost luminosity, better training for the shift crews, etc. We did suffer from a couple of infrastructure ...

  10. Regional on-road vehicle running emissions modeling and evaluation for conventional and alternative vehicle technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, H Christopher; Zhai, Haibo; Rouphail, Nagui M

    2009-11-01

    This study presents a methodology for estimating high-resolution, regional on-road vehicle emissions and the associated reductions in air pollutant emissions from vehicles that utilize alternative fuels or propulsion technologies. The fuels considered are gasoline, diesel, ethanol, biodiesel, compressed natural gas, hydrogen, and electricity. The technologies considered are internal combustion or compression engines, hybrids, fuel cell, and electric. Road link-based emission models are developed using modal fuel use and emission rates applied to facility- and speed-specific driving cycles. For an urban case study, passenger cars were found to be the largest sources of HC, CO, and CO(2) emissions, whereas trucks contributed the largest share of NO(x) emissions. When alternative fuel and propulsion technologies were introduced in the fleet at a modest market penetration level of 27%, their emission reductions were found to be 3-14%. Emissions for all pollutants generally decreased with an increase in the market share of alternative vehicle technologies. Turnover of the light duty fleet to newer Tier 2 vehicles reduced emissions of HC, CO, and NO(x) substantially. However, modest improvements in fuel economy may be offset by VMT growth and reductions in overall average speed.

  11. Algebraic modeling and thermodynamic design of fan-supplied tube-fin evaporators running under frosting conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Rafael S.; Hermes, Christian J.L.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the method of entropy generation minimization (i.e., design aimed at facilitating both heat, mass and fluid flows) is used to assess the evaporator design (aspect ratio and fin density) considering the thermodynamic losses due to heat and mass transfer, and viscous flow processes. A fully algebraic model was put forward to simulate the thermal-hydraulic behavior of tube-fin evaporator coils running under frosting conditions. The model predictions were validated against experimental data, showing a good agreement between calculated and measured counterparts. The optimization exercise has pointed out that high aspect ratio heat exchanger designs lead to lower entropy generation in cases of fixed cooling capacity and air flow rate constrained by the characteristic curve of the fan. - Highlights: • An algebraic model for frost accumulation on tube-fin heat exchangers was advanced. • Model predictions for cooling capacity and air flow rate were compared with experimental data, with errors within ±5% band. • Minimum entropy generation criterion was used to optimize the evaporator geometry. • Thermodynamic analysis led to slender designs for fixed cooling capacity and fan characteristics

  12. MODEL OF AIRCRAFT ELECTRICAL POWER SUPPLY SYSTEM CHANNEL OF ALTERNATIVE CURRENT RUNNING ON A GENERALIZED UNBALANCED THREE-PHASE LOAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksej Gennad'evich Demchenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to mathematical modeling of the channel of AC on-board power supply systems (PSS when running on static active-inductive load, connected on a "wye with neutral" and "delta". The mathematical model of aircraft synchronous generator, electricity distribution, three-phase static active-inductive load are considered. When making a mathematical description the author used the equations for the voltages of windings and flux linkages cir- cuits of the stator and rotor of the generator in a stationary system phase coordinates "ABC". When considering the mathe- matical model of the distribution system, the equations that took into account the drop of the voltages on the active and inductive resistance of the distribution system power wires were used. When considering the mathematical models of three- phase static loads connected on a "wye with neutral" and "delta", the equations that took into account the drop of the volt- ages on the active and inductive resistance loads were used. The matrix equations system of channel PSS AC when running on a generalized three-phase static active-inductive load was obtained. The three phase static loads scheme connected ac- cording to the "delta" scheme was converted to "wye" to simplify the solution of channel PSS AC circuit matrix equations system. The choice of the phase coordinates system "ABC" for the mathematical description of the generator, distribution system and the static load was made due to its advantage over the coordinate system "dq", because the equation written in phase coordinates are valid for symmetric and asymmetric modes of the generator, while the equations written in the coor- dinate system "dq" will be valid only for symmetric modes. As a result of joint solution of the generator equations, distribution system, three-phase static loads there were obtained the formulae for the generator stator winding phases, gen- erator phases currents, the voltage drops on the load

  13. Modelling field scale spatial variation in water run-off, soil moisture, N2O emissions and herbage biomass of a grazed pasture using the SPACSYS model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Li, Yuefen; Harris, Paul; Cardenas, Laura M; Dunn, Robert M; Sint, Hadewij; Murray, Phil J; Lee, Michael R F; Wu, Lianhai

    2018-04-01

    In this study, we evaluated the ability of the SPACSYS model to simulate water run-off, soil moisture, N 2 O fluxes and grass growth using data generated from a field of the North Wyke Farm Platform. The field-scale model is adapted via a linked and grid-based approach (grid-to-grid) to account for not only temporal dynamics but also the within-field spatial variation in these key ecosystem indicators. Spatial variability in nutrient and water presence at the field-scale is a key source of uncertainty when quantifying nutrient cycling and water movement in an agricultural system. Results demonstrated that the new spatially distributed version of SPACSYS provided a worthy improvement in accuracy over the standard (single-point) version for biomass productivity. No difference in model prediction performance was observed for water run-off, reflecting the closed-system nature of this variable. Similarly, no difference in model prediction performance was found for N 2 O fluxes, but here the N 2 O predictions were noticeably poor in both cases. Further developmental work, informed by this study's findings, is proposed to improve model predictions for N 2 O. Soil moisture results with the spatially distributed version appeared promising but this promise could not be objectively verified.

  14. Voluntary Wheel Running in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Jorming; Ladiges, Warren

    2015-12-02

    Voluntary wheel running in the mouse is used to assess physical performance and endurance and to model exercise training as a way to enhance health. Wheel running is a voluntary activity in contrast to other experimental exercise models in mice, which rely on aversive stimuli to force active movement. This protocol consists of allowing mice to run freely on the open surface of a slanted, plastic saucer-shaped wheel placed inside a standard mouse cage. Rotations are electronically transmitted to a USB hub so that frequency and rate of running can be captured via a software program for data storage and analysis for variable time periods. Mice are individually housed so that accurate recordings can be made for each animal. Factors such as mouse strain, gender, age, and individual motivation, which affect running activity, must be considered in the design of experiments using voluntary wheel running. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  15. How Fast Should an Animal Run When Escaping? An Optimality Model Based on the Trade-Off Between Speed and Accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheatley, Rebecca; Angilletta, Michael J; Niehaus, Amanda C; Wilson, Robbie S

    2015-12-01

    How fast should animals move when trying to survive? Although many studies have examined how fast animals can move, the fastest speed is not always best. For example, an individual escaping from a predator must run fast enough to escape, but not so fast that it slips and falls. To explore this idea, we developed a simple mathematical model that predicts the optimal speed for an individual running from a predator along a straight beam. A beam was used as a proxy for straight-line running with severe consequences for missteps. We assumed that success, defined as reaching the end of the beam, had two broad requirements: (1) running fast enough to escape a predator, and (2) minimizing the probability of making a mistake that would compromise speed. Our model can be tailored to different systems by revising the predator's maximal speed, the prey's stride length and motor coordination, and the dimensions of the beam. Our model predicts that animals should run slower when the beam is narrower or when coordination is worse. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Preliminary Results of a U.S. Deep South Modeling Experiment Using NASA SPoRT Initialization Datasets for Operational National Weather Service Local Model Runs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Lance; Medlin, Jeffrey M.; Case, Jon

    2012-01-01

    A joint collaborative modeling effort among the NWS offices in Mobile, AL, and Houston, TX, and NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center began during the 2011-2012 cold season, and continued into the 2012 warm season. The focus was on two frequent U.S. Deep South forecast challenges: the initiation of deep convection during the warm season; and heavy precipitation during the cold season. We wanted to examine the impact of certain NASA produced products on the Weather Research and Forecasting Environmental Modeling System in improving the model representation of mesoscale boundaries such as the local sea-, bay- and land-breezes (which often leads to warm season convective initiation); and improving the model representation of slow moving, or quasi-stationary frontal boundaries (which focus cold season storm cell training and heavy precipitation). The NASA products were: the 4-km Land Information System, a 1-km sea surface temperature analysis, and a 4-km greenness vegetation fraction analysis. Similar domains were established over the southeast Texas and Alabama coastlines, each with an outer grid with a 9 km spacing and an inner nest with a 3 km grid spacing. The model was run at each NWS office once per day out to 24 hours from 0600 UTC, using the NCEP Global Forecast System for initial and boundary conditions. Control runs without the NASA products were made at the NASA SPoRT Center. The NCAR Model Evaluation Tools verification package was used to evaluate both the positive and negative impacts of the NASA products on the model forecasts. Select case studies will be presented to highlight the influence of the products.

  17. Motivation dimensions for running a marathon: A new model emerging from the Motivation of Marathon Scale (MOMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Zach

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: This study provides a sound and solid framework for studying motivation for physically demanding tasks such as marathon runs, and needs to be similarly applied and tested in studies incorporating physical tasks which vary in mental demands.

  18. Wheel running from a juvenile age delays onset of specific motor deficits but does not alter protein aggregate density in a mouse model of Huntington's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spires Tara L

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Huntington's disease (HD is a neurodegenerative disorder predominantly affecting the cerebral cortex and striatum. Transgenic mice (R6/1 line, expressing a CAG repeat encoding an expanded polyglutamine tract in the N-terminus of the huntingtin protein, closely model HD. We have previously shown that environmental enrichment of these HD mice delays the onset of motor deficits. Furthermore, wheel running initiated in adulthood ameliorates the rear-paw clasping motor sign, but not an accelerating rotarod deficit. Results We have now examined the effects of enhanced physical activity via wheel running, commenced at a juvenile age (4 weeks, with respect to the onset of various behavioral deficits and their neuropathological correlates in R6/1 HD mice. HD mice housed post-weaning with running wheels only, to enhance voluntary physical exercise, have delayed onset of a motor co-ordination deficit on the static horizontal rod, as well as rear-paw clasping, although the accelerating rotarod deficit remains unaffected. Both wheel running and environmental enrichment rescued HD-induced abnormal habituation of locomotor activity and exploratory behavior in the open field. We have found that neither environment enrichment nor wheel running ameliorates the shrinkage of the striatum and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC in HD mice, nor the overall decrease in brain weight, measured at 9 months of age. At this age, the density of ubiquitinated protein aggregates in the striatum and ACC is also not significantly ameliorated by environmental enrichment or wheel running. Conclusion These results indicate that enhanced voluntary physical activity, commenced at an early presymptomatic stage, contributes to the positive effects of environmental enrichment. However, sensory and cognitive stimulation, as well as motor stimulation not associated with running, may constitute major components of the therapeutic benefits associated with enrichment

  19. Modeling the short-run effect of fiscal stimuli on GDP : A new semi-closed input-output model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Quanrun; Dietzenbacher, Erik; Los, Bart; Yang, Cuihong

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we propose a new semi-closed input-output model, which reconciles input-output analysis with modern consumption theories. It can simulate changes in household consumption behavior when exogenous stimulus policies lead to higher disposable income levels. It is useful for quantifying

  20. Source fault model of the 2011 off the pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake, estimated from the detailed distribution of tsunami run-up heights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuta, Nobuhisa; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Sugito, Nobuhiko; Nakata, Takashi; Watanabe, Mitsuhisa

    2015-01-01

    The distribution of tsunami run-up heights generally has spatial variations, because run-up heights are controlled by coastal topography including local-scale landforms such as natural levees, in addition to land use. Focusing on relationships among coastal topography, land conditions, and tsunami run-up heights of historical tsunamis—Meiji Sanriku (1896 A.D.), Syowa Sanriku (1933 A.D.), and Chilean Sanriku (1960 A.D.) tsunamis—along the Sanriku coast, it is found that the wavelength of a tsunami determines inundation areas as well as run-up heights. Small bays facing the Pacific Ocean are sensitive to short wavelength tsunamis, and large bays are sensitive to long wavelength tsunamis. The tsunami observed off Kamaishi during the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake was composed of both short and long wavelength components. We examined run-up heights of the Tohoku tsunami, and found that: (1) coastal areas north of Kamaishi and south of Yamamoto were mainly attacked by short wavelength tsunamis; and (2) no evidence of short wavelength tsunamis was observed from Ofunato to the Oshika Peninsula. This observation coincides with the geomorphologically proposed source fault model, and indicates that the extraordinary large slip along the shallow part of the plate boundary off Sendai, proposed by seismological and geodesic analyses, is not needed to explain the run-up heights of the Tohoku tsunami. To better understand spatial variations of tsunami run-up heights, submarine crustal movements, and source faults, a detailed analysis is required of coastal topography, land conditions, and submarine tectonic landforms from the perspective of geomorphology. (author)

  1. Comparison of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy running models between outsourcing cooperation and rental cooperation conducted in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chih-Kuang; Ko, Ming-Chung; Chen, Shiou-Sheng; Lee, Wen-Kai; Shia, Ben-Chang; Chiang, Han-Sun

    2015-02-01

    We conducted a retrospective study to compare the cost and effectiveness between two different running models for extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL), including the outsourcing cooperation model (OC) and the rental cooperation model (RC). Between January 1999 and December 2005, we implemented OC for the SWL, and from January 2006 to October 2011, RC was utilized. With OC, the cooperative company provided a machine and shared a variable payment with the hospital, according to treatment sessions. With RC, the cooperative company provided a machine and received a fixed rent from the hospital. We calculated the cost of each treatment session, and evaluated the break-even point to estimate the lowest number of treatment sessions to make the balance between revenue and cost every month. Effectiveness parameters, including the stone-free rate, the retreatment rate, the rate of additional procedures and complications, were evaluated. Compared with OC there were significantly less treatment sessions for RC every month (42.6±7.8 vs. 36.8±6.5, p=0.01). The cost of each treatment session was significantly higher for OC than for RC (751.6±20.0 USD vs. 684.7±16.7 USD, p=0.01). The break-even point for the hospital was 27.5 treatment sessions/month for OC, when the hospital obtained 40% of the payment, and it could be reduced if the hospital got a greater percentage. The break-even point for the hospital was 27.3 treatment sessions/month for RC. No significant differences were noticed for the stone-free rate, the retreatment rate, the rate of additional procedures and complications. Our study revealed that RC had a lower cost for every treatment session, and fewer treatment sessions of SWL/month than OC. The study might provide a managerial implication for healthcare organization managers, when they face a situation of high price equipment investment. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Automatic Voice Pathology Detection With Running Speech by Using Estimation of Auditory Spectrum and Cepstral Coefficients Based on the All-Pole Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Zulfiqar; Elamvazuthi, Irraivan; Alsulaiman, Mansour; Muhammad, Ghulam

    2016-11-01

    Automatic voice pathology detection using sustained vowels has been widely explored. Because of the stationary nature of the speech waveform, pathology detection with a sustained vowel is a comparatively easier task than that using a running speech. Some disorder detection systems with running speech have also been developed, although most of them are based on a voice activity detection (VAD), that is, itself a challenging task. Pathology detection with running speech needs more investigation, and systems with good accuracy (ACC) are required. Furthermore, pathology classification systems with running speech have not received any attention from the research community. In this article, automatic pathology detection and classification systems are developed using text-dependent running speech without adding a VAD module. A set of three psychophysics conditions of hearing (critical band spectral estimation, equal loudness hearing curve, and the intensity loudness power law of hearing) is used to estimate the auditory spectrum. The auditory spectrum and all-pole models of the auditory spectrums are computed and analyzed and used in a Gaussian mixture model for an automatic decision. In the experiments using the Massachusetts Eye & Ear Infirmary database, an ACC of 99.56% is obtained for pathology detection, and an ACC of 93.33% is obtained for the pathology classification system. The results of the proposed systems outperform the existing running-speech-based systems. The developed system can effectively be used in voice pathology detection and classification systems, and the proposed features can visually differentiate between normal and pathological samples. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. On the duality between long-run relations and common trends in the I(1) versus I(2) model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juselius, Katarina

    1994-01-01

    procedures reveal that nominal money stock is essentially I(2). Long-run price homogeneity is supported by the data and imposed on the system. It is found that the bond rate is weakly exogenous for the long-run parameters and therefore act as a driving trend. Using the nonstationarity property of the data......, "excess money" is estimated and its effect on the other determinants of the system is investigated. In particular, it is found that "excess money" has no effect on price inflation...

  4. Modeling Changes in Bed Surface Texture and Aquatic Habitat Caused by Run-of-River Hydropower Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, T. K.; Venditti, J. G.; Nelson, P. A.; Popescu, V.; Palen, W.

    2014-12-01

    Run-of-river (RoR) hydropower has emerged as an important alternative to large reservoir-based dams in the renewable energy portfolios of China, India, Canada, and other areas around the globe. RoR projects generate electricity by diverting a portion of the channel discharge through a large pipe for several kilometers downhill where it is used to drive turbines before being returned to the channel. Individual RoR projects are thought to be less disruptive to local ecosystems than large hydropower because they involve minimal water storage, more closely match the natural hydrograph downstream of the project, and are capable of bypassing trapped sediment. However, there is concern that temporary sediment supply disruption may degrade the productivity of salmon spawning habitat downstream of the dam by causing changes in the grain size distribution of bed surface sediment. We hypothesize that salmon populations will be most susceptible to disruptions in sediment supply in channels where; 1) sediment supply is high relative to transport capacity prior to RoR development, and 2) project design creates substantial sediment storage volume. Determining the geomorphic effect of RoR development on aquatic habitat requires many years of field data collection, and even then it can be difficult to link geomorphic change to RoR development alone. As an alternative, we used a one-dimensional morphodynamic model to test our hypothesis across a range of pre-development sediment supply conditions and sediment storage volumes. Our results confirm that coarsening of the median surface grain-size is greatest in cases where pre-development sediment supply was highest and sediment storage volumes were large enough to disrupt supply over the course of the annual hydrograph or longer. In cases where the pre-development sediment supply is low, coarsening of the median surface grain-size is less than 2 mm over a multiple-year disruption period. When sediment supply is restored, our results

  5. Search for gravitational waves from Scorpius X-1 in the first Advanced LIGO observing run with a hidden Markov model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, D.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Phythian-Adams, A.T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Afrough, M.; Agarwal, B.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.T.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allen, G; Allocca, A.; Almoubayyed, H.; Altin, P. A.; Amato, A.; Ananyeva, A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Antier, S.; Appert, S.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; AultONeal, K.; Avila-Alvarez, A.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Bae, S.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Banagiri, S.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, R.D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bawaj, M.; Bazzan, M.; Becsy, B.; Beer, C.; Bejger, M.; Belahcene, I.; Bell, A. S.; Berger, B. K.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Etienne, Z. B.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Billman, C. R.; Birch, D J; Birney, R.; Birnholtz, O.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackman, J.; Blair, C. D.; Blari, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Bode, N.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, J.G.; Bohe, A.; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Broida, J. E.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, A.D.; Brown, D.; Brown, N. M.; Brunett, S.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cabero, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Bustillo, J. Calderon; Callister, T. A.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Canepa, M.; Canizares, P.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, H.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Carney, M. F.; Diaz, J. Casanueva; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglia, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Baiardi, L. Cerboni; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, D. S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chatterjee, D.; Cheeseboro, B. D.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y; Cheng, H. -P.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Chmiel, T.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, A. J. K.; Chua, S. S. Y.; Chung, A. K. W.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Ciolfi, R.; Cirelli, C. E.; Cirone, A.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Cocchieri, C.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P. -F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L. R.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conti, L.; Cooper, S. J.; Corban, P.; Corbitt, T. R.; Corley, K. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J. -P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Covas, P. B.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cullen, T. J.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, Laura; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Dasgupta, A.; Costa, C. F. Da Silva; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Davis, D.; Daw, E. J.; Day, B.; De, S.; Debra, D.; Deelman, E; Degallaix, J.; De laurentis, M.; Deleglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.A.; Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Devenson, J.; Devine, R. C.; Dhurandhar, S.; Diaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Giovanni, M. Di; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Renzo, F.; Doctor, Z.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Dorrington, I.; Douglas, R.; Alvarez, M. Dovale; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Duncan, J.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H. -B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Fauchon-Jones, E. J.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Feicht, J.; Fejer, M. M.; Fernandez-Galiana, A.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M; Fong, H.; Forsyth, P. W. F.; Forsyth, S. S.; Fournier, J. -D.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fries, E. M.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H.; Gabel, M.; Gadre, B. U.; Gaebel, S. M.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Ganija, M. R.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gaudio, S.; Gaur, G.; Gayathri, V.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, D.J.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghonge, S.; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.P.; Glover, L.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gomes, A.S.P.; Gonzalez, Idelmis G.; Castro, J. M. Gonzalez; Gopakumar, A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Lee-Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Grado, A.; Graef, C.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.M.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Gruning, P.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hall, B. R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannuksela, O. A.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Haster, C. -J.; Haughian, K.; Healy, J.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Henry, J.A.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hofman, D.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Horst, C.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Intini, G.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J. -M.; Isi, M.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jimenez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W.; Jones, I.D.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Junker, J.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Karki, S.; Karvinen, K. S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katolik, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kawabe, K.; Kefelian, F.; Keitel, D.; Kemball, A. J.; Kennedy, R.E.; Kent, C.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan., S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J. C.; Kim, W.; Kim, S.W.; Kim, Y.M.; Kimbrell, S. J.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kirchhoff, R.; Kissel, J. S.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koch, P.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kramer, C.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Krolak, A.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kumar, S.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Kwang-Cheol, S.; Lackey, B. D.; Lai, K. H.; Landry, M.; Lang, R. N.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lanza, R. K.; Lartaux-Vollard, A.; Lasky, P. D.; Laxen, M.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lee, C.H.; Lee, K.H.; Lee, M.H.; Lee, W. H.; Lee, K.; Lehmann, J.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Liu, J.; Lockerbie, N. A.; London, L. T.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lovelace, G.; Luck, H.; Lumaca, D.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Macfoy, S.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magana Hernandez, I.; Magana-Sandoval, F.; Magana Zertuche, L.; Magee, R. M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Man, N.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Marka, S.; Marka, Z.; Markakis, C.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Matas, A.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mayani, R.; Mazumder, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McCuller, L.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McRae, T.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Mejuto-Villa, E.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Metzdorff, R.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, A.; Miller, B. B.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minazzoli, O.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B.C.; Moore, C. J.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, S.D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Muniz, E. A. M.; Murray, P.G.; Napier, K.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Nelemans, G.; Nelson, T. J. N.; Gutierrez-Neri, M.; Nery, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newport, J. M.; Newton, G.; Ng, K. K. Y.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nichols, D.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Noack, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; Ormiston, R.; Ortega, L. F.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pace, A. E.; Page, J.; Page, M. A.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pang, B.; Pang, P. T. H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.S; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patricelli, B.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Castro-Perez, J.; Perreca, A.; Perri, L. M.; Pfeiffer, H. P.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Porter, E. K.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Pratt, J. W. W.; Predoi, V.; Prestegard, T.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prix, R.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L. G.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Purrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Qiu, S.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajan, C.; Rakhmanov, M.; Ramirez, K. E.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Read, J.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Ricker, P. M.; Rieger, S.; Riles, K.; Rizzo, M.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, R.; Romel, C. L.; Romie, J. H.; Rosinska, D.; Ross, M. P.; Rowan, S.; Rudiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.; Rynge, M.; Sachdev, Perminder S; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Sakellariadou, M.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sampson, L. M.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sandeen, B.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Scheuer, J.; Schmidt, E.; Schmidt, J; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.B.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schonbeck, A.; Schreiber, K.E.C.; Schuette, D.; Schulte, B. W.; Schutz, B. F.; Schwalbe, S. G.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Seidel, E.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffer, T. J.; Shah, A.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shao, L.P.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sieniawska, M.; Sigg, D.; Silva, António Dias da; Singer, A; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, B.; Smith, R. J. E.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sonnenberg, J. A.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Spencer, A. P.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Stratta, G.; Strigin, S. E.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sunil, S.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepanczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tapai, M.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, J. A.; Taylor, W.R.; Theeg, T.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Toland, K.; Tonelli, M.; Tornasi, Z.; Torrie, C. I.; Toyra, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifiro, D.; Trinastic, J.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tsang, K. W.; Tse, M.; Tso, R.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ueno, K.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahi, K.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; van Bakel, N.; Van Beuzekom, Martin; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.F.F.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Varma, V.; Vass, S.; Vasuth, M.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P.J.; Venkateswara, K.; Venugopalan, G.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Vicere, A.; Viets, A. D.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J. -Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D. V.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, MT; Walet, R.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, J. Z.; Wang, M.; Wang, Y. -F.; Wang, Y. -F.; Ward, L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Watchi, J.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L. -W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.; Wessel, E. K.; Wessels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whiting, B. F.; Whittle, C.; Williams, D.; Williams, D.R.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Woehler, J.; Wofford, J.; Wong, G.W.K.; Worden, J.; Wright, J.L.; Wu, D.S.; Wu, G.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yap, M. J.; Yu, Hang; Yu, Haocun; Yvert, M.; Zadrozny, A.; Zanolin, M.; Zelenova, T.; Zendri, J. -P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, Y. -H.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zweizig, J.; Suvorova, S.; Moran, W.; Evans, J.R.

    2017-01-01

    Results are presented from a semicoherent search for continuous gravitational waves from the brightest low-mass X-ray binary, Scorpius X-1, using data collected during the first Advanced LIGO observing run. The search combines a frequency domain matched filter (Bessel-weighted F-statistic) with a

  6. Sex differences in the effect of wheel running on subsequent nicotine-seeking in a rat adolescent-onset self-administration model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Victoria; Moore, Catherine F; Brunzell, Darlene H; Lynch, Wendy J

    2014-04-01

    Wheel running attenuates nicotine-seeking in male adolescent rats; however, it is not known if this effect extends to females. To determine if wheel running during abstinence would differentially attenuate subsequent nicotine-seeking in male and female rats that had extended access to nicotine self-administration during adolescence. Male (n = 49) and female (n = 43) adolescent rats self-administered saline or nicotine (5 μg/kg) under an extended access (23-h) paradigm. Following the last self-administration session, rats were moved to polycarbonate cages for an abstinence period where they either had access to a locked or unlocked running wheel for 2 h/day. Subsequently, nicotine-seeking was examined under a within-session extinction/cue-induced reinstatement paradigm. Due to low levels of nicotine-seeking in females in both wheel groups, additional groups were included that were housed without access to a running wheel during abstinence. Females self-administered more nicotine as compared to males; however, within males and females, intake did not differ between groups prior to wheel assignment. Compared to saline controls, males and females that self-administered nicotine showed a significant increase in drug-seeking during extinction. Wheel running during abstinence attenuated nicotine-seeking during extinction in males. In females, access to either locked or unlocked wheels attenuated nicotine-seeking during extinction. While responding was reinstated by cues in both males and females, levels were modest and not significantly affected by exercise in this adolescent-onset model. While wheel running reduced subsequent nicotine-seeking in males, access to a wheel, either locked or unlocked, was sufficient to suppress nicotine-seeking in females.

  7. Changes in running economy following downhill running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Trevor C; Nosaka, Kazunori; Tu, Jui-Hung

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we examined the time course of changes in running economy following a 30-min downhill (-15%) run at 70% peak aerobic power (VO2peak). Ten young men performed level running at 65, 75, and 85% VO2peak (5 min for each intensity) before, immediately after, and 1 - 5 days after the downhill run, at which times oxygen consumption (VO2), minute ventilation, the respiratory exchange ratio (RER), heart rate, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), and blood lactate concentration were measured. Stride length, stride frequency, and range of motion of the ankle, knee, and hip joints during the level runs were analysed using high-speed (120-Hz) video images. Downhill running induced reductions (7 - 21%, P rate, minute ventilation, RER, RPE, blood lactate concentration, and stride frequency, as well as reductions in stride length and range of motion of the ankle and knee. The results suggest that changes in running form and compromised muscle function due to muscle damage contribute to the reduction in running economy for 3 days after downhill running.

  8. Running Parallel Discrete Event Simulators on Sierra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, P. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Jefferson, D. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-12-03

    In this proposal we consider porting the ROSS/Charm++ simulator and the discrete event models that run under its control so that they run on the Sierra architecture and make efficient use of the Volta GPUs.

  9. Effect of long-term voluntary exercise wheel running on susceptibility to bacterial pulmonary infections in a mouse model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van de Weert-van Leeuwen, Pauline B; de Vrankrijker, Angélica M M; Fentz, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    moderate exercise has many health benefits, healthy mice showed increased bacterial (P. aeruginosa) load and symptoms, after regular voluntary exercise, with perseverance of the phagocytic capacity of monocytes and neutrophils. Whether patients, suffering from bacterial infectious diseases, should......Regular moderate exercise has been suggested to exert anti-inflammatory effects and improve immune effector functions, resulting in reduced disease incidence and viral infection susceptibility. Whether regular exercise also affects bacterial infection susceptibility is unknown. The aim...... of this study was to investigate whether regular voluntary exercise wheel running prior to a pulmonary infection with bacteria (P. aeruginosa) affects lung bacteriology, sickness severity and phagocyte immune function in mice. Balb/c mice were randomly placed in a cage with or without a running wheel. After 28...

  10. FLUKA predictions of the absorbed dose in the HCAL Endcap scintillators using a Run1 (2012) CMS FLUKA model

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Estimates of absorbed dose in HCAL Endcap (HE) region as predicted by FLUKA Monte Carlo code. Dose is calculated in an R-phi-Z grid overlaying HE region, with resolution 1cm in R, 1mm in Z, and a single 360 degree bin in phi. This allows calculation of absorbed dose within a single 4mm thick scintillator layer without including other regions or materials. This note shows estimates of the cumulative dose in scintillator layers 1 and 7 during the 2012 run.

  11. Effect of long-term voluntary exercise wheel running on susceptibility to bacterial pulmonary infections in a mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline B van de Weert-van Leeuwen

    Full Text Available Regular moderate exercise has been suggested to exert anti-inflammatory effects and improve immune effector functions, resulting in reduced disease incidence and viral infection susceptibility. Whether regular exercise also affects bacterial infection susceptibility is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether regular voluntary exercise wheel running prior to a pulmonary infection with bacteria (P. aeruginosa affects lung bacteriology, sickness severity and phagocyte immune function in mice. Balb/c mice were randomly placed in a cage with or without a running wheel. After 28 days, mice were intranasally infected with P. aeruginosa. Our study showed that regular exercise resulted in a higher sickness severity score and bacterial (P. aeruginosa loads in the lungs. The phagocytic capacity of monocytes and neutrophils from spleen and lungs was not affected. Although regular moderate exercise has many health benefits, healthy mice showed increased bacterial (P. aeruginosa load and symptoms, after regular voluntary exercise, with perseverance of the phagocytic capacity of monocytes and neutrophils. Whether patients, suffering from bacterial infectious diseases, should be encouraged to engage in exercise and physical activities with caution requires further research.

  12. High-resolution modeling of tsunami run-up flooding: a case study of flooding in Kamaishi city, Japan, induced by the 2011 Tohoku tsunami

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Akoh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Run-up processes of the 2011 Tohoku tsunami into the city of Kamaishi, Japan, were simulated numerically using 2-D shallow water equations with a new treatment of building footprints. The model imposes an internal hydraulic condition of permeable and impermeable walls at the building footprint outline on unstructured triangular meshes. Digital data of the building footprint approximated by polygons were overlaid on a 1.0 m resolution terrain model. The hydraulic boundary conditions were ascertained using conventional tsunami propagation calculation from the seismic center to nearshore areas. Run-up flow calculations were conducted under the same hydraulic conditions for several cases having different building permeabilities. Comparison of computation results with field data suggests that the case with a small amount of wall permeability gives better agreement than the case with impermeable condition. Spatial mapping of an indicator for run-up flow intensity (IF = (hU2max, where h and U respectively denote the inundation depth and flow velocity during the flood, shows fairly good correlation with the distribution of houses destroyed by flooding. As a possible mitigation measure, the influence of the buildings on the flow was assessed using a numerical experiment for solid buildings arrayed alternately in two lines along the coast. Results show that the buildings can prevent seawater from flowing straight to the city center while maintaining access to the sea.

  13. High-resolution modeling of tsunami run-up flooding: a case study of flooding in Kamaishi city, Japan, induced by the 2011 Tohoku tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoh, Ryosuke; Ishikawa, Tadaharu; Kojima, Takashi; Tomaru, Mahito; Maeno, Shiro

    2017-11-01

    Run-up processes of the 2011 Tohoku tsunami into the city of Kamaishi, Japan, were simulated numerically using 2-D shallow water equations with a new treatment of building footprints. The model imposes an internal hydraulic condition of permeable and impermeable walls at the building footprint outline on unstructured triangular meshes. Digital data of the building footprint approximated by polygons were overlaid on a 1.0 m resolution terrain model. The hydraulic boundary conditions were ascertained using conventional tsunami propagation calculation from the seismic center to nearshore areas. Run-up flow calculations were conducted under the same hydraulic conditions for several cases having different building permeabilities. Comparison of computation results with field data suggests that the case with a small amount of wall permeability gives better agreement than the case with impermeable condition. Spatial mapping of an indicator for run-up flow intensity (IF = (hU2)max, where h and U respectively denote the inundation depth and flow velocity during the flood, shows fairly good correlation with the distribution of houses destroyed by flooding. As a possible mitigation measure, the influence of the buildings on the flow was assessed using a numerical experiment for solid buildings arrayed alternately in two lines along the coast. Results show that the buildings can prevent seawater from flowing straight to the city center while maintaining access to the sea.

  14. A forced running wheel system with a microcontroller that provides high-intensity exercise training in an animal ischemic stroke model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C.C. [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Chang, M.W. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Southern Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Chang, C.P. [Department of Biotechnology, Southern Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Chan, S.C.; Chang, W.Y.; Yang, C.L. [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Lin, M.T. [Department of Medical Research, Chi Mei Medical Center, Tainan, Taiwan (China)

    2014-08-15

    We developed a forced non-electric-shock running wheel (FNESRW) system that provides rats with high-intensity exercise training using automatic exercise training patterns that are controlled by a microcontroller. The proposed system successfully makes a breakthrough in the traditional motorized running wheel to allow rats to perform high-intensity training and to enable comparisons with the treadmill at the same exercise intensity without any electric shock. A polyvinyl chloride runway with a rough rubber surface was coated on the periphery of the wheel so as to permit automatic acceleration training, and which allowed the rats to run consistently at high speeds (30 m/min for 1 h). An animal ischemic stroke model was used to validate the proposed system. FNESRW, treadmill, control, and sham groups were studied. The FNESRW and treadmill groups underwent 3 weeks of endurance running training. After 3 weeks, the experiments of middle cerebral artery occlusion, the modified neurological severity score (mNSS), an inclined plane test, and triphenyltetrazolium chloride were performed to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed platform. The proposed platform showed that enhancement of motor function, mNSS, and infarct volumes was significantly stronger in the FNESRW group than the control group (P<0.05) and similar to the treadmill group. The experimental data demonstrated that the proposed platform can be applied to test the benefit of exercise-preconditioning-induced neuroprotection using the animal stroke model. Additional advantages of the FNESRW system include stand-alone capability, independence of subjective human adjustment, and ease of use.

  15. A forced running wheel system with a microcontroller that provides high-intensity exercise training in an animal ischemic stroke model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.C. Chen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We developed a forced non-electric-shock running wheel (FNESRW system that provides rats with high-intensity exercise training using automatic exercise training patterns that are controlled by a microcontroller. The proposed system successfully makes a breakthrough in the traditional motorized running wheel to allow rats to perform high-intensity training and to enable comparisons with the treadmill at the same exercise intensity without any electric shock. A polyvinyl chloride runway with a rough rubber surface was coated on the periphery of the wheel so as to permit automatic acceleration training, and which allowed the rats to run consistently at high speeds (30 m/min for 1 h. An animal ischemic stroke model was used to validate the proposed system. FNESRW, treadmill, control, and sham groups were studied. The FNESRW and treadmill groups underwent 3 weeks of endurance running training. After 3 weeks, the experiments of middle cerebral artery occlusion, the modified neurological severity score (mNSS, an inclined plane test, and triphenyltetrazolium chloride were performed to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed platform. The proposed platform showed that enhancement of motor function, mNSS, and infarct volumes was significantly stronger in the FNESRW group than the control group (P<0.05 and similar to the treadmill group. The experimental data demonstrated that the proposed platform can be applied to test the benefit of exercise-preconditioning-induced neuroprotection using the animal stroke model. Additional advantages of the FNESRW system include stand-alone capability, independence of subjective human adjustment, and ease of use.

  16. Effects of Obstacles on the Dynamics of Kinesins, Including Velocity and Run Length, Predicted by a Model of Two Dimensional Motion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woochul Nam

    Full Text Available Kinesins are molecular motors which walk along microtubules by moving their heads to different binding sites. The motion of kinesin is realized by a conformational change in the structure of the kinesin molecule and by a diffusion of one of its two heads. In this study, a novel model is developed to account for the 2D diffusion of kinesin heads to several neighboring binding sites (near the surface of microtubules. To determine the direction of the next step of a kinesin molecule, this model considers the extension in the neck linkers of kinesin and the dynamic behavior of the coiled-coil structure of the kinesin neck. Also, the mechanical interference between kinesins and obstacles anchored on the microtubules is characterized. The model predicts that both the kinesin velocity and run length (i.e., the walking distance before detaching from the microtubule are reduced by static obstacles. The run length is decreased more significantly by static obstacles than the velocity. Moreover, our model is able to predict the motion of kinesin when other (several motors also move along the same microtubule. Furthermore, it suggests that the effect of mechanical interaction/interference between motors is much weaker than the effect of static obstacles. Our newly developed model can be used to address unanswered questions regarding degraded transport caused by the presence of excessive tau proteins on microtubules.

  17. An improved numerical scheme with the fully-implicit two-fluid model for a fast-running system code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, J.J.; No, H.C.

    1987-01-01

    A new computational method is implemented in the FIDA-2 (Fully-Implicit Safety Analysis-2) code to simulate the thermal-hydraulic response to hypothetical accidents in nuclear power plants. The basis field equations of FISA-2 consist of the mixture continuity equation, void propagation equation, two phasic momentum equations, and two phasic energy equations. The fully-implicit scheme is used to elimate a time step limitation and the computation time per time step is minimized as much as possible by reducing the matrix-size to be solved. The phasic energy equations written in the nonconservation form are solved after they are set up to be decoupled from other field equations. The void propagation equation is solved to obtain the void fraction. Spatial acceleration terms in the phasic momentum equations are manipulated with the phasic continiuity equations so that pseudo-phasic mass flux may be expressed in terms of pressure only. Putting the pseudo-phasic mass flux into the mixture continuity equation, we obtain linear equations with pressure variables only as unknowns. By solving the linear equations, pressures at all the nodes are obtained and in turn other variables are obtained by back-substitution. The above procedure is performed until the convergence criterion is satisfied. Reasonable accuracy and no stability limitation with fast-running are confirmed by comparing results from FISA-2 with experimental data and results from other codes. (orig.)

  18. 'Outrunning' the running ear

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chantel

    acute purulent otitis media should be considered when evaluating a patient with a running ear.These are listed in Table I. To outrun the running ear all these facts should be kept in mind when evaluating a patient. HISTORY. Some important questions to ask, are: • Family history. • cystic fibrosis. • allergies — nasal, chest and.

  19. Overcoming the "Run" Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Patricia E.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research suggests that it is not simply experiencing anxiety that affects mathematics performance but also how one responds to and regulates that anxiety (Lyons and Beilock 2011). Most people have faced mathematics problems that have triggered their "run response." The issue is not whether one wants to run, but rather…

  20. Overuse injuries in running

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Henrik; Rasmussen, Sten; Jørgensen, Jens Erik

    2016-01-01

    What is an overuse injury in running? This question is a corner stone of clinical documentation and research based evidence.......What is an overuse injury in running? This question is a corner stone of clinical documentation and research based evidence....

  1. Running Injury Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh Johansen, Karen; Hulme, Adam; Damsted, Camma

    2017-01-01

    able to compete in national championships and their coaches about factors associated with running injury development. Methods: A link to an online survey was distributed to middle- and long-distance runners and their coaches across 25 Danish Athletics Clubs. The main research question was: “Which......Background: Behavioral science methods have rarely been used in running injury research. Therefore, the attitudes amongst runners and their coaches regarding factors leading to running injuries warrants formal investigation. Purpose: To investigate the attitudes of middle- and long-distance runners......%]) to be associated with injury, while half of the runners found “insufficient recovery between running sessions” (53% [95%CI: 47%; 71%]) important. Conclusion: Runners and their coaches emphasize ignoring pain as a factor associated with injury development. The question remains how much running, if any at all...

  2. RUNNING INJURY DEVELOPMENT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Karen Krogh; Hulme, Adam; Damsted, Camma

    2017-01-01

    %]) to be associated with injury, while half of the runners found "insufficient recovery between running sessions" (53% [95%CI: 47%; 71%]) important. CONCLUSION: Runners and their coaches emphasize ignoring pain as a factor associated with injury development. The question remains how much running, if any at all......BACKGROUND: Behavioral science methods have rarely been used in running injury research. Therefore, the attitudes amongst runners and their coaches regarding factors leading to running injuries warrants formal investigation. PURPOSE: To investigate the attitudes of middle- and long-distance runners...... able to compete in national championships and their coaches about factors associated with running injury development. METHODS: A link to an online survey was distributed to middle- and long-distance runners and their coaches across 25 Danish Athletics Clubs. The main research question was: "Which...

  3. Another Look at the Relationship Between Accident- and Encroachment-Based Approaches to Run-Off-the-Road Accidents Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miaou, Shaw-Pin

    1997-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to look for ways to combine the strengths of both approaches in roadside safety research. The specific objectives were (1) to present the encroachment-based approach in a more systematic and coherent way so that its limitations and strengths can be better understood from both statistical and engineering standpoints, and (2) to apply the analytical and engineering strengths of the encroachment-based thinking to the formulation of mean functions in accident-based models.

  4. Application of a Fuzzy Verification Technique for Assessment of the Weather Running Estimate-Nowcast (WRE-N) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    filtered by the application of a threshold. Fuzzy methods have been developed in recent years to overcome limitations encountered when applying...release; distribution is unlimited iv List of Figures Fig. 1 Triple- nested model domains: domain center points are coincident and are centered near...List of Tables Table 1 WRE–N triple- nested domain dimensions in kilometers.......................5 Table 2 WRE–N configuration

  5. Using modeling to understand how athletes in different disciplines solve the same problem: swimming versus running versus speed skating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Koning, Jos J; Foster, Carl; Lucia, Alejandro; Bobbert, Maarten F; Hettinga, Florentina J; Porcari, John P

    2011-06-01

    Every new competitive season offers excellent examples of human locomotor abilities, regardless of the sport. As a natural consequence of competitions, world records are broken every now and then. World record races not only offer spectators the pleasure of watching very talented and highly trained athletes performing muscular tasks with remarkable skill, but also represent natural models of the ultimate expression of human integrated muscle biology, through strength, speed, or endurance performances. Given that humans may be approaching our species limit for muscular power output, interest in how athletes improve on world records has led to interest in the strategy of how limited energetic resources are best expended over a race. World record performances may also shed light on how athletes in different events solve exactly the same problem-minimizing the time required to reach the finish line. We have previously applied mathematical modeling to the understanding of world record performances in terms of improvements in facilities/equipment and improvements in the athletes' physical capacities. In this commentary, we attempt to demonstrate that differences in world record performances in various sports can be explained using a very simple modeling process.

  6. Cycle Engine Modelling Of Spark Ignition Engine Processes during Wide-Open Throttle (WOT) Engine Operation Running By Gasoline Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahim, M F Abdul; Rahman, M M; Bakar, R A

    2012-01-01

    One-dimensional engine model is developed to simulate spark ignition engine processes in a 4-stroke, 4 cylinders gasoline engine. Physically, the baseline engine is inline cylinder engine with 3-valves per cylinder. Currently, the engine's mixture is formed by external mixture formation using piston-type carburettor. The model of the engine is based on one-dimensional equation of the gas exchange process, isentropic compression and expansion, progressive engine combustion process, and accounting for the heat transfer and frictional losses as well as the effect of valves overlapping. The model is tested for 2000, 3000 and 4000 rpm of engine speed and validated using experimental engine data. Results showed that the engine is able to simulate engine's combustion process and produce reasonable prediction. However, by comparing with experimental data, major discrepancy is noticeable especially on the 2000 and 4000 rpm prediction. At low and high engine speed, simulated cylinder pressures tend to under predict the measured data. Whereas the cylinder temperatures always tend to over predict the measured data at all engine speed. The most accurate prediction is obtained at medium engine speed of 3000 rpm. Appropriate wall heat transfer setup is vital for more precise calculation of cylinder pressure and temperature. More heat loss to the wall can lower cylinder temperature. On the hand, more heat converted to the useful work mean an increase in cylinder pressure. Thus, instead of wall heat transfer setup, the Wiebe combustion parameters are needed to be carefully evaluated for better results.

  7. The Long-Run Impact on Population and Income of Open Access to Land in a Model with Parental Altruism

    OpenAIRE

    Jon D. Harford

    2000-01-01

    Steady state levels of population and per capita income are examined using a Becker-Barro (1988) style of model of an economy with identical altruistic parents bearing costly children who receive bequests of capital and land. Inspired by the work of North (1981) and others, the problem of open access land with ancillary negative effects on private (but not public) productivity of capital is examined. It is seen that open access to land can lead to overpopulation in a ceteris paribus sense, an...

  8. Long-Run Neutrality and Superneutrality in an ARIMA Framework.

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Mark E; Seater, John J

    1993-01-01

    The authors formalize long-run neutrality and long-run superneutrality in the context of a bivariate ARIMA model; show how the restrictions implied by long-run neutrality and long-run superneutrality depend on the orders of integration of the variables; apply their analysis to previous work, showing how that work is related to long-run neutrality and long-run superneutrality; and provide some new evidence on long-run neutrality and long-run superneutrality. Copyright 1993 by American Economic...

  9. Comparison of two different running models for the shock wave lithotripsy machine in Taipei City Hospital: self-support versus outsourcing cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chi-Yi; Chen, Shiou-Sheng; Chen, Li-Kuei

    2009-10-01

    To compare two different running models including self-support and outsourcing cooperation for the extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) machine in Taipei City Hospital, we made a retrospective study. Self-support means that the hospital has to buy an SWL machine and get all the payment from SWL. In outsourcing cooperation, the cooperative company provides an SWL machine and shares the payment with the hospital. Between January 2002 and December 2006, we used self-support for the SWL machine, and from January 2007 to December 2008, we used outsourcing cooperation. We used the method of full costing to calculate the cost of SWL, and the break-even point was the lowest number of treatment sessions of SWL to make balance of payments every month. Quality parameters including stone-free rate, retreatment rate, additional procedures and complication rate were evaluated. When outsourcing cooperation was used, there were significantly more treatment sessions of SWL every month than when utilizing self-support (36.3 +/- 5.1 vs. 48.1 +/- 8.4, P = 0.03). The cost of SWL for every treatment session was significantly higher using self-support than with outsourcing cooperation (25027.5 +/- 1789.8 NT$ vs. 21367.4 +/- 201.0 NT$). The break-even point was 28.3 (treatment sessions) for self-support, and 28.4 for outsourcing cooperation, when the hospital got 40% of the payment, which would decrease if the percentage increased. No significant differences were noticed for stone-free rate, retreatment rate, additional procedures and complication rate of SWL between the two running models. Besides, outsourcing cooperation had lower cost (every treatment session), but a greater number of treatment sessions of SWL every month than self-support.

  10. ADHydro: A Parallel Implementation of a Large-scale High-Resolution Multi-Physics Distributed Water Resources Model Using the Charm++ Run Time System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinke, R. C.; Ogden, F. L.; Lai, W.; Moreno, H. A.; Pureza, L. G.

    2014-12-01

    Physics-based watershed models are useful tools for hydrologic studies, water resources management and economic analyses in the contexts of climate, land-use, and water-use changes. This poster presents a parallel implementation of a quasi 3-dimensional, physics-based, high-resolution, distributed water resources model suitable for simulating large watersheds in a massively parallel computing environment. Developing this model is one of the objectives of the NSF EPSCoR RII Track II CI-WATER project, which is joint between Wyoming and Utah EPSCoR jurisdictions. The model, which we call ADHydro, is aimed at simulating important processes in the Rocky Mountain west, including: rainfall and infiltration, snowfall and snowmelt in complex terrain, vegetation and evapotranspiration, soil heat flux and freezing, overland flow, channel flow, groundwater flow, water management and irrigation. Model forcing is provided by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, and ADHydro is coupled with the NOAH-MP land-surface scheme for calculating fluxes between the land and atmosphere. The ADHydro implementation uses the Charm++ parallel run time system. Charm++ is based on location transparent message passing between migrateable C++ objects. Each object represents an entity in the model such as a mesh element. These objects can be migrated between processors or serialized to disk allowing the Charm++ system to automatically provide capabilities such as load balancing and checkpointing. Objects interact with each other by passing messages that the Charm++ system routes to the correct destination object regardless of its current location. This poster discusses the algorithms, communication patterns, and caching strategies used to implement ADHydro with Charm++. The ADHydro model code will be released to the hydrologic community in late 2014.

  11. A capacity expansion model dealing with balancing requirements, short-term operations and long-run dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villavicencio, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    One of the challenges of current power systems is presented by the need to adequately integrate increasing shares of variable renewable energies (VRE) such as wind and photovoltaic (PV) technologies. The study of capacity investments under this context raises refreshed interrogations about the optimal power generation mix when considering system adequacy, operability and reliability issues. This paper analyses the influence of such considerations and adopts a resource-adequacy approach to propose a stylized capacity expansion model (CEM) that endogenously optimize investments in both generation capacity and new flexibility options such as electric energy storage (EES) and demand side management (DSM) capabilities. Three formulations are tested in order to seize the relevance of system dynamics representation over the valuation of capacity and flexibility investments. In each formulation the complexity of the representation of operating constraints increases. The resource-adequacy approach is then enlarged with a multi-service representation of the power system introducing non-contingency reserve considerations. Therefore, investments decisions are enhanced by information from system operations requirements given by the hourly economic dispatch and also by a reliability criterion given by reserve needs. The formulations are tested on a case study in order to capture the trade-offs of adding more details on the system representation while exogenously imposing supplementary VRE penetration. The results obtained show the importance of adopting a sufficiently detailed representation of system requirements to accurately capture the value of capacity and flexibility when important VRE penetration levels are to be studied, but also to appropriately estimate resulting system cost and CO 2 emissions. (author)

  12. LHC Run 2: Results and challenges

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2068843; Arduini, Gianluigi; Bartosik, Hannes; De Maria, Riccardo; Giovannozzi, Massimo; Iadarola, Giovanni; Jowett, John; Li, Kevin Shing Bruce; Lamont, Mike; Lechner, Anton; Metral, Elias; Mirarchi, Daniele; Pieloni, Tatiana; Redaelli, Stefano; Rumolo, Giovanni; Salvant, Benoit; Tomas Garcia, Rogelio; Wenninger, Jorg

    2016-01-01

    The first proton run of the LHC was very successful and resulted in important physics discoveries. It was followed by a two-year shutdown where a large number of improvements were carried out. In 2015, the LHC was restarted and this second run aims at further exploring the physics of the standard model and beyond at an increased beam energy. This article gives a review of the performance achieved so far and the limitations encountered, as well as the future challenges for the CERN accelerators to maximize the data delivered to the LHC experiments in Run 2. Furthermore, the status of the 2016 LHC run and commissioning is discussed.

  13. EnergyPlus Run Time Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Tianzhen; Buhl, Fred; Haves, Philip

    2008-09-20

    EnergyPlus is a new generation building performance simulation program offering many new modeling capabilities and more accurate performance calculations integrating building components in sub-hourly time steps. However, EnergyPlus runs much slower than the current generation simulation programs. This has become a major barrier to its widespread adoption by the industry. This paper analyzed EnergyPlus run time from comprehensive perspectives to identify key issues and challenges of speeding up EnergyPlus: studying the historical trends of EnergyPlus run time based on the advancement of computers and code improvements to EnergyPlus, comparing EnergyPlus with DOE-2 to understand and quantify the run time differences, identifying key simulation settings and model features that have significant impacts on run time, and performing code profiling to identify which EnergyPlus subroutines consume the most amount of run time. This paper provides recommendations to improve EnergyPlus run time from the modeler?s perspective and adequate computing platforms. Suggestions of software code and architecture changes to improve EnergyPlus run time based on the code profiling results are also discussed.

  14. The Second Student-Run Homeless Shelter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seider, Scott C.

    2012-01-01

    From 1983-2011, the Harvard Square Homeless Shelter (HSHS) in Cambridge, Massachusetts, was the only student-run homeless shelter in the United States. However, college students at Villanova, Temple, Drexel, the University of Pennsylvania, and Swarthmore drew upon the HSHS model to open their own student-run homeless shelter in Philadelphia,…

  15. Teaching Bank Runs with Classroom Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkenborg, Dieter; Kaplan, Todd; Miller, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    Once relegated to cinema or history lectures, bank runs have become a modern phenomenon that captures the interest of students. In this article, the authors explain a simple classroom experiment based on the Diamond-Dybvig model (1983) to demonstrate how a bank run--a seemingly irrational event--can occur rationally. They then present possible…

  16. Performance evaluation and financial market runs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, W.B.

    2013-01-01

    This paper develops a model in which performance evaluation causes runs by fund managers and results in asset fire sales. Performance evaluation nonetheless is efficient as it disciplines managers. Optimal performance evaluation combines absolute and relative components in order to make runs less

  17. Long Run Relationship Between Agricultural Production And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study sought to estimate the impact of agricultural production on the long run economic growth in Nigeria using the Vector Error Correction Methodology. The result shows that long run relationship exists between agricultural production and economic growth in Nigeria. Among the variables in the model, crop production ...

  18. An elite runner with cerebral palsy: cost of running determines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Running performance is widely understood in terms of the Joyner model (VO2max, %VO2max at ventilatory threshold (VT), running economy (often measured as cost of running (CR) as VO2 in ml.kg‑1.km‑1). Objective: To test the Joyner model by evaluating a runner in whom one element of the Joyner model ...

  19. Modelling error distribution in the ground reaction force during an induced-acceleration analysis of running in rear-foot strikers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Sekiya; Nakaya, Seigo; Mori, Hiroto; Ishikawa, Tatsuya; Willmott, Alexander P

    2017-06-22

    The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a methodology for quantifying the contributions of modelling error terms, as well as individual joint torque, gravitational force and motion-dependent terms, to the generation of ground reaction force (GRF), whose true value can be measured with high accuracy using a force platform. Dynamic contributions to the GRF were derived from the combination of (1) the equations of motion for the individual segments, (2) the equations for constraint conditions arising from the connection of adjacent segments at joints, and (3) the equations for anatomical constraint axes at certain joints. The contribution of the error term was divided into four components caused by fluctuation of segment lengths, geometric variation in the constraint joint axes, and residual joint force and moment errors. The proposed methodology was applied to the running motion of thirteen rear-foot strikers at a constant speed of 3.3 m/s. Modelling errors arose primarily from fluctuations in support leg segment lengths and rapid movement of the virtual joint between the foot and ground during the first 20% of stance phase. The magnitudes of these error contributions to the vertical and anterior/posterior components of the GRF are presented alongside the non-error contributions, of which the joint torque term was the largest.

  20. Running Boot Camp

    CERN Document Server

    Toporek, Chuck

    2008-01-01

    When Steve Jobs jumped on stage at Macworld San Francisco 2006 and announced the new Intel-based Macs, the question wasn't if, but when someone would figure out a hack to get Windows XP running on these new "Mactels." Enter Boot Camp, a new system utility that helps you partition and install Windows XP on your Intel Mac. Boot Camp does all the heavy lifting for you. You won't need to open the Terminal and hack on system files or wave a chicken bone over your iMac to get XP running. This free program makes it easy for anyone to turn their Mac into a dual-boot Windows/OS X machine. Running Bo

  1. The Effect of Initial Margin on Long-run and Short-run Volatilities in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangbae Kim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effect of initial margin requirements on long-run and short-run volatilities in the Japanese stock market using the Component GARCH model. Our empirical results show that when we do not divide the margin requirement into positive and negative changes, increasing margin requirement is effective for reducing long-run volatility, while not effective in short-run volatility. However, separating the positive and negative changes in margin requirements reveals the fact that the negative changes in margin requirements decrease long-run volatilities, while the higher margin requirements increase short-run volatilities in the Japanese stock market. This suggests that if the Japanese financial authorities intend to increase margin level to reduce volatility, unexpectedly, short-run volatility would be even higher.

  2. Electroweak processes at Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Spalla, Margherita; Sestini, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    We present a summary of the studies of the electroweak sector of the Standard Model at LHC after the first year of data taking of Run2, focusing on possible results to be achieved with the analysis of full 2015 and 2016 data. We discuss the measurements of W and Z boson production, with particular attention to the precision determination of basic Standard Model parameters, and the study of multi-boson interactions through the analysis of boson-boson final states. This work is the result of the collaboration between scientists from the ATLAS, CMS and LHCb experiments.

  3. Analyzing the Effects of the Iranian Energy Subsidy Reform Plan on Short- Run Marginal Generation Cost of Electricity Using Extended Input-Output Price Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Salimian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Subsidizing energy in Iran has imposed high costs on country's economy. Thus revising energy prices, on the basis of a subsidy reform plan, is a vital remedy to boost up the economy. While the direct consequence of cutting subsidies on electricity generation costs can be determined in a simple way, identifying indirect effects, which reflect higher costs for input factors such as labor, is a challenging problem. In this paper, variables such as compensation of employees and private consumption are endogenized by using extended Input-Output (I-O price model to evaluate direct and indirect effects of electricity and fuel prices increase on economic subsectors. The determination of the short-run marginal generation cost of electricity using I-O technique with taken into account the Iranian targeted subsidy plan's influences is the main goal of this paper. Marginal cost of electricity, in various scenarios of price adjustment of energy, is estimated for three conventional categories of thermal power plants. Our results show that the raising the price of energy leads to an increase in the electricity production costs. Accordingly, the production costs will be higher than 1000 Rials per kWh until 2014 as predicted in the beginning of the reform plan by electricity suppliers.

  4. Wave Run-Up on Rubble Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van de Walle, Bjorn; De Rouck, Julien; Troch, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Seven sets of data for wave run-up on a rubble mound breakwater were combined and re-analysed, with full-scale, large-scale and small-scale model test results being taken into account. The dimensionless wave run-up value Ru-2%/Hm0 was considered, where R u-2% is the wave run-up height exceeded by 2....... Differences in wave run-up results between the various data sets could be explained by a difference in spectral width observed within these data sets. A multi-regression formula was fitted to all wave run-up data. The formula is valid for permeable rubble mound breakwaters covered with either grooved cubes...

  5. Short-run and long-run elasticities of import demand for crude oil in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altinay, Galip [Dogus University, Kadikoy, Istanbul (Turkey). Department of Economics and Finance

    2007-11-15

    The aim of this study is to attempt to estimate the short-run and the long-run elasticities of demand for crude oil in Turkey by the recent autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach to cointegration. As a developing country, Turkey meets its growing demand for oil principally by foreign suppliers. Thus, the study focuses on modelling the demand for imported crude oil using annual data covering the period 1980-2005. The bounds test results reveal that a long-run cointegration relationship exists between the crude oil import and the explanatory variables: nominal price and income, but not in the model that includes real price in domestic currency. The long-run parameters are estimated through a long-run static solution of the estimated ARDL model, and then the short-run dynamics are estimated by the error correction model. The estimated models pass the diagnostic tests successfully. The findings reveal that the income and price elasticities of import demand for crude oil are inelastic both in the short run and in the long run. (author)

  6. Short-run and long-run elasticities of import demand for crude oil in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altinay, Galip

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to attempt to estimate the short-run and the long-run elasticities of demand for crude oil in Turkey by the recent autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach to cointegration. As a developing country, Turkey meets its growing demand for oil principally by foreign suppliers. Thus, the study focuses on modelling the demand for imported crude oil using annual data covering the period 1980-2005. The bounds test results reveal that a long-run cointegration relationship exists between the crude oil import and the explanatory variables: nominal price and income, but not in the model that includes real price in domestic currency. The long-run parameters are estimated through a long-run static solution of the estimated ARDL model, and then the short-run dynamics are estimated by the error correction model. The estimated models pass the diagnostic tests successfully. The findings reveal that the income and price elasticities of import demand for crude oil are inelastic both in the short run and in the long run. (author)

  7. ATLAS Run II Exotics Results

    CERN Document Server

    ATLAS Collaboration; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    While Standard Model is in a good shape especially after Higgs boson discovery, there are a lot of questions beyond SM. The ATLAS detector is performing about 50 Exotics searches addressed these questions. This talk is discussing some of them with datasets collected during the 2015-2016 LHC run from 3 fb^-1 to 18 fb^-1 of proton-proton collisions at 13 TeV centre of mass energy . Results on searches for resonances decaying into vector boson or fermions, for vector like quarks, for dark matter, and for other new phenomena using these data will be presented.

  8. Running Training, Instruction on Running Technique, and Running Economy in 10-year-old Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petray, Clayre K.; Krahenbuhl, Gary S.

    1985-01-01

    This study attempted to determine the effects of running training, instruction on running techniques, or a combination of instruction and training on the running economy of 10-year-old children. No significant alterations in running economy or technique were produced as a result of the various regimens. (Author/MT)

  9. CMB constraints on running non-Gaussianity

    OpenAIRE

    Oppizzi, Filippo; Liguori, Michele; Renzi, Alessandro; Arroja, Frederico; Bartolo, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    We develop a complete set of tools for CMB forecasting, simulation and estimation of primordial running bispectra, arising from a variety of curvaton and single-field (DBI) models of Inflation. We validate our pipeline using mock CMB running non-Gaussianity realizations and test it on real data by obtaining experimental constraints on the $f_{\\rm NL}$ running spectral index, $n_{\\rm NG}$, using WMAP 9-year data. Our final bounds (68\\% C.L.) read $-0.3< n_{\\rm NG}

  10. Ubuntu Up and Running

    CERN Document Server

    Nixon, Robin

    2010-01-01

    Ubuntu for everyone! This popular Linux-based operating system is perfect for people with little technical background. It's simple to install, and easy to use -- with a strong focus on security. Ubuntu: Up and Running shows you the ins and outs of this system with a complete hands-on tour. You'll learn how Ubuntu works, how to quickly configure and maintain Ubuntu 10.04, and how to use this unique operating system for networking, business, and home entertainment. This book includes a DVD with the complete Ubuntu system and several specialized editions -- including the Mythbuntu multimedia re

  11. Run-2 Supersymmetry searches in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Soffer, Abner; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Despite the absence of experimental evidence, weak scale supersymmetry remains one of the best motivated and studied Standard Model extensions. With the large increase in collision energy with the LHC Run-2 (from 8TeV to 13 TeV) the sensitivity to heavy strongly produced SUSY particles (squarks and gluinos) increases tremendously. This talk presents recent ATLAS Run-2 searches for such particles in final states including jets, missing transverse momentum, and possibly light leptons.

  12. Preliminary Results of a U.S. Deep South Warm Season Deep Convective Initiation Modeling Experiment using NASA SPoRT Initialization Datasets for Operational National Weather Service Local Model Runs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medlin, Jeffrey M.; Wood, Lance; Zavodsky, Brad; Case, Jon; Molthan, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The initiation of deep convection during the warm season is a forecast challenge in the relative high instability and low wind shear environment of the U.S. Deep South. Despite improved knowledge of the character of well known mesoscale features such as local sea-, bay- and land-breezes, observations show the evolution of these features fall well short in fully describing the location of first initiates. A joint collaborative modeling effort among the NWS offices in Mobile, AL, and Houston, TX, and NASA s Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center was undertaken during the 2012 warm season to examine the impact of certain NASA produced products on the Weather Research and Forecasting Environmental Modeling System. The NASA products were: a 4-km Land Information System data, a 1-km sea surface temperature analysis, and a 4-km greenness vegetation fraction analysis. Similar domains were established over the southeast Texas and Alabama coastlines, each with a 9 km outer grid spacing and a 3 km inner nest spacing. The model was run at each NWS office once per day out to 24 hours from 0600 UTC, using the NCEP Global Forecast System for initial and boundary conditions. Control runs without the NASA products were made at the NASA SPoRT Center. The NCAR Model Evaluation Tools verification package was used to evaluate both the forecast timing and location of the first initiates, with a focus on the impacts of the NASA products on the model forecasts. Select case studies will be presented to highlight the influence of the products.

  13. ATLAS people can run!

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni de Oliveira; Pauline Gagnon

    It must be all the training we are getting every day, running around trying to get everything ready for the start of the LHC next year. This year, the ATLAS runners were in fine form and came in force. Nine ATLAS teams signed up for the 37th Annual CERN Relay Race with six runners per team. Under a blasting sun on Wednesday 23rd May 2007, each team covered the distances of 1000m, 800m, 800m, 500m, 500m and 300m taking the runners around the whole Meyrin site, hills included. A small reception took place in the ATLAS secretariat a week later to award the ATLAS Cup to the best ATLAS team. For the details on this complex calculation which takes into account the age of each runner, their gender and the color of their shoes, see the July 2006 issue of ATLAS e-news. The ATLAS Running Athena Team, the only all-women team enrolled this year, won the much coveted ATLAS Cup for the second year in a row. In fact, they are so good that Peter Schmid and Patrick Fassnacht are wondering about reducing the women's bonus in...

  14. Multi-scale modeling for prediction of distributed cellular properties in response to substrate spatial gradients in a continuously run microreactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lencastre Fernandes, Rita; Krühne, Ulrich; Nopens, Ingmar

    2012-01-01

    In large-scale fermentors, non-ideal mixing leads to the development of heterogeneous cell populations. This cell-to-cell variability may explain the differences in e.g. yields for large- and lab-scale cultivations. In this work the anaerobic growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a continuously run...

  15. Endurance and age : evidence from long-distance running data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterken, Elmer

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of aging on long-run endurance. We analyze the determinants of running speed on distances from 5K to the marathon. We model running speed as a function of distance, age, and sex. We find evidence for interaction between age and sex, but not between distance and sex.

  16. Utilization of Human-Like Pelvic Rotation for Running Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuya eOtani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The spring loaded inverted pendulum (SLIP is used to model human running. It is based on a characteristic feature of human running, in which the linear-spring-like motion of the standing leg is produced by the joint stiffness of the knee and ankle. Although this model is widely used in robotics, it does not include human-like pelvic motion. In this study, we show that the pelvis actually contributes to the increase in jumping force and absorption of landing impact. On the basis of this finding, we propose a new model, SLIP2 (spring loaded inverted pendulum with pelvis, to improve running in humanoid robots. The model is composed of a body mass, a pelvis, and leg springs, and, it can control its springs while running by use of pelvic movement in the frontal plane. To achieve running motions, we developed a running control system that includes a pelvic oscillation controller to attain control over jumping power and a landing placement controller to adjust the running speed. We also developed a new running robot by using the SLIP2 model and performed hopping and running experiments to evaluate the model. The developed robot could accomplish hopping motions only by pelvic movement. The results also established that the difference between the pelvic rotational phase and the oscillation phase of the vertical mass displacement affects the jumping force. In addition, the robot demonstrated the ability to run with a foot placement controller depending on the reference running speed.

  17. Running with a load increases leg stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silder, Amy; Besier, Thor; Delp, Scott L

    2015-04-13

    Spring-mass models have been used to characterize running mechanics and leg stiffness in a variety of conditions, yet it remains unknown how running while carrying a load affects running mechanics and leg stiffness. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that running with a load increases leg stiffness. Twenty-seven subjects ran at a constant speed on a force-measuring treadmill while carrying no load, and while wearing weight vests loaded with 10%, 20%, and 30% of body weight. We measured lower extremity motion and created a scaled musculoskeletal model of each subject, which we used to estimate lower extremity joint angles and leg length. We estimated dimensionless leg stiffness as the ratio of the peak vertical ground reaction force (normalized to body weight) and the change in stance phase leg length (normalized to leg length at initial foot contact). Leg length was calculated as the distance from the center of the pelvis to the center-of-pressure under the foot. We found that dimensionless leg stiffness increased when running with load (p=0.001); this resulted from an increase in the peak vertical ground reaction force (pleg length (p=0.025). When running with load, subjects had longer ground contact times (pleg stiffness to accommodate an added load. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Running Performance as an Indicator of VO2max: Distance Effects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vickers, Jr, Ross R

    2001-01-01

    Distance runs often are used to estimate aerobic capacity. This meta-analysis of 226 correlations from 122 studies involving fixed-distance run tests produced a quantitative model of run test validity as a function of distance...

  19. The Beautiful Physics of LHC Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John

    2015-01-01

    Run 2 of the LHC offers some beautiful prospects for new physics, including flavour physics as well as more detailed studies of the Higgs boson and searches for new physics beyond the Standard Model (BSM). One of the possibilities for BSM physics is supersymmetry, and flavour physics plays various important r\\^oles in constraining supersymmetric models.

  20. Design of ProjectRun21: a 14-week prospective cohort study of the influence of running experience and running pace on running-related injury in half-marathoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damsted, Camma; Parner, Erik Thorlund; Sørensen, Henrik; Malisoux, Laurent; Nielsen, Rasmus Oestergaard

    2017-11-06

    Participation in half-marathon has been steeply increasing during the past decade. In line, a vast number of half-marathon running schedules has surfaced. Unfortunately, the injury incidence proportion for half-marathoners has been found to exceed 30% during 1-year follow-up. The majority of running-related injuries are suggested to develop as overuse injuries, which leads to injury if the cumulative training load over one or more training sessions exceeds the runners' load capacity for adaptive tissue repair. Owing to an increase of load capacity along with adaptive running training, the runners' running experience and pace abilities can be used as estimates for load capacity. Since no evidence-based knowledge exist of how to plan appropriate half-marathon running schedules considering the level of running experience and running pace, the aim of ProjectRun21 is to investigate the association between running experience or running pace and the risk of running-related injury. Healthy runners using Global Positioning System (GPS) watch between 18 and 65 years will be invited to participate in this 14-week prospective cohort study. Runners will be allowed to self-select one of three half-marathon running schedules developed for the study. Running data will be collected objectively by GPS. Injury will be based on the consensus-based time loss definition by Yamato et al.: "Running-related (training or competition) musculoskeletal pain in the lower limbs that causes a restriction on or stoppage of running (distance, speed, duration, or training) for at least 7 days or 3 consecutive scheduled training sessions, or that requires the runner to consult a physician or other health professional". Running experience and running pace will be included as primary exposures, while the exposure to running is pre-fixed in the running schedules and thereby conditioned by design. Time-to-event models will be used for analytical purposes. ProjectRun21 will examine if particular

  1. The Concerted Run on the DSB Bank : An Exploratory System Dynamics Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruyt, E.; Hamarat, C.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, an Exploratory System Dynamics model of a concerted run is first of all presented. The immediate cause for modelling a concerted bank run was the mediatised call for a run on the DSB bank. This Exploratory System Dynamics model was developed the morning of the call for the bank run,

  2. Backward running or absence of running from Creutz ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giedt, Joel; Weinberg, Evan

    2011-01-01

    We extract the running coupling based on Creutz ratios in SU(2) lattice gauge theory with two Dirac fermions in the adjoint representation. Depending on how the extrapolation to zero fermion mass is performed, either backward running or an absence of running is observed at strong bare coupling. This behavior is consistent with other findings which indicate that this theory has an infrared fixed point.

  3. Wave Run-up on the Zeebrugge Rubble Mound Breakwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Rouck, Julien; Van de Walle, Björn; Troch, Peter

    2007-01-01

    compared. This comparison confirmed the MAST II outcome: wave run-up is underestimated by small-scale model tests. The difference between full-scale measurement results and small-scale model test results is the result of model effects. The porosity of the armor layer has a significant influence on wave run...

  4. Wave Run-Up on Offshore Windturbine Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; De Vos, Leen

    2005-01-01

    -up on a monopile foundation. A comparison is made between the measured run-up values and several theories and previous experimental studies which predict the run-up on a circular pile. A new suggestion for a relatively simple relationship between the wave climate and the run-up is made, both for regular...... facilities and platforms has been caused by wave run-up and wave impacts on the platforms. To be able to assess the forces caused by the wave run-up, it is necessary to know the maximum run-up height and the destribution of the run-up along the pile. This article describes a physical model study...... investigating run-up heights and run-up distribution on different offshore windturbine foundations due to regular and irregular waves. The influence of wave steepness, wave height and water depth on the run-up on a monopile foundation is investigated. The run-up on a cone foundation is compared with the run...

  5. The effect of footwear on running performance and running economy in distance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Joel T; Bellenger, Clint R; Thewlis, Dominic; Tsiros, Margarita D; Buckley, Jonathan D

    2015-03-01

    The effect of footwear on running economy has been investigated in numerous studies. However, no systematic review and meta-analysis has synthesised the available literature and the effect of footwear on running performance is not known. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate the effect of footwear on running performance and running economy in distance runners, by reviewing controlled trials that compare different footwear conditions or compare footwear with barefoot. The Web of Science, Scopus, MEDLINE, CENTRAL (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials), EMBASE, AMED (Allied and Complementary Medicine), CINAHL and SPORTDiscus databases were searched from inception up until April 2014. Included articles reported on controlled trials that examined the effects of footwear or footwear characteristics (including shoe mass, cushioning, motion control, longitudinal bending stiffness, midsole viscoelasticity, drop height and comfort) on running performance or running economy and were published in a peer-reviewed journal. Of the 1,044 records retrieved, 19 studies were included in the systematic review and 14 studies were included in the meta-analysis. No studies were identified that reported effects on running performance. Individual studies reported significant, but trivial, beneficial effects on running economy for comfortable and stiff-soled shoes [standardised mean difference (SMD) economy for cushioned shoes (SMD = 0.37; P economy for training in minimalist shoes (SMD = 0.79; P economy for light shoes and barefoot compared with heavy shoes (SMD economy. Certain models of footwear and footwear characteristics can improve running economy. Future research in footwear performance should include measures of running performance.

  6. Changes in running economy at different intensities following downhill running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Trevor C; Nosaka, Kazunori; Lin, Ming-Ju; Chen, Hsin-Lian; Wu, Chang-Jun

    2009-09-01

    In this study, we tested the hypothesis that running economy assessed at a high intensity [e.g. 90% maximal oxygen capacity (VO2(max))] would be affected more than at a lower intensity (e.g. 70% VO2(max)) after downhill running. Fifteen untrained young men performed level running at 70, 80, and 90% VO2(max) (5 min for each intensity) before and 2 and 5 days after a 30-min downhill run (gradient of -16%) at the intensity of their pre-determined 70% VO2(max). Oxygen consumption, minute ventilation, respiratory exchange ratio, heart rate, rating of perceived exertion, and blood lactate concentration were measured during the level runs together with kinematic measures (e.g. stride length and frequency) using high-speed video analysis. Downhill running resulted in significant (P economy and kinematic measures from baseline were evident at 2 and 5 days after downhill running at 80% and 90% VO2(max), but not at 70% VO2(max). These results suggest that running economy assessed at high intensity is affected more than at low intensity (lower than the lactate threshold).

  7. Development of econometric models for cost and time over-runs: an empirical study of major road construction projects in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.; Chaudhary, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    The construction industry is flourishing worldwide and contributes about 10% to the GDP of the world i.e. up to the tune of 4.6 Trillion US dollars. It employs almost 7% of the total employee dpersons and, consumes around 40% of the total energy. The Pakistani construction sector has displayed impressive growth in recent past years. The efficient road network is a key part of construction business and plays a significant role in the economic uplift of country. The overruns in costs and delays in completion of projects are very common phenomena and it has also been observed that the projects involving construction of roads also face problems of delays and cost over runs especially in developing countries. The causes of cost overruns and delays in road projects being undertaken by the premier road construction organization of Pakistan National Highway Authority (NHA) have been considered in this study. It has been done specifically in the context of impact of cause(s) determined from project report of a total of one hundred and thirty one (131) projects. The ten causative factors which we recognize as Design, Planning and Scheduling Related problems, Financial Constraint Related reasons, Social Problem Related reasons, Technical Reasons, Administrative Reasons, Scope Increase, Specification Changes, Cost Escalation Related reasons, Non-Availability of Equipment or Material and Force Majeure play a commanding role in determination of the cost and time over runs. It has also been observed that among these identified causes, the factors of Administrative Reason, Design, Planning and Scheduling Related, Technical Reasons and Force Majeure are the most significant reasons in cost and time overruns. Whereas, the Cost Escalation related reasons has the least impact on cost increase and delays. The NHA possesses a financial worth of around Rs. 36 billion and with an annual turn over amounting to Rs. 22 billion is responsible to perform road construction project in entire

  8. Wave Run-Up on Offshore Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramirez, Jorge Robert Rodriguez

    to the cylinder. Based on appropriate analysis the collected data has been analysed with the stream function theory to obtain the relevant parameters for the use of the predicted wave run-up formula. An analytical approach has been pursued and solved for individual waves. Maximum run-up and 2% run-up were studied......This study has investigated the interaction of water waves with a circular structure known as wave run-up phenomenon. This run-up phenomenon has been simulated by the use of computational fluid dynamic models. The numerical model (NS3) used in this study has been verified rigorously against...... a number of cases. Regular and freak waves have been generated in a numerical wave tank with a gentle slope in order to address the study of the wave run-up on a circular cylinder. From the computational side it can be said that it is inexpensive. Furthermore, the comparison of the current numerical model...

  9. Are There Long-Run Effects of the Minimum Wage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorkin, Isaac

    2015-04-01

    An empirical consensus suggests that there are small employment effects of minimum wage increases. This paper argues that these are short-run elasticities. Long-run elasticities, which may differ from short-run elasticities, are policy relevant. This paper develops a dynamic industry equilibrium model of labor demand. The model makes two points. First, long-run regressions have been misinterpreted because even if the short- and long-run employment elasticities differ, standard methods would not detect a difference using US variation. Second, the model offers a reconciliation of the small estimated short-run employment effects with the commonly found pass-through of minimum wage increases to product prices.

  10. Delta FosB regulates wheel running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werme, Martin; Messer, Chad; Olson, Lars; Gilden, Lauren; Thorén, Peter; Nestler, Eric J; Brené, Stefan

    2002-09-15

    DeltaFosB is a transcription factor that accumulates in a region-specific manner in the brain after chronic perturbations. For example, repeated administration of drugs of abuse increases levels of DeltaFosB in the striatum. In the present study, we analyzed the effect of spontaneous wheel running, as a model for a natural rewarding behavior, on levels of DeltaFosB in striatal regions. Moreover, mice that inducibly overexpress DeltaFosB in specific subpopulations of striatal neurons were used to study the possible role of DeltaFosB on running behavior. Lewis rats given ad libitum access to running wheels for 30 d covered what would correspond to approximately 10 km/d and showed increased levels of DeltaFosB in the nucleus accumbens compared with rats exposed to locked running wheels. Mice that overexpress DeltaFosB selectively in striatal dynorphin-containing neurons increased their daily running compared with control littermates, whereas mice that overexpress DeltaFosB predominantly in striatal enkephalin-containing neurons ran considerably less than controls. Data from the present study demonstrate that like drugs of abuse, voluntary running increases levels of DeltaFosB in brain reward pathways. Furthermore, overexpression of DeltaFosB in a distinct striatal output neuronal population increases running behavior. Because previous work has shown that DeltaFosB overexpression within this same neuronal population increases the rewarding properties of drugs of abuse, results of the present study suggest that DeltaFosB may play a key role in controlling both natural and drug-induced reward.

  11. ALICE HLT Run 2 performance overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Lindenstruth, Volker; ALICE Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    For the LHC Run 2 the ALICE HLT architecture was consolidated to comply with the upgraded ALICE detector readout technology. The software framework was optimized and extended to cope with the increased data load. Online calibration of the TPC using online tracking capabilities of the ALICE HLT was deployed. Offline calibration code was adapted to run both online and offline and the HLT framework was extended to support that. The performance of this schema is important for Run 3 related developments. An additional data transport approach was developed using the ZeroMQ library, forming at the same time a test bed for the new data flow model of the O2 system, where further development of this concept is ongoing. This messaging technology was used to implement the calibration feedback loop augmenting the existing, graph oriented HLT transport framework. Utilising the online reconstruction of many detectors, a new asynchronous monitoring scheme was developed to allow real-time monitoring of the physics performance of the ALICE detector, on top of the new messaging scheme for both internal and external communication. Spare computing resources comprising the production and development clusters are run as a tier-2 GRID site using an OpenStack-based setup. The development cluster is running continuously, the production cluster contributes resources opportunistically during periods of LHC inactivity.

  12. Wave Run-Up on Offshore Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramirez, Jorge Robert Rodriguez

    This study has investigated the interaction of water waves with a circular structure known as wave run-up phenomenon. This run-up phenomenon has been simulated by the use of computational fluid dynamic models. The numerical model (NS3) used in this study has been verified rigorously against a num...

  13. Take the monkey and run

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Kimberley A.; Hambright, M. Karen; Hewes, Kelly; Schilder, Brian M.; Ross, Corinna N.; Tardif, Suzette D.

    2015-01-01

    Background The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is a small, New World primate that is used extensively in biomedical and behavioral research. This short-lived primate, with its small body size, ease of handling, and docile temperament, has emerged as a valuable model for aging and neurodegenerative research. A growing body of research has indicated exercise, aerobic exercise especially, imparts beneficial effects to normal aging. Understanding the mechanisms underlying these positive effects of exercise, and the degree to which exercise has neurotherapeutic effects, is an important research focus. Thus, developing techniques to engage marmosets in aerobic exercise would have great advantages. New method Here we describe the marmoset exercise ball (MEB) paradigm: a safe (for both experimenter and subjects), novel and effective means to engage marmosets in aerobic exercise. We trained young adult male marmosets to run on treadmills for 30 min a day, 3 days a week. Results Our training procedures allowed us to engage male marmosets in this aerobic exercise within 4 weeks, and subjects maintained this frequency of exercise for 3 months. Comparison with existing methods To our knowledge, this is the first described method to engage marmosets in aerobic exercise. A major advantage of this exercise paradigm is that while it was technically forced exercise, it did not appear to induce stress in the marmosets. Conclusions These techniques should be useful to researchers wishing to address physiological responses of exercise in a marmoset model. PMID:25835199

  14. The ATLAS jet trigger performance in LHC Run I and Run II updates

    CERN Document Server

    Shimizu, Shima; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) provides proton-proton collisions with a high frequency of 40 MHz maximum and the ATLAS trigger performs the first event selections online during data-taking. The ATLAS jet trigger is an important element of the ATLAS trigger, selecting collision events with jets with high transverse energy, and provides data samples for studies of Standard Model physics and searches for new physics at the LHC. During LHC Run I, the first LHC operation period from 2010 to 2012, the ATLAS jet trigger system improved as experience developed with triggering in a high luminosity and high event pileup environment. For the next LHC operation period, Run II, the system is being updated for further improved performance and stability. In this contribution, performance and improvements of the ATLAS jet trigger in Run I are presented. Updates for Run II are also shown.

  15. LONG RUN AND SHORT RUN EFFECTS OF MONETARY ANDEXCHANGE VARIABLES ON STOCK PRICES IN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Alavi Rad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The movements in the stock prices are an important indicator of theeconomy. Thepurpose of this paper was to examine the relationship between Tehran StockExchange (TSE price index andmonetaryvariables in Iran. We have usedAutoregressive Distributed Lag(ARDLapproachandError Correction Model(ECM to determine theeffectsof monetary and exchange variables on TSE priceindex in long run and short run. Quantitative estimates based on the time seriesmonthly data from 2004 to 2009, indicate that liquidity (M2 has a positive effecton TSE price index in long run. But,free market exchange rate(FR and legalreserves(LR have a negative effecton TSE price index in long run.On the otherhand, monetaryand exchangevariables have a significant effect on TSE priceindex in shortrun. However, the coefficient of the Error Correction Term (ECTshows that speed of adjustment is slow and the ECM only can explain 69 per centof fluctuation of TSE price index.

  16. Applying the cost of generating force hypothesis to uphill running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter Hoogkamer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Historically, several different approaches have been applied to explain the metabolic cost of uphill human running. Most of these approaches result in unrealistically high values for the efficiency of performing vertical work during running uphill, or are only valid for running up steep inclines. The purpose of this study was to reexamine the metabolic cost of uphill running, based upon our understanding of level running energetics and ground reaction forces during uphill running. In contrast to the vertical efficiency approach, we propose that during incline running at a certain velocity, the forces (and hence metabolic energy required for braking and propelling the body mass parallel to the running surface are less than during level running. Based on this idea, we propose that the metabolic rate during uphill running can be predicted by a model, which posits that (1 the metabolic cost of perpendicular bouncing remains the same as during level running, (2 the metabolic cost of running parallel to the running surface decreases with incline, (3 the delta efficiency of producing mechanical power to lift the COM vertically is constant, independent of incline and running velocity, and (4 the costs of leg and arm swing do not change with incline. To test this approach, we collected ground reaction force (GRF data for eight runners who ran thirty 30-second trials (velocity: 2.0–3.0 m/s; incline: 0–9°. We also measured the metabolic rates of eight different runners for 17, 7-minute trials (velocity: 2.0–3.0 m/s; incline: 0–8°. During uphill running, parallel braking GRF approached zero for the 9° incline trials. Thus, we modeled the metabolic cost of parallel running as exponentially decreasing with incline. With that assumption, best-fit parameters for the metabolic rate data indicate that the efficiency of producing mechanical power to lift the center of mass vertically was independent of incline and running velocity, with a value of ∼29

  17. Instrumental Variables in the Long Run

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casey, Gregory; Klemp, Marc Patrick Brag

    2017-01-01

    quantitative implications for the field of long-run economic growth. We also use our framework to examine related empirical techniques. We find that two prominent regression methodologies - using gravity-based instruments for trade and including ancestry-adjusted variables in linear regression models - have...... related issues of interpretation. In the latter case, this problem can be overcome by including both unadjusted and adjusted measures in the regression model....

  18. Free-Running Droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Fabrice Domingues; Ondarçuhu, Thierry

    1995-10-01

    We present a detailed study of an original spreading behavior observed with nonvolatile droplets containing surface-active agents: The droplet moves spontaneously on the surface with velocities on the order of a few centimeters per second. For small droplets, this self-supported motion may be interpreted in terms of capillary models, which gives precise information about the reaction mechanism that occurs at the surface. For large droplets, gravity intervenes and we observed an important change in the profile of the droplets and different spreading regimes.

  19. Wheel running in the wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Johanna H; Robbers, Yuri

    2014-07-07

    The importance of exercise for health and neurogenesis is becoming increasingly clear. Wheel running is often used in the laboratory for triggering enhanced activity levels, despite the common objection that this behaviour is an artefact of captivity and merely signifies neurosis or stereotypy. If wheel running is indeed caused by captive housing, wild mice are not expected to use a running wheel in nature. This however, to our knowledge, has never been tested. Here, we show that when running wheels are placed in nature, they are frequently used by wild mice, also when no extrinsic reward is provided. Bout lengths of running wheel behaviour in the wild match those for captive mice. This finding falsifies one criterion for stereotypic behaviour, and suggests that running wheel activity is an elective behaviour. In a time when lifestyle in general and lack of exercise in particular are a major cause of disease in the modern world, research into physical activity is of utmost importance. Our findings may help alleviate the main concern regarding the use of running wheels in research on exercise.

  20. Urban Methane Source Attribution Using In-Situ Airborne Measurements and Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floerchinger, C. R.; Hajny, K. D.; Jones, T.; Stirm, B. H.; Wofsy, S. C.; Shepson, P. B.

    2017-12-01

    Methane emissions from urban natural gas distribution networks have traditionally been difficult to interpret using top down studies due to the heterogeneity of the domain with respect to thermogenic and biogenic methane emission sources. Using high time resolution measurements of methane and ethane onboard the Airborne Laboratory for Atmospheric Research (ALAR) operated by Purdue University and the chemical composition of natural gas within a city's distribution system, we can attribute fractions of total methane emission to their origin. We present emission source distributions for major cities on the Eastern Seaboard of the United States. Airborne receptors are also coupled with a Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model (LPDM) to present a more spatially resolved perspective of the emission distribution in each city domain. These data are presented in the context of previous total methane emission estimates from the urban domain.

  1. AFSC/REFM: FEAST (Forage Euphausiid in Space and Time NPRB B.70 Model output for 1970-2009 Hindcast (Run V146), Kerim Aydin and Andre Punt

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weekly biophysical and fish model output of FEAST. Part of The Bering Sea Project, FEAST is a high resolution (~10km2) spatial model that uses a Regional Ocean...

  2. Effects of marathon running on running economy and kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyröläinen, H; Pullinen, T; Candau, R; Avela, J; Huttunen, P; Komi, P V

    2000-07-01

    The present study was designed to investigate interactions between running economy and mechanics before, during, and after an individually run marathon. Seven experienced triathletes performed a 5-min submaximal running test on a treadmill at an individual constant marathon speed. Heart rate was monitored and the expired respiratory gas was analyzed. Blood samples were drawn to analyze serum creatine kinase activity (S-CK), skeletal troponin I (sTnI), and blood lactate (B-La). A video analysis was performed (200 frames x s(-1)) to investigate running mechanics. A kinematic arm was used to determine the external work of each subject. The results of the present study demonstrate that after the marathon, a standardized 5-min submaximal running test resulted in an increase in oxygen consumption, ventilation, and heart rate (P exchange ratio (P economy cannot be explained by changes in running mechanics. Therefore, it is suggested that the increased physiological loading is due to several mechanisms: increased utilization of fat as an energy substrate, increased demands of body temperature regulation, and possible muscle damage.

  3. LHCf completes its first run

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    LHCf, one of the three smaller experiments at the LHC, has completed its first run. The detectors were removed last week and the analysis of data is continuing. The first results will be ready by the end of the year.   One of the two LHCf detectors during the removal operations inside the LHC tunnel. LHCf is made up of two independent detectors located in the tunnel 140 m either side of the ATLAS collision point. The experiment studies the secondary particles created during the head-on collisions in the LHC because they are similar to those created in a cosmic ray shower produced when a cosmic particle hits the Earth’s atmosphere. The focus of the experiment is to compare the various shower models used to estimate the primary energy of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays. The energy of proton-proton collisions at the LHC will be equivalent to a cosmic ray of 1017eV hitting the atmosphere, very close to the highest energies observed in the sky. “We have now completed the fir...

  4. Phthalate SHEDS-HT runs

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Inputs and outputs for SHEDS-HT runs of DiNP, DEHP, DBP. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Moreau, M., J. Leonard, K. Phillips, J. Campbell,...

  5. Turkey Run Landfill Emissions Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — landfill emissions measurements for the Turkey run landfill in Georgia. This dataset is associated with the following publication: De la Cruz, F., R. Green, G....

  6. Does Addiction Run in Families?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... That People Abuse Alcohol Facts Bath Salts Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) Facts Marijuana ( ... Addiction Run in Families? Listen ©istock.com/ janulla Genes carry information that makes you who you are. ...

  7. Test results of Run-1 and Run-2 in steam generator safety test facility (SWAT-3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, A.; Yatabe, Toshio; Tanabe, Hiromi; Hiroi, Hiroshi

    2003-07-01

    Large leak sodium-water reaction tests were carried out using SWAT-1 rig and SWAT-3 facility in Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) O-arai Engineering Center to obtain the data on the design of the prototype LMFBR Monju steam generator against a large leak accident. This report provides the results of SWAT-3 Runs 1 and 2. In Runs 1 and 2, the heat transfer tube bundle of the evaporator, fabricated by TOSHIBA/IHI, were used, and the pressure relief line was located at the top of evaporator. The water injection rates in the evaporator were 6.7 kg/s and 14.2 (initial)-9.7 kg/s in Runs 1 and 2 respectively, which corresponded to 3.3 tubes and 7.1 (initial)-4.8 tubes failure in actual size system according to iso-velocity modeling. Approximately two hundreds of measurement points were provided to collect data such as pressure, temperature, strain, sodium level, void, thrust load, acceleration, displacement, flow rate, and so on in each run. Initial spike pressures were 1.13 MPa and 2.62 MPa nearest to injection point in Runs 1 and 2 respectively, and the maximum quasi-steady pressures in evaporator were 0.49 MPa and 0.67 MPa in Runs 1 and 2. No secondary tube failure was observed. The rupture disc of evaporator (RD601) burst at 1.1s in Run-1 and at 0.7s in Run-2 after water injected, and the pressure relief system was well-functioned though a few items for improvement were found. (author)

  8. Primordial Gravitational Waves in Running Vacuum Cosmologies

    OpenAIRE

    Tamayo, D. A.; Lima, J. A. S.; Alves, M. E. S.; de Araujo, J. C. N.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the cosmological production of gravitational waves in a nonsingular flat cosmology powered by a "running vacuum" energy density described by $\\rho_{\\Lambda}\\equiv\\rho_{\\Lambda}(H)$, a phenomenological expression potentially linked with the renormalization group approach in quantum field theory in curved spacetimes. The model can be interpreted as a particular case of the class recently discussed by Perico et al. (Phys. Rev. D {\\bf 88}, 063531, 2013) which is termed complete in ...

  9. Non-linear vehicle-bridge-wind interaction model for running safety assessment of high-speed trains over a high-pier viaduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmos, José M.; Astiz, Miguel Á.

    2018-04-01

    In order to properly study the high-speed traffic safety on a high-pier viaduct subject to episodes of lateral turbulent winds, an efficient dynamic interaction train-bridge-wind model has been developed and experimentally validated. This model considers the full wheel and rail profiles, the friction between these two bodies in contact, and the piers P-Delta effect. The model has been used to determine the critical train and wind velocities from which the trains cannot travel safely over the O'Eixo Bridge. The dynamic simulations carried out and the results obtained in the time domain show that traffic safety rates exceed the allowed limits for turbulent winds with mean velocities at the deck higher than 25 m/s.

  10. Predicting temporal development of discharge and nitrate in relation to dynamic changes of spatial crop distribution in three land use scenario runs with a catchment model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guse, Björn; Pfannerstill, Matthias; Geertz, Jörn; Fohrer, Nicola

    2014-05-01

    In the past years, relevant changes in the use of agricultural areas were observed in German catchments. To achieve good ecological conditions in river basins as demanded by the European Water Framework Directive, the implications of land use change on water quantity and especially water quality needs to be quantified. Therefore, recent data of agricultural crops are prepared for the catchment scale. Based on this, simulations of future land use scenarios are carried out with a hydrological catchment model to analyse the linkage between dynamic changes of land use and modeled discharge and nutrients. Spatial and temporal variations of changes within agricultural areas lead to a dynamic change of pressures on the ecological status of rivers. While static land use distributions assume constant conditions for agricultural areas for the whole simulation period, dynamic changes of agricultural areas and their spatial patterns consider the varying land use conditions within the scenario simulation. In our study, a dynamic modeling of spatial distributions for agricultural crops and its impacts on discharge and nitrate is presented at the catchment scale. The area proportions of the crops are estimated in a data-based statistical approach and are implemented into the eco-hydrological model SWAT for recent and future conditions To obtain an accurate reproduction of the water cycle, the SWAT model is calibrated for discharge and nitrate time series for recent conditions. Three land use change scenarios are developed for the study catchment focusing on a dominance of food production, energy crops and on a best ecological practise. According to the scenarios, the spatial crop distribution is updated dynamically for each year, while non-agricultural land use types remain constant. The SWAT model provides satisfying results for discharge and nitrate. The evaluation of the three land use change scenarios for the period from 2021 to 2030 shows low differences in discharge, while

  11. Prolonged Running, not Fluoxetine Treatment, Increases Neurogenesis, but does not Alter Neuropathology, in the 3xTg Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marlatt, M.W.; Potter, M.C.; Bayer, T.A.; van Praag, H.; Lucassen, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    Reductions in adult neurogenesis have been documented in the original 3xTg mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD), notably occurring at the same age when spatial memory deficits and amyloid plaque pathology appeared. As this suggested reduced neurogenesis was associated with behavioral deficits, we

  12. ECONOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF SHORT-RUN AND LONG-RUN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IBUKUN

    machinery/tractors, electric power consumption, secondary school enrolments and trade openness (exports+imports/GDP) in US dollars. In order to examine the short and long run determinants of Agricultural Value Addition in. Africa, the Bound Testing approach was employed. Secondary data used in this study were.

  13. Predictors of Running-Related Injuries Among 930 Novice Runners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Oestergaard; Buist, Ida; Parner, Erik Thorlund; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard; Sørensen, Henrik; Lind, Martin; Rasmussen, Sten

    2013-01-01

    Background: To identify persons at high risk of sustaining running-related injuries, an evidence-based understanding of the risk factors associated with injury is needed. Purpose: To identify demographic and behavioral risk factors associated with running-related injuries. Study Design: Observational prospective cohort study with a 1-year follow-up. Methods: Exposures including sex, age, body mass index (BMI), behavior (Type A Self-Rating Inventory [TASRI]), running experience, other sports activity, previous running-related injuries, and other injuries not related to running were assessed prior to or at baseline. The outcome of interest was a running-related injury, defined as any musculoskeletal complaint of the lower extremity or back caused by running that restricted the amount of running (volume, duration, pace, or frequency) for at least 1 week. All participants quantified their running volume by global positioning system (GPS) and used a neutral running shoe. Time to first injury for each exposure variable was analyzed using a generalized linear model, with cumulative kilometers of the training sessions as the time scale. Results: A total of 930 individuals were included in the study, of which 254 sustained a running-related injury during a total of 155.318 km of running. By calculating the cumulative injury risk differences (cIRDs) [95% confidence intervals] after 500 km of running, the TASRI Type B behavior (cIRD, 11.9% [−0.5%; 23.3%]; P = .04) was found to be a significant predictor of injury, while age between 45 and 65 years (cIRD, 14.7% [−2.1%; 31.5%]; P = .08) and previous injuries not related to running (cIRD, 11.1% [−0.2%; 22.4%]; P = .05) were considered clinically interesting, although not statistically significant. In addition, χ2 test results across 4 BMI groups also revealed a borderline significant relationship (P = .06). No significant or clinically relevant relationships were found for sex (P = .42), previous running-related injury

  14. Development and application of multi-zone model for combustion and pollutants formation in direct injection diesel engine running with vegetable oil or its bio-diesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakopoulos, C.D.; Antonopoulos, K.A.; Rakopoulos, D.C.

    2007-01-01

    A multi-zone model for calculation of the closed cycle of a direct injection (DI) Diesel engine is presented and applied for the interesting case of its operation with vegetable oil (cottonseed) or its derived bio-diesel (methyl ester) as fuels, which recently are considered as promising alternatives (bio-fuels) to petroleum distillates. Although there are many experimental studies, there is an apparent scarcity of theoretical models scrutinizing the formation mechanisms of combustion generated emissions when using these fuels. The model is two dimensional, multi-zone with the issuing jets (from the nozzle) divided into several discrete volumes, called 'zones', formed along the direction of the fuel injection and across it. The model follows each zone, with its own time history, as the spray penetrates into the swirling air environment (forming the non-burning zone) of the combustion chamber, before and after wall impingement. Droplet evaporation and jet mixing models are used to determine the amount of fuel and entrained air in each zone available for combustion. The mass, energy and state equations are applied in each zone to yield local temperatures and cylinder pressure histories. The concentrations of the various constituents are calculated by adopting a chemical equilibrium scheme for the C-H-O-N system of 11 species considered, together with the chemical rate equations for the calculation of nitric oxide (NO). A model for evaluation of soot formation and oxidation rates is included. The results from the relevant computer program for the in cylinder pressure, exhaust nitric oxide concentration (NO) and soot density are compared favorably with the corresponding measurements from an experimental investigation conducted on a fully automated test bed, standard 'Hydra', DI Diesel engine installed at the authors' laboratory. Iso-contour plots of equivalence ratio, temperature, NO and soot inside the combustion chamber at various instants of time when using these

  15. Short-run and long-run dynamics of farm land allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnberg, Søren; Hansen, Lars Gårn

    2012-01-01

    This study develops and estimates a dynamic multi-output model of farmers’ land allocation decisions that allows for the gradual adjustment of allocations that can result from crop rotation practices and quasi-fixed capital constraints. Estimation is based on micro-panel data from Danish farmers...... that include acreage, output, and variable input utilization at the crop level. Results indicate that there are substantial differences between the short-run and long-run land allocation behaviour of Danish farmers and that there are substantial differences in the time lags associated with different crops...

  16. DESIGN IMPROVEMENT OF THE LOCOMOTIVE RUNNING GEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Myamlin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine the dynamic qualities of the mainline freight locomotives characterizing the safe motion in tangent and curved track sections at all operational speeds, one needs a whole set of studies, which includes a selection of the design scheme, development of the corresponding mathematical model of the locomotive spatial fluctuations, construction of the computer calculation program, conducting of the theoretical and then experimental studies of the new designs. In this case, one should compare the results with existing designs. One of the necessary conditions for the qualitative improvement of the traction rolling stock is to define the parameters of its running gears. Among the issues related to this problem, an important place is occupied by the task of determining the locomotive dynamic properties on the stage of projection, taking into account the selected technical solutions in the running gear design. Methodology. The mathematical modeling studies are carried out by the numerical integration method of the dynamic loading for the mainline locomotive using the software package «Dynamics of Rail Vehicles » («DYNRAIL». Findings. As a result of research for the improvement of locomotive running gear design it can be seen that the creation of the modern locomotive requires from engineers and scientists the realization of scientific and technical solutions. The solutions enhancing design speed with simultaneous improvement of the traction, braking and dynamic qualities to provide a simple and reliable design, especially the running gear, reducing the costs for maintenance and repair, low initial cost and operating costs for the whole service life, high traction force when starting, which is as close as possible to the ultimate force of adhesion, the ability to work in multiple traction mode and sufficient design speed. Practical Value. The generalization of theoretical, scientific and methodological, experimental studies aimed

  17. Design of a Free-running, 1/30th Froude Scaled Model Destroyer for In-situ Hydrodynamic Flow Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    synchronous motor , the brushless DC motor is a three phase synchronous AC motor with a position transducer built into the motor housing to...33) The resulting torque per shaft at the maximum design speed of 9.25 ft/sec was 1.88 N-m, or 1.39 ft-lbs. Brushless direct current ( DC ...determining the dynamics of a permanent magnet DC motor for use in a ship maneuvering model is provided in [22]. During the crashback maneuver, the

  18. CMS computing operations during run 1

    CERN Document Server

    Adelman, J; Artieda, J; Bagliese, G; Ballestero, D; Bansal, S; Bauerdick, L; Behrenhof, W; Belforte, S; Bloom, K; Blumenfeld, B; Blyweert, S; Bonacorsi, D; Brew, C; Contreras, L; Cristofori, A; Cury, S; da Silva Gomes, D; Dolores Saiz Santos, M; Dost, J; Dykstra, D; Fajardo Hernandez, E; Fanzango, F; Fisk, I; Flix, J; Georges, A; Gi ffels, M; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Gowdy, S; Gutsche, O; Holzman, B; Janssen, X; Kaselis, R; Kcira, D; Kim, B; Klein, D; Klute, M; Kress, T; Kreuzer, P; Lahi , A; Larson, K; Letts, J; Levin, A; Linacre, J; Linares, J; Liu, S; Luyckx, S; Maes, M; Magini, N; Malta, A; Marra Da Silva, J; Mccartin, J; McCrea, A; Mohapatra, A; Molina, J; Mortensen, T; Padhi, S; Paus, C; Piperov, S; Ralph; Sartirana, A; Sciaba, A; S ligoi, I; Spinoso, V; Tadel, M; Traldi, S; Wissing, C; Wuerthwein, F; Yang, M; Zielinski, M; Zvada, M

    2014-01-01

    During the first run, CMS collected and processed more than 10B data events and simulated more than 15B events. Up to 100k processor cores were used simultaneously and 100PB of storage was managed. Each month petabytes of data were moved and hundreds of users accessed data samples. In this document we discuss the operational experience from this first run. We present the workflows and data flows that were executed, and we discuss the tools and services developed, and the operations and shift models used to sustain the system. Many techniques were followed from the original computing planning, but some were reactions to difficulties and opportunities. We also address the lessons learned from an operational perspective, and how this is shaping our thoughts for 2015.

  19. The Physics Case for Extended Tevatron Running

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Darien R.

    2010-11-01

    Run II of the Tevatron collider at Fermilab is currently scheduled to end late in 2011. Given the current performance of the collider and of the CDF and D0 detectors, it is estimated that the current data set could be approximately doubled with a run extended into 2014. A few examples are presented of the physics potential of these additional statistics. These are discussed in the context of the expected reach of the LHC 7 TeV data and the existing Tevatron data. In particular, an extraordinary opportunity is described which could probe the existence of a standard model Higgs boson with mass in the currently preferred region between 115 GeV and 150 GeV.

  20. Bremen Workshop : Run-Up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Schlütter, F.

    The objective of the workshop was a comparison between the prototype and the laboratory measurements. the emphasis is put on comparison between recorded run-up levels. Three enclosed reports present measurements and results from University of Ghent (UG)/ FCCD, Flanders Hydraulics (FH) and Aalborg...... University, respectively. These three reports have served as basis for the comparisons carried out during the workshop....

  1. Teaching Bank Runs through Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, David T.

    2009-01-01

    The author advocates the use of films to supplement textbook treatments of bank runs and panics in money and banking or general banking classes. Modern students, particularly those in developed countries, tend to be unfamiliar with potential fragilities of financial systems such as a lack of deposit insurance or other safety net mechanisms. Films…

  2. Chaotic inflation with curvaton induced running

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Martin Snoager

    2014-01-01

    of the apparent tension, but which would be in conflict with prediction of the simplest model of chaotic inflation. The large field chaotic model is sensitive to UV physics, and the nontrivial running of the spectral index suggested by the BICEP2 collaboration could therefore, if true, be telling us some...... additional new information about the UV completion of inflation. However, before we would be able to draw such strong conclusions with confidence, we would first have to also carefully exclude all the alternatives. Assuming monomial chaotic inflation is the right theory of inflation, we therefore explore...

  3. Testing ATLAS Z+MET excess with LHC run 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Terada, Takahiro

    2016-05-01

    The ATLAS collaboration reported a 3σ excess in the search of events containing on-Z dilepton, jets, and large missing momentum (MET) in the 8 TeV LHC run. Motivated by this excess, many models of new physics have been proposed. Recently, the ATLAS and CMS collaborations reported new results for similar Z+MET channels in the 13 TeV run. In this paper, we comprehensively discuss the consistency between the proposed models and the LHC results of Run 1 and Run 2. We find that in models with heavy gluino production, there is generically some tension between the 8 TeV and 13 TeV results. On the other hand, models with light squark production provide relatively better fitting to both results.

  4. Running of the scalar spectral index in bouncing cosmologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehners, Jean-Luc; Wilson-Ewing, Edward, E-mail: jean-luc.lehners@aei.mpg.de, E-mail: wilson-ewing@aei.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), Am Mühlenberg 1, 14476 Golm (Germany)

    2015-10-01

    We calculate the running of the scalar index in the ekpyrotic and matter bounce cosmological scenarios, and find that it is typically negative for ekpyrotic models, while it is typically positive for realizations of the matter bounce where multiple fields are present. This can be compared to inflation, where the observationally preferred models typically predict a negative running. The magnitude of the running is expected to be between 10{sup −4} and up to 10{sup −2}, leading in some cases to interesting expectations for near-future observations.

  5. Endurance and age: evidence from long-distance running data

    OpenAIRE

    Sterken, Elmer

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of aging on long-run endurance. We analyze the determinants of running speed on distances from 5K to the marathon. We model running speed as a function of distance, age, and sex. We find evidence for interaction between age and sex, but not between distance and sex. Our model shows that official track and field age grading overestimates human performance at high ages, although athletes are still able to perform at a high level at old ages.

  6. Search for a Standard Model Higgs Boson in the Channel $VH\\to VWW$ with Leptons and Hadronic $\\tau$ in the Full CDF Run II Data Set

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertoli, Gabriele [Univ. of Trieste (Italy)

    2015-08-27

    We present the results of the CDF search for a Standard Model Higgs boson decaying into a pair of W bosons with electrons, muons and hadronically decaying taus in the final state. In particular, we investigate a channel with three objects, two leptons and a tau. In 9.7 fb-1 of data we expect 40.0 ± 5.4 background events and 0.54 ± 0.05 signal events for a Higgs mass hypothesis of 160 GeV/c2, whereas in data we count 28 events. We set a 95% C.L. upper limit on σ/σSM of 12.6 for a Higgs mass hypothesis of 160 GeV/c2. The expected 95% C.L. upper limit for the same mass is 12.4. Results for other ninete 0 GeV/c2 to 200 GeV/c2 are also presented.

  7. A Study of The Standard Model Higgs, WW and ZZ Production in Dilepton Plus Missing Transverse Energy Final State at CDF Run II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Shih-Chieh [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2008-01-01

    We report on a search for Standard Model (SM) production of Higgs to WW* in the two charged lepton (e, μ) and two neutrino final state in p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at a center of mass energy √s = 1.96 TeV. The data were collected with the CDF II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 1.9fb-1. The Matrix Element method is developed to calculate the event probability and to construct a likelihood ratio discriminator. There are 522 candidates observed with an expectation of 513 ± 41 background events and 7.8 ± 0.6 signal events for Higgs mass 160GeV/c2 at next-to-next-to-leading logarithmic level calculation. The observed 95% C.L. upper limit is 0.8 pb which is 2.0 times the SM prediction while the median expected limit is 3.1$+1.3\\atop{-0.9}$ with systematics included. Results for 9 other Higgs mass hypotheses ranging from 110GeV/c2 to 200GeV/c2 are also presented. The same dilepton plus large transverse energy imbalance (ET) final state is used in the SM ZZ production search and the WW production study. The observed significance of ZZ → llvv channel is 1.2σ. It adds extra significance to the ZZ → 4l channel and leads to a strong evidence of ZZ production with 4.4 σ significance. The potential improvement of the anomalous triple gauge coupling measurement by using the Matrix Element method in WW production is also studied.

  8. Strategies to improve running economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Kyle R; Kilding, Andrew E

    2015-01-01

    Running economy (RE) represents a complex interplay of physiological and biomechanical factors that is typically defined as the energy demand for a given velocity of submaximal running and expressed as the submaximal oxygen uptake (VO2) at a given running velocity. This review considered a wide range of acute and chronic interventions that have been investigated with respect to improving economy by augmenting one or more components of the metabolic, cardiorespiratory, biomechanical or neuromuscular systems. Improvements in RE have traditionally been achieved through endurance training. Endurance training in runners leads to a wide range of physiological responses, and it is very likely that these characteristics of running training will influence RE. Training history and training volume have been suggested to be important factors in improving RE, while uphill and level-ground high-intensity interval training represent frequently prescribed forms of training that may elicit further enhancements in economy. More recently, research has demonstrated short-term resistance and plyometric training has resulted in enhanced RE. This improvement in RE has been hypothesized to be a result of enhanced neuromuscular characteristics. Altitude acclimatization results in both central and peripheral adaptations that improve oxygen delivery and utilization, mechanisms that potentially could improve RE. Other strategies, such as stretching should not be discounted as a training modality in order to prevent injuries; however, it appears that there is an optimal degree of flexibility and stiffness required to maximize RE. Several nutritional interventions have also received attention for their effects on reducing oxygen demand during exercise, most notably dietary nitrates and caffeine. It is clear that a range of training and passive interventions may improve RE, and researchers should concentrate their investigative efforts on more fully understanding the types and mechanisms that

  9. LHC Report: Positive ion run!

    CERN Multimedia

    Mike Lamont for the LHC Team

    2011-01-01

    The current LHC ion run has been progressing very well. The first fill with 358 bunches per beam - the maximum number for the year - was on Tuesday, 15 November and was followed by an extended period of steady running. The quality of the beam delivered by the heavy-ion injector chain has been excellent, and this is reflected in both the peak and the integrated luminosity.   The peak luminosity in ATLAS reached 5x1026 cm-2s-1, which is a factor of ~16 more than last year's peak of 3x1025 cm-2s-1. The integrated luminosity in each of ALICE, ATLAS and CMS is now around 100 inverse microbarn, already comfortably over the nominal target for the run. The polarity of the ALICE spectrometer and solenoid magnets was reversed on Monday, 28 November with the aim of delivering another sizeable amount of luminosity in this configuration. On the whole, the LHC has been behaving very well recently, ensuring good machine availability. On Monday evening, however, a faulty level sensor in the cooling towe...

  10. Better in the long run

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Last week, the Chamonix workshop once again proved its worth as a place where all the stakeholders in the LHC can come together, take difficult decisions and reach a consensus on important issues for the future of particle physics. The most important decision we reached last week is to run the LHC for 18 to 24 months at a collision energy of 7 TeV (3.5 TeV per beam). After that, we’ll go into a long shutdown in which we’ll do all the necessary work to allow us to reach the LHC’s design collision energy of 14 TeV for the next run. This means that when beams go back into the LHC later this month, we’ll be entering the longest phase of accelerator operation in CERN’s history, scheduled to take us into summer or autumn 2011. What led us to this conclusion? Firstly, the LHC is unlike any previous CERN machine. Because it is a cryogenic facility, each run is accompanied by lengthy cool-down and warm-up phases. For that reason, CERN’s traditional &...

  11. GASIFICATION TEST RUN TC06

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southern Company Services, Inc.

    2003-08-01

    This report discusses test campaign TC06 of the Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc. (KBR) Transport Reactor train with a Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (Siemens Westinghouse) particle filter system at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama. The Transport Reactor is an advanced circulating fluidized-bed reactor designed to operate as either a combustor or a gasifier using a particulate control device (PCD). The Transport Reactor was operated as a pressurized gasifier during TC06. Test run TC06 was started on July 4, 2001, and completed on September 24, 2001, with an interruption in service between July 25, 2001, and August 19, 2001, due to a filter element failure in the PCD caused by abnormal operating conditions while tuning the main air compressor. The reactor temperature was varied between 1,725 and 1,825 F at pressures from 190 to 230 psig. In TC06, 1,214 hours of solid circulation and 1,025 hours of coal feed were attained with 797 hours of coal feed after the filter element failure. Both reactor and PCD operations were stable during the test run with a stable baseline pressure drop. Due to its length and stability, the TC06 test run provided valuable data necessary to analyze long-term reactor operations and to identify necessary modifications to improve equipment and process performance as well as progressing the goal of many thousands of hours of filter element exposure.

  12. Run Clever - No difference in risk of injury when comparing progression in running volume and running intensity in recreational runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramskov, Daniel; Rasmussen, Sten; Sørensen, Henrik

    2018-01-01

    participants received real-time, individualised feedback on running intensity and running volume. The primary outcome was running-related injury (RRI). Results: After preconditioning a total of 80 runners sustained an RRI (Sch-I n=36/Sch-V n=44). The cumulative incidence proportion (CIP) in Sch-V (reference......Background/aim: The Run Clever trial investigated if there was a difference in injury occurrence across two running schedules, focusing on progression in volume of running intensity (Sch-I) or in total running volume (Sch-V). It was hypothesised that 15% more runners with a focus on progression...... in volume of running intensity would sustain an injury compared with runners with a focus on progression in total running volume. Methods: Healthy recreational runners were included and randomly allocated to Sch-I or Sch-V. In the first eight weeks of the 24-week follow-up, all participants (n=839) followed...

  13. Short-sale Constraints and Credit Runs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venter, Gyuri

    This paper studies how short-sale constraints affect the informational efficiency of market prices and the link between prices and economic activity. I show that under short-sale constraints security prices contain less information. However, short-sale constraints increase the informativeness...... of prices to some agents who learn about the quality of an investment opportunity from market prices and have additional private information. Then I apply this observation when modeling a run on an investment bank by its short-term creditors, who are endowed with dispersed information and also learn from...

  14. Spanish ATLAS Tier-2: facing up to LHC Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez de la Hoz, Santiago; Fassi, Farida; Fernandez Casani, Alvaro; Kaci, Mohammed; Lacort Pellicer, Victor Ruben; Montiel Gonzalez, Almudena Del Rocio; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Salt, José; Villaplana Perez, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this work is to describe the way of addressing the main challenges of Run-2 by the Spanish ATLAS Tier-2. The considerable increase of energy and luminosity for the upcoming Run-2 with respect to Run-1 has led to a revision of the ATLAS computing model as well as some of the main ATLAS computing tools. The adaptation on these changes will be shown, with the peculiarities that it is a distributed Tier-2 composed of three sites and its members are involved on ATLAS computing tasks with a hub of research, innovation and education.

  15. LHCb siliicon detectors: the Run 1 to Run 2 transition and first experience of Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Rinnert, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    LHCb is a dedicated experiment to study New Physics in the decays of heavy hadrons at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The detector includes a high precision tracking system consisting of a silicon-strip vertex detector (VELO) surrounding the pp interaction region, a large- area silicon-strip detector located upstream of a dipole magnet (TT), and three stations of silicon- strip detectors (IT) and straw drift tubes placed downstream (OT). The operational transition of the silicon detectors VELO, TT and IT from LHC Run 1 to Run 2 and first Run 2 experiences will be presented. During the long shutdown of the LHC the silicon detectors have been maintained in a safe state and operated regularly to validate changes in the control infrastructure, new operational procedures, updates to the alarm systems and monitoring software. In addition, there have been some infrastructure related challenges due to maintenance performed in the vicinity of the silicon detectors that will be discussed. The LHCb silicon dete...

  16. ATLAS Distributed Computing in LHC Run2

    CERN Document Server

    Campana, Simone; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS Distributed Computing infrastructure has evolved after the first period of LHC data taking in order to cope with the challenges of the upcoming LHC Run2. An increased data rate and computing demands of the Monte-Carlo simulation, as well as new approaches to ATLAS analysis, dictated a more dynamic workload management system (ProdSys2) and data management system (Rucio), overcoming the boundaries imposed by the design of the old computing model. In particular, the commissioning of new central computing system components was the core part of the migration toward the flexible computing model. The flexible computing utilization exploring the opportunistic resources such as HPC, cloud, and volunteer computing is embedded in the new computing model, the data access mechanisms have been enhanced with the remote access, and the network topology and performance is deeply integrated into the core of the system. Moreover a new data management strategy, based on defined lifetime for each dataset, has been defin...

  17. Long-run and Short-run Determinants of the Real Exchange Rate in Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Mkenda, Beatrice Kalinda

    2001-01-01

    The paper analyses the main determinants of the real exchange rate in Zambia. It first gives a brief review of the Zambian economy and a review on real exchange rate studies. Then an illustrative model is presented. The study employs cointegration analysis in estimating the long-run determinants of the real exchange rates for imports and exports, and of the internal real exchange rate. The finding is that terms of trade, government consumption, and investment share all influence the real exch...

  18. Inequality in the long run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piketty, Thomas; Saez, Emmanuel

    2014-05-23

    This Review presents basic facts regarding the long-run evolution of income and wealth inequality in Europe and the United States. Income and wealth inequality was very high a century ago, particularly in Europe, but dropped dramatically in the first half of the 20th century. Income inequality has surged back in the United States since the 1970s so that the United States is much more unequal than Europe today. We discuss possible interpretations and lessons for the future. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  19. HTML 5 up and running

    CERN Document Server

    Pilgrim, Mark

    2010-01-01

    If you don't know about the new features available in HTML5, now's the time to find out. This book provides practical information about how and why the latest version of this markup language will significantly change the way you develop for the Web. HTML5 is still evolving, yet browsers such as Safari, Mozilla, Opera, and Chrome already support many of its features -- and mobile browsers are even farther ahead. HTML5: Up & Running carefully guides you though the important changes in this version with lots of hands-on examples, including markup, graphics, and screenshots. You'll learn how to

  20. Google Wave Up and Running

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrate, Andres

    2010-01-01

    Catch Google Wave, the revolutionary Internet protocol and web service that lets you communicate and collaborate in realtime. With this book, you'll understand how Google Wave integrates email, instant messaging (IM), wiki, and social networking functionality into a powerful and extensible platform. You'll also learn how to use its features, customize its functions, and build sophisticated extensions with Google Wave's open APIs and network protocol. Written for everyone -- from non-techies to ninja coders -- Google Wave: Up and Running provides a complete tour of this complex platform. You'

  1. D-Zero run II data management and access

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lueking, L.; D0 Collaboration

    1997-03-01

    During the Run II data taking period at Fermilab, scheduled to begin in 1999, D0 plans to accumulate at least 200 TB of raw and reconstructed data per year. Data access patterns observed in the Run I experience have been examined in an attempt to establish an efficient data access environment. The needs and models for storing and processing the upcoming data are discussed.

  2. The PS locomotive runs again

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    Over forty years ago, the PS train entered service to steer the magnets of the accelerator into place... ... a service that was resumed last Tuesday. Left to right: Raymond Brown (CERN), Claude Tholomier (D.B.S.), Marcel Genolin (CERN), Gérard Saumade (D.B.S.), Ingo Ruehl (CERN), Olivier Carlier (D.B.S.), Patrick Poisot (D.B.S.), Christian Recour (D.B.S.). It is more than ten years since people at CERN heard the rumbling of the old PS train's steel wheels. Last Tuesday, the locomotive came back into service to be tested. It is nothing like the monstrous steel engines still running on conventional railways -just a small electric battery-driven vehicle employed on installing the magnets for the PS accelerator more than 40 years ago. To do so, it used the tracks that run round the accelerator. In fact, it is the grandfather of the LEP monorail. After PS was commissioned in 1959, the little train was used more and more rarely. This is because magnets never break down, or hardly ever! In fact, the loc...

  3. Mechanical analysis of the landing phase in heel-toe running

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobbert, Maarten F.; Yeadon, Maurice R.; Nigg, Benno M.

    1992-01-01

    Results of mechanical analyses of running may be helpful in the search for the etiology of running injuries. In this study a mechanical analysis was made of the landing phase of three trained heel-toe runners, running at their preferred speed and style. The body was modeled as a system of seven

  4. Humans running in place on water at simulated reduced gravity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto E Minetti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: On Earth only a few legged species, such as water strider insects, some aquatic birds and lizards, can run on water. For most other species, including humans, this is precluded by body size and proportions, lack of appropriate appendages, and limited muscle power. However, if gravity is reduced to less than Earth's gravity, running on water should require less muscle power. Here we use a hydrodynamic model to predict the gravity levels at which humans should be able to run on water. We test these predictions in the laboratory using a reduced gravity simulator. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We adapted a model equation, previously used by Glasheen and McMahon to explain the dynamics of Basilisk lizard, to predict the body mass, stride frequency and gravity necessary for a person to run on water. Progressive body-weight unloading of a person running in place on a wading pool confirmed the theoretical predictions that a person could run on water, at lunar (or lower gravity levels using relatively small rigid fins. Three-dimensional motion capture of reflective markers on major joint centers showed that humans, similarly to the Basilisk Lizard and to the Western Grebe, keep the head-trunk segment at a nearly constant height, despite the high stride frequency and the intensive locomotor effort. Trunk stabilization at a nearly constant height differentiates running on water from other, more usual human gaits. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results showed that a hydrodynamic model of lizards running on water can also be applied to humans, despite the enormous difference in body size and morphology.

  5. Ventilatory Threshold, Running Economy and Distance Running Performance of Trained Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Scott K.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    In an attempt to identify physiological factors that account for success in distance running, researchers evaluated relationships among ventilatory threshold, running economy, and distance running performance. Subjects were trained male runners with similar maximal aerobic power. (Authors/PP)

  6. Hierarchical vs degenerate 2HDM. The LHC run 1 legacy at the onset of run 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorsch, G.C.; Huber, S.J.; Mimasu, K.; No, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Current discussions of the allowed two-Higgs-doublet model (2HDM) parameter space after LHC Run 1 and the prospects for Run 2 are commonly phrased in the context of a quasi-degenerate spectrum for the new scalars. Here we discuss the generic situation of a 2HDM with a non-degenerate spectrum for the new scalars. This is highly motivated from a cosmological perspective since it naturally leads to a strongly first order electroweak phase transition that could explain the matter-antimatter asymmetry in the Universe. While constraints from measurements of Higgs signal strengths do not change, those from searches of new scalar states get modified dramatically once a non-degenerate spectrum is considered.

  7. ATLAS inner detector: the Run 1 to Run 2 transition, and first experience from Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Dobos, Daniel; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is equipped with a tracking system, the Inner Detector, built using different technologies, silicon planar sensors (pixel and micro-strip) and gaseous drift- tubes, all embedded in a 2T solenoidal magnetic field. For the LHC Run II, the system has been upgraded; taking advantage of the long showdown, the Pixel Detector was extracted from the experiment and brought to surface, to equip it with new service quarter panels, to repair modules and to ease installation of the Insertable B-Layer (IBL), a fourth layer of pixel detectors, installed in May 2014 between the existing Pixel Detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe at a radius of 3.3 cm from the beam axis. To cope with the high radiation and pixel occupancy due to the proximity to the interaction point and the increase of Luminosity that LHC will face in Run-2, a new read-out chip within CMOS 130nm and two different silicon sensor pixel technologies (planar and 3D) have been developed. SCT and TRT systems consolidation was also carri...

  8. Factors determining 800-m running performance in young male athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Ramon; de Moraes Bertuzzi, Romulo C; Alves, Danilo L; Azevedo, Rafael; Cardoso Castro, Phelipe H; Verbena Freitas, Jefferson; Lima-Silva, Adriano E; de Oliveira, Fernando R; Perrout Lima, Jorge R

    2017-05-05

    The aim of the present study was to identify determinant variables on 800-m running performance in young male athletes derived from field tests and biological maturity. A total of 89 athletes, aged between 13 and 15 years old, performed a 800-m running trial and a battery of tests which involved anthropometric measurements, a running anaerobic test (RAST), a flexibility test (sit-and-reach), a counter movement jump test and progressive test for aerobic fitness evaluation. A stepwise multiple regression model selected three independent variables to explain the variance in 800-m running performance trial: peak of aerobic speed (PAS), total time of all sprints (RAST) and Predicted Mature Stature (PMS). The PAS speed explained 73.6% (p endurance performance of young athletes.

  9. Wave Run-up on Slender Piles in Design Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Frigaard, Peter; Damsgaard, M. L.

    2011-01-01

    Wave run-up on foundations is a very important factor in the design of entrance platforms for offshore wind turbines. When the Horns Reef 1 wind turbine park in Denmark was designed the vertical wave run-up phenomenon was not well known in the industry, hence not sufficiently considered in the de......Wave run-up on foundations is a very important factor in the design of entrance platforms for offshore wind turbines. When the Horns Reef 1 wind turbine park in Denmark was designed the vertical wave run-up phenomenon was not well known in the industry, hence not sufficiently considered...... for different values of diameter to water depth ratios (D/h) and different wave heights to water depth ratios (H/h) for both regular and irregular waves. A calculation model is calibrated based on stream function theory for crest kinematics and velocity head stagnation theory. Due to increased velocities close...

  10. Adding run history to CLIPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Sharon M.; Eick, Christoph F.

    1991-01-01

    To debug a C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) program, certain 'historical' information about a run is needed. It would be convenient for system builders to have the capability to request such information. We will discuss how historical Rete networks can be used for answering questions that help a system builder detect the cause of an error in a CLIPS program. Moreover, the cost of maintaining a historical Rete network is compared with that for a classical Rete network. We will demonstrate that the cost for assertions is only slightly higher for a historical Rete network. The cost for handling retraction could be significantly higher; however, we will show that by using special data structures that rely on hashing, it is also possible to implement retractions efficiently.

  11. Leg-adjustment strategies for stable running in three dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peuker, Frank; Maufroy, Christophe; Seyfarth, André

    2012-01-01

    The dynamics of the center of mass (CoM) in the sagittal plane in humans and animals during running is well described by the spring-loaded inverted pendulum (SLIP). With appropriate parameters, SLIP running patterns are stable, and these models can recover from perturbations without the need for corrective strategies, such as the application of additional forces. Rather, it is sufficient to adjust the leg to a fixed angle relative to the ground. In this work, we consider the extension of the SLIP to three dimensions (3D SLIP) and investigate feed-forward strategies for leg adjustment during the flight phase. As in the SLIP model, the leg is placed at a fixed angle. We extend the scope of possible reference axes from only fixed horizontal and vertical axes to include the CoM velocity vector as a movement-related reference, resulting in six leg-adjustment strategies. Only leg-adjustment strategies that include the CoM velocity vector produced stable running and large parameter domains of stability. The ability of the model to recover from perturbations along the direction of motion (directional stability) depended on the strategy for lateral leg adjustment. Specifically, asymptotic and neutral directional stability was observed for strategies based on the global reference axis and the velocity vector, respectively. Additional features of velocity-based leg adjustment are running at arbitrary low speed (kinetic energy) and the emergence of large domains of stable 3D running that are smoothly transferred to 2D SLIP stability and even to 1D SLIP hopping. One of the additional leg-adjustment strategies represented a large convex region of parameters where stable and robust hopping and running patterns exist. Therefore, this strategy is a promising candidate for implementation into engineering applications, such as robots, for instance. In a preliminary comparison, the model predictions were in good agreement with the experimental data, suggesting that the 3D SLIP is an

  12. Running-in of rolling contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamari, Jamari

    2006-01-01

    This thesis deals with running-in of the pure rolling contact situation operating in the boundary lubrication regime, so that normal plastic deformation due to the contact between asperities is the main aspect. The change of the surface topography during the running-in process and the run-in

  13. Robotic Bipedal Running : Increasing disturbance rejection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karssen, J.G.D.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the research presented in this thesis is to increase the understanding of the human running gait. The understanding of the human running gait is essential for the development of devices, such as prostheses and orthoses, that enable disabled people to run or that enable able people to

  14. Barefoot running survey: Evidence from the field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hryvniak

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Prior studies have found that barefoot running often changes biomechanics compared to shod running with a hypothesized relationship of decreased injuries. This paper reports the result of a survey of 509 runners. The results suggest that a large percentage of this sample of runners experienced benefits or no serious harm from transitioning to barefoot or minimal shoe running.

  15. Future Intent to Run and Running Performance of Students Exposed to a Traditional versus an Autonomy Supportive Motivational Running Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The study's primary purpose was to investigate whether an autonomy supportive motivational climate in a running program would increase future running intent among high school students. A secondary purpose was to examine whether the program would increase individual performance in the Cooper 12-minute run. Methods. Students participated in a 4-month running intervention program which included four timed runs, one per month, and a future intent questionnaire prior to the start of the timed runs and following the last run. Results. Factorial repeated measures ANOVA revealed significance regarding future intent ( at both schools. Factorial repeated measures ANOVA indicated differences between the runs at both schools (. Paired samples -tests were conducted to look at significance with paired runs. Results revealed significance in two of the six pairs at the treatment school, notably between the first and last timed runs (. Only one pair was found to be significant ( with the control school. Conclusion. At both schools, the overall number of laps increased as well as future intent to run scores. The results do not support evidence of a greater effect from the autonomy supportive environment over a traditional environment.

  16. Wave Run-Up on Sloping Coastal Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rouck, J. De; Troch, P.; Ronde, J. De

    Wave run-up is one of the main physical processes which is taken into account in the design of the crest level of sloping coastal structures. Until recently, solely physical model results were used for the crest level design. However, prototype measurements have indicated that scale models...

  17. Retiring the Short-Run Aggregate Supply Curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwood, S. Kirk

    2010-01-01

    The author argues that the aggregate demand/aggregate supply (AD/AS) model is significantly improved--although certainly not perfected--by trimming it of the short-run aggregate supply (SRAS) curve. Problems with the SRAS curve are shown first for the AD/AS model that casts the AD curve as identifying the equilibrium level of output associated…

  18. Running Club - Nocturne des Evaux

    CERN Multimedia

    Running club

    2017-01-01

    Les coureurs du CERN sont encore montés sur les plus hautes marches du podium lors de la course interentreprises. Cette course d’équipe qui se déroule de nuit et par équipe de 3 à 4 coureurs est unique dans la région de par son originalité : départ groupé toutes les 30 secondes, les 3 premiers coureurs doivent passer la ligne d’arrivée ensemble. Double victoire pour le running club a la nocturne !!!! 1ère place pour les filles et 22e au classement général; 1ère place pour l'équipe mixte et 4e au général, battant par la même occasion le record de l'épreuve en mixte d'environ 1 minute; 10e place pour l'équipe homme. Retrouvez tous les résultats sur http://www.chp-geneve.ch/web-cms/index.php/nocturne-des-evaux

  19. Wave Run-Up on Sloping Coastal Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rouck, J. De; Troch, P.; Ronde, J. De

    2001-01-01

    Wave run-up is one of the main physical processes which are taken into account in the design of the crest level of sloping coastal structures. The crest level design of these structures is mainly based on physical scale model results.......Wave run-up is one of the main physical processes which are taken into account in the design of the crest level of sloping coastal structures. The crest level design of these structures is mainly based on physical scale model results....

  20. Top quark physics from run 1 of the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Onofre, Antonio; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Top quark physics from run 1 of the LHC (plenary) The top quark is the heaviest known fundamental particle and understanding it is key to verifying the Standard Model of particle physics. Selected results on top quark physics from run 1 of the LHC are reviewed. They include precision cross­section measurements, measurements of the mass of the top quark and detailed studies of the properties of the top quark. Finally, the importance of top in searches for physics beyond the Standard Model is also reviewed.

  1. Long-Run Impact of Increased Wage Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus Thustrup

    1999-01-01

    An unanticipated permanent increase in wage pressure is analyzed in a dynamic general-equilibrium model combining standard theory of capital accumulation and monopolistic wage setting. The long-run (steady-state) implications are identical percentage reduction in employment, consumption, and capi......An unanticipated permanent increase in wage pressure is analyzed in a dynamic general-equilibrium model combining standard theory of capital accumulation and monopolistic wage setting. The long-run (steady-state) implications are identical percentage reduction in employment, consumption...

  2. Quintessence as a run-away dilaton

    CERN Document Server

    Gasperini, M; Veneziano, Gabriele

    2002-01-01

    We consider a late-time cosmological model based on a recent proposal that the infinite-bare-coupling limit of superstring/M-theory exists and has good phenomenological properties, including a vanishing cosmological constant, and a massless, decoupled dilaton. As it runs away to $+ \\infty$, the dilaton can play the role of the quintessence field recently advocated to drive the late-time accelerated expansion of the Universe. If, as suggested by some string theory examples, appreciable deviations from General Relativity persist even today in the dark matter sector, the Universe may smoothly evolve from an initial "focussing" stage, lasting till radiation-matter equality, to a "dragging" regime, which eventually gives rise to an accelerated expansion with frozen $\\Omega(\\rm{dark energy})/\\Omega(\\rm{dark matter})$.

  3. Seasonal range test run with Global Eta Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Latinović

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Global Eta Framework (GEF is a global atmospheric model developed in general curvilinear coordinates and capable of running on arbitrary rectangular quasi-uniform spherical grids, using stepwise (Eta representation of the terrain. In this study, the model is run on a cubed-sphere grid topology, in a version with uniform Jacobians (UJ, which provides equal-area grid cells, and a smooth transition of coordinate lines across the edges of the cubed-sphere. Within a project at the Brazilian Center for Weather Forecasts and Climate Studies (CPTEC, a nonhydrostatic version of this model is under development and will be applied for seasonal prediction studies. This note describes preliminary tests with the GEF on the UJ cubed-sphere in which model performance is evaluated in seasonal simulations at a horizontal resolution of approximately 25 km, running in the hydrostatic mode. Comparison of these simulations with the ERA-Interim reanalyses shows that the 850 hPa temperature is underestimated, while precipitation pattern is mostly underestimated in tropical continental regions and overestimated in tropical oceanic regions. Nevertheless, the model is still able to well capture the main seasonal climate characteristics. These results will be used as a control run in further tests with the nonhydrostatic version of the model.

  4. Influence of running shoes and cross-trainers on Achilles tendon forces during running compared with military boots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Jonathan; Taylor, P J; Atkins, S

    2015-06-01

    Military recruits are known to be susceptible to Achilles tendon pathology. The British Army have introduced footwear models, the PT-03 (cross-trainer) and PT1000 (running shoes), in an attempt to reduce the incidence of injuries. The aim of the current investigation was to examine the Achilles tendon forces of the cross-trainer and running shoe in relation to conventional army boots. Ten male participants ran at 4.0 m/s in each footwear condition. Achilles tendon forces were obtained throughout the stance phase of running and compared using repeated-measures ANOVAs. The results showed that the time to peak Achilles tendon force was significantly shorter when running in conventional army boots (0.12 s) in comparison with the cross-trainer (0.13 s) and running shoe (0.13 s). Achilles tendon loading rate was shown to be significantly greater in conventional army boots (38.73 BW/s) in comparison with the cross-trainer (35.14 BW/s) and running shoe (33.57 BW/s). The results of this study suggest that the running shoes and cross-trainer footwear are associated with reductions in Achilles tendon parameters that have been linked to the aetiology of injury, and thus it can be hypothesised that these footwear could be beneficial for military recruits undertaking running exercises. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Fluid replacement during marathon running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noakes, Tim

    2003-09-01

    During endurance exercise, about 75% of the energy produced from metabolism is in the form of heat, which cannot accumulate. The remaining 25% of energy available can be used for movement. As running pace increases, the rate of heat production increases. Also, the larger one's body mass, the greater the heat production at a particular pace. Sweat evaporation provides the primary cooling mechanism for the body, and for this reason athletes are encouraged to drink fluids to ensure continued fluid availability for evaporation and circulatory flow to the tissues. Elite level runners could be in danger of heat illness if they race too quickly in hot/humid conditions and may collapse at the end of their event. Most marathon races are scheduled at cooler times of the year or day, however, so that heat loss to the environment is adequate. Typically, this postrace collapse is due simply to postural hypotension from decreased skeletal muscle massage of the venous return circulation to the heart on stopping. Elite athletes manage adequate hydration by ingesting about 200-800 mL/hour, and such collapse is rare. Athletes "back in the pack" are moving at a much slower pace, however, with heat accumulation unlikely and drinking much easier to manage. They are often urged to drink "as much as tolerable," ostensibly to prevent dehydration from their hours out on the race course. Excessive drinking among these participants can lead to hyponatremia severe enough to cause fatalities. A more reasonable approach is to urge these participants not to drink as much as possible but to drink ad libitum (according to the dictates of thirst) no more than 400-800 mL/hour.

  6. Middle cerebral artery blood velocity during running

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngeraa, Tobias; Pedersen, Lars Møller; Mantoni, T

    2013-01-01

    Running induces characteristic fluctuations in blood pressure (BP) of unknown consequence for organ blood flow. We hypothesized that running-induced BP oscillations are transferred to the cerebral vasculature. In 15 healthy volunteers, transcranial Doppler-determined middle cerebral artery (MCA......) blood flow velocity, photoplethysmographic finger BP, and step frequency were measured continuously during three consecutive 5-min intervals of treadmill running at increasing running intensities. Data were analysed in the time and frequency domains. BP data for seven subjects and MCA velocity data....... During running, rhythmic oscillations in arterial BP induced by interference between HR and step frequency impact on cerebral blood velocity. For the exercise as a whole, average MCA velocity becomes elevated. These results suggest that running not only induces an increase in regional cerebral blood flow...

  7. [Physiological differences between cycling and running].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, Grégoire

    2009-08-05

    This review compares the differences in systemic responses (VO2max, anaerobic threshold, heart rate and economy) and in underlying mechanisms of adaptation (ventilatory and hemodynamic and neuromuscular responses) between cycling and running. VO2max is specific to the exercise modality. Overall, there is more physiological training transfer from running to cycling than vice-versa. Several other physiological differences between cycling and running are discussed: HR is different between the two activities both for maximal and sub-maximal intensities. The delta efficiency is higher in running. Ventilation is more impaired in cycling than running due to mechanical constraints. Central fatigue and decrease in maximal strength are more important after prolonged exercise in running than in cycling.

  8. How to Run a University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, G. R.

    2006-01-01

    The Lambert Review of Business-University Collaboration proposed a business model for universities in 2003. Pressure to change university governance to make it match the business model remains strong, and it is being most actively applied to Oxford and Cambridge. The Oxford and Cambridge governance debates (which began in the 1990s) open up the…

  9. Dark Matter after LHC Run I: Clues to Unification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olive Keith A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available After the results of Run I, can we still ‘guarantee’ the discovery of supersymmetry at the LHC? It is shown that viable dark matter models in CMSSM-like models tend to lie in strips (co-annihilation, funnel, focus point. The role of grand unification in constructing supersymmetric models is discussed and it is argued that non-supersymmetric GUTs such as SO(10 may provide solutions to many of the standard problems addressed by supersymmetry.

  10. ATLAS detector performance in Run1: Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Burghgrave, B; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    ATLAS operated with an excellent efficiency during the Run 1 data taking period, recording respectively in 2011 and 2012 an integrated luminosity of 5.3 fb-1 at √s = 7 TeV and 21.6 fb-1 at √s = 8TeV. The Liquid Argon and Tile Calorimeter contributed to this effort by operating with a good data quality efficiency, improving over the whole Run 1. This poster presents the Run 1 overall status and performance, LS1 works and Preparations for Run 2.

  11. Run 2 ATLAS Trigger and Detector Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Solovyanov, Oleg; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The 2nd LHC run has started in June 2015 with a proton-proton centre-of-mass collision energy of 13 TeV. During the years 2016 and 2017, LHC delivered an unprecedented amount of luminosity under the ever-increasing challenging conditions in terms of peak luminosity, pile-up and trigger rates. In this talk, the LHC running conditions and the improvements made to the ATLAS experiment in the course of Run 2 will be discussed, and the latest ATLAS detector and ATLAS trigger performance results from the Run 2 will be presented.

  12. How to run ions in the future?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Küchler, D; Manglunki, D; Scrivens, R

    2014-01-01

    In the light of different running scenarios potential source improvements will be discussed (e.g. one month every year versus two month every other year and impact of the different running options [e.g. an extended ion run] on the source). As the oven refills cause most of the down time the oven design and refilling strategies will be presented. A test stand for off-line developments will be taken into account. Also the implications on the necessary manpower for extended runs will be discussed

  13. Running with technology: Where are we heading?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Møller; Mueller, Florian 'Floyd'

    2014-01-01

    Running has become popular in recent years, and numerous runners utilize wearable technologies in order to improve their run training. This paper investigates the development and trends in technologies used for run training, and describes how these are changing from solely focusing...... on the performance (e.g. pace) to having an additional focus on the technique (e.g. foot strike type). Based on this investigation, we present a design space for run-training technologies. By plotting existing technologies onto the design space, we argue that there has been limited attention on how to utilize...

  14. Oil prices and long-run risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ready, Robert Clayton

    I show that relative levels of aggregate consumption and personal oil consumption provide an excellent proxy for oil prices, and that high oil prices predict low future aggregate consumption growth. Motivated by these facts, I add an oil consumption good to the long-run risk model of Bansal and Yaron [2004] to study the asset pricing implications of observed changes in the dynamic interaction of consumption and oil prices. Empirically I observe that, compared to the first half of my 1987--2010 sample, oil consumption growth in the last 10 years is unresponsive to levels of oil prices, creating an decrease in the mean-reversion of oil prices, and an increase in the persistence of oil price shocks. The model implies that the change in the dynamics of oil consumption generates increased systematic risk from oil price shocks due to their increased persistence. However, persistent oil prices also act as a counterweight for shocks to expected consumption growth, with high expected growth creating high expectations of future oil prices which in turn slow down growth. The combined effect is to reduce overall consumption risk and lower the equity premium. The model also predicts that these changes affect the riskiness of of oil futures contracts, and combine to create a hump shaped term structure of oil futures, consistent with recent data.

  15. Climate Verification Using Running Mann Whitney Z Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    A robust method previously used to detect observed intra- to multi-decadal (IMD) climate regimes was adapted to test whether climate models could reproduce IMD variations in U.S. surface temperatures during 1919-2008. This procedure, called the running Mann Whitney Z (MWZ) method, samples data ranki...

  16. Run-Time Control For Software Defined Radio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, L.T.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Hurink, Johann L.; Broersma, Haitze J.

    2002-01-01

    A control system is presented, which adapts at run-time a software defined radio to the dynamic external environment. The goal is to operate with minimized use of resources and energy consumption, while satisfying an adequate quality of service. The control system is based on a model, which selects

  17. 'Electricity is running through my veins': DIE symbiose Zwischen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'Electricity is running through my veins': the symbiosis between humankind and technology in Marshall McLuhan's media theory. In contrast to a widespread technical-mathematical media model that reduces electronic media to transmission channels, thereby making information into a quantifi able commodity, Canadian ...

  18. Performance of the ATLAS Tau Trigger in Run-II

    CERN Document Server

    Ikai, Takashi; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    As proton-proton collisions at the LHC reach instantaneous luminosities of over 10^{34}cm^{-2}s{-1}, tau trigger operation is more challenging. Hadronic tau trigger plays a important role and is used to measure Yukawa coupling constant and to search physics of Beyond Standard Model. This presents tau trigger system, operation, performance in Run2 and strategy in the future.

  19. Running economy and delayed onset muscle soreness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calbet, J A; Chavarren, J; Dorado, C

    2001-03-01

    The main purpose of this study was to test the effects of a duathlon competition on running economy. METHODS. A prospective study. University. nine male and six female physical education students, which mean (SEM) age was 24.0 (1.3) years. Subjects participated in two competitive duathlons: D1 and D2 (5 km running + 16 km cycling + 2 km running). Before D1, an incremental exercise test on the treadmill was performed to determine the V O2max, the running speed at exhaustion (vmax), and the V O2, as well as the running speed (u) attained at the first and second ventilatory threshold (V O2V T1, uV T1, V O2V T2, uV T2). Two days later running economy (RE1) was assessed at four different speeds corresponding to 58, 63, 67 and 71% of the umax. During the following six weeks the subjects trained 4 days a week, running all them 210 km in total. At the end of the training program the incremental exercise test and the duathlon competition were repeated (D2). Two and seven days after the second duathlon running economy was measured again (RE2 and RE3, respectively). Small, but significant improvements were observed in duathlon performance, V O2max, umax, uV T1, V O2V T2 and uV T2, after training. Two days after D2 the oxygen cost of running was approximately 5% higher than seven days after D2 (p exchange ratio increased by approximately 0.04 units between RE2 and RE3 (p rate, V CO2 and V E/V CO2. This study shows that two days after a duathlon competition running economy is impaired, however, seven days after the competition the oxygen cost of running is restored.

  20. RNA-Sequencing Reveals Unique Transcriptional Signatures of Running and Running-Independent Environmental Enrichment in the Adult Mouse Dentate Gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grégoire, Catherine-Alexandra; Tobin, Stephanie; Goldenstein, Brianna L; Samarut, Éric; Leclerc, Andréanne; Aumont, Anne; Drapeau, Pierre; Fulton, Stephanie; Fernandes, Karl J L

    2018-01-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) is a powerful stimulus of brain plasticity and is among the most accessible treatment options for brain disease. In rodents, EE is modeled using multi-factorial environments that include running, social interactions, and/or complex surroundings. Here, we show that running and running-independent EE differentially affect the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG), a brain region critical for learning and memory. Outbred male CD1 mice housed individually with a voluntary running disk showed improved spatial memory in the radial arm maze compared to individually- or socially-housed mice with a locked disk. We therefore used RNA sequencing to perform an unbiased interrogation of DG gene expression in mice exposed to either a voluntary running disk (RUN), a locked disk (LD), or a locked disk plus social enrichment and tunnels [i.e., a running-independent complex environment (CE)]. RNA sequencing revealed that RUN and CE mice showed distinct, non-overlapping patterns of transcriptomic changes versus the LD control. Bio-informatics uncovered that the RUN and CE environments modulate separate transcriptional networks, biological processes, cellular compartments and molecular pathways, with RUN preferentially regulating synaptic and growth-related pathways and CE altering extracellular matrix-related functions. Within the RUN group, high-distance runners also showed selective stress pathway alterations that correlated with a drastic decline in overall transcriptional changes, suggesting that excess running causes a stress-induced suppression of running's genetic effects. Our findings reveal stimulus-dependent transcriptional signatures of EE on the DG, and provide a resource for generating unbiased, data-driven hypotheses for novel mediators of EE-induced cognitive changes.

  1. SEARCH FOR GRAVITATIONAL WAVES ASSOCIATED WITH GAMMA-RAY BURSTS DURING LIGO SCIENCE RUN 6 AND VIRGO SCIENCE RUNS 2 AND 3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abadie, J.; van den Brand, J.F.J.; Bulten, H.J.; Rabeling, D.S.; LIGO Sci, Collaboration; Virgo, Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a search for gravitational waves associated with 154 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) that were detected by satellite-based gamma-ray experiments in 2009-2010, during the sixth LIGO science run and the second and third Virgo science runs. We perform two distinct searches: a modeled

  2. Wave run-up on offshore wind turbine foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baden, Elisabeth; Skourup, Jesper; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    2012-01-01

    the measured data and the methodology for determination of run-up given by De Vos et al. (2007) and Lykke Andersen et al. (2010) are reassessed with the purpose of avoiding overly conservative designs. It is shown that uncritical use of the Rayleigh distribution in combination with the conventional method...... not known. A comparison is made between wave run-up assessments according to Lykke Andersen et al. (2010) and the proposed alternative methodology is made for existing model test data as well as for extreme North Sea design conditions....

  3. How Many Times Should One Run a Computational Simulation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seri, Raffaello; Secchi, Davide

    2017-01-01

    This chapter is an attempt to answer the question “how many runs of a computational simulation should one do,” and it gives an answer by means of statistical analysis. After defining the nature of the problem and which types of simulation are mostly affected by it, the article introduces...... statistical power analysis as a way to determine the appropriate number of runs. Two examples are then produced using results from an agent-based model. The reader is then guided through the application of this statistical technique and exposed to its limits and potentials....

  4. Electroweak physics prospects for CDF in Run II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eric James

    2003-01-01

    The CDF collaboration will vigorously pursue a comprehensive program of electroweak physics during Run II at the Tevatron based strongly on the successful Run I program. The Run IIa integrated luminosity goal of 2 fb -1 will lead to a CDF dataset twenty times larger than that collected in Run I. In addition, an increase in the energy of the colliding beams from √s = 1.80 TeV to √s = 1.96 TeV for Run II provides a 10% increase in the W and Z boson production cross sections and a corresponding enlargement of the electroweak event samples. In the near term, CDF expects to collect a dataset with 2-3 times the integrated luminosity of Run I by September of 2003. Utilizing these new datasets CDF will be able to make improved, precision measurements of Standard Model electroweak parameters including M W , M top , Λ W , and sin 2 θ W eff . The goal of these measurements will be to improve our understanding of the self-consistency of the Standard Model and knowledge of the Higgs boson mass within the model. The top plot in Fig. 1 illustrates our current knowledge of the Standard Model Higgs mass based on measurements of M W and M top . The constraints imposed by combined CDF and D0 Run I measurements of M W (80.456 ± 0.059GeV/c 2 ) and M top (174.3 ± 5.1GeV/c 2 ) are illustrated by the shaded oval region on the plot. The hatched rectangle shows the additional constraint imposed by the recent LEP2 measurement of M W . The bottom plot in Fig. 1 illustrates the expected improvement in these constraints based on Run II CDF measurements utilizing a 2 fb -1 dataset. The shaded oval region in this plot is based on current estimates of a 40 MeV/c 2 uncertainty for measuring M W and a 2-3 GeV/c 2 uncertainty for measuring M top

  5. The Effect of Training in Minimalist Running Shoes on Running Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridge, Sarah T.; Standifird, Tyler; Rivera, Jessica; Johnson, A. Wayne; Mitchell, Ulrike; Hunter, Iain

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of minimalist running shoes on oxygen uptake during running before and after a 10-week transition from traditional to minimalist running shoes. Twenty-five recreational runners (no previous experience in minimalist running shoes) participated in submaximal VO2 testing at a self-selected pace while wearing traditional and minimalist running shoes. Ten of the 25 runners gradually transitioned to minimalist running shoes over 10 weeks (experimental group), while the other 15 maintained their typical training regimen (control group). All participants repeated submaximal VO2 testing at the end of 10 weeks. Testing included a 3 minute warm-up, 3 minutes of running in the first pair of shoes, and 3 minutes of running in the second pair of shoes. Shoe order was randomized. Average oxygen uptake was calculated during the last minute of running in each condition. The average change from pre- to post-training for the control group during testing in traditional and minimalist shoes was an improvement of 3.1 ± 15.2% and 2.8 ± 16.2%, respectively. The average change from pre- to post-training for the experimental group during testing in traditional and minimalist shoes was an improvement of 8.4 ± 7.2% and 10.4 ± 6.9%, respectively. Data were analyzed using a 2-way repeated measures ANOVA. There were no significant interaction effects, but the overall improvement in running economy across time (6.15%) was significant (p = 0.015). Running in minimalist running shoes improves running economy in experienced, traditionally shod runners, but not significantly more than when running in traditional running shoes. Improvement in running economy in both groups, regardless of shoe type, may have been due to compliance with training over the 10-week study period and/or familiarity with testing procedures. Key points Running in minimalist footwear did not result in a change in running economy compared to running in traditional footwear

  6. The Effect of Training in Minimalist Running Shoes on Running Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridge, Sarah T; Standifird, Tyler; Rivera, Jessica; Johnson, A Wayne; Mitchell, Ulrike; Hunter, Iain

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of minimalist running shoes on oxygen uptake during running before and after a 10-week transition from traditional to minimalist running shoes. Twenty-five recreational runners (no previous experience in minimalist running shoes) participated in submaximal VO2 testing at a self-selected pace while wearing traditional and minimalist running shoes. Ten of the 25 runners gradually transitioned to minimalist running shoes over 10 weeks (experimental group), while the other 15 maintained their typical training regimen (control group). All participants repeated submaximal VO2 testing at the end of 10 weeks. Testing included a 3 minute warm-up, 3 minutes of running in the first pair of shoes, and 3 minutes of running in the second pair of shoes. Shoe order was randomized. Average oxygen uptake was calculated during the last minute of running in each condition. The average change from pre- to post-training for the control group during testing in traditional and minimalist shoes was an improvement of 3.1 ± 15.2% and 2.8 ± 16.2%, respectively. The average change from pre- to post-training for the experimental group during testing in traditional and minimalist shoes was an improvement of 8.4 ± 7.2% and 10.4 ± 6.9%, respectively. Data were analyzed using a 2-way repeated measures ANOVA. There were no significant interaction effects, but the overall improvement in running economy across time (6.15%) was significant (p = 0.015). Running in minimalist running shoes improves running economy in experienced, traditionally shod runners, but not significantly more than when running in traditional running shoes. Improvement in running economy in both groups, regardless of shoe type, may have been due to compliance with training over the 10-week study period and/or familiarity with testing procedures. Key pointsRunning in minimalist footwear did not result in a change in running economy compared to running in traditional footwear

  7. Impact of Running Away on Girls' Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrane, Lisa E.; Chen, Xiaojin

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the impact of running away on pregnancy in the subsequent year among U.S. adolescents. We also investigated interactions between running away and sexual assault, romance, and school disengagement. Pregnancy among females between 11 and 17 years (n = 6100) was examined utilizing the Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add…

  8. Training errors and running related injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Østergaard; Buist, Ida; Sørensen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the link between training characteristics (volume, duration, frequency, and intensity) and running related injuries.......The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the link between training characteristics (volume, duration, frequency, and intensity) and running related injuries....

  9. Minimum Wage Effects in the Longer Run

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumark, David; Nizalova, Olena

    2007-01-01

    Exposure to minimum wages at young ages could lead to adverse longer-run effects via decreased labor market experience and tenure, and diminished education and training, while beneficial longer-run effects could arise if minimum wages increase skill acquisition. Evidence suggests that as individuals reach their late 20s, they earn less the longer…

  10. CMS software and computing for LHC Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00067576

    2016-11-09

    The CMS offline software and computing system has successfully met the challenge of LHC Run 2. In this presentation, we will discuss how the entire system was improved in anticipation of increased trigger output rate, increased rate of pileup interactions and the evolution of computing technology. The primary goals behind these changes was to increase the flexibility of computing facilities where ever possible, as to increase our operational efficiency, and to decrease the computing resources needed to accomplish the primary offline computing workflows. These changes have resulted in a new approach to distributed computing in CMS for Run 2 and for the future as the LHC luminosity should continue to increase. We will discuss changes and plans to our data federation, which was one of the key changes towards a more flexible computing model for Run 2. Our software framework and algorithms also underwent significant changes. We will summarize the our experience with a new multi-threaded framework as deployed on ou...

  11. Matter-antimatter asymmetry induced by a running vacuum coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, J.A.S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Departamento de Astronomia, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Singleton, D. [California State University Fresno, Department of Physics, Fresno, CA (United States); Institute of Experimental and Theoretical Physics Al-Farabi KazNU, Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2017-12-15

    We show that a CP-violating interaction induced by a derivative coupling between the running vacuum and a non-conserving baryon current may dynamically break CPT and trigger baryogenesis through an effective chemical potential. By assuming a non-singular class of running vacuum cosmologies which provides a complete cosmic history (from an early inflationary de Sitter stage to the present day quasi-de Sitter acceleration), it is found that an acceptable baryon asymmetry is generated for many different choices of the model parameters. It is interesting that the same ingredient (running vacuum energy density) addresses several open cosmological questions/problems: avoids the initial singularity, provides a smooth exit for primordial inflation, alleviates both the coincidence and the cosmological constant problems, and, finally, is also capable of explaining the generation of matter-antimatter asymmetry in the very early Universe. (orig.)

  12. The running waters macroinvertebrates community: sampling techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldaccini, Gilberto Natale; Leone, Laura Marianna; Taddei, Cinzia

    2009-04-01

    The community of running water macroinvertebrates has proved to be one of key subjects for fluvial ecology and bioindication studies, thanks both to the different trophic roles within the range of taxa and to the ease with which they may be collected and identified. However, the complex nature of this community creates problems concerning the complete identification of the full range of taxa, even when restricting the taxonomic classification to families and genera. Even so, the need to use the community for the implementation of indexes of Ecological Status of freshwaters and for the detection of reference conditions, necessarily means a deeper knowledge of this structure. Hence, a standard methodology of the capture effort is required to identify not only the ecological quality but also a reference community for each selected fluvial typology and for each section examined. Starting from the processing of data collected during intercalibration exercises of the IBE method, the authors analyse the results underlining the share given by the size of the sample collected (catchment effort), and by the distribution models of different taxa within the community, in order to give a contribution to the evaluation of the reliability level of standard samples. The results confirm the models already described in previous publications and lead us to accept the presence of marginal degrees of uncertainty in standard samples.

  13. ATLAS strip detector: Operational Experience and Run1 → Run2 transition

    CERN Document Server

    NAGAI, K; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS SCT operational experience and the detector performance during the RUN1 period of LHC will be reported. Additionally the preparation outward to RUN2 during the long shut down 1 will be mentioned.

  14. Detecting nonlinearity in run-up on a natural beach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. R. Bryan

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Natural geophysical timeseries bear the signature of a number of complex, possibly inseparable, and generally unknown combination of linear, stable non-linear and chaotic processes. Quantifying the relative contribution of, in particular, the non-linear components will allow improved modelling and prediction of natural systems, or at least define some limitations on predictability. However, difficulties arise; for example, in cases where the series are naturally cyclic (e.g. water waves, it is most unclear how this cyclic behaviour impacts on the techniques commonly used to detect the nonlinear behaviour in other fields. Here a non-linear autoregressive forecasting technique which has had success in demonstrating nonlinearity in non-cyclical geophysical timeseries, is applied to a timeseries generated by videoing the waterline on a natural beach (run-up, which has some irregular oscillatory behaviour that is in part induced by the incoming wave field. In such cases, the deterministic shape of each run-up cycle has a strong influence on forecasting results, causing questionable results at small (within a cycle prediction distances. However, the technique can clearly differentiate between random surrogate series and natural timeseries at larger prediction distances (greater than one cycle. Therefore it was possible to clearly identify nonlinearity in the relationship between observed run-up cycles in that a local autoregressive model was more adept at predicting run-up cycles than a global one. Results suggest that despite forcing from waves impacting on the beach, each run-up cycle evolves somewhat independently, depending on a non-linear interaction with previous run-up cycles. More generally, a key outcome of the study is that oscillatory data provide a similar challenge to differentiating chaotic signals from correlated noise in that the deterministic shape causes an additional source of autocorrelation which in turn influences the

  15. Macro-Finance Determinants of the Long-Run Stock-Bond Correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asgharian, Hossein; Christiansen, Charlotte; Hou, Ai Jun

    itself. Macro-finance variables and the lagged realized correlation are simultaneously significant in forecasting the long-run stock-bond correlation. The behavior of the long-run stock-bond correlation is very different when estimated taking the macro-finance variables into account. Supporting......We investigate the long-run stock-bond correlation using a novel model that combines the dynamic conditional correlation model with the mixed-data sampling approach. The long-run correlation is affected by both macro-finance variables (historical and forecasts) and the lagged realized correlation...

  16. Macro-Finance Determinants of the Long-Run Stock-Bond Correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asgharian, Hossein; Christiansen, Charlotte; Hou, Ai Jun

    2016-01-01

    to inflation and interest rates, illiquidity, state of the economy, and market uncertainty. Macro-finance factors, particularly their forecasts, are good at forecasting long-run stock–bond correlation. Supporting the flight-to-quality phenomenon, long-run correlation tends to be small and negative when......We investigate long-run stock–bond correlation using a model that combines the dynamic conditional correlation model with the mixed-data sampling approach and allows long-run correlation to be affected by macro-finance factors (historical and forecasts). We use macro-finance factors related...

  17. The PDF4LHC report on PDFs and LHC data. Results from Run I and preparation for Run II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojo, Juan; Ball, Richard D.; CERN, Geneva

    2015-07-01

    The accurate determination of the Parton Distribution Functions (PDFs) of the proton is an essential ingredient of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) program. PDF uncertainties impact a wide range of processes, from Higgs boson characterisation and precision Standard Model measurements to New Physics searches. A major recent development in modern PDF analyses has been to exploit the wealth of new information contained in precision measurements from the LHC Run I, as well as progress in tools and methods to include these data in PDF fits. In this report we summarise the information that PDF-sensitive measurements at the LHC have provided so far, and review the prospects for further constraining PDFs with data from the recently started Run II. This document aims to provide useful input to the LHC collaborations to prioritise their PDF-sensitive measurements at Run II, as well as a comprehensive reference for the PDF-fitting collaborations.

  18. Rocker shoe, minimalist shoe, and standard running shoe : A comparison of running economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobhani, Sobhan; Bredeweg, Steven; Dekker, Rienk; Kluitenberg, Bas; van den Heuvel, Edwin; Hijmans, Juha; Postema, Klaas

    Objectives: Running with rocker shoes is believed to prevent lower limb injuries. However, it is not clear how running in these shoes affects the energy expenditure. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to assess the effects of rocker shoes on running economy in comparison with standard and

  19. Short-run Exchange-Rate Dynamics: Theory and Evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, John A.; Dahl, Christian Møller; Osler, Carol L.

    for designing exchange-rate models. This paper presents an optimizing model of short-run exchange-rate dynamics consistent with both the micro evidence and the macro evidence, the first such model of which we are aware. With respect to microeconomics, the model is consistent with the institutional structure...... of currency markets, it accurately reflects the constraints and objectives faced by the major participants, and it fits key stylized facts concerning returns and order flow. With respect to macroeconomics, the model is consistent with most of the major puzzles that have emerged under floating rates....

  20. Higgs Boson Measurements in CMS with Run II Data

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Ashok

    2017-01-01

    Latest results from the CMS experiment on studies of Higgs boson production are presented. Studies involving the 125 GeV Higgs boson using various Standard Model production and decay modes have been performed using proton proton collisions from data accumulated during the LHC Run II with center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. Similar datasets have also been used to place constraints on physics beyond the Standard Model involving extended Higgs boson sectors.

  1. Short Run Profit Maximization in a Convex Analysis Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilko Vrankic

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article we analyse the short run profit maximization problem in a convex analysis framework. The goal is to apply the results of convex analysis due to unique structure of microeconomic phenomena on the known short run profit maximization problem where the results from convex analysis are deductively applied. In the primal optimization model the technology in the short run is represented by the short run production function and the normalized profit function, which expresses profit in the output units, is derived. In this approach the choice variable is the labour quantity. Alternatively, technology is represented by the real variable cost function, where costs are expressed in the labour units, and the normalized profit function is derived, this time expressing profit in the labour units. The choice variable in this approach is the quantity of production. The emphasis in these two perspectives of the primal approach is given to the first order necessary conditions of both models which are the consequence of enveloping the closed convex set describing technology with its tangents. The dual model includes starting from the normalized profit function and recovering the production function, and alternatively the real variable cost function. In the first perspective of the dual approach the choice variable is the real wage, and in the second it is the real product price expressed in the labour units. It is shown that the change of variables into parameters and parameters into variables leads to both optimization models which give the same system of labour demand and product supply functions and their inverses. By deductively applying the results of convex analysis the comparative statics results are derived describing the firm's behaviour in the short run.

  2. Running Economy from a Muscle Energetics Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared R. Fletcher

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The economy of running has traditionally been quantified from the mass-specific oxygen uptake; however, because fuel substrate usage varies with exercise intensity, it is more accurate to express running economy in units of metabolic energy. Fundamentally, the understanding of the major factors that influence the energy cost of running (Erun can be obtained with this approach. Erun is determined by the energy needed for skeletal muscle contraction. Here, we approach the study of Erun from that perspective. The amount of energy needed for skeletal muscle contraction is dependent on the force, duration, shortening, shortening velocity, and length of the muscle. These factors therefore dictate the energy cost of running. It is understood that some determinants of the energy cost of running are not trainable: environmental factors, surface characteristics, and certain anthropometric features. Other factors affecting Erun are altered by training: other anthropometric features, muscle and tendon properties, and running mechanics. Here, the key features that dictate the energy cost during distance running are reviewed in the context of skeletal muscle energetics.

  3. RNA-Sequencing Reveals Unique Transcriptional Signatures of Running and Running-Independent Environmental Enrichment in the Adult Mouse Dentate Gyrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine-Alexandra Grégoire

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Environmental enrichment (EE is a powerful stimulus of brain plasticity and is among the most accessible treatment options for brain disease. In rodents, EE is modeled using multi-factorial environments that include running, social interactions, and/or complex surroundings. Here, we show that running and running-independent EE differentially affect the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG, a brain region critical for learning and memory. Outbred male CD1 mice housed individually with a voluntary running disk showed improved spatial memory in the radial arm maze compared to individually- or socially-housed mice with a locked disk. We therefore used RNA sequencing to perform an unbiased interrogation of DG gene expression in mice exposed to either a voluntary running disk (RUN, a locked disk (LD, or a locked disk plus social enrichment and tunnels [i.e., a running-independent complex environment (CE]. RNA sequencing revealed that RUN and CE mice showed distinct, non-overlapping patterns of transcriptomic changes versus the LD control. Bio-informatics uncovered that the RUN and CE environments modulate separate transcriptional networks, biological processes, cellular compartments and molecular pathways, with RUN preferentially regulating synaptic and growth-related pathways and CE altering extracellular matrix-related functions. Within the RUN group, high-distance runners also showed selective stress pathway alterations that correlated with a drastic decline in overall transcriptional changes, suggesting that excess running causes a stress-induced suppression of running’s genetic effects. Our findings reveal stimulus-dependent transcriptional signatures of EE on the DG, and provide a resource for generating unbiased, data-driven hypotheses for novel mediators of EE-induced cognitive changes.

  4. ATLAS Strip Detector: Operational Experience and Run1-> Run2 Transition

    CERN Document Server

    Nagai, Koichi; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    Large hadron collider was operated very successfully during the Run1 and provided a lot of opportunities of physics studies. It currently has a consolidation work toward to the operation at $\\sqrt{s}=14 \\mathrm{TeV}$ in Run2. The ATLAS experiment has achieved excellent performance in Run1 operation, delivering remarkable physics results. The SemiConductor Tracker contributed to the precise measurement of momentum of charged particles. This paper describes the operation experience of the SemiConductor Tracker in Run1 and the preparation toward to the Run2 operation during the LS1.

  5. Electricity prices and fuel costs. Long-run relations and short-run dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi, Hassan

    2009-01-01

    The paper examines the long-run relation and short-run dynamics between electricity prices and three fossil fuel prices - coal, natural gas and crude oil - using annual data for the U.S. for 1960-2007. The results suggest (1) a stable long-run relation between real prices for electricity and coal (2) Bi-directional long-run causality between coal and electricity prices. (3) Insignificant long-run relations between electricity and crude oil and/or natural gas prices. And (4) no evidence of asymmetries in the adjustment of electricity prices to deviations from equilibrium. A number of implications are addressed. (author)

  6. ATLAS VH(bb) Run II Search

    CERN Document Server

    Buzatu, Adrian; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Higgs boson discovered at the LHC in 2012 has been observed coupling directly to W and Z bosons and to tau leptons, and indirectly to top quarks. In order to probe if it is indeed the particle predicted by the Standard Model, direct couplings of the Higgs boson to quarks must also be measured. The Higgs boson decays most often to a pair of bottom quarks (with a branching ratio of 58%). When the Higgs boson is produced alone in gluon-gluon fusion, the signal in this decay mode is overwhelmed by the regular multi-jet background. By requiring the Higgs boson to be produced in association with a vector boson V (W or Z), which is further required to decay leptonically, data events can be selected using charged-lepton or missing transverse energy triggers. The Tevatron experiments presented combined results showing evidence for the VH(H to bb) process at a significance level of about 3 standard deviations, while the combined LHC results from Run II data show a 2.6 standard deviation evidence for the H to bb dec...

  7. Is your Android running a temperature?

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2012-01-01

    You might have heard about Botnets, i.e. networks of infected (Windows) computers which are unwittingly under control by a malicious party. Public examples of botnets-in-action are attacks against the FBI, the U.S. Department of Justice, or against Universal and Warner Music as a retaliation for the shutdown of Megaupload.com. But have you ever heard of a Botnet made of Android phones?   Some apps available from your favorite app store are malicious and try to steal your private data once installed or auto-dial expensive premium phone numbers. Unfortunately, the open model for Android apps employs neither quality control nor an approval process. Several Android apps, e.g. wallpaper apps and sound clips, have already been identified as being malicious. Symantec recently reported at least 13 different malicious apps which are suspected to span up a Botnet of thousands of mobile phone. If you run apps from “iApps7 Inc.” (e.g. “Counter E...

  8. EFFECT OF HEEL LIFTS ON PATELLOFEMORAL JOINT STRESS DURING RUNNING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestelle, Zachary; Kernozek, Thomas; Adkins, Kelly S; Miller, Jessica; Gheidi, Naghmeh

    2017-10-01

    Patellofemoral pain is a debilitating injury for many recreational runners. Excessive patellofemoral joint stress may be the underlying source of pain and interventions often focus on ways to reduce patellofemoral joint stress. Heel lifts have been used as an intervention within Achilles tendon rehabilitation programs and to address leg length discrepancies. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of running with heel lifts on patellofemoral joint stress, patellofemoral stress impulse, quadriceps force, step length, cadence, and other related kinematic and spatiotemporal variables. A repeated-measures research design. Sixteen healthy female runners completed five running trials in a controlled laboratory setting with and without 11mm heel lifts inserted in a standard running shoe. Kinetic and kinematic data were used in combination with a static optimization technique to estimate individual muscle forces. These data were inserted into a patellofemoral joint model which was used to estimate patellofemoral joint stress and other variables during running. When running with heel lifts, peak patellofemoral joint stress and patellofemoral stress impulse were reduced by a 4.2% (p=0.049) and 9.3% (p=0.002). Initial center of pressure was shifted anteriorly 9.1% when running with heel lifts (p0.05) were shown between conditions. Heel lift use resulted in decreased patellofemoral joint stress and impulse without associated changes in step length or frequency, or other variables shown to influence patellofemoral joint stress. The center of pressure at initial contact was also more anterior using heel lifts. The use of heel lifts may have therapeutic benefits for runners with patellofemoral pain if the primary goal is to reduce patellofemoral joint stress. 3b.

  9. First constraints on the running of non-Gaussianity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Adam; Huterer, Dragan

    2012-09-21

    We use data from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy probe temperature maps to constrain a scale-dependent generalization of the popular "local" model for primordial non-Gaussianity. In the model where the parameter f(NL) is allowed to run with scale k, f(NL)(k) = f*(NL) (k/k(piv))(n)(fNL), we constrain the running to be n(f)(NL) = 0.30(-1.2)(+1.9) at 95% confidence, marginalized over the amplitude f*(NL). The constraints depend somewhat on the prior probabilities assigned to the two parameters. In the near future, constraints from a combination of Planck and large-scale structure surveys are expected to improve this limit by about an order of magnitude and usefully constrain classes of inflationary models.

  10. Social network structures and bank runs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shouwei; Li, Jiaheng

    2016-05-01

    This paper investigates the impact of social network structures of depositors on bank runs. The analyzed network structures include random networks, small-world networks and scale-free networks. Simulation results show that the probability of bank run occurrence in random networks is larger than that in small-world networks, but the probability of bank run occurrence in scale-free networks drops from the highest to the lowest among the three types of network structures with the increase of the proportion of impatient depositors. The average degree of depositor networks has a significant impact on bank runs, but this impact is related to the proportion of impatient depositors and the confidence levels of depositors in banks.

  11. Sprint cycling training improves intermittent run performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardaway Chun-Kwan Chan

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: Sprint cycling significantly improved intermittent run performance, VO2max and peak power output at VO2max. Sprint cycling training is suitable for intermittent sports athletes but separate speed and COD training should be included.

  12. Should the Air Force Teach Running Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    Chi running enthusiasts who either subscribed to a newsletter or had ordered instructional Chi running books or DVDs, Cucuzzella, Boys, and Hryvniak...Popular Mechanics, 18 December 2009, http://www.popularmechanics.com/ outdoors /sports/4314401.html (accessed 22 August 2011). Van Gent, R. N., D...Runners are Shaping the Shoe Industry,” Popular Mechanics, 18 December 2009, http://www.popularmechanics.com/ outdoors /sports/4314401.html (accessed 22

  13. RHIC polarized proton performance in run-8.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montag,C.; Abreu, N.; Ahrens, L.; Bai, M.; Barton, D.; et al.

    2008-06-23

    During Run-8, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) provided collisions of spin-polarized proton beams at two interaction regions. Helical spin rotators at these two interaction regions were used to control the spin orientation of both beams at the collision points. Physics data were taken with different orientations of the beam polarization. We present recent developments and improvements as well as the luminosity and polarization performance achieved during Run-8.

  14. RHIC Polarized proton performance in run-8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montag, C.; Bai, M.; MacKay, W.W.; Roser, T.; Abreu, N.; Ahrens, L.; Barton, D.; Beebe-Wang, J.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J.M.; Brown, K.A.; Bruno, D.; Bunce, G.; Calaga, R.; Cameron, P.; Connolly, R.; D'Ottavio, T.; Drees, A.; Fedotov, A.V.; Fischer, W.; Ganetis, G.; Gardner, C.; Glenn, J.; Hayes, T.; Huang, H.; Ingrassia, P.; Kayran, D.A.; Kewisch, J.; Lee, R.C.; Lin, F.; Litvinenko, V.N.; Luccio, A.U.; Luo, Y.; Makdisi, Y.; Malitsky, N.; Marr, G.; Marusic, A.; Michnoff, R.; Morris, J.; Oerter, B.; Pilat, F.; Pile, P.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Russo, T.; Satogata, T.; Schultheiss, C.; Sivertz, M.; Smith, K.; Tepikian, S.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J.; Zaltsman, A.; Zelenski, A.; Zeno, K.; Zhang, S.Y.

    2008-01-01

    During Run-8, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) provided collisions of spin-polarized proton beams at two interaction regions. Physics data were taken with vertical orientation of the beam polarization, which in the 'Yellow' RHIC ring was significantly lower than in previous years. We present recent developments and improvements as well as the luminosity and polarization performance achieved during Run-8, and we discuss possible causes of the not as high as previously achieved polarization performance of the 'Yellow' ring.

  15. Estimating Short run and Long run Coefficients of Fundamentals Factors with Growth and Momentum Factor: Evidence from Emerging Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Shoaib

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the long term relationship of risk premium and fundamental factors in emerging stock markets of China, India and Pakistan keeping in view leading contribution of Fama and French (1992 and Carhart (1997 models. Contrary to the macroeconomic multifactor models, this study incorporates firm-specific risk factors related to the market premium; size (SMB, value (HML, momentum (WML and growth (UMD as determinants of risk premium. The firm-specific growth factor is incorporated based on evidence from Ho, Strange, and Piesse (2008 by employing (UMD which is based on assets to market equity of the firm. Sample of 1198 companies from the three emerging markets for the period of 2001-2013 depicts market risk premium as the leading factor affecting risk premium in Indian and the Pakistani markets. Results reveal market momentum being high enough to overestimate coefficients in the short run. However, the relationship is stabilized and adjusted in the long run. Chinese markets, where all the risk factors seem to play their role to determine risk premium, are relatively much stable and grown-up and clearly represent maturity of the Chinese markets. Distinction between the short run and long run might be useful for the investors of the three emerging economies. According to the principle of high risk associated with high returns, small value happens to deliver higher returns with higher volatility. The growth stocks outperform value stocks in these economies.

  16. Metadata aided run selection at ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckingham, R M; Gallas, E J; Tseng, J C-L; Viegas, F; Vinek, E

    2011-01-01

    Management of the large volume of data collected by any large scale scientific experiment requires the collection of coherent metadata quantities, which can be used by reconstruction or analysis programs and/or user interfaces, to pinpoint collections of data needed for specific purposes. In the ATLAS experiment at the LHC, we have collected metadata from systems storing non-event-wise data (Conditions) into a relational database. The Conditions metadata (COMA) database tables not only contain conditions known at the time of event recording, but also allow for the addition of conditions data collected as a result of later analysis of the data (such as improved measurements of beam conditions or assessments of data quality). A new web based interface called 'runBrowser' makes these Conditions Metadata available as a Run based selection service. runBrowser, based on PHP and JavaScript, uses jQuery to present selection criteria and report results. It not only facilitates data selection by conditions attributes, but also gives the user information at each stage about the relationship between the conditions chosen and the remaining conditions criteria available. When a set of COMA selections are complete, runBrowser produces a human readable report as well as an XML file in a standardized ATLAS format. This XML can be saved for later use or refinement in a future runBrowser session, shared with physics/detector groups, or used as input to ELSSI (event level Metadata browser) or other ATLAS run or event processing services.

  17. Running With an Elastic Lower Limb Exoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Michael S; Kota, Sridhar; Young, Aaron; Ferris, Daniel P

    2016-06-01

    Although there have been many lower limb robotic exoskeletons that have been tested for human walking, few devices have been tested for assisting running. It is possible that a pseudo-passive elastic exoskeleton could benefit human running without the addition of electrical motors due to the spring-like behavior of the human leg. We developed an elastic lower limb exoskeleton that added stiffness in parallel with the entire lower limb. Six healthy, young subjects ran on a treadmill at 2.3 m/s with and without the exoskeleton. Although the exoskeleton was designed to provide ~50% of normal leg stiffness during running, it only provided 24% of leg stiffness during testing. The difference in added leg stiffness was primarily due to soft tissue compression and harness compliance decreasing exoskeleton displacement during stance. As a result, the exoskeleton only supported about 7% of the peak vertical ground reaction force. There was a significant increase in metabolic cost when running with the exoskeleton compared with running without the exoskeleton (ANOVA, P exoskeletons for human running are human-machine interface compliance and the extra lower limb inertia from the exoskeleton.

  18. Tests of running performance do not predict subsequent spontaneous running in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, M I; Van Zyl, C; Jaunky, R; Lambert, E V; Noakes, T D

    1996-07-01

    Rats of similar mass and genetic stock have up to a 50-fold difference in spontaneous daily running distance. However, the reasons for this large variability in spontaneous running distance are not known. This study examined whether tests of running performance predict subsequent spontaneous running distance in rats housed in individual running wheel cages. Long-Evans rats (n = 56) were randomly assigned to either a sedentary control group (C) or a group housed in specially designed wheel cages in which they were able to exercise spontaneously (ES). They then underwent a high-intensity running test (MAX), during which oxygen consumption was measured at a submaximal (VO2 submax) and maximal workload (VO2 max). The rats' submaximal running endurance (END) and maximal sprinting speed (SPRINT) were also tested on the treadmill. After 8 weeks the average spontaneous running distance of ES was 29.7 +/- 3.7 km.wk-1 (mean +/- SE), but ranged from 1.4 to 71.1 km.wk-1. Tests of running performance and oxygen consumption were repeated in both groups, followed by in situ measurements of muscle contractile properties and of citrate synthase activity in the skeletal muscle. None of the measurements of running performance or oxygen consumption during the initial tests conducted at the start of the experiment was related to subsequent average spontaneous running distance. After 8 weeks, the mean peak force generated by the electrically stimulated gastrocnemius/plantaris muscles was greater in ES than in C (746 +/- 89 vs. 455 +/- 28 mg, p SPRINT (r = 0.61, p < 0.0005) and was inversely related to running intensity (r = -0.66, p < 0.002) after 8 weeks of training. It can be concluded from this study that 1) spontaneous running distance in rats cannot be predicted by pretraining tests of running performance. Hence, low levels of spontaneous running activity in some rats are not explained by skeletal muscular and cardiovascular factors thought to determine running capacity, and 2

  19. Leadership and characteristics of nonprofit mental health peer-run organizations nationwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrow, Laysha; Hayes, Stephania L

    2015-04-01

    Mental health peer-run organizations are nonprofits providing venues for support and advocacy among people diagnosed as having mental disorders. It has been proposed that consumer involvement is essential to their operations. This study reported organizational characteristics of peer-run organizations nationwide and how these organizations differ by degree of consumer control. Data were from the 2012 National Survey of Peer-Run Organizations. The analyses described the characteristics of the organizations (N=380) on five domains of nonprofit research, comparing results for organizations grouped by degree of involvement by consumers in the board of directors. Peer-run organizations provided a range of supports and educational and advocacy activities and varied in their capacity and resources. Some variation was explained by the degree of consumer control. These organizations seemed to be operating consistently with evidence on peer-run models. The reach of peer-run organizations, and the need for in-depth research, continues to grow.

  20. Implementation of meso-scale radioactive dispersion model for GPU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunarko [National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia (BATAN), Jakarta (Indonesia). Nuclear Energy Assessment Center; Suud, Zaki [Bandung Institute of Technology (ITB), Bandung (Indonesia). Physics Dept.

    2017-05-15

    Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Method (LPDM) is applied to model atmospheric dispersion of radioactive material in a meso-scale of a few tens of kilometers for site study purpose. Empirical relationships are used to determine the dispersion coefficient for various atmospheric stabilities. Diagnostic 3-D wind-field is solved based on data from one meteorological station using mass-conservation principle. Particles representing radioactive pollutant are dispersed in the wind-field as a point source. Time-integrated air concentration is calculated using kernel density estimator (KDE) in the lowest layer of the atmosphere. Parallel code is developed for GTX-660Ti GPU with a total of 1 344 scalar processors using CUDA. A test of 1-hour release discovers that linear speedup is achieved starting at 28 800 particles-per-hour (pph) up to about 20 x at 14 4000 pph. Another test simulating 6-hour release with 36 000 pph resulted in a speedup of about 60 x. Statistical analysis reveals that resulting grid doses are nearly identical in both CPU and GPU versions of the code.

  1. The Long-Run Impact of Foreign Aid in 36 African Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juselius, Katarina; Møller, Niels Framroze; Tarp, Finn

    2014-01-01

    We comprehensively analyse the long-run effect of foreign aid (ODA) on key macroeconomic variables in 36 sub-Saharan African countries from the mid-1960s to 2007, using a well-specified cointegrated VAR model as statistical benchmark. Results provide broad support for a positive long-run impact...

  2. Unravelling the multiphase run-out conditions of a slide- flow mass movement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Asch, Theo; Xu, Qiang; Dong, X.J.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper an attempt is made to unravel the run-out characteristics of a mass movement in the Sichuan Province, SW China by means of 1D numerical modelling and calibration on the topography of run-out profiles.The Dagou mass movement started as a rockslide with an initial volume of 480,000m3,

  3. The LHC Tier1 at PIC: experience from first LHC run

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flix J.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the operational experience of the Tier1 computer center at Port d’InformacióCientífica (PIC supporting the commissioning and first run (Run1 of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC. Theevolution of the experiment computing models resulting from the higher amounts of data expected after therestart of the LHC are also described.

  4. From the cradle to the grave : how fast can we run?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterken, E

    I model average running speed on distances from 5000 m to the marathon as a function of age, distance and sex. Using data on US age-dependent road-racing records, I simulate optimal performance for ages ranging from 3 to 95 years. The results of the correlation between running speed and age are in

  5. Restricted vs. unrestricted wheel running in mice: Effects on brain, behavior and endocannabinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedermann, Sarah V; Auer, Matthias K; Bindila, Laura; Ende, Gabriele; Lutz, Beat; Weber-Fahr, Wolfgang; Gass, Peter; Fuss, Johannes

    2016-11-01

    Beneficial effects of voluntary wheel running on hippocampal neurogenesis, morphology and hippocampal-dependent behavior have widely been studied in rodents, but also serious side effects and similarities to stereotypy have been reported. Some mouse strains run excessively when equipped with running wheels, complicating the comparability to human exercise regimes. Here, we investigated how exercise restriction to 6h/day affects hippocampal morphology and metabolism, stereotypic and basal behaviors, as well as the endocannabinoid system in wheel running C57BL/6 mice; the strain most commonly used for behavioral analyses and psychiatric disease models. Restricted and unrestricted wheel running had similar effects on immature hippocampal neuron numbers, thermoregulatory nest building and basal home-cage behaviors. Surprisingly, hippocampal gray matter volume, assessed with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging at 9.4 Tesla, was only increased in unrestricted but not in restricted runners. Moreover, unrestricted runners showed less stereotypic behavior than restricted runners did. However, after blockage of running wheels for 24h stereotypic behavior also increased in unrestricted runners, arguing against a long-term effect of wheel running on stereotypic behavior. Stereotypic behaviors correlated with frontal glutamate and glucose levels assessed by 1 H-MR spectroscopy. While acute running increased plasma levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide in former studies in mice and humans, we found an inverse correlation of anandamide with the daily running distance after long-term running. In conclusion, although there are some diverging effects of restricted and unrestricted running on brain and behavior, restricted running does not per se seem to be a better animal model for aerobic exercise in mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of a 30-min running performed daily after downhill running on recovery of muscle function and running economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Trevor C; Nosaka, Kazunori; Wu, Chia-Ching

    2008-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of a 30-min level running performed daily for 6 days after downhill running (DHR) on indicators of muscle damage and running economy (RE). Fifty men were placed into five groups - control (CON), 40%, 50%, 60% and 70% (10 subjects per group) - by matching the baseline maximal oxygen consumption (V O(2max)) among the groups. Subjects in the 40%, 50%, 60% and 70% groups had a treadmill (0 degrees ) run for 30min at 40%, 50%, 60% and 70% of the pre-determined V O(2max), respectively, at 1-6 days after a bout of 30-min DHR at -15% (-8.5 degrees ). Maximal voluntary isometric strength of the knee extensors, muscle soreness, plasma creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities were measured before, immediately after and every day for 7 days after DHR. RE was assessed by oxygen consumption, minute ventilation, respiratory exchange ratio, lactate, heart rate and rating of perceived exertion during a 5-min level running at 85% V O(2max) performed before and at 2, 5 and 7 days after DHR. All muscle damage markers changed significantly (P<0.05) after DHR without significant differences among the groups. The RE parameters showed a significant decrease in RE for 7 days after DHR, but no significant differences in the changes were evident among the groups. These results suggest that the daily running performed after DHR did not have any beneficial or adverse effects on recovery of muscle damage and RE regardless of the intensity.

  7. Run-Time Control For Software Defined Radio

    OpenAIRE

    Smit, L.T.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Hurink, Johann L.; Broersma, Haitze J.

    2002-01-01

    A control system is presented, which adapts at run-time a software defined radio to the dynamic external environment. The goal is to operate with minimized use of resources and energy consumption, while satisfying an adequate quality of service. The control system is based on a model, which selects the most optimal configuration based on off-line gathered information and on-line measurements.

  8. Effect of step width manipulation on tibial stress during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meardon, Stacey A; Derrick, Timothy R

    2014-08-22

    Narrow step width has been linked to variables associated with tibial stress fracture. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of step width on bone stresses using a standardized model of the tibia. 15 runners ran at their preferred 5k running velocity in three running conditions, preferred step width (PSW) and PSW±5% of leg length. 10 successful trials of force and 3-D motion data were collected. A combination of inverse dynamics, musculoskeletal modeling and beam theory was used to estimate stresses applied to the tibia using subject-specific anthropometrics and motion data. The tibia was modeled as a hollow ellipse. Multivariate analysis revealed that tibial stresses at the distal 1/3 of the tibia differed with step width manipulation (p=0.002). Compression on the posterior and medial aspect of the tibia was inversely related to step width such that as step width increased, compression on the surface of tibia decreased (linear trend p=0.036 and 0.003). Similarly, tension on the anterior surface of the tibia decreased as step width increased (linear trend p=0.029). Widening step width linearly reduced shear stress at all 4 sites (p<0.001 for all). The data from this study suggests that stresses experienced by the tibia during running were influenced by step width when using a standardized model of the tibia. Wider step widths were generally associated with reduced loading of the tibia and may benefit runners at risk of or experiencing stress injury at the tibia, especially if they present with a crossover running style. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Students' Gender Stereotypes about Running in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Ping; McBride, Ron E.; Lin, Shuqiong; Gao, Zan; Francis, Xueying

    2018-01-01

    Two hundred forty-six students (132 boys, 114 girls) were tracked from fifth to eighth grades, and changes in gender stereotypes about running as a male sport, running performance, interest in running, and intention for future running participation were assessed. Results revealed that neither sex held gender stereotypes about running as a male…

  10. The CMS trigger in Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Tosi, Mia

    2018-01-01

    During its second period of operation (Run 2) which started in 2015, the LHC will reach a peak instantaneous luminosity of approximately 2$\\times 10^{34}$~cm$^{-2}s^{-1}$ with an average pile-up of about 55, far larger than the design value. Under these conditions, the online event selection is a very challenging task. In CMS, it is realised by a two-level trigger system: the Level-1 (L1) Trigger, implemented in custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm.\\\\ In order to face this challenge, the L1 trigger has undergone a major upgrade compared to Run 1, whereby all electronic boards of the system have been replaced, allowing more sophisticated algorithms to be run online. Its last stage, the global trigger, is now able to perform complex selections and to compute high-level quantities, like invariant masses. Likewise, the algorithms that run in the HLT went through big improvements; in particular, new ap...

  11. Running Speed Can Be Predicted from Foot Contact Time during Outdoor over Ground Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruiter, Cornelis J; van Oeveren, Ben; Francke, Agnieta; Zijlstra, Patrick; van Dieen, Jaap H

    2016-01-01

    The number of validation studies of commercially available foot pods that provide estimates of running speed is limited and these studies have been conducted under laboratory conditions. Moreover, internal data handling and algorithms used to derive speed from these pods are proprietary and thereby unclear. The present study investigates the use of foot contact time (CT) for running speed estimations, which potentially can be used in addition to the global positioning system (GPS) in situations where GPS performance is limited. CT was measured with tri axial inertial sensors attached to the feet of 14 runners, during natural over ground outdoor running, under optimized conditions for GPS. The individual relationships between running speed and CT were established during short runs at different speeds on two days. These relations were subsequently used to predict instantaneous speed during a straight line 4 km run with a single turning point halfway. Stopwatch derived speed, measured for each of 32 consecutive 125m intervals during the 4 km runs, was used as reference. Individual speed-CT relations were strong (r2 >0.96 for all trials) and consistent between days. During the 4km runs, median error (ranges) in predicted speed from CT 2.5% (5.2) was higher (Pbases on speed-CT relations, have acceptable accuracy and could serve to backup or substitute for GPS during tarmac running on flat terrain whenever GPS performance is limited.

  12. Can anti-gravity running improve performance to the same degree as over-ground running?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Christopher T; Jenkins, David G; Osborne, Mark A; Oyewale, Michael; Kelly, Vincent G

    2018-03-11

    This study examined the changes in running performance, maximal blood lactate concentrations and running kinematics between 85%BM anti-gravity (AG) running and normal over-ground (OG) running over an 8-week training period. Fifteen elite male developmental cricketers were assigned to either the AG or over-ground (CON) running group. The AG group (n = 7) ran twice a week on an AG treadmill and once per week over-ground. The CON group (n = 8) completed all sessions OG on grass. Both AG and OG training resulted in similar improvements in time trial and shuttle run performance. Maximal running performance showed moderate differences between the groups, however the AG condition resulted in less improvement. Large differences in maximal blood lactate concentrations existed with OG running resulting in greater improvements in blood lactate concentrations measured during maximal running. Moderate increases in stride length paired with moderate decreases in stride rate also resulted from AG training. The use of AG training to supplement regular OG training for performance should be used cautiously, as extended use over long periods of time could lead to altered stride mechanics and reduced blood lactate.

  13. The $SU(\\infty)$ twisted gradient flow running coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez, Margarita García; Keegan, Liam; Okawa, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    We measure the running of the $SU(\\infty)$ 't Hooft coupling by performing a step scaling analysis of the Twisted Eguchi-Kawai (TEK) model, the SU($N$) gauge theory on a single site lattice with twisted boundary conditions. The computation relies on the conjecture that finite volume effects for SU(N) gauge theories defined on a 4-dimensional twisted torus are controlled by an effective size parameter $\\tilde l = l \\sqrt{N}$, with $l$ the torus period. We set the scale for the running coupling in terms of $\\tilde l$ and use the gradient flow to define a renormalized 't Hooft coupling $\\lambda(\\tilde l)$. In the TEK model, this idea allows the determination of the running of the coupling through a step scaling procedure that uses the rank of the group as a size parameter. The continuum renormalized coupling constant is extracted in the zero lattice spacing limit, which in the TEK model corresponds to the large $N$ limit taken at fixed value of $\\lambda(\\tilde l)$. The coupling constant is thus expected to coinc...

  14. Toward a Run-to-Run Adaptive Artificial Pancreas: In Silico Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toffanin, Chiara; Visentin, Roberto; Messori, Mirko; Palma, Federico Di; Magni, Lalo; Cobelli, Claudio

    2018-03-01

    Contemporary and future outpatient long-term artificial pancreas (AP) studies need to cope with the well-known large intra- and interday glucose variability occurring in type 1 diabetic (T1D) subjects. Here, we propose an adaptive model predictive control (MPC) strategy to account for it and test it in silico. A run-to-run (R2R) approach adapts the subcutaneous basal insulin delivery during the night and the carbohydrate-to-insulin ratio (CR) during the day, based on some performance indices calculated from subcutaneous continuous glucose sensor data. In particular, R2R aims, first, to reduce the percentage of time in hypoglycemia and, secondarily, to improve the percentage of time in euglycemia and average glucose. In silico simulations are performed by using the University of Virginia/Padova T1D simulator enriched by incorporating three novel features: intra- and interday variability of insulin sensitivity, different distributions of CR at breakfast, lunch, and dinner, and dawn phenomenon. After about two months, using the R2R approach with a scenario characterized by a random 30% variation of the nominal insulin sensitivity the time in range and the time in tight range are increased by 11.39% and 44.87%, respectively, and the time spent above 180 mg/dl is reduced by 48.74%. An adaptive MPC algorithm based on R2R shows in silico great potential to capture intra- and interday glucose variability by improving both overnight and postprandial glucose control without increasing hypoglycemia. Making an AP adaptive is key for long-term real-life outpatient studies. These good in silico results are very encouraging and worth testing in vivo.

  15. Is running associated with degenerative joint disease?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panush, R.S.; Schmidt, C.; Caldwell, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    Little information is available regarding the long-term effects, if any, of running on the musculoskeletal system. The authors compared the prevalence of degenerative joint disease among 17 male runners with 18 male nonrunners. Running subjects (53% marathoners) ran a mean of 44.8 km (28 miles)/wk for 12 years. Pain and swelling of hips, knees, ankles and feet and other musculoskeletal complaints among runners were comparable with those among nonrunners. Radiologic examinations (for osteophytes, cartilage thickness, and grade of degeneration) also were without notable differences among groups. They did not find an increased prevalence of osteoarthritis among the runners. Our observations suggest that long-duration, high-mileage running need to be associated with premature degenerative joint disease in the lower extremities

  16. Luminosity Measurements at LHCb for Run II

    CERN Multimedia

    Coombs, George

    2018-01-01

    A precise measurement of the luminosity is a necessary component of many physics analyses, especially cross-section measurements. At LHCb two different direct measurement methods are used to determine the luminosity: the “van der Meer scan” (VDM) and the “Beam Gas Imaging” (BGI) methods. A combined result from these two methods gave a precision of less than 2% for Run I and efforts are ongoing to provide a similar result for Run II. Fixed target luminosity is determined with an indirect method based on the single electron scattering cross-section.

  17. Abort Gap Cleaning for LHC Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Uythoven, J; Bravin, E; Goddard, B; Hemelsoet, GH; Höfle, W; Jacquet, D; Kain, V; Mazzoni, S; Meddahi, M; Valuch, D

    2015-01-01

    To minimise the beam losses at the moment of an LHC beam dump the 3 μs long abort gap should contain as few particles as possible. Its population can be minimised by abort gap cleaning using the LHC transverse damper system. The LHC Run 1 experience is briefly recalled; changes foreseen for the LHC Run 2 are presented. They include improvements in the observation of the abort gap population and the mechanism to decide if cleaning is required, changes to the hardware of the transverse dampers to reduce the detrimental effect on the luminosity lifetime and proposed changes to the applied cleaning algorithms.

  18. Causal Analysis of Railway Running Delays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerreto, Fabrizio; Nielsen, Otto Anker; Harrod, Steven

    against service transit times and railway asset productivity. Methods to investigate the quality of supplement time allocation are necessary to reduce the behavioral response and the waste of resources. This is a preliminary study that investigates train delay data from the year 2014 supplied by Rail Net...... Denmark (the Danish infrastructure manager). The statistical analysis of the data identifies the minimum running times and the scheduled running time supplements and investigates the evolution of train delays along given train paths. An improved allocation of time supplements would result in smaller...

  19. Caffeine Supplementation and Multiple Sprint Running Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Glaister, Mark; Howatson, Glyn; Abraham, Corinne S.; Lockey, Richard A.; Goodwin, Jon E.; Foley, Paul; McInnes, Gill

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of caffeine supplementation on multiple sprint running performance.\\ud \\ud Methods: Using a randomized double-blind research design, 21 physically active men ingested a gelatin capsule containing either caffeine (5 mg·kg-1 body mass) or placebo (maltodextrin) 1 h before completing an indoor multiple sprint running trial (12 × 30 m; repeated at 35-s intervals). Venous blood samples were drawn to evaluate plasma caffeine and primary meta...

  20. RHIC Polarized proton performance in run-8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montag,C.; Bai, M.; MacKay, W.W.; Roser, T.; Abreu, N.; Ahrens, L.; Barton, D.; Beebe-Wang, J.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J.M.; Brown, K.A.; Bruno, D.; Bunce, G.; Calaga, R.; Cameron, P.; Connolly, R.; D' Ottavio, T.; Drees, A.; Fedotov, A.V.; Fischer, W.; Ganetis, G.; Gardner, C.; Glenn, J.; Hayes, T.; Huang, H.; Ingrassia, P.; Kayran, D.A.; Kewisch, J.; Lee, R.C.; Lin, F.; Litvinenko, V.N.; Luccio, A.U.; Luo, Y.; Makdisi, Y.; Malitsky, N.; Marr, G.; Marusic, A.; Michnoff, R.; Morris, J.; Oerter, B.; Pilat, F.; Pile, P.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Russo, T.; Satogata, T.; Schultheiss, C.; Sivertz, M.; Smith, K.; Tepikian, S.; D. Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J.; Zaltsman, A.; Zelenski, A.; Zeno, K.; Zhang, S.Y.

    2008-10-06

    During Run-8, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) provided collisions of spin-polarized proton beams at two interaction regions. Physics data were taken with vertical orientation of the beam polarization, which in the 'Yellow' RHIC ring was significantly lower than in previous years. We present recent developments and improvements as well as the luminosity and polarization performance achieved during Run-8, and we discuss possible causes of the not as high as previously achieved polarization performance of the 'Yellow' ring.

  1. The design of the run Clever randomized trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramskov, Daniel; Nielsen, Rasmus Oestergaard; Sørensen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Injury incidence and prevalence in running populations have been investigated and documented in several studies. However, knowledge about injury etiology and prevention is needed. Training errors in running are modifiable risk factors and people engaged in recreational running need...... evidence-based running schedules to minimize the risk of injury. The existing literature on running volume and running intensity and the development of injuries show conflicting results. This may be related to previously applied study designs, methods used to quantify the performed running...... and the statistical analysis of the collected data. The aim of the Run Clever trial is to investigate if a focus on running intensity compared with a focus on running volume in a running schedule influences the overall injury risk differently. METHODS/DESIGN: The Run Clever trial is a randomized trial with a 24-week...

  2. A rapid estimation of near field tsunami run-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riqueime, Sebastian; Fuentes, Mauricio; Hayes, Gavin; Campos, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    Many efforts have been made to quickly estimate the maximum run-up height of tsunamis associated with large earthquakes. This is a difficult task, because of the time it takes to construct a tsunami model using real time data from the source. It is possible to construct a database of potential seismic sources and their corresponding tsunami a priori.However, such models are generally based on uniform slip distributions and thus oversimplify the knowledge of the earthquake source. Here, we show how to predict tsunami run-up from any seismic source model using an analytic solution, that was specifically designed for subduction zones with a well defined geometry, i.e., Chile, Japan, Nicaragua, Alaska. The main idea of this work is to provide a tool for emergency response, trading off accuracy for speed. The solutions we present for large earthquakes appear promising. Here, run-up models are computed for: The 1992 Mw 7.7 Nicaragua Earthquake, the 2001 Mw 8.4 Perú Earthquake, the 2003Mw 8.3 Hokkaido Earthquake, the 2007 Mw 8.1 Perú Earthquake, the 2010 Mw 8.8 Maule Earthquake, the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku Earthquake and the recent 2014 Mw 8.2 Iquique Earthquake. The maximum run-up estimations are consistent with measurements made inland after each event, with a peak of 9 m for Nicaragua, 8 m for Perú (2001), 32 m for Maule, 41 m for Tohoku, and 4.1 m for Iquique. Considering recent advances made in the analysis of real time GPS data and the ability to rapidly resolve the finiteness of a large earthquake close to existing GPS networks, it will be possible in the near future to perform these calculations within the first minutes after the occurrence of similar events. Thus, such calculations will provide faster run-up information than is available from existing uniform-slip seismic source databases or past events of pre-modeled seismic sources.

  3. Weekly running volume and risk of running-related injuries among marathon runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Christina Haugaard; Nielsen, Rasmus Østergaard; Juul, Martin Serup

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSEBACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate if the risk of injury declines with increasing weekly running volume before a marathon race.......PURPOSEBACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate if the risk of injury declines with increasing weekly running volume before a marathon race....

  4. Weekly running volume and risk of running-related injuries among marathon runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Christina Haugaard; Nielsen, R.O.; Juul, Martin Serup

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if the risk of injury declines with increasing weekly running volume before a marathon race.......The purpose of this study was to investigate if the risk of injury declines with increasing weekly running volume before a marathon race....

  5. Change in running kinematics after cycling are related to alterations in running economy in triathletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonacci, Jason; Green, Daniel; Saunders, Philo U; Blanch, Peter; Franettovich, Melinda; Chapman, Andrew R; Vicenzino, Bill

    2010-07-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that cycling may influence neuromuscular control during subsequent running but the relationship between altered neuromuscular control and run performance in triathletes is not well understood. The aim of this study was to determine if a 45 min high-intensity cycle influences lower limb movement and muscle recruitment during running and whether changes in limb movement or muscle recruitment are associated with changes in running economy (RE) after cycling. RE, muscle activity (surface electromyography) and limb movement (sagittal plane kinematics) were compared between a control run (no preceding cycle) and a run performed after a 45 min high-intensity cycle in 15 moderately trained triathletes. Muscle recruitment and kinematics during running after cycling were altered in 7 of 15 (46%) triathletes. Changes in kinematics at the knee and ankle were significantly associated with the change in VO(2) after cycling (precruitment in some triathletes and that changes in kinematics, especially at the ankle, are closely related to alterations in running economy after cycling. Copyright 2010 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. High Resolution Nature Runs and the Big Data Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, W. Phillip; Duffy, Daniel Q.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Global Modeling and Assimilation Office at Goddard Space Flight Center is undertaking a series of very computationally intensive Nature Runs and a downscaled reanalysis. The nature runs use the GEOS-5 as an Atmospheric General Circulation Model (AGCM) while the reanalysis uses the GEOS-5 in Data Assimilation mode. This paper will present computational challenges from three runs, two of which are AGCM and one is downscaled reanalysis using the full DAS. The nature runs will be completed at two surface grid resolutions, 7 and 3 kilometers and 72 vertical levels. The 7 km run spanned 2 years (2005-2006) and produced 4 PB of data while the 3 km run will span one year and generate 4 BP of data. The downscaled reanalysis (MERRA-II Modern-Era Reanalysis for Research and Applications) will cover 15 years and generate 1 PB of data. Our efforts to address the big data challenges of climate science, we are moving toward a notion of Climate Analytics-as-a-Service (CAaaS), a specialization of the concept of business process-as-a-service that is an evolving extension of IaaS, PaaS, and SaaS enabled by cloud computing. In this presentation, we will describe two projects that demonstrate this shift. MERRA Analytic Services (MERRA/AS) is an example of cloud-enabled CAaaS. MERRA/AS enables MapReduce analytics over MERRA reanalysis data collection by bringing together the high-performance computing, scalable data management, and a domain-specific climate data services API. NASA's High-Performance Science Cloud (HPSC) is an example of the type of compute-storage fabric required to support CAaaS. The HPSC comprises a high speed Infinib and network, high performance file systems and object storage, and a virtual system environments specific for data intensive, science applications. These technologies are providing a new tier in the data and analytic services stack that helps connect earthbound, enterprise-level data and computational resources to new customers and new mobility

  7. Understanding the T2 traffic in CMS during Run-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    T, Wildish

    2015-12-01

    In the run-up to Run-1 CMS was operating its facilities according to the MONARC model, where data-transfers were strictly hierarchical in nature. Direct transfers between Tier-2 nodes was excluded, being perceived as operationally intensive and risky in an era where the network was expected to be a major source of errors. By the end of Run-1 wide-area networks were more capable and stable than originally anticipated. The original data-placement model was relaxed, and traffic was allowed between Tier-2 nodes. Tier-2 to Tier-2 traffic in 2012 already exceeded the amount of Tier-2 to Tier-1 traffic, so it clearly has the potential to become important in the future. Moreover, while Tier-2 to Tier-1 traffic is mostly upload of Monte Carlo data, the Tier-2 to Tier-2 traffic represents data moved in direct response to requests from the physics analysis community. As such, problems or delays there are more likely to have a direct impact on the user community. Tier-2 to Tier-2 traffic may also traverse parts of the WAN that are at the 'edge' of our network, with limited network capacity or reliability compared to, say, the Tier-0 to Tier-1 traffic which goes the over LHCOPN network. CMS is looking to exploit technologies that allow us to interact with the network fabric so that it can manage our traffic better for us, this we hope to achieve before the end of Run-2. Tier-2 to Tier-2 traffic would be the most interesting use-case for such traffic management, precisely because it is close to the users' analysis and far from the 'core' network infrastructure. As such, a better understanding of our Tier-2 to Tier-2 traffic is important. Knowing the characteristics of our data-flows can help us place our data more intelligently. Knowing how widely the data moves can help us anticipate the requirements for network capacity, and inform the dynamic data placement algorithms we expect to have in place for Run-2. This paper presents an analysis of the CMS Tier-2 traffic during Run 1.

  8. Understanding the T2 traffic in CMS during Run-1

    CERN Document Server

    T, Wildish

    2015-01-01

    In the run-up to Run-1 CMS was operating its facilities according to the MONARC model, where data-transfers were strictly hierarchical in nature. Direct transfers between Tier-2 nodes was excluded, being perceived as operationally intensive and risky in an era where the network was expected to be a major source of errors. By the end of Run-1 wide-area networks were more capable and stable than originally anticipated. The original data-placement model was relaxed, and traffic was allowed between Tier-2 nodes.Tier-2 to Tier-2 traffic in 2012 already exceeded the amount of Tier-2 to Tier-1 traffic, so it clearly has the potential to become important in the future. Moreover, while Tier-2 to Tier-1 traffic is mostly upload of Monte Carlo data, the Tier-2 to Tier-2 traffic represents data moved in direct response to requests from the physics analysis community. As such, problems or delays there are more likely to have a direct impact on the user community.Tier-2 to Tier-2 traffic may also traverse parts of the WAN ...

  9. Asymmetry in Determinants of Running Speed During Curved Sprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimura, Kazuhiro; Sakurai, Shinji

    2016-08-01

    This study investigates the potential asymmetries between inside and outside legs in determinants of curved running speed. To test these asymmetries, a deterministic model of curved running speed was constructed based on components of step length and frequency, including the distances and times of different step phases, takeoff speed and angle, velocities in different directions, and relative height of the runner's center of gravity. Eighteen athletes sprinted 60 m on the curved path of a 400-m track; trials were recorded using a motion-capture system. The variables were calculated following the deterministic model. The average speeds were identical between the 2 sides; however, the step length and frequency were asymmetric. In straight sprinting, there is a trade-off relationship between the step length and frequency; however, such a trade-off relationship was not observed in each step of curved sprinting in this study. Asymmetric vertical velocity at takeoff resulted in an asymmetric flight distance and time. The runners changed the running direction significantly during the outside foot stance because of the asymmetric centripetal force. Moreover, the outside leg had a larger tangential force and shorter stance time. These asymmetries between legs indicated the outside leg plays an important role in curved sprinting.

  10. Split-phase motor running as capacitor starts motor and as capacitor run motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahaya Asizehi ENESI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the input parameters of a single phase split-phase induction motor is taken to investigate and to study the output performance characteristics of capacitor start and capacitor run induction motor. The value of these input parameters are used in the design characteristics of capacitor run and capacitor start motor with each motor connected to rated or standard capacitor in series with auxiliary winding or starting winding respectively for the normal operational condition. The magnitude of capacitor that will develop maximum torque in capacitor start motor and capacitor run motor are investigated and determined by simulation. Each of these capacitors is connected to the auxiliary winding of split-phase motor thereby transforming it into capacitor start or capacitor run motor. The starting current and starting torque of the split-phase motor (SPM, capacitor run motor (CRM and capacitor star motor (CSM are compared for their suitability in their operational performance and applications.

  11. Prediction of ROSA-III experiment Run 702

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Yasuo; Soda, Kunihisa; Kikuchi, Osamu.

    1978-11-01

    The purpose of the ROSA-III experiment with a scaled BWR test facility is to examine primary coolant thermalhydraulic behavior and performance during a postulated loss-of-coolant accident of BWR. The results provide information for verification and improvement of reactor safety analysis codes. Run 702 assumes a recirculation line double ended break at the pump suction with average core power and no ECCS. Prediction of the Run 702 experiment was made with computer code RELAP-4J. What determine the coolant behavior are mixture level in the downcomer and flowrates and flow directions at jet pump drive flow nozzle, jet pump suction and discharge. There is thus the need for these measurements to compare predicted results with experimental ones. The liquid level formation model also needs improvement. (author)

  12. Coupling running through the looking-glass of dimensional reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirkov, D. V.

    2010-11-01

    The dimensional reduction, in a form of transition from four to two dimensions, was used in the 90s of the past century in a context of the HE Regge scattering. Recently, it has got a new impetus in quantum gravity where it opens the way to renormalizability and finite short-distance behaviour. We consider a QFT model gφ4 with running coupling defined in both domains of different dimensionality; the bar g ( q 2) evolutions being duly correlated at the reduction scale q ˜ M. Beyond this scale, in the deep UV 2-dimensional region, the running coupling does not increase any more. Instead, it slightly decreases and tends to a finite value bar g 2(∞) < bar g 2( M 2) from above. As a result, the global evolution picture looks quite peculiar and proposes a base for the modified scenario of gauge couplings behavior with UV fixed points provided by dimensional reduction instead of leptoquarks.

  13. Performance of the ATLAS Muon Trigger in Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Morgenstern, Marcus; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Events containing muons in the final state are an important signature for many analyses being carried out at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), including both standard model measurements and searches for new physics. To be able to study such events, it is required to have an efficient and well-understood muon trigger. The ATLAS muon trigger consists of a hardware based system (Level 1), as well as a software based reconstruction (High Level Trigger). Due to high luminosity and pile up conditions in Run 2, several improvements have been implemented to keep the trigger rate low while still maintaining a high efficiency. Some examples of recent improvements include requiring coincidence hits between different layers of the muon spectrometer, improvements for handling overlapping muons, and optimised muon isolation. We will present an overview of how we trigger on muons, recent improvements, and the performance of the muon trigger in Run 2 data.

  14. Book Review: HTML5: Up and Running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Cyzyk

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Mark Pilgrim's HTML5: Up and Running was one of the first books published on the subject. If you’re looking for a really good, well-written, entertaining, concise overview of what’s going on right this very minute with HTML5 technologies and techniques, this is a good book to have.

  15. Individualism, innovation, and long-run growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorodnichenko, Yuriy; Roland, Gerard

    2011-01-01

    Countries having a more individualist culture have enjoyed higher long-run growth than countries with a more collectivist culture. Individualist culture attaches social status rewards to personal achievements and thus, provides not only monetary incentives for innovation but also social status rewards, leading to higher rates of innovation and economic growth. PMID:22198759

  16. Individualism, innovation, and long-run growth

    OpenAIRE

    Gorodnichenko, Yuriy; Roland, Gerard

    2011-01-01

    Countries having a more individualist culture have enjoyed higher long-run growth than countries with a more collectivist culture. Individualist culture attaches social status rewards to personal achievements and thus, provides not only monetary incentives for innovation but also social status rewards, leading to higher rates of innovation and economic growth.

  17. Common Running Overuse Injuries and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žiga Kozinc

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Runners are particularly prone to developing overuse injuries. The most common running-related injuries include medial tibial stress syndrome, Achilles tendinopathy, plantar fasciitis, patellar tendinopathy, iliotibial band syndrome, tibial stress fractures, and patellofemoral pain syndrome. Two of the most significant risk factors appear to be injury history and weekly distance. Several trials have successfully identified biomechanical risk factors for specific injuries, with increased ground reaction forces, excessive foot pronation, hip internal rotation and hip adduction during stance phase being mentioned most often. However, evidence on interventions for lowering injury risk is limited, especially regarding exercise-based interventions. Biofeedback training for lowering ground reaction forces is one of the few methods proven to be effective. It seems that the best way to approach running injury prevention is through individualized treatment. Each athlete should be assessed separately and scanned for risk factors, which should be then addressed with specific exercises. This review provides an overview of most common running-related injuries, with a particular focus on risk factors, and emphasizes the problems encountered in preventing running-related injuries.

  18. Reflections on Daily Runs and Material Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gommesen, Niels Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    and movements. Based on my felt experiences during daily runs, it analyzes these vibrant land-scapes as heterogeneous assemblages, as collectives co-constituted between human-nonhuman actors, to study the material flows that move our bodies and expose them to new organizations. It sums up, that technologies...

  19. 105-KE Basin Pilot Run design plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherrell, D.L.

    1994-01-01

    This document identifies all design deliverables and procedures applicable to the 105-KE Basin Pilot Run. It also establishes a general design strategy, defines interface control requirements, and covers planning for mechanical, electrical, instrument/control system, and equipment installation design

  20. Biomechanics of running with rocker shoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobhani, Sobhan; van den Heuvel, Edwin R; Dekker, Rienk; Postema, Klaas; Kluitenberg, Bas; Bredeweg, Steef W; Hijmans, Juha M

    2017-01-01

    Load reduction is an important consideration in conservative management of tendon overuse injuries such as Achilles tendinopathy. Previous research has shown that the use of rocker shoes can reduce the positive ankle power and plantar flexion moment which might help in unloading the Achilles tendon. Despite this promising implication of rocker shoes, the effects on hip and knee biomechanics remain unclear. Moreover, the effect of wearing rocker shoes on different running strike types is unexplored. The aim of this study was to investigate biomechanics of the ankle, knee and hip joints and the role of strike type on these outcomes. Randomized cross-over study. In this study, 16 female endurance runners underwent three-dimensional gait analysis wearing rocker shoes and standard shoes. We examined work, moments, and angles of the ankle, knee and hip during the stance phase of running. In comparison with standard shoes, running with rocker shoes significantly (pshoes significantly increased the positive work (14%), extension moment peak (6%), and extension moment impulse (12%). These findings indicate that although running with rocker shoes might lower mechanical load on the Achilles tendon, it could increase the risk of overuse injuries of the knee joint. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 'Run, hide, tell' applies to nurses too.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Erin

    2017-07-19

    Nursing student Rhiannon Owen was at a cash machine in a busy area of London on a Saturday night when a taxi swerved towards her and the driver screamed at her to run. Looking up, she saw a man three metres away holding a knife with a 12-inch blade.

  2. Estimating Stair Running Performance Using Inertial Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauro V. Ojeda

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Stair running, both ascending and descending, is a challenging aerobic exercise that many athletes, recreational runners, and soldiers perform during training. Studying biomechanics of stair running over multiple steps has been limited by the practical challenges presented while using optical-based motion tracking systems. We propose using foot-mounted inertial measurement units (IMUs as a solution as they enable unrestricted motion capture in any environment and without need for external references. In particular, this paper presents methods for estimating foot velocity and trajectory during stair running using foot-mounted IMUs. Computational methods leverage the stationary periods occurring during the stance phase and known stair geometry to estimate foot orientation and trajectory, ultimately used to calculate stride metrics. These calculations, applied to human participant stair running data, reveal performance trends through timing, trajectory, energy, and force stride metrics. We present the results of our analysis of experimental data collected on eleven subjects. Overall, we determine that for either ascending or descending, the stance time is the strongest predictor of speed as shown by its high correlation with stride time.

  3. Brook Trout Back in Aaron Run

    Science.gov (United States)

    Following a series of acid mine drainage (AMD) projects funded largely by EPA’s Clean Water Act Section 319 non-point source program, the pH level in Aaron Run is meeting Maryland’s water quality standard – and the brook trout are back.

  4. Wave run-up on sandbag slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamnoon Rasmeemasmuang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available On occasions, sandbag revetments are temporarily applied to armour sandy beaches from erosion. Nevertheless, an empirical formula to determine the wave run -up height on sandbag slopes has not been available heretofore. In this study a wave run-up formula which considers the roughness of slope surfaces is proposed for the case of sandbag slopes. A series of laboratory experiments on the wave run -up on smooth slopes and sandbag slopes were conducted in a regular-wave flume, leading to the finding of empirical parameters for the formula. The proposed empirical formula is applicable to wave steepness ranging from 0.01 to 0.14 and to the thickness of placed sandbags relative to the wave height ranging from 0.17 to 3.0. The study shows that the wave run-up height computed by the formula for the sandbag slopes is 26-40% lower than that computed by the formula for the smooth slopes.

  5. Common running musculoskeletal injuries among recreational half ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and knee injuries among runners.[6] There is a need for further epidemiological investigations to determine intrinsic risk factors that predispose runners to musculoskeletal injuries. We aimed to compare training habits, Q-angles and hip flexion between runners who did, and those who did not incur running injuries in the 12 ...

  6. EMBL rescue package keeps bioinformatics centre running

    CERN Multimedia

    Abott, A

    1999-01-01

    The threat to the EBI arising from the EC refusal to fund its running costs seems to have been temporarily lifted. At a meeting in EMBL, Heidelberg, delegates agreed in principle to make up the shortfall of 5 million euros. A final decision will be taken at a special meeting of the EMBL council in March (1 page).

  7. Running Head: Improving Pharmacy Customer Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-29

    Pharmacy Satisfaction Running Head: IMPROVING PHARMACY CUSTOMER SATISFACTION Improving Pharmacy Customer Satisfaction at Reynolds Army Community...Pharmacy Satisfaction 7 Improving Pharmacy Customer Satisfaction The Military Healthcare System is a healthcare system intended to provide state of... customer satisfaction plays on healthcare is a relatively new concept to the Military Healthcare System. With the introduction of TRICARE, prudent

  8. The CDF Run II disk inventory manager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, Paul; Lammel, Stephan

    2001-01-01

    The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) experiment records and analyses proton-antiproton interactions at a center-of-mass energy of 2 TeV. Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron started in April of this year. The duration of the run is expected to be over two years. One of the main data handling strategies of CDF for Run II is to hide all tape access from the user and to facilitate sharing of data and thus disk space. A disk inventory manager was designed and developed over the past years to keep track of the data on disk, to coordinate user access to the data, and to stage data back from tape to disk as needed. The CDF Run II disk inventory manager consists of a server process, a user and administrator command line interfaces, and a library with the routines of the client API. Data are managed in filesets which are groups of one or more files. The system keeps track of user access to the filesets and attempts to keep frequently accessed data on disk. Data that are not on disk are automatically staged back from tape as needed. For CDF the main staging method is based on the mt-tools package as tapes are written according to the ANSI standard

  9. Event alignment, warping between running speeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Niels Henrik; Douglas, Ryan

    2004-01-01

    marine conditions (different load settings on the propeller curve) was in the range from 60 to 120 rotations per minute; furthermore the running speed was stable within periods of fixed load. Electronically controlled engines can change the angular timing of certain events, such as fuel injection...

  10. KINETIC CONSEQUENCES OF CONSTRAINING RUNNING BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Mercer

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available It is known that impact forces increase with running velocity as well as when stride length increases. Since stride length naturally changes with changes in submaximal running velocity, it was not clear which factor, running velocity or stride length, played a critical role in determining impact characteristics. The aim of the study was to investigate whether or not stride length influences the relationship between running velocity and impact characteristics. Eight volunteers (mass=72.4 ± 8.9 kg; height = 1.7 ± 0.1 m; age = 25 ± 3.4 years completed two running conditions: preferred stride length (PSL and stride length constrained at 2.5 m (SL2.5. During each condition, participants ran at a variety of speeds with the intent that the range of speeds would be similar between conditions. During PSL, participants were given no instructions regarding stride length. During SL2.5, participants were required to strike targets placed on the floor that resulted in a stride length of 2.5 m. Ground reaction forces were recorded (1080 Hz as well as leg and head accelerations (uni-axial accelerometers. Impact force and impact attenuation (calculated as the ratio of head and leg impact accelerations were recorded for each running trial. Scatter plots were generated plotting each parameter against running velocity. Lines of best fit were calculated with the slopes recorded for analysis. The slopes were compared between conditions using paired t-tests. Data from two subjects were dropped from analysis since the velocity ranges were not similar between conditions resulting in the analysis of six subjects. The slope of impact force vs. velocity relationship was different between conditions (PSL: 0.178 ± 0.16 BW/m·s-1; SL2.5: -0.003 ± 0.14 BW/m·s-1; p < 0.05. The slope of the impact attenuation vs. velocity relationship was different between conditions (PSL: 5.12 ± 2.88 %/m·s-1; SL2.5: 1.39 ± 1.51 %/m·s-1; p < 0.05. Stride length was an important factor

  11. DO RUNNING SHOES PROTECT ALL RUNNERS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin E.J. Spurgeon

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Running is a prevalent physical activity in today's health-conscious society. Over the course of a 1-mile run an individual will make approximately 1600 footstrikes. At the time of contact between foot and ground, impact forces and pronation place large stresses on the structures of the lower extremity. Exposure to repeated impact loading is linked to the development of runners' injuries, including joint degeneration and osteoarthritis (Dekel and Weissman, 1978. Pronation increases the stress in joints, muscles and tendons and is also connected to runners' injuries (James et al., 1978; Denoth, 1986; Stacoff et al., 1988. To prevent injury, running shoes are designed to reduce both impact forces and pronation. However, these innovations in shoe design might not benefit all runners. There are two main groups of runners: rearfoot strikers and midfoot strikers. Rearfoot strikers make initial ground contact with their heel, whereas midfoot strikers make initial ground contact with the mid-region of their foot. Eighty percent of runners are rearfoot strikers with the remainder being midfoot strikers (Kerr et al., 1983. So far, running shoe research has been focused only on rearfoot strikers. Thus, there is a good understanding of the shoe design requirements for these runners. For example, research has shown that the hardness and geometry of shoe-soles can be modified to reduce impact forces and pronation in rearfoot strikers (Luethi and Stacoff, 1987; Nigg and Morlock, 1987. Conversely, midfoot strikers have received no attention from running shoe research. This suggests that there is little understanding of the available techniques to reduce impact forces and pronation in these runners. Indeed, research has shown more pronation in midfoot strikers than in rearfoot strikers for the same shoe (De Wit et al., 1995. Hence, midfoot strikers might be running in poorly designed shoes which predispose them to injury. Do running shoes protect all runners

  12. Stationarity changes in long-run energy commodity prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaklan, Aleksandar; Abrell, Jan; Neumann, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Situated at the intersection of the literatures on speculative storage and non-renewable commodity scarcity, this paper considers whether changes in persistence have occurred in long-run U.S. prices of the energy commodities crude oil, natural gas and bituminous coal. We allow for a structural break when testing for a break in persistence to avoid a change in the stochastic properties of prices being confounded by an unaccounted-for deterministic shift in the price series. We find that coal prices are trend stationary throughout their evolution and that oil prices change from stationarity to non-stationarity in the decade between the late 1960s to late 1970s. The result on gas prices is ambiguous. Our results demonstrate the importance of accounting for a possible structural shift when testing for breaks in persistence, while being robust to the exact date of the structural break. Based on our analysis we caution against viewing long-run energy commodity prices as being non-stationary and conclude in favor of modeling commodity market fundamentals as stationary, meaning that speculative storage will tend to have a dampening effect on prices. We also cannot reject that long-run prices of coal and, with some hesitation, gas follow a Hotelling-type rule. In contrast, we reject the Hotelling rule for oil prices since the late 1960s/early 1970s. - Highlights: • This paper contributes to the literatures on speculative storage and scarcity. • We test if long-run U.S. coal, oil and gas prices became non-stationary. • We pre-test for structural breaks when testing for changes in persistence. • Coal prices are found to be trend stationary, oil prices become non-stationary. • We caution against modeling commodity market fundamentals as non-stationary.

  13. Long- and Short-Run Components of Factor Betas: Implications for Equity Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asgharian, Hossein; Christiansen, Charlotte; Hou, Ai Jun

    We suggest a bivariate component GARCH model that simultaneously obtains factor betas’ long- and short-run components. We apply this new model to industry portfolios using market, small-minus-big, and high-minus-low portfolios as risk factors and find that the cross-sectional average and dispersion...... of the betas’ short-run component increase in bad states of the economy. Our analysis of the risk premium highlights the importance of decomposing risk across horizons: The risk premium associated with the short-run market beta is significantly positive. This is robust to the portfolio-set choice....

  14. The efficacy of downhill running as a method to enhance running economy in trained distance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Andrew J; Ingham, Stephen A; Folland, Jonathan P

    2018-03-21

    Running downhill, in comparison to running on the flat, appears to involve an exaggerated stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) due to greater impact loads and higher vertical velocity on landing, whilst also incurring a lower metabolic cost. Therefore, downhill running could facilitate higher volumes of training at higher speeds whilst performing an exaggerated SSC, potentially inducing favourable adaptations in running mechanics and running economy (RE). This investigation assessed the efficacy of a supplementary 8-week programme of downhill running as a means of enhancing RE in well-trained distance runners. Nineteen athletes completed supplementary downhill (-5% gradient; n = 10) or flat (n = 9) run training twice a week for 8 weeks within their habitual training. Participants trained at a standardised intensity based on the velocity of lactate turnpoint (vLTP), with training volume increased incrementally between weeks. Changes in energy cost of running (E C ) and vLTP were assessed on both flat and downhill gradients, in addition to maximal oxygen uptake (⩒O 2max). No changes in E C were observed during flat running following downhill (1.22 ± 0.09 vs 1.20 ± 0.07 Kcal kg -1  km -1 , P = .41) or flat run training (1.21 ± 0.13 vs 1.19 ± 0.12 Kcal kg -1  km -1 ). Moreover, no changes in E C during downhill running were observed in either condition (P > .23). vLTP increased following both downhill (16.5 ± 0.7 vs 16.9 ± 0.6 km h -1 ,P = .05) and flat run training (16.9 ± 0.7 vs 17.2 ± 1.0 km h -1 , P = .05), though no differences in responses were observed between groups (P = .53). Therefore, a short programme of supplementary downhill run training does not appear to enhance RE in already well-trained individuals.

  15. Tsunami Run-up Heights at Imwon Port, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yong-Sik; Cho, Jeong-Seon

    2015-04-01

    Tsunami Run-up Heights at Imwon Port, Korea Yong-Sik Cho and Jeong-Seon Cho Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hanyang University 222 Wangsimni-ro, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791, Korea. The Eastern Coast of the Korean Peninsula has been attacked frequently by a number of tsunamis causing severe damages during this century. Among them, 1983 Central East Sea and 1993 Hokkaido Tsunami events were recorded as the most devastating events in Korea. More recently, the Great East Japan Tsunami had also attacked the Korean Peninsula. The Eastern Coast of the Korean Peninsula is the terminal place where tsunamis climb up inland after it generated along the western coast of Japan. The central part of the coast, in special, is worried as a tsunami danger zone because much tsunami energy is concentrated on by a topographic condition of this region. Recently, several coastal facilities including harbors and breakwaters are built and operated along the Eastern Coast of the Korean Peninsula. Furthermore, several nuclear power plants are already operating and several more units are now under construction. Residents who lived alongside the coast want free from unexpected danger, so the tsunami hazard mitigation becomes an important issue of coastal problems in Korea. Through the historical tsunami events, the Imwon Port is known as the place where most severe damage occurred, especially in 1983. An effective and economic way for the tsunami hazard mitigation planning is to construct inundation maps along the coast vulnerable to tsunami flooding. These maps should be built based on the historical tsunami events and the projected scenarios. For this purpose, an accurate estimation of tsunami run-up height and inundation process through the numerical model is needed. As a first step to tsunami mitigation program, the maximum run-up heights at the Imwon Port are computed and compared with field observed data. For this, tsunami run-up heights in this region were filed

  16. The relationship between running velocity and the energy cost of turning during running.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoichi Hatamoto

    Full Text Available Ball game players frequently perform changes of direction (CODs while running; however, there has been little research on the physiological impact of CODs. In particular, the effect of running velocity on the physiological and energy demands of CODs while running has not been clearly determined. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between running velocity and the energy cost of a 180°COD and to quantify the energy cost of a 180°COD. Nine male university students (aged 18-22 years participated in the study. Five shuttle trials were performed in which the subjects were required to run at different velocities (3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 km/h. Each trial consisted of four stages with different turn frequencies (13, 18, 24 and 30 per minute, and each stage lasted 3 minutes. Oxygen consumption was measured during the trial. The energy cost of a COD significantly increased with running velocity (except between 7 and 8 km/h, p = 0.110. The relationship between running velocity and the energy cost of a 180°COD is best represented by a quadratic function (y = -0.012+0.066x +0.008x(2, [r = 0.994, p = 0.001], but is also well represented by a linear (y = -0.228+0.152x, [r = 0.991, p<0.001]. These data suggest that even low running velocities have relatively high physiological demands if the COD frequency increases, and that running velocities affect the physiological demands of CODs. These results also showed that the energy expenditure of COD can be evaluated using only two data points. These results may be useful for estimating the energy expenditure of players during a match and designing shuttle exercise training programs.

  17. Muscle injury after low-intensity downhill running reduces running economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Cory W; Green, Michael S; Doyle, J Andrew; Rupp, Jeffrey C; Ingalls, Christopher P; Corona, Benjamin T

    2014-05-01

    Contraction-induced muscle injury may reduce running economy (RE) by altering motor unit recruitment, lowering contraction economy, and disturbing running mechanics, any of which may have a deleterious effect on endurance performance. The purpose of this study was to determine if RE is reduced 2 days after performing injurious, low-intensity exercise in 11 healthy active men (27.5 ± 5.7 years; 50.05 ± 1.67 VO2peak). Running economy was determined at treadmill speeds eliciting 65 and 75% of the individual's peak rate of oxygen uptake (VO2peak) 1 day before and 2 days after injury induction. Lower extremity muscle injury was induced with a 30-minute downhill treadmill run (6 × 5 minutes runs, 2 minutes rest, -12% grade, and 12.9 km·h(-1)) that elicited 55% VO2peak. Maximal quadriceps isometric torque was reduced immediately and 2 days after the downhill run by 18 and 10%, and a moderate degree of muscle soreness was present. Two days after the injury, steady-state VO2 and metabolic work (VO2 L·km(-1)) were significantly greater (4-6%) during the 65% VO2peak run. Additionally, postinjury VCO2, VE and rating of perceived exertion were greater at 65% but not at 75% VO2peak, whereas whole blood-lactate concentrations did not change pre-injury to postinjury at either intensity. In conclusion, low-intensity downhill running reduces RE at 65% but not 75% VO2peak. The results of this study and other studies indicate the magnitude to which RE is altered after downhill running is dependent on the severity of the injury and intensity of the RE test.

  18. Running the EGS4 Monte Carlo code with Fortran 90 on a pentium computer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caon, M. [Flinders Univ. of South Australia, Bedford Park, SA (Australia)]|[Univercity of South Australia, SA (Australia); Bibbo, G. [Womens and Childrens hospital, SA (Australia); Pattison, J. [Univercity of South Australia, SA (Australia)

    1996-09-01

    The possibility to run the EGS4 Monte Carlo code radiation transport system for medical radiation modelling on a microcomputer is discussed. This has been done using a Fortran 77 compiler with a 32-bit memory addressing system running under a memory extender operating system. In addition a virtual memory manager such as QEMM386 was required. It has successfully run on a SUN Sparcstation2. In 1995 faster Pentium-based microcomputers became available as did the Windows 95 operating system which can handle 32-bit programs, multitasking and provides its own virtual memory management. The paper describe how with simple modification to the batch files it was possible to run EGS4 on a Pentium under Fortran 90 and Windows 95. This combination of software and hardware is cheaper and faster than running it on a SUN Sparcstation2. 8 refs., 1 tab.

  19. A Novel Technique for Running the NASA Legacy Code LAPIN Synchronously With Simulations Developed Using Simulink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrnak, Daniel R.; Stueber, Thomas J.; Le, Dzu K.

    2012-01-01

    This report presents a method for running a dynamic legacy inlet simulation in concert with another dynamic simulation that uses a graphical interface. The legacy code, NASA's LArge Perturbation INlet (LAPIN) model, was coded using the FORTRAN 77 (The Portland Group, Lake Oswego, OR) programming language to run in a command shell similar to other applications that used the Microsoft Disk Operating System (MS-DOS) (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, WA). Simulink (MathWorks, Natick, MA) is a dynamic simulation that runs on a modern graphical operating system. The product of this work has both simulations, LAPIN and Simulink, running synchronously on the same computer with periodic data exchanges. Implementing the method described in this paper avoided extensive changes to the legacy code and preserved its basic operating procedure. This paper presents a novel method that promotes inter-task data communication between the synchronously running processes.

  20. Running the EGS4 Monte Carlo code with Fortran 90 on a pentium computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caon, M.; Bibbo, G.; Pattison, J.

    1996-01-01

    The possibility to run the EGS4 Monte Carlo code radiation transport system for medical radiation modelling on a microcomputer is discussed. This has been done using a Fortran 77 compiler with a 32-bit memory addressing system running under a memory extender operating system. In addition a virtual memory manager such as QEMM386 was required. It has successfully run on a SUN Sparcstation2. In 1995 faster Pentium-based microcomputers became available as did the Windows 95 operating system which can handle 32-bit programs, multitasking and provides its own virtual memory management. The paper describe how with simple modification to the batch files it was possible to run EGS4 on a Pentium under Fortran 90 and Windows 95. This combination of software and hardware is cheaper and faster than running it on a SUN Sparcstation2. 8 refs., 1 tab

  1. Global Asset Pricing: Is There a Role for Long-run Consumption Risk?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rangvid, Jesper; Schmelling, Maik; Schrimpf, Andreas

    We estimate long-run consumption-based asset pricing models using a comprehensive set of international test assets, including broad equity market portfolios, international value/growth portfolios, and international bond portfolios. We find that differences in returns across assets within a country...... are sometimes (and most prominently for the U.S.) better captured by the assets' exposure to long-run consumption risk as opposed to their exposure to one-period changes in consumption (the canonical consumption CAPM). Across countries, however, exposure to long-run consumption risk does not provide a better...... fit than the canonical consumption CAPM. Thus, when characterizing the cross-country distribution of returns, long-run consumption risk does not seem to play any particular role, even if long-run risk is important for explaining the cross section of expected returns in the U.S. Furthermore, we show...

  2. The ATLAS Tau Trigger Performance during LHC Run 1 and Prospects for Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Sakurai, Yuki

    2014-01-01

    Triggering on hadronic tau decays is essential for a wide variety of analyses of interesting physics processes at ATLAS. The ATLAS tau trigger combines information from the tracking detectors and calorimeters to identify the signature of hadronically decaying tau leptons. In Run 2 operation expected to start in 2015, the trigger strategies will become more important than ever before. In this paper, the tau trigger performance during Run 1 is summarized and also an overview of the developments of Run 2 tau trigger strategy is presented.

  3. The ATLAS Tau Trigger Performance during LHC Run1 and Prospects for Run2

    CERN Document Server

    Mitani, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    Triggering on hadronic tau decays at ATLAS is essential for a wide variety of analyses of interesting physics processes at ATLAS. Among those are the measurement of the Higgs boson in the di-tau final state and multiple searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. The ATLAS tau trigger combines information from the tracking detectors and calorimeters to identify the signature of hadronically decaying tau leptons. In 2015 the trigger strategies will become more important than ever for physics analyses. Under the demanding high luminosity scenario of the LHC Run 2, with instantaneous luminosities up to 2x10^34 cm^-2s^-1, one of the major challenges will be to sustain high efficiencies and background rejection in events with up to 50 overlapping interactions. In this environment single-tau triggers suffer from severe rate limitations, despite the sophisticated algorithms that are used in the tau identification. Hence, new algorithms with improved resolution, multi-variate selection techniques, and new topolog...

  4. Recent ATLAS results and preparations for Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00115001; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The CERN LHC delivered 25/fb of proton-proton collision data in 2011-2012 at sqrt(s) = 7 - 8 TeV centre-of-mass energy to the ATLAS detector. These Run 1 data were used to discover the Higgs boson and measure its properties as well as to perform numerous other tests of the Standard Model via precision measurements and searches for New Physics. In preparation for the Run 2 data taking at sqrt(s) = 13 TeV, the collaboration embarked on an upgrade program during the long LHC machine shutdown in 2013-2015. The early 2015 data set was then used to promptly recommission the apparatus allowing the first physics results to appear already in the summer of 2015. After briefly reviewing the upgrade and the improved performance of the detector, this paper concentrates on the final Run 1 results on Higgs, W and Z boson, electroweak multi-boson and top quark production as well as on searches for supersymmetry and other new phenomena.

  5. Running over rough terrain reveals limb control for intrinsic stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Monica A; Biewener, Andrew A

    2006-10-17

    Legged animals routinely negotiate rough, unpredictable terrain with agility and stability that outmatches any human-built machine. Yet, we know surprisingly little about how animals accomplish this. Current knowledge is largely limited to studies of steady movement. These studies have revealed fundamental mechanisms used by terrestrial animals for steady locomotion. However, it is unclear whether these models provide an appropriate framework for the neuromuscular and mechanical strategies used to achieve dynamic stability over rough terrain. Perturbation experiments shed light on this issue, revealing the interplay between mechanics and neuromuscular control. We measured limb mechanics of helmeted guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) running over an unexpected drop in terrain, comparing their response to predictions of the mass-spring running model. Adjustment of limb contact angle explains 80% of the variation in stance-phase limb loading following the perturbation. Surprisingly, although limb stiffness varies dramatically, it does not influence the response. This result agrees with a mass-spring model, although it differs from previous findings on humans running over surfaces of varying compliance. However, guinea fowl sometimes deviate from mass-spring dynamics through posture-dependent work performance of the limb, leading to substantial energy absorption following the perturbation. This posture-dependent actuation allows the animal to absorb energy and maintain desired velocity on a sudden substrate drop. Thus, posture-dependent work performance of the limb provides inherent velocity control over rough terrain. These findings highlight how simple mechanical models extend to unsteady conditions, providing fundamental insights into neuromuscular control of movement and the design of dynamically stable legged robots and prosthetic devices.

  6. The sheer scale of China's urban renewal and CO2 emissions: multiple structural breaks, long-run relationship, and short-run dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Khalid

    2016-08-01

    In the light of urban environmental transition (UET) theory, this study explores the relationship between carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, economic growth, urbanization, and trade openness using updated Chinese data over the extended period (1971-2013). After confirming that all the underlying series are stationary and adjusted with single structural break point, the results of autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds test approach to cointegration confirm the cointegration between the variables. The long- and short-run dynamics reveal that urbanization reduces the CO2 emissions both in short and long runs, but statistically insignificant. These findings contrast with previous literature and sound the validation of urban environmental transition theory (UET). However, economic growth and trade openness contribute environmental degradation both in long- and short-run paths. The causality analysis reports bidirectional causal link between trade openness and urbanization in the short run. However, in the long-run, economic growth Granger causes carbon dioxide emissions, urbanization, and trade openness. Similarly, trade openness Granger causes carbon dioxide emissions, economic growth, and urbanization in the long run. The overall results imply that rural to urban immigration is still mostly driven by export-related manufacturing sectors. In addition, the higher GDP also contributes to urbanization as a feedback effect. In the end, stability of the model is also checked, model found stable, and findings are suitable for environmental policy control use.

  7. 47 CFR 76.804 - Disposition of home run wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposition of home run wiring. 76.804 Section... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Inside Wiring § 76.804 Disposition of home run wiring. (a) Building-by-building disposition of home run wiring. (1) Where an MVPD owns the home run wiring in an MDU...

  8. 28 CFR 544.34 - Inmate running events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inmate running events. 544.34 Section 544... EDUCATION Inmate Recreation Programs § 544.34 Inmate running events. Running events will ordinarily not... available for all inmate running events. ...

  9. The CDF Run IIb Silicon Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Aoki; N. Bacchetta; S. Behari et al.

    2004-02-25

    Fermilab plans to deliver 5-15 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity to the CDF and D0 experiments. The current inner silicon detectors at CDF (SVXIIa and L00) will not tolerate the radiation dose associated with high luminosity running and will need to be replaced. A new readout chip (SVX4) has been designed in radiation-hard 0.25 {micro}m CMOS technology. Single sided sensors are arranged in a compact structure, called a stave, with integrated readout and cooling systems. This paper describes the general design of the Run IIb system, testing results of prototype electrical components (staves), and prototype silicon sensor performance before and after irradiation.

  10. Ultra-obligatory running among ultramarathon runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Martin D; Krouse, Rhonna

    2018-01-01

    Participants in the Ultrarunners Longitudinal TRAcking (ULTRA) Study were asked to answer "yes" or "no" to the question "If you were to learn, with absolute certainty, that ultramarathon running is bad for your health, would you stop your ultramarathon training and participation?" Among the 1349 runners, 74.1% answered "no". Compared with those answering "yes", they were younger (p life meaning (p = 0.0002) scores on the Motivations of Marathoners Scales. Despite a high health orientation, most ultramarathon runners would not stop running if they learned it was bad for their health as it appears to serve their psychological and personal achievement motivations and their task orientation such that they must perceive enhanced benefits that are worth retaining at the risk of their health.

  11. CMS Full Simulation for Run-2

    CERN Document Server

    Hildreth, M; Lange, D J; Kortelainen, M J

    2015-01-01

    During LHC shutdown between run-1 and run-2 intensive developments were carried out to improve performance of CMS simulation. For physics improvements migration from Geant4 9.4p03 to Geant4 10.0p02 has been performed. CPU performance has been improved by introduction of the Russian roulette method inside CMS calorimeters, optimization of CMS simulation sub-libraries, and usage of statics build of the simulation executable. As a result of these efforts, CMS simulation has been speeded up by about factor two. In this work we provide description of updates for different software components of CMS simulation. Development of a multi-threaded (MT) simulation approach for CMS will be also discuss.

  12. Analysis of Biomechanical Factors in Bend Running

    OpenAIRE

    Bing Zhang; Xinping You; Feng Li

    2013-01-01

    Sprint running is the demonstration of comprehensive abilities of technology and tactics, under various conditions. However, whether it is just to allocate the tracks for short-distance athletes from different racetracks has been the hot topic. This study analyzes its forces, differences in different tracks and winding influences, in the aspects of sport biomechanics. The results indicate, many disadvantages exist in inner tracks, middle tracks are the best and outer ones are inferior to midd...

  13. Run-time Energy Management for Mobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Smit, L.T.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2000-01-01

    Due to limited energy resources, mobile computing requires an energy-efficient a rchitecture. The dynamic nature of a mobile environment demands an architecture that allows adapting to (quickly) changing conditions. The mobile has to adapt d ynamically to new circumstances in the best suitable manner. The hardware and so ftware architecture should be able to support such adaptability and minimize the energy consumption by making resource allocation decisions at run-time. To make these decisio...

  14. Data from the LIGO I Science Run

    OpenAIRE

    Lazzarini, Albert

    2001-01-01

    The LIGO I Science Run is planned to begin in mid-2002. The characteristics of the data stream, data volumes, data products, and data availability are discussed. The data analysis activities will be undertaken by the LIGO Scientific Collaboration (LSC^2). These activities include operating dedicated on-site pipelines at the LIGO observatories. In addition, a dedicated off-site facility for will be dedicated to melding data from different interferometer datastreams (both LIGO and eventually th...

  15. Running agent-based simulations. Unternehmensmodell / Computersimulation.

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, David; Karatzoglou, Alexandros; Buchta, Christian; Leisch, Friedrich; Hornik, Kurt

    2001-01-01

    When running agent-based simulations using ready-made components, one usually faces heterogenity problems both for the agents' implementation and for the underlying platform. To circumvent these kind of hindrances, we introduce a wrapper technique for mapping the functionality of agents living in an interpreter-based environment to a standardized CORBA interface, thus facilitating the task for any control mechanism (like a simulation manager) which just will need to handle one set of commands...

  16. Forecasting Long-Run Electricity Prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamm, Gregory; Borison, Adam

    2006-01-01

    Estimation of long-run electricity prices is extremely important but it is also very difficult because of the many uncertainties that will determine future prices, and because of the lack of sufficient historical and forwards data. The difficulty is compounded when forecasters ignore part of the available information or unnecessarily limit their thinking about the future. The authors present a practical approach that addresses these problems. (author)

  17. Run-08 pC polarization analysis - October 16, 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dharmawardane,V.; Bazilevsky,A.; Bunce, G.; Gill, R.; Huang, H.; Makdisi, Y.; Nakagawa, I.; Morozov, B.; Okada, H.; Sivertz, M.; Zelenski, A.; Alekseev, I.; Svirida, D.

    2009-03-01

    In this note we will discuss the analysis of RHIC run 08 pC data that were collected during February 14 - March 10, 2008. An analysis method that is similar to Run 05 and Run 06 was adopted for Run 08 analysis (except few minor changes, which are described below). A detailed analysis note and a NIM article that describe the pC analysis procedure (for run 05 and run 06) can be found elsewhere. In brief, the analysis consists of calibrating the detectors, determining energy corrections ('dead layers'), determining good runs and extracting the polarization from data.

  18. Financial Performance of Health Insurers: State-Run Versus Federal-Run Exchanges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Mark A; McCue, Michael J; Palazzolo, Jennifer R

    2017-03-01

    Many insurers incurred financial losses in individual markets for health insurance during 2014, the first year of Affordable Care Act mandated changes. This analysis looks at key financial ratios of insurers to compare profitability in 2014 and 2013, identify factors driving financial performance, and contrast the financial performance of health insurers operating in state-run exchanges versus the federal exchange. Overall, the median loss of sampled insurers was -3.9%, no greater than their loss in 2013. Reduced administrative costs offset increases in medical losses. Insurers performed better in states with state-run exchanges than insurers in states using the federal exchange in 2014. Medical loss ratios are the underlying driver more than administrative costs in the difference in performance between states with federal versus state-run exchanges. Policy makers looking to improve the financial performance of the individual market should focus on features that differentiate the markets associated with state-run versus federal exchanges.

  19. The aerodynamic signature of running spiders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Casas

    Full Text Available Many predators display two foraging modes, an ambush strategy and a cruising mode. These foraging strategies have been classically studied in energetic, biomechanical and ecological terms, without considering the role of signals produced by predators and perceived by prey. Wolf spiders are a typical example; they hunt in leaf litter either using an ambush strategy or by moving at high speed, taking over unwary prey. Air flow upstream of running spiders is a source of information for escaping prey, such as crickets and cockroaches. However, air displacement by running arthropods has not been previously examined. Here we show, using digital particle image velocimetry, that running spiders are highly conspicuous aerodynamically, due to substantial air displacement detectable up to several centimetres in front of them. This study explains the bimodal distribution of spider's foraging modes in terms of sensory ecology and is consistent with the escape distances and speeds of cricket prey. These findings may be relevant to the large and diverse array of arthropod prey-predator interactions in leaf litter.

  20. PECULIARITIES OF RUNNING GEAR CONSTRUCTION OF ROLLING STOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Myamlin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine the dynamic qualities of the main locomotives that characterize safety traffic along straight and curved track sections in the entire range of operational speeds, it is necessary to perform a whole range of studies. One of the necessary conditions for a qualitative improvement of the traction rolling stock of railways is the determination of the parameters of its running gears. Among the issues related to this problem, the important task is to determine the dynamic qualities of locomotives at the design stage, taking into account the selected technical solutions in the design of running gears. At the same time, special attention is paid to the connections of the body with bogie, in particular, using the inclined rods. Methodology. Mathematical modeling is carried out by the method of numerical integration of the equations of the mathematical model of locomotive spatial oscillations to determine the dynamic loading of the mainline locomotive using the software package "Dynamics of Rail Vihicles" ("DYNRAIL". Findings. The research results show that in order to create a simple and reliable design of running gears, which will reduce maintenance and repair costs, will have low initial cost and operating costs for the whole life cycle, high traction force as close as possible to the ultimate force in traction, will make it possible to operate in the multiple traction mode, the designers and scientists should implement scientific and technical solutions. Originality. In accordance with researches authors formed general classification formation of body/bogie connections and the general classification of structures of inclined rod of locomotives. Practical value. Generalization of the results of theoretical, scientific-methodical, experimental studies aimed at further improving the running gears of long-distance locomotives of perspective structures is urgent in improving the rolling stock constructions. The research carried out by

  1. Split-phase motor running as capacitor starts motor and as capacitor run motor

    OpenAIRE

    Yahaya Asizehi ENESI; Jacob TSADO; Mark NWOHU; Usman Abraham USMAN; Odu Ayo IMORU

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the input parameters of a single phase split-phase induction motor is taken to investigate and to study the output performance characteristics of capacitor start and capacitor run induction motor. The value of these input parameters are used in the design characteristics of capacitor run and capacitor start motor with each motor connected to rated or standard capacitor in series with auxiliary winding or starting winding respectively for the normal operational condition. The ma...

  2. Warm-up with a weighted vest improves running performance via leg stiffness and running economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, K R; Hopkins, W G; McGuigan, M R; Kilding, A E

    2015-01-01

    To determine the effects of "strides" with a weighted-vest during a warm-up on endurance performance and its potential neuromuscular and metabolic mediators. A bout of resistance exercise can enhance subsequent high-intensity performance, but little is known about such priming exercise for endurance performance. A crossover with 5-7 days between an experimental and control trial was performed by 11 well-trained distance runners. Each trial was preceded by a warm-up consisting of a 10-min self-paced jog, a 5-min submaximal run to determine running economy, and six 10-s strides with or without a weighted-vest (20% of body mass). After a 10-min recovery period, runners performed a series of jumps to determine leg stiffness and other neuromuscular characteristics, another 5-min submaximal run, and an incremental treadmill test to determine peak running speed. Clinical and non-clinical forms of magnitude-based inference were used to assess outcomes. Correlations and linear regression were used to assess relationships between performance and underlying measures. The weighted-vest condition resulted in a very-large enhancement of peak running speed (2.9%; 90% confidence limits ±0.8%), a moderate increase in leg stiffness (20.4%; ±4.2%) and a large improvement in running economy (6.0%; ±1.6%); there were also small-moderate clear reductions in cardiorespiratory measures. Relationships between change scores showed that changes in leg stiffness could explain all the improvements in performance and economy. Strides with a weighted-vest have a priming effect on leg stiffness and running economy. It is postulated the associated major effect on peak treadmill running speed will translate into enhancement of competitive endurance performance. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Vector resonances at LHC Run II in composite 2HDM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiara, Stefano Di [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics,Rävala 10, 10143 Tallinn (Estonia); Heikinheimo, Matti; Tuominen, Kimmo [Helsinki Institute of Physics, University of Helsinki,P.O. Box 64, FI-000140, Helsinki (Finland); Department of Physics, University of Helsinki,P.O. Box 64, FI-000140, Helsinki (Finland)

    2017-03-02

    We consider a model where the electroweak symmetry breaking is driven by strong dynamics, resulting in an electroweak doublet scalar condensate, and transmitted to the standard model matter fields via another electroweak doublet scalar. At low energies the effective theory therefore shares features with a type-I two Higgs doublet model. However, important differences arise due to the rich composite spectrum expected to contain new vector resonances accessible at the LHC. We carry out a systematic analysis of the vector resonance signals at LHC and find that the model remains viable, but will be tightly constrained by direct searches as the projected integrated luminosity, around 200 fb{sup −1}, of the current run becomes available.

  4. Comparison of Running Economy Values While Wearing No Shoes, Minimal Shoes, and Normal Running Shoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrum, Robbie G; Connors, Ryan T; Coons, John M; Fuller, Dana K; Morgan, Don W; Caputo, Jennifer L

    2017-03-01

    Cochrum, RG, Connors, RT, Coons, JM, Fuller, DK, Morgan, DW, and Caputo, JL. Comparison of running economy values while wearing no shoes, minimal shoes, and normal running shoes. J Strength Cond Res 31(3): 595-601, 2017-The purpose of this study was to quantify differences in running economy (RE) at 50 and 70% of each subject's velocity at V[Combining Dot Above]O2max (vV[Combining Dot Above]O2max) across barefoot and 2 mass, stack height, and heel-to-toe-drop controlled footwear conditions (minimal shoes and normal running shoes) in 9 recreational distance runners (mean age 26.8 ± 6.8 years). Over 3 days, subjects ran in one of the footwear conditions while RE (oxygen consumption) and step frequency were measured at each speed with a 5-minute rest between each trial. A 2-way repeated-measures multivariate analysis of variance (p ≤ 0.05) and Bonferroni-adjusted follow-up analyses revealed that RE was not significantly different across footwear conditions at either speed. However, those running barefoot exhibited a higher step frequency than when running in minimal (50%, p = 0.007; and 70%, p shoe.

  5. Effects of a minimalist shoe on running economy and 5-km running performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Joel T; Thewlis, Dominic; Tsiros, Margarita D; Brown, Nicholas A T; Buckley, Jonathan D

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if minimalist shoes improve time trial performance of trained distance runners and if changes in running economy, shoe mass, stride length, stride rate and footfall pattern were related to any difference in performance. Twenty-six trained runners performed three 6-min sub-maximal treadmill runs at 11, 13 and 15 km·h(-1) in minimalist and conventional shoes while running economy, stride length, stride rate and footfall pattern were assessed. They then performed a 5-km time trial. In the minimalist shoe, runners completed the trial in less time (effect size 0.20 ± 0.12), were more economical during sub-maximal running (effect size 0.33 ± 0.14) and decreased stride length (effect size 0.22 ± 0.10) and increased stride rate (effect size 0.22 ± 0.11). All but one runner ran with a rearfoot footfall in the minimalist shoe. Improvements in time trial performance were associated with improvements in running economy at 15 km·h(-1) (r = 0.58), with 79% of the improved economy accounted for by reduced shoe mass (P economy and 5-km running performance.

  6. Continuing and developing the engagement with Mediterranean stakeholders in the CLIM-RUN project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodess, Clare

    2013-04-01

    The CLIM-RUN case studies provide a real-world and Mediterranean context for bringing together experts on the demand and supply side of climate services. They are essential to the CLIM-RUN objective of using iterative and bottom-up (i.e., stakeholder led) approaches for optimizing the two-way information transfer between climate experts and stakeholders - and focus on specific locations and sectors (such as tourism and renewable energy). Stakeholder involvement has been critical from the start of the project in March 2011, with an early series of targeted workshops used to define the framework for each case study as well as the needs of stakeholders. Following these workshops, the user needs were translated into specific requirements from climate observations and models and areas identified where additional modelling and analysis are required. The first set of new products and tools produced by the CLIM-RUN modelling and observational experts are presented in a series of short briefing notes. A second round of CLIM-RUN stakeholder workshops will be held for each of the case studies in Spring 2013 as an essential part of the fourth CLIM-RUN key stage: Consolidation and collective review/assessment. During these workshops the process of interaction between CLIM-RUN scientists and case-study stakeholders will be reviewed, as well as the utility of the products and information developed in CLIM-RUN. Review questions will include: How far have we got? How successful have we been? What are the remaining problems/gaps? How to sustain and extend the interactions? The process of planning for and running these second workshops will be outlined and emerging outcomes presented, focusing on common messages which are relevant for development of the CLIM-RUN protocol for providing improved climate services to stakeholders together with the identification of best practices and policy recommendations for climate services development.

  7. Experiment data of ROSA-III integral test RUN 913

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonomoto, Taisuke; Tasaka, Kanji; Anoda, Yoshinari; Kumamaru, Hiroshige; Nakamura, Hideo; Murata, Hideo; Suzuki, Mitsuhiro

    1989-09-01

    This report presents the experimental data of RUN 913, a 15 % split break test at the recirculation pump suction line. The ROSA-III test facility is a volumetrically scaled (1/424) model for the BWR/6. The facility has the electrically heated core, the break simulator and the scaled ECCS (Emergency Core Cooling System). The MSIV closure and the ECCS actuation are tripped by the liquid level in the upper downcomer as well as the BWR. The test was conducted successfully and important data base was obtained to assess the predictability of the LOCA analysis code. (author)

  8. Energy dissipation within the wave run-up at stepped revetments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerpen, Nils B.; Bung, Daniel B.; Valero, Daniel; Schlurmann, Torsten

    2017-08-01

    To understand the processes and energy dissipation performance caused by turbulence during the wave run-up over a stepped revetment, hydraulic model tests with steady flow conditions are conducted and correlated with unsteady flow conditions of the wave run-up within a short time frame. Under irregular waves, the run-up reduction over a stepped revetment is dependent on the Iribarren number and decreases for decreasing Iribarren numbers. Velocity gradients are found to be similar in a steady and unsteady flow regime near the pseudo-bottom.

  9. Spanish ATLAS Tier-2 facing up to Run-2 period of LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez de la Hoz, Santiago; The ATLAS collaboration; Fassi, Farida; Fernandez Casani, Alvaro; Kaci, Mohammed; Lacort Pellicer, Victor Ruben; Montiel Gonzalez, Almudena Del Rocio; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Salt, José; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sánchez, Javier

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this work is to describe the way of addressing the main challenges of Run-2 by the Spanish ATLAS Tier-2. The considerable increase of energy and luminosity for the upcoming Run-2 w.r.t. Run-1 has led to a revision of the ATLAS computing model as well as some of the main ATLAS computing tools. The adaptation to these changes will be shown, with the peculiarities that it is a distributed Tier-2 composed of three sites and its members are involved on ATLAS computing tasks with a hub of research, innovation and education.

  10. Changes in timing of muscle contractions and running economy with altered stride pattern during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connick, Mark J; Li, Francois-Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Large alterations to the preferred running stride decrease running economy, and shorter strides increase leg muscle activity. However, the effect of altered strides on the timing of leg muscle activation is not known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of moderate alterations to the running stride on running economy and the timing of biceps femoris (BF), vastus lateralis (VL) and gastrocnemius (GAST) muscle contractions. The preferred stride pattern for eleven trained male runners was measured prior to a separate visit where participants ran for bouts of 5 min whilst synchronising foot contacts to a metronome signal which was tuned to (1) the preferred stride, and (2) frequencies which related to ± 8% and ± 4% of the preferred stride length. Running economy was measured at each stride pattern along with electromyography and three-dimensional kinematics to estimate onset and offset of muscle contractions for each muscle. Running economy was greatest at the preferred stride length. However, a quadratic fit to the data was optimised at a stride which was 2.9% shorter than preferred. Onset and offset of BF and VL muscle contractions occurred earlier with shorter than preferred strides. We detected no changes to the timing of muscle contractions with longer than preferred strides and no changes to GAST muscle contractions. The results suggest that runners optimise running economy with a stride length that is close to, but shorter than, the preferred stride, and that timing of BF and VL muscle contractions change with shorter than preferred strides. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Is There an Economical Running Technique? A Review of Modifiable Biomechanical Factors Affecting Running Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Isabel S

    2016-06-01

    Running economy (RE) has a strong relationship with running performance, and modifiable running biomechanics are a determining factor of RE. The purposes of this review were to (1) examine the intrinsic and extrinsic modifiable biomechanical factors affecting RE; (2) assess training-induced changes in RE and running biomechanics; (3) evaluate whether an economical running technique can be recommended and; (4) discuss potential areas for future research. Based on current evidence, the intrinsic factors that appeared beneficial for RE were using a preferred stride length range, which allows for stride length deviations up to 3 % shorter than preferred stride length; lower vertical oscillation; greater leg stiffness; low lower limb moment of inertia; less leg extension at toe-off; larger stride angles; alignment of the ground reaction force and leg axis during propulsion; maintaining arm swing; low thigh antagonist-agonist muscular coactivation; and low activation of lower limb muscles during propulsion. Extrinsic factors associated with a better RE were a firm, compliant shoe-surface interaction and being barefoot or wearing lightweight shoes. Several other modifiable biomechanical factors presented inconsistent relationships with RE. Running biomechanics during ground contact appeared to play an important role, specifically those during propulsion. Therefore, this phase has the strongest direct links with RE. Recurring methodological problems exist within the literature, such as cross-comparisons, assessing variables in isolation, and acute to short-term interventions. Therefore, recommending a general economical running technique should be approached with caution. Future work should focus on interdisciplinary longitudinal investigations combining RE, kinematics, kinetics, and neuromuscular and anatomical aspects, as well as applying a synergistic approach to understanding the role of kinetics.

  12. Towards a measurement of the spectral runnings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muñoz, Julian B.; Kovetz, Ely D.; Raccanelli, Alvise; Kamionkowski, Marc; Silk, Joseph, E-mail: julianmunoz@jhu.edu, E-mail: ekovetz1@jhu.edu, E-mail: alvise@icc.ub.edu, E-mail: mkamion1@jhu.edu, E-mail: joseph.silk@physics.ox.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Single-field slow-roll inflation predicts a nearly scale-free power spectrum of perturbations, as observed at the scales accessible to current cosmological experiments. This spectrum is slightly red, showing a tilt (1− n {sub s} )∼ 0.04. A direct consequence of this tilt are nonvanishing runnings α {sub s} = d n {sub s} / dlog k , and β {sub s} = dα {sub s} / dlog k , which in the minimal inflationary scenario should reach absolute values of 10{sup −3} and 10{sup −5}, respectively. In this work we calculate how well future surveys can measure these two runnings. We consider a Stage-4 (S4) CMB experiment and show that it will be able to detect significant deviations from the inflationary prediction for α {sub s} , although not for β {sub s} . Adding to the S4 CMB experiment the information from a WFIRST-like or a DESI-like survey improves the sensitivity to the runnings by ∼ 20%, and 30%, respectively. A spectroscopic survey with a billion objects, such as the SKA, will add enough information to the S4 measurements to allow a detection of α {sub s} =10{sup −3}, required to probe the single-field slow-roll inflationary paradigm. We show that only a very-futuristic interferometer targeting the dark ages will be capable of measuring the minimal inflationary prediction for β {sub s} . The results of other probes, such as a stochastic background of gravitational waves observable by LIGO, the Ly-α forest, and spectral distortions, are shown for comparison. Finally, we study the claims that large values of β {sub s} , if extrapolated to the smallest scales, can produce primordial black holes of tens of solar masses, which we show to be easily testable by the S4 CMB experiment.

  13. Advice for running a successful research team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, David; Anderson, Judith

    2015-11-01

    To explore what is meant by a 'research team' and offer practical suggestions for supporting an effective and productive, collaborative research team. Collaborative research has become one of the main objectives of most higher education institutions and running effective research teams is central to achieving this aim. However, there is limited guidance in the literature about how to run or steer a research team. Search engines/databases used: CINAHL, Nursing and Allied Health Source, Primo search, Google search and Health Collection to access research articles and publications to support this topic. Literature search was extended to the end of 2014. Publications were reviewed for relevance to the topic via standard literature search. Research teams vary in size and composition, however they all require effective collaboration if they are to establish successful and flexible working relationships and produce useful and trustworthy research outputs. This article offers guidance for establishing and managing successful collaborative research relationships, building trust and a positive research team culture, clarifying team member roles, setting the teams' research agenda and managing the teams' functions so that team members feel able to contribute fully to the research goals and build a culture of support and apply 'emotional intelligence' throughout the process of building and running a successful research team. Collaboration is a central component of establishing successful research teams and enabling productive research outputs. This article offers guidance for research teams to help them to function more effectively and allow all members to contribute fully to each team's goals. Research teams that have established trust and a positive team culture will result in more efficient working relationships and potentially greater productivity. The advice offered reinforces the value of having research teams with diverse members from different disciplines

  14. Cowboys, cornucopians and long-run sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayres, Robert U. (INSEAD, Fontainebleau (France))

    1993-12-01

    In the 1970s there was a debate on relation between natural resource availability and long-run economic growth. One side has been characterized as 'neo-Malthusian'. The other side of the debate has been characterized as 'cornucopian'. It emphasized the creative powers of technology and free markets to find substitutes for any and all scarce resources. This paper argues that the original dichotomy was false; it did not adequately represent either the real positions of most conservative business and political leaders today, nor did it reflect the currently emerging consensus among environmentalists. The former do not concern themselves with long-run issues at all, nor do they take a global view of the problems of mankind. Rather, they argue from the standpoint of short-run national (and corporate) interest. Environmentalists, on the other hand, do not fit the 'neo-Malthusian' world view, which emphasizes role of natural resources (and land) as factors of production, and points to limited supply of renewable resources and inevitable exhaustion of non-renewables. The most important scarcities, in the emergent environmentalist world view, are largely outside the market domain: soil fertility, clean fresh water, clean fresh air, unspoiled landscapes, climatic stability, biological diversity, biological nutrient recycling and environmental waste assimilative capacity. There are no plausible technological substitutes for these. Irreversible loss of species and ecosystems, and buildup of greenhouse gases in atmosphere, and of toxic metals and chemicals in topsoil, groundwater and in silt of lake-bottoms and estuaries, are not reversible by any plausible technology that could appear in the next few decades. Finally, the great nutrient cycles of the natural world (C, O, N, S, P) require that constant stocks in each environmental compartment and balanced inflows and outflows. These conditions have already been violated by large-scale and

  15. Implications of Results from Z- and WW-Threshold Running

    CERN Document Server

    Heinemeyer, S; Weiglein, Georg; Mannel, Th.

    1999-01-01

    One year of Z- and WW-Threshold running of TESLA can provide the possibility to measure electroweak precision observables to an extremely high accuracy. At the Z peak O(10^9) Z bosons and about 6 10^8 b quarks can be collected. We employ the expected uncertainties \\Delta MW = 6 MeV and \\Delta sin(theta_W,eff) = 0.00001 and demonstrate in this way that very stringent consistency tests of the Standard Model and the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model will be possible. The indirect determination of the Higgs-boson mass within the Standard Model can reach an accuracy of about 5 %. The 6 10^8 b quarks can be used to investigate various b physics topics.

  16. ATLAS data preparation in run 2

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00037318; The ATLAS collaboration; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Guenther, Jaroslav; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Strandberg, Jonas; Taffard, Anyes; Wang, Song-Ming

    2017-01-01

    In this contribution, the data preparation workflows for Run 2 are presented. The challenges posed by the excellent performance and high live time fraction of the LHC are discussed, and the solutions implemented by ATLAS are described. The prompt calibration loop procedures are described and examples are given. Several levels of data quality assessment are used to quickly spot problems in the control room and prevent data loss, and to provide the final selection used for physics analysis. Finally the data quality efficiency for physics analysis is shown.

  17. Electron ID in ATLAS Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Thais, Savannah Jennifer; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Efficient and accurate electron identification is of critical importance to measuring many physics processes with leptons in the final state, including H->4l, dark vector boson searches, and various SUSY searches. This poster will describe the current status of the Likelihood driven Electron ID, highlighting the recent move from a MC driven ID to a data-driven ID. It will include the most recent identification efficiency and scale-factor measurements. Additionally, it will describe continued improvements for Run 2 electron ID, highlighting improvements in the low pt region and potential Machine Learning improvements.

  18. The Running Barbed Tie-over Dressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Cormac W; Joyce, Kenneth M; Kennedy, Ann-Marie; Kelly, Jack L

    2014-04-01

    Barbed suture technology is becoming increasingly popular in plastic surgery and is now being used in body contouring surgery and facial rejuvenation. We describe the novel application of a barbed suture as a running tie-over dressing for skin grafts. The barbs act as anchors in the skin, so constant tensioning of the suture is not required. The bidirectional nature of the suture prevents any slippage, and the barbs even act as a grip on the underlying wool dressing. Furthermore, the method described is both quick and simple to learn and would be useful for the sole operator.

  19. The Running Barbed Tie-over Dressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cormac W. Joyce, MB, BCh, MRCSI

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Barbed suture technology is becoming increasingly popular in plastic surgery and is now being used in body contouring surgery and facial rejuvenation. We describe the novel application of a barbed suture as a running tie-over dressing for skin grafts. The barbs act as anchors in the skin, so constant tensioning of the suture is not required. The bidirectional nature of the suture prevents any slippage, and the barbs even act as a grip on the underlying wool dressing. Furthermore, the method described is both quick and simple to learn and would be useful for the sole operator.

  20. LHCb: The LHCb Silicon Tracker: Running experience

    CERN Multimedia

    Saornil Gamarra, S

    2012-01-01

    The LHCb Silicon Tracker is part of the main tracking system of the LHCb detector at the LHC. It measures very precisely the particle trajectories coming from the interaction point in the region of high occupancies around the beam axis. After presenting our production and comissioning issues in TWEPP 2008, we report on our running experience. Focusing on electronic and hardware issues as well as operation and maintenance adversities, we describe the lessons learned and the pitfalls encountered after three years of successful operation.

  1. Watershed Conservation in the Long Run

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Brooks

    2014-01-01

    We studied unanticipated long-run outcomes of conservation activities that occurred in forested watersheds on O`ahu, Hawaii, in the early twentieth century. The initial general impetus for the conservation activities was to improve irrigation surface water flow for the sugar industry. Industry...... concentration facilitated conservation of entire ecosystems. We investigate the benefits that accrued through dynamic linkages of the hydrological cycle and groundwater aquifer system. This provides a clear example of the need to consider integrated watershed effects, industrial structure, and linkages...

  2. Sprint cycling training improves intermittent run performance

    OpenAIRE

    Hardaway Chun-Kwan Chan; Weeraya Ka-Yan Ho; Patrick Shu-Hang Yung

    2018-01-01

    Background/Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of sprint cycling training on the intermittent run performance, sprinting speed, and change of direction (COD) ability of recreational intermittent sports athletes. Methods: Sixteen participants participated in the study. The experimental group (EG, n = 8) received a total of 12 sessions of sprint cycling training in a 4-week period and the control group (CG, n = 8) received no training. Both EG and CG were instructed to...

  3. Short- and long-run elasticities of electricity demand in the Korean service sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Kyoung-Min; Lim, Seul-Ye; Yoo, Seung-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    This paper attempts to examine the electricity demand function in the Korean service sector using the annual data covering the period 1970–2011. The short- and long-run elasticities of electricity demand with respect to price and income are empirically estimated using a co-integration and error-correction model. The short- and long-run price elasticities are estimated to be −0.421 and −1.002, respectively. The short- and long-run income elasticities are computed to be 0.855 and 1.090, respectively. Electricity demand in the service sector is inelastic to changes in both price and income in the short-run, but elastic in the long-run. Therefore, it appears that a pricing policy is more effective than the direct regulation of reducing electricity demand in the long-run in order to stabilize the electricity demand in the service sector. Moreover, it is necessary to encourage a more efficient use of electricity to cope with increasing demand for electricity following economic growth because the electricity demand in the service sector is income-elastic in the long-run. - Highlights: • We examine the electricity demand function in the Korean service sector. • We use the annual data covering the period 1970–2011. • The demand function is estimated using a co-integration and error-correction model. • The short- and long-run price elasticities are −0.421 and −1.002, respectively. • The short- and long-run income elasticities are 0.855 and 1.090, respectively

  4. Optimal running and planning of a biomass-based energy production process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruglieri, Maurizio; Liberti, Leo

    2008-01-01

    We propose mathematical programming models for solving problems arising from planning and running an energy production process based on burning biomasses. The models take into account different aspects of the problem: determination of the biomasses to produce and/or buy, transportation decisions to convey the materials to the respective plants, and plant site locations. Whereas the 'running model' is linear, we propose two 'planning models', both of which are mixed-integer nonlinear programming problems. We show that a spatial branch-and-bound type algorithm applied to them is guaranteed to converge to an exact optimum in a finite number of steps

  5. Replication of Non-Trivial Directional Motion in Multi-Scales Observed by the Runs Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yura, Yoshihiro; Ohnishi, Takaaki; Yamada, Kenta; Takayasu, Hideki; Takayasu, Misako

    Non-trivial autocorrelation in up-down statistics in financial market price fluctuation is revealed by a multi-scale runs test(Wald-Wolfowitz test). We apply two models, a stochastic price model and dealer model to understand this property. In both approaches we successfully reproduce the non-stationary directional price motions consistent with the runs test by tuning parameters in the models. We find that two types of dealers exist in the markets, a short-time-scale trend-follower and an extended-time-scale contrarian who are active in different time periods.

  6. Reduced prosthetic stiffness lowers the metabolic cost of running for athletes with bilateral transtibial amputations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Owen N; Taboga, Paolo; Grabowski, Alena M

    2017-04-01

    Inspired by the springlike action of biological legs, running-specific prostheses are designed to enable athletes with lower-limb amputations to run. However, manufacturer's recommendations for prosthetic stiffness and height may not optimize running performance. Therefore, we investigated the effects of using different prosthetic configurations on the metabolic cost and biomechanics of running. Five athletes with bilateral transtibial amputations each performed 15 trials on a force-measuring treadmill at 2.5 or 3.0 m/s. Athletes ran using each of 3 different prosthetic models (Freedom Innovations Catapult FX6, Össur Flex-Run, and Ottobock 1E90 Sprinter) with 5 combinations of stiffness categories (manufacturer's recommended and ± 1) and heights (International Paralympic Committee's maximum competition height and ± 2 cm) while we measured metabolic rates and ground reaction forces. Overall, prosthetic stiffness [fixed effect (β) = 0.036; P = 0.008] but not height ( P ≥ 0.089) affected the net metabolic cost of transport; less stiff prostheses reduced metabolic cost. While controlling for prosthetic stiffness (in kilonewtons per meter), using the Flex-Run (β = -0.139; P = 0.044) and 1E90 Sprinter prostheses (β = -0.176; P = 0.009) reduced net metabolic costs by 4.3-4.9% compared with using the Catapult prostheses. The metabolic cost of running improved when athletes used prosthetic configurations that decreased peak horizontal braking ground reaction forces (β = 2.786; P = 0.001), stride frequencies (β = 0.911; P < 0.001), and leg stiffness values (β = 0.053; P = 0.009). Remarkably, athletes did not maintain overall leg stiffness across prosthetic stiffness conditions. Rather, the in-series prosthetic stiffness governed overall leg stiffness. The metabolic cost of running in athletes with bilateral transtibial amputations is influenced by prosthetic model and stiffness but not height. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We measured the

  7. Cardiovascular responses during deep water running versus shallow water running in school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anerao Urja M, Shinde Nisha K, Khatri SM

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Overview: As the school going children especially the adolescents’ need workout routine; it is advisable that the routine is imbibed in the school’s class time table. In India as growing number of schools provide swimming as one of the recreational activities; school staff often fails to notice the boredom that is caused by the same activity. Deep as well as shallow water running can be one of the best alternatives to swimming. Hence the present study was conducted to find out the cardiovascular response in these individuals. Methods: This was a Prospective Cross-Sectional Comparative Study done in 72 healthy school going students (males grouped into 2 according to the interventions (Deep water running and Shallow water running. Cardiovascular parameters such as Heart rate (HR, Saturation of oxygen (SpO2, Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max and Rate of Perceived Exertion (RPE were assessed. Results: Significant improvements in cardiovascular parameters were seen in both the groups i.e. by both the interventions. Conclusion: Deep water running and Shallow water running can be used to improve cardiac function in terms of various outcome measures used in the study.

  8. Leg heating and cooling influences running stride parameters but not running economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folland, J P; Rowlands, D S; Thorp, R; Walmsley, A

    2006-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of temperature on running economy (RE) and stride parameters in 10 trained male runners (VO2peak 60.8 +/- 6.8 ml . kg (-1) . min (-1)), we used water immersion as a passive temperature manipulation to contrast localised pre-heating, pre-cooling, and thermoneutral interventions prior to running. Runners completed three 10-min treadmill runs at 70 % VO2peak following 40 min of randomised leg immersion in water at 21.0 degrees C (cold), 34.6 degrees C (thermoneutral), or 41.8 degrees C (hot). Treadmill runs were separated by 7 days. External respiratory gas exchange was measured for 30 s before and throughout the exercise and stride parameters were determined from video analysis in the sagittal plane. RE was not affected by prior heating or cooling with no difference in oxygen cost or energy expenditure between the temperature interventions (average VO2 3rd-10th min of exercise: C, 41.6 +/- 3.4 ml . kg (-1) . min (-1); TN, 41.6 +/- 3.0; H, 41.8 +/- 3.5; p = 0.94). Exercise heart rate was affected by temperature (H > TN > C; p exchange and minute ventilation/oxygen consumption ratios were greater in cold compared with thermoneutral (p economy despite changes in stride parameters that might indicate restricted muscle-tendon elasticity after pre-cooling. Larger changes in stride mechanics than those produced by the current temperature intervention are required to influence running economy.

  9. CDF run II data file catalog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalkowski, J.; Lammel, S.; Litvintsev, D.; Wicklund, E.; Ratnikov, F.; Watts, T.

    2001-01-01

    The CDF experiment started data taking in April 2001. The data are organized into datasets which contain events of similar physics properties and reconstruction version. The information about datasets is stored in the Data File Catalog a relational database. This information is presented to the data processing framework as objects which are retrieved using compound keys. The objects and the keys are designed to be the algorithms' view of information stored in the database. Objects may use several DB tables. A database interface management layer exists for the purpose of managing the mapping of persistent data to transient objects that can be used by the framework. This layer exists between the algorithm code and the code which reads directly from database tables. At the user end, it places get/put interface on a top of a transient class for retrieval or storage of objects of this class using a key. Data File Catalog code makes use of this facility and contains all the code needed to manipulate CDF Data File Catalog from a C++ program or from the command prompt. It supports an Oracle interface using OTL, and a mSQL interface. This code and the Oracle implementation of Data File Catalog were subjected to tests during CDF Commissioning Run last fall and during first weeks of Run II in April. It performed exceptionally well

  10. The run permit protection system for GTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkins, W.H.; Jones, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    A Run Permit system has been designed for the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA). The system implements mode-dependent software interlocks to ensure proper operation of the accelerator, enabling the ion source extractor and RF systems when proper conditions are met. The system is implemented using the GTA control system; thus all information available to the control system is also available for use in interlock logic. The logic is defined in terms of control system channels, which reflect accelerator parameters such as actuator positions, power supply values, temperatures, etc. A mode switch in the control room selects the accelerator operating mode, for example i njector only . The Run Permit software selects interlock logic as appropriate operating mode. This implementation easily accommodates logic changes as requirements evolve. To ensure reliable operation of a software-based system, a special circuit with a watch-dog timer is employed to produce the system's output signals. The software must periodically address the circuit, or the output signals are forced to a disabled state. For additional protection, there are self-test provisions for detecting and reacting to failures of the control system. (Author) 4 figs., ref

  11. SALIVARY ANTIMICROBIAL PROTEIN RESPONSE TO PROLONGED RUNNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Schneider

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged exercise may compromise immunity through a reduction of salivary antimicrobial proteins (AMPs. Salivary IgA (IgA has been extensively studied, but little is known about the effect of acute, prolonged exercise on AMPs including lysozyme (Lys and lactoferrin (Lac. Objective: To determine the effect of a 50-km trail race on salivary cortisol (Cort, IgA, Lys, and Lac. Methods: 14 subjects: (6 females, 8 males completed a 50km ultramarathon. Saliva was collected pre, immediately after (post and 1.5 hrs post race ( 1.5. Results: Lac concentration was higher at 1.5 hrs post race compared to post exercise (p0.05. IgA concentration, secretion rate, and IgA/Osm were lower 1.5 hrs post compared to pre race (p<0.05. Cort concentration was higher at post compared to 1.5 (p<0.05, but was unaltered from pre race levels. Subjects finished in 7.81 ± 1.2 hrs. Saliva flow rate did not differ between time points. Saliva Osm increased at post (p<0.05 compared to pre race. Conclusions: The intensity could have been too low to alter Lys and Lac secretion rates and thus, may not be as sensitive as IgA to changes in response to prolonged running. Results expand our understanding of the mucosal immune system and may have implications for predicting illness after prolonged running.

  12. Running energetics in the pronghorn antelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstedt, S L; Hokanson, J F; Wells, D J; Swain, S D; Hoppeler, H; Navarro, V

    1991-10-24

    The pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana) has an alleged top speed of 100 km h-1, second only to the cheetah (Acionyx jubatus) among land vertebrates, a possible response to predation in the exposed habitat of the North American prairie. Unlike cheetahs, however, pronghorn antelope are distance runners rather than sprinters, and can run 11 km in 10 min, an average speed of 65 km h-1. We measured maximum oxygen uptake in pronghorn antelope to distinguish between two potential explanations for this ability: either they have evolved a uniquely high muscular efficiency (low cost of transport) or they can supply oxygen to the muscles at unusually high levels. Because the cost of transport (energy per unit distance covered per unit body mass) varies as a predictable function of body mass among terrestrial vertebrates, we can calculate the predicted cost to maintain speeds of 65 and 100 km h-1 in an average 32-kg animal. The resulting range of predicted values, 3.2-5.1 ml O2 kg-1 s-1, far surpasses the predicted maximum aerobic capacity of a 32-kg mammal (1.5 ml O2 kg-1 s-1). We conclude that their performance is achieved by an extraordinary capacity to consume and process enough oxygen to support a predicted running speed greater than 20 ms-1 (70 km h-1), attained without unique respiratory-system structures.

  13. Three run-of-river power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Three 'run-of-river' hydroelectric power plants in the Montreal area in the province of Quebec were described visually and in sound. A run-of-river generating station is one that has no reservoir behind the generating facilities. Instead of a reservoir, the generating station draws its power from the strong flow of the whole river as it passes through the turbines. The first generating station described was the Beauharnois power plant completed in 1963 which became the most powerful generating station in Canada at that time. Today, it ranks fourth after the La Grande complex. In winter, it supplies electricity primarily to the Quebec power system, but between April and November, 90 per cent of its power is destined for export. The Carillon power station on the Ottawa River, the second to be discussed in this videotape presentation, was completed in 1964 with a total generating capacity of 654 MW. Today, it is the tenth largest of its kind in Quebec. The Rivieres des Prairies generating station, the third and last one described was completed in 1930; today it has a generating capacity of 45 MW. Some of the efforts made by Hydro-Quebec to protect and enhance the natural environment were shown in action, including regular removal and recycling of debris at the gateways to the generating stations, construction of fish spawning ladders, and the control of zebra mussels

  14. Running in a running wheel substitutes for stereotypies in mink (Mustela vison) but does it improve their welfare?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen W; Damgaard, Birthe Marie

    2009-01-01

    This experiment investigated whether access to a running wheel affects the development of stereotypies during restricted feeding and whether selection for high or low levels of stereotypy affects the use of the running wheel. Sixty-two female mink kept in standard cages and selected for high or low...... levels of stereotypy were used. Thirty of these females had access to a running wheel whereas thirty-two female mink had no access to running wheels. The number of turns of the running wheel, behaviour, feed consumption, body weight and the concentration of plasma cortisol were measured during the winter...... period. Mink with access to a running wheel did not perform stereotypic behaviour and mink selected for a high level of stereotypies had more turns in the running wheel than mink selected for low levels of stereotypies. Mink with access to a running wheel used the running wheel for the same amount...

  15. Innovative water withdrawal system re-establishes fish migration runs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    This article described a unique water withdrawal and fish bypass structure that is under construction in Oregon to re-establish anadromous fish runs and to improve water quality downstream of the Round Butte dam. Portland General Electric and the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation, which co-own the dam, have committed to re-establish fish runs in response to concerns over the declining numbers of salmon and trout in the region. Water intakes are routinely added at hydroelectric facilities to protect native fish in compliance with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission and the Clean Water Act. The Round Butte Hydroelectric project had a complex set of challenges whereby surface-current directions had to be changed to help migrating salmon swim easily into a fish handling area and create a fish collection system. CH2M HILL designed the system which consists of a large floating structure, an access bridge, a large vertical conduit and a base structure resting on the lake bed. Instead of using 2D CAD file methods, CH2M HILL decided to take advantage of 3D models to visualize the complex geometry of these structures. The 3D models were used to help designers and consultants understand the issues, resolve conflicts and design solutions. The objective is to have the system operating by the 2009 migrating season. 1 ref., 4 figs

  16. Shoes alter the spring-like function of the human foot during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Luke A; Lichtwark, Glen A; Farris, Dominic J; Cresswell, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    The capacity to store and return energy in legs and feet that behave like springs is crucial to human running economy. Recent comparisons of shod and barefoot running have led to suggestions that modern running shoes may actually impede leg and foot-spring function by reducing the contributions from the leg and foot musculature. Here we examined the effect of running shoes on foot longitudinal arch (LA) motion and activation of the intrinsic foot muscles. Participants ran on a force-instrumented treadmill with and without running shoes. We recorded foot kinematics and muscle activation of the intrinsic foot muscles using intramuscular electromyography. In contrast to previous assertions, we observed an increase in both the peak (flexor digitorum brevis +60%) and total stance muscle activation (flexor digitorum brevis +70% and abductor hallucis +53%) of the intrinsic foot muscles when running with shoes. Increased intrinsic muscle activation corresponded with a reduction in LA compression (-25%). We confirm that running shoes do indeed influence the mechanical function of the foot. However, our findings suggest that these mechanical adjustments are likely to have occurred as a result of increased neuromuscular output, rather than impaired control as previously speculated. We propose a theoretical model for foot-shoe interaction to explain these novel findings. © 2016 The Author(s).

  17. Wheel running reduces high-fat diet intake, preference and mu-opioid agonist stimulated intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Nu-Chu; Bello, Nicholas T; Moran, Timothy H

    2015-05-01

    The ranges of mechanisms by which exercise affects energy balance remain unclear. One potential mechanism may be that exercise reduces intake and preference for highly palatable, energy dense fatty foods. The current study used a rodent wheel running model to determine whether and how physical activity affects HF diet intake/preference and reward signaling. Experiment 1 examined whether wheel running affected the ability of intracerebroventricular (ICV) μ opioid receptor agonist D-Ala2, NMe-Phe4, Glyol5-enkephalin (DAMGO) to increase HF diet intake. Experiment 2 examined the effects of wheel running on the intake of and preference for a previously preferred HF diet. We also assessed the effects of wheel running and diet choice on mesolimbic dopaminergic and opioidergic gene expression. Experiment 1 revealed that wheel running decreased the ability of ICV DAMGO administration to stimulate HF diet intake. Experiment 2 showed that wheel running suppressed weight gain and reduced intake and preference for a previously preferred HF diet. Furthermore, the mesolimbic gene expression profile of wheel running rats was different from that of their sedentary paired-fed controls but similar to that of sedentary rats with large HF diet consumption. These data suggest that alterations in preference for palatable, energy dense foods play a role in the effects of exercise on energy homeostasis. The gene expression results also suggest that the hedonic effects of exercise may substitute for food reward to limit food intake and suppress weight gain. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. ATLAS Trigger Menu and Performance in Run I and Prospects for Run II

    CERN Document Server

    Igonkina, O; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS trigger system plays a key role in the collection of data for a wide range of physics analysis. The 2012 proton run had significantly larger luminosities and pile-up than 2011, while for the proton-lead run in 2013 it was critical to select samples with low biases. To address these challenges, while maintaining or even improving performance, new algorithms have been commissioned. The trigger strategy and the main algorithms and their performance are described. For the 2015 run, the combination of a luminosity increase and an energy increase will put even larger demands on the trigger system. One new tool to address the challenges will be the addition of a topological capability in the first level of the trigger, implemented in custom electronics. The L1 topological trigger hardware and software architectures and their performance will be presented.

  19. Walking and running in the red-legged running frog, Kassina maculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, A N; Furrow, E; Biewener, A A

    2004-01-01

    Although most frog species are specialized for jumping or swimming, Kassina maculata (red-legged running frog) primarily uses a third type of locomotion during which the hindlimbs alternate. In the present study, we examined Kassina's distinct locomotory mode to determine whether these frogs walk or run and how their gait may change with speed. We used multiple methods to distinguish between terrestrial gaits: the existence or absence of an aerial phase, duty factor, relative footfall patterns and the mechanics of the animal's center of mass (COM). To measure kinematic and kinetic variables, we recorded digital video as the animals moved over a miniature force platform (N=12 individuals). With respect to footfall patterns, the frogs used a single gait and walked at all speeds examined. Duty factor always exceeded 0.59. Based on COM mechanics, however, the frogs used both walking and running gaits. At slower speeds, the fluctuations in the horizontal kinetic energy (E(k)) and gravitational potential energy (E(p)) of the COM were largely out of phase, indicating a vaulting or walking gait. In most of the trials, Kassina used a combined gait at intermediate speeds, unlike cursorial animals with distinct gait transitions. This combined gait, much like a mammalian gallop, exhibited the mechanics of both vaulting and bouncing gaits. At faster speeds, the E(k) and E(p) of Kassina's COM were more in phase, indicating the use of a bouncing or running gait. Depending on the definition used to distinguish between walking and running, Kassina either only used a walking gait at all speeds or used a walking gait at slower speeds but then switched to a running gait as speed increased.

  20. Joint kinematics and kinetics of overground accelerated running versus running on an accelerated treadmill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caekenberghe, Ine Van; Segers, Veerle; Aerts, Peter; Willems, Patrick; De Clercq, Dirk

    2013-07-06

    Literature shows that running on an accelerated motorized treadmill is mechanically different from accelerated running overground. Overground, the subject has to enlarge the net anterior-posterior force impulse proportional to acceleration in order to overcome linear whole body inertia, whereas on a treadmill, this force impulse remains zero, regardless of belt acceleration. Therefore, it can be expected that changes in kinematics and joint kinetics of the human body also are proportional to acceleration overground, whereas no changes according to belt acceleration are expected on a treadmill. This study documents kinematics and joint kinetics of accelerated running overground and running on an accelerated motorized treadmill belt for 10 young healthy subjects. When accelerating overground, ground reaction forces are characterized by less braking and more propulsion, generating a more forward-oriented ground reaction force vector and a more forwardly inclined body compared with steady-state running. This change in body orientation as such is partly responsible for the changed force direction. Besides this, more pronounced hip and knee flexion at initial contact, a larger hip extension velocity, smaller knee flexion velocity and smaller initial plantarflexion velocity are associated with less braking. A larger knee extension and plantarflexion velocity result in larger propulsion. Altogether, during stance, joint moments are not significantly influenced by acceleration overground. Therefore, we suggest that the overall behaviour of the musculoskeletal system (in terms of kinematics and joint moments) during acceleration at a certain speed remains essentially identical to steady-state running at the same speed, yet acting in a different orientation. However, because acceleration implies extra mechanical work to increase the running speed, muscular effort done (in terms of power output) must be larger. This is confirmed by larger joint power generation at the level of

  1. Joint kinematics and kinetics of overground accelerated running versus running on an accelerated treadmill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Caekenberghe, Ine; Segers, Veerle; Aerts, Peter; Willems, Patrick; De Clercq, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Literature shows that running on an accelerated motorized treadmill is mechanically different from accelerated running overground. Overground, the subject has to enlarge the net anterior–posterior force impulse proportional to acceleration in order to overcome linear whole body inertia, whereas on a treadmill, this force impulse remains zero, regardless of belt acceleration. Therefore, it can be expected that changes in kinematics and joint kinetics of the human body also are proportional to acceleration overground, whereas no changes according to belt acceleration are expected on a treadmill. This study documents kinematics and joint kinetics of accelerated running overground and running on an accelerated motorized treadmill belt for 10 young healthy subjects. When accelerating overground, ground reaction forces are characterized by less braking and more propulsion, generating a more forward-oriented ground reaction force vector and a more forwardly inclined body compared with steady-state running. This change in body orientation as such is partly responsible for the changed force direction. Besides this, more pronounced hip and knee flexion at initial contact, a larger hip extension velocity, smaller knee flexion velocity and smaller initial plantarflexion velocity are associated with less braking. A larger knee extension and plantarflexion velocity result in larger propulsion. Altogether, during stance, joint moments are not significantly influenced by acceleration overground. Therefore, we suggest that the overall behaviour of the musculoskeletal system (in terms of kinematics and joint moments) during acceleration at a certain speed remains essentially identical to steady-state running at the same speed, yet acting in a different orientation. However, because acceleration implies extra mechanical work to increase the running speed, muscular effort done (in terms of power output) must be larger. This is confirmed by larger joint power generation at the level

  2. The medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens mediate the motivation for voluntary wheel running in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Julia C; Morrell, Joan I

    2015-08-01

    Voluntary wheel running in rats provides a preclinical model of exercise motivation in humans. We hypothesized that rats run because this activity has positive incentive salience in both the acquisition and habitual stages of wheel running and that gender differences might be present. Additionally, we sought to determine which forebrain regions are essential for the motivational processes underlying wheel running in rats. The motivation for voluntary wheel running in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats was investigated during the acquisition (Days 1-7) and habitual phases (after Day 21) of running using conditioned place preference (CPP) and the reinstatement (rebound) response after forced abstinence, respectively. Both genders displayed a strong CPP for the acquisition phase and a strong rebound response to wheel deprivation during the habitual phase, suggesting that both phases of wheel running are rewarding for both sexes. Female rats showed a 1.5 times greater rebound response than males to wheel deprivation in the habitual phase of running, while during the acquisition phase, no gender differences in CPP were found. We transiently inactivated the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) or the nucleus accumbens (NA), hypothesizing that because these regions are involved in the acquisition and reinstatement of self-administration of both natural and pharmacological stimuli, they might also serve a role in the motivation to wheel run. Inactivation of either structure decreased the rebound response in the habitual phase of running, demonstrating that these structures are involved in the motivation for this behavior. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Increasing running step rate reduces patellofemoral joint forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhart, Rachel L; Thelen, Darryl G; Wille, Christa M; Chumanov, Elizabeth S; Heiderscheit, Bryan C

    2014-03-01

    Increasing step rate has been shown to elicit changes in joint kinematics and kinetics during running, and it has been suggested as a possible rehabilitation strategy for runners with patellofemoral pain. The purpose of this study was to determine how altering step rate affects internal muscle forces and patellofemoral joint loads, and then to determine what kinematic and kinetic factors best predict changes in joint loading. We recorded whole body kinematics of 30 healthy adults running on an instrumented treadmill at three step rate conditions (90%, 100%, and 110% of preferred step rate). We then used a 3-D lower extremity musculoskeletal model to estimate muscle, patellar tendon, and patellofemoral joint forces throughout the running gait cycles. In addition, linear regression analysis allowed us to ascertain the relative influence of limb posture and external loads on patellofemoral joint force. Increasing step rate to 110% of the preferred reduced peak patellofemoral joint force by 14%. Peak muscle forces were also altered as a result of the increased step rate with hip, knee, and ankle extensor forces, and hip abductor forces all reduced in midstance. Compared with the 90% step rate condition, there was a concomitant increase in peak rectus femoris and hamstring loads during early and late swing, respectively, at higher step rates. Peak stance phase knee flexion decreased with increasing step rate and was found to be the most important predictor of the reduction in patellofemoral joint loading. Increasing step rate is an effective strategy to reduce patellofemoral joint forces and could be effective in modulating biomechanical factors that can contribute to patellofemoral pain.

  4. Relationship between physical performance testing results and peak running intensity during professional rugby league match play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duthie, Grant M; Thornton, Heidi R; Delaney, Jace A; McMahon, James T; Benton, Dean T

    2017-10-07

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between individual athletes' physical characteristics and both the peak running intensities and the decline in peak running intensities during competition. Twenty-two professional rugby league athletes (age; 24.1 ± 4.0 years, body mass; 101.4 ± 9.5 kg) underwent a series of physical testing procedures. Peak running intensity was determined using a moving average technique, applied to the speed (m·min), acceleration/deceleration (m·s) and metabolic power (W·kg) during competition, across 10 different durations. The power law relationship was then established, yielding an intercept and slope for the movement variables. Mixed linear models were then used to determine the relationship between physical characteristics and intercept and slope values. There were large, positive relationships between a player's maximal speed and both peak running speeds (ES = 0.56, 90% CI: 0.20 to 0.78) and metabolic power (0.57, 0.21 to 0.79) during competition. In contrast, there were large, negative associations between maximal speed and the rate of decline in running speed (-0.60, -0.81 to -0.27) and metabolic power (-0.65, -0.83 to -0.32) during competition. Similarly, there were negative associations between relative squat strength and the rate of decline in running speed (moderate: -0.41, -0.69 to -0.04) and metabolic power (large: -0.53, -0.77 to -0.17) during competition. The findings of this study demonstrate that a players running intensity during competition is underpinned by the individual athletes physiological qualities. Athletes demonstrating higher maximal speeds in testing were able to maintain higher running intensities over short durations, but had a greater decrease in running intensity as duration increased.

  5. Risks, Information and Short-Run Timber Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Rinaldi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to increase wood mobilization have highlighted the need to appraise drivers of short-run timber supply. The current study aims to shed further light on harvesting decisions of private forest owners, by investigating optimal harvesting under uncertainty, when timber revenues are invested on financial markets and uncertainty is mitigated by news releases. By distinguishing between aggregate economic risk and sector specific risks, the model studies in great detail optimal harvesting-investment decisions, with particular emphasis on the non-trivial transmission of risk on optimal harvesting, and on the way private forest owners react to news and information. The analysis of the role played by information in harvesting decisions is a novelty in forest economic theory. The presented model is highly relevant from a policy—information is a commonly used forest policy instrument—as well as a practical perspective, since the mechanism of risk transmission is at the basis of timber pricing.

  6. A Robust Formulation for Prediction of Human Running

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    injuries. Robotics : Many researchers have worked on the problem of walking robots . Since walking and running are considered part of biped locomotion...creating trajectory for a biped running robot . The idea was to minimize energy consumption due to the biped robot’s running motion by determining...generation of an energy-optimal complete gait for biped robots . This work did not discuss the running problem, but it included an impulse term in the

  7. Simulation of accelerated strip cooling on the hot rolling mill run-out roller table

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Makarov

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model of the thermal state of the metal in the run-out roller table continuous wide hot strip mill. The mathematical model takes into account heat generation due to the polymorphic γ → α transformation of supercooled austenite phase state and the influence of the chemical composition of the steel on the physical properties of the metal. The model allows calculation of modes of accelerated cooling strips on run-out roller table continuous wide hot strip mill. Winding temperature calculation error does not exceed 20°C for 98.5 % of strips of low-carbon and low-alloy steels

  8. Analyzing Long-run Relationship between Energy Consumption and Economic Growth in the Kingdom of Bahrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naser, Hanan

    2017-11-01

    Since the relation between energy consumption and economic growth is important to design effective energy policies that will promote economic growth, this study investigates the short run dynamics and causality among energy consumption, co2 emissions, oil prices and economic growth in Kingdom of Bahrain. To do so, annual data that covers the period from 1960 till 2015. Empirical work tests for unit root, co-integration relationship using Johansen (1988) approach and then estimate both long and short run dynamics using the vector error correction model (VECM). Results indicate that there is a long-run relationship between the suggested variables. Since economic growth has a predictive power to estimate the energy demand of Kingdom of Bahrain, it is recommended that the government of Bahrain and policy designers shed the light on energy efficiency strategies and carbon emissions reduction policy in the long run without impeding economic growth in order to move towards sustainability.

  9. THE STRUCTURE OF SHORT-DISTANCE RUNNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rade Stefanović

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine estimation of current sprinter-s ability, the control is necessary on the track while measuring passing times, at every five or ten meters. With these results one can determine what parts of certain races are suitable for a sprinter. Having these data, the trainer is planning and making programs for training process with the help of adequate training methods and means. The basic precondition for a regular training work is testing of all four phases: the start, acceleration, running up the lane phase and the finish. Generally speaking, all sprinters don’t have the same dynamics taking in consideration all these phases, which means that a good sprint starter isn’t necessarily good at the finish. One of the facts is that in practice one should use the least possible the numbers of phase testing but on the other hand he should be much more informed.

  10. Organizing and running duathlon competitions in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Vodlozerov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to analyze the system of organizing and running competitions for a variety of continuous triathlon in Ukraine for compliance with the rules of the International Federation of Triathlon. Material & Methods: based on the study of the specialized literature, the regulatory framework of the triathlon federation, a comparative analysis of the organization and conduct of competitions between the duathletes in the world and in Ukraine carried out. Results: it’s revealed a discrepancy between the length of the segments of the greater part of the combined distances at which classification competitions are held in Ukraine, the official formats of international duathlon competitions in Europe and the world. Conclusion: recommendation on elimination of discrepancies of the Ukrainian formats of the distances influencing efficiency of the competitive process in duathlon are proposed.

  11. Effect of voluntary running on adult hippocampal neurogenesis in cholinergic lesioned mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawe Gavin S

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholinergic neuronal dysfunction of the basal forebrain is observed in patients with Alzheimer's disease and dementia, and has been linked to decreased neurogenesis in the hippocampus, a region involved in learning and memory. Running is a robust inducer of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. This study aims to address the effect of running on hippocampal neurogenesis in lesioned mice, where septohippocampal cholinergic neurones have been selectively eliminated in the medial septum and diagonal band of Broca of the basal forebrain by infusion of mu-p75-saporin immunotoxin. Results Running increased the number of newborn cells in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in cholinergic denervated mice compared to non-lesioned mice 24 hours after injection of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU. Although similar levels of surviving cells were present in cholinergic depleted animals and their respective controls four weeks after injection of BrdU, the majority of progenitors that proliferate in response to the initial period of running were not able to survive beyond one month without cholinergic input. Despite this, the running-induced increase in the number of surviving neurones was not affected by cholinergic depletion. Conclusion The lesion paradigm used here models aspects of the cholinergic deficits associated with Alzheimer's Disease and aging. We showed that running still increased the number of newborn cells in the adult hippocampal dentate gyrus in this model of neurodegenerative disease.

  12. Effect of hydraulic and structural parameters on the wave run-up over the berm breakwaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Milanian

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study is to investigate the effect of berm breakwater on wave run-up. A total of 200 numerical analysis tests have been carried out in this paper to investigate the effect of berm width, wave height, and wave period on the wave run-up, using an integrating technique of Computer-Aided Design (CAD and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD. Direct application of Navier Stokes equations within the berm width has been used to provide a more reliable approach for studying the wave run-up over berm breakwaters. A well tested Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS code with the Volume of Fluid (VOF scheme was adopted for numerical computations. The computational results were compared with theoretical data to validate the model outputs. Numerical results showed that the simulation method can provide accurate estimations for wave run-up over berm breakwaters. It was found that the wave run-up may be decreased by increasing the berm width up to about 36 percent. Furthermore, the wave run-up may increase by increasing the wave height and wave period up to about 53 and 36 percent, respectively. These results may convince the engineers to use this model for design of berm breakwater in actual scale by calculating the Reynolds numbers.

  13. Excessive Progression in Weekly Running Distance and Risk of Running-related Injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, R.O.; Parner, Erik Thorlund; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard

    2014-01-01

    trochanteric bursitis, injury to the tensor fascia latae, and patellar tendinopathy) existed in those who progressed their weekly running distance by more than 30% compared with those who progressed less than 10% (hazard ratio = 1.59; 95% confidence interval: 0.96, 2.66; P = .07). Conclusion Novice runners who...

  14. Effects of forefoot bending elasticity of running shoes on gait and running performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chia-Hsiang; Tu, Kuan-Hua; Liu, Chiang; Shiang, Tzyy-Yuang

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of forefoot bending elasticity of running shoes on kinetics and kinematics during walking and running. Twelve healthy male participants wore normal and elastic shoes while walking at 1.5m/s, jogging at 2.5m/s, and running at 3.5m/s. The elastic shoes were designed by modifying the stiffness of flexible shoes with elastic bands added to the forefoot part of the shoe sole. A Kistler force platform and Vicon system were used to collect kinetic and kinematic data during push-off. Electromyography was used to record the muscle activity of the medial gastrocnemius and medial tibialis anterior. A paired dependent t-test was used to compare the various shoes and the level of significance was set at α=.05. The range of motion of the ankle joint and the maximal anterior-posterior propulsive force differed significantly between elastic and flexible shoes in walking and jogging. The contact time and medial gastrocnemius muscle activation in the push-off phase were significantly lower for the elastic shoes compared with the flexible shoes in walking and jogging. The elastic forefoot region of shoes can alter movement characteristics in walking and jogging. However, for running, the elasticity used in this study was not strong enough to exert a similar effect. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. LHCb computing in Run II and its evolution towards Run III

    CERN Document Server

    Falabella, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    his contribution reports on the experience of the LHCb computing team during LHC Run 2 and its preparation for Run 3. Furthermore a brief introduction on LHCbDIRAC, i.e. the tool to interface to the experiment distributed computing resources for its data processing and data management operations, is given. Run 2, which started in 2015, has already seen several changes in the data processing workflows of the experiment. Most notably the ability to align and calibrate the detector between two different stages of the data processing in the high level trigger farm, eliminating the need for a second pass processing of the data offline. In addition a fraction of the data is immediately reconstructed to its final physics format in the high level trigger and only this format is exported from the experiment site to the physics analysis. This concept have successfully been tested and will continue to be used for the rest of Run 2. Furthermore the distributed data processing has been improved with new concepts and techn...

  16. Running Speed Can Be Predicted from Foot Contact Time during Outdoor over Ground Running

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruiter, C.J.; van Oeveren, B.; Francke, A.; Zijlstra, P.; van Dieen, J.H.

    2016-01-01

    The number of validation studies of commercially available foot pods that provide estimates of running speed is limited and these studies have been conducted under laboratory conditions. Moreover, internal data handling and algorithms used to derive speed from these pods are proprietary and thereby

  17. 40 CFR 600.507-86 - Running change data requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... shall submit additional running change fuel economy data as specified in paragraph (b) of this section...) The additional running change fuel economy data requirement in paragraph (a) of this section will be... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Running change data requirements. 600...

  18. 40 CFR 600.507-08 - Running change data requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... shall submit additional running change fuel economy data as specified in paragraph (b) of this section...) The additional running change fuel economy data requirement in paragraph (a) of this section will be... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Running change data requirements. 600...

  19. Using Integration and Autonomy to Teach an Elementary Running Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluder, J. Brandon; Howard-Shaughnessy, Candice

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular fitness is an important aspect of overall fitness, health, and wellness, and running can be an excellent lifetime physical activity. One of the most simple and effective means of exercise, running raises heart rate in a short amount of time and can be done with little to no cost for equipment. There are many benefits to running,…

  20. Wave Run-up on the Zeebrugge Rubble Mound Breakwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Rouck, Julien; de Walle, Bjorn Van; Troch, Peter

    2007-01-01

    equals 1.77 for Iribarren number xi(om) = 3.63. An (apparent) influence of the water level on wave run-up has been observed. The porosity of the armor layer has a significant influence on wave run-up and may explain the dependency of wave run-up on the water level observed in Zeebrugge. Full...